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Sample records for survey state climatologist

  1. State Climatologist

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quarterly newsletter published by the American Association of State Climatologists. Library includes volumes 1 through 21, for the years 1977-1997.

  2. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  3. AASC Recommendations for the Education of an Applied Climatologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.; Stooksbury, D.; Akyuz, A.; Dupigny-Giroux, L.; Hubbard, K. G.; Timofeyeva, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    The American Association of State Climatologists (AASC) has developed curricular recommendations for the education of future applied and service climatologists. The AASC was founded in 1976. Membership of the AASC includes state climatologists and others who work in state climate offices; climate researchers in academia and educators; applied climatologists in NOAA and other federal agencies; and the private sector. The AASC is the only professional organization dedicated solely to the growth and development of applied and service climatology. The purpose of the recommendations is to offer a framework for existing and developing academic climatology programs. These recommendations are intended to serve as a road map and to help distinguish the educational needs for future applied climatologists from those of operational meteorologists or other scientists and practitioners. While the home department of climatology students may differ from one program to the next, the most essential factor is that students can demonstrate a breadth and depth of understanding in the knowledge and tools needed to be an applied climatologist. Because the training of an applied climatologist requires significant depth and breadth, the Masters degree is recommended as the minimum level of education needed. This presentation will highlight the AASC recommendations. These include a strong foundation in: - climatology (instrumentation and data collection, climate dynamics, physical climatology, synoptic and regional climatology, applied climatology, climate models, etc.) - basic natural sciences and mathematics including calculus, physics, chemistry, and biology/ecology - fundamental atmospheric sciences (atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric thermodynamics, atmospheric radiation, and weather analysis/synoptic meteorology) and - data analysis and spatial analysis (descriptive statistics, statistical methods, multivariate statistics, geostatistics, GIS, etc.). The recommendations also include a

  4. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the state averages for the HCAHPS survey responses. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  5. Patient survey (ICH-CAHPS) - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State averages for ICH-CAHPS Survey measures. The ICH-CAHPS Survey is a national, standardized survey of in-center hemodialysis patients about their experiences with...

  6. 250 Years of the State Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Wechselberger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first topographic survey of the Habsburg Monarchy was decreed by Maria Theresa 250 years ago, on May 13, 1764. A conference was held on the occasion of the anniversary by the Austrian State Geodetic Administration (BEV – Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen and the Institute for Military Geosciences (IMG – Institut für Militärisches Geowesen in Vienna on May 13 and 14, 2014. The conference was sort of a time travel through Austrian state surveys. Historical development and methods of the first three state surveys (18th and 19th century were presented on the first conference day. Lectures were held by representatives of Austrian scientific institutions and new countries of the Monarchy. The second conference day was dedicated to the 4th state survey (20th century and its impact on civilian and military application and economy.

  7. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The AASHTO Standing Committee on Public Transportation is pleased to release the Survey of State : Funding for Public Transportation. The survey results reflect Fiscal Year 2008 data. This annual report : provides a snapshot of state-by-state investm...

  8. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The AASHTO Standing Committee on Public Transportation is pleased to release the Survey of State Funding : for Public Transportation. The survey results reflect Fiscal Year 2007 data. This annual report provides a : snapshot of state-by-state investm...

  9. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  10. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  11. School-Based Health Care State Policy Survey. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) surveys state public health and Medicaid offices every three years to assess state-level public policies and activities that promote the growth and sustainability of school-based health services. The FY2011 survey found 18 states (see map below) reporting investments explicitly dedicated…

  12. The Periodical Use/Survey at Fitchburg State College Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Janice A.; Anttila, Faith E.

    This narrative description summarizes the planning and implementation of a periodical use survey conducted during fall 1985 and spring 1986 to determine who uses the Fitchburg State College Library periodical holdings and which periodicals are used. Relevant literature is discussed, the purpose of the survey is explained, and survey procedures are…

  13. The Forum State of the Field Survey 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In the summer of 2011, the Forum on Education Abroad conducted its fourth State of the Field Survey. This survey is an annual or biannual assessment of the very latest trends and issues in the field of education abroad. As in the past, questions on new topics have been combined with questions that have been asked on previous State of the Field…

  14. State Profiles: FY 2013 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Pull up a state's profile to find state-level totals on key data such as numbers of libraries and librarians, revenue and expenditure, and collection sizes.These...

  15. SURVEY OF THE PROBLEMS OF GIRL CHILD IN EKITI STATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Olusoji

    Trop J Obstet Gynaecol, 30 (2), August 2013. SURVEY OF THE PROBLEMS OF GIRL CHILD IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA. ... affairs and gender empowerment., Ministry of Education, Ekiti state secretariat., Ministry of. Health, Ekiti state secretariat. .... analyzed using a computer statistical package for the social sciences [SPSS] ...

  16. Survey of forest conservation features in Benue state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey investigated the forest conservation features in Benue State, Nigeria, to provide baseline information for improved forest conservation efforts in the State. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 10 out of 23 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of the State for the study. Three hundred respondents from ...

  17. A Survey of Farm Tractor Management in Zamfara State | Maradun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out to determine the level of agricultural machinery management. Information used was obtained from the State Ministry of Agriculture, State Tractor Hiring and Sales Agency (ZSTHSA), and through personal visits to the 14 Local Government Areas of the State. Data were also obtained from answers to ...

  18. MIDDLE SCHOOL SURVEY OF NEW YORK STATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIMPSON, GEORGE C.; SMITH, GEORGE J.

    TO GATHER INFORMATION ON THE CONCEPT OF THE MIDDLE SCHOOL, A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS SENT TO 648 SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN NEW YORK STATE, 510 OF WHOM RESPONDED. IT WAS FOUND THAT (1) 60 SCHOOL DISTRICTS HAD A MIDDLE SCHOOL IN OPERATION, (2) 170 SCHOOL DISTRICTS WERE STUDYING REORGANIZATION TO INCLUDE IT, (3) 35 DISTRICTS HAD CONSIDERED AND REJECTED IT, (4)…

  19. Survey of state funding for public transportation 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This report is the 25th compilation of information on State funding of public transportation. The transportation departments in all 50 States and the District of Columbia responded to the survey, which was distributed and compiled by the U.S. Departm...

  20. Jaguar surveying and monitoring in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie

    2016-06-10

    Because of the jaguar’s (Panthera onca) endangered status under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 throughout its range (from Arizona in the north to Argentina in the south), jaguar individuals and populations are monitored to varying degrees throughout their range. Knowledge gained from monitoring jaguars is helpful for wildlife managers who are responsible for conserving this species. The University of Arizona (UA) has conducted a multiyear surveying and monitoring effort for jaguars and ocelots in southern Arizona and New Mexico. The purpose of this work was to establish an effective surveying and monitoring system for jaguars along the United States-Mexico border. Surveying and monitoring in this study focused on the United States side of the border, but the methods could also be used in Mexico. The intent was to develop and implement a surveying and monitoring system that would provide the greatest probability of recording jaguar presence in, and passage through, the border area.

  1. 76 FR 58420 - Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis 15 CFR Part 806 RIN 0691-AA80 Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce... 2012 BE-12, ] Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States. Benchmark surveys are...

  2. Ecological survey of freshwater ecosystems of Ovia, Edo state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The survey for freshwater snails in streams, rivers and a lake in Ovia Southwest LGA of Edo State, Nigeria was carried out from June to November, 2013. Samples were collected by using sweep-net and by hand picking of snails within the open water habitat, at marginal areas and on submerged vegetation at edges of the ...

  3. A survey of ethnoveterinary botanical remedies in Ogun State and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty four villages were visited during a cross sectional survey of ethno veterinary botanical remedies used for the management of animal diseases in four local government areas randomly selected cutting across the four geopolitical zones in Ogun State. A total of 323 households were purposively selected and ...

  4. Indoor {sup 222}Rn survey in Zacatecas State, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirino, L.L. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico)]. E-mail: leo.quiri@gmail.com; Soriano, J.M. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Mireles, F. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Davila, J.I. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Lopez, H. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Pinedo, J.L. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico); Rios, C. [Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal 495, Zacatecas, Zac. 98000 (Mexico)

    2007-03-15

    As part of a program for discovering whether afflicted areas exist, indoor {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the State of Zacatecas were surveyed, {sup 222}Rn concentration being measured by {gamma}-ray spectrometry of radon decay products adsorbed into charcoal canisters. A survey was implemented during Summer 2001: 228 dwellings in the state were tested by taking mean 254 measurements. Concentrations exhibited a left-skewed distribution of indoor {sup 222}Rn, showing overall average, minimum, and maximum concentrations of 67, 26, and 511 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. Only seven of the measurements (2.7%) were found equal to or greater than the US EPA action limit (148 Bq m{sup -3}). Thus, we conclude that the indoor radon environment in Zacatecas State is under US EPA action limit. The few high concentration spots suggest that geological conditions rather than construction materials may be the determinant factor.

  5. Indoor 222Rn survey in Zacatecas State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirino, L L; Soriano, J M; Mireles, F; Dávila, J I; López, H; Pinedo, J L; Rios, C

    2007-03-01

    As part of a program for discovering whether afflicted areas exist, indoor (222)Rn concentrations in the State of Zacatecas were surveyed, (222)Rn concentration being measured by gamma-ray spectrometry of radon decay products adsorbed into charcoal canisters. A survey was implemented during Summer 2001: 228 dwellings in the state were tested by taking mean 254 measurements. Concentrations exhibited a left-skewed distribution of indoor (222)Rn, showing overall average, minimum, and maximum concentrations of 67, 26, and 511 Bqm(-3), respectively. Only seven of the measurements (2.7%) were found equal to or greater than the US EPA action limit (148 Bqm(-3)). Thus, we conclude that the indoor radon environment in Zacatecas State is under US EPA action limit. The few high concentration spots suggest that geological conditions rather than construction materials may be the determinant factor.

  6. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards.

  7. Technical evaluation of available state of Nevada survey instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is reviewing the survey research studies completed by Mountain West Research (1987-1989) for the state of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Project Office. In this research, 14 survey instruments were used to seek data on whether perceptions of risk could be associated with the possible siting of a high-level radioactive waste repository in Nevada and could be a dominant source of potential, significant, adverse economic impacts. This report presents results from phase 1 of the review, in which ANL contracted with the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago to evaluate the technical merits of the nine survey instruments that ANL had been able to acquire. The scope of NORC`s work was limited to rating the questions and stating their strengths and weaknesses. NORC concluded that the surveys could provide valuable data about risk perceptions and potential behavioral responses. NORC identified a few minor problems with a number of questions and the calculated response rates but claimed these problems would probably not have any major biasing effect. The NORC evaluation would have been more complete if the terms used in the questionnaires had been defined, all survey instruments had been acquired, and all data had been made available to the public.

  8. United States Geological Survey Yearbook, fiscal year 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    It is not very often that a single event is so overwhelming that it changes public perceptions of natural hazards for generations. Perhaps for the U.S. Geological Survey, the explosive volcanic activity of Mount St. Helens began such a change. After 101 years of careful science of the Earth's past and meticulous observations and assessments of the present, predictive earth science was in full public view. However vague and faint the glimpse of the future made possible by earth science, it was enough. Warnings were issued, thousands of lives were saved, and the age of real-time geology began. The Survey's basic mission has not changed, but the power of our analytical tools has increased by several orders of magnitude. The Survey's efforts to understand Earth processes and hydrologic principles continued with the collection, during fiscal year 1980, of valuable new data on the geologic origin and framework, seismicity, and mineral and energy resources of the United States. The Survey is also responsible for classification of the leasable minerals on Federal lands and the regulation of mineral exploration and development activities on Federal and Indian lands. As the principal earth science fact-gathering agency, the Survey provides information for sound decisionmaking by government and private industry. Industry uses the Survey's information in exploring for energy and minerals and improving their efforts to make development of energy and minerals compatible with environmental protection standards. Government uses the Survey's information in conducting leasing operations on public lands, in regulating the safe design and siting of nuclear plants, and in establishing guidelines for determining and locating areas that are subject to geologic hazards such as landslides, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. The Yearbook reports a broad range of the Survey's accomplishments during the past fiscal year and provides an overview of future directions. Many of the topics

  9. 76 FR 79054 - Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis 15 CFR Part 806 RIN 0691-AA80 Direct Investment Surveys: BE-12, Benchmark Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce... Foreign Direct Investment in the United States. The BE-12 survey is conducted every five years; the prior...

  10. Tobacco retail policy landscape: a longitudinal survey of US states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Douglas A; Sorg, Amy A; Combs, Todd; Robichaux, Christopher B; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Ribisl, Kurt M; Henriksen, Lisa

    2016-10-01

    There are ∼380 000 tobacco retailers in the USA, where the largest tobacco companies spend almost $9 billion a year to promote their products. No systematic survey has been conducted of state-level activities to regulate the retail environment, thus little is known about what policies are being planned, proposed or implemented. This longitudinal study is the first US survey of state tobacco control programmes (TCPs) about retail policy activities. Surveyed in 2012 and 2014, programme managers (n=46) reported activities in multiple domains: e-cigarettes, retailer density and licensing, non-tax price increases, product placement, advertising and promotion, health warnings and other approaches. Policy activities were reported in one of five levels: no formal activity, planning or advocating, policy was proposed, policy was enacted or policy was implemented. Overall and domain-specific activity scores were calculated for each state. The average retail policy activity almost doubled between 2012 and 2014. States with the largest increase in scores included: Minnesota, which established a fee-based tobacco retail licensing system and banned self-service for e-cigarettes and all other tobacco products (OTP); Oregon, Kansas and Maine, all of which banned self-service for OTP; and West Virginia, which banned some types of flavoured OTP. Retail policy activities in US states increased dramatically in a short time. Given what is known about the impact of the retail environment on tobacco use by youth and adults, state and local TCPs may want diversify policy priorities by implementing retail policies alongside tax and smoke-free air laws. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  12. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Public Land Survey System of the United States 201011 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  13. National Geothermal Data System: State Geological Survey Contributions to Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, K.; Allison, M. L.; Richard, S. M.; Clark, R.; Love, D.; Coleman, C.; Caudill, C.; Matti, J.; Musil, L.; Day, J.; Chen, G.

    2012-12-01

    In collaboration with the Association of American State Geologists the Arizona Geological Survey is leading the effort to bring legacy geothermal data to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). NGDS is a national, sustainable, distributed, interoperable network of data and service (application) providers entering its final stages of development. Once completed the geothermal industry, the public, and policy makers will have access to consistent and reliable data, which in turn, reduces the amount of staff time devoted to finding, retrieving, integrating, and verifying information. With easier access to information, the high cost and risk of geothermal power projects (especially exploration drilling) is reduced. This presentation focuses on the scientific and data integration methodology as well as State Geological Survey contributions to date. The NGDS is built using the U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) data integration framework to promote interoperability across the Earth sciences community and with other emerging data integration and networking efforts. Core to the USGIN concept is that of data provenance; by allowing data providers to maintain and house their data. After concluding the second year of the project, we have nearly 800 datasets representing over 2 million data points from the state geological surveys. A new AASG specific search catalog based on popular internet search formats enables end users to more easily find and identify geothermal resources in a specific region. Sixteen states, including a consortium of Great Basin states, have initiated new field data collection for submission to the NGDS. The new field data includes data from at least 21 newly drilled thermal gradient holes in previously unexplored areas. Most of the datasets provided to the NGDS are being portrayed as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Services (WMS) and Web Feature Services (WFS), meaning that the data is compatible with a

  14. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-08-20

    This survey reviews efforts by CESA member clean energy funds to promote the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. For each fund, details are provided regarding biomass eligibility for support, specific programs offering support to biomass projects, and examples of supported biomass projects (if available). For the purposes of this survey, biomass is defined to include bio-product gasification, combustion, co-firing, biofuel production, and the combustion of landfill gas, though not all of the programs reviewed here take so wide a definition. Programs offered by non-CESA member funds fall outside the scope of this survey. To date, three funds--the California Energy Commission, Wisconsin Focus on Energy, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority--have offered programs targeted specifically at the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. We begin by reviewing efforts in these three funds, and then proceed to cover programs in other funds that have provided support to biomass projects when the opportunity has arisen, but otherwise do not differentially target biomass relative to other renewable technologies.

  15. National survey of neonatal transport teams in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Kristine A; Trautman, Michael; Price-Douglas, Webra; Smith, Sandra

    2011-10-01

    Neonatal transport in the United States is a complex process; however, little is known about the neonatal transport team (NTT) workforce. The purpose of this national study was to describe the US NTT workforce. An exploratory, descriptive design that used a Web-based survey questionnaire was used. We identified 398 NTTs, and 345 (86.7%) were enrolled. One survey was completed per team. Ten NTTs did not complete the survey (response rate: 84.2%). Of the 335 completed surveys, 229 (68.4%) were from unit-based teams and 106 (31.6%) were from dedicated teams. Twenty-six different NTT compositions were used. All except 1 (n = 334) had a registered nurse or a neonatal nurse practitioner as a team member. A registered nurse-respiratory therapist team composition was the most common for unit-based (40.2%) and dedicated (44.3%) teams. Dedicated teams used rotor and fixed-wing modes of travel more frequently, transported further distances, and had higher transport volumes than unit-based teams. The median transport volumes reported suggest that as many as 68 797 critically ill neonates are transported each year. There is wide variation in many aspects of neonatal transport, including orientation, determination of readiness for independent transport, use of protocols to guide transport care, and quality assurance activities. These results will be useful for (1) evaluating existing transport services, (2) guiding necessary changes in training or services, and (3) aiding programs that seek to develop a neonatal transport program.

  16. Pygmy rabbit surveys on state lands in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan; Lienkaemper, George

    2007-01-01

    The pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis) is classified by the federal government as a species of concern (i.e., under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for consideration as a candidate for listing as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act) because of its specialized habitat requirements and evidence of declining populations. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) lists pygmy rabbits as “sensitive-vulnerable,” meaning that protective measures are needed if sustainable populations are to be maintained over time (Oregon Natural Heritage Program, 2001). The Oregon Natural Heritage Program considers this species to be threatened with extirpation from Oregon. Pygmy rabbits also are a species of concern in all the other states where they occur (NatureServe, 2004). The Washington population, known as the Columbia Basin pygmy rabbit, was listed as endangered by the federal government in 2003. Historically, pygmy rabbits have been collected from Deschutes, Klamath, Crook, Lake, Grant, Harney, Baker, and Malheur Counties in Oregon. However, the geographic range of pygmy rabbit in Oregon may have decreased in historic times (Verts and Carraway, 1998), and boundaries of the current distribution are not known. Not all potentially suitable sites appear to be occupied, and populations are susceptible to rapid declines and local extirpation (Weiss and Verts, 1984). In order to protect and manage remaining populations on State of Oregon lands, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife needs to identify areas currently occupied by pygmy rabbits, as well as suitable habitats. The main objective of this survey was document to presence or absence of pygmy rabbits on state lands in Malheur, Harney, Lake, and Deschutes counties. Knowledge of the location and extent of pygmy rabbit populations can provide a foundation for the conservation and management of this species in Oregon. The pygmy rabbit is just one of a suite of species of concern

  17. 77 FR 20550 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... implementation date for use of the revised uniform criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use.'' 76 FR 18042. That final rule amended the regulation establishing...

  18. Patient Survey (PCH - HCAHPS) PPS-exempt Cancer Hospital – State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the state averages for the HCAHPS survey responses. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  19. 1999 Breeding Bird Survey Route Paths for the Lower 48 States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays a 1999 snapshot of the approximate route paths of active Breeding Bird Survey routes in the lower 48 States. The paths are a visual...

  20. State of Adult Trainee Inflammatory Bowel Disease Education in the United States: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin L.; Ha, Christina; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Rieder, Florian; Bewtra, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The fundamentals of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) education begin during gastroenterology (GI) fellowship training. We performed a survey of GI fellowship program directors (PD) and trainees with the aim to further examine the current state of IBD training in the United States. Materials and Methods A 15-question PD survey and 19-question trainee survey was performed using an online platform. Results Surveys were completed by 43/161 (27%) PDs and 160 trainees. All trainee years were equally represented. A significant proportion of trainees was unsure or felt their inpatient (32%) or outpatient (43%) training was inadequate. Only 28% of trainees were satisfied with their current level of IBD exposure during training. Fewer than half the trainees reported comfort in the management of pouch or stoma issues, the pregnant IBD patient, or post-operative management. The proportion of PDs viewing a competency as essential for trainee education strongly correlated with trainee comfort in that area (Pearson’s rho = 0.793, pdidactics was the only variable independently associated with satisfaction with current level of training (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9–9.0). Conclusions Over one-third of participating GI trainees did not feel “confident” or “mostly comfortable” with their level of IBD training, with varying comfort regarding different competencies in IBD management. These findings suggest that specific areas of IBD training may require additional focus during training and can provide the basis for the development of an IBD core competency curriculum. PMID:27306068

  1. The Physical Science behind Climate Change. Why are climatologists so highly confident that human activities are dangerously warming the earth?; Die Wissenschaft hinter dem Klimawandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, W. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Colman, R. [Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Research Centre; Haywood, J. [Meteorological Office (Met Office), Exeter (United Kingdom); Manning, M.R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Mote, P. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2007-10-15

    For a scientist studying climate change, ''eureka'' moments are unusually rare. Instead progress is generally made by a painstaking piecing together of evidence from every new temperature measurement, satellite sounding or climate-model experiment. Data get checked and rechecked, ideas tested over and over again. Do the observations fit the predicted changes? Could there be some alternative explanation? Good climate scientists, like all good scientists, want to ensure that the highest standards of proof apply to everything they discover. And the evidence of change has mounted as climate records have grown longer, as our understanding of the climate system has improved and as climate models have become ever more reliable. Over the past 20 years, evidence that humans are affecting the climate has accumulated inexorably, and with it has come ever greater certainty across the scientific community in the reality of recent climate change and the potential for much greater change in the future. This increased certainty is starkly reflected in the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the fourth in a series of assessments of the state of knowledge on the topic, written and reviewed by hundreds of scientists worldwide. (orig./GL)

  2. Current State of Agile User-Centered Design: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

    Agile software development methods are quite popular nowadays and are being adopted at an increasing rate in the industry every year. However, these methods are still lacking usability awareness in their development lifecycle, and the integration of usability/User-Centered Design (UCD) into agile methods is not adequately addressed. This paper presents the preliminary results of a recently conducted online survey regarding the current state of the integration of agile methods and usability/UCD. A world wide response of 92 practitioners was received. The results show that the majority of practitioners perceive that the integration of agile methods with usability/UCD has added value to their adopted processes and to their teams; has resulted in the improvement of usability and quality of the product developed; and has increased the satisfaction of the end-users of the product developed. The top most used HCI techniques are low-fidelity prototyping, conceptual designs, observational studies of users, usability expert evaluations, field studies, personas, rapid iterative testing, and laboratory usability testing.

  3. Should Climatologists and Spatial Planners Interact? Weather regulation as an ecosystem service to be considered in the land-use planning field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Mathieu; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Strada, Susanna; Stéfanon, Marc; Torre, André

    2016-04-01

    the National Academy of Sciences, 111(27): 9757-9761. Hewitt, C. N.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Marco, C. F.; Dorsey, J. R.; Evans, M.; Fowler, D.; Gallagher, M. W.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jones, C. E.; Langford, B.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Lim, S. F.; McQuaid, J.; Misztal, P.; Moller, S. J.; Monks, P. S.; Nemitz, E.; Oram, D. E.; Owen, S. M.; Phillips, G. J.; Pugh, T. A M; Pyle, J. A.; Reeves, C. E.; Ryder, J.; Siong, J.; Skiba, U.; Stewart, D. J. (2009) Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America - PNAS, 106(44): 18447-18451. Lobell, D. B.; Bonfils, C. (2008) The Effect of Irrigation on Regional Temperatures: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Trends in California, 1934-2002. In: Journal of Climate, 21(10): 2063-2071. Shaw, R.; Colley, M. & Connell, R. (2007) Climate change adaptation by design: a guide for sustainable communities. London: Town and Country Planning Association, 50 p.

  4. 2008 Economic Survey of Gulf State Shrimp License Holders

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This mail survey collected data on the economic performance of active commercial shrimp harvesters who primarily operated in inshore waters of western Florida,...

  5. State Profiles: FY 2014 Public Libraries Survey (Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Pull up a state's profile to find state-level totals on key data such as numbers of libraries and librarians, revenue and expenditures, and collection sizes.These...

  6. NASBE Study Group Surveys State Leadership Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bobbi; Hull, Robert

    2015-01-01

    State board members, working in partnership with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted an in-depth study of states' school leadership development policies and practices. Data from this study are being analyzed to determine ways that states can create systems and structures for…

  7. Epidemiological survey of hypertension in Anambra state, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-22

    Feb 22, 2016 ... Objective: This survey was carried out to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, detection and risk factors of hypertension in three .... and even awareness was administered to the participants or completed on their ... size and Accoson brand of mercury sphygmomanometer. Systolic BP (SBP) and ...

  8. 75 FR 30773 - United States Patent Applicant Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... supported an ongoing forecasting program for patent application filings that includes the use of... using the survey as part of a comprehensive approach to forecasting, the USPTO is also using this tool... increased with expanding technological innovations. However, newly emerging technologies, evolving business...

  9. State prison mental heath services recipients perception of care survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Bruce B; Sawyer, Don A; Kahkejian, Deborah; Moffitt, Catherine; Lilly, Stephanie N

    2007-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated the importance of patient perceptions' of mental health service quality. No studies, however, could be found that surveyed recipients in prison, despite the rapid growth of patients, and litigation in these settings. Patients were asked to complete an anonymous survey in private, and sealed it in an envelope. Of 613 respondents, most were satisfied (79%), agreed they had sufficient access to therapists (78%), were involved with treatment decisions (84%), and thought the MH services they had received would help them better deal with a crisis and emotional stress (75%). There were differences among mental health programs/housing units. Several of perception questions were significantly correlated with medication compliance, admission to crisis observation cells, and receiving disciplinary infractions. Random samples were requested, but likely only a convenience sample was obtained. However, the positive results suggest the need to strive to enhance patient quality of care ratings.

  10. A Survey of State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) Model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUBEB) Model Nursery and Primary School Libraries in Ekiti State. How fit are the school libraries to ably play their roles as supporters of schools ' academic programmes? To what extent are the school libraries satisfying the information needs ...

  11. Deep Echo State Network (DeepESN): A Brief Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicchio, Claudio; Micheli, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    The study of deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and, in particular, of deep Reservoir Computing (RC) is gaining an increasing research attention in the neural networks community. The recently introduced deep Echo State Network (deepESN) model opened the way to an extremely efficient approach for designing deep neural networks for temporal data. At the same time, the study of deepESNs allowed to shed light on the intrinsic properties of state dynamics developed by hierarchical compositions ...

  12. Meeting NCLB goals for highly qualified teachers: Estimates by state from survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf K. Blank

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents results of survey data showing teacher qualifications for their assignments that are comparable from state-to-state as well as data trends over time. The analysis is intended to help state leaders, educators, and others obtain a picture of highly qualified teachers in their state, and to be able to compare their state statistics with states across the nation. Since states have some flexibility in meeting the standard for highly qualified teachers outlined by NCLB, the analyses presented in this paper from a national survey may be useful as a common benchmark for use by states as they develop their own state-specific definitions and measures.

  13. United States Geological Survey discharge data from five example gages on intermittent streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data are mean daily discharge data at United States Geological Survey gages. Once column provides the date (mm/dd/yyyy) and the other column provides the mean...

  14. 77 FR 11565 - Agency Information Collection: Comment Request AGENCY: United States Geological Survey (USGS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ....S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection: Comment Request AGENCY: United States Geological... Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP)--EDMAP and STATEMAP. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act... Information Collection Clearance Officer, U.S. Geological Survey, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 807, Reston...

  15. Pediatric dermatology training survey of United States dermatology residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Mazza, Joni M; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Variability exists in pediatric dermatology education for dermatology residents. We sought to formally assess the pediatric dermatology curriculum and experience in a dermatology residency program. Three unique surveys were developed for dermatology residents, residency program directors, and pediatric dermatology fellowship program directors. The surveys consisted of questions pertaining to residency program characteristics. Sixty-three graduating third-year residents, 51 residency program directors, and 18 pediatric dermatology fellowship program directors responded. Residents in programs with one or more full-time pediatric dermatologist were more likely to feel very competent treating children and were more likely to be somewhat or extremely satisfied with their pediatric curriculums than residents in programs with no full-time pediatric dermatologist (50.0% vs 5.9%, p = 0.002, and 85.3% vs 52.9%, p dermatology fellowships were much more likely to report being extremely satisfied than residents in programs without a pediatric dermatology fellowship (83.3% vs 21.2%; p dermatology residency programs to continue to strengthen their pediatric dermatology curriculums, especially through the recruitment of full-time pediatric dermatologists. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. States' use of local population health data: comparing the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and independent state health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E Richard; Kincheloe, Jennifer; Breen, Nancy; Olson, Jean L; Portnoy, Barry; Lee, Simon J Craddock

    2013-01-01

    To identify and compare key features of independent comprehensive state health surveys (SHS) with those of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for addressing the need for statewide and local population health data. We developed inclusion criteria, systematically collected information about federal and SHS that met these criteria, and obtained supplemental information from SHS leaders. We identified comprehensive independent SHS in 11 states and BRFSS surveys in all 50 states. The independent SHS meet important statewide and local data needs, filling 3 key health data gaps in the BRFSS: lack of adequate data on special populations such as children, lack of data on specific localities, and limited depth and scope of health topics surveyed on key issues such as health insurance coverage. Unlike BRFSS, independent SHS have limited comparability with each other. The BRFSS and independent SHS each meet some key state and local data needs but result in data gaps and inefficient use of resources. Surveys could more effectively and efficiently meet future needs for comparable data to monitor health care reform and address health disparities if they were coordinated across states and at the national, state, and local levels.

  17. Complex sample survey estimation in static state-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    2010-01-01

    Increased use of remotely sensed data is a key strategy adopted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program. However, multiple sensor technologies require complex sampling units and sampling designs. The Recursive Restriction Estimator (RRE) accommodates this complexity. It is a design-consistent Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Prediction for the state-vector, which...

  18. Preliminary limnological survey of Ori stream, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ori stream (one of the tributaries of River Oba, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria) was studied from October to December 2013 with the aim of providing baseline information on its water quality, phytoplankton primary productivity and invertebrate faunal composition. Plankton samples were collected by towing plankton net over a 2 ...

  19. A SURVEY OF FARM TRACTOR MANAGEMENT IN ZAMFARA STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... The result revealed that the State owned 77 functional farm tractors (60.2% of the total owned farm tractors). Spare parts are not available, owned tractors do not reach their economic life, there is no single fully equipped ..... Company, Inc., Westport, Connecticut, 1978. 8. Apollos, S.K. Agricultural Machinery ...

  20. History of forest survey sampling designs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. E. Frayer; George M. Furnival

    2000-01-01

    Extensive forest inventories of forested lands in the United States were begun in the early part of the 20th century, but widespread, frequent use was not common until after WWII. Throughout the development of inventory techniques and their application to assess the status of the nation's forests, most of the work has been done by the USDA Forest Service through...

  1. Survey of dermal protection in Washington State collision repair industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana M; Fent, Kenneth W; Whittaker, Stephen G; Gaines, Linda G T; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Flack, Sheila L; Nylander-French, Leena A; Yost, Michael G; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K

    2011-09-01

    Substantial exposure to isocyanates may occur during spray painting in autobody shops, yet information is lacking on the efficacy of the protective clothing used during spray painting. We investigated the personal and workplace factors associated with painters' dermal protection use during a large-scale exposure assessment study. Survey data indicated that 69% of painters always used gloves, with latex gloves (47%) and nitrile gloves (34%) used most frequently. Among latex glove users, 53% used thin latex (0.05-0.13 mm), 6% used medium latex (0.15-0.20 mm), and 12% used thick latex (> 0.20 mm). Among nitrile glove users, 27% used thin nitrile and 45% used medium nitrile. Sixty-three percent of painters always used coveralls, 44% preferring one particular brand. Although overspray presents an opportunity for dermal exposure to the neck and face, only 19% of painters protected these areas with personal protective equipment. Painters who always used coveralls were more likely to use gloves (odds ratio = 7.9, p = 0.061). Painters who reported ever having smoked cigarettes used gloves (p = 0.05) and coveralls (p = 0.04) more frequently. Painters who sprayed more than 34 clear coat jobs per month used coveralls most frequently (p = 0.038). Exact logistic regressions along with random sample calculations indicated that the survey results were independent of the shops. Because of the small sample size in this study, future research is warranted to corroborate these results. Studying the effectiveness of gloves and coveralls against polyurethane paints and understanding the underlying motivators and preferences for painters and business owners is needed for the development of best practices for the selection and use of dermal protection.

  2. The United States Strategic Bombing Surveys, (European War) (Pacific War)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    stage of full adolescence , a stage marked by rapid development in planes, armament, equipment, tactics and concepts of strategic employment, and by an...military cliques of Japan exerted a progressively tighter control over the foreign and domestic affairs of the nation . These cliques included groups...the disruption of the more basic elements of Japan’s social , economic, and political fabric . Certain of the United States commanders and the

  3. Survey of electric utility demand for coal. [1972-1992; by utility and state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, J.G.; Caruso, J.V.; Kouvalis, A.; Maslowski, C.S.

    1979-08-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of electric utility demand for coal in the United States. The sources of survey information are: (1) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Form 423 data on utility coal purchases during the period July 1972 through December 1978 and (2) direct telephone survey data on utility coal-purchase intentions for power plants to be constructed by 1992. Price and quantity data for coal used in existing plants are presented to illustrate price and market-share trends in individual coal-consuming states during recent years. Coal source, quality, quantity, and transportation data are reported for existing and planned generating plants.

  4. A survey of oil and gas leases for most of the western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shofner, P.G. (State Land Commission, Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1992-12-01

    A survey on 13 of the western states is presented. These states have been surveyed on the new trends in marketing and managing the income from minerals. The survey covers 13 states with approximately 81 million acres of land in the western part of the US. The annual income from oil and gas production on these land is over two billion dollars, which is placed in permanent trusts. That permanent trust in the State of Texas is about eight billion dollars. The State of Oklahoma has approximately three-quarters of a billion dollars in a permanent trust. The interest off the income on these trust funds is distributed to education annually. The Oklahoma School Land Commission provides about 80 million dollars a year for the support of schools. As state revenues have dropped, the Land Commissions in the various states are looked at to provide additional income to offset the increasing cost of education. Almost every state at this time is having some sort of problem providing proper financial support for educational institutions. The survey was compiled to try to come up with new ideas to increase income, therefore, providing greater income for schools and hopefully offsetting some of the loss in the state revenues.

  5. A Targeted Survey for Scrapie in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Nwankiti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrapie, a disease of sheep and goats with a progressive course and fatal outcome, has not been identified in Nigeria. Anecdotal scrapie reports by livestock workers abound. Livestock diseases like scrapie form huddles in livestock economics of countries. For 8 months we surveyed for scrapie targeting emergency/casualty slaughter sheep and goats in Jos, Nigeria. We clinically examined 510 sheep and 608 goats of local breeds, aged from 12 months to 5 years. In total 31 (5.10% goats and no sheep were clinically suspicious for scrapie. Caudal brainstem tissues of suspect animals collected postmortem were analyzed for the disease specific form of the prion protein, PrPSc, using Bio-Rad’s TeSeE ELISA rapid test kit. No sample was positive for scrapie. Fluorescent antibody test for rabies and H&E staining on samples were carried out for differential diagnosis. These showed no pathological lesions indicative for neurological disease. While our findings do not exclude the presence of scrapie in Jos, we demonstrate that targeted sampling of small ruminants for neuroinfectious disease is feasible in developing countries, pointing to the possibility of implementing such a monitoring scheme in Nigeria to prevent economic losses in small ruminant livestock as scrapie caveats from endemic countries have shown.

  6. National Survey of Interscholastic Sport Sponsorship in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID PIERCE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to cuts in educational funding in the United States, interscholastic athletic administrators have turned to corporate sponsorship to fund athletic departments. While the academic literature in sport management has extensively covered corporate sponsorship at the intercollegiate and professional level, the purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence, nature, and importance of sponsorship to high school athletics in the United States. This paper identified factors that predicted the use of sponsorship, the amount of revenue generated from sponsorship, who is responsible for selling sponsorship, motivators behind not soliciting sponsorship, and the extent to which fundraising and participation fees are utilized to supplement athletic department budgets. The most common form of alternative revenue generation is fund raising (87% of schools followed by, sponsorship (57% and participation fees (34%. One-third of schools reported using sponsorship in response to budget cuts, and over one-fourth solicited sponsorship to prevent charging participation fees. Results also indicated that while the majority of high school athletic departments solicited corporate sponsorship, administrators were cautious in the so-licitation of sponsorship as evidenced by the small dollar amounts involved and overall impact on the budget, reliance on game program advertisements and facility signage to activate sponsorships, and a lack of outsourcing to sport marketing firms to sell the sponsorships. There is clearly room for growth in the interscholastic sport sponsorship market.

  7. Data Management and Rescue at a State Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, D. J.; McIntyre-Redden, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    As new technologies are developed to utilize data more fully, and as shrinking budgets mean more needs to be done with less, well-documented and discoverable legacy data is vital for continued research and economic growth. Many governmental agencies are mandated to maintain scientific data, and the Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) is no different. As part of the mandate to explore for, characterize, and report Alabama's mineral, energy, water, and biological resources for the betterment of Alabama's citizens, communities, and businesses, the GSA has increasingly been called upon to make our data (including samples) more accessible to stakeholders. The GSA has been involved in several data management, preservation, and rescue projects, including the National Geothermal Data System and the National Geological and Geophysical Data Preservation Program. GSA staff utilizes accepted standards for metadata, such as those found at the US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN). Through the use of semi-automated workflows, these standards can be applied to legacy data records. As demand for more detailed information on samples increases, especially so that a researcher can do a preliminary assessment prior to a site visit, it has become critical for the efficiency of the GSA to have better systems in place for sample tracking and data management. Thus, GSA is in the process of registering cores and related samples for International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs) through the System for Earth Sample Registration. IGSNs allow the GSA to use asset management software to better curate the physical samples and provide more accurate information to stakeholders. Working with other initiatives, such as EarthCube's iSamples project, will ensure that GSA continues to use best practices and standards for sample identification, documentation, citation, curation, and sharing.

  8. Adapting Child Care Market Price Surveys to Support State Quality Initiatives. White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscome, Kenley

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes to the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) require a state's child care market price survey to: (1) be statistically valid and reliable and (2) reflect variations in the cost of child care services by geographic area, type of provider, and age of child. States may use an alternative methodology for setting payment rates--such as…

  9. 77 FR 74471 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; State of Preschool Survey 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; State of Preschool Survey 2013-2015 AGENCY.... This helps the Department assess the impact of its information collection requirements and minimize the... in response to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: State of Preschool...

  10. United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teachers®: a survey of characteristics and practice patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Patricia A; Nelsen, Nicole L; Geletta, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Feldenkrais Method® teachers help students improve function and quality of life through verbally and manually guided lessons. The reasons people seek Feldenkrais® lessons are poorly understood. Similarly, little is known about practice characteristics and patterns. To address these knowledge gaps, we conducted an extensive survey of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teachers®. Methods We invited all Feldenkrais Teachers to participate in this survey delivered in web-based o...

  11. A meta-study investigating the sources of protest behaviour in stated preference surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

      It is well known that some percentage of respondents participating in Stated Preference surveys will not give responses which reflect their true preferences. One reason is protest behaviour. If the distribution of protest responses is not independent of respondent demographics, the elicitation...... method, the question format, etc., then simply expelling protesters from surveys will lead to sample selection issues. Furthermore, WTP estimates will not be comparable across surveys. This paper seeks to explore potential causes of protest behaviour through a meta-study based on data from 10 different...... surveys. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of respondent specific variables as well as survey specific variables on protest behaviour. Our results suggest that some of the differences in WTP typically observed between different demographic groups, different elicitation formats...

  12. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E; Hunter, Edward L

    2015-01-01

    Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25,000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. A total of 10,246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It holds significant potential to help answer previously unaddressed questions in public health

  13. Review of survey articles regarding medication therapy management (MTM) services/programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladapo, Abiola O; Rascati, Karen L

    2012-08-01

    To provide a summary of published survey articles regarding the provision of medication therapy management (MTM) services in the United States. A literature search was conducted to identify original articles on MTM-related surveys conducted in the United States, involving community and outpatient pharmacists, physicians, patients, or pharmacy students and published by the primary researchers who conducted the study. Search engines used included PubMed, Medline, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA). If MTM was in the keyword list, mesh heading, title, or abstract, the article was reviewed. References from these articles were searched to determine whether other relevant articles were available. A total of 405 articles were initially reviewed; however, only 32 articles met the study requirements. Of the 32 articles, 17 surveyed community/outpatient pharmacists, 3 surveyed pharmacy students, 4 surveyed physicians, and 8 surveyed patients. The survey periods varied across the different studies, with the earliest survey conducted in 2004 and the most recent survey conducted in 2009. The surveys were conducted via the telephone, US mail, interoffice mail, e-mails, Internet/Web sites, hand-delivered questionnaires, and focus groups. Despite the identified barriers to the provision of MTM services, pharmacists reportedly found it professionally rewarding to provide these services. Pharmacists claimed to have adequate clinical knowledge, experience, and access to information required to provide MTM services. Pharmacy students were of the opinion that the provision of MTM services was important to the advancement of the pharmacy profession and in providing patients with a higher level of care. Physicians supported having pharmacists adjust patients’ drug therapy and educate patients on general drug information but not in selecting patients’ drug therapy. Finally, patients suggested that alternative ways need to be explored in describing and marketing MTM

  14. Mandated School Mathematics Testing in the United States: A Survey of State Mathematics Supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This report contains information gathered in the second of a series from the National Center for Research in Mathematical Sciences Education regarding effects of mandated testing. The purpose of the study was to determine for each state: (1) whether mathematics testing was mandated at the state level; (2) the processes of test selection or…

  15. Perceived barriers to adopting an Asian-language quitline service: a survey of state funding agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yue-Lin; Cummins, Sharon E; Lee, Hye-ryeon; Dearing, James; Kirby, Carrie; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the perceived barriers to adopting an Asian-language quitline service among agencies that fund current state quitline services across the U.S. A self-administered survey on organizational readiness was sent to the funding agencies of 47 states plus Washington D.C. that currently fund state quitlines in English and Spanish, but not in Asian languages (response rate = 58%). The 2010 Census and the 2009 North American Quitline Consortium Survey were used to obtain the proportion of Asians among the state population and state quitline funding level, respectively. The most frequently cited reasons for not adopting an Asian quitline are: the Asian population in the state would be too small (71.4%), costs of service would be too high (57.1%), and the belief that using third-party translation for counseling is sufficient (39.3%). However, neither the actual proportion of Asians among the state population (range = 0.7% to 7.3%), nor the quitline funding level (range = $0.17 to $20.8 per capita) predicts the reported reasons. The results indicate that quitline funding agencies need more education on the necessity and the feasibility of an Asian-language quitline. Three states are currently participating in a multi-state Asian-language quitline in which each state promotes the service to its residents and one state (CA) provides the services for all the states. This centralized multi-state Asian-language quitline operation, which helps reduce practical barriers in adoption and disparity in access to service, could be extended.

  16. A survey of aquatic insects at Kware lake in Sokoto State | Yahaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to determine the diversity and abundance of aquatic insects in Kware Lake, Kware local government area of Sokoto State from October to December, 2003. During these months, aquatic insects are associated mostly with permanent water bodies in Sokoto. Samples were obtained twice a week from ...

  17. Literacy Curricula and Assessment: A Survey of Early Childhood Educators in Two States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischlar, Karen L.; Vesay, Joanne P.

    2014-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the importance of early literacy instruction, as these skills are the developmental precursors to conventional reading. In this study, 215 early childhood educators in two states responded to a survey regarding early literacy curricula and assessment. Results indicated that most teachers used either a…

  18. A survey of snail farms in Cross River State, Nigeria | Ogogo | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of snail in the wild has become threatened, and information on the efficiency and effectiveness of ex - situ management of snails in many areas is urgently needed for consistent supply of snails. This work, therefore surveyed the practice and adoption of snail farming technology in Cross River State, Nigeria.

  19. Testing a health research instrument to develop a state-wide survey on maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Angela L; Aitken, Clare A; Boyd, Jason; Porter, Maree

    2016-01-28

    Partnerships between researchers and end users are an important strategy for research uptake in policy and practice. This paper describes how collaboration between an academic research organisation (the Kolling Institute) and a government performance reporting agency (the New South Wales [NSW] Bureau of Health Information) contributed to the development of a new state-wide maternity care survey for NSW.

  20. A Niche for Small-Scale Farmers: Report of a Five-State Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John A.

    This paper reports on a survey of 221 small-scale farmers conducted in 5 western states. Despite the current productive dominance of large farms, an argument can be made that small-scale farming is desirable both for social and ecological reasons. Discussion focuses on the tradition-oriented goals and values of small-scale farmers, special…

  1. 9th state of logistics survey for South Africa: connecting neighbours - engaging the world

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, N

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 9th State of Logistics survey for South Africa 2012 delivers a message of action. South Africa must make great strides in addressing critical issues relating to the road freight sector, shifting freight from road to rail and addressing rampant...

  2. Literature Survey Concerning State of the Art and Surface Generation in High Speed Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano

    This report constitutes a short description of a literature survey concerning the state of the art and latest achievements on the rather new and powerful technology of high speed milling and its modelling, particularly looking at modelling of the generated surfaces. This task has been conducted...

  3. Teaching Macroeconomics after the Crisis: A Survey among Undergraduate Instructors in Europe and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Manfred; Griesbach, Björn; Jung, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession raised questions of what and how macroeconomists teach at academic institutions around the globe, and what changes in the macroeconomics curriculum should be made. The authors conducted a survey of undergraduate macroeconomics instructors affiliated with colleges and universities in Europe and the United States at the end of…

  4. Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project: A Survey of Childhood Hunger in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehler, Cheryl A.; And Others

    The Community Childhood Identification Project (CCHIP) is regarded as a model for measuring hunger in low-income families. This second and final CCHIP study was the result of surveys conducted at 11 sites in 9 states and the District of Columbia between 1992 and 1994. A total of 5,282 households were interviewed. Chapters in the report are as…

  5. 75 FR 55598 - Proposed Information Collection; The State of Ecosystem Services Implementation Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... that service. The objectives of this survey are to illustrate the various approaches that are being... successfully implemented ecosystem services concepts. II. Data OMB Control Number: 1028--NEW. Title: The State...: Individuals who are (currently or recently have been) engaged in conducting ecosystem services research...

  6. U.S. Geological Survey assessment of reserve growth outside of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.

    2015-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of potential additions to oil and gas reserves for the United States by reserve growth in discovered accumulations. These volumes were derived by using a new methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation. This methodology was used to assess reserve growth in individual accumulations (reservoirs, groups of reservoirs, or fields). Selected, large, well-studied, conventional accumulations in the United States that are estimated to contribute most to reserve growth were assessed using analysis of geology and engineering practices. Potential additions to oil and gas reserves for large, discovered, conventional accumulations outside of the United States due to reserve growth were assessed using the U.S. accumulations as analogs. Potential oil and gas volumes were assumed to be added to proven plus probable reserves.

  7. Vehicle choice in aging population: Some insights from a stated preference survey for California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavalec, C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper investigates the potential effects that an aging baby boomer generation will have on gasoline use through their vehicle choice decisions. The study uses stated preference data for both conventional and alternative fuel vehicles, and measures the impact of age of survey respondent on the perceived value of vehicle characteristics such as fuel economy, performance, and body style (e.g., car vs. truck). The results suggest the possibility that average fleet fuel economy may improve in the next few years, if survey preferences translate to actual purchase behavior. No clear implications can be drawn regarding the demand for alternative fuel vehicles.

  8. Can a clinical senate enhance state-wide clinician engagement? A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Julie A; Miller, Mary; Hutton, Marani

    2017-12-01

    Objective Clinician engagement correlates with quality, safety and efficacy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to explore whether a clinical senate model achieves clinical input into system manager and operational health service boards. Methods A mixed-methods survey was undertaken. Participants were current or immediate past members of the Clinical Senate of Western Australia (CS). For the 124 surveys sent out, the response rate was 60%. Results Respondents stated the CS played a role in clinician engagement (95%), contributed to healthcare reform (82%), knowledge of contemporary health issues (92%), feedback to decision makers (82%), clinician networking (94%), debate on important issues (93%), enabled clinicians to work on recommendations to improve health at a state level (87%), contributed to clinician thinking on health reform (88%) and enabled clinicians to share their knowledge (91%). Four major themes emerged in the qualitative analysis: (1) the need for a strong independent clinician forum and voice at a state level; (2) the need to strengthen clinician interactions with operational healthcare boards; (3) a strong belief that clinician engagement strengthened quality and safety outcomes at a state level; and (4) that membership was important and needed to be diverse, multidisciplinary and independent, but structurally representative of clinicians in the state. Conclusion A clinical senate model can facilitate state-wide clinician engagement. What is known about the topic? High levels of clinical engagement foster a culture within healthcare organisations that is associated with the delivery of sustained high-quality, safe and efficient services. This has led to a focus on strategies to optimise clinical engagement in healthcare planning and reform. However, there is limited data exploring how to achieve clinical engagement at a state, rather than local, level within the healthcare system. What does this paper add? This survey study evaluates the

  9. Medicinal Cannabis: A Survey Among Health Care Providers in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Garrett, Sharon B; Carter, Gregory T

    2017-02-01

    Washington State allows marijuana use for medical (since 1998) and recreational (since 2012) purposes. The benefits of medicinal cannabis (MC) can be maximized if clinicians educate patients about dosing, routes of administration, side effects, and plant composition. However, little is known about clinicians' knowledge and practices in Washington State. An anonymous online survey assessed providers' MC knowledge, beliefs, clinical practices, and training needs. The survey was disseminated through health care providers' professional organizations in Washington State. Descriptive analysis compared providers who had and had not authorized MC for patients. Survey results informed the approach and content of an online training on best clinical practices of MC. Four hundred ninety-four health care providers responded to the survey. Approximately two-third were women, aged 30 to 60 years, and working in family or internal medicine. More than half of the respondents were legally allowed to write MC authorizations per Washington State law, and 27% of those had issued written MC authorizations. Overall, respondents reported low knowledge and comfort level related to recommending MC. Respondents rated MC knowledge as important and supported inclusion of MC training in medical/health provider curriculum. Most Washington State providers have not received education on scientific basis of MC or training on best clinical practices of MC. Clinicians who had issued MC authorizations were more likely to have received MC training than those who had not issued MC authorization. The potential of MCs to benefit some patients is hindered by the lack of comfort of clinicians to recommend it. Training opportunities are badly needed to address these issues.

  10. The role of respondents’ comfort for variance in stated choice surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emang, Diana; Lundhede, Thomas; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    parameter and vice versa. Information on, e.g., sleep and time since eating (higher comfort) correlated with scale heterogeneity, and produced lower error variance when controlled for in the model. That respondents’ comfort may influence choice behavior suggests that knowledge of the respondents’ activity......Preference elicitation among outdoor recreational users is subject to measurement errors that depend, in part, on survey planning. This study uses data from a choice experiment survey on recreational SCUBA diving to investigate whether self-reported information on respondents’ comfort when...... they complete surveys correlates with the error variance in stated choice models of their responses. Comfort-related variables are included in the scale functions of the scaled multinomial logit models. The hypothesis was that higher comfort reduces error variance in answers, as revealed by a higher scale...

  11. Survey on methods of increasing the efficiency of extended state disturbance observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoński, R; Herman, P

    2015-05-01

    This survey presents various methods of improving the overall estimation quality in the class of extended state observers (ESO), which estimate not only the conventional states of the system, but the acting disturbance as well. This type of observers is crucial in forming the active disturbance rejection control structure (ADRC), where the precision of online perturbation reconstruction and cancellation directly influences the robustness of the closed-loop control system. Various aspects of the observer-based disturbance estimation/rejection loop are covered by this work and divided into three categories, related with observer: structure, tuning, and working conditions. The survey is dedicated to researchers and practitioners who are interested in increasing the efficiency of their ADRC-based governing schemes. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  13. Floristic survey of diatoms (Ochrophyta) from Taim Hydrological System, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil: Coscinodiscophyceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, Thelma A. V.; Flores, Thaís Leme; Moreira Filho, Hermes; Veiga, Luiz Alberto S.

    2004-01-01

    A taxonomic survey of Coscinodiscophyceae diatoms was carried out based on 32 samples collected from Mirim, Flores and Nicola lagoons in 1988 and 1991. Fifteen specific and infraspecific taxa were identified, four of them were recorded for the first time in the Rio Grande do Sul State: Stephanodiscus hantzschii Grunow var. hantzschii, Aulacoseira crenulata (Ehrenberg) Thwaites var. crenulata, A. muzzanensis (Meister) Krammer var. muzzanensis and Pleurosira socotrensis var. pangeroni (Leuduger...

  14. Pediatric perioperative education current practices: a national survey of children's hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Maura; Beauchesne, Michelle A

    2013-05-01

    Identifying existing practices is a first step in the creation of developmentally and culturally effective teaching materials for children and families. This national survey queried two groups to explore current pediatric perioperative education practices: 81 nurses from a perioperative pediatric specialty association and 30 administrators representing leading children's hospitals within the United States. The aim was to improve perioperative care through the design of educational materials from the child's perspective.

  15. Results of a 29-state survey of tuberculosis in nursing homes and correctional facilities.

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, M D; Cauthen, G M; Bloch, A B

    1993-01-01

    A survey of the 15,379 cases of tuberculosis reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by 29 State health departments in 1984 and 1985 revealed that 7.7 percent of the victims older than age 64 were living in a nursing home at the time of diagnosis and 1.8 percent between the ages of 15 and 64 were living in a correctional institution at the time of diagnosis. Incidence rates of tuberculosis for residents of nursing homes and for inmates of Federal and State prisons and local...

  16. State of the art of expert searching: results of a Medical Library Association survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Ruth; Funk, Carla J

    2005-01-01

    Medical Library Association (MLA) members were surveyed to gather background about the current state of expert searching in institutions. The survey results were intended to guide the recommendations of the Task Force on Expert Searching for promoting the importance of expert searching and implementing those recommendations. MLA members were surveyed, and data obtained from the survey were compiled and analyzed to answer three general questions: what is the perceived value of searching skills to the institution, how do health sciences librarians maintain and improve their searching skills, and how are searching services promoted and/or mandated in the institution. There were 256 responses to the survey. Over 95% of the respondents saw their expert-searching skills were of value to their institutions, primarily through performing mediated searches and search consultations. Over 83% of the respondents believed that their searching skills had improved over the past 10 years. Most indicated that continued training was very important in maintaining and improving their skills. Respondents promoted searching services most frequently through orientations, brochures, and the libraries' Web pages. No respondent's institution mandated expert searching. Less than 2% of respondents' institutions had best practice guidelines related to expert searching, and only about 8% had guidelines or policies that identified situations where expert searching was recommended. The survey supports the belief that health sciences librarians still play a valuable role in searching, particularly in answering questions about treatment options and in providing education. It also highlights the need for more expert searching courses. There has been minimal discussion about the perceived need for expert-searching guidelines in the institutions represented by survey respondents.

  17. State Geological Survey Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System- Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, M. Lee [Executive Office of the State of Arizona, Tuczon (AZGS), AZ (United States).; Richard, Stephen M. [Executive Office of the State of Arizona, Tuczon (AZGS), AZ (United States).

    2015-03-13

    The State Geological Survey Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System project is built on the work of the project managed by Boise State University to design and build the National Geothermal Data System, by deploying it nationwide and populating it with data principally from State Geological Surveys through collaboration with the Association of American State Geologists (AASG). This project subsequently incorporated the results of the design-build and other DOE-funded projects in support of the NGDS. The NGDS (www.geothermaldata.org) provides free open access to millions of data records, images, maps, and reports, sharing relevant geoscience, production, and land use data in 30+ categories to propel geothermal development and production in the U.S. NGDS currently serves information gathered from hundreds of the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored development and research projects and geologic data feeds from 60+ data providers throughout all 50 states. These data are relevant to geothermal energy exploration and development, but also have broad applicability in other areas including natural resources (e.g., energy, minerals, water), natural hazards, and land use and management.

  18. Perceptions of State Government stakeholders & researchers regarding public health research priorities in India: An exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhdeep Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public health research has several stakeholders that should be involved in identifying public health research agenda. A survey was conducted prior to a national consultation organized by the Department of Health Research with the objective to identify the key public health research priorities as perceived by the State health officials and public health researchers. A cross-sectional survey was done for the State health officials involved in public health programmes and public health researchers in various States of India. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Overall, 35 State officials from 15 States and 17 public health researchers participated in the study. Five leading public health research priorities identified in the open ended query were maternal and child health (24%, non-communicable diseases (22%, vector borne diseases (6%, tuberculosis (6% and HIV/AIDS/STI (5%. Maternal and child health research was the leading priority; however, researchers also gave emphasis on the need for research in the emerging public health challenges such as non-communicable diseases. Structured initiatives are needed to promote interactions between policymakers and researchers at all stages of research starting from defining problems to the use of research to achieve the health goals as envisaged in the 12 th Plan over next five years.

  19. Enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws in the United States: a national survey of state and local agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Darin J; Farbakhsh, Kian; Toomey, Traci L; Lenk, Kathleen M; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Nelson, Toben F

    2015-01-01

    Enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws is an important component of efforts to prevent alcohol-involved motor vehicle fatalities. Little is known about the use of drinking-driving enforcement strategies by state and local law enforcement agencies or whether the use of strategies differs by agency and jurisdiction characteristics. We conducted two national surveys, with state patrol agencies (n = 48) and with a sample of local law enforcement agencies (n = 1,082) selected according to state and jurisdiction population size. We examined 3 primary enforcement strategies (sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws) and tested whether use of these strategies differed by jurisdiction and agency characteristics across state and local law enforcement agencies Most state patrol agencies reported conducting sobriety checkpoints (72.9%) and saturation patrols (95.8%), whereas less than half (43.8%) reported enforcing open container laws. In contrast, a lower proportion of local law enforcement agencies reported using these alcohol-impaired driving enforcement strategies (41.5, 62.7, and 41.1%, respectively). Sobriety checkpoint enforcement was more common in states in the dry South region (vs. wet and moderate regions). Among local law enforcement agencies, agencies with a full-time alcohol enforcement officer and agencies located in areas where drinking-driving was perceived to be very common (vs. not/somewhat common) were more likely to conduct multiple types of impaired driving enforcement. Recommended enforcement strategies to detect and prevent alcohol-impaired driving are employed in some jurisdictions and underutilized in others. Future research should explore the relationship of enforcement with drinking and driving behavior and alcohol-involved motor vehicle fatalities.

  20. Fall prevention intervention technologies: A conceptual framework and survey of the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Julian; Money, Arthur G; Atwal, Anita; Paraskevopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, an ever increasing range of technology-based applications have been developed with the goal of assisting in the delivery of more effective and efficient fall prevention interventions. Whilst there have been a number of studies that have surveyed technologies for a particular sub-domain of fall prevention, there is no existing research which surveys the full spectrum of falls prevention interventions and characterises the range of technologies that have augmented this landscape. This study presents a conceptual framework and survey of the state of the art of technology-based fall prevention systems which is derived from a systematic template analysis of studies presented in contemporary research literature. The framework proposes four broad categories of fall prevention intervention system: Pre-fall prevention; Post-fall prevention; Fall injury prevention; Cross-fall prevention. Other categories include, Application type, Technology deployment platform, Information sources, Deployment environment, User interface type, and Collaborative function. After presenting the conceptual framework, a detailed survey of the state of the art is presented as a function of the proposed framework. A number of research challenges emerge as a result of surveying the research literature, which include a need for: new systems that focus on overcoming extrinsic falls risk factors; systems that support the environmental risk assessment process; systems that enable patients and practitioners to develop more collaborative relationships and engage in shared decision making during falls risk assessment and prevention activities. In response to these challenges, recommendations and future research directions are proposed to overcome each respective challenge. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Survey of state and tribal emergency response capabilities for radiological transportation incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardo, F J; Mitter, E L; Palmer, J A; Briggs, H C; Fesenmaier, J [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (USA). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

    1990-05-01

    This publication is the final report of a project to survey the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and selected Indian Tribal jurisdictions to ascertain their emergency-preparedness planning and capabilities for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. The survey was conducted to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies with information concerning the current level of emergency-response preparedness of the states and selected tribes and an assessment of the changes that have occurred since 1980. There have been no major changes in the states' emergency-response planning strategies and field tactics. The changes noted included an increased availability of dedicated emergency-response vehicles, wider availability of specialized radiation-detection instruments, and higher proportions of police and fire personnel with training in the handling of suspected radiation threats. Most Indian tribes have no capability to evaluate suspected radiation threats and have no formal relations with emergency-response personnel in adjacent states. For the nation as a whole, the incidence of suspected radiation threats declined substantially from 1980 to 1988. 58 tabs.

  2. A Survey of Farm Machinery Utilization and Maintenance in Ebonyi State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of farm machinery utilization and maintenance for increased Agricultural production in Ebonyi State was carried out with emphasis on tractors and implements. The relative status and performance of di fferent makes of tractors were determined. The survey revealed that thirty-nine (39 tractors are owned by the Federal Government, sixty-one (61 are owned by the State Government, forty (40 tractors by Local Government and fifteen (15 are owned by Private Organizations. Eighty-six (86 of the tractors were acquired through direct purchase and fifty (50 through second hand purchase. Seventy-five (75 of the organization surveyed have standard functional workshop but only 50 are adequately equipped. Ninety- eight (98 of the workshops obtain their spare parts from open market and other (80 are available with difficulty. One hundred and ten (110 of the tractors surveyed are used for farming operations while the remaining forty-five (45 are used for haulage of farm products. The survey shows the different makes of tractors available in Ebonyi State to include: 20 Fiats, 6 Fords, 2 David Browns, 4 John Deores, 4 Internationals, 76 Steyrs, 28 Massey Fergusons, 9 Landinis and 6 Hollands. Twenty-five (25 of the tractors are 2-wheel drive, one hundred and twenty-three (123 are 4-wheel drive and 6 are track lying. 72.3% of the tractors surveyed are serviceable. Most of the causes of tractor breakdown are due to poor storage facilities, lack of genuine spare parts, obsolete machinery, careless operators, over-loading, mismanagement, poor maintenance and lack of funds. The negative attitudes to maintenance of tractors according to the people were attributed to the high cost of spare parts and unavailability of skilled or experienced mechanics. It is therefore recommended that storage facilities should be provided for the machineries and government should always organize programs such as workshop and seminars on farm machinery utilization and maintenance or

  3. Survey of state regulatory activities on least cost planning for gas utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Washington, DC (United States)); Hopkins, M.E. (Fleming Group, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-04-01

    Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. Incorporating the concept of meeting customer energy service needs entails a recognition that customers' costs must be considered along with the utility's costs in the economic analysis of energy options. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. All state commissions were surveyed to assess the current status of gas planning and demand-side management and to identify significant regulatory issues faced by commissions during the next several years. The survey was to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least-cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: (1) status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; (2) type and scope ofnatural gas DSM programs in effect, includeing fuel substitution; (3) economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; (4) relationship between prudence reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; and (5) key regulatory issues facing gas utilities during the next five years. 34 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Neonatal circumcision in severe haemophilia: a survey of paediatric haematologists at United States Hemophilia Treatment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, S; Sharathkumar, A; Rodriguez, V; Chitlur, M; Valentino, L; Boggio, L; Gill, J

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal circumcision in patients with severe haemophilia has not been well studied. We performed a survey of paediatric haematologists from Hemophilia Treatment Centers (HTC) across the United States to better understand the attitudes toward and management of neonatal circumcision in haemophilia patients. Response rate to our survey was 40% (n = 64/159). Thirty-eight percent of respondents (n = 24) said that they would allow this procedure in the newborn period but in many cases this was against medical advice. The most reported concern regarding neonatal circumcision in haemophilia patients was the risk of development of an inhibitor (n = 25; 39%) followed by the concern for bleeding (n = 22; 34%) and issues related to vascular access in the neonate (n = 11; 17%). All respondents recommended at least one preprocedure dose of factor replacement. Twenty-two percent (n = 14) of respondents did not use more than one dose of factor replacement but 32% (n = 21) used 1-2 postoperative doses. The remainder of paediatric haematologists surveyed recommended between 3-5 (16%; n = 10) and 6-10 (3%, n = 2) additional days postoperatively. There was wide variation in both techniques of circumcision as well as adjuvant haemostatic agents used. Only 22% of respondents said that they had an established protocol for management of circumcision in the newborn haemophilia patient. These survey results highlight the need for evidence-based guidelines regarding the optimal management of circumcision in neonates with severe haemophilia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Infection Prevention Practices in Japan, Thailand, and the United States: Results From National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krein, Sarah L; Greene, M Todd; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Sakamoto, Fumie; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Sakihama, Tomoko; Fowler, Karen E; Ratz, David; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-05-15

    Numerous evidence-based practices for preventing device-associated infections are available, yet the extent to which these practices are regularly used in acute care hospitals across different countries has not been compared, to our knowledge. Data from hospital surveys conducted in Japan, the United States, and Thailand in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively, were evaluated to determine the use of recommended practices to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). The outcomes were the percentage of hospitals reporting regular use (a score of 4 or 5 on a scale from 1 [never use] to 5 [always use]) of each practice across countries and identified hospital characteristics associated with the use of selected practices in each country. Survey response rates were 71% in Japan and the United States and 87% in Thailand. A majority of hospitals in Japan (76.6%), Thailand (63.2%), and the United States (97.8%) used maximum barrier precautions for preventing CLABSI and semirecumbent positioning to prevent VAP (66.2% for Japan, 86.7% for Thailand, and 98.7% for the United States). Nearly all hospitals (>90%) in Thailand and the United States reported monitoring CLABSI, VAP, and CAUTI rates, whereas in Japan only CLABSI rates were monitored by a majority of hospitals. Regular use of CAUTI prevention practices was variable across the 3 countries, with only a few practices adopted by >50% of hospitals. A majority of hospitals in Japan, Thailand, and the United States have adopted certain practices to prevent CLABSI and VAP. Opportunities for targeting prevention activities and reducing device-associated infection risk in hospitals exist across all 3 countries.

  6. Lumbar Traction for Managing Low Back Pain: A Survey of Physical Therapists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, Timothy J; Hollman, John H

    2015-08-01

    Cross-sectional survey. To examine how many physical therapists use traction, the patients for whom traction is used, the preferred delivery modes/parameters of traction, the supplemental interventions used with traction, and whether professional characteristics influence traction usage. Several systematic reviews and clinical guidelines have questioned the effectiveness of traction for managing low back pain, yet some patients may benefit from lumbar traction. While traction usage among physical therapists in other countries has been described, usage among physical therapists in the United States has not been examined. We surveyed a random sample of 4000 Orthopaedic Section members of the American Physical Therapy Association. Associations among respondents' professional characteristics and survey responses were explored with chi-square analyses (α = .05). The response rate was 25.5% (n = 1001), and 76.6% (n = 767) of respondents reported using traction. Most (58.4%) of the respondents used traction for patients with signs of nerve root compression, though many (31.4%) did not. Common delivery modes included manual methods (68.3%) and mechanical tables (44.9%), most often supplemental to other interventions (eg, stabilization exercises, postural education). Levels of professional preparation (doctoral/masters level versus bachelors/certificate level) were associated with many variables, as was attainment of an orthopaedic specialist certification. Most of the orthopaedic physical therapists in the United States who responded to our survey reported that they used lumbar traction, though not necessarily consistent with proposed criteria that identify patients most likely to benefit from traction. They used various traction delivery modes/parameters and used traction within comprehensive plans of care incorporating multiple interventions. Professional characteristics (education levels and clinical specialist credentialing) were associated with traction usage.

  7. A survey of Registered Dietitians’ concern and actions regarding climate change in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irana W. Hawkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary choices are a viable solution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. While Registered Dietitians are on the front lines of food and nutrition recommendations, it is unclear how many are concerned with climate change and take action in practice in the United States. We explored concern about climate change amongst Registered Dietitians, and identified factors that may influence practice-related behaviors. Our study population included a random sample of all Registered Dietitians credentialed in the United States. Primary data was gathered using a cross-sectional survey. Of the 570 survey responses, 75% strongly agreed or agreed that climate change is an important issue while 34% strongly agreed or agreed that dietitians should play a major role in climate change mitigation strategies. Thirty-eight percent engaged in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Vegetarian (p=0.002 and vegan dietitians (p=0.007 were significantly more likely than non-vegetarian and non-vegan dietitians to engage in activities that promoted diet as a climate change mitigation strategy. Overall, concern for climate change amongst dietitians varied significantly by the region of the country in which the dietitian resided, and awareness that animal products are implicated in climate change. Registered Dietitians in the United States are concerned with climate change. However, there is a discrepancy between concern and practice-based actions. These results suggest the need for educational and experiential opportunities connecting climate change mitigation to dietetics practice.

  8. Survey of crop losses in response to phytoparasitic nematodes in the United States for 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenning, S R; Overstreet, C; Noling, J W; Donald, P A; Becker, J O; Fortnum, B A

    1999-12-01

    Previous reports of crop losses to plant-parasitic nematodes have relied on published results of survey data based on certain commodities, including tobacco, peanuts, cotton, and soybean. Reports on crop-loss assessment by land-grant universities and many commodity groups generally are no longer available, with the exception of the University of Georgia, the Beltwide Cotton Conference, and selected groups concerned with soybean. The Society of Nematologists Extension Committee contacted extension personnel in 49 U.S. states for information on estimated crop losses caused by plant-parasitic nematodes in major crops for the year 1994. Included in this paper are survey results from 35 states on various crops including corn, cotton, soybean, peanut, wheat, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, tobacco, numerous vegetable crops, fruit and nut crops, and golf greens. The data are reported systematically by state and include the estimated loss, hectarage of production, source of information, nematode species or taxon when available, and crop value. The major genera of phytoparasitic nematodes reported to cause crop losses were Heterodera, Hoplolaimus, Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, and Xiphinema.

  9. Decision-making authority and substance abuse treatment for adolescents: a survey of state laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemont, Tori; Mastroianni, Anna; Wickizer, Thomas M

    2009-04-01

    State laws concerning decision-making authority for voluntary inpatient substance abuse (SA) treatment of minors may be a potential barrier to appropriate treatment. We sought to identify and classify relevant laws related to the provision of voluntary inpatient SA treatment to adolescents 12 to 17 years (minors) as an exploratory assessment to improve understanding of how these laws might affect treatment decisions. In summer 2006, we conducted a survey of statutes, regulations, and legal cases in the 50 states and the District of Columbia regarding the authority of parents (or guardians) and minors to make treatment decisions for voluntary inpatient SA treatment. All 50 states have laws applicable to voluntary inpatient SA treatment for adolescents, and the laws vary significantly throughout the nation. If a minor and parent disagree about SA treatment, some states defer to the decision-making authority of the minor, whereas other states defer to the parent. Most significantly, the majority of states fail to specify whether the minor's or the parent's decision will control in the event of a conflict. The lack of clarity in state laws regarding decision-making authority for voluntary inpatient SA treatment of minors may create a potential barrier to treatment for adolescents, especially those with more serious SA problems. This lack of clarity could lead to confusion among parents, adolescents, healthcare professionals, and treatment facilities, and ultimately could result in a failure to treat adolescents in need of medical attention. Policymakers should ensure that state laws clearly specify procedures to enable treatment if a conflict arises between adolescents and parents, including procedures to ensure that the due process rights of adolescents are protected.

  10. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...

  11. Survey State of the Art: Electrical Load Management Techniques and Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-31

    AC#-A4 03 SURVEY STATE OF THE ART: ELECTRICAL LOAD NAH A N ENT 1/3TECHNIQUES FWD EQUIPMENT(U) ENV RO-NANAGERENT NO U MLM RESEARCH INC SPRINGFIELD... Distributors continued rex page TRADELINE " Load Control Systems 7~W7OtO/2OE.G.H end W7040H continued Time-of.Oa y Order Number Demand Limit Duty Cycle...Additional equipment, accessories, and parts available only through Authorized Honeywell Energy Management Distributors AVAILABLE ACCESSORIES W972B1000 Watt

  12. The state of implantable pain therapies in the United States: a nationwide survey of academic teaching programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanciullo, G J; Rose, R J; Lunt, P G; Whalen, P K; Ross, E

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this questionnaire survey was to provide an overview of anesthesiology pain fellowship programs in the United States with regard to implantation of spinal cord stimulators (SCS) and opioid infusion devices. Of the 95 programs solicited, 80% responded to questions pertaining to the prevalence of use and technical considerations of implantation. Of the responding programs, 87% report implanting SCS, and 84% report implanting neuraxial infusion pumps. All programs perform a stimulation or infusion trial before implantation, although the duration varied from a trial in the operating room at the time of implantation to 25 days. Of the programs, 83% implant cylindrical leads, and 17% implant flat leads via laminectomy for their nonrevision SCS implants. Morphine, bupivacaine, hydromorphone, and baclofen are the most commonly used drugs and are used in implanted pumps by >50% of respondents. The question of industry-sponsored pain fellow education in implantable techniques is addressed. Of the pain teaching programs in the United States, 80% responded to a questionnaire eliciting information about the implantation of spinal cord-stimulating and opioid infusion devices. The range and diversity of responses imply a lack of agreement about implantation techniques, drugs, and protocols.

  13. Teachers' Perceptions of Integrating Information and Communication Technologies into Literacy Instruction: A National Survey in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Amy; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This research explores literacy teachers' perceptions of integrating information communication technologies (ICTs) into literacy instruction. To this end, a national survey of 1,441 literacy teachers in the United States was conducted. The survey provided data concerning the types and levels of reported availability and use of ICTs, beliefs about…

  14. Workshop Synthesis: Stated Preference Surveys and Experimental Design, an Audit of the Journey so far and Future Research Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchi, Elisabetta; Hensher, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the discussions and ideas that were generated during the workshop on “Stated preference surveys and experimental design” at the 2014 Travel Survey Methods Conference in Leura (Australia). The workshop addressed the challenges related to the design and implementation...

  15. A preliminary survey of the practice patterns of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais PractitionersCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Patricia A

    2010-04-01

    The Feldenkrais Method(R) of somatic education purports to guide people of varying ages and abilities to improve function. Many people choose this method to aid with recovery from injury, manage chronic conditions, or enhance performance even though limited research supporting its safety and effectiveness exists to guide decisions about use and referral. Very little information about practitioner characteristics and practice patterns is publicly available to assist researchers in the design of appropriate safety and effectiveness studies. The purpose of this study was to obtain an initial overview of the characteristics of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais PractitionersCM. Of 1300 certified Feldenkrais practitioners at the time of the study, there were 1193 practitioners with email accounts who were sent invitations to complete a web-based survey. The survey inquired about practice locations, additional credentials, service patterns and workloads during the previous 3 months. Response rate and descriptive statistics were calculated. The survey had a 32.3% (385/1193) response rate. The top states in which responders practiced were California (n = 92) and New York (n = 44). Most responders did not hold other credentials as traditional health care providers or as complementary and alternative medicine providers. Among those who did, the most common credentials were physical therapist (n = 83) and massage therapist (n = 38). Just over a third of traditional health care providers only provided Feldenkrais lessons, compared to 59.3% of complementary and alternative providers. On average, responders saw 7.6 +/- 8.1 (median = 5) clients per week for individual lessons, 8.4 +/- 11.5 (median = 5) clients per week for group lessons, and 2.9 +/- 3.9 (median = 2) new clients per month for individual lessons. This preliminary survey of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Practitioners indicated that most practiced in the west and northeast, did not hold additional

  16. A preliminary survey of the practice patterns of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais PractitionersCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchanan Patricia A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Feldenkrais Method® of somatic education purports to guide people of varying ages and abilities to improve function. Many people choose this method to aid with recovery from injury, manage chronic conditions, or enhance performance even though limited research supporting its safety and effectiveness exists to guide decisions about use and referral. Very little information about practitioner characteristics and practice patterns is publicly available to assist researchers in the design of appropriate safety and effectiveness studies. The purpose of this study was to obtain an initial overview of the characteristics of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais PractitionersCM. Methods Of 1300 certified Feldenkrais® practitioners at the time of the study, there were 1193 practitioners with email accounts who were sent invitations to complete a web-based survey. The survey inquired about practice locations, additional credentials, service patterns and workloads during the previous 3 months. Response rate and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results The survey had a 32.3% (385/1193 response rate. The top states in which responders practiced were California (n = 92 and New York (n = 44. Most responders did not hold other credentials as traditional health care providers or as complementary and alternative medicine providers. Among those who did, the most common credentials were physical therapist (n = 83 and massage therapist (n = 38. Just over a third of traditional health care providers only provided Feldenkrais lessons, compared to 59.3% of complementary and alternative providers. On average, responders saw 7.6 ± 8.1 (median = 5 clients per week for individual lessons, 8.4 ± 11.5 (median = 5 clients per week for group lessons, and 2.9 ± 3.9 (median = 2 new clients per month for individual lessons. Conclusions This preliminary survey of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Practitioners indicated that most

  17. Survey of current trends in postgraduate musculoskeletal ultrasound education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Netanel S; Goldberg-Stein, Shlomit; Thornhill, Beverly A; Koenigsberg, Mordecai

    2016-04-01

    To determine current trends in postgraduate musculoskeletal ultrasound education across various medical specialties in the United States. A survey regarding musculoskeletal ultrasound education was sent to all program directors for diagnostic radiology and physical medicine rehabilitation residency programs, as well as adult rheumatology and sports medicine fellowship programs in the United States. The survey, sent in July 2015, queried the presence of formal musculoskeletal ultrasound training, the components of such training and case volume for trainees. Response rates were 23, 25, 28 and 33% for physical medicine and rehabilitation, radiology, rheumatology and sports medicine programs, respectively. Among respondents, musculoskeletal ultrasound training was present in 65% of radiology programs, 88% of sports medicine programs, 90% of rheumatology programs, and 100% of physical medicine and rehabilitation programs. Most programs utilized didactic lectures, followed by hands-on scanning. The majority of programs without current training intend to implement such training within 5 years, although radiology programs reported the lowest likelihood of this happening. Most program directors believed that musculoskeletal ultrasound education is important for their trainees, and is of greater importance than it was 10 years ago. Case volume was lowest for radiology trainees and highest for sports medicine trainees. Among respondents, the majority of diagnostic radiology programs offer musculoskeletal ultrasound training. However, this experience is even more widespread in other medical specialties, and hands-on training and experience tend to be greater in other specialties than in radiology.

  18. Workforce Survey of Pediatric Interfacility Transport Systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanem, Justinn; Triscari, David; Chan, Melina; Meyer, Michael T

    2016-06-01

    The interfacility transport of pediatric patients requires a highly skilled and well-trained workforce, of which little is known. The primary study purpose was to characterize the current state of pediatric interfacility transport in the United States including, but not limited to, which team models predominate, what team configurations are used, team training standards, and the use of quality assurance metrics. A descriptive and qualitative Web-based survey questionnaire was developed. Potential participants were identified, and 1 survey was completed per team. In total, 179 teams with pediatric transport capabilities were identified, and 111 responses were recorded (response rate, 62%), of which dedicated teams comprised 77% and unit-based teams comprised 16%. Over 98% reported using a registered nurse as a team member, in comparison to 66% for respiratory therapists and 42% for paramedics. Less than 5% reported utilizing an associate level provider or physician for pediatric transports. The most common team composition was a registered nurse-respiratory therapist combination (30%). Over 55% of the respondents reported performing less than 500 pediatric transports per year. Quality assurance activities were performed by 96% of the respondents. The team composition and training for interfacility transport of pediatric patients is a complex and not well-characterized process; furthermore, the varying organizational models, team composition, and training requirements for teams have not been previously reported. These results will aid in the future development of team standards for pediatric transport and help guide further improvements in this field.

  19. Dientamoeba fragilis detection methods and prevalence: a survey of state public health laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grendon, J H; Digiacomo, R F; Frost, F J

    1991-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a pathogenic protozoan parasite that has no cyst stage. Because of the lack of a cyst stage, the laboratory detection of D. fragilis in stool specimens is dependent on the stool processing and examination methods employed. Failure to use recommended stool fixation and permanent staining techniques almost precludes identification of D. fragilis, which is associated with gastrointestinal illness in humans. In this survey, questionnaires were mailed to all State and territorial public health laboratories requesting information on the number of ova and parasite examinations, methods of processing and examining stools, and the number of D. fragilis positive stools for 1985. Forty-three of 54 (80 percent) laboratories responded. Results showed that those laboratories which reported D. fragilis detection examined more stools using recommended stool fixation methods and were more likely to stain permanently all stools examined. Permanent staining of all stools, as compared to loose and watery stools only, resulted in a fivefold greater detection of D. fragilis. More State and territorial public health laboratories reported finding D. fragilis infections in 1985 than in a 1978 survey performed by the Centers for Disease Control. However, in 1985 only six laboratories reported 82 percent of all D. fragilis detections. To increase the probability of detecting D. fragilis in stool specimens, the findings suggest that all stools should be submitted fixed in polyvinyl alcohol fixative, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin fixative, or Schaudinn's fixative. Further, all specimens, regardless of consistency, should be permanently stained prior to microscopic examination. PMID:1905055

  20. AIRLINE ITINERARY CHOICE IN A DYNAMIC SUPPLY ENVIRONMENT: RESULTS FROM A STATED PREFERENCE SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzi Freund-Feinstei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the choice of airline itineraries in dynamic settings using a tailored stated preference survey. The paper hypothesizes that airline itinerary choice is not a one-time event, but a continuous process during a certain time frame. Consumers can choose either to purchase an itinerary, deferring choice up to the end of the sales period, or completely declining the purchase. Understanding such consumers’ behavior is specifically relevant to the tourism industry, where firms are extensively utilizing internet websites to offer their products (e.g., airline tickets, hotel rooms to consumers. The paper describes the stated preference survey with real itineraries of various airlines on medium and long-haul routes. Choice sets are composed with dynamic and static variables and socio-economic variables. Questionnaires were distributed electronically among various groups of respondents, yielding a sample of 914 persons. Results show that (i itinerary choice deferring takes place, with differences between tourists and business-travelers, (ii the decision whether to defer choice is affected by dynamically changing variables and by the length of each respondent’s allocated choice period, and (iii the proposed methodology is adequate for investigating choice in dynamic settings and thus indicating its potential for further research in transportation planning and in tourism.

  1. Current trends in endodontic treatment by general dental practitioners: report of a United States national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Gina M; Sabbah, Wael; Sedgley, Christine M; Whitten, Brian

    2014-05-01

    In the United States almost 70% of root canal treatment (RCT) is performed by general dentists (GPs), yet little is known about their treatment protocols. A paper survey was mailed to 2000 United States GPs with questions about the types of endodontic cases treated, routine treatment protocols, use of newer technologies, and endodontic continuing education (CE). Completed surveys were returned by 479 respondents (24%). GPs who perform RCT (84%) reported providing anterior (99%), bicuspid (95%), and molar (62%) RCT and retreatment (18%). Rubber dam was used always (60%), usually (16%), sometimes (13%), and never (11%). Newer technologies used by GPs included digital radiography (72%), magnification (80%), electronic apex locator (70%), and nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation (74%). Compared with GPs with >20 years of experience, those in practice for ≤10 years were more likely to use rubber dam (P magnification (P 20 years were more likely to perform retreatments (P 5 hours of CE were more likely to use rotary instrumentation (P 20 years. More experienced GPs were more likely to take on complicated cases than those with fewer years of practice. There was no association between hours of CE and compliance with rubber dam usage. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A questionnaire survey of consumers, pharmacists and wholesale retailers of state regulation of parapharmaceutical goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Nemchenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Market of parapharmaceutical products appeared on the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine not long ago, so it has not got a clear official status. This factor influenced on the formation of the contradictions in the legal framework, resulting in complications for manufacturers, distribution companies, retailers (pharmacies, pharmacy, Farmmarket and consumers. Formation of the parapharmaceutical domestic market performed despite the inadequacies and contradictions of the legal framework, Surveys of consumers, producers and distributors can help to improve the development of scientific and teaching activities on the regulation of parapharmaceutical goods in Ukraine. A questionnaire survey among consumers, pharmacists in pharmacy segment and distributors on pharmaceutical market of Ukraine monitors the need for state regulation of parafarmacutical goods. The method of questionnaire survey of consumers, managers of pharmaceutical distribution companies and pharmacists need in the government regulation was studied. Consumers survey found that 80% of respondents who consume parapharmaceutical goods for hair were female. Most of the residents lived in the city − 90%. 80% had higher education. Within the consumers of the parapharmaceutical goods 45% were employees, 20% workers, 15% retired. Only 5% of them were pupils and students. The main consumers of age were − 21−45 years (21 to 35 years − 45%, from 36 to 45 years − 35%. The need for parapharmaceutical goods distribution in a pharmacy indicated 58% of respondents. 90% of specialists said that it is necessary to make adjustments in the legal documents regarding parapharmaceutical advertising by manufacturers and distributors. Most part of the respondents (50% noted that the financial crisis has slowed down pharmaceutical companies work, by reducing consumer demand for parapharmaceutical and preference for medicines purchasing. 40% of managers pointed to the difficulties in work with

  3. Rice consumption in the United States: recent evidence from food consumption surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batres-Marquez, S Patricia; Jensen, Helen H; Upton, Julie

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about rice consumption, related food intake patterns, and the nutritional contribution that rice provides in the diets of Americans. To provide information about rice consumption in the United States and the diets of rice consumers. Data come from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1994-1996) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2002). Respondents report 24-hour recall dietary intakes. The amount of rice available in foods is estimated using the Food Commodity Intake Database. Consumers are classified based on the amount of rice they consume in foods. The analysis includes information from adult individuals: 9,318 from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and 4,744 from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Weighted percentages and mean values show the food and nutrient intake amounts. Logistic regression analysis is used to examine relationships among economic, social, and demographic factors that affect rice consumption. Rice is consumed by a significant portion of the US adult population. Compared with others who did not consume rice, rice consumers consumed a smaller share of energy per day from fat and saturated fat; more iron and potassium; and more dietary fiber, meat, vegetables, and grains. Race/ethnicity and education are determinants of the probability of consuming rice, and more so than low-income status. Rice consumers choose a diet that includes more vegetables, a smaller share of energy from fat and saturated fat, more dietary fiber and more iron than those who do not consume rice; the differences have remained relatively stable over the last decade. Accounting for race/ethnicity and income levels is important for better understanding of factors that affect food choices and for effective design of dietary interventions.

  4. Willapa NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Western Snowy Plover Monitoring - State and Rangewide Breeding and Winter Window Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Inventories, monitoring, research, assessments, and studies are essential to high-quality habitat and population management. Conducting population surveys for the...

  5. State income inequality, household income, and maternal mental and physical health: cross sectional national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Robert S; Wise, Paul H; Kennedy, Bruce P; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of state income inequality and individual household income with the mental and physical health of women with young children. Design Cross sectional study. Individual level data (outcomes, income, and other sociodemographic covariates) from a 1991 follow up survey of a birth cohort established in 1988. State level income inequality calculated from the income distribution of each state from 1990 US census. Setting United States, 1991. Participants Nationally representative stratified random sample of 8060 women who gave birth in 1988 and were successfully contacted (89%) in 1991. Main outcome measures Depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression score >15) and self rated health Results 19% of women reported depressive symptoms, and 7.5% reported fair or poor health. Compared with women in the highest fifth of distribution of household income, women in the lowest fifth were more likely to report depressive symptoms (33% v 9%, P<0.001) and fair or poor health (15% v 2%, P<0.001). Compared with low income women in states with low income inequality, low income women in states with high income inequality had a higher risk of depressive symptoms (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 2.6) and fair or poor health (1.8, 0.9 to 3.5). Conclusions High income inequality confers an increased risk of poor mental and physical health, particularly among the poorest women. Both income inequality and household income are important for health in this population. PMID:11090512

  6. Diabetes prevalence and diagnosis in US states: analysis of health surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oza Shefali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current US surveillance data provide estimates of diabetes using laboratory tests at the national level as well as self-reported data at the state level. Self-reported diabetes prevalence may be biased because respondents may not be aware of their risk status. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes by state. Methods We estimated undiagnosed diabetes prevalence as a function of a set of health system and sociodemographic variables using a logistic regression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006. We applied this relationship to identical variables from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2003-2007 to estimate state-level prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes by age group and sex. We assumed that those who report being diagnosed with diabetes in both surveys are truly diabetic. Results The prevalence of diabetes in the U.S. was 13.7% among men and 11.7% among women ≥ 30 years. Age-standardized diabetes prevalence was highest in Mississippi, West Virginia, Louisiana, Texas, South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia (15.8 to 16.6% for men and 12.4 to 14.8% for women. Vermont, Minnesota, Montana, and Colorado had the lowest prevalence (11.0 to 12.2% for men and 7.3 to 8.4% for women. Men in all states had higher diabetes prevalence than women. The absolute prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes, as a percent of total population, was highest in New Mexico, Texas, Florida, and California (3.5 to 3.7 percentage points and lowest in Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon, Alaska, Vermont, Utah, Washington, and Hawaii (2.1 to 3 percentage points. Among those with no established diabetes diagnosis, being obese, being Hispanic, not having insurance and being ≥ 60 years old were significantly associated with a higher risk of having undiagnosed diabetes. Conclusion Diabetes prevalence is highest in the Southern and Appalachian states and lowest in the Midwest and the Northeast

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Nkechi V; Makama, Sunday; Elisha, Ishaku L; Makoshi, Micah S; Gotep, Jurbe G; Dawurung, Christiana J; Oladipo, Olusola O; Lohlum, Ann S; Shamaki, David

    2011-07-11

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed

  8. Youth risk behavior surveillance. National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunbaum, J A; Kann, L; Kinchen, S A; Ross, J G; Gowda, V R; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    2000-01-01

    Alternative high schools serve approximately 280,000 students nationwide who are at high risk for failing or dropping out of regular high school or who have been expelled from regular high school because of illegal activity or behavioral problems. Such settings provide important opportunities for delivering health promotion education and services to these youth and young adults. However, before this survey, the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among students attending alternative high schools nationwide was unknown. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors the following six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. The national Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ALT-YRBS) is one component of the YRBSS; it was conducted in 1998 to measure priority health-risk behaviors among students at alternative high schools. The 1998 ALT-YRBS used a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9-12 in the United States who attend alternative high schools. The school response rate was 81.0%, and the student response rate was 81.9%, resulting in an overall response rate of 66.3%. This report summarizes results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS. The reporting period is February-May 1998. In the United States, 73.6% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10-24 years results from only four causes--motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS demonstrate that many students at alternative high schools engage in behaviors that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes

  9. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunbaum, J A; Kann, L; Kinchen, S A; Ross, J G; Gowda, V R; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    1999-10-29

    Alternative high schools serve approximately 280,000 students nationwide who are at high risk for failing or dropping out of regular high school or who have been expelled from regular high school because of illegal activity or behavioral problems. Such settings provide important opportunities for delivering health promotion education and services to these youth and young adults. However, before this survey, the prevalence of health-risk behaviors among students attending alternative high schools nationwide was unknown. February-May 1998. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors the following six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youth and young adults: behaviors that contribute to unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; alcohol and other drug use; sexual behaviors that contribute to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infection); unhealthy dietary behaviors; and physical inactivity. The national Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ALT-YRBS) is one component of the YRBSS; it was conducted in 1998 to measure priority health-risk behaviors among students at alternative high schools. The 1998 ALT-YRBS used a three-stage cluster sample design to produce a nationally representative sample of students in grades 9-12 in the United States who attend alternative high schools. The school response rate was 81.0%, and the student response rate was 81.9%, resulting in an overall response rate of 66.3%. This report summarizes results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS. In the United States, 73.6% of all deaths among youth and young adults aged 10-24 years results from only four causes--motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 1998 ALT-YRBS demonstrate that many students at alternative high schools engage in behaviors that increase their likelihood of death from these four causes. During the 30 days

  10. On observation distributions for state space models of population survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knape, Jonas; Jonzén, Niclas; Sköld, Martin

    2011-11-01

    1. State space models are starting to replace more simple time series models in analyses of temporal dynamics of populations that are not perfectly censused. By simultaneously modelling both the dynamics and the observations, consistent estimates of population dynamical parameters may be obtained. For many data sets, the distribution of observation errors is unknown and error models typically chosen in an ad-hoc manner. 2. To investigate the influence of the choice of observation error on inferences, we analyse the dynamics of a replicated time series of red kangaroo surveys using a state space model with linear state dynamics. Surveys were performed through aerial counts and Poisson, overdispersed Poisson, normal and log-normal distributions may all be adequate for modelling observation errors for the data. We fit each of these to the data and compare them using AIC. 3. The state space models were fitted with maximum likelihood methods using a recent importance sampling technique that relies on the Kalman filter. The method relaxes the assumption of Gaussian observation errors required by the basic Kalman filter. Matlab code for fitting linear state space models with Poisson observations is provided. 4. The ability of AIC to identify the correct observation model was investigated in a small simulation study. For the parameter values used in the study, without replicated observations, the correct observation distribution could sometimes be identified but model selection was prone to misclassification. On the other hand, when observations were replicated, the correct distribution could typically be identified. 5. Our results illustrate that inferences may differ markedly depending on the observation distributions used, suggesting that choosing an adequate observation model can be critical. Model selection and simulations show that for the models and parameter values in this study, a suitable observation model can typically be identified if observations are

  11. Are lower response rates hazardous to your health survey? An analysis of three state telephone health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davern, Michael; McAlpine, Donna; Beebe, Timothy J; Ziegenfuss, Jeanette; Rockwood, Todd; Call, Kathleen Thiede

    2010-10-01

    To examine the impact of response rate variation on survey estimates and costs in three health telephone surveys. Three telephone surveys of noninstitutionalized adults in Minnesota and Oklahoma conducted from 2003 to 2005. We examine differences in demographics and health measures by number of call attempts made before completion of the survey or whether the household initially refused to participate. We compare the point estimates we actually obtained with those we would have obtained with a less aggressive protocol and subsequent lower response rate. We also simulate what the effective sample sizes would have been if less aggressive protocols were followed. Unweighted bivariate analyses reveal many differences between early completers and those requiring more contacts and between those who initially refused to participate and those who did not. However, after making standard poststratification adjustments, no statistically significant differences were observed in the key health variables we examined between the early responders and the estimates derived from the full reporting sample. Our findings demonstrate that for the surveys we examined, larger effective sample sizes (i.e., more statistical power) could have been achieved with the same amount of funding using less aggressive calling protocols. For some studies, money spent on aggressively pursuing high response rates could be better used to increase statistical power and/or to directly examine nonresponse bias. Copyright © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Motorcycle Safety Education Programs: Report of a Survey of State Departments of Education and of Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Driver and Traffic Safety Education Association, Washington, DC.

    A survey of State departments of education and colleges and universities, conducted by the Motorcycle Industry Council Safety and Education Foundation, revealed the need for more teacher education programs, instructional materials, and organized workshops that promote motorcycle safety education. The primary interest indicated by State departments…

  13. Telemedicine use among burn centers in the United States: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brennen; Faraklas, Iris; Theurer, Lou; Cochran, Amalia; Saffle, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    Telemedicine has been increasingly used in a host of settings for over 20 years. Burns are well suited for evaluation by either synchronous ("interactive") video or asynchronous digital ("store and forward") imagery, but little information is available about telemedicine use in burn care. The authors surveyed U.S. burn center directors to assess their current use of, and interest in, telemedicine in clinical burn treatment. With Institutional Review Board approval, a web-based survey (surveymonkey.com) was created and sent to directors of 126 burn centers in the United States. Questions measured the use of telemedicine by burn centers and burn directors' attitudes toward telemedicine. Surveys were returned from 50 centers (40%). Directors of 42 units (84%) reported using telemedicine; 37 use it routinely. Interactive video communication was used by 18 centers, store and forward by 38 centers, and remote access to patient data by home computer or personal digital assistant in 41 centers. Uses included remote evaluation of acute burns for consultation, for help in determining the need for transfer, or for remote clinic follow-up. Users identified some problems with current telemedicine usage, including Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act/compliance, licensure, and billing/collection issues. Importantly, 40 respondents (80%) indicated that they would like programming on telemedicine to be available at American Burn Association's annual meetings. Use of telemedicine is fairly widespread among U.S. burn centers, with volume and type of usage varying widely. Significant interest in learning more about telemedicine suggests strongly that telemedicine should be included in the annual program at the American Burn Association.

  14. The Politics and Policies of Regulating Generics in Latin America: A Survey of Seventeen States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Cassandra M

    2017-06-01

    When patents expire, are equivalent generic alternatives available to citizens? This article contributes to current discussion on access to medicine in the aftermath of the World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). The focus is on off-patent or "generic" medicines: their product definitions, quality standards and prescription procedures. Drawing from a survey conducted of seventeen countries across the Latin American region, this article examines the differences in definition of off-patent products and the paradox of their relatively lower consumption across multiple developing states. The findings point to pathways for improving standards, consumer information, and access in off-patent pharmaceutical markets. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  15. Death and dying course offerings in psychology: a survey of nine Midwestern states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerd, Lizabeth M

    2009-09-01

    The certainty of facing death and bereavement and the complex personal and societal issues involved argue for the importance of death education. The current study addresses a gap in knowledge by beginning to assess the extent of dying, death, and bereavement (DD&B) course offerings by U.S. psychology departments. This article reports on data collected from an initial survey of psychology departments in nine Midwestern states. Approximately 20% of respondents have offered a DD&B course in the last 5 years. Reasons for lack of DD&B courses include faculty and curriculum issues, as well as DD&B topics being covered elsewhere. These issues are discussed, and data are compared with DD&B course coverage in health-related fields.

  16. The Landscape of Predoctoral Endodontic Education in the United States and Canada: Results of a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodmansey, Karl; Beck, Lynn G; Rodriguez, Tobias E

    2015-08-01

    Few recent surveys have examined the contemporary landscape of predoctoral endodontic education in the United States and Canada, but anecdotal reports suggest that current dental students have difficulty obtaining adequate clinical endodontic experiences. The aims of this study were to quantify the clinical endodontic experiences of current U.S. and Canadian dental students, to explore the issues surrounding their clinical endodontic competence, and to ask more broadly if current graduating dentists are competent to perform endodontic procedures. In August 2014, a hyperlink to a web-based survey with 27 questions was emailed to the 67 predoctoral endodontic directors of U.S. and Canadian dental schools using a list provided by the American Association of Endodontists. Out of these 67 possible participants, 40 responded, for a response rate of 60%. The findings were varied. The average 2014 graduate completed 5.9 (± 2.4) root canal treatments on live patients, and 69% of the respondents voiced concern regarding a shortage of patient experiences. A majority (59%) of the respondents reported thinking that the supply of endodontic patients has decreased and that students have an inadequate supply of endodontic patients. This study found that a clear majority of predoctoral endodontics directors perceived a shortage of patient experiences for their students although, in reality, the number of completed clinical cases appeared to be unchanged since 1975. In addition, 36% of the respondents reported feeling that their 2014 graduates were not competent to perform molar endodontic treatment in their practices.

  17. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.

  18. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Ahmed

    Full Text Available Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.

  19. Survey of instructors teaching about antimicrobial resistance in the veterinary professional curriculum in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajt, Virginia R; Scott, H Morgan; McIntosh, W Alex; Dean, Wesley R; Vincent, Virginia C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain current teaching methods for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in veterinary professional curricula and to find out what veterinary instructors consider to be prioritized subtopics related to AMR. The sampling frame was instructors in veterinary professional programs at US colleges of veterinary medicine who provide instruction about antibiotics or AMR in the disciplines of microbiology, pharmacology, public health, epidemiology, internal medicine, surgery, or related subjects. Identified instructors were invited to participate in an online survey of current teaching methods related to subtopics of AMR. From 1,207 invitations, 306 completed surveys were available for analysis (25% response rate) with the largest number of respondents stating their contact hours about antibiotics occur in the discipline of "medicine-food animal." The median contact time suggested for AMR in the core veterinary curriculum was 3-5 hours, and for antibiotics in general, 16-20 hours. Subtopics of AMR were prioritized based on respondents' indication that they use or would use various teaching tools. The most common teaching tool for all topics was projected text (i.e., slides or PowerPoint slides) and the least common were video clips, non-course Web sites, online modules, and laboratory experiments. Recommendations for identifying the priorities of AMR content coverage and learning outcomes are made.

  20. A survey of current state of training of plastic surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Asra; Khan, Faraz A; Herman, Floyd; Narasimhan, Nathan; Khan, Shaher; Kubiak, Carrie; Gursel, Eti; Edelman, David A

    2017-06-27

    Plastic surgery training is undergoing major changes however there is paucity of data detailing the current state of training as perceived by plastic surgical trainees. Our aim was to determine the quality of training as perceived by the current trainee pool and their future plans. A 25-item anonymous survey with three discrete sections (demographics, quality of training, and post-graduate career plans) was developed and distributed to plastic surgery residents during the academic year 2013. With the confidence interval of 95% and margin of error of 10%, our target response rate was 87 responders. We received a total of 114 respondents with all levels of Post Graduate Year in training represented. Upon comparison of residents with debt of 250,000, those with higher debt were significantly less interested in fellowship training (p value 0.05) and were more likely to pursue private practice (p value plastic surgery least offered as a separate rotation were microsurgery (45%) followed by aesthetic surgery (33%). 53.7% of the residents felt that they were least trained in aesthetic surgery followed by burn surgery 45.4%. Of note 56.4% intended to seek additional training after residency. Moreover residents with an average of 6.4 months of experience in an individual subspecialty were more likely to feel comfortable with that specialty. This survey highlights the areas and subspecialties that deserve attention as perceived by the current trainee pool.

  1. The Future of Respiratory Care: Results of a New York State Survey of Respiratory Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen G; Endee, Lisa M; Benz Scott, Lisa A; Linden, Pamela L

    2017-03-01

    In the current health-care environment, respiratory care may need to make significant changes to academic preparation and clinical practice. The purpose of this research was to assess current needs of respiratory therapists (RTs) in New York State and to understand how RTs perceive their future clinical and academic roles. This study employed a descriptive, cross-sectional non-experimental design. Between October and December 2014, a 32-item online survey was distributed via e-mail to the 2,170 members of the New York State Society of Respiratory Care. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize responses, and bivariate analyses were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The response rate was 22% and resulted in 435 valid surveys returned. Seventy percent of 415 respondents agreed that the practice of respiratory care is at risk of losing practitioners. The most important incentive for retention of practitioners in the field was professional growth and an expanded scope of clinical practice. Specifically, the most important of these roles was gaining the ability to assess patients, develop a plan of care, and receive reimbursement for services. Sixty-four percent of 415 respondents strongly agreed that the minimum academic standard for RTs should be raised to the baccalaureate level. Of 415 respondents, the majority (78%) agreed that it is important for therapists to remain in the profession and to be an active member of the American Association for Respiratory Care (83%). These data are useful to the profession, notably for academic programs that must meet the need for a more highly prepared and skilled workforce. The findings emphasize that viability of the profession in the current health-care environment calls for the evolution of a more autonomous RT who can be reimbursed for services and obtain salaries that are competitive with other health professions. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. THE FACE OF DISABILITY IN NIGERIA: A DISABILITY SURVEY IN KOGI AND NIGER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Smith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Leprosy Mission Nigeria conducted a disability survey in Kogi and Niger States of Nigeria in 2005, investigating the demographic characteristics of people with disabilities, including gender, age, religion, marital, educational, occupational, employment and economic status, understanding of disability and health-seeking behaviour.   Information was gathered from a convenience sample of participants, across 30 randomly selected towns and villages in the two states. Twelve trained bilingual research assistants were used, to translate the English language questionnaire verbally into the local language of each participant.  From the 1093 respondents studied, the most common disabilities involved vision (37%, mobility (32% or hearing (15%. A third of these were less than 21 years of age and had no occupation, and 72% were Muslim. Over half of them had no education, 20% had primary, 8% secondary, 2% tertiary and 18% had Islamic education. Common occupations were begging (16%, studying (14%, farming (11% and trading (8%.The majority were unemployed (61% due to their disability. Over 70% were not able to access disability specific health services and 37% had an assistive device. Services accessed included health - mainstream (90%, traditional (61% and counselling (58%; and other - rehabilitation (30%, assistive device provision (24%, welfare (22%, special education (15%, vocational training (10% and economic empowerment (4%.  These results are comparable with findings in other studies. Disability affects a person’s ability to participate in education, work, family life and religion, influences health-seeking behaviour and contributes to poverty.See supplementary file for Survey Questionnaire.DOI 10.5463/DCID.v1i22.11 

  3. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P.; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E.; Hunter, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Objective: Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived tr...

  4. State of Simulation in Healthcare Education: An Initial Survey in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zichen; Niu, Pengfei; Ji, Xiang; Sweet, Robert M

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, medical error was the third leading cause of death in the United States. 1 In China, as in the case with the United States, training and assessment are developing as a strategy to reduce the occurrence of such errors. The objective of this study was to assess the current state of the use of simulation-based training in Beijing and to explore the barriers to further development. This study included hospitals in Beijing accredited by the Standardized Residency Training (SRT) program. The questionnaire was designed online and distributed to the SRT management departments by e-mail or instant message. Thirty hospitals were invited to participate in this survey, and 15 responses were completed and met the inclusion criteria. Task trainers (15/15), full-scale mannequins (14/15), standardized patients (12/15), and virtual reality workstations (11/15) were the most common types of simulation modalities available for use. Among the given specialties for SRT, the availability of simulation courses was 2/2 for pediatric internal medicine, 1/1 for pediatric surgery, 10/11 for surgery, 11/14 for internal medicine, 7/9 for anesthesiology, 6/8 for emergency medicine, and 3/9 for obstetrics/gynecology. Of the 13 institutions with available simulation curricula, 12/13 had simulation focused on proficiency-based skill training, 11/13 had medical knowledge learning, 10/13 had skill competency assessment. The main targeted trainees in these hospitals were residents (or postgraduate residents) and medical students (or interns). The top 2 barriers were the shortage of sustainable financial resources (12/15) and advocacy from their institutional authorities (7/15). It is evident that there is a need for more development of training facilities, and for training the "trainers" and administrators. Financial funding, curricular design, and research seem to be crucial for building a long-term, sustainable, effective program.

  5. Dentist-patient communication techniques used in the United States: the results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, R Gary; Horowitz, Alice M; Podschun, Gary

    2011-05-01

    The authors conducted a national survey to determine the communication techniques that dentists use routinely and variations in their use. American Dental Association Survey Center staff members mailed an 86-item questionnaire to a random sample of 6,300 U.S. dentists in private practice. Participants reported routine use ("most of the time" or "always") during a typical week of 18 communication techniques, of which seven are basic techniques. The authors used analysis of variance and ordinary least squares regression models to test the association of communication, provider and practice characteristics with the number of techniques. Dentists routinely use an average of 7.1 of the 18 techniques and 3.1 of the seven basic techniques. Two-thirds or more of dentists used four of the techniques (hand out printed materials, speak slowly, use models or radiographs to explain, use simple language). Less than one-fourth of dentists used any of the techniques in the teach-back method or patient-friendly practice domains. A dentist's age, race/ethnicity, education outside the United States and area of dentistry affected use. Health literacy variables (awareness, education in communication, practice-level change, outcome expectancy) and lack of time were associated with the number of techniques used. Routine use of all of the communication techniques is low among dentists, including some techniques thought to be most effective with patients with low literacy skills. Professional education is needed to improve knowledge about communication techniques and to ensure that they are used effectively. A firm foundation for these efforts requires the development, evaluation and dissemination of communication guidelines for dental care professionals.

  6. Microbiological survey of commercial tattoo and permanent makeup inks available in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nho, S; Kim, S-J; Kweon, O; Howard, P C; Moon, M S; Sadrieh, N K; Cerniglia, C E

    2018-02-01

    Tattooing and use of permanent makeup (PMU) has dramatically increased over the last decade, with a concomitant increase in ink-related infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether microorganisms are present, and if so, the number and their identification, in the commercial tattoo and PMU inks available in the United States. We surveyed 85 unopened tattoo and PMU inks, purchased from 13 companies. We incubated 100 μL of ink samples on trypticase soy agar plates for bacterial growth, 7H10 Middlebrook medium for mycobacterial growth, and Sabouraud dextrose medium for fungal growth. In total, 42 inks were contaminated with microorganisms (49%). Thirty-three inks were contaminated with bacteria, 2 inks with fungi, and 7 inks had both bacterial and fungal growth. Mycobacteria were not detected in any of the examined tattoo and PMU inks. In 26 inks, microbial concentrations ranged between 10 1 -10 3 CFU ml -1 , but higher counts (>10 3 CFU ml -1 ) were recorded in 16 inks. We identified 83 bacteria by their 16S rDNA sequences, including 20 genera and 49 species. Strains of Bacillus spp. (53%) were dominant, followed by Lysinibacillus fusiformis (7%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5%). Thirty-four (41%) possibly clinically relevant strains were identified, including P. aeruginosa, Dermacoccus barathri and Roseomonas mucosa, some of which have been previously reported to be associated with human skin infections. The results indicate that commercial tattoo and PMU inks on the US market surveyed in this study contain a wide range of microorganisms, including pathogenic bacteria. Microbial contaminants in tattoo and PMU inks are an emerging safety concern for public health. This study provides evidence that microbial contamination of tattoo and PMU inks available in the US is more common than previously thought and highlights the importance of monitoring these products for potentially pathogenic microorganisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  7. A survey of delivery room resuscitation practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Tina A; Rich, Wade; Finer, Neil N

    2006-02-01

    To determine current resuscitation practices of neonatologists in the United States. A 15-question survey was developed and mailed to neonatal directors in May 2004. Of the total of 797 surveys mailed, 84 were returned undeliverable or unanswered and 450 were returned completed (63% response rate). Respondents were mainly (70%) from level III NICUs. Most programs resuscitate newborns in the delivery room (83%), rather than in a separate room. The number and background of individuals attending deliveries vary greatly, with 31% of programs having inflating bags are most commonly used (51%), followed by self-inflating bags (40%) and T-piece resuscitators (14%). Pulse oximeters are used during resuscitation by 52% of programs, and 23% of respondents indicated that there was a useful signal within 1 minute after application. Blenders are available for 42% of programs, of which 77% use pure oxygen for the initial resuscitation and 68% use oximeters to alter the fraction of inspired oxygen. Thirty-two percent of programs use carbon dioxide detectors to confirm intubation, 48% routinely and 43% when there is difficulty confirming intubation. Preterm infants are wrapped with plastic wrap to prevent heat loss in 29% of programs, of which 77% dry the infant before wrap application. A majority of programs (76%) attempt to provide continuous positive airway pressure or positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) during resuscitation, most commonly with a flow-inflating bag (58%), followed by a self-inflating bag with PEEP valve (19%) and T-piece resuscitator (16%). A level of 5 cm H2O is used by 55% of programs. Substantial variations exist in neonatal resuscitation practices, some of which are not addressed in standard guidelines. Future guidelines should include recommendations regarding the use of blenders, oximeters, continuous positive airway pressure/PEEP, and plastic wrap during resuscitation.

  8. The state of ultrasound education in U.S. medical schools: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahner, David P; Goldman, Ellen; Way, David; Royall, Nelson A; Liu, Yiju Teresa

    2014-12-01

    To determine the state of ultrasound education in U.S. medical schools and assess curricular administrators' opinions on its integration in undergraduate medical education (UME). In 2012, curricular administrators at 134 U.S. MD-granting medical schools were surveyed concerning the nature of ultrasound education in medical school. The questionnaire sought ultrasound education program characteristics, structures, and objectives. It also sought respondents' opinions on the role of ultrasound education in UME and barriers to its integration. Frequency and distribution analyses were conducted for survey responses; Rasch analysis was performed for barrier responses. Responses were received from 82 (61.2%) medical schools; these institutions were representative of the U.S. medical school population. Fifty-one respondents (62.2%) reported ultrasound training was integrated into their UME curriculum. Ultrasound was most commonly taught in the third year (38/82; 46.3%), and the purpose of training varied by curricular year. There was agreement that ultrasound should be part of the UME curriculum (56/71; 78.9%), but few respondents reported it was a priority at their institution (13/70; 18.6%). Respondents perceived lack of space in the curriculum (logit = +0.49; standard error [SE] = 0.11) and lack of financial support (logit = +0.42; SE = 0.11) as the most significant barriers to integration. Despite a general consensus that ultrasound is an important skill to teach in medical school, the integration of ultrasound education in U.S. schools is highly variable. This study indicates a need for national standards to guide the integration of ultrasound education into U.S. medical school curricula.

  9. Comparison of Health Examination Survey Methods in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, England, Scotland, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S; Moody, Alison; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Alfaro, Tania; Frenz, Patricia; Scholes, Shaun; Gonzalez, Silvia A; Margozzini, Paula; de Oliveira, Cesar; Sanchez Romero, Luz Maria; Alvarado, Andres; Cabrera, Sebastián; Sarmiento, Olga L; Triana, Camilo A; Barquera, Simón

    2017-09-15

    Comparability of population surveys across countries is key to appraising trends in population health. Achieving this requires deep understanding of the methods used in these surveys to examine the extent to which the measurements are comparable. In this study, we obtained detailed protocols of 8 nationally representative surveys from 2007-2013 from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, the United Kingdom (England and Scotland), and the United States-countries that that differ in economic and inequity indicators. Data were collected on sampling frame, sample selection procedures, recruitment, data collection methods, content of interview and examination modules, and measurement protocols. We also assessed their adherence to the World Health Organization's "STEPwise Approach to Surveillance" framework for population health surveys. The surveys, which included half a million participants, were highly comparable on sampling methodology, survey questions, and anthropometric measurements. Heterogeneity was found for physical activity questionnaires and biological samples collection. The common age range included by the surveys was adults aged 18-64 years. The methods used in these surveys were similar enough to enable comparative analyses of the data across the 7 countries. This comparability is crucial in assessing and comparing national and subgroup population health, and to assisting the transfer of research and policy knowledge across countries. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Survey of Nesting Osprey at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge and False Cape State Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of nesting Osprey (Pandion Haliaetus) was conducted during the nesting season of 1989. The survey was conducted in the bay waters of Back Bay National...

  11. Flow characteristics at U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the conterminous United States.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents point locations and flow characteristics for current (as of November 20, 2001) and historical U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages in...

  12. Survey of Nesting Osprey at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge and False Cape State Park

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of nesting Osprey (Pandion Haliaetus) was conducted during the nesting season of 1990. The survey was conducted in the bay waters of Back Bay National...

  13. Radioactive waste management: exploratory survey among Rio de Janeiro state university students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Danielle Monegalha; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de, E-mail: drodrigues@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: ivsalati@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Social approval is a fundamental part of the site selection process of a radioactive waste repository. Such approval requires the involvement of the local community in the decision-making process and is deemed essential to the success of an enterprise of this kind. A major problem when it comes to nuclear energy is the poor knowledge on the issue among the general population. For effective participation in the decision-making process, the community of the candidate site should be well informed on nuclear issues, because efficient community interaction depends on the level of knowledge of their citizens on the subject. One way to identify this level of knowledge is through opinion polls on attitudes and beliefs regarding the use of nuclear energy and on radioactive waste. In the European Union research is carried out periodically seeking to know people's opinion about their participation in the decision-making process. In order to assess in a preliminary way the attitude on this matter of university students of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the research method used in the European Union was adapted and subsequently applied to a sample of 200 students from public and private universities within the state. The results indicate that the majority of respondents, though possessing little information on nuclear issues, would like to participate in the decision-making process for site selection of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository, if that repository was to be built close to their living area. The collected data also identifies the sources of information that are considered trustworthy by the surveyed sample. Although exploratory, this research provides guidelines for future work to be developed within the scope of the site selection for a radioactive waste repository in Brazil. (author)

  14. A descriptive survey of management and operations at selected sports medicine centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, D

    1996-11-01

    No uniform guidelines for operations or accreditation standards for sports medicine center were available and, at the time of this study, little information on the management and operation of sports medicine centers was available in the literature. The purpose of the study was to determine the management structure and function of selected sports medicine centers in the United States. Questionnaires were mailed to 200 randomly selected centers throughout the United State from a directory of sports medicine centers published in Physician and Sportsmedicine (1992) to gather descriptive information on eight areas, including 1) general background, 2) staffing, 3) services, facilities, and equipment, 4) billing, collections, and revenue, 5) clientele, caseloads, and referrals, 6) ownership and financing, 7) school and club outreach contracts, and 8) marketing strategies and future trends. A total of 71 surveys (35.5%) were returned in the allotted time frame. Data were analyzed using ranges, means, medians, modes, and percentages. Results yielded several conclusions about sports medicine centers. Nearly all (93%) of the centers employed physical therapists; physical therapists were clinical directors at 70.2% of centers; orthopaedists were most often medical directors; rehabilitation was the most frequently offered service (93%); physical therapy produced the highest revenue; sports injuries accounted for a mean 34.5% of patients, who were mostly recreational or high school athletes between 13-60 years of age; primary shareholders were most often physical therapists or physicians; most were involved in outreach services for schools; marketing strategies primarily involved communication with referral sources; and managed care was identified most frequently as a trend affecting the future of sports medicine centers. Findings identified common aspects of sports medicine centers and may assist in establishing guidelines for operations or accreditation of sports medicine

  15. A national survey of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D E; Emmons, C A; Wallenstein, S; Quill, T; Morrison, R S; Cassel, C K

    1998-04-23

    Although there have been many studies of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States, national data are lacking. In 1996, we mailed questionnaires to a stratified probability sample of 3102 physicians in the 10 specialties in which doctors are most likely to receive requests from patients for assistance with suicide or euthanasia. We weighted the results to obtain nationally representative data. We received 1902 completed questionnaires (response rate, 61 percent). Eleven percent of the physicians said that under current legal constraints, there were circumstances in which they would be willing to hasten a patient's death by prescribing medication, and 7 percent said that they would provide a lethal injection; 36 percent and 24 percent, respectively, said that they would do so if it were legal. Since entering practice, 18.3 percent of the physicians (unweighted number, 320) reported having received a request from a patient for assistance with suicide and 11.1 percent (unweighted number, 196) had received a request for a lethal injection. Sixteen percent of the physicians receiving such requests (unweighted number, 42), or 3.3 percent of the entire sample, reported that they had written at least one prescription to be used to hasten death, and 4.7 percent (unweighted number, 59), said that they had administered at least one lethal injection. A substantial proportion of physicians in the United States report that they receive requests for physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, and about 7 percent of those who responded to our survey have complied with such requests at least once.

  16. The cost-effectiveness of cash versus lottery incentives for a web-based, stated-preference community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic, Aleksandra; Cameron, David; Hurley, Jeremiah

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of a randomized experiment to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of response incentives for a stated-preference survey of a general community population. The survey was administered using a mixed-mode approach, in which community members were invited to participate using a traditional mailed letter using contact information for a representative sample of the community; but individuals completed the survey via the web, which exploited the advantages of electronic capture. Individuals were randomized to four incentive groups: (a) no incentive, (b) prepaid cash incentive ($2), (c) a low lottery (10 prizes of $25) and (d) a high lottery (2 prizes of $250). Letters of invitation were mailed to 3,000 individuals. In total, 405 individuals (14.4%) contacted the website and 277 (9.8%) provided complete responses. The prepaid cash incentive generated the highest contact and response rates (23.3 and 17.3%, respectively), and no incentive generated the lowest (9.1 and 5.7%, respectively). The high lottery, however, was the most cost-effective incentive for obtaining completed surveys: compared with no incentive, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per completed survey for high lottery was $13.89; for prepaid cash, the ICER was $18.29. This finding suggests that the preferred response incentive for community-based, stated-preference surveys is a lottery with a small number of large prizes.

  17. Mobile Phone Use in Psychiatry Residents in the United States: Multisite Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Shih; Torous, John; Boland, Robert; Conrad, Erich

    2017-11-01

    Mobile technology ownership in the general US population and medical professionals is increasing, leading to increased use in clinical settings. However, data on use of mobile technology by psychiatry residents remain unclear. In this study, our aim was to provide data on how psychiatric residents use mobile phones in their clinical education as well as barriers relating to technology use. An anonymous, multisite survey was given to psychiatry residents in 2 regions in the United States, including New Orleans and Boston, to understand their technology use. All participants owned mobile phones, and 79% (54/68) used them to access patient information. The majority do not use mobile phones to implement pharmacotherapy (62%, 42/68) or psychotherapy plans (90%, 61/68). The top 3 barriers to using mobile technology in clinical care were privacy concerns (56%, 38/68), lack of clinical guidance (40%, 27/68), and lack of evidence (29%, 20/68). We conclude that developing a technology curriculum and engaging in research could address these barriers to using mobile phones in clinical practice.

  18. Sexual Orientation and Substance Abuse Treatment Utilization in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. Approximately 2% of the sample self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family history of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. PMID:22444421

  19. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and edible plants of Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2017-07-05

    The Afar people inhabit the sub-arid and arid part of Ethiopia. Recurrent drought and invasive encroaching plants are taking out plants that have cultural importance, and threaten the biodiversity and the associated traditional knowledge. Thus, the aim of the current study is to conduct an ethnobotanical survey and document medicinal and edible plants in Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state. A cross-sectional ethnobotanical study was carried out in eight kebeles of Yalo Woreda from October 2015 to December 2016. One hundred sixty informants were selected using purposive sampling. The data on diseases, medicinal and edible plants were collected using semi-structure interview and group discussion. The statistical methods, informant consensus factor, fidelity level, and preference ranking were conducted to analyze the data. One hundred and six plants were reported; gender and age differences had implication on the number of plants reported by informants. The knowledge of medicinal plants among informants of each kebele was not different (p famine food' that were collected and stored for years. People in Yalo Woreda are more dependent on natural resources of the area for their livelihood. The threat of climatic change and encroaching invasive plants on medicinal and edible plants affects the traditional use of plants in the Yalo Woreda. The conservation of the plants in the home garden and natural habitat and integration of edible plants into agroforestry development programs in sub-arid and arid regions has to be encouraged to conserve plants of medical and economic importance.

  20. Health-state utilities in a prisoner population: a cross-sectional survey

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    Levy Michael H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-state utilities for prisoners have not been described. Methods We used data from a 1996 cross-sectional survey of Australian prisoners (n = 734. Respondent-level SF-36 data was transformed into utility scores by both the SF-6D and Nichol's method. Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of SF-6D utility were assessed in univariate analyses and a multivariate general linear model. Results The overall mean SF-6D utility was 0.725 (SD 0.119. When subdivided by various medical conditions, prisoner SF-6D utilities ranged from 0.620 for angina to 0.764 for those with none/mild depressive symptoms. Utilities derived by the Nichol's method were higher than SF-6D scores, often by more than 0.1. In multivariate analysis, significant independent predictors of worse utility included female gender, increasing age, increasing number of comorbidities and more severe depressive symptoms. Conclusion The utilities presented may prove useful for future economic and decision models evaluating prison-based health programs.

  1. Preliminary Field Report of the United States Geological Survey of Colorado and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Ferdinand Vandeveer

    1869-01-01

    SIR : In accordance with your instructions dated Washington, April 1, 1869, I have the honor to transmit my preliminary field report of the United States geological survey of Colorado and New Mexico, conducted by me, under your direction, during the past season. A portion of your instructions is as follows :  “You will proceed to the field of your labors as soon as the necessary arrangements can be made and the season will permit, and your attention will be especially directed to the geological, mineralogical and agricultural resources of the Territories herein designated; you will be required to ascertain the age, order of succession, relative position, dip, and comparative thickness of the different strata and geological formations, and examine with care all the beds, veins, and other deposits, of ores, coals, clays, marls, peat, and other mineral substances, as well as the fossil remains of the different formations; and you will also make full collections in geology, mineralogy, and paleontology, to illustrate your notes taken in the field.”

  2. Serological Survey Of Salmonella gallinarum Antibody In Chickens Around Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okwori AEJ

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey of the prevalence of antibodies to Salmonella gallinarum among chickens under two different management systems around Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria was carried out using the standard plate agglutination test. The objective of this study was to determine serologically the prevalence of antibodies against Salmonella gallinarum among apparently healthy chickens around Jos. A total of 700 serum samples made up of 450 exotic and 250 local breed of chickens were used for this study with 37.9% seropositvity. In the free range system (19.3% of the flocks sampled were seropositive for Salmonella gallinarium antibodies while in the semi intensive, 18.6% of the flock tested positive. The serum agglutination test (SAT was adapted to the microtitre format used to determine somatic and flagella titres. The antigen used for this study was specific for S. gallinarum, hence differentiation between species infection was assessed in this study. Perhaps the most feasible way to eradicate the disease is to encourage farmers (both small and large scale to break the disease cycle at their levels by embarking on prompt and regular vaccination programmes. It is thus concluded that Salmonella gallinarum (fowl typhoid is present in the area investigated. Fowl typhoid may continue to have a negative effect on the economy of poultry production in Nigeria if not controlled. A statistical analysis was precluded due to inadequate data sets.

  3. SURVEY OF SCOLYTIDAE (COLEOPTERA IN PLANTATIONS OF Eucalyptus spp. IN CUIABÁ, STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano de C. Balieiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Scolytidae population of species of Scolytidae family was made in plantations of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh, Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. f., Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell. and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, located at Cuiabá city in Mato Grosso state from march 1998 to february 1999, with aid of ethanol traps model “escolitídeo-Curitiba”. The were used 24 traps, six per Eucalyptus plot/specie. Collection was made every 15 days and divided in two periods: drought (may – October and rRainy Season (november – april. There were collected a total of 19.153 individuals, distributed in 11 genera and 42 species. In the dry and rain periods there were collected 9.865 and 9.288 individuals, respectively. In plantations of Eucalyptus pellita and Eucalyptus urophylla were collected the largest amount of individuals, in both analyzed periods. Cryptocarenus diademantus Eggers, 1937; Cryptocarenus seriatus Eggers, 1933; Cryptocarenus heveae (Hagedorni, 1912; Hypothenemus obscurus (Fabricius, 1801 and Xyleborus spinosulus (Schedl, 1934 were in number, the most important in plantations of the four species of Eucalyptus.

  4. Drinking water microbiological survey of the Northwestern State of Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidez, Cristobal; Soto, Marcela; Martinez, Celida; Keswick, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    A potable water survey, in two important municipalities of the state of Sinaloa, Mexico was conducted. Culiacan, capital city of Sinaloa and its neighboring municipality, Navolato were selected to enumerate Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, fecal and total coliforms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Heterotrophic plate count bacteria from 100 households' taps. Manganese; residual chlorine; pH; temperature and turbidity were also examined. Overall, Aeromonas hydrophila was not detected in any of the samples, 3% contained Escherichia coli, 28% had fecal and 46 total coliforms, P. aeruginosa was present in 15% of the samples. HPC bacteria were found in all of the samples but 43% had numbers greater than 500 CFU per ml. The average numbers obtained for the physico-chemical parameters were 0.15 mg/L; 0.32 mg/L; 6.5; 28.7 degrees C and 2.92 NTU for manganese, residual chlorine, pH, temperature and turbidity, respectively. The findings of the current study demonstrate that potable water from both municipalities can harbor substantial numbers of indicator and opportunistic pathogens suggesting that additional treatment in the household may be needed.

  5. Prevalence and associated factors for suicidal ideation in the Lagos State Mental Health Survey, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuya, Abiodun O; Ola, Bolanle A; Coker, Olurotimi A; Atilola, Olayinka; Zachariah, Mathew P; Olugbile, Olufemi; Fasawe, Adedolapo; Idris, Olajide

    2016-11-01

    To combat the increasing rate of suicide, basic data on suicidal behaviours reflecting the uniqueness of the locality are needed in sub-Saharan Africa. To assess the prevalence of suicidal ideation and associated factors. Adults (n=11 246) from the five administrative divisions of Lagos State completed questionnaires detailing suicidal ideation, socio-demographic details, common mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms), alcohol and psychoactive substance use disorders and disability. The weighted prevalence of current suicidal ideation was 7.28% (s.e. 0.27). Independently associated factors were older age, being female, not married, low occupational group, depression, anxiety, somatic symptoms and disability. Despite the validity of cross-national surveys, there is need for individual countries to generate complementary local data to explain variability in rates and risk factors in order to plan for suicide prevention or develop timely and effective response. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  6. Multicultural training in the United States: a survey of occupational therapy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elena Verdine Donoso; Muñoz, Jaime Phillip; Powell, Janet M

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was designed to describe multicultural training practices in occupational therapy programs. A survey was sent to occupational therapy programs in the United States to gather information on multicultural content, skills, and teaching methods as well as diversity context and challenges. The response rate was 54%. The most frequently covered multicultural content was related to cultural background and sociopolitical factors. Multicultural skills covered most often were practice oriented and interpersonal skills. Teaching methods reported as used most often differed from the methods thought by the respondents to be most effective. Programs reported multiple challenges to multicultural training including lack of time and lack of diversity in the student body, faculty, and environment. Results suggest that educators may need to expand multicultural content and skills to prepare occupational therapy students for providing care in increasingly diverse practice settings. In addition, increased use of teaching methods that focus on exposure to diverse populations and reflection may be needed to improve the effectiveness of multicultural training in occupational therapy programs.

  7. A State-of-the-Art Survey of Indoor Positioning and Navigation Systems and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Sakpere

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research and use of positioning and navigation technologies outdoors has seen a steady and exponential growth. Based on this success, there have been attempts to implement these technologies indoors, leading to numerous studies. Most of the algorithms, techniques and technologies used have been implemented outdoors. However, how they fare indoors is different altogether. Thus, several technologies have been proposed and implemented to improve positioning and navigation indoors. Among them are Infrared (IR, Ultrasound, Audible Sound, Magnetic, Optical and Vision, Radio Frequency (RF, Visible Light, Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR/Inertial Navigation System (INS and Hybrid. The RF technologies include Bluetooth, Ultra-wideband (UWB, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN, Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID and Near Field Communication (NFC. In addition, positioning techniques applied in indoor positioning systems include the signal properties and positioning algorithms. The prevalent signal properties are Angle of Arrival (AOA, Time of Arrival (TOA, Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA and Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI, while the positioning algorithms are Triangulation, Trilateration, Proximity and Scene Analysis/ Fingerprinting. This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of indoor positioning and navigation systems and technologies, and their use in various scenarios. It analyses distinct positioning technology metrics such as accuracy, complexity, cost, privacy, scalability and usability. This paper has profound implications for future studies of positioning and navigation.

  8. Sexual orientation and substance abuse treatment utilization in the United States: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Hughes, Tonda L; Boyd, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults 20 years and older, and represented a population that was 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. An estimated 2% of the target population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family histories of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Trends in Volunteer Mentoring in the United States: Analysis of a Decade of Census Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Dietz, Nathan; Rhodes, Jean E

    2017-03-01

    Over the past decade, considerable resources have been devoted to recruiting volunteer mentors and expanding mentoring programs. It is unclear whether these efforts have helped to counter the broader national trends of declining volunteer rates. The current study uses data from the Volunteering Supplement of the Current Population Survey (CPS), sponsored by the U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, to explore population-level trends in mentoring over the past decade. Results suggest that mentoring rates have remained relatively stable over the past decade, but that the population of mentors has changed somewhat in terms of age, ethnicity, educational background, and region of the United States. In addition, certain sectors of the mentor population show higher rates of attrition from 1 year to the next. Findings have important implications for the development of recruitment, training, and mentor support practices within mentoring organizations, as well as policies designed to meet the needs of at-risk youth in the U.S. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  10. Eye Tracking and Head Movement Detection: A State-of-Art Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Eye-gaze detection and tracking have been an active research field in the past years as it adds convenience to a variety of applications. It is considered a significant untraditional method of human computer interaction. Head movement detection has also received researchers' attention and interest as it has been found to be a simple and effective interaction method. Both technologies are considered the easiest alternative interface methods. They serve a wide range of severely disabled people who are left with minimal motor abilities. For both eye tracking and head movement detection, several different approaches have been proposed and used to implement different algorithms for these technologies. Despite the amount of research done on both technologies, researchers are still trying to find robust methods to use effectively in various applications. This paper presents a state-of-art survey for eye tracking and head movement detection methods proposed in the literature. Examples of different fields of applications for both technologies, such as human-computer interaction, driving assistance systems, and assistive technologies are also investigated. PMID:27170851

  11. Analyzing Drivers' Attitude towards HUD System Using a Stated Preference Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Guo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is very important for drivers to obtain driving information easily and efficiently. There are many advanced devices used for driving safety assistance. Of these assistance devices, the head-up display (HUD system can promote the reduction of driver's reaction time and improve spatial awareness. The drivers' attitude towards and preference for HUD system are crucial to design the functional framework and interface of HUD system. This study explored the relationships between drivers' attitude and HUD presentation image designs using stated preference data from questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included drivers' attitude towards the use of HUD and the preference for the information display zone and information display elements of the HUD. Contrastive analysis was adopted to examine the variations in drivers' attitude and preference for age and driving skills. According to the results, the participants have varying attitudes to HUD system, but most participants show relatively unified preference for the information display zone and information display elements. The results can also be used to customize a HUD presentation image which is in accordance with the drivers' feelings and preferences.

  12. Survey of Childhood Enuresis in the Ehor Community, the EDO State, Nigeria

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    Iduoriyekemwen N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A community survey of enuresis was carried out in November/December 2002 among 300 apparently healthy children aged 5-16 years selected systematically from the Ehor Local Government Area in Edo State, Nigeria. This was done with the aim of ascertaining the true prevalence of the disease and the contributions of some organic causative factors. The overall prevalence of enuresis was 21.3%. Of the 64 children who were enuretic, 58 (91% had only nocturnal enuresis. No strict daytime enuresis was recorded. Combined daytime and night time enuresis accounted for only six (9.4% cases. Ninety-four percent of cases of enuresis were primary, while only six were secondary. Prevalence of enuresis declined significantly with increasing age ( X 2 = 14 .93, df = 3; p = 002. There was a strong association between enuresis and family history of bed wetting (more so with siblings ( X 2 = 45.09, p < 0.000. Though not statistically significant, enuresis was more common in males, in children drawn from families of poor socio-economic status, among first order births, and among those with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Also, there was no significant association between enuresis and hemoglobin genotype. Organic conditions played a minimal role in the etiology of enuresis in the study location, but the morbidity occurred frequently enough to warrant health attention. A community approach is advocated because only an insignificant proportion is seen in orthodox health facilities.

  13. Internet and technology transfer in acute care hospitals in the United States: survey-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, M

    2001-12-01

    This paper provides the results of the survey-2000 measuring technology transfer and, specifically, Internet usage. The purpose of the survey was to measure the levels of Internet and Intranet existence and usage in acute care hospitals. The depth of the survey includes e-commerce for both business-to-business and customers. These results are compared with responses to the same questions in survey-1997. Changes in response are noted and discussed. This information will provide benchmarks for hospitals to plan their network technology position and to set goals. This is the third of three articles based upon the results of the survey-2000. Readers are referred to prior articles by the author, which discuss the survey design and provide a tutorial on technology transfer in acute care hospitals. (1) Thefirst article based upon the survey results discusses technology transfer, system design approaches, user involvement, and decision-making purposes. (2)

  14. State of Simulation in Healthcare Education: An Initial Survey in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zichen; Niu, Pengfei; Ji, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In 2013, medical error was the third leading cause of death in the United States.1 In China, as in the case with the United States, training and assessment are developing as a strategy to reduce the occurrence of such errors. The objective of this study was to assess the current state of the use of simulation-based training in Beijing and to explore the barriers to further development. Methods: This study included hospitals in Beijing accredited by the Standardized Residency Training (SRT) program. The questionnaire was designed online and distributed to the SRT management departments by e-mail or instant message. Results: Thirty hospitals were invited to participate in this survey, and 15 responses were completed and met the inclusion criteria. Task trainers (15/15), full-scale mannequins (14/15), standardized patients (12/15), and virtual reality workstations (11/15) were the most common types of simulation modalities available for use. Among the given specialties for SRT, the availability of simulation courses was 2/2 for pediatric internal medicine, 1/1 for pediatric surgery, 10/11 for surgery, 11/14 for internal medicine, 7/9 for anesthesiology, 6/8 for emergency medicine, and 3/9 for obstetrics/gynecology. Of the 13 institutions with available simulation curricula, 12/13 had simulation focused on proficiency-based skill training, 11/13 had medical knowledge learning, 10/13 had skill competency assessment. The main targeted trainees in these hospitals were residents (or postgraduate residents) and medical students (or interns). The top 2 barriers were the shortage of sustainable financial resources (12/15) and advocacy from their institutional authorities (7/15). Conclusion: It is evident that there is a need for more development of training facilities, and for training the “trainers” and administrators. Financial funding, curricular design, and research seem to be crucial for building a long-term, sustainable, effective program

  15. Family Forest Ownerships of the United States, 2013: Findings from the USDA Forest Service's National Woodland Owner Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Jaketon H. Hewes; Brenton J. Dickinson; Kyle Andrejczyk; Sarah M. Butler; Marla. Markowski-Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    There are an estimated 10.7 million family forest ownerships across the United States who collectively control 36% or 290 million acres of the nation's forestland. The US Department of Agriculture Forest Service National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) provides information on the characteristics, attitudes, and behaviors of these ownerships. Between 2011 and 2013, 8,...

  16. Perceptions and status of Michigan as a heritage tourism state: results of an eleven-month telephone survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail A. Vander Stoep

    1998-01-01

    Cultural and heritage tourism have gained increasing attention as a type of tourism in recent years. Through a telephone survey of Midwest residents (six states and one Canadian province), respondents were asked about their image of Michigan as a destination for heritage and cultural tourism experiences, about their visits to museums, halls of fame, historic and other...

  17. Does Social Studies Teaching Uphold the Citizenship Values to Which Students Should Aspire? Survey Findings from One State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Thomas A.; Meyer, Barbara B.

    2013-01-01

    This article communicates results of data analysis from an online survey of teachers in the state of Illinois. The data were collected as part of the National Profile of Social Studies Teachers Project (NPSS), which concerned the status of social studies teaching. This article spotlights social studies education and the relationship of teaching…

  18. The effect of economic change and elite framing on support for welfare state retrenchment: a survey experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, P.; Schumacher, G.

    2016-01-01

    How do economic downturns affect citizens’ support for welfare state retrenchment? Existing observational studies fail to isolate the effect of economic conditions and the effect of elite framing of these conditions. We therefore designed a survey experiment to evaluate how economic change in

  19. Human Trafficking in the United States. Part II. Survey of U.S. Government Web Resources for Publications and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigabutra-Roberts, Anchalee

    2012-01-01

    This second part of a two-part series is a survey of U.S. government web resources on human trafficking in the United States, particularly of the online publications and data included on agencies' websites. Overall, the goal is to provide an introduction, an overview, and a guide on this topic for library staff to use in their research and…

  20. National survey of training needs reported by public health professionals in chronic disease programs in state, territorial, and local governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Lynne S; Majestic, Elizabeth A; Ayele, Missale; Strasser, Sheryl; Weaver, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors published desirable competencies for professionals in public health chronic disease programs. Assessing the training needs of these professionals is an important step toward providing appropriate training programs in chronic disease prevention and control competencies. Conduct a survey of the chronic disease workforce in state and local health departments to identify professional training needs. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of state, territorial, and local public health professionals who work in chronic disease programs to identify their self-reported training needs, using the membership lists of 3 professional organizations that included practitioners in chronic disease public health programs. The survey was national, used a convenience sample, and was conducted in 2011. The survey was developed using an algorithm to select anonymous participants from the membership lists of the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors, the Directors for Health Promotion and Education, and the National Association of County & City Health Officials. The survey included questions about professional background, chronic disease activities, confidence about skills, and needs for training. The survey had 567 responses (38% response ratio). The majority of the respondents were female, non-Hispanic white, and 40 years or older. Respondents were not confident of their skills in health economics (38%) and technology and data management (23%). The most requested training topics were assessing the effects of policies, laws, and regulations (70%) and health economics (66%). This survey included local, territorial, and state public health professionals who work in chronic disease programs. These reported training needs in quantitative measurement methods and policy-related topics suggest key subjects for future training and education curricula.

  1. United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teachers®: a survey of characteristics and practice patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Patricia A; Nelsen, Nicole L; Geletta, Simon

    2014-07-02

    Feldenkrais Method® teachers help students improve function and quality of life through verbally and manually guided lessons. The reasons people seek Feldenkrais® lessons are poorly understood. Similarly, little is known about practice characteristics and patterns. To address these knowledge gaps, we conducted an extensive survey of United States Guild Certified Feldenkrais Teachers®. We invited all Feldenkrais Teachers to participate in this survey delivered in web-based or print formats. We obtained overall and question-specific response rates, descriptive statistics, chi-square tests of response bias, and performed qualitative thematic review of comments. Overall response rate was 30.5% (392/1287). Ninety percent of responders had college degrees in diverse fields; 12.5% had credentials outside health care, 36.9% held conventional health care licenses, and 23.1% had complementary and alternative medicine credentials. Mean age was 55.7 years; most teachers were women (83%). California (n = 100) and New York (n = 34) had the most teachers. Forty-five percent of teachers earned  ≤ 20% of their gross income from their practices, while 26% earned  > 80%. Most saw  Feldenkrais lessons was pain. A quarter of students self-referred, a fifth were referred by conventional health care providers, and two-thirds paid for services directly. Themes from comments included: beliefs that Feldenkrais training had important personal and professional benefits for teachers; recognition of the challenges of operating small businesses and succinctly describing the Feldenkrais Method; the variety of practice approaches; and a deep commitment to the Feldenkrais Method. Most Feldenkrais Teachers were well educated, often held additional credentials, were located in the West, were women, were older than 50 years, and had part-time practices. Most students were women, were adults, came from various referral sources, and paid directly for services. Teachers and

  2. Overview of motorcycling in the United States: a national telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Blanar, Laura; Teoh, Eric R; Strouse, Laura M

    2011-06-01

    Motorcycle registrations have risen in recent years. Although motorcyclist crash fatalities in 2009 were 16% lower than in 2008, they were double the number of deaths in 1997. The present study examined current motorcyclists' travel patterns and views of motorcycle helmets and other safety topics. Motorcycle drivers were interviewed in a national telephone survey conducted in 2009. A weighted sample of 1,606 motorcyclists resulted from adjusting for the oversampling of those younger than 40 and those in the three states without a motorcycle helmet use law (Illinois, Iowa, New Hampshire). All analyses were based on the weighted sample, which was intended to result in a nationally representative sample of motorcyclists. About one-quarter of respondents said they did not always wear helmets. Of these respondents, 57% said a law requiring helmet use would persuade them to do so, and 27% said nothing would. Ninety-four percent of respondents in states with universal helmet laws said they always ride helmeted, compared with about half of respondents in other states. About half of all respondents favored these laws. About three-quarters said they believe helmets keep riders safer, including two-thirds of respondents who oppose universal laws and almost half of drivers who rarely/never wear helmets. Drivers ages 18-29 and drivers of sport/unclad sport, sport touring, and super sport motorcycles were more likely to always wear helmets, support universal helmet laws, and believe helmets keep riders safer. About half of respondents said antilock braking systems (ABS) enhance safety and that they would get ABS on their next motorcycle. Less than one-quarter thought an airbag would protect a motorcyclist in a crash, and even fewer would consider getting one on their next motorcycle. Forty-three percent of motorcyclists said they had crashed at least once; 62% of the most recent crashes involved no vehicles besides the motorcycle. Respondents reported riding their motorcycles

  3. Divorce among physicians and other healthcare professionals in the United States: analysis of census survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Dan P; Seabury, Seth A; Jena, Anupam B

    2015-02-18

    To estimate the prevalence and incidence of divorce among US physicians compared with other healthcare professionals, lawyers, and non-healthcare professionals, and to analyze factors associated with divorce among physicians. Retrospective analysis of nationally representative surveys conducted by the US census, 2008-13. United States. 48,881 physicians, 10,086 dentists, 13,883 pharmacists, 159,044 nurses, 18,920 healthcare executives, 59,284 lawyers, and 6,339,310 other non-healthcare professionals. Logistic models of divorce adjusted for age, sex, race, annual income, weekly hours worked, number of years since marriage, calendar year, and state of residence. Divorce outcomes included whether an individual had ever been divorced (divorce prevalence) or became divorced in the past year (divorce incidence). After adjustment for covariates, the probability of being ever divorced (or divorce prevalence) among physicians evaluated at the mean value of other covariates was 24.3% (95% confidence interval 23.8% to 24.8%); dentists, 25.2% (24.1% to 26.3%); pharmacists, 22.9% (22.0% to 23.8%); nurses, 33.0% (32.6% to 33.3%); healthcare executives, 30.9% (30.1% to 31.8%); lawyers, 26.9% (26.4% to 27.4%); and other non-healthcare professionals, 35.0% (34.9% to 35.1%). Similarly, physicians were less likely than those in most other occupations to divorce in the past year. In multivariable analysis among physicians, divorce prevalence was greater among women (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.63). In analyses stratified by physician sex, greater weekly work hours were associated with increased divorce prevalence only for female physicians. Divorce among physicians is less common than among non-healthcare workers and several health professions. Female physicians have a substantially higher prevalence of divorce than male physicians, which may be partly attributable to a differential effect of hours worked on divorce. © Ly et al 2015.

  4. Divorce among physicians and other healthcare professionals in the United States: analysis of census survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Dan P; Seabury, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and incidence of divorce among US physicians compared with other healthcare professionals, lawyers, and non-healthcare professionals, and to analyze factors associated with divorce among physicians. Design Retrospective analysis of nationally representative surveys conducted by the US census, 2008-13. Setting United States. Participants 48 881 physicians, 10 086 dentists, 13 883 pharmacists, 159 044 nurses, 18 920 healthcare executives, 59 284 lawyers, and 6 339 310 other non-healthcare professionals. Main outcome measures Logistic models of divorce adjusted for age, sex, race, annual income, weekly hours worked, number of years since marriage, calendar year, and state of residence. Divorce outcomes included whether an individual had ever been divorced (divorce prevalence) or became divorced in the past year (divorce incidence). Results After adjustment for covariates, the probability of being ever divorced (or divorce prevalence) among physicians evaluated at the mean value of other covariates was 24.3% (95% confidence interval 23.8% to 24.8%); dentists, 25.2% (24.1% to 26.3%); pharmacists, 22.9% (22.0% to 23.8%); nurses, 33.0% (32.6% to 33.3%); healthcare executives, 30.9% (30.1% to 31.8%); lawyers, 26.9% (26.4% to 27.4%); and other non-healthcare professionals, 35.0% (34.9% to 35.1%). Similarly, physicians were less likely than those in most other occupations to divorce in the past year. In multivariable analysis among physicians, divorce prevalence was greater among women (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.63). In analyses stratified by physician sex, greater weekly work hours were associated with increased divorce prevalence only for female physicians. Conclusions Divorce among physicians is less common than among non-healthcare workers and several health professions. Female physicians have a substantially higher prevalence of divorce than male physicians, which may be partly attributable

  5. Prevalence of trachoma in unity state, South Sudan: results from a large-scale population-based survey and potential implications for further surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansy Edwards

    Full Text Available Large parts of South Sudan are thought to be trachoma-endemic but baseline data are limited. This study aimed to estimate prevalence for planning trachoma interventions in Unity State, to identify risk factors and to investigate the effect of different sampling approaches on study conclusions.The survey area was defined as one domain of eight counties in Unity State. Across the area, 40 clusters (villages were randomly selected proportional to the county population size in a population-based prevalence survey. The simplified grading scheme was used to classify clinical signs of trachoma. The unadjusted prevalence of trachoma inflammation-follicular (TF in children aged 1-9 years was 70.5% (95% CI: 68.6-72.3. After adjusting for age, sex, county and clustering of cases at household and village level the prevalence was 71.0% (95% CI: 69.9-72.1. The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT in adults was 15.1% (95% CI: 13.4-17.0 and 13.5% (95% CI: 12.0-15.1 before and after adjustment, respectively. We estimate that 700,000 people (the entire population of Unity State require antibiotic treatment and approximately 54,178 people require TT surgery. Risk factor analyses confirmed child-level associations with TF and highlighted that older adults living in poverty are at higher risk of TT. Conditional simulations, testing the alternatives of sampling 20 or 60 villages over the same area, indicated that sampling of only 20 villages would have provided an acceptable level of precision for state-level prevalence estimation to inform intervention decisions in this hyperendemic setting.Trachoma poses an enormous burden on the population of Unity State. Comprehensive control is urgently required to avoid preventable blindness and should be initiated across the state now. In other parts of South Sudan suspected to be highly trachoma endemic, counties should be combined into larger survey areas to generate the baseline data required to initiate interventions.

  6. Finding the State Story in the National Lake Survey Data with an Excel Exploratory Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) surveyed over 1200 U.S. lakes in the summer of 2007, evaluating lake quality based on water quality, physical habitat, and indicators of biological and recreational condition. An upcoming national report will summarize survey results primarily ...

  7. A Survey of Digital Humanities Centers in the United States. CLIR Publication No. 143

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorich, Diane M.

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for the 2008 Scholarly Communications Institute (SCI 6) focused on humanities research centers, the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) commissioned a survey of digital humanities centers (DHCs). The immediate goals of the survey were to identify the extent of these centers and to explore their financing,…

  8. AISD on AISD: Reflections on the State of the District--1990-91 Districtwide Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Sedra G.

    In 1990-91, over 75,000 surveys were administered to Austin Independent School District (AISD), Texas, high school students. elementary school and secondary school teachers and administrators, other school professionals, and parents of students. These surveys gave respondents a chance to express their views on the AISD, and provide insight into…

  9. Trends In Geoscience Professional Ethics Indicated By National Association of State Boards of Geology (ASBOG®) Surveys of The Practicing Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. W.; Warner, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    ASBOG® was founded in 1988 to facilitate cooperation and coordination among states with licensing of practicing professional geologists-currently 29 states and Puerto Rico. ASBOG® creates national exams which are used by all of the states granting licensure. Periodic surveys of the practicing profession every 5 years are used to determine the skills and knowledge needed for professional practice and are used to generate the exam blueprints. Currently questions on professional ethics are included on the national licensing exams. Thirteen professional ethics issues in the geosciences were included on the Task Analysis Surveys (TAS) in 2005, 2010 and 2015. Professional geologists rate the seriousness of and the frequency of contact with these ethics issues. Topics include such items as gift-giving, whistleblowing, plagiarism, etc. The respondents are grouped into one of three categories: practicing licensed geologists in the United States, practicing licensed geologists in Canada, and geologists employed in the academic sector. Regardless of the employment sector, the responses to the professional ethics questions were statistically very similar (r values - Seriousness - USA vs. Academic +0.81, USA vs. Canada +0.94, Academic vs. Canada +0.86: Frequency - USA vs. Academic +0.71, USA vs. Canada +0.85, Academic vs. Canada +0.72). Some differences were detected. For example, plagiarism is regarded by practitioners in the academic sector as more important than this issue among licensed practicing geologists in the United States and Canada. The professional ethics issues asked on the 2010 and 2015 surveys are identical to facilitate detection of any temporal changes in response patterns. Statistically, the responses from practicing geologists in the USA in the 2010 and 2015 surveys are nearly identical, indicating that the profession has maintained virtually the same attitudes with regard to professional ethics (Seriousness r = +0.99, Frequency r = +0.99).

  10. Neah Bay to Cape Alava, Northwest Coast, Washington State - Topographic Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey)system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver...

  11. Hydrographic & Topographic LIDAR Acquisition, Northwest Coast, Washington State - Bathymetric Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey)system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver...

  12. 78 FR 5168 - BE-29: Survey of Foreign Ocean Carriers' Expenses in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ..., passenger (including cruise and combination) and tanker vessels, including very large crude carriers (VLCCs... electronic reporting system at www.bea.gov/efile . Additionally, copies of the survey forms and instructions...

  13. Horizontal velocities in the central and eastern United States from GPS surveys during the 1987-1996 interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snay, R.A.; Strange, W.E.

    1997-12-01

    The National Geodetic Survey and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission jointly organized GPS surveys in 1987, 1990, 1993, and 1996 to search for crustal deformation in the central and eastern United States (east of longitude 108{degrees}W). We have analyzed the data of these four surveys in combination with VLBI data observed during the 1979-1995 interval and GPS data for 22 additional surveys observed during the 1990-1996 interval. These latter GPS surveys served to establish accurately positioned geodetic marks in various states. Accordingly, we have computed horizontal velocities for 64 GPS sites and 12 VLBI sites relative to a reference frame for which the interior of the North American plate is considered fixed on average. None of our derived velocities exceeds 6 mm/yr in magnitude. Moreover, the derived velocity at each GPS site is statistically zero at the 95% confidence level except for the site BOLTON in central Ohio and the site BEARTOWN in southeastern Pennsylvania. However, as statistical theory would allow approximately 5% of the 64 GPS sites to fall our zero-velocity hypothesis, we are uncertain whether or not these estimated velocities for BOLTON and BEARTOWN reflect actual motion relative to the North American plate. We also computed horizontal strain rates for the cells formed by a 1{degrees} by 1{degrees} grid spanning the central and eastern United States. Corresponding shearing rates are everywhere less than 60 nanoradians/yr in magnitude, and no shearing rate differs statistically from zero at the 95% confidence level except for a grid cell near BEARTOWN whose rate is 57 {+-} 26 nanoradians/yr. Also corresponding areal dilatation rates are everywhere less than 40 nanostrain/yr in magnitude, and no dilatation rate differs statistically from zero at the 95% confidence level.

  14. Disaster Education: A Survey Study to Analyze Disaster Medicine Training in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Ritu R; Cattamanchi, Srihari; Alqahtani, Abdulrahman; Aljohani, Majed; Keim, Mark; Ciottone, Gregory R

    2017-08-01

    The increase in natural and man-made disasters occurring worldwide places Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians at the forefront of responding to these crises. Despite the growing interest in Disaster Medicine, it is unclear if resident training has been able to include these educational goals. Hypothesis This study surveys EM residencies in the United States to assess the level of education in Disaster Medicine, to identify competencies least and most addressed, and to highlight effective educational models already in place. The authors distributed an online survey of multiple-choice and free-response questions to EM residency Program Directors in the United States between February 7 and September 24, 2014. Questions assessed residency background and details on specific Disaster Medicine competencies addressed during training. Out of 183 programs, 75 (41%) responded to the survey and completed all required questions. Almost all programs reported having some level of Disaster Medicine training in their residency. The most common Disaster Medicine educational competencies taught were patient triage and decontamination. The least commonly taught competencies were volunteer management, working with response teams, and special needs populations. The most commonly identified methods to teach Disaster Medicine were drills and lectures/seminars. There are a variety of educational tools used to teach Disaster Medicine in EM residencies today, with a larger focus on the use of lectures and hospital drills. There is no indication of a uniform educational approach across all residencies. The results of this survey demonstrate an opportunity for the creation of a standardized model for resident education in Disaster Medicine. Sarin RR , Cattamanchi S , Alqahtani A , Aljohani M , Keim M , Ciottone GR . Disaster education: a survey study to analyze disaster medicine training in emergency medicine residency programs in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):368-373.

  15. The Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Public Outdoor Lighting Inventory: Phase I: Survey Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Smalley, Edward; Haefer, R.

    2014-09-30

    This document presents the results of a voluntary web-based inventory survey of public street and area lighting across the U.S. undertaken during the latter half of 2013.This survey attempts to access information about the national inventory in a “bottoms-up” manner, going directly to owners and operators. Adding to previous “top down” estimates, it is intended to improve understanding of the role of public outdoor lighting in national energy use.

  16. Advanced Ultrasonic Testing Systems - A State-of-the-Art Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    by Erikson et al. (Ref. 18), Kennedy and Woodmansee (Ref. 19), and Rose and Meyer (Refs. 20 & 21). The work of Erikson et al. (Ref. 18) is an...primary emphasis of Berger’s survey, however, was the Sokolov tube. Erikson et al. (Ref. 18) surveyed a number of ultrasonic imaging methods used in...Ref. 60), Erik - Coherent Illumination son el al. (Ref. IS). Hildebrand (Ref. 6 1), and Intlekofer et al. (Ref. 62) presented intro- a. Recording

  17. A questionnaire survey of poultry layer farmers in Khartoum State, Sudan, to study their antimicrobial awareness and usage patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Sirdar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An initial census of layer farms in Khartoum State, Sudan, was carried out in late 2007 and early 2008 and found that there were 252 layer farms with a total population of 2 221 800 birds. This paper reports the findings of the census. Based on this information, a structured questionnaire survey of 92 farms was then conducted in the state in April 2008 to collect data on antibiotic usage, demographic data and public health awareness. Ninety-eight per cent of participating farms comprised open-sided houses. It was found that 49% of the farms surveyed were on antibiotic treatment when the survey was conducted, whilst 59% of the farms had used antibiotics within the last 3 months. The study found that farmers and producers had a lack of knowledge about antimicrobial residues, their withdrawal periods and the risk posed by the consumption of these residues. The study also concluded that traditional farming systems in Sudan relied heavily on antimicrobial medication to control disease and almost half of the farms surveyed were treating their flocks with antimicrobials. In addition to this, there was a lack of disease control programmes which probably resulted in a massive use of antibiotics to control endemic diseases. This was further compounded by the absence of governmental supervision and control on the use of drugs.

  18. The state of radiologic teaching practice in preclinical medical education: survey of American medical, osteopathic, and podiatric schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Zachary; Blackham, Kristine

    2015-04-01

    This study describes the state of preclinical radiology curricula in North American allopathic, osteopathic, and podiatric medical schools. An online survey of teaching methods, radiology topics, and future plans was developed. The Associations of American Medical Colleges, Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, and Colleges of Podiatric Medicine listing for all US, Canadian, and Puerto Rican schools was used for contact information for directors of anatomy and/or radiology courses. Letters were sent via e-mail to 198 schools, with a link to the anonymous survey. Of 198 schools, 98 completed the survey (48%). Radiology curricula were integrated with other topics (91%), and taught by anatomists (42%) and radiologists (43%). The majority of time was spent on the topic of anatomy correlation (35%). Time spent teaching general radiology topics in the curriculum, such as physics (3%), modality differences (6%), radiation safety (2%), and contrast use (2%) was limited. Most schools had plans to implement an innovative teaching method in the near future (62%). The major challenges included limits on: time in the curriculum (73%); resources (32%); and radiology faculty participation (30%). A total of 82% reported that their curriculum did not model the suggestions made by the Alliance of Medical Student Educators in Radiology. This survey describes the current state of preclinical radiology teaching: curricula were nonstandard, integrated into other courses, and predominantly used for anatomy correlation. Other important contextual principles of the practice of radiology were seldom taught. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Meth Project and Teen Meth Use: New Estimates from the National and State Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D Mark; Elsea, David

    2015-12-01

    In this note, we use data from the national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys for the period 1999 through 2011 to estimate the relationship between the Meth Project, an anti-methamphetamine advertising campaign, and meth use among high school students. During this period, a total of eight states adopted anti-meth advertising campaigns. After accounting for pre-existing downward trends in meth use, we find little evidence that the campaign curbed meth use in the full sample. We do find, however, some evidence that the Meth Project may have decreased meth use among White high school students. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Association between State Value-added Taxes and Tobacco Use in India- Evidence from GATS and TCP India Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S

    2017-08-30

    State value-added taxes (VAT) on tobacco products have been increased significantly in recent years in India. Evidence on how these VATs were associated with smoking is highly needed. State bidi and cigarette VAT rates were linked to Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-2010 and Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Survey waves 1 (2010-2011) and 2 (2012-2013), respectively. These linked data were used to analyze the associations between bidi VAT rates and bidi smoking, between cigarette VAT rates and cigarette smoking, and between the two VAT rates and dual use of bidis and cigarettes. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to examine GATS cross-sectional data, whereas Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were employed to examine longitudinal TCP data. We further stratified the analyses by gender. A 10% increase in cigarette VAT rates was associated with a 6.5% (pTCP; and with a 21.6% decrease (pTCP analyses controlling for state fixed effects are less likely to be biased and indicate a cigarette price elasticity of - 0.44. As female smoking prevalence was extremely low, these associations were non-significant for females. Higher state cigarette VAT rates in India were significantly associated with lower cigarette smoking and lower dual use of cigarettes and bidis. Increasing state VAT rates may significantly reduce smoking in India.

  1. National Survey of State Identification Audiometry Programs and Special Educational Services for Hearing Impaired Children and Youth United States: 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC. Office of Demographic Studies.

    Reported were descriptive data concerning identification audiometry (hearing screening) and special educational programs for the hearing impaired. Data were provided in tabular format for each state in the country and the District of Columbia. Hearing screening program data included extent of coverage, grade or ages covered annually, year and…

  2. Two Sources of Error in Data on Migration From Mexico to the United States in Mexican Household-Based Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erin R; Savinar, Robin

    2015-08-01

    We examine the nature and degree of two sources of error in data on migration from Mexico to the United States in Mexican household-based surveys: (1) sampling error that results when whole households migrate and no one is left behind to report their migration; and (2) reporting errors that result when migrants are not identified by survey respondents. Using data from the first two waves of the Mexican Family Life Survey, which tracked Mexican migrants to the United States from 2002 to 2005, we find that one-half of migrants from Mexico to the United States are not counted as a result of these two sources of error. Misreporting is the larger source of error, accounting for more than one-third of all migrants. Those who are not counted, especially whole-household migrants, are a unique group. Their omission results in an underestimate of female migrants, child migrants, and migrants from the Mexican border region, and an overestimate of migrants from the periphery region.

  3. Why Is Sexual Abuse Declining? A Survey of State Child Protection Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa M.; Finkelhor, David; Kopiec, Kathy

    2001-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with child protection administrators in 43 states. More than half in states with large declines of cases of substantiated sexual abuse were unaware of any discussion of the declines within their agency or state. Possible causes for decline included increased evidentiary requirements and increased caseworker caution.…

  4. A National Survey of State-Sponsored Programs to Prevent Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; Hamlett, Carol L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of questionnaires and follow-up interviews with public health departments in each state and the District of Columbia revealed that, as a whole, state governments have not made a sustained commitment to the prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome. Several states have initiated programs that could serve as a model for national effort.…

  5. The American Society for Clinical Pathology's 2014 vacancy survey of medical laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Edna; Ali, Asma M; Soles, Ryan M; Lewis, D Grace

    2015-09-01

    To determine the extent and distribution of workforce shortages within the nation's medical laboratories. Historically, the results of this biennial survey have served as a basis for additional research on laboratory recruitment, retention, education, marketing, certification, and advocacy. The 2014 Vacancy Survey was conducted through collaboration between American Society for Clinical Pathology's Institute of Science, Technology, and Policy in Washington, DC, and the Evaluation, Measurement, and Assessment Department and Board of Certification in Chicago, Illinois. Data were collected via an Internet survey that was distributed to individuals who were able to report on staffing and certifications for their laboratories. Data reveal increased overall vacancy rates since 2012 for all departments surveyed except cytology and cytogenetics. Also, results show higher anticipated retirement rates for both staff and supervisors. Overall certification rates are highest among laboratory personnel in cytogenetics, hematology/coagulation, and flow cytometry departments and lowest among phlebotomy, specimen processing, and anatomic pathology. Factors such as retirement and the improving economy are driving the need for more laboratory professionals. Recruitment of qualified laboratory professionals in the workforce and students in laboratory programs will be the key in fulfilling the higher vacancies revealed from the survey results in 2014. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  6. State-Of in Uav Remote Sensing Survey - First Insights Into Applications of Uav Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, H.

    2017-08-01

    UAVs are increasingly adapted as remote sensing platforms. Together with specialized sensors, they become powerful sensing systems for environmental monitoring and surveying. Spectral data has great capabilities to the gather information about biophysical and biochemical properties. Still, capturing meaningful spectral data in a reproducible way is not trivial. Since a couple of years small and lightweight spectral sensors, which can be carried on small flexible platforms, have become available. With their adaption in the community, the responsibility to ensure the quality of the data is increasingly shifted from specialized companies and agencies to individual researchers or research teams. Due to the complexity of the data acquisition of spectral data, this poses a challenge for the community and standardized protocols, metadata and best practice procedures are needed to make data intercomparable. In November 2016, the ESSEM COST action Innovative optical Tools for proximal sensing of ecophysiological processes (OPTIMISE; http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/) held a workshop on best practices for UAV spectral sampling. The objective of this meeting was to trace the way from particle to pixel and identify influences on the data quality / reliability, to figure out how well we are currently doing with spectral sampling from UAVs and how we can improve. Additionally, a survey was designed to be distributed within the community to get an overview over the current practices and raise awareness for the topic. This talk will introduce the approach of the OPTIMISE community towards best practises in UAV spectral sampling and present first results of the survey (survey/"target="_blank">http://optimise.dcs.aber.ac.uk/uav-survey/). This contribution briefly introduces the survey and gives some insights into the first results given by the interviewees.

  7. Best Interest of the Child and Parental Alienation: A Survey of State Statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amy J L; Asayan, Mariann; LaCheen-Baker, Alianna

    2016-07-01

    State statutes regarding the best interests of the child (BIC) in deciding disputed custody were reviewed and independently coded with respect to three issues (i) the child's preference and any limits (ii) parental alienation and (iii) psychological maltreatment. Results revealed that many states allowed for the child's preferences to be considered and none qualified that preference when undue influence has occurred; parental alienation as a term was not found in any state statutes but 70% of the states included at least one BIC factor relevant to its core construct of the parent supporting the child's relationship to the other parent; and many states included a history of domestic violence or child abuse but only three states explicitly mentioned psychological maltreatment. These findings highlight yet another way in which the BICS factors lack specificity in ways that could negatively impact children caught in their parents' conflict. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Reforming Long-Term Care in the United States: Findings from a National Survey of Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward Alan; Mor, Vincent; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Theories of the policy process recognize that policy proposals are typically generated, debated, redrafted, and accepted for consideration through the gradual accumulation of knowledge within communities of specialists. Thus, to inform long-term care (LTC) reform efforts, we conducted a Web-based survey of 1,147 LTC specialists…

  9. Preliminary survey of the marketing of farm woodland products in the northern New England states

    Science.gov (United States)

    James C. Rettie; Wayne G. Banks; George E. Doverspike

    1949-01-01

    The Station in l948 initiated a study of the problems of marketing and pricing of farm woodland products. The first step in this project involved some preliminary surveys designed to give an over-all view of the principal conditions and problems.

  10. Residential Cooking Behavior in the United States: Data Collected from a Web-Based Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y. W; Andrew, E. E; Hu, T. C; Singer, B. C; Ding, L.; Logue, J. M

    2014-08-01

    Cooking has a significant impact on indoor air quality. When cooking occurs, how foods are cooked, and the types of food that are cooked have all been shown to impact the rate at which occupants are exposed to pollutants. Home occupancy characteristics impact how concentrations in the home translate into exposures for the occupants. With the intent of expanding our understanding of cooking behavior in the U.S., we developed and advertised an online survey to collect household cooking behavior for the 24 hrs prior to taking the survey. The survey questions were designed to address gaps in knowledge needed to predict the impact of cooking on indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and other pollutants. The survey included the following questions: 1) which meals households ate at home; 2) number of household members at home during cooking; 3) the type of oil used for cooking; 4) the type of foods cooked at each meal; 5) the type of cooking devices used; and 6) the methods selected for food preparation. We also collected information on household characteristics such as their location (zip code), ethnicity, and ages of family members. We analyzed the variability in home cooking characteristics for households in different climate zones and with four different types of family compositions: 1 senior living alone, 1 adult living alone, 2 or more adults/seniors, and families with children. We used simple statistical tests to determine if the probability of certain cooking behaviors differed between these subgroups.

  11. Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…

  12. 78 FR 14962 - BE-15: Annual Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... to otherwise secure economic advantage, and any ownership of any real estate. Who Must Report (a..., partnership, associated group, association, estate, trust, corporation, or other organization (whether or not... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC012 BE-15: Annual Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the...

  13. Texas School Dropout Survey: A Report to the 69th Legislature, State of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas State Dept. of Community Affairs, Austin. Training and Employment Development Div.

    As a response to legislative demands, the Texas School Dropout Survey described in this document attempted to identify the magnitude of the dropout problem, regional characteristics or causes of the problem, costs associated with dropping out, and programs currently available for serving the dropout population. Twenty-four major findings of the…

  14. 78 FR 30939 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: State Library Administrative Agencies Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Administrative Agencies Survey, FY 2014 AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, The National Foundation.... SUMMARY: The Institute of Museum and Library Service (``IMLS'') as part of its continuing effort to reduce.... Background The Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) is an independent Federal grant-making agency...

  15. 75 FR 26282 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: State Library Administrative Agencies Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... Administrative Agencies Survey, FY 2011-2013 AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, The National.... SUMMARY: The Institute of Museum and Library Service (``IMLS'') as part of its continuing effort to reduce... of Museum and Library Services, 1800 M Street, NW., 9th Floor, Washington DC 20036. Ms. Miller can be...

  16. A Survey of Childhood Hunger in the United States. Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehler, Cheryl A.; And Others

    This report presents results from the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project (CCHIP), a research project that used survey techniques to document the extent of hunger among low-income families with at least one child under the age of 12. The report's six chapters provide: (1) an overview of the project, identifying its major components;…

  17. Assessing and Promoting the Wellness of United States Ophthalmology Residents: A Survey of Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Elaine M; Scott, Ingrid U; Clark, Melissa A; Greenberg, Paul B

    To report on the status of residency-based wellness initiatives in ophthalmic graduate medical education and identify strategies for promoting ophthalmology resident wellness by surveying US ophthalmology program directors (PDs). The PDs were each sent an e-mail containing a link to an anonymous online 15-question survey. The PDs also received a letter with the survey link and a $1 incentive. After 2 weeks, nonresponders received 2 weekly reminder e-mails and phone calls. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the multiple choice responses and categorize the free response answers. National survey. All 111 US ophthalmology PDs were invited to participate. Of 111 PDs, 56 (50%) responded; 14 (26%) of 53 respondents reported that their programs faced an issue involving resident depression, burnout, or suicide within the last year; 25 (45%) of 56 reported that their department had a resident wellness program. Respondents without wellness programs reported a shortage of time (19/30; 63%) and lack of training and resources (19/30; 63%) as barriers to instituting these programs. Respondents reported that the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education could better promote resident wellness by providing training resources for burnout and depression screening (35/53; 66%), resilience skills building (38/53; 72%), and wellness program development (36/53; 68%). This survey suggests that there is a substantial burden of burnout and depression among residents in ophthalmic graduate medical education and that this burden can be addressed by promoting the training of educators to recognize the signs of burnout and depression, and providing resources to develop and expand formal wellness programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. What Are We Doing? A Survey of United States Nephrology Fellowship Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Scott E; Moore, Catherine A; Monk, Rebeca D; Rizvi, Mahrukh S

    2017-03-07

    Interest in nephrology has been declining in recent years. Long work hours and a poor work/life balance may be partially responsible, and may also affect a fellowship's educational mission. We surveyed nephrology program directors using a web-based survey in order to define current clinical and educational practice patterns and identify areas for improvement. Our survey explored fellowship program demographics, fellows' workload, call structure, and education. Program directors were asked to estimate the average and maximum number of patients on each of their inpatient services, the number of patients seen by fellows in clinic, and to provide details regarding their overnight and weekend call. In addition, we asked about number of and composition of didactic conferences. Sixty-eight out of 148 program directors responded to the survey (46%). The average number of fellows per program was approximately seven. The busiest inpatient services had a mean of 21.5±5.9 patients on average and 33.8±10.7 at their maximum. The second busiest services had an average and maximum of 15.6±6.0 and 24.5±10.8 patients, respectively. Transplant-only services had fewer patients than other service compositions. A minority of services (14.5%) employed physician extenders. Fellows most commonly see patients during a single weekly continuity clinic, with a typical fellow-to-faculty ratio of 2:1. The majority of programs do not alter outpatient responsibilities during inpatient service time. Most programs (approximately 75%) divided overnight and weekend call responsibilities equally between first year and more senior fellows. Educational practices varied widely between programs. Our survey underscores the large variety in workload, practice patterns, and didactics at different institutions and provides a framework to help improve the service/education balance in nephrology fellowships. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. USBombus, a database of contemporary survey data for North American Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) distributed in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jonathan B; Lozier, Jeffrey; Strange, James P; Ikerd, Harold; Griswold, Terry; Cordes, Nils; Solter, Leellen; Stewart, Isaac; Cameron, Sydney A

    2015-01-01

    Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombus) are pollinators of wild and economically important flowering plants. However, at least four bumble bee species have declined significantly in population abundance and geographic range relative to historic estimates, and one species is possibly extinct. While a wealth of historic data is now available for many of the North American species found to be in decline in online databases, systematic survey data of stable species is still not publically available. The availability of contemporary survey data is critically important for the future monitoring of wild bumble bee populations. Without such data, the ability to ascertain the conservation status of bumble bees in the United States will remain challenging. This paper describes USBombus, a large database that represents the outcomes of one of the largest standardized surveys of bumble bee pollinators (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus) globally. The motivation to collect live bumble bees across the United States was to examine the decline and conservation status of Bombus affinis, B. occidentalis, B. pensylvanicus, and B. terricola. Prior to our national survey of bumble bees in the United States from 2007 to 2010, there have only been regional accounts of bumble bee abundance and richness. In addition to surveying declining bumble bees, we also collected and documented a diversity of co-occuring bumble bees. However we have not yet completely reported their distribution and diversity onto a public online platform. Now, for the first time, we report the geographic distribution of bumble bees reported to be in decline (Cameron et al. 2011), as well as bumble bees that appeared to be stable on a large geographic scale in the United States (not in decline). In this database we report a total of 17,930 adult occurrence records across 397 locations and 39 species of Bombus detected in our national survey. We summarize their abundance and distribution across the United States and

  20. A survey of affective brain computer interfaces: principles, state-of-the-art, and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mühl, C.; Allison, Brandan; Nijholt, Antinus; Chanel, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Affective states, moods and emotions, are an integral part of the human nature: they shape our thoughts, govern the behavior of the individual, and influence our interpersonal relationships. The last decades have seen a growing interest in the automatic detection of such states from voice, facial

  1. Smoking and mental illness: results from population surveys in Australia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2009-08-07

    Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to investigate the relationship between mental illness and smoking in recent population-wide surveys. Survey data from the US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication conducted in 2001-2003, the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, and the 2007 US National Health Interview Survey were used to investigate the relationship between current smoking, ICD-10 mental disorders and non-specific psychological distress. Population weighted estimates of smoking rates by disorder, and mental disorder rates by smoking status were calculated. In both the US and Australia, adults who met ICD-10 criteria for mental disorders in the 12 months prior to the survey smoked at almost twice the rate of adults without mental disorders. While approximately 20% of the adult population had 12-month mental disorders, among adult smokers approximately one-third had a 12-month mental disorder--31.7% in the US (95% CI: 29.5%-33.8%) and 32.4% in Australia (95% CI: 29.5%-35.3%). Female smokers had higher rates of mental disorders than male smokers, and younger smokers had considerably higher rates than older smokers. The majority of mentally ill smokers were not in contact with mental health services, but their rate of smoking was not different from that of mentally ill smokers who had accessed services for their mental health problem. Smokers with high levels of psychological distress smoked a higher average number of cigarettes per day. Mental illness is associated with both higher rates of smoking and higher levels of smoking among smokers. Further, a significant proportion of

  2. Cardiovascular mortality associated with 5 leading risk factors: national and state preventable fractions estimated from survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shivani A; Winkel, Munir; Ali, Mohammed K; Narayan, K M Venkat; Mehta, Neil K

    2015-08-18

    Impressive decreases in cardiovascular mortality have been achieved through risk factor reduction and clinical intervention, yet cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death nationally. To estimate up-to-date preventable fractions of cardiovascular mortality associated with elimination and reduction of 5 leading risk factors nationally and by state in the United States. Cross-sectional and cohort studies. Nationally representative and state-representative samples of the U.S. population. Adults aged 45 to 79 years. Self-reported risk factor status in the BRFSS (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System) 2009-2010 was corrected to approximate clinical definitions. The relative hazards of cardiovascular death (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes I00 to I99) associated with risk factors were estimated using data from NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) (1988-1994 and 1999-2004, followed through 2006). The preventable fraction of cardiovascular mortality associated with complete elimination of elevated cholesterol levels, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and smoking was 54.0% for men and 49.6% for women in 2009 to 2010. When the more feasible target of reducing risk factors to the best achieved levels in the states was considered, diabetes (1.7% and 4.1%), hypertension (3.8% and 7.3%), and smoking (5.1% and 4.4%) were independently associated with the largest preventable fractions among men and women, respectively. With both targets, southern states had the largest preventable fractions, and western states had the smallest. Self-reported state data; mortality hazards relied on baseline risk factor status. Major modifiable cardiovascular risk factors collectively accounted for half of cardiovascular deaths in U.S. adults aged 45 to 79 years in 2009 to 2010. Fewer than 10% of cardiovascular deaths nationally could be prevented if all states were to achieve risk factor levels observed in the best

  3. A survey of Asian life scientists :the state of biosciences, laboratory biosecurity, and biosafety in Asia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie

    2006-02-01

    Over 300 Asian life scientists were surveyed to provide insight into work with infectious agents. This report provides the reader with a more complete understanding of the current practices employed to study infectious agents by laboratories located in Asian countries--segmented by level of biotechnology sophistication. The respondents have a variety of research objectives and study over 60 different pathogens and toxins. Many of the respondents indicated that their work was hampered by lack of adequate resources and the difficulty of accessing critical resources. The survey results also demonstrate that there appears to be better awareness of laboratory biosafety issues compared to laboratory biosecurity. Perhaps not surprisingly, many of these researchers work with pathogens and toxins under less stringent laboratory biosafety and biosecurity conditions than would be typical for laboratories in the West.

  4. United States Biological Survey: A compendium of its history, personalities, impacts, and conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidly, David J.; Tydeman, W. E.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2016-01-01

    In 1885, a small three-person unit was created in the U.S. Department of Agriculture to gather and analyze information on bird migrations. Originally called the Section of Economic Ornithology, over the next 55 years this unit underwent three name changes and accumulated ever-increasing responsibilities for the nation’s faunal resources. Transferred to the Department of the Interior in 1939, this agency was merged with the Bureau of Fisheries in 1940 to create the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). The following account details the chronology, directorship, and growth of the U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey up to its renovation as the FWS. This account also profiles some employees of the Biological Survey.

  5. A state-of-art survey on project selection using MCDM techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sadi-Nezhad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Project selection is considered as the first essential part of project portfolio management. Project selection is also considered as a process to evaluate each project idea and chooses the one with the biggest priority. Project selection plays an essential role in the entire life cycle of different projects. This paper presents a survey for project selection using multiple criteria decision mak-ing techniques. The study considers 60 papers from over the period 1980-2017. The results of the survey have indicated that integration of Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and analytical hierarchy process/analytical network process was the most popular techniques for project selection followed by VIKOR method.

  6. U.S. Geological Survey probabilistic methodology for oil and gas resource appraisal of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Probabilistic methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey is described for estimating the quantity of undiscovered recoverable conventional resources of oil and gas in the United States. A judgmental probability distribution of the "quantity of resource" and its properties is determined for a geologic province or basin. From this distribution, point and interval estimates of the quantity of undiscovered resource are obtained. Distributions and their properties are established for each of the following resources: (1) oil and nonassociated gas from estimates of the probability of the resource being present and the conditional probability distribution of the quantity of resource given that the resource is present, (2) associated-dissolved gas from its corresponding oil distribution, (3) total gas, (4) oil and total gas in two or more provinces. Computer graphics routines are illustrated with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey Circular 860. ?? 1984 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  7. Video summarisation: A conceptual framework and survey of the state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Money, AG; Agius, H.

    2008-01-01

    This is the post-print (final draft post-refereeing) version of the article. Copyright @ 2007 Elsevier Inc. Video summaries provide condensed and succinct representations of the content of a video stream through a combination of still images, video segments, graphical representations and textual descriptors. This paper presents a conceptual framework for video summarisation derived from the research literature and used as a means for surveying the research literature. The framework distin...

  8. Report upon United States geological surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, Volume V: Zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, George Montague

    1875-01-01

    The subject of the geographical distribution and variation of our western zoölogy is one that has of late years attracted more than ordinary attention from our naturalists; and, as appropriate to the subject-matter of this volume, it is here proposed to give a brief résumé of their conclusions and generalizations, as far as they may be deemed applicable to the special natural history work of the geographical surveys west of the one hundredth meridian.

  9. Computing the Effects of Strain on Electronic States: A Survey of Methods and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials ; Kasap , S., Capper, P., Koughia, C., Eds.; Springer Science: New York, 2006; pp 887–916. 98. Pryor, C...cursory survey of existing computational methods and known challenges in estimating accurate electronic band structures of materials suited for... electronic device concepts. Both ab initio and empirical approaches are described, but greater emphasis is on atomistic and continuum-based empirical

  10. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the "State-of-the-Art

    OpenAIRE

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine

    2008-01-01

    Available on: http://www.stralsakerhetsmyndigheten.se/Global/Publikationer/Rapport/Sakerhet-vid-karnkraftverken/2008/SKI-Rapport-2008-50.pdf; SKI Report 2008:50 (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) - ISSN 1104-1374; The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or “human er...

  11. Modeling detection probability to improve marsh bird surveys in southern Canada and the Great Lakes states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Tozer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marsh birds are notoriously elusive, with variation in detection probability across species, regions, seasons, and different times of day and weather. Therefore, it is important to develop regional field survey protocols that maximize detections, but that also produce data for estimating and analytically adjusting for remaining differences in detections. We aimed to improve regional field survey protocols by estimating detection probability of eight elusive marsh bird species throughout two regions that have ongoing marsh bird monitoring programs: the southern Canadian Prairies (Prairie region and the southern portion of the Great Lakes basin and parts of southern Québec (Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region. We accomplished our goal using generalized binomial N-mixture models and data from ~22,300 marsh bird surveys conducted between 2008 and 2014 by Bird Studies Canada's Prairie, Great Lakes, and Québec Marsh Monitoring Programs. Across all species, on average, detection probability was highest in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region from the beginning of May until mid-June, and then fell throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was lowest in the Prairie region in mid-May and then increased throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was highest during darkness compared with light; and did not vary significantly according to temperature (range: 0-30°C, cloud cover (0%-100%, or wind (0-20 kph, or during morning versus evening. We used our results to formulate improved marsh bird survey protocols for each region. Our analysis and recommendations are useful and contribute to conservation of wetland birds at various scales from local single-species studies to the continental North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Program.

  12. Survey of Indian issues in the state of New Mexico relating to uranium mining and milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevender, S.G.; Barsumian, L.; Gurbaxani, S.H.

    1979-11-01

    (Estimates of Indian uranium resources range from 11 to 50% of the US total resources. About 17% of New Mexico's reserves are known to be on Indian lands. New Mexico has produced almost half of the nation's uranium supply; over half of the known reserves are located within the state. However, the state has virtually no jurisdiction over development of Indian uranium. As a result, economic and environmental impacts on the state are beyond its control. The lack of state and federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians allow development to proceed. The impacts of Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian reserves. To the extent that these controls affect the availability of uranium concentrate, DOE needs to understand the issues involved. This issue paper identifies some of the related problems for both the Indians and the state and explores the reasons behind them.

  13. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  14. A survey on management perspectives of the state of workplace health and safety practices in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakaya, C F; Onyoyo, H A; Lwaki, S A; Omondi, O J

    1999-07-01

    A baseline survey was conducted in 1995 on management perspectives of occupational health and safety (OHS) structures and practices in Kenya. This was achieved by interviewing management and supervisory staff attending 1 week multi-disciplinary courses that were organized by the Federation of Kenya Employers (FKE) and the International Labour Office (ILO) at hotel venues in Kenya. The purpose of the survey was to gain some insight into work safety conditions in Kenya and to assess the potential for a new OHS manual to meet existing knowledge gaps. The manual was locally developed in 1993/4 by Kenyan OHS experts in collaboration with colleagues from the Swedish National Institute for Working Life. Results of the survey from 65 participants indicated that most workplace managers were not familiar with the Kenyan work safety legislation. Work injuries were largely attributable to working with dangerous machinery. Occupational diseases and HIV/AIDS were cited as other causes of workplace morbidity and mortality. Although most respondents (70%) were satisfied with their work safety conditions, only 37% said their workplaces were annually audited by labour inspectors while 45% said injured workers were not treated well by management. Many workplaces (65%) violated the mandatory legal requirement on the establishment of health and safety committees. The OHS resource person and course content were rated highly by most respondents (96%). The foregoing results provided the basis of a needs analysis for future OHS programs in Kenya.

  15. Monitoring HIV Testing in the United States: Consequences of Methodology Changes to National Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Van Handel

    Full Text Available In 2011, the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, an in-person household interview, revised the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV section of the survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, a telephone-based survey, added cellphone numbers to its sampling frame. We sought to determine how these changes might affect assessment of HIV testing trends.We used linear regression with pairwise contrasts with 2003-2013 data from NHIS and BRFSS to compare percentages of persons aged 18-64 years who reported HIV testing in landline versus cellphone-only households before and after 2011, when NHIS revised its in-person questionnaire and BRFSS added cellphone numbers to its telephone-based sample.In NHIS, the percentage of persons in cellphone-only households increased 13-fold from 2003 to 2013. The percentage ever tested for HIV was 6%-10% higher among persons in cellphone-only than landline households. The percentage ever tested for HIV increased significantly from 40.2% in 2003 to 45.0% in 2010, but was significantly lower in 2011 (40.6% and 2012 (39.7%. In BRFSS, the percentage ever tested decreased significantly from 45.9% in 2003 to 40.2% in 2010, but increased to 42.9% in 2011 and 43.5% in 2013.HIV testing estimates were lower after NHIS questionnaire changes but higher after BRFSS methodology changes. Data before and after 2011 are not comparable, complicating assessment of trends.

  16. Integration of Ultrasound in Medical Education at United States Medical Schools: A National Survey of Directors' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Vi Am; Fu, Jasmine Y; Lu, Samantha; Chiem, Alan; Fox, J Christian; Blaivas, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Despite the rise of ultrasound in medical education (USMED), multiple barriers impede the implementation of such curricula in medical schools. No studies to date have surveyed individuals who are successfully championing USMED programs. This study aimed to investigate the experiences with ultrasound integration as perceived by active USMED directors across the United States. In 2014, all allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in the United States were contacted regarding their status with ultrasound education. For schools with required point-of-care ultrasound curricula, we identified the USMED directors in charge of the ultrasound programs and sent them a 27-question survey. The survey included background information about the directors, ultrasound program details, the barriers directors faced toward implementation, and the directors' attitudes toward ultrasound education. One-hundred seventy-three medical schools were contacted, and 48 (27.7%) reported having a formal USMED curriculum. Thirty-six USMED directors responded to the survey. The average number of years of USMED curriculum integration was 2.8 years (SD, 2.9). Mandatory ultrasound curricula had most commonly been implemented into years 1 and 2 of medical school (71.4% and 62.9%, respectively). The most common barriers faced by these directors when implementing their ultrasound programs were the lack of funding for faculty/ equipment (52.9%) and lack of time in current medical curricula (50.0%). Financial commitments and the full schedules of medical schools are the current prevailing roadblocks to implementation of ultrasound education. Experiences drawn from current USMED directors in this study may be used to help programs starting their own curricula. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  17. Improving Fuel Price Adjustments for State Departments of Transportation: A National Survey of Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Mark; Jessup, Eric; Casavant, Ken; Larzarus, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Price volatility of construction materials and supplies can lead to price speculation and inflated bid prices by the contractor to protect against possible price increases. State and Departments of Transportation have, since 1974, handled this problem by allowing specific price adjustments of selected commodities in highway contracting, thus decreasing the risk to the contactor from the price fluctuations over the life of a contract. However, for many states, this process has not changed over...

  18. Prevalence and Impact of Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction: Results from the 2008 United States National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bryan K; Agrawal, Yuri; Hoffman, Howard J.; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Profound bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) causes disabling oscillopsia, chronic disequilibrium and postural instability. Our aim was to assess prevalence and functional impact of BVH in the U.S. adult population. Study Design National cross-sectional survey and corollary validation study. Setting National database Patients Adult participants in the 2008 Balance and Dizziness Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), (n=21,782). Intervention Survey-based diagnosis of BVH, all of the following: presence of visual blurring with head movement, unsteadiness, difficulty walking in darkness/unsteady surfaces and in a straight path, symptoms being at least “a big problem” and present for at least 1 year, in the absence of other neurologic conditions or eye pathology affecting vision. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of BVH, socioeconomic and quality-of-life impact of BVH, and fall risk. Results Adjusted national estimates from this survey indicate the prevalence of BVH in 2008 was 28/100,000 U.S. adults (64,046 Americans). 44% of participants with BVH reported changing their driving habits because of their symptoms, 56% reported reduced participation in social activities, and 58% reported difficulties with activities of daily living. Respondents with BVH had a 31-fold increase in the odds of falling in multivariate analyses compared to all respondents, with 25% reporting a recent fall-related injury. Conclusions BVH, as estimated by the presence of specific symptoms in a nationally representative survey, has considerable socioeconomic and quality-of-life impacts and significantly increases fall risk. These data support the need for new therapeutic strategies for BVH, including vestibular rehabilitation and implantable vestibular prostheses. PMID:23949355

  19. Results of the 2013-2015 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology Survey of Chief Residents in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabavizadeh, Nima, E-mail: nabaviza@ohsu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Burt, Lindsay M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Mancini, Brandon R. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Morris, Zachary S. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Walker, Amanda J. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Miller, Seth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Bhavsar, Shripal [Department of Radiation Oncology, Integris Cancer Institute, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Mohindra, Pranshu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kim, Miranda B. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kharofa, Jordan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this project was to survey radiation oncology chief residents to define their residency experience and readiness for independent practice. Methods and Materials: During the academic years 2013 to 2014 and 2014 to 2015, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted an electronic survey of post-graduate year-5 radiation oncology residents in the United States during the final 3 months of training. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: Sixty-six chief residents completed the survey in 2013 to 2014 (53% response rate), and 69 completed the survey in 2014 to 2015 (64% response rate). Forty to 85% percent of residents reported inadequate exposure to high-dose rate and low-dose rate brachytherapy. Nearly all residents in both years (>90%) reported adequate clinical experience for the following disease sites: breast, central nervous system, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, head and neck, and lung. However, as few as 56% reported adequate experience in lymphoma or pediatric malignancies. More than 90% of residents had participated in retrospective research projects, with 20% conducting resident-led prospective clinical trials and 50% conducting basic science or translational projects. Most chief residents reported working 60 or fewer hours per week in the clinical/hospital setting and performing fewer than 15 hours per week tasks that were considered to have little or no educational value. There was more than 80% compliance with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) work hour limits. Fifty-five percent of graduating residents intended to join an established private practice group, compared to 25% who headed for academia. Residents perceive the job market to be more competitive than previous years. Conclusions: This first update of the ARRO chief resident survey since the 2007 to 2008 academic year documents US radiation oncology residents' experiences and conditions over a 2-year period

  20. Survey of poliovirus antibodies in Borno and Yobe States, North-Eastern Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Modu Gofama

    Full Text Available Nigeria remains one of only three polio-endemic countries in the world. In 2016, after an absence of 2 years, wild poliovirus serotype 1 was again detected in North-Eastern Nigeria. To better guide programmatic action, we assessed the immunity status of infants and children in Borno and Yobe states, and evaluated the impact of recently introduced inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV on antibody seroprevalence.We conducted a facility-based study of seroprevalence to poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 among health-seeking patients in two sites each of Borno and Yobe States. Enrolment was conducted amongst children 6-9 and 36-47 months of age attending the paediatrics outpatient department of the selected hospitals in the two states between 11 January and 5 February 2016. Detailed demographic and immunization history of the child was taken and an assessment of the child's health and nutritional state was conducted via physical examination. Blood was collected to test for levels of neutralizing antibody titres against the three poliovirus serotypes. The seroprevalence in the two age groups, potential determinants of seropositivity and the impact of one dose of IPV on humoral immunity were assessed. A total of 583 subjects were enrolled and provided sufficient quantities of serum for testing. Among 6-9-month-old infants, the seroprevalence was 81% (74-87%, 86% (79-91%, and 72% (65-79% in Borno State, and 75% (67-81%, 74% (66-81% and 69% (61-76% in Yobe States, for serotypes-1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among children aged 36-47 months, the seroprevalence was >90% in both states for all three serotypes, with the exception of type 3 seroprevalence in Borno [87% (80-91%]. Median reciprocal anti-polio neutralizing antibody titers were consistently >900 for serotypes 1 and 2 across age groups and states; with lower estimates for serotype 3, particularly in Borno. IPV received in routine immunization was found to be a significant determinant of seropositivity and

  1. SURVEY AND IDENTIFICATION OF TERMITES (INSECTA: ISOPTERA IN A URBAN AREA OF PIRACICABA, STATE OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Santos da Rocha Eleotério

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the occurrence of termites in a urban area of Piracicaba City, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Samples of home and commercial buildings were surveyed and the termites collected were identified. The most frequent species were the drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis, and the subterranean termite, Coptotermes havilandi. It was observed that the risk of termite attacks, as well as the number of attacks per building showed a tendency to increase with the age of the buildings.

  2. THE ATTITUDE TOWARDS TREATMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: A SURVEY OF PATIENTS OF STATE OUTPATIENT CLINICS AND PRIVATE MEDICAL CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Semenova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the differences in views on treatment among patients with cardiovascular diseases in state and private outpatient clinics, as well as the motivation for choosing one of these outpatient clinics.Material and methods. Anonymous and voluntary survey of cardiology patients (n=90 in 2 state (57.7% and 3 private outpatient clinics (42.2% was conducted in Saratov.Results. 33.3% of respondents were men; the median age was 65 years. Patients of state outpatient clinics were more likely to have retirement age (p=0.0008, low income (p=0.0006, history of hypertensive crises (p=0.0129 and chronic heart failure (p=0.0001. Patients of private outpatient clinics were more likely to have mental work (p=0.0001, higher education (p=0.0001, moderate income (p=0.0006. The difference in views on the disease and the attitude towards a doctor among patients of state and private clinics was shown.Conclusion. Patients of private outpatient clinics were more active, young, aimed at continuation of life. They are more likely to have higher education, mental work and moderate income. Patients of state outpatient clinics are "infatuated with their illness"; it is their “lifestyle”. Paternalistic model of communication with doctors is expressed in all the patients.

  3. Foodborne Illness Outbreak Investigation Training Needs: A Survey Among State Public Health Staff in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Alphina; Pennell-Huth, Paula; Newman, Alexandra; Zansky, Shelley; Wiedmann, Martin

    In 2011, the Food Safety and Modernization Act established Integrated Food Safety Centers of Excellence across the United States to train, educate, and enhance the skill of foodborne illness outbreak investigation teams. To target regional training efforts, the New York Integrated Food Safety Center of Excellence (NYCoE) identified training needs in food safety and foodborne illness investigations among public heath staff in 11 states and 1 large metropolitan area in the Northeast. To identify topics so as to develop training materials relevant to food safety and foodborne disease outbreaks in order to improve and impact foodborne outbreak investigations regionally and nationally. Cross-sectional, paper-based survey conducted in January-February 2016. Eleven Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states, and 1 large metropolitan area. Foodborne illness outbreak investigators in the NYCoE region. Identification of training needs, as self-reported by participants, regarding general foodborne outbreak investigation needs and those specific to epidemiologists, environmental health specialists, and laboratorians. Topics included basic food safety/processing knowledge, communication and metrics, and training formats. Information regarding demographics, utility of the NYCoE, and certificate programs was also collected. Surveys returned from 33 respondents (from 10 states and 1 metropolitan area) identified metrics (100%), increasing use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (85%), and guidance on implementation of the Council to Improve Foodborne Outbreak Response (guidelines (89%) as the top training needs. By field, epidemiologists cited training in applying whole genome sequencing (100%), environmental health specialists cited training on the National Outbreak Reporting System (67%), and laboratorians cited training on whole genome sequencing (91%) as important. Short, online, or in-person, 1- to 2-day trainings were the preferred training formats (≥91%). Respondents wanted

  4. The state of UK anaesthesia: a survey of National Health Service activity in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sury, M R J; Palmer, J H M G; Cook, T M; Pandit, J J

    2014-10-01

    Details of current UK anaesthetic practice are unknown and were needed for interpretation of reports of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (GA) within the 5th National Audit Project. We surveyed NHS anaesthetic activity to determine numbers of patients managed by anaesthetists and details of 'who, when, what, and where': activity included GA, local anaesthesia, sedation, or patients managed awake. Anaesthetists in NHS hospitals collected data on all patients for 2 days. Scaling enabled estimation of annual activity. Hospital response rate was 100% with 20,400 returns. The median return rate within departments was 98% (inter-quartile range 0.95-1). Annual numbers (% of total) of general anaesthetics, sedation, and awake cases were 2,766,600 (76.9%), 308,800 (8.6%), and 523,100 (14.5%), respectively. A consultant or career grade anaesthetist was present in more than 87% of cases. Emergency cases accounted for 23.1% of workload, 75% of which were undertaken out of hours. Specialties with the largest workload were orthopaedics/trauma (22.1%), general surgery (16.1%), and gynaecology (9.6%): 6.2% of cases were non-surgical. The survey data describe: who anaesthetized patients according to time of day, urgency, and ASA grade; when anaesthesia took place by day and by weekday; the distribution of patient types, techniques, and monitoring; where patients were anaesthetized. Nine patients out of 15 460 receiving GA died intraoperatively. Anaesthesia in the UK is currently predominantly a consultant-delivered service. The low mortality rate supports the safety of UK anaesthetic care. The survey data should be valuable for planning and monitoring anaesthesia services. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Knowledge of binge eating disorder: a cross-sectional survey of physicians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supina, Dylan; Herman, Barry K; Frye, Carla B; Shillington, Alicia C

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED)--now a designated disorder in the DSM-5--is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED), affecting 2-3% of the US population. This survey of US physicians assesses how BED is diagnosed, treated and referred. Internists, family practitioners, obstetrics/gynecologist (OB/GYNs) and psychiatrists were randomly selected from a nationally-representative panel. Participants completed an online survey and reviewed case vignettes consistent with DSM-5-defined BED, then answered questions to elicit whether they would assess for psychiatric conditions including EDs. Those reporting they would screen and who correctly identified BED in vignettes received additional questions about BED diagnosis, treatment, and referral patterns. Of 278 physicians surveyed, 96% were board-certified and 87% had practiced >10 years. 23% were psychiatrists, 27% family practitioners, 31% internists and 19% OB/GYNs. 92% were 'somewhat likely' to screen for ED after reviewing DSM-5-consistent vignettes. 206 (74%) correctly identified BED. Of these, 33% and 68% reported they proactively screen eating habits for all patients and obese patients, respectively. 10% reported not screening eating habits even in the presence of ED symptoms. Fewer than half reported using DSM criteria in Diagnosing BED, and 56 (27%) did not recognize BED to be a discreet ED. Although ED awareness is improving, understanding BED as a distinct ED is lacking, which may result in low rates of screening and diagnosis. This study illustrates how taking a complete patient history (including probing BED characteristics) may be an effective first-line strategy for clinicians to facilitate optimal care for these patients.

  6. Research on participatory journalism in Brazil: a survey of the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Holanda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007 brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems, such as forums, blogs, and sites of the open source type. In this study we produce a preliminary survey of thematic concentration and methodologies of research on blogs and other interactive models of journalistic publication in recent Brazilian contributions in this area.

  7. RESEARCH ON PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM IN BRAZIL: A survey of the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Alyne Barbosa Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007 brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems, such as forums, blogs, and sites of the open source type. In this study we produce a preliminary survey of thematic concentration and methodologies of research on blogs and other interactive models of journalistic publication in recent Brazilian contributions in this area.

  8. Fourth annual state of logistics survey for South Africa 2007: logistics for regional growth and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ittmann1_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 110551 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Ittmann1_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 2007 Logistics for regional... freight, based on the average carrying capacities of counted truck types. A synoptic overview of logistics practices and the health and maturity of the South African industry and supply chains: Integration of existing surveys from a supply chain...

  9. School-based surveys of malaria in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia: a rapid survey method for malaria in low transmission settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pullan Rachel L

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, malaria transmission is seasonal and unstable, with both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax endemic. Such spatial and temporal clustering of malaria only serves to underscore the importance of regularly collecting up-to-date malaria surveillance data to inform decision-making in malaria control. Cross-sectional school-based malaria surveys were conducted across Oromia Regional State to generate up-to-date data for planning malaria control interventions, as well as monitoring and evaluation of operational programme implementation. Methods Two hundred primary schools were randomly selected using a stratified and weighted sampling frame; 100 children aged five to 18 years were then randomly chosen within each school. Surveys were carried out in May 2009 and from October to December 2009, to coincide with the peak of malaria transmission in different parts of Oromia. Each child was tested for malaria by expert microscopy, their haemoglobin measured and a simple questionnaire completed. Satellite-derived environmental data were used to assess ecological correlates of Plasmodium infection; Bayesian geostatistical methods and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic were employed to investigate spatial heterogeneity. Results A total 20,899 children from 197 schools provided blood samples, two selected schools were inaccessible and one school refused to participate. The overall prevalence of Plasmodium infection was found to be 0.56% (95% CI: 0.46-0.67%, with 53% of infections due to P. falciparum and 47% due to P. vivax. Of children surveyed, 17.6% (95% CI: 17.0-18.1% were anaemic, while 46% reported sleeping under a mosquito net the previous night. Malaria was found at 30 (15% schools to a maximum elevation of 2,187 metres, with school-level Plasmodium prevalence ranging between 0% and 14.5%. Although environmental variables were only weakly associated with P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, clusters of infection

  10. Prospect- and Mine-Related Features from U.S. Geological Survey 7.5- and 15-Minute Topographic Quadrangle Maps of the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are part of a larger USGS project to develop an updated geospatial database of mines, mineral deposits and mineral regions in the United States. Mine and...

  11. Values and motivations of private forest owners in the United States: a framework based on open-ended responses in the national woodland owner survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Brett J. Butler; Stanley T. Asah

    2009-01-01

    The National Woodland Owner Survey (NWOS) is a recurring and comprehensive national survey of private forest landowners in the United States, and is a social complement to the U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program's biologic resource inventory. An open-ended question in the NWOS explores private forest owners' motivations and values...

  12. Mining the pharmacogenomics literature—a survey of the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Garten, Yael; Shah, Nigam H.

    2012-01-01

    This article surveys efforts on text mining of the pharmacogenomics literature, mainly from the period 2008 to 2011. Pharmacogenomics (or pharmacogenetics) is the field that studies how human genetic variation impacts drug response. Therefore, publications span the intersection of research in genotypes, phenotypes and pharmacology, a topic that has increasingly become a focus of active research in recent years. This survey covers efforts dealing with the automatic recognition of relevant named entities (e.g. genes, gene variants and proteins, diseases and other pathological phenomena, drugs and other chemicals relevant for medical treatment), as well as various forms of relations between them. A wide range of text genres is considered, such as scientific publications (abstracts, as well as full texts), patent texts and clinical narratives. We also discuss infrastructure and resources needed for advanced text analytics, e.g. document corpora annotated with corresponding semantic metadata (gold standards and training data), biomedical terminologies and ontologies providing domain-specific background knowledge at different levels of formality and specificity, software architectures for building complex and scalable text analytics pipelines and Web services grounded to them, as well as comprehensive ways to disseminate and interact with the typically huge amounts of semiformal knowledge structures extracted by text mining tools. Finally, we consider some of the novel applications that have already been developed in the field of pharmacogenomic text mining and point out perspectives for future research. PMID:22833496

  13. A survey of the current utilization of asynchronous education among emergency medicine residents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Mike; Schlein, Sarah; Doctor, Shaneen; Stroud, Susan; Dawson, Matthew; Fix, Megan

    2014-04-01

    Medical education is transitioning from traditional learning methods. Resident interest in easily accessible education materials is forcing educators to reevaluate teaching methodology. To determine emergency medicine residents' current methods of and preferences for obtaining medical knowledge, the authors created a survey and sent it to residents, at all levels of training throughout the United States, whose e-mail addresses were available via their residency's official Web site (June-December 2012). The eight-question voluntary survey asked respondents about demographics, their use of extracurricular time, and the materials they perceived as most beneficial. The authors used descriptive statistics to analyze results. Of the 401 residents who received the e-mailed survey, 226 (56.3%) completed it. Of these, 97.7% reported spending at least one hour per week engaging in extracurricular education, and 34.5% reported spending two to four hours per week (P journals (36.5%), and Google (33.8%; P educators must engage with current learners to guide appropriate use of these.

  14. National Estimates of Marijuana Use and Related Indicators - National Survey on Drug Use and Health, United States, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Mattson, Margaret E; Schauer, Gillian; McAfee, Tim; Grant, Althea; Lyerla, Rob

    2016-09-02

    In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. In 2013, 7.5% (19.8 million) of the U.S. population aged ≥12 years reported using marijuana during the preceding month. Because of certain state-level policies that have legalized marijuana for medical or recreational use, population-based data on marijuana use and other related indicators are needed to help monitor behavioral health changes in the United States. 2002-2014. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) is a national- and state-level survey of a representative sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population aged ≥12 years. NSDUH collects information about the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco; initiation of substance use; frequency of substance use; substance dependence and abuse; perception of substance harm risk or no risk; and other related behavioral health indicators. This report describes national trends for selected marijuana use and related indicators, including prevalence of marijuana use; initiation; perception of harm risk, approval, and attitudes; perception of availability and mode of acquisition; dependence and abuse; and perception of legal penalty for marijuana possession. In 2014, a total of 2.5 million persons aged ≥12 years had used marijuana for the first time during the preceding 12 months, an average of approximately 7,000 new users each day. During 2002-2014, the prevalence of marijuana use during the past month, past year, and daily or almost daily increased among persons aged ≥18 years, but not among those aged 12-17 years. Among persons aged ≥12 years, the prevalence of perceived great risk from smoking marijuana once or twice a week and once a month decreased and the prevalence of perceived no risk increased. The prevalence of past year marijuana dependence and abuse decreased, except among persons aged ≥26 years. Among persons aged ≥12 years, the percentage reporting that marijuana was fairly easy or very easy

  15. A Survey of Associate of Arts and Associate of Science Degree Programs in 13 Western States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Gerald

    The Associate of Arts and Associate of Science degree programs offered by selected colleges and universities in 13 western states were examined to determine relevant information regarding the composition of the degrees offered. The study specifically concerned: the purpose of the degree, the title assigned to the degree, the length of time…

  16. Reading Preparation of Secondary ELA Teachers: A U.S. Survey of State Licensure Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovette, Gail E.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary teacher preparation in reading in the U.S. has received minimal attention from the research community despite the almost universal implementation of the Common Core State Standards. In response, numerous publications have demanded that secondary teachers be fully prepared to support the needs of struggling readers, especially ELA…

  17. Medical abortion practices: a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (NAF) members

  18. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation

  19. Causes of stillbirth in a community survey in Gombe State | Alkali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes of stillbirth include unbooked and early pregnanacies as well as deliveries unattended to by trained health personnel. Conclusion: Lack of antenatal Care, home delivery and teenage pregnancy were important factors contributing to high still birth rate in Dukku LGA of Gombe State. Key Words: Stillbirth, Perinatal, ...

  20. A survey of reliability of tillage equipment in Osun State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliability of tillage equipment in Osun State, Nigeria was investigated by using Weibull function. Frequencies of breakdown and time of failure of the implements were collected and analyzed using Weibull method. Results obtained showed that harrows were the most reliable followed by ridger and the plough respectively.

  1. A Nutritional Survey of Children in Head Start Centers in Central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Marie Z.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a questionnaire in evaluating the nutritional status of Head Start children in rural, small city, and urban areas in central United States. The questionnaire, which was primarily concerned with the food preferences of the children, was filled out by the mother of each of the 154…

  2. Survey of Current Practices in Field Experience Education. Michigan State University 1977-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, John S.

    During the 1978 winter term, the Learning and Evaluation Service of Michigan State University initiated, in collaboration with the Council for the Advancement of Experiential Learning (CAEL), an institutional development program in field experience education. Purposes of the study were to describe the nature and extent of field experience…

  3. A Survey and Evaluation of Medical Libraries in Ekiti State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper takes a look at the medical libraries of selected health establishments in Ekiti State, Nigeria and critically examines the levels of fitness of these libraries in supporting the objectives of their parent bodies. The paper seeks to find out the extent to which the libraries satisfy the information needs of the health workers, ...

  4. A survey of sleeping sickness in parts of Benue State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , aimed at case detection and treatment was carried out in Gboko, Buruku, Gwer and Ushongo Local GovernmentAreas (LGAs) of Benue State, Nigeria in April 2009.A total of 820 individuals aged 2-87 years were clinically examined for ...

  5. Characteristics of Inclusive Faith Communities: A Preliminary Survey of Inclusive Practices in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Megan M.; Kane, Lydia W.; Taylor, Courtney; Francis, Susan H.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although participation in faith communities is important to many individuals with disabilities, few studies have examined differences between communities that are more (versus less) inclusive. This study investigated characteristics of faith communities in the United States related to greater inclusion. Methods: Participants were 160…

  6. a survey of the artisanal fisheries of kontagora reservoir, niger state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    FAO (1991): FAO year book fisheries statistic catches and landing 1989, fisheries series 36 and FAO. Statistic Series 68. Rome, FAO. FAO (1995). The State of World Fisheries and. Aquaculture. Food and. Agricultural. Organization of the United Nations. Publications. 262pp. FDF (2007). Fishery Statistics of Nigeria. Federal.

  7. A survey on current milk production and pricing in Sokoto state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central Research Laboratory

    and large-scale dairy farms in Sokoto State of north-western Nigeria. On breeds of cattle kept, based on farm numbers ... dairy cows giving an average milk yield of 461kg milk per cow over the year, which is only one fifth .... earning returns for the maintenance of farms and other aspects of livelihood. The products made from ...

  8. Nanotechnology and dermatology education in the United States: data from a pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Adam; Nasir, Adnan

    2011-09-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing discipline with important implications for consumers, patients, physicians and investigators. In an era when nanotechnology is being both incorporated into educational requirements for medical fields such as radiology and oncology and vigorously pursued and developed by cosmeceutical companies, dermatology is falling behind. A survey was conducted to ascertain knowledge, attitudes and perception of nanotechnology in dermatology teaching programs. To ascertain baseline knowledge, attitudes and preceptions regarding nanotechnology among dermatology trainees, dermatology investigators and dermatology faculty in US academic medical centers, an online survey was sent out to random members of the dermatology community and data analyzed (100 participants, 23% response rate). Participants responded to a questionnaire on a five-point scale ranging from strongly disagree, disagree, uncertain, agree, to strongly agree. Due to the low response rate, strongly disagree/disagree and strongly agree/agree values were combined and compared to uncertain responses. Approximately equal numbers of faculty vs. chief residents responded to the survery (52% vs. 47.75%, respectively). The majority of respondents had not previously attended any educational activity on nanotechnology (69.57%). The majority of participants agreed that more education on nanotechnology for dermatologists is needed (78.26% agreed vs. 21.74% uncertain) and that it should be incorporated into the residency training curriculum (60.87% agree vs. 13.04% disagree). Participants mostly agreed that nanotechnology research can contribute to better fundamental understanding of skin disease (78.26%), to advances in the diagnosis of skin disease (73.91%) and to therapies (78.26%). Participants mostly agreed that more research is needed (82.60%) and that this research should be funded (78.26%). Not surprisingly, respondents were uncertain with respect to issues of nanotechnology safety both

  9. The state of leadership education in US medical schools: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Sabrina M; Clyne, Brian; Resnick-Ault, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, there have been increasing calls for physicians to develop the capabilities to lead health care transformation. Many experts and authors have suggested that leadership education should begin during medical school; however, little information exists regarding the presence or nature of undergraduate medical education leadership curricula in the USA. This study sought to determine the prevalence of formal leadership education in US undergraduate medical schools, as well as the delivery methods and degree of student participation. A web-based survey of medical education deans from US allopathic medical schools (N = 144) was administered from November 2014 to February 2015. The survey included questions on the presence of leadership curricula, delivery format, student participation rates, and forms of recognition. Eighty-eight surveys were completed; the majority (85%) of respondents were associate or assistant deans for medical education. Approximately half (54.5%) of respondents reported leadership curricula within their medical schools. Of those, 34.8% (16/46) were required; 32.6% (15/46) were elective; and 32.6% (15/46) indicated both required and elective components. Of schools with formal leadership curricula ​(n = 48), the common forms of content delivery were: mentoring programs (65.1%); dual degree programs (54.5%); workshops (48.8%); seminar/lecture series (41.9%); courses (41.9%); or single seminars (18.6%). Nineteen percent of institutions offer longitudinal leadership education throughout medical school. Common forms of recognition for leadership education were: course credit (48.8%); dual degrees (37.2%); certificates of completion (18.6%); and transcript notations (7.0%). This study indicates that formal leadership education exists in more than half of US allopathic medical schools, suggesting it is an educational priority. Program format, student participation, delivery methods, and recognition varied considerably

  10. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, III, Richard F.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  11. State-of-the-art survey of joinability of materials for OTEC heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, R. J.

    1978-12-01

    Literature and industrial sources were surveyed to assess, on the basis of apparent economics and reliability, the joinability of both shell-and-tube and compact ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) heat exchangers. A no-leak requirement is mandatory to prevent mixing seawater and the ammonia working fluid. The operating temperature range considered is 7 to 28/sup 0/C (45 to 82/sup 0/F). Materials evaluated were aluminum, titanium, copper--nickel, AL-6X austenitic stainless steel, singly and in combination with steel and concrete. Many types of welding and brazing processes, roller expansion, magnaforming, O-ring sealing, and adhesive bonding were considered. The automatic gas tungsten-arc welding process and explosion welding processes are the only two joining processes that now appear to offer the high reliability required of no-leak shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Of these two processes, the gas tungsten-arc welding process appears to be the more economically attractive.

  12. Multi-state survey of healthcare-associated infections in acute care hospitals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortaleza, C Magno Castelo Branco; Padoveze, M C; Kiffer, C R Veiga; Barth, A L; Carneiro, Irna C do Rosário Souza; Giamberardino, H I Garcia; Rodrigues, J L Nobre; Santos Filho, L; de Mello, M J Gonçalves; Pereira, M Severino; Gontijo Filho, P Pinto; Rocha, M; Servolo de Medeiros, E A; Pignatari, A C Campos

    2017-06-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) challenge public health in developing countries such as Brazil, which harbour social inequalities and variations in the complexity of healthcare and regional development. To describe the prevalence of HCAIs in hospitals in a sample of hospitals in Brazil. A prevalence survey conducted in 2011-13 enrolled 152 hospitals from the five macro-regions in Brazil. Hospitals were classified as large (≥200 beds), medium (50-199 beds) or small sized (48 h of admission to the study hospitals at the time of the survey were included. Trained epidemiologist nurses visited each hospital and collected data on HCAIs, subjects' demographics, and invasive procedures. Univariate and multivariate techniques were used for data analysis. The overall HCAI prevalence was 10.8%. Most frequent infection sites were pneumonia (3.6%) and bloodstream infections (2.8%). Surgical site infections were found in 1.5% of the whole sample, but in 9.8% of subjects who underwent surgical procedures. The overall prevalence was greater for reference (12.6%) and large hospitals (13.5%), whereas medium- and small-sized hospitals presented rates of 7.7% and 5.5%, respectively. Only minor differences were noticed among hospitals from different macro-regions. Patients in intensive care units, using invasive devices or at extremes of age were at greater risk for HCAIs. Prevalence rates were high in all geographic regions and hospital sizes. HCAIs must be a priority in the public health agenda of developing countries. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. State of undergraduate education in emergency medicine: a national survey of clerkship directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Sorabh; Way, David P; Wald, David A; Fisher, Jonathan; Ander, Douglas S; Thibodeau, Lorraine; Manthey, David E

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of emergency medicine (EM) has rapidly changed over the past 10 years, resulting in greater involvement of the specialty in undergraduate medical education. The authors sought to present a review of how, when, and where EM is currently taught in U.S. medical schools and to include general program characteristics, such as number of required clerkships, clinical expectations and experiences, use of the national curriculum guide, didactic content, and methods of assessment and grading. The authors surveyed representatives of the 128 U.S. allopathic medical schools on medical education in 2010. Contacts were drawn from established databases, direct inquiries, and medical school websites. Up to five attempts were made to contact representatives through e-mail and telephone. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. The survey response rate was 83.6%. Fifty-two percent of medical schools now require students to complete EM clerkships. Required EM clerkships usually last 4 weeks and take place during the fourth year of medical school. They require students to complete a mean (±SD) of 14.3 (±2.8) shifts, which average 8.9 (±1.4) hours in length. Programs include a mean (±SD) of 18 (±10.4) hours of didactics. Approximately 60% of respondents report that both residents and attending physicians precept students. Assessments of students primarily include written clinical performance assessments and end-of-rotation written tests. These assessments contribute 66.8 and 24.5%, respectively, to the clerkship grade. Currently more than half of all U.S. medical schools require EM clerkships in their undergraduate medical curricula. This article reports an overview of EM programs at the undergraduate level. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  14. Medical-surgical activity and the current state of training of urology residents in Spain: Results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Socarrás, M E; Gómez Rivas, J; García-Sanz, M; Pesquera, L; Tortolero-Blanco, L; Ciappara, M; Melnick, A; Colombo, J; Patruno, G; Serrano-Pascual, Á; Bachiller-Burgos, J; Cozar-Olmo, J M

    To determine the actual state of medical-surgical activity and training for urology residents in Spain. We designed 2 anonymous surveys, which were uploaded with the Google Docs© tool so that the respondents could answer the surveys online. The online collection period was September 2015 to January 2016. The collected data were processing using the statistical programme IBM SPSS for Windows, Version 21.0 and the programme R version 3.2.3. The total number of responders was 163. In reference to the number of physically present on-call residents, the majority conducted between 4 and 6 shifts a month. Eighty-four of those surveyed indicated that they were in the operating room less than 20hours a week, and 43 of these even less than 10hours. Thirty percent of those surveyed had not performed any transurethral resection. The majority had performed at least one prostatic adenomectomy, but had not performed any major oncologic procedure, either laparoscopically or openly. In the questions concerning training and training courses, we found that most of the residents trained in laparoscopy at the hospital or at home. The overall satisfaction for the residence was assessed at 2.6. Based on this score, the overall satisfaction could be considered moderate. Efforts should be directed towards standardising the acquisition of surgical and nonsurgical skills, ensuring access to training courses, establishing a minimum of required operations per year and achieving an objective assessment of the specialty. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Hired crop worker injuries on farms in the United States: A comparison of two survey periods from the National Agricultural Workers Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonozzi, Theresa R; Layne, Larry A

    2016-05-01

    Hired crop workers in the United States are at high risk of occupational injury. Targeted surveillance is important for effective occupational safety efforts. The National Agricultural Workers Survey was utilized to collect injury data during the years 1999, 2002-2004 (period I) and 2008-2010 (period II). The overall injury rate declined between the two periods from 4.3 to 2.9/100 per full-time week-based equivalents (FTEWB ). Injury rates remained high during both periods for those with greater than 20 years farm experience (3.6 and 3.8/100 FTEWB ) and pesticide handling work (4.9 and 5.0/100 FTEWB ). Overexertion, contact with objects and equipment, and falls from height were common during both periods. Older workers comprised a greater proportion of injury cases in period II. Overexertion that leads to sprains/strains, dangerous ladder use, and pesticide use should be targeted as important risk exposures on the farm. © 2016 Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. State of art survey for design of medium frequency high power transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaisambhayana, Sriram; Dincan, Catalin; Shuyu, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Medium and high frequency, high power transformers play an important role in footprint reduction along with their functions of galvanic isolation, and voltage transformation in all high power converters typically used in traction power systems, offshore wind plant power converters, and solid state...... transformer based distribution system grids. This state of art report analysis the various materials and design tradeoffs that govern the electromagnetic behavior and loss mechanisms of the medium frequency transformer applications. Typical winding and core geometries that have been reported extensively...... in the literature are described, and some design procedures and flow charts are analyzed including specific optimization routines. Estimation of core loss at high frequency using Steinmetz method and other modified methods are shown in detail. Thermal modelling including static and dynamic methods available...

  17. A Survey on Postsecondary Korean Language Programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Students of the less commonly taught languages (LCTLs retain higher motivation in learning (Bao & Lee, 2012; Brown, 2009; Liu & Shibata, 2008; Murphy, Back, & Garrett-Rucks, 2009; Nunn, 2013, but it is uncertain to what extent the LCTL programs are equipped to provide an education that meets students’ expectations. In this study, I diagnosed various aspects of the organization and management of Korean programs in U.S. postsecondary education as an example case. I contacted 104 Korean language program coordinators in the United States and collected responses from 34 in spring 2015. I reported on issues related to faculty, course curricula, proficiency goals, recent and projected changes in the program, and the difficulties that the program coordinators faced. Further, I discussed the strengths and robustness of Korean language education in the United States, and highlighted factors that may inhibit potential improvement and constructive changes.

  18. Prevalence and associated factors for suicidal ideation in the Lagos State Mental Health Survey, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bolanle A.; Coker, Olurotimi A.; Atilola, Olayinka; Mathew P. Zachariah; Olugbile, Olufemi; Fasawe, Adedolapo; Idris, Olajide

    2016-01-01

    Background To combat the increasing rate of suicide, basic data on suicidal behaviours reflecting the uniqueness of the locality are needed in sub-Saharan Africa. Aims To assess the prevalence of suicidal ideation and associated factors. Method Adults (n=11 246) from the five administrative divisions of Lagos State completed questionnaires detailing suicidal ideation, socio-demographic details, common mental disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms), alcohol and psychoactive substa...

  19. Mental health, work incapacity and State transfers: an analysis of the British Household Panel Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Whittaker, W; Sutton, M.

    2010-01-01

    The UK has experienced substantial increases in the number of individuals claiming work incapacity benefit (IB) and the proportion of people claiming IB for mental health reasons. Following high-profile reports claiming that intervention would cost the State nothing, the Government has increased the availability of psychological therapies. The cost-neutrality claim relied on two statistics: the proportion of IB claimants diagnosed with mental and behavioural disorders; and estimates of the co...

  20. Retrospective survey of rabies in Paraíba State, Brazil, from 2004 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sóstenes Leite de Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to perform a retrospective study of rabies in herbivores in the state of Paraíba, Brazil, in order to evaluate epidemiological aspects of the disease from 2004 to 2011. Data on notification of rabies cases included in the Continental Epidemiological Surveillance System (SIVCONT were used. During the study period samples from 17,454 animals from Brazil were sent to rabies diagnosis, from which 43 (0.25% samples from the state of Paraiba, and all of them were positive for rabies. The frequency of rabies outbreaks by county ranged from 2.3% to 11.6%. The distribution of cases ranged according to species affected, with predominance in cattle (93%, followed by horses (4.7% and one bat (2.3% (p < 0.001. It was observed a predominance of positive cases when the notification was made by owners (53.5%, followed by others (39.5% and surveillance (7% (p = 0.001. Related to occurrence of outbreaks by month in all years of the study period, the frequencies ranged from 4.7% in August to 14% in April. It was found predominance of outbreaks in 2010 (41.9%, with significant differences among years (p < 0.001. In conclusion, it is suggested the adoption of strategic measures for the control of rabies and continuous surveillance of nervous diseases in herbivores in the state of Paraíba.

  1. Honoring our donors: a survey of memorial ceremonies in United States anatomy programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Trahern W; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Many anatomy programs that incorporate dissection of donated human bodies hold memorial ceremonies of gratitude towards body donors. The content of these ceremonies may include learners' reflections on mortality, respect, altruism, and personal growth told through various humanities modalities. The task of planning is usually student- and faculty-led with participation from other health care students. Objective information on current memorial ceremonies for body donors in anatomy programs in the United States appears to be lacking. The number of programs in the United States that currently plan these memorial ceremonies and information on trends in programs undertaking such ceremonies remain unknown. Gross anatomy program directors throughout the United States were contacted and asked to respond to a voluntary questionnaire on memorial ceremonies held at their institution. The results (response rate 68.2%) indicated that a majority of human anatomy programs (95.5%) hold memorial ceremonies. These ceremonies are, for the most part, student-driven and nondenominational or secular in nature. Participants heavily rely upon speech, music, poetry, and written essays, with a small inclusion of other humanities modalities, such as dance or visual art, to explore a variety of themes during these ceremonies. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. School-based Yoga Programs in the United States: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzer, Bethany; Ebert, Marina; Telles, Shirley; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.

    2016-01-01

    Context Substantial interest has begun to emerge around the implementation of yoga interventions in schools. Researchers have found that yoga practices may enhance skills such as self-regulation and prosocial behavior, and lead to improvements in students’ performance. These researchers, therefore, have proposed that contemplative practices have the potential to play a crucial role in enhancing the quality of US public education. Objective The purpose of the present study was to provide a summary and comparison of school-based yoga programs in the United States. Design Online, listserv, and database searches were conducted to identify programs, and information was collected regarding each program’s scope of work, curriculum characteristics, teacher-certification and training requirements, implementation models, modes of operation, and geographical regions. Setting The online, listserv, and database searches took place in Boston, MA, USA, and New Haven, CT, USA. Results Thirty-six programs were identified that offer yoga in more than 940 schools across the United States, and more than 5400 instructors have been trained by these programs to offer yoga in educational settings. Despite some variability in the exact mode of implementation, training requirements, locations served, and grades covered, the majority of the programs share a common goal of teaching 4 basic elements of yoga: (1) physical postures, (2) breathing exercises, (3) relaxation techniques, and (4) mindfulness and meditation practices. The programs also teach a variety of additional educational, social-emotional, and didactic techniques to enhance students’ mental and physical health and behavior. Conclusions The fact that the present study was able to find a relatively large number of formal, school-based yoga programs currently being implemented in the United States suggests that the programs may be acceptable and feasible to implement. The results also suggest that the popularity of school

  3. Serological survey of Neospora caninum in dairy herds from Parauapebas, State of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Laurindo Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a coccidian protozoan that affects cattle worldwide causing economic losses. To survey the frequency of anti-N. caninum antibodies in dairy herds in the municipality of Parauapebas, Southeast of Pará, samples of 465 sera from 45 farms were subjected to indirect immunofluorescence assay (cutoff 1:100. Anti-N. caninum antibodies were found with a frequency of 13,33% with the following titer distribution: 27 (43,55% for titer 100; 14 (22,58% for 200; 16 (25,80% for 400, and 5 (8,07% for 800; no serum titers more than 800 was noted, but at least one positive animal was present in most farms. The highest frequency occurred among females, with no significant difference in frequency between the sexes (Fisher exact test = 0,59, P = 0,99; 2-year-old animals had the highest frequency, although their numbers were lesser than those aged >5 years, with no significant difference in frequency between the age groups (?2 = 2,1, P = 0,71. No significant difference was observed between the frequency and occurrence of abortion (?2 = 2,3, P = 0,13 and frequency and presence of dogs in the farms (?2 = 0,26, P = 0,60. Actions toward health monitoring are recommended to prevent the entry of new sources of N. caninum and to control its spread within herds.

  4. Vascularized Composite Allograft Donation and Transplantation: A Survey of Public Attitudes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, J R; Tomich, D; Fleishman, A; Glazier, A K

    2017-10-01

    Vascularized composite allograft (VCA) transplantation has emerged as a groundbreaking surgical intervention to return identity and function following traumatic injury, congenital deformity, or disfigurement. While public attitudes toward traditional organ/tissue donation are favorable, little is known about attitudes toward VCA donation and transplantation. A survey was conducted of 1485 U.S. residents in August 2016 to assess VCA donation attitudes. Participants also completed the Revised Health Care System Distrust Scale. Most respondents were willing to donate hands/forearms (67.4%) and legs (66.8%), and almost half (48.0%) were willing to donate the face. Three-quarters (74.4%) of women were willing to donate the uterus; 54.4% of men were willing to donate the penis. VCA donation willingness was more likely among whites and Hispanics (p media exposure to VCA transplantation (p = 0.003). Many who opposed VCA donation expressed concerns about psychological discomfort, mutilation, identity loss, and the reaction of others to seeing familiar body parts on a stranger. Attitudes toward VCA donation are favorable overall, despite limited exposure to VCA messaging and confusion about how VCA donation occurs. These findings may help guide the development and implementation of VCA public education campaigns. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Attitudes to in vitro meat: A survey of potential consumers in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Wilks

    Full Text Available Positivity towards meat consumption remains strong, despite evidence of negative environmental and ethical outcomes. Although awareness of these repercussions is rising, there is still public resistance to removing meat from our diets. One potential method to alleviate these effects is to produce in vitro meat: meat grown in a laboratory that does not carry the same environmental or ethical concerns. However, there is limited research examining public attitudes towards in vitro meat, thus we know little about the capacity for it be accepted by consumers. This study aimed to examine perceptions of in vitro meat and identify potential barriers that might prevent engagement. Through conducting an online survey with US participants, we identified that although most respondents were willing to try in vitro meat, only one third were definitely or probably willing to eat in vitro meat regularly or as a replacement for farmed meat. Men were more receptive to it than women, as were politically liberal respondents compared with conservative ones. Vegetarians and vegans were more likely to perceive benefits compared to farmed meat, but they were less likely to want to try it than meat eaters. The main concerns were an anticipated high price, limited taste and appeal and a concern that the product was unnatural. It is concluded that people in the USA are likely to try in vitro meat, but few believed that it would replace farmed meat in their diet.

  6. Attitudes to in vitro meat: A survey of potential consumers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Matti; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-01-01

    Positivity towards meat consumption remains strong, despite evidence of negative environmental and ethical outcomes. Although awareness of these repercussions is rising, there is still public resistance to removing meat from our diets. One potential method to alleviate these effects is to produce in vitro meat: meat grown in a laboratory that does not carry the same environmental or ethical concerns. However, there is limited research examining public attitudes towards in vitro meat, thus we know little about the capacity for it be accepted by consumers. This study aimed to examine perceptions of in vitro meat and identify potential barriers that might prevent engagement. Through conducting an online survey with US participants, we identified that although most respondents were willing to try in vitro meat, only one third were definitely or probably willing to eat in vitro meat regularly or as a replacement for farmed meat. Men were more receptive to it than women, as were politically liberal respondents compared with conservative ones. Vegetarians and vegans were more likely to perceive benefits compared to farmed meat, but they were less likely to want to try it than meat eaters. The main concerns were an anticipated high price, limited taste and appeal and a concern that the product was unnatural. It is concluded that people in the USA are likely to try in vitro meat, but few believed that it would replace farmed meat in their diet.

  7. The state of web-based research: A survey and call for inclusion in curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, John H; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-10-01

    The first papers that reported on conducting psychological research on the web were presented at the Society for Computers in Psychology conference 20 years ago, in 1996. Since that time, there has been an explosive increase in the number of studies that use the web for data collection. As such, it seems a good time, 20 years on, to examine the health and adoption of sound practices of research on the web. The number of studies conducted online has increased dramatically. Overall, it seems that the web can be a method for conducting valid psychological studies. However, it is less clear that students and researchers are aware of the nature of web research. While many studies are well conducted, there is also a certain laxness appearing regarding the design and conduct of online studies. This laxness appears both anecdotally to the authors as managers of large sites for posting links to online studies, and in a survey of current researchers. One of the deficiencies discovered is that there is no coherent approach to educating researchers as to the unique features of web research.

  8. A survey of Southeastern United States veterinarians' preferences for managing cats with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jo R; Vrono, Zak; Rapoport, Gregg S; Turek, Michelle M; Creevy, Kate E

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated primary practitioners' perceptions of managing feline diabetics. Surveys distributed during local continuing education events achieved a response rate of 46% (90/195). A mean of 74% feline diabetics required chronic insulin; 26% were transient diabetics. Choice of insulin was most influenced by duration of action: human recombinant protamine zinc insulin was ranked first (42%) and glargine second (27%). Dietary management was always/usually recommended by 97% respondents, with prescription or proprietary low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets recommended in 93% responses. More recent graduates (P=0.0419), those who worked in larger practices (P=0.0315), and those who saw more transient diabetics (P=0.0288) were more likely to recommend dietary change. In-house blood glucose curves (BGCs) were the most popular method of assessing glycemic control, while at-home BGCs were least popular, although their use correlated positively with annual diabetic caseload (r=0.43, P=0.0239). Owners mishandling insulin was cited as the most common cause of poor glycemic control, while clinical signs of acromegaly were rarely recognized.

  9. Alcohol's Harm to Children: Findings from the 2015 United States National Alcohol's Harm to Others Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lauren M; Nayak, Madhabika B; Greenfield, Thomas K; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J

    2017-05-01

    To examine the prevalence and severity of alcohol's harm to children in the US and the relationship of the harmer to the child, and to examine caregivers' sociodemographic characteristics, alcohol use, and exposure to harm due to a drinking spouse/partner or other family member as risk factors for alcohol's harm to children. We report data on 764 caregivers (defined as persons with parental responsibility for at least 1 child aged ≤17 years) from the 2015 National Alcohol's Harm to Others Survey, a dual-frame national sample of US adults. Overall 7.4% of caregivers reported alcohol's harm to children in the past year. Risk factors for alcohol's harm to children included the caregiver's own experience of alcohol's harm from a spouse/partner or other family member. Caregivers with a heavy drinker in the household were significantly more likely to report harm to children. A caregiver's own heavy drinking was not a significant risk factor for children in his or her care. Alcohol places a substantial burden on children in the US. Although a caregiver's own drinking can harm children, other drinkers also increase the risk of alcohol's harm to children. Screening caregivers to determine whether there is a heavy drinker in the household may help reduce alcohol's harm in the family without stigmatizing caregivers, who themselves may not be heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wind energy in Poland – History, current state, surveys, Renewable Energy Sources Act, SWOT analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Iglińska, Anna; Skrzatek, Mateusz; Buczkowski, Roman; Igliński, Bartłomiej; Koziński, Grzegorz Jan

    2016-01-01

    The history, current state and prospects for the development of the wind power sector in Poland have been presented. Poland has a long tradition of using wooden windmills, mainly post mills for economic purposes. Basing on the data of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, the speed of wind was calculated in Poland at a height of 100 m. The highest wind speed in Poland is noted in the northern part, the central part and, most of all, in the south-western part. In the December 2015...

  11. Drinking and driving in the United States: comparing results from the 2007 and 1996 National Roadside Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John H; Voas, Robert B; Romano, Eduardo; Yao, Jie; Berning, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (a) use data from the 2007 National Roadside Survey (NRS) to determine the characteristics of weekend nighttime drivers with positive blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) on U.S. roads in 2007; (b) determine the relationship of the driving environment and trip characteristics associated with drinking drivers; and (c) compare the findings for the 2007 NRS with those for the 1996 NRS. Like the 1996 NRS, the 2007 NRS used a stratified random national roadside survey sample of the contiguous 48 states and collected nighttime data on Fridays and Saturdays between 10 p.m. and 3 a.m. Officers directed 8384 drivers into off-road parking areas where our research team asked them to participate in the survey. Of those approached, 7159 (85.4%) provided a breath test. Results revealed that 12 percent of the nighttime drivers had positive BACs, and of those, 2 percent were higher than the 0.08 BAC illegal limit in the United States. Since the 1996 NRS, we found significant reductions in the percentage of BAC-positive drivers across different demographic groups. Age was among the most significant factors associated with a weekend driver having a positive BAC. The probability that a driver would be drinking peaked in the 21- to 25-year-old age group. Male drivers were more likely than female drivers to be drinking, and Asian and Hispanic drivers were less likely than white drivers to be drinking. Drinking drivers were more likely to be driving short distances (5 or fewer miles) late at night (between 1 and 3 a.m.) and to be coming from a bar or restaurant. Finally, 26 percent of the drivers who reported that they would drive less than 5 miles on the night of the survey had positive BACs, compared to only 16 percent who indicated that they would drive between 6 and 20 miles and 10 percent who planned to drive more than 20 miles. The 2007 NRS provides another benchmark in the 4-decade record of drinking drivers on American roads and provides a

  12. A multi-state survey of consumer food-handling and food-consumption practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altekruse, S F; Yang, S; Timbo, B B; Angulo, F J

    1999-04-01

    In the United States, foodborne infections cause an estimated 6.5-33 million illnesses a year. Also included in the burden of foodborne illnesses are sequelae such as hemolytic uremic syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and reactive arthritis. Surveillance for risky food-handling and food-consumption practices can be used to identify high-risk populations, develop educational efforts, and evaluate progress toward risk reduction. In 1995 and 1996, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System interviews of 19,356 adults in eight states (1995: Colorado, Florida, Missouri, New York, and Tennessee; 1996: Indiana, New Jersey, and South Dakota) included questions related to food-handling and/or food-consumption practices. Risky food-handling and food-consumption practices were not uncommon. Overall, 19% of respondents did not adequately wash hands or cutting boards after contact with raw meat or chicken. During the previous year, 20% ate pink hamburgers, 50% ate undercooked eggs, 8% ate raw oysters, and 1% drank raw milk. Men were more likely to report risky practices than women. The prevalence of most risky behaviors increased with increasing socioeconomic status. Targeted education efforts may reduce the frequency of these behaviors. Periodic surveillance can be used to assess effectiveness. In addition to consumer education, prevention efforts are needed throughout the food chain including on the farm, in processing, distribution, and at retail.

  13. Designing for Dissemination Among Public Health Researchers: Findings From a National Survey in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Julie A.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We have described the practice of designing for dissemination among researchers in the United States with the intent of identifying gaps and areas for improvement. Methods. In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 266 researchers using a search of the top 12 public health journals in PubMed and lists available from government-sponsored research. The sample involved scientists at universities, the National Institutes of Health, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Results. In the pooled sample, 73% of respondents estimated they spent less than 10% of their time on dissemination. About half of respondents (53%) had a person or team in their unit dedicated to dissemination. Seventeen percent of all respondents used a framework or theory to plan their dissemination activities. One third of respondents (34%) always or usually involved stakeholders in the research process. Conclusions. The current data and the existing literature suggest considerable room for improvement in designing for dissemination. PMID:23865659

  14. Twenty-Sixth Annual Report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey, 1904-1905

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, Charles D.

    1905-01-01

    IntroductionRemarks on the work of the yearBranches of workThe United States Geological Survey was created in 1879 for the purpose—as its name implies—of examining and reporting on the geologic structure and mineral resources and products of the national domain. To the adequate description of geologic formations and structure cartography is essential, and Congress early recognized this fact by making appropriations for the preparation of a geologic map of the United States. The topographic base map, in order to show with sufficient precision the relations of the geologic formations and the intricacies of the structure, must have a rather large scale and present considerable detail. No such map of this country existed in 1879, and its preparation was immediately begun. The waters of the country are of vast importance, and in a broad sense may be regarded as one of its greatest mineral resources. Hence, in the evolution of the work of the Survey, and especially in view of the great importance of the subject to the irrigation interests, Congress early began making appropriations for ascertaining the amount and quality of the surface and underground waters and when, in 1902, the service for the reclamation of arid lands was organized, that work naturally was placed in the hands of the Secretary of the Interior and by him intrusted to the Director of the Survey.The three great branches of work carried on by the Geological Survey are, therefore, the geologic, the topographic, and the hydrographic, and with these, more especially the latter, is conjoined the Reclamation Service ; publication and administration constitute necessary auxiliary branches. Along these great lines the work of the Survey has progressed without essential variation for many years. The changes made have been due to normal expansion rather than to radical departure in object or plan.State cooperationDuring the last fiscal year, State cooperation, as explained in previous reports, continued

  15. Impact of cough and common cold on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life in the United States: ACHOO Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Eccles, Ron; Blaiss, Michael S; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Although the common cold is among the most frequent ailments encountered in clinical practice, little is known about its impact on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life. The United States Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to inform healthcare providers on patients' experience of cough/cold. This analysis focuses on the impact of cough/cold on daily activity, productivity, and absenteeism; other results are reported elsewhere. ACHOO was a 36-question online survey. US adult Internet/mobile device users (N = 3333) were recruited in October 2012. Response quotas modeled on 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample; 75% of completed surveys were randomized as the primary analysis pool. Demographics and impact of cough/cold were reported using means, frequencies, and percentages. Weighted least squares regression or weighted paired t-test were used to identify factors associated with greater impact. The analysis pool (N = 2505) included 1342 (53.6%) women and 1163 (46.4%) men (mean ages, 46.7 and 45.9 years). A majority (84.7%) had ≥1 cold in the past year. Fifty-two percent said cough/cold impacted daily life a fair amount to a lot. Productivity decreased by a mean 26.4%, and 44.5% of respondents reported work/school absenteeism (usually 1-2 days) during a cold. Overall, 93% of survey participants reported sleep difficulty (slight to extreme) during a cough/cold. Among all respondents, 57% reported cough or nasal congestion as the symptoms making sleep difficult. Higher frequency of colds, more cold symptoms, difficulty sleeping, and worse overall health status correlated with greater impact on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life. Study limitations include the potential for recall bias given the retrospective nature of the self-reports. Furthermore, no attempt was made to distinguish treatment effects, if any, from those of the underlying cough/cold. To our knowledge, this is

  16. Hookah use among adolescents in the United States: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrock, Stephen M; Gordon, Terry; Zelikoff, Judith T; Weitzman, Michael

    2014-02-01

    U.S. adolescents increasingly use alternative tobacco products (ATPs), including hookah. No study has previously assessed correlates of adolescent hookah use in a nationally representative sample. Cross-sectional, nationally representative data of adolescents from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) were used. Student demographics and their use of, exposure to, and beliefs about tobacco were examined as correlates of hookah use. Of adolescents nationwide, 7.3% reported ever trying hookah and 2.6% reported using hookah within the past month. Increasing age was associated with trying hookah, but not current hookah use. Sex was unassociated with hookah use. Asians were most likely to have tried hookah; Hispanics and those of another race reported greater current hookah use. Hookah use increased with perceived ease of access to and willingness to try tobacco. Students with a hookah user at home were more likely to have tried hookah and to currently use hookah. Current cigarette use was not associated with current hookah use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.8-2.1), but was associated with trying hookah (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.2). Non-cigarette tobacco use was associated with trying hookah (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 2.1-3.5) and current hookah use (OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 2.7-8.7). A sizeable minority of U.S. adolescents use hookah, particularly those living with hookah users, those who use other ATPs, and those who perceive tobacco as easily accessible. Current cigarette use was not associated with current hookah use. Future studies assessing the dangers of hookah use and interventions to curb this emerging problem appear warranted.

  17. Current State of Laparoscopic Colonic Surgery in Austria: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugsberger, Bettina; Haas, Dietmar; Oppelt, Peter; Neuner, Ludwig; Shamiyeh, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that laparoscopic colonic resection has significant benefits in comparison with open approaches in patients with benign and malignant disease. The proportion of colonic and rectal resections conducted laparoscopically in Austria is not currently known; the aim of this study was to evaluate the current status of laparoscopic colonic surgery in Austria. A questionnaire was distributed to all general surgical departments in Austria. In collaboration with IMAS, an Austrian market research institute, an online survey was used to identify laparoscopic and open colorectal resections performed in 2013. The results were compared with data from the National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD), in which administrative in-patient data were also collected from all general surgical departments in Austria in 2013. Fifty-three of 99 surgical departments in Austria responded (53.5%); 4335 colonic and rectal resections were carried out in the participating departments, representing 50.5% of all NHMD-recorded colorectal resections (n = 8576) in Austria in 2013. Of these 4335 colonic and rectal resections, 2597 (59.9%) were carried out using an open approach, 1674 (38.6%) were laparoscopic, and an exact classification was not available for 64 (1.5%). Among the NHMD-recorded colonic and rectal resections, 6342 (73.9%) were carried out with an open approach, and 2234 (26.1%) were laparoscopic. The proportion of colorectal resections that are carried out laparoscopically is low (26.1%). Technical challenges and a learning curve with a significant number of cases may be reasons for the slow adoption of laparoscopic colonic surgery.

  18. Complementary and alternative therapies in hospice: The national home and hospice care survey: United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercovitz, Anita; Sengupta, Manisha; Jones, Adrienne; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D

    2011-01-19

    Objective-This report presents national estimates on the provision and use of complementary and alternative therapies (CAT) in hospice. Comparisons of organizational characteristics of hospice care providers are presented by whether the provider offered CAT. Comparisons of selected characteristics of patients discharged from hospice are presented by whether they received care from a provider that offered CAT, and whether they received a CAT service. Methods-Estimates are based on data from the 2007 National Home and Hospice Care Survey (NHHCS), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. Results-In 2007, 41.8% of hospice care providers offered CAT services, had a CAT provider on staff or under contract, or both. Among hospice care providers offering CAT, over one-half offered massage (71.7%), supportive group therapy (69.0%), music therapy (62.2%), pet therapy (58.6%), or guided imagery or relaxation (52.7%). Of the hospice care providers that offered CAT, 21.5% had at least one discharged hospice patient who received CAT during hospice care. Overall, 4.9% of all discharged hospice patients received at least one CAT from the hospice care provider. Over one-half of discharged patients (56.5%) received care from a provider that offered CAT, and of those, 8.6% received at least one CAT from the hospice care provider during their stays. There were no differences in demographics, health, functional status, or admission diagnoses between patients discharged from hospice either by whether they received care from a provider that offered CAT or whether they received CAT.

  19. 78 FR 11140 - BE-605: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States-Transactions of U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC011 BE-605: Quarterly Survey of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States--Transactions of U.S. Affiliate With Foreign Parent AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis... of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States-- Transactions of U.S. Affiliate with Foreign...

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the Mexican state of Guerrero: a seroepidemiological (ELISA) survey of 20 communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, N; Morales, A; Nava, E; Martinez, E; Rodriguez, I; Young, P; Howard, M K; Miles, M A

    1990-10-01

    The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyse 4372 blood samples from residents of 978 households in 20 representative communities in the Mexican state of Guerrero. Seventy-five individuals had very high titres of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. Samples with intermediate optical density values, despite overlapping values with several control positives on a single-well test, did not sustain their positivity at high dilutions. 'Intermediate positives' had a different distribution among the 20 communities to samples sustaining reactivity at high dilutions, indicating possible cross-reactivity with another infectious agent. The finding of seropositive children under the age of 10 years in the Costa Chica, Acapulco and the Tierra Caliente regions, with family clustering of putative cases, indicates that recent transmission must be considered. Very few people interviewed in the 20 communities knew the triatomine bug could transmit a disease.

  1. Preliminary state-of-the-art survey: mining techniques for salt and other rock types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This is a systematic review of the state-of-the-art of underground mining and excavation technology in the U.S. as applied to salt, limestone, shale, and granite. Chapter 2 covers the basic characteristics of these rock types, the most frequently used underground mining methods, shaft and slope entry construction, equipment, and safety and productivity data. Chapters 3 and 4 summarize underground salt and limestone mining in the U.S. Chapter 5 shows that large amounts of thick shale exist in the U.S., but little is mined. Chapter 6 discusses underground excavations into granite-type rocks. Suggestions are given in the last chapter for further study. (DLC)

  2. Baseline survey of level of quality control in medical radiology in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, S. O.; Egbe, N. O.; Inyang, I. S.; Oshi, D. O.

    2010-01-01

    Quality control (QC) in radiology is meant to ensure that accurate diagnoses are obtained with radiation doses kept as low as reasonably achievable. It is also a fundamental requirement by the Regulatory Authorities in issuing operational license to operators of radiology facilities. In Nigeria, QC issues in Radiation Medicine have recently been introduced and are being enforced by the Nigerian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NNRA). The level of QC practice in the radiology facilities in Cross River State, Nigeria was evaluated to obtain baseline information that could be relied on in the future to determine the level of improvement. It was observed that radiology practitioners appreciate QC and its importance in their practice, the present low level of its implementation notwithstanding.

  3. Offshoring: Impacts on the Nordic welfare states and industrial relations - Survey based evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    , the Eastern and Central European countries is a defining new aspect. The Eastern and Central European countries have been the dominant offshoring destination from the Nordic countries due to the geographical proximity. Combined with major technological improvements in information and communication technology...... (ICT) as well as transportation, this has made the process of relocation even more accessible. This adds yet another dimension to the impact internationalisation is having on national industrial relations as well as welfare state policies and general labour market regulation. Other central features...... of the more internationalised economy are increasing trade in intermediates, rising FDI and increasing competition. In this context where international relocation is increasingly accessible the phenomenon attracts much attention in both academic analysis, media reports as well as policy analysis. But our...

  4. The status of telestroke in the United States: a survey of currently active stroke telemedicine programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gisele S; Farrell, Shawn; Shandra, Emma; Viswanathan, Anand; Schwamm, Lee H

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about adoption or success of telestroke networks outside of published or federally funded programs. Under contract to the Health Resource Services Administration, we conducted an environmental scan of telestroke programs in the United States. An analyst contacted all potential programs identified in comprehensive online searches, interviewed respondents, and collected response data about structural and functional components of currently operating telestroke programs. Among 97 potential programs contacted, 56 programs had confirmed telestroke activity, and 38 programs (68%) from 27 states participated. Hospital and community characteristics of nonparticipating programs were similar to those of participating ones. The top 3 clinical needs met by the telestroke were emergency department consultation (100%), patient triage (83.8%), and inpatient teleconsultation (46.0%). Telestroke programs were in operation a median of 2.44 years (interquartile range, 1.36-3.44 years); 94.6% used 2-way, real-time interactive video plus imaging, but only 44% used dedicated telemedicine consultation software. The mean number of spokes per hub increased significantly from 2007 to 2008 to 2009 (3.78 versus 7.60; P80% of spoke sites were rural or small hospitals. Reimbursement was absent for >40% of sites. Sites rated inability to obtain physician licensure (27.77%), lack of program funds (27.77%), and lack of reimbursement (19.44%) as the most important barriers to program growth. Telestroke is a widespread and growing practice model. Important barriers to expansion amenable to change relate to organizational, technical, and educational domains and external economic and regulatory forces.

  5. Attitudes of dermatologists in the southeastern United States regarding treatment of alopecia areata: a cross-sectional survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Paul W

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little evidence exists to guide treatment of alopecia areata (AA. The current practices in treatment of children compared to adults and of progressive stages of hair loss are unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the current practices of southeastern United States dermatologists for the treatment of AA. Methods Dermatologists were sent anonymous questionnaires regarding their treatment practices by mail. Respondents' frequencies of treatment in children compared to adults and in patchy hair loss compared to widespread hair loss were compared with Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests and Friedman tests. As a secondary source, the National Alopecia Areata Registry (NAAR database was analyzed for patients' treatment histories. Results Survey results suggested that dermatologists recommend treatment less frequently for children than adults and for more advanced hair loss. NAAR data confirmed that offering no treatment for AA is relatively common. Conclusion Dermatologists' treatment of AA is inconsistent. A stronger evidence base will provide more consistent treatment options.

  6. Attitudes of dermatologists in the southeastern United States regarding treatment of alopecia areata: a cross-sectional survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Little evidence exists to guide treatment of alopecia areata (AA). The current practices in treatment of children compared to adults and of progressive stages of hair loss are unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the current practices of southeastern United States dermatologists for the treatment of AA. Methods Dermatologists were sent anonymous questionnaires regarding their treatment practices by mail. Respondents' frequencies of treatment in children compared to adults and in patchy hair loss compared to widespread hair loss were compared with Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests and Friedman tests. As a secondary source, the National Alopecia Areata Registry (NAAR) database was analyzed for patients' treatment histories. Results Survey results suggested that dermatologists recommend treatment less frequently for children than adults and for more advanced hair loss. NAAR data confirmed that offering no treatment for AA is relatively common. Conclusion Dermatologists' treatment of AA is inconsistent. A stronger evidence base will provide more consistent treatment options. PMID:19909522

  7. APPLICATION OF PARAMETER CONTINUATION METHOD FOR INVESTIGATION OF VIBROIMPACT SYSTEMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR. PROBLEM STATE. SHORT SURVEY OF WORLD SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Bazhenov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors in their works study vibroimpact system dynamic behaviour by numerical parametric continuation technique combined with shooting and Newton-Raphson’s methods. The technique is adapted to two-mass two-degree-of-freedom vibroimpact system under periodic excitation. Impact is simulated by nonlinear contact interaction force based on Hertz’s contact theory. Stability or instability of obtained periodic solutions is determined by monodromy matrix eigenvalues (multipliers based on Floquet’s theory. In the present paper we describe the state of problem of parameter continuation method using for nonlinear tasks solution. Also we give the short survey of numerous contemporary literature in English and Russian about parameter continuation method application for nonlinear problems. This method is applied for vibroimpact problem solving more rarely because of the difficulties connected with repeated impacts.

  8. [Social concern and the present state of intergenerational programs. An analysis of newspaper articles and a survey of organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Yoh; Takeuchi, Rumi; Ohba, Hiromi; Yasunaga, Masashi; Kuraoka, Masataka; Nonaka, Kumiko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to clarify changes in social concern in intergenerational programs and (2) to determine the current state of and issues affecting intergenerational programs. Articles including the words "intergenerational programs" were selected from 3 major Japanese newspapers (Asahi Shimbun, Yomiuri Shimbun, and Mainichi Shimbun) using an online database (399 articles). Content analysis was conducted to check changes in the number and content of articles. A total of 56 cases of intergenerational programs were selected, and a questionnaire survey was conducted with the responsible organization. The problems were classified using cluster analysis. Content analysis revealed that the number of articles relating to this topic increased towards the end of the 1990s, which corresponds with a change in social policy. The questionnaire survey revealed that most of the intergenerational programs were either annual or periodic activities. Furthermore, it was shown that the 4 main issues facing current intergenerational programs were the intergenerational gap, operating problems, activity selection, and lack of participants. In summary, social concern regarding the intergenerational programs has increased. However, most intergenerational programs were infrequent and quite time-intensive. Furthermore, the 4 issues mentioned above must be addressed in order to create programs that have wide-ranging benefits for each community. Resolving the problem of compartmentalized administration and appointing local coordinators is necessary to solve these problems.

  9. A survey of methods used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, David A; Erdman, Matthew M; Harris, Beth

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared. Of the 132 surveys administered, 52 (39%) were returned. Overall, responding laboratories conducted susceptibility tests on 98,788 bacterial isolates in 2014, with Escherichia coli being the most common pathogen tested across all animal species. The 2 most common AST methods employed were the disk diffusion method (71%) and the Sensititre platform broth microdilution system (59%). Laboratories primarily used the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) VET-01 standard (69%) and the automatically calculated interpretations provided by the commercial AST systems (61%) for interpreting their AST data. Only 22% of laboratories published AST data on a periodic basis, usually via annual reports published on the laboratory's website or through peer-reviewed journals for specific pathogens. Our results confirm that disk diffusion and broth microdilution remain the standard AST methods employed by U.S. veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and that CLSI standards are commonly used for interpreting AST results. This information will help determine the most efficient standardized methodology for future surveillance. Furthermore, the current infrastructure within laboratories, once harmonized, will help provide a mechanism for conducting national surveillance programs.

  10. Survey of Tsunamis Formed by Atmospheric Forcing on the East Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodise, J.; Shen, Y.; Wertman, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    High-frequency sea level oscillations along the United States East Coast have been linked to atmospheric pressure disturbances observed during large storm events. These oscillations have periods similar to tsunami events generated by earthquakes and submarine landslides, but are created by moving surface pressure anomalies within storm systems such as mesoscale convective systems or mid-latitude cyclones. Meteotsunamis form as in-situ waves, directly underneath a moving surface pressure anomaly. As the pressure disturbances move off the east coast of North America and over the continental shelf in the Atlantic Ocean, Proudman resonance, which is known to enhance the amplitude of the meteotsunami, may occur when the propagation speed of the pressure disturbance is equal to that of the shallow water wave speed. At the continental shelf break, some of the meteotsunami waves are reflected back towards the coast. The events we studied date from 2007 to 2014, most of which were identified using an atmospheric pressure anomaly detection method applied to atmospheric data from two National Data Buoy Center stations: Cape May, New Jersey and Newport, Rhode Island. The coastal tidal records used to observe the meteotsunami amplitudes include Montauk, New York; Atlantic City, New Jersey; and Duck, North Carolina. On average, meteotsunamis ranging from 0.1m to 1m in amplitude occurred roughly twice per month, with meteotsunamis larger than 0.4m occurring approximately 4 times per year, a rate much higher than previously reported. For each event, the amplitude of the recorded pressure disturbance was compared to the meteotsunami amplitude, while radar and bathymetry data were analyzed to observe the influence of Proudman resonance on the reflected meteotsunami waves. In-situ meteotsunami amplitudes showed a direct correlation with the amplitude of pressure disturbances. Meteotsunamis reflected off the continental shelf break were generally higher in amplitude when the average

  11. Towards a common standard - a reporting checklist for web-based stated preference valuation surveys and a critique for mode surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menegaki, Angeliki, N.; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2016-01-01

    . The checklist is developed based on the bulk of knowledge gained so far with web-based surveys. This knowledge is compiled based on an extensive review of relevant literature dated from 2001 to beginning of 2015 in the Scopus database. Somewhat surprisingly, relatively few papers are concerned with survey mode...

  12. Teenagers in the United States: sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, 2006-2010 national survey of family growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Gladys; Copen, Casey E; Abma, Joyce C

    2011-10-01

    This report presents national estimates of sexual activity, contraceptive use, and births among males and females aged 15-19 in the United States in 2006-2010 from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). For selected indicators, data are also presented from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 NSFG, and from the 1988 and 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males, conducted by the Urban Institute. Descriptive tables of numbers and percentages are presented and discussed. Data were collected through in-person interviews of the household population of males and females aged 15-44 in the United States, between July 2006 and June 2010. Interviews were conducted with 22,682 men and women, including 4,662 teenagers (2,284 females and 2,378 males). For both the teen subsample and the total sample, the response rate was 77%. In 2006-2010, about 43% of never-married female teenagers (4.4 million), and about 42% of never-married male teenagers (4.5 million) had had sexual intercourse at least once. These levels of sexual experience have not changed significantly from 2002. Seventy-eight percent of females and 85% of males used a method of contraception at first sex according to 2006-2010 data, with the condom remaining the most popular method. Teenagers' contraceptive use has changed little since 2002, with a few exceptions: there was an increase among males in the use of condoms alone and in the use of a condom combined with a partner's hormonal contraceptive; and there was a significant increase in the percentage of female teenagers who used hormonal methods other than a birth-control pill, such as injectables and the contraceptive patch, at first sex. Six percent of female teenagers used a nonpill hormonal method at first sex.

  13. Teenagers in the United States: sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, national survey of family growth 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abma, Joyce C; Martinez, Gladys M; Copen, Casey E

    2010-06-01

    This report presents national estimates of sexual activity, contraceptive use, and births among males and females 15-19 years of age in the United States in 2006-2008 from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Selected data are also presented from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 NSFGs, and from the 1988 and 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males (NSAM), conducted by the Urban Institute. Descriptive tables of numbers and percents are presented and discussed. Data were collected through in-person interviews of the household population in the United States, conducted between July 2006 and December 2008. Interviews were conducted with 7,356 females-1,381 of whom were teenagers--and 6,140 males--1,386 of whom were teenagers-for a total of 2,767 teenagers. The overall response rate for the 2006-2008 NSFG was 75%. The response rate for female teenagers was 77% and for male teenagers 75%. In 2006-2008, about 42% of never-married female teenagers (4.3 million), and about 43% of never-married male teenagers (4.5 million) had had sexual intercourse at least once. These levels of sexual experience have not changed significantly from 2002, the last time the NSFG collected these data. Among never-married teenagers, 79% of females and 87% of males used a method of contraception at first sex. With a few exceptions, teenagers' use of contraceptives has changed little since 2002, and the condom remained the most commonly used method. One exception was an increase in the use of condoms and the use of a condom combined with a hormonal contraceptive (dual method use) among males. Another exception was a significant increase in the percent of female teenagers who had ever used periodic abstinence, or the "calendar rhythm" method. This method had been used by 17% of female teenagers in 2006-2008.

  14. Perception for mobile robot navigation: A survey of the state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, David

    1994-01-01

    In order for mobile robots to navigate safely in unmapped and dynamic environments they must perceive their environment and decide on actions based on those perceptions. There are many different sensing modalities that can be used for mobile robot perception; the two most popular are ultrasonic sonar sensors and vision sensors. This paper examines the state-of-the-art in sensory-based mobile robot navigation. The first issue in mobile robot navigation is safety. This paper summarizes several competing sonar-based obstacle avoidance techniques and compares them. Another issue in mobile robot navigation is determining the robot's position and orientation (sometimes called the robot's pose) in the environment. This paper examines several different classes of vision-based approaches to pose determination. One class of approaches uses detailed, a prior models of the robot's environment. Another class of approaches triangulates using fixed, artificial landmarks. A third class of approaches builds maps using natural landmarks. Example implementations from each of these three classes are described and compared. Finally, the paper presents a completely implemented mobile robot system that integrates sonar-based obstacle avoidance with vision-based pose determination to perform a simple task.

  15. Community survey on blood donation practices in a northern state of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaudeen, A G; Musa, O I; Awoyemi, A O; Bolarinwa, A O; Adegboye, A O; Samuel, S O

    2011-03-01

    Volunteer blood donors account for less than half of the blood supply in developing countries; and few countries have mobilized efforts to encourage voluntary blood donation (VBD). The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and blood donation practices among adults in a state in Northern Nigeria. Descriptive cross sectional study using multistage sampling technique was carried out among 936 respondents. Semi structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to generate relevant data and information from the respondents. Data entry and analysis was done using EPI-info software package. The knowledge of the respondents on blood donation was low. Less than half 432 (46.2%) knew some indications for blood transfusion. Two hundred and twelve (22.6%) respondents had donated blood in the past but only 1% of these were VBD while 95% were donations based on blood needs by family members, relations and friends. Few respondents 112 (12%) had received blood transfusion in the past, and the main source of blood transfused was paid commercial donors 50 (44.6%). The fear of HIV screening was a major hindrance and limitation to voluntary blood donation among respondents. The gaps in knowledge & practice of VBD can be addressed through public awareness campaigns, and motivational programmes such as free medical services for voluntary blood donors.

  16. Application of the probability-based Maryland Biological Stream Survey to the state's assessment of water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, Mark T; Vølstad, Jon H; Weber, Edward D; Klauda, Ronald J; Poukish, Charles A; Rowe, Matthew C

    2009-03-01

    The Clean Water Act presents a daunting task for states by requiring them to assess and restore all their waters. Traditional monitoring has led to two beliefs: (1) ad hoc sampling (i.e., non-random) is adequate if enough sites are sampled and (2) more intensive sampling (e.g., collecting more organisms) at each site is always better. We analyzed the 1,500 Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) random sites sampled in 2000-2004 to describe the variability of Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores at the site, reach, and watershed scales. Average variability for fish and benthic IBI scores increased with increasing spatial scale, demonstrating that single site IBI scores are not representative at watershed scales and therefore at best 25% of a state's stream length can be representatively sampled with non-random designs. We evaluated the effects on total taxa captured and IBI precision of sampling for twice as many benthic macroinvertebrates at 73 MBSS sites with replicate samples. When sampling costs were fixed, the precision of the IBI decreased as the number of sites had to be reduced by 15%. Only 1% more taxa were found overall when the 73 sites where combined. We concluded that (1) comprehensive assessment of a state's waters should be done using probability-based sampling that allows the condition across all reaches to be inferred statistically and (2) additional site sampling effort should not be incorporated into state biomonitoring when it will reduce the number of sites sampled to the point where overall assessment precision is lower.

  17. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae infesting cattle in two districts of Somali Regional State, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmeto Abebe

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study aimed at determining the common tick species and their abundance in cattle was conducted in two districts of Somali regional state from October 2008 to March 2009. During the period, a total of 10,055 adult ticks (Ixodidae were collected from 496 indigenous cattle. Out of the total tick count, 4304 were males and 5751 were females. Eight similar species of ticks that belong to four genera (Amblyomma, Boophilus, Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma were identified in the two districts covered by the study with a significant (P<0.001 difference in the relative abundance of most tick species between the districts. R. pulchellus was the most abundant tick species in Fafem district (25.41%, followed by B. decoloratus (24.83% with H. m. rufipes being the least abundant (2.28%. Conversely, the most abundant tick species in Awubere district was B. decoloratus (21.43% and A. variegatum (4.2% was the least. A significantly higher (P<0.0001 overall mean tick burden was seen in Awubere than Fafem district. The mean tick burden was found to be independent of age and sex of the animals (P>0.05. An overall male to female ratio of 0.75:1 was also determined showing the dominance of females. In conclusion, eight different species of ticks were found infesting cattle in the study area. Limited scope of awareness regarding the impact of ticks, lack of adequate veterinary infrastructures and absence of tick control strategy are the major factors accountable for the widespread existence of tick species in the area. For that reason, educating pastoral society on appropriate animal husbandry especially regarding to tick control and creating awareness on tick epidemiology would be imperative to minimize the effect of ticks and ultimately to improve the living standards of the pastoral society. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 539-543

  18. Mass Forest Survey and State Forest Inventory Data: Specification of the Discrepancies, Causes, Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Farber

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available State forest inventory (SFI is a forest investigation that was not performed earlier in our country. Its purpose is to identify total forest area characteristics including wood volume in Russia. There are several papers about the existence of huge differences between actual forest management and SFI data. Nevertheless, at the Russian forest management committee of NFI data performed in Bryansk in 2013 it was still decided to use SFI data. The reasons for existence of differences in land category and forest formation were revealed on the basis of the two examples in Krasnoyarsk Territory Angara river region. The amount of sample items was 340. We compared the sample plots and compartment in order to identify the characteristics of differences between NFI data and forest management materials. We performed physical observation of sample plots and compartments of forest stands and relief maps in order to identify the potential differences. Reconciliation of sample plots of SFI data and compartment showed significant mistakes due to inhomogeneous structure of compartments and some forest management decision for third category. However, these issues do not influence on differences. Systematic errors occur because of SFI methodology peculiarities. This is the main reason for differences between traditional forest management and SFI data. These errors should be improved. The main conclusion made during the performed work is to refuse from stratification of total forest area characteristics at the planning stage of choosing the sample plots. The relief and soil hydrological characteristics should be taken into consideration in a stratification analysis. Sample plots location should be chosen based on the landscape peculiarities, far from the pathway, that will allow elimination of the systematic errors.

  19. A survey of training and practice patterns of massage therapists in two US states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrbek Andrea

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the growing popularity of therapeutic massage in the US, little is known about the training or practice characteristics of massage therapists. The objective of this study was to describe these characteristics. Methods As part of a study of random samples of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM practitioners, we interviewed 226 massage therapists licensed in Connecticut and Washington state by telephone in 1998 and 1999 (85% of those contacted and then asked a sample of them to record information on 20 consecutive visits to their practices (total of 2005 consecutive visits. Results Most massage therapists were women (85%, white (95%, and had completed some continuing education training (79% in Connecticut and 52% in Washington. They treated a limited number of conditions, most commonly musculoskeletal (59% and 63% (especially back, neck, and shoulder problems, wellness care (20% and 19%, and psychological complaints (9% and 6% (especially anxiety and depression. Practitioners commonly used one or more assessment techniques (67% and 74% and gave a massage emphasizing Swedish (81% and 77%, deep tissue (63% and 65%, and trigger/pressure point techniques (52% and 46%. Self-care recommendations, including increasing water intake, body awareness, and specific forms of movement, were made as part of more than 80% of visits. Although most patients self-referred to massage, more than one-quarter were receiving concomitant care for the same problem from a physician. Massage therapists rarely communicated with these physicians. Conclusion This study provides new information about licensed massage therapists that should be useful to physicians and other healthcare providers interested in learning about massage therapy in order to advise their patients about this popular CAM therapy.

  20. Bacterial and viral pathogens in live oysters: 2007 United States market survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaola, Angelo; Jones, Jessica L; Woods, Jacquelina; Burkhardt, William; Calci, Kevin R; Krantz, Jeffrey A; Bowers, John C; Kasturi, Kuppuswamy; Byars, Robin H; Jacobs, Emily; Williams-Hill, Donna; Nabe, Khamphet

    2010-05-01

    Two samples of market oysters, primarily from retail establishments, were collected twice each month in each of nine states during 2007. Samples were shipped refrigerated overnight to five U.S. Food and Drug Administration laboratories on a rotating basis and analyzed by most probable number (MPN) for total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus numbers and for the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae, Salmonella spp., norovirus (NoV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Levels of indicator organisms, including fecal coliforms (MPN), Escherichia coli (MPN), male-specific bacteriophage, and aerobic plate counts, were also determined. V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus levels were distributed seasonally and geographically by harvest region and were similar to levels observed in a previous study conducted in 1998-1999. Levels of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were typically several logs lower than total V. parahaemolyticus levels regardless of season or region. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels in the Gulf and Mid-Atlantic regions were about two logs greater than the levels observed in the Pacific and North Atlantic regions. Pathogens generally associated with fecal pollution were detected sporadically or not at all (toxigenic V. cholerae, 0%; Salmonella, 1.5%; NoV, 3.9%; HAV, 4.4%). While seasonal prevalences of NoV and HAV were generally greater in oysters harvested from December to March, the low detection frequency obscured any apparent seasonal effects. Overall, there was no relationship between the levels of indicator microorganisms and the presence of enteric viruses. These data provide a baseline that can be used to further validate risk assessment predictions, determine the effectiveness of new control measures, and compare the level of protection provided by the U.S. shellfish sanitation system to those in other countries.

  1. Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Live Oysters: 2007 United States Market Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaola, Angelo; Jones, Jessica L.; Woods, Jacquelina; Burkhardt, William; Calci, Kevin R.; Krantz, Jeffrey A.; Bowers, John C.; Kasturi, Kuppuswamy; Byars, Robin H.; Jacobs, Emily; Williams-Hill, Donna; Nabe, Khamphet

    2010-01-01

    Two samples of market oysters, primarily from retail establishments, were collected twice each month in each of nine states during 2007. Samples were shipped refrigerated overnight to five U.S. Food and Drug Administration laboratories on a rotating basis and analyzed by most probable number (MPN) for total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus numbers and for the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae, Salmonella spp., norovirus (NoV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Levels of indicator organisms, including fecal coliforms (MPN), Escherichia coli (MPN), male-specific bacteriophage, and aerobic plate counts, were also determined. V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus levels were distributed seasonally and geographically by harvest region and were similar to levels observed in a previous study conducted in 1998-1999. Levels of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were typically several logs lower than total V. parahaemolyticus levels regardless of season or region. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels in the Gulf and Mid-Atlantic regions were about two logs greater than the levels observed in the Pacific and North Atlantic regions. Pathogens generally associated with fecal pollution were detected sporadically or not at all (toxigenic V. cholerae, 0%; Salmonella, 1.5%; NoV, 3.9%; HAV, 4.4%). While seasonal prevalences of NoV and HAV were generally greater in oysters harvested from December to March, the low detection frequency obscured any apparent seasonal effects. Overall, there was no relationship between the levels of indicator microorganisms and the presence of enteric viruses. These data provide a baseline that can be used to further validate risk assessment predictions, determine the effectiveness of new control measures, and compare the level of protection provided by the U.S. shellfish sanitation system to those in other countries. PMID:20190085

  2. Epidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2015-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. A survey of castration methods and associated livestock management practices performed by bovine veterinarians in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradburn Ryan M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castration of male calves destined for beef production is a common management practice performed in the United States amounting to approximately 15 million procedures per year. Societal concern about the moral and ethical treatment of animals is increasing. Therefore, production agriculture is faced with the challenge of formulating animal welfare policies relating to routine management practices such as castration. To enable the livestock industry to effectively respond to these challenges there is a need for more data on management practices that are commonly used in cattle production systems. The objective of this survey was to describe castration methods, adverse events and husbandry procedures performed by U.S. veterinarians at the time of castration. Invitations to participate in the survey were sent to email addresses of 1,669 members of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners and 303 members of the Academy of Veterinary Consultants. Results After partially completed surveys and missing data were omitted, 189 responses were included in the analysis. Surgical castration with a scalpel followed by testicular removal by twisting (calves 90 kg was the most common method of castration used. The potential risk of injury to the operator, size of the calf, handling facilities and experience with the technique were the most important considerations used to determine the method of castration used. Swelling, stiffness and increased lying time were the most prevalent adverse events observed following castration. One in five practitioners report using an analgesic or local anesthetic at the time of castration. Approximately 90% of respondents indicated that they vaccinate and dehorn calves at the time of castration. Over half the respondents use disinfectants, prophylactic antimicrobials and tetanus toxoid to reduce complications following castration. Conclusions The results of this survey describe current methods of

  4. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  5. Socio-demographic correlates of sexual behaviours: a cross sectional survey of adolescents in Imo State secondary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwoke, E A; Okafor, J O; Chukwuocha, U M; Nworuh, B O

    2011-03-01

    The study was designed to determine the socio-demographic correlates of sexual behaviours of the adolescents in Imo State secondary schools. Three objectives and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A cross sectional survey design was used and sample size was 3360 (2.2%) adolescents. A structured, validated and reliable questionnaire (r = 0.79) and focus group discussion were used as the instruments for data collection. Data analysis was done using mean and ANOVA statistics. The result generally, showed that the average sexual behaviours of the adolescents were below the decision mean of 2.50 and as such the adolescents were said to be sexually inactive. In Imo State secondary schools, various family sizes did not significantly influence the sexual behaviours of the adolescents (F-cal. 2.39, F-tab. 3.00 & P > 0.05), family structure significantly influenced their sexual behaviours (F-cal. 17.78, F-tab. 3.00 & P adolescents sexual behaviours significantly (F-cal. 22.88, F-tab. 2.37 & P adolescents sexual behaviours may expose them to sexually transmitted infections/HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortion and dropping out of school. Thus comprehensive sex education was recommended.

  6. Methods of practice and guidelines for using survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to establish vertical datum in the United States Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.; Densmore, Brenda K.

    2012-01-01

    Geodetic surveys have evolved through the years to the use of survey-grade (centimeter level) global positioning to perpetuate and post-process vertical datum. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technology to monitor natural hazards, ensure geospatial control for climate and land use change, and gather data necessary for investigative studies related to water, the environment, energy, and ecosystems. Vertical datum is fundamental to a variety of these integrated earth sciences. Essentially GNSS surveys provide a three-dimensional position x, y, and z as a function of the North American Datum of 1983 ellipsoid and the most current hybrid geoid model. A GNSS survey may be approached with post-processed positioning for static observations related to a single point or network, or involve real-time corrections to provide positioning "on-the-fly." Field equipment required to facilitate GNSS surveys range from a single receiver, with a power source for static positioning, to an additional receiver or network communicated by radio or cellular for real-time positioning. A real-time approach in its most common form may be described as a roving receiver augmented by a single-base station receiver, known as a single-base real-time (RT) survey. More efficient real-time methods involving a Real-Time Network (RTN) permit the use of only one roving receiver that is augmented to a network of fixed receivers commonly known as Continually Operating Reference Stations (CORS). A post-processed approach in its most common form involves static data collection at a single point. Data are most commonly post-processed through a universally accepted utility maintained by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), known as the Online Position User Service (OPUS). More complex post-processed methods involve static observations among a network of additional receivers collecting static data at known benchmarks. Both classifications provide users

  7. Magnitude and causes of blindness and low vision in Anambra State of Nigeria (results of 1992 point prevalence survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezepue, U F

    1997-09-01

    A survey to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness in Anambra State of Nigeria was conducted. The aim was to provide baseline data for the planning, implementation and evaluation of both the state's and the National Programme for Prevention of Blindness. A multistage cluster random sampling technique was used. The World Health Organization/Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) Eye Examination Record Form was used. The WHOs definitions of blindness and low vision were adopted for the analysis. The prevalence of blindness in the state is estimated to be 0.33% +/- 0.27%. Visual acuity of from 3/60 to less than 6/60 has a prevalence of 0.41% +/- 0.30% while visual acuity of from 6/60 to less than 6/18 has a prevalence of 0.67% +/- 0.39. There are equal numbers of blind males as females, although the prevalence among males is 0.44% +/- 0.26% while among females it is 0.24% +/- 0.15%. Most of the blind are above 50 y of age with prevalence of blindness in this age group being 2.62% +/- 1.31% (3.27% +/- 2.1% for males and 2.02% +/- 1.58% for females). Cataract caused most of the blindness (70.59%), followed by glaucoma (17.65%). Macular degeneration is becoming important (5.88%) while obvious infective causes are rare. Errors of refraction are important public eye health care problems. Methods of tackling the cataract problem (both backlog and incident), and other eye health needs within the primary eye/health care are recommended. The need to extend refraction services to the rural areas is emphasized.

  8. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen; DeBono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C.; Weathers, Melinda R.; Maibach, Edward W.

    2010-01-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%), heat-related problems (75–84%), cancer (61–90%), and infectious diseases (49–62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience

  9. Public perceptions of climate change as a human health risk: surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen; Debono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C; Weathers, Melinda R; Maibach, Edward W

    2010-06-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78-91%), heat-related problems (75-84%), cancer (61-90%), and infectious diseases (49-62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience of the

  10. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Akerlof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%, their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%, and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76% as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31% said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45% and children (33% are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%, heat-related problems (75–84%, cancer (61–90%, and infectious diseases (49–62%. Canadians also named sunburn (79% and injuries from extreme weather events (73%, and Maltese cited allergies (84%. However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the

  11. Infertility service use in the United States: data from the National Survey of Family Growth, 1982-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anjani; Copen, Casey E; Stephen, Elizabeth Hervey

    2014-01-22

    This report presents nationally representative estimates and trends for infertility service use among women aged 15-44 and 25-44 in the United States in 1982-2010. While greater detail on types of infertility service is shown for women, basic data on types of infertility service use, as reported by men aged 25-44, are also presented. Data for this report come primarily from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), consisting of 22,682 interviews with men and women aged 15-44, conducted from June 2006 through June 2010. The response rate for females in the 2006-2010 NSFG was 78%, and for males was 75%. Selected trends are shown based on prior NSFG cycles. Twelve percent of women aged 15-44 in 2006-2010 (7.3 million women), or their husbands or partners, had ever used infertility services. Among women aged 25-44, 17% (6.9 million) had ever used any infertility service, a significant decrease from 20% in 1995. Thirty-eight percent of nulliparous women with current fertility problems in 2006-2010 had ever used infertility services, significantly less than 56% of such women in 1982. In all survey years, ever-use of medical help to get pregnant was highest among older and nulliparous women, non-Hispanic white women, women with current fertility problems, and women with higher levels of education and household income. The most commonly used infertility services among women aged 25-44 in 2006-2010 were advice, testing, medical help to prevent miscarriage, and ovulation drugs. Ever-use of infertility services was reported by 9.4% of men aged 25-44 in 2006-2010, similar to levels seen in 2002. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  12. Survey of Bereavement Practices of Cancer Care and Palliative Care Physicians in the Pacific Northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Aaron S.; Kenworthy-Heinige, Tawni; Thomas, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Physicians caring for patients with cancer frequently encounter individuals who will die as a result of their disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the frequency and nature of bereavement practices among cancer care and palliative care physicians in the Pacific Northwest United States. Secondary aims included identification of factors and barriers associated with bereavement follow-up. Methods: An institutional review board (IRB) –approved, anonymous online survey of cancer specialists and palliative care physicians in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming was performed in fall 2010. Potential participants were identified through membership in national professional organizations. Summary statistics and logistic regression methods were used to examine frequency and predictors of bereavement practices. Results: A total of 194 (22.7%) of 856 physicians participated in the online survey, with 164 (19.1%) meeting study inclusion criteria. Overall, 70% of respondents reported always or usually making a telephone call to families, sending a condolence letter, or attending a funeral service after a patient's death. The most common perceived barriers to bereavement follow-up were lack of time and uncertainty of which family member to contact. Sixty-nine percent of respondents did not feel that they had received adequate training on bereavement follow-up during postgraduate training. Conclusion: Although a significant portion of respondents engaged in some form of bereavement follow-up, the majority felt inadequately trained in these activities. Efforts to identify available resources and address bereavement activities in postgraduate training may contribute to improved multidisciplinary treatment of patients with cancer and their families. PMID:23277763

  13. Quality assurance peer review chart rounds in 2011: a survey of academic institutions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Yaacov Richard; Whiton, Michal A; Symon, Zvi; Wuthrick, Evan J; Doyle, Laura; Harrison, Amy S; Dicker, Adam P

    2012-11-01

    In light of concerns regarding the quality of radiation treatment delivery, we surveyed the practice of quality assurance peer review chart rounds at American academic institutions. An anonymous web-based survey was sent to the chief resident of each institution across the United States. The response rate was 80% (57/71). The median amount of time spent per patient was 2.7 minutes (range, 0.6-14.4). The mean attendance by senior physicians and residents was 73% and 93%, respectively. A physicist was consistently present at peer review rounds in 66% of departments. There was a close association between attendance by senior physicians and departmental organization: in departments with protected time policies, good attendance was 81% vs. 31% without protected time (p = 0.001), and in departments that documented attendance, attending presence was 69% vs. 29% in departments without documentation (p institutions peer review all external beam therapy courses; however, rates were much lower for other modalities (radiosurgery 58%, brachytherapy 40%-47%). Patient history, chart documentation, and dose prescription were always peer reviewed in >75% of institutions, whereas dosimetric details (beams, wedges), isodose coverage, intensity-modulated radiation therapy constraints, and dose-volume histograms were always peer reviewed in 63%, 59%, 42%, and 50% of cases, respectively. Chart rounds led to both minor (defined as a small multileaf collimator change/repeated port film) and major (change to dose prescription or replan with dosimetry) treatment changes. Whereas at the majority of institutions changes were rare (institutions reported that minor and major changes, respectively, were made to more than 10% of cases. The implementation of peer review chart rounds seems inconsistent across American academic institutions. Brachytherapy and radiosurgical procedures are rarely reviewed. Attendance by senior physicians is variable, but it improves when scheduling clashes are

  14. Trusting Social Media as a Source of Health Information: Online Surveys Comparing the United States, Korea, and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hayeon; Omori, Kikuko; Kim, Jihyun; Tenzek, Kelly E; Morey Hawkins, Jennifer; Lin, Wan-Ying; Kim, Yong-Chan; Jung, Joo-Young

    2016-03-14

    The Internet has increasingly become a popular source of health information by connecting individuals with health content, experts, and support. More and more, individuals turn to social media and Internet sites to share health information and experiences. Although online health information seeking occurs worldwide, limited empirical studies exist examining cross-cultural differences in perceptions about user-generated, experience-based information compared to expertise-based information sources. To investigate if cultural variations exist in patterns of online health information seeking, specifically in perceptions of online health information sources. It was hypothesized that Koreans and Hongkongers, compared to Americans, would be more likely to trust and use experience-based knowledge shared in social Internet sites, such as social media and online support groups. Conversely, Americans, compared to Koreans and Hongkongers, would value expertise-based knowledge prepared and approved by doctors or professional health providers more. Survey questionnaires were developed in English first and then translated into Korean and Chinese. The back-translation method ensured the standardization of questions. Surveys were administered using a standardized recruitment strategy and data collection methods. A total of 826 participants living in metropolitan areas from the United States (n=301), Korea (n=179), and Hong Kong (n=337) participated in the study. We found significant cultural differences in information processing preferences for online health information. A planned contrast test revealed that Koreans and Hongkongers showed more trust in experience-based health information sources (blogs: t451.50=11.21, Ponline support group: t455.71=9.30, Ponline health information. Further discussion is included regarding effective communication strategies in providing quality health information.

  15. Is human cytomegalovirus infection associated with hypertension? The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Samaranayake, Nithushi R; Ong, Kwok Leung; Wong, Hoi Kin; Cheung, Bernard M Y

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a possible pathogen for causing hypertension. We aimed to study the association between HCMV infection and hypertension in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We analyzed data on 2979 men and 3324 women in the NHANES 1999-2002. We included participants aged 16-49 years who had valid data on HCMV infection and hypertension. Of the participants, 54.7% had serologic evidence of HCMV infection and 17.5% had hypertension. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of HCMV infection (P<0.001) and hypertension (P<0.001). The prevalence of both increased with age (P<0.001). Before adjustment, HCMV seropositivity was significantly associated with hypertension in women (OR=1.63, 95% CI=1.25-2.13, P=0.001) but not in men. After adjustment for race/ethnicity, the association between HCMV seropositivity and hypertension in women remained significant (OR=1.55, 95% CI=1.20-2.02, P=0.002). Further adjustment for body mass index, diabetes status and hypercholesterolemia attenuated the association (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.10-1.90, P=0.010). However, after adjusting for age, the association was no longer significant (OR=1.24, 95% CI=0.91-1.67, P=0.162). In this nationally representative population-based survey, HCMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in women in the NHANES population. This association is largely explained by the association of hypertension with age and the increase in past exposure to HCMV with age.

  16. Is Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Associated with Hypertension? The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Samaranayake, Nithushi R.; Ong, Kwok Leung; Wong, Hoi Kin; Cheung, Bernard M. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have implicated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as a possible pathogen for causing hypertension. We aimed to study the association between HCMV infection and hypertension in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods We analyzed data on 2979 men and 3324 women in the NHANES 1999–2002. We included participants aged 16–49 years who had valid data on HCMV infection and hypertension. Results Of the participants, 54.7% had serologic evidence of HCMV infection and 17.5% had hypertension. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of HCMV infection (P<0.001) and hypertension (P<0.001). The prevalence of both increased with age (P<0.001). Before adjustment, HCMV seropositivity was significantly associated with hypertension in women (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.25–2.13, P = 0.001) but not in men. After adjustment for race/ethnicity, the association between HCMV seropositivity and hypertension in women remained significant (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.20–2.02, P = 0.002). Further adjustment for body mass index, diabetes status and hypercholesterolemia attenuated the association (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.10–1.90, P = 0.010). However, after adjusting for age, the association was no longer significant (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.91–1.67, P = 0.162). Conclusions In this nationally representative population-based survey, HCMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in women in the NHANES population. This association is largely explained by the association of hypertension with age and the increase in past exposure to HCMV with age. PMID:22768311

  17. Is human cytomegalovirus infection associated with hypertension? The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Recent studies have implicated the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV as a possible pathogen for causing hypertension. We aimed to study the association between HCMV infection and hypertension in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. METHODS: We analyzed data on 2979 men and 3324 women in the NHANES 1999-2002. We included participants aged 16-49 years who had valid data on HCMV infection and hypertension. RESULTS: Of the participants, 54.7% had serologic evidence of HCMV infection and 17.5% had hypertension. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence of HCMV infection (P<0.001 and hypertension (P<0.001. The prevalence of both increased with age (P<0.001. Before adjustment, HCMV seropositivity was significantly associated with hypertension in women (OR=1.63, 95% CI=1.25-2.13, P=0.001 but not in men. After adjustment for race/ethnicity, the association between HCMV seropositivity and hypertension in women remained significant (OR=1.55, 95% CI=1.20-2.02, P=0.002. Further adjustment for body mass index, diabetes status and hypercholesterolemia attenuated the association (OR=1.44, 95% CI=1.10-1.90, P=0.010. However, after adjusting for age, the association was no longer significant (OR=1.24, 95% CI=0.91-1.67, P=0.162. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationally representative population-based survey, HCMV seropositivity is associated with hypertension in women in the NHANES population. This association is largely explained by the association of hypertension with age and the increase in past exposure to HCMV with age.

  18. Contraceptive Failure in the United States: Estimates from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Aparna; Vaughan, Barbara; Kost, Kathryn; Bankole, Akinrinola; Finer, Lawrence; Singh, Susheela; Trussell, James

    2017-03-01

    Contraceptive failure rates measure a woman's probability of becoming pregnant while using a contraceptive. Information about these rates enables couples to make informed contraceptive choices. Failure rates were last estimated for 2002, and social and economic changes that have occurred since then necessitate a reestimation. To estimate failure rates for the most commonly used reversible methods in the United States, data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth were used; some 15,728 contraceptive use intervals, contributed by 6,683 women, were analyzed. Data from the Guttmacher Institute's 2008 Abortion Patient Survey were used to adjust for abortion underreporting. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the associated single-decrement probability of failure by duration of use. Failure rates were compared with those from 1995 and 2002. Long-acting reversible contraceptives (the IUD and the implant) had the lowest failure rates of all methods (1%), while condoms and withdrawal carried the highest probabilities of failure (13% and 20%, respectively). However, the failure rate for the condom had declined significantly since 1995 (from 18%), as had the failure rate for all hormonal methods combined (from 8% to 6%). The failure rate for all reversible methods combined declined from 12% in 2002 to 10% in 2006-2010. These broad-based declines in failure rates reverse a long-term pattern of minimal change. Future research should explore what lies behind these trends, as well as possibilities for further improvements. © 2017 The Authors. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Guttmacher Institute.

  19. Pharmacist characteristics, medication use perceptions, and professional satisfaction: a first national survey in the state of Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maguy Saffouh El Hajj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maguy Saffouh El Hajj1, Nadir Kheir1, Manal Zaidan2, Peter J Jewesson11College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 2Pharmacy Department, Al Amal Cancer Centre, Doha, QatarPurpose: To characterize the professional demographics, opinions about the medication use process, perceived public satisfaction with pharmacy services, and professional satisfaction of pharmacists practicing in the state of Qatar.Materials and methods: The study was designed as a hypothesis-generating, online, anonymous, opinion survey of practicing pharmacists in Qatar.Results: Two hundred and sixty-four survey accesses were recorded during the 6-week study period, and 250 surveys containing responses to one or more questions were included in the analysis. Eighty-four percent of respondents reported graduating at least 5 years prior to the survey, and 86% held a baccalaureate degree in pharmacy as their highest degree. The most common source of the highest degree was one of five countries (Egypt, Jordan, India, Sudan, or Pakistan. Forty-five percent of respondents were working in a hospital setting, and 33% were in a community pharmacy. The lowest incidence of agreement across the 10 drug procurement and distribution process statements was observed for the adequacy of medication supplies statements (33% of all respondents. The highest incidence of agreement across the eight medication use process statements was for the statement pertaining to infrequent dispensing errors (68%, and the lowest incidence of agreement was observed for the statement pertaining to the adequacy of patient monitoring (30%. The pharmacist was chosen as the best candidate to resolve perceived unmet medication needs for four of eight statements, whereas physicians were most frequently chosen for three of the four remaining statements. Respondents' perceptions regarding patient satisfaction with the different elements of the medication use process revealed that the lowest incidence of agreement

  20. Tuberculosis Infection in the United States: Prevalence Estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramontes, Roque; Hill, Andrew N; Yelk Woodruff, Rachel S; Lambert, Lauren A; Navin, Thomas R; Castro, Kenneth G; LoBue, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    Reexamining the prevalence of persons infected with tuberculosis (TB) is important to determine trends over time. In 2011-2012 a TB component was included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the reservoir of persons infected with TB. Civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population survey participants aged 6 years and older were interviewed regarding their TB history and eligibility for the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) blood test. Once eligibility was confirmed, both tests were conducted. Prevalence and numbers of TST positive (10 mm or greater), IGRA positive, and both TST and IGRA positive were calculated by adjusting for the complex survey design after applying corrections for item nonresponse and digit preference in TST induration measurements. To examine TST positivity over time, data from NHANES 1999-2000 were reanalyzed using the same statistical methods. The TST was performed using Tubersol, a commercially available purified protein derivative (PPD), rather than PPD-S, which was the antigen used in NHANES 1999-2000. Prior patient history of TB vaccination was not collected in this study nor were patients examined for the presence of a Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) vaccine scar. For NHANES 2011-2012, TST and IGRA results were available for 6,128 (78.4%) and 7,107 (90.9%) eligible participants, respectively. There was no significant difference between the percentage of the U.S. population that was TST positive in 2011-2012 (4.7% [95% CI 3.4-6.3]; 13,276,000 persons) compared with 1999-2000 (4.3%; 3.5-5.3). In 2011-2012 the percentage that was IGRA positive was 5.0% (4.2-5.8) and double TST and IGRA positivity was 2.1% (1.5-2.8). The point estimate of IGRA positivity prevalence in foreign-born persons (15.9%; 13.5-18.7) was lower than for TST (20.5%; 16.1-25.8) in 2011-2012. The point estimate of IGRA positivity prevalence in U.S.-born persons (2.8%; 2.0-3.8) was higher than

  1. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Special Line Features for the State of Rhode Island: Bristol, Kent, Newport, Providence, and Washington County

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  2. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Special Point Features for the State of Rhode Island: Bristol, Kent, Newport, Providence, and Washington Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  3. Organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions across the United States: development and testing of a novel survey instrument for assessing coalition functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Daniel B; Pate, Russell R; Beets, Michael W; Saunders, Ruth P; Blair, Steven N

    2015-06-01

    Coalitions are often composed of member organizations. Member involvement is thought to be associated with coalition success. No instrument currently exists for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This study aimed to develop a survey instrument for evaluating organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. The study was carried out in three phases: (a) developing a draft survey, (b) assessing the content validity of the draft survey, and (c) assessing the underlying factor structure, reliability, and validity of the survey. A cross-sectional design was employed. In Phase 1, a team of experts in survey development produced a draft survey. In Phase 2, the content validity of the draft survey was evaluated by a panel of individuals with expertise in physical activity coalitions. In Phase 3, the survey was administered to 120 individuals on local-, state-, and national-level physical activity coalitions. Responses were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis in order to determine the survey's underlying factor structure, reliability, and validity. Phases 1 and 2yielded a survey instrument with demonstrated content validity. Phase 3 yielded a three-factor model with three subscales: Strategic Alignment, Organizational Alignment, and Providing Input. Each subscale demonstrated high internal consistency reliability and construct validity. The survey instrument developed here demonstrated sound psychometric properties and provides new insight into organizational member involvement in physical activity coalitions. This instrument may be an important tool in developing a more complete picture of coalition functioning in physical activity coalitions specifically and health-based coalitions overall. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Maternal mortality in Kassala State - Eastern Sudan: community-based study using Reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Abdalla A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maternal mortality ratio in Sudan was estimated at 750/100,000 live births. Sudan was one of eleven countries that are responsible for 65% of global maternal deaths according to a recent World Health Organization (WHO estimate. Maternal mortality in Kassala State was high in national demographic surveys. This study was conducted to investigate the causes and contributing factors of maternal deaths and to identify any discrepancies in rates and causes between different areas. Methods A reproductive age mortality survey (RAMOS was conducted to study maternal mortality in Kassala State. Deaths of women of reproductive age (WRA in four purposively selected areas were identified by interviewing key informants in each village followed by verbal autopsy. Results Over a three-year period, 168 maternal deaths were identified among 26,066 WRA. Verbal autopsies were conducted in 148 (88.1% of these cases. Of these, 64 (43.2% were due to pregnancy and childbirth complications. Maternal mortality rates and ratios were 80.6 per 100,000 WRA and 713.6 per 100,000 live births (LB, respectively. There was a wide discrepancy between urban and rural maternal mortality ratios (369 and 872100,000 LB, respectively. Direct obstetric causes were responsible for 58.4% of deaths. Severe anemia (20.3% and acute febrile illness (9.4% were the major indirect causes of maternal death whereas obstetric hemorrhage (15.6%, obstructed labor (14.1% and puerperal sepsis (10.9% were the major obstetric causes. Of the contributing factors, we found delay of referral in 73.4% of cases in spite of a high problem recognition rate (75%. 67.2% of deaths occurred at home, indicating under utilization of health facilities, and transportation problems were found in 54.7% of deaths. There was a high illiteracy rate among the deceased and their husbands (62.5% and 48.4%, respectively. Conclusions Maternal mortality rates and ratios were found to be high, with a wide

  5. Burden of visceral leishmaniasis in villages of eastern Gedaref State, Sudan: an exhaustive cross-sectional survey.

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    Yolanda Kathrin Mueller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since December 2009, Médecins Sans Frontières has diagnosed and treated patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Tabarak Allah Hospital, eastern Gedaref State, one of the main endemic foci of VL in Sudan. A survey was conducted to estimate the VL incidence in villages around Tabarak Allah. METHODS: Between the 5(th of May and the 17(th of June 2011, we conducted an exhaustive door-to-door survey in 45 villages of Al-Gureisha locality. Deaths were investigated by verbal autopsies. All individuals with (i fever of at least two weeks, (ii VL diagnosed and treated in the previous year, and (iii clinical suspicion of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL were referred to medical teams for case ascertainment. A new case of VL was a clinical suspect with a positive rk39 rapid test or direct agglutination test (DAT. RESULTS: In the 45 villages screened, 17,702 households were interviewed, for a population of 94,369 inhabitants. The crude mortality rate over the mean recall period of 409 days was 0.13/10'000 people per day. VL was a possible or probable cause for 19% of all deaths. The VL-specific mortality rate was estimated at 0.9/1000 per year. The medical teams examined 551 individuals referred for a history of fever of at least two weeks. Out of these, 16 were diagnosed with primary VL. The overall incidence of VL over the past year was 7.0/1000 persons per year, or 7.9/1000 per year when deaths possibly or probably due to VL were included. Overall, 12.5% (11,943/95,609 of the population reported a past VL treatment episode. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: VL represents a significant health burden in eastern Gedaref State. Active VL case detection had a very low yield in this specific setting with adequate access to care and may not be the priority intervention to enhance control in similar contexts.

  6. Adolescent Substance Abuse in Mexico, Puerto Rico and The United States: Effect of Anonymous versus Confidential Survey Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, William W.; O'Brien, Megan S.; Vasquez, Marco A.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Rios-Bedoya, Carlos F.; Floyd, Leah J.

    2006-01-01

    Anonymous surveys have been widely used worldwide to describe adolescent substance use yet cannot elucidate causal drug abuse predictors. Studies in the U.S. have generally found that anonymous and confidential surveys yield comparable levels of self-reported substance use, yet the effect of survey format on youth self-report has not been…

  7. Comparison of in situ and in vitro baiting assays for Phytophthora ramorum survey of waterways in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Oak; Jaesoon Hwang; Steven Jeffers

    2013-01-01

    In situ baiting with whole, intact leaves of Rhododendron spp. has been employed since 2006 by the National Phytophthora ramorum Early Detection survey of forests (national survey). Using this method, P. ramorum was detected for the first time in national survey waterways draining 12 infested ornamental...

  8. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  9. Using benchmarking techniques and the 2011 maternity practices infant nutrition and care (mPINC) survey to improve performance among peer groups across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Roger A; Dee, Deborah; Umer, Amna; Perrine, Cria G; Shealy, Katherine R; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2014-02-01

    A substantial proportion of US maternity care facilities engage in practices that are not evidence-based and that interfere with breastfeeding. The CDC Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) showed significant variation in maternity practices among US states. The purpose of this article is to use benchmarking techniques to identify states within relevant peer groups that were top performers on mPINC survey indicators related to breastfeeding support. We used 11 indicators of breastfeeding-related maternity care from the 2011 mPINC survey and benchmarking techniques to organize and compare hospital-based maternity practices across the 50 states and Washington, DC. We created peer categories for benchmarking first by region (grouping states by West, Midwest, South, and Northeast) and then by size (grouping states by the number of maternity facilities and dividing each region into approximately equal halves based on the number of facilities). Thirty-four states had scores high enough to serve as benchmarks, and 32 states had scores low enough to reflect the lowest score gap from the benchmark on at least 1 indicator. No state served as the benchmark on more than 5 indicators and no state was furthest from the benchmark on more than 7 indicators. The small peer group benchmarks in the South, West, and Midwest were better than the large peer group benchmarks on 91%, 82%, and 36% of the indicators, respectively. In the West large, the Midwest large, the Midwest small, and the South large peer groups, 4-6 benchmarks showed that less than 50% of hospitals have ideal practice in all states. The evaluation presents benchmarks for peer group state comparisons that provide potential and feasible targets for improvement.

  10. Using Benchmarking Techniques and the 2011 Maternity Practices Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) Survey to Improve Performance among Peer Groups across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Roger A.; Dee, Deborah; Umer, Amna; Perrine, Cria G.; Shealy, Katherine R.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A substantial proportion of US maternity care facilities engage in practices that are not evidence-based and that interfere with breastfeeding. The CDC Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) showed significant variation in maternity practices among US states. Objective The purpose of this article is to use benchmarking techniques to identify states within relevant peer groups that were top performers on mPINC survey indicators related to breastfeeding support. Methods We used 11 indicators of breastfeeding-related maternity care from the 2011 mPINC survey and benchmarking techniques to organize and compare hospital-based maternity practices across the 50 states and Washington, DC. We created peer categories for benchmarking first by region (grouping states by West, Midwest, South, and Northeast) and then by size (grouping states by the number of maternity facilities and dividing each region into approximately equal halves based on the number of facilities). Results Thirty-four states had scores high enough to serve as benchmarks, and 32 states had scores low enough to reflect the lowest score gap from the benchmark on at least 1 indicator. No state served as the benchmark on more than 5 indicators and no state was furthest from the benchmark on more than 7 indicators. The small peer group benchmarks in the South, West, and Midwest were better than the large peer group benchmarks on 91%, 82%, and 36% of the indicators, respectively. In the West large, the Midwest large, the Midwest small, and the South large peer groups, 4–6 benchmarks showed that less than 50% of hospitals have ideal practice in all states. Conclusion The evaluation presents benchmarks for peer group state comparisons that provide potential and feasible targets for improvement. PMID:24394963

  11. Interpregnancy Intervals in the United States: Data From the Birth Certificate and the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copen, Casey E; Thoma, Marie E; Kirmeyer, Sharon

    2015-04-16

    To describe data on interpregnancy intervals (IPI), defined as the timing between a live birth and conception of a subsequent live birth, from a subset of jurisdictions that adopted the 2003 revised birth certificate. Because this information is available among revised jurisdictions only, the national representativeness of IPI and related patterns to the entire United States were assessed using the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Birth certificate data are based on 100% of births registered in 36 states and the District of Columbia that adopted the 2003 revised birth certificate in 2011 (83% of 2011 U.S. births). The "Date of last live birth" item on the birth certificate was used to calculate months between the birth occurring in 2011 and the previous birth. These data were compared with pregnancy data from a nationally representative sample of women from the 2006-2010 NSFG. Jurisdiction-specific median IPI ranged from 25 months (Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wisconsin) to 32 months (California) using birth certificate data. Overall, the distribution of IPI from the birth certificate was similar to NSFG for IPI less than 18 months (30% and 29%), 18 to 59 months (50% and 52%), and 60 months or more (21% and 18%). Consistent patterns in IPI distribution by data source were seen by age at delivery, marital status, education, number of previous live births, and Hispanic origin and race, with the exception of differences in IPI of 60 months or more among non-Hispanic black women and women with a bachelor's degree or higher. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  12. ELISA-based serological survey of Mycoplasma bovis in cattle in three local government areas in Adamawa State, Nigeria

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    Markus Isa Francis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey for the detection of antibodies to Mycoplasma bovis was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria during the year 2012. A total of 400 serum samples were collected from three local government areas (LGA namely Yola (n=140, Mubi (n=130 and Ganye (n=130, and the samples were examined for the presence of M. bovis antibodies using BIO-X M. bovis antibody ELISA Kit. The overall seroprevalence of M. bovis was recorded as 19.5% (n=78/400. The highest seroprevalence was recorded in Ganye LGA (27.7%; n=36/130, followed by Yola LGA (20.0%; n=28/140 and Mubi LGA (10.8%; n=14/130. The cattle aging <1-year had the highest prevalence (25.8%, followed by 4-year-old cattle (22.4%. Based on sex distribution, 20.4% of the cows and 17.4% of the bulls were seropositive to M. bovis. Breed susceptibility to M. bovis infection showed that White Fulani had the highest prevalence (21.8%, and Sokoto Gudali had the lowest (11.9%. No statistical significant association was found between M. bovis infection and age, sex and breed of the cattle. In conclusion, the above findings are indicative for the presence of M. bovis in the study area.

  13. Trends in social consequences and dependence symptoms in the United States: the National Alcohol Surveys, 1984-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midanik, L T; Greenfield, T K

    2000-01-01

    Given the decline in alcohol use in the United States since the 1980s, the purpose of this study was to assess shifts in self-reported social consequences of alcohol use (and 5 consequences subscales) and dependence symptoms from 1984 to 1995. This study used data from 3 national alcohol surveys based on household probability samples of current drinkers (adults) in 1984, 1990, and 1995; samples sizes were 1503, 1338, and 1417, respectively. Overall, few changes in prevalence of social consequences or dependence symptoms were found. Significantly lower prevalence rates of 2 consequences subscales (accidents/legal problems and work problems) were reported between 1984 and 1990, but prevalence rates did not change for any of the scales from 1990 to 1995. This stability in alcohol-related outcomes despite reductions in alcohol consumption may be a result of cultural shifts in which problem amplification occurs in "drier" historical periods. Furthermore, rates of alcohol-related problems may be approaching their lowest limit and may not be readily influenced by any additional decreases in alcohol consumption.

  14. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF TOXOPLASMOSIS, NEOSPOROSIS AND BRUCELLOSIS AMONG CATTLE HERDS IN OYO STATE, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayinmode, Adekunle; Akinseye, Victor; Schares, Gereon; Cadmus, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    Several zoonotic diseases are known to constitute great impediment to livestock management and production worldwide, especially in developing countries where control measures are largely non-existent. This study sets out to investigate the occurrence of toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis among cattle herds in Oyo State, southwest Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey to screen for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum and Brucella abortus was conducted among 174 cattle in 17 herds. Sera obtained from the cattle were screened for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for Brucella abortus antibodies using Rose Bengal test and Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). Overall, herd level prevalence of 52.9%, 23.5% and 23.5% as well as individual prevalence of 7.5%, 3.4% and 3.4% was obtained for toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and brucellosis, respectively. Antibodies to T. gondii , N. caninum and B. abortus were detected in 2 of the 17 herds, T. gondii and N. caninum in 4 herds, and T. gondii and B. abortus in 4 herds. Statistically significant association was only found between seropositivity to T. gondii antibodies and sex (pneosporosis and brucellosis are prevalent among cattle herds screened in the study area. Considering the potential impact of these diseases on livestock management and production, extensive surveillance is necessary for development and implementation of effective control and prevention strategies.

  15. Informational and analytical support of the state bodies activities (on the example of expert surveys in APR countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L S Ruban

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the expert surveys conducted within the international project “Dialogue Partnership as a Factor of Stability and Integration” (“Bridge between East and West” over ten years (2005-2014 and control interviews conducted in 2009 and 2015 in the longitude format (70% of experts were the same the author provides a comprehensive analysis of the situation in the Asia-Pacific region with the help of highly qualified experts and VIP-persons - decision-makers from 16 Asian-Pacific countries: Brunei-Darussalam, Vietnam, India, Indonesia, the People’s Republic of China, Republic of Korea, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, the Russian Federation, Singapore, USA, Thailand, the Philippines and Japan. This study is not abstract or theoretical; it is a tool for informational and analytical support of the relevant state bodies of the Russian Federation responsible for the development of the situation in the Asia-Pacific region. The author analyzes the geopolitical balance of power and leadership in the region, its economic and energy situation, the level of security, risks and threats, the possibility of a military conflict so as to identify possible ways for the effective cooperation and coordination of interests of various countries in the region.

  16. Direct and Indirect Costs of Chronic and Episodic Migraine in the United States: A Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messali, Andrew; Sanderson, Joanna C; Blumenfeld, Andrew M; Goadsby, Peter J; Buse, Dawn C; Varon, Sepideh F; Stokes, Michael; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the societal direct and indirect costs of chronic and episodic migraine in the United States. Episodic and chronic migraine are distinguished by the frequency of headache-days. Chronic migraine has a greater overall impact on quality of life than does episodic migraine. Individuals with chronic migraine also use more healthcare resources (resulting in higher direct costs) and experience greater decreases in productivity (resulting in higher indirect costs) than those with episodic migraine as shown in the American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention (AMPP) Study. The International Burden of Migraine Study utilized a web-based questionnaire to elicit data on several topics related to the burden of migraine illness, including health resource utilization and productivity losses. Potential survey participants were identified by Synovate Healthcare (Chicago, IL, USA) from a pool of registered panelists from various countries. The panelists were screened online to determine eligibility and to identify individuals with migraine (episodic or chronic), based on reported symptoms. Participants from the United States were divided into episodic and chronic migraine groups, based on reported headache-day per month frequency. Direct and indirect costs were estimated by applying estimated unit costs to reported headache-related productivity losses and resource use. Costs were compared between participants with episodic and chronic migraine. Mean [standard deviation] total annual cost of headache among people with chronic migraine ($8243 [$10,646]) was over three times that of episodic migraine ($2649 [$4634], P < .001). Participants with chronic migraine had significantly greater direct medical costs ($4943 [$6382]) and indirect (lost productivity) costs ($3300 [$6907]) than did participants with episodic migraine (direct, $1705 [$3591]; indirect, $943 [$2084]) (P < .001 for each). Unlike previous findings, direct medical costs

  17. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A 10-Year Follow-up Survey of Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura McKeller; Sawyer, Robin G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a 10-year follow-up study using a telephone survey to investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. They also examined related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved,…

  18. Preparing Early Childhood Educators to Address Young Children's Social-Emotional Development and Challenging Behavior: A Survey of Higher Education Programs in Nine States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents results from a survey of faculty members from 2- and 4-year higher education programs in nine states that prepare teachers to work with preschool children. The purpose of the study was to determine how professors address content related to social-emotional development and challenging behaviors, how well prepared they believe…

  19. Added Sugar Intake among Pregnant Women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Catherine E; Figueroa, Janet; Welsh, Jean A

    2018-01-09

    Despite associations of dietary added sugar with excess weight gain and chronic disease risk, intake among most Americans exceeds the recommended limits (<10% total energy). Maternal diet plays an important role in pregnancy-related outcomes, but little is known about the extent of added sugar intake during pregnancy. To assess intake and identify the top sources of added sugars in the diets of pregnant vs nonpregnant women in the United States. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2004 to 2011-2012. Four thousand one hundred seventy-nine pregnant and nonpregnant women (aged 20 to 39 years) who completed a dietary recall. Survey-weighted analyses were used to estimate means (95% CIs) in total grams and as percentage of total energy for added sugar intake by pregnancy status and by demographic subgroup and to identify leading sources of added sugar. Added sugar intake trended toward being higher in pregnant compared with nonpregnant women in absolute grams, 85.1 g (95% CI: 77.4 to 92.7) vs 76.7 g (95% CI: 73.6 to 79.9), respectively (P=0.06), but was lower among pregnant women when total energy intake was accounted for, 14.8% (95% CI: 13.8 to 15.7) vs 15.9% (95% CI: 15.2 to 16.6) of total energy, respectively (P=0.03). Among pregnant women, added sugar intake was similar among demographic subgroups. However, in multivariable regression, pregnancy status significantly modified the associations of education and income with added sugar intake, whereby less educated and lower-income women who were pregnant had lower added sugar intakes compared with those who were not pregnant, but more educated or higher-income women did not exhibit this pattern. The top five sources of added sugar for all women were sugar-sweetened beverages; cakes, cookies, and pastries; sugars and sweets; juice drinks and smoothies; and milk-based desserts. Although pregnant women had higher energy intakes, this was not attributed

  20. A Limited Survey of Dark Chocolate Bars Obtained in the United States for Undeclared Milk and Peanut Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Binaifer; Yu, Ye; Wang, Xue; Garber, Eric A E; Jackson, Lauren S

    2017-04-01

    Undeclared allergens in chocolate products have been responsible for numerous allergen-related recalls in the United States. A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of undeclared milk and peanut in 88 and 78 dark chocolate bars, respectively. Concentrations of milk (as nonfat dry milk) or peanut in three samples of each chocolate product were determined with two milk- or peanut-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. In 75% of the chocolate bar products with a milk advisory statement, milk concentrations were above the limit of quantitation (2.5 μg/g [ppm]), with the majority having concentrations >1,000 ppm. An additional 67% of chocolate bars with a "traces of milk" statement contained 3 to 6,700 ppm of milk. Fifteen percent of chocolates labeled dairy free or lactose free and 25% labeled vegan were positive for milk, all with concentrations >1,000 ppm. Even for chocolates with no reference to milk on the label, 33% of these products contained 60 to 3,400 ppm of milk. The survey of chocolate products for peanuts revealed that 8% of products with an advisory statement contained peanut, with the highest concentration of 550 ppm. All nine chocolates bearing the peanut-free or allergen-free statement were negative for peanut, but 17% of chocolates with no label statement for peanut were positive for peanut at concentrations of 9 to 170 ppm. Evaluation of multiple lots of four chocolate products revealed that milk was consistently present or absent for the products investigated, but mixed results were obtained when multiple lots were tested for peanut. This study indicates that a large proportion of dark chocolate bars contain undeclared milk. The type of advisory statement or the absence of a milk advisory statement on products did not predict the amount or absence of milk protein. In contrast, a lower proportion of chocolates containing undeclared peanut was found. Consumers with food allergies should be cautious when purchasing dark chocolate

  1. Building-related health symptoms and classroom indoor air quality: a survey of school teachers in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielb, C; Lin, S; Muscatiello, N; Hord, W; Rogers-Harrington, J; Healy, J

    2015-08-01

    Most previous research on indoor environments and health has studied school children or occupants in non-school settings. This investigation assessed building-related health symptoms and classroom characteristics via telephone survey of New York State school teachers. Participants were asked about 14 building-related symptoms and 23 classroom characteristics potentially related to poor indoor air quality (IAQ). Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between these symptoms and each classroom characteristic, controlling for potential confounders. About 500 teachers completed the survey. The most frequently reported classroom characteristics included open shelving (70.7%), food eaten in class (65.5%), dust (59.1%), and carpeting (46.9%). The most commonly reported symptoms included sinus problems (16.8%), headache (15.0%), allergies/congestion (14.8%), and throat irritation (14.6%). Experiencing one or more symptoms was associated most strongly with reported dust (relative risk (RR) = 3.67; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.62-5.13), dust reservoirs (RR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.72-2.65), paint odors (RR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.40-2.13), mold (RR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.39-2.11), and moldy odors (RR = 1.65 95% CI: 1.30-2.10). Stronger associations were found with increasing numbers of reported IAQ-related classroom characteristics. Similar results were found with having any building-related allergic/respiratory symptom. This research adds to the body of evidence underscoring the importance to occupant health of school IAQ. Teachers play an important role in educating children, and teacher well-being is important to this role. Health symptoms among New York teachers while at work are common and appear to be associated with numerous characteristics related to poor classroom IAQ. Improving school Indoor Air Quality may reduce sickness and absenteeism and improve teacher performance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Occurrence of selected radionuclides in ground water used for drinking water in the United States; a reconnaissance survey, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Szabo, Zoltan; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Mullin, Ann H.; Barringer, Thomas H.; dePaul, Vincent T.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the American Water Works Association, and the American Water Works Service Company, completed a targeted national reconnaissance survey of selected radionuclides in public ground-water supplies. Radionuclides analyzed included radium-224 (Ra-224), radium-226 (Ra-226), radium-228 (Ra-228), polonium-210 (Po-210) and lead-210 (Pb-210).This U.S. Geological Survey reconnaissance survey focused intentionally on areas with known or suspected elevated concentrations of radium in ground water to determine if Ra-224 was also present in the areas where other isotopes of radium had previously been detected and to determine the co-occurrence characteristics of the three radium isotopes (Ra-224, Ra-226, and Ra-228) in those areas. Ninety-nine raw-water samples (before water treatment) were collected once over a 6-month period in 1998 and 1999 from wells (94 of which are used for public drinking water) in 27 States and 8 physiographic provinces. Twenty-one of the 99 samples exceeded the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) for combined radium (Ra-226 + Ra-228). Concentrations of Ra-224 were reported to exceed 1 pCi/L in 30 percent of the samples collected, with a maximum concentration of 73.6 pCi/L measured in water from a nontransient, noncommunity, public-supply well in Maryland. Radium-224 concentrations generally were higher than those of the other isotopes of radium. About 5 percent of the samples contained concentrations of Ra-224 greater than 10 pCi/L, whereas only 2 percent exceeded 10 pCi/L for either Ra-226 or Ra-228. Concentrations of Ra-226 greater than 1 pCi/L were reported in 33 percent of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 16.9 pCi/L measured in water from a public-supply well in Iowa. Concentrations of Ra-228 greater than 1 pCi/L were reported in 22 samples, with a maximum

  3. The National Association of State Scholarship and Grant Programs, 23rd Annual Survey Report, 1991-1992 Academic Year. State Funded Scholarship/Grant Programs for Students To Attend Postsecondary Educational Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jerry S.; Heberle, Deborah

    This report describes the results of a survey of publicly funded grant programs for undergraduates and graduate/professional school students operated by the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. It focuses on the grant program characteristics for 1991-92 and provides analysis of the trends of these programs. The analysis indicates…

  4. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants, Stage II Protection of concrete - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ylva (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    A pilot study on the degradation and corrosion of concrete in biological treatment plants was conducted in 2009/2010 in a Waste Refinery Project WR-27 'Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants'. The results showed that the concrete does not have sufficient resistance in the current aggressive plant environment. Furthermore, it is stated that some form of surface protection system is needed to ensure the good performance of concrete constructions, and that the system must withstand the aggressive environment and the traffic that occurs on site. Consequently, a new study was proposed in order to develop specifications for surface protection of concrete in aggressive food waste environments. Results from that study are presented in this report. The report includes various types of waterproofing/protection coating for concrete in biological treatment plants. A number of proposals from the industry are presented in the light of results from project WR-27, i.e., the materials must, among other things, withstand the aggressive leachate from waste food at temperatures up to 70 deg C, and some degree of wear. Some systems are compared in terms of technical material properties as reported by the manufacturer. It turns out that different testing methods were used, and the test results are thus generally not directly comparable. A proposal for a test program has been developed, focusing on chemical resistance and wear resistance. A test solution corresponding to leachate is specified. Laboratory tests for verification of the proposed methodology and future requirements are proposed, as well as test sites and follow-up in the field

  5. Why physicians do not initiate dual therapy as recommended by AACE guidelines: A survey of clinicians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying; Li, Qiong; Tang, Jackson; Fan, Chun-Po Steve; Li, Zhiyi; Apecechea, Mercedes; Hegar, Ruth; Shankar, Ravi; Kurtyka, Karen M; Engel, Samuel S

    2015-06-01

    The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) recommends initiating dual therapy with antihyperglycemic agents in untreated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and HbA1c between 7.6% (60 mmol/mol) and 9.0% (75 mmol/mol). In practice physicians do not always follow guidelines. This study assessed why physicians do not prescribe dual therapy when treating eligible patients. 1235 primary care physicians (PCPs) and 290 specialists in the United States reviewed medical charts for 5995 patients whose HbA1c was between 7.6% (60 mmol/mol) and 9.0% (75 mmol/mol) at diagnosis and were being treated with metformin monotherapy. In an online survey physicians rated the relevance of 22 reasons for not initiating dual therapy using a 5-point Likert scale. Relevant reasons were compared between PCPs vs. specialists, and younger vs. older patients, using multivariate general linear regression and mixed-effect models. Four relevant reasons for not following AACE guidelines were physician-related: (1) "Metformin monotherapy is sufficient to improve glycemic control"; (2) "Monotherapy is easier to handle than dual therapy"; (3) "I believe that monotherapy and changes in lifestyle are enough for hyperglycemia control"; and (4) "I recommend monotherapy before considering dual therapy." One relevant reason was patient-related: (5) "Patient has mild hyperglycemia." Regression analysis demonstrated that PCPs rated each physician-related reason as significantly more relevant than specialists. Three physician-related reasons were significantly more relevant for younger patients than older patients. Physicians do not follow AACE guidelines due to physicians' beliefs toward therapy and the perception of mild hyperglycemia in patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maximum magnitude (Mmax) in the central and eastern United States for the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey Hazard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Russell L.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic seismic‐hazard assessment (PSHA) requires an estimate of Mmax, the moment magnitude M of the largest earthquake that could occur within a specified area. Sparse seismicity hinders Mmax estimation in the central and eastern United States (CEUS) and tectonically similar regions worldwide (stable continental regions [SCRs]). A new global catalog of moderate‐to‐large SCR earthquakes is analyzed with minimal assumptions about enigmatic geologic controls on SCR Mmax. An earlier observation that SCR earthquakes of M 7.0 and larger occur in young (250–23 Ma) passive continental margins and associated rifts but not in cratons is not strongly supported by the new catalog. SCR earthquakes of M 7.5 and larger are slightly more numerous and reach slightly higher M in young passive margins and rifts than in cratons. However, overall histograms of M from young margins and rifts and from cratons are statistically indistinguishable. This conclusion is robust under uncertainties inM, the locations of SCR boundaries, and which of two available global SCR catalogs is used. The conclusion stems largely from recent findings that (1) large southeast Asian earthquakes once thought to be SCR were in actively deforming crust and (2) long escarpments in cratonic Australia were formed by prehistoric faulting. The 2014 seismic‐hazard model of the U.S. Geological Survey represents CEUS Mmax as four‐point probability distributions. The distributions have weighted averages of M 7.0 in cratons and M 7.4 in passive margins and rifts. These weighted averages are consistent with Mmax estimates of other SCR PSHAs of the CEUS, southeastern Canada, Australia, and India.

  7. The transcultural diabetes nutrition algorithm toolkit: survey and content validation in the United States, Mexico, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Osama; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2014-06-01

    Evidence demonstrates that medical nutrition therapy (MNT) in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) improves glycemic control and reduces diabetes risks and complications. Consequently, MNT is included in current clinical practice guidelines. Guideline recommendations, however, are frequently limited by their complexity, contradictions, personal and cultural rigidity, and compromised portability. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) was developed to overcome these limitations. To facilitate tDNA uptake and usage, an instructional Patient Algorithm Therapy (PATh) toolkit was created. Content validation of tDNA-PATh is needed before widespread implementation. Healthcare providers (n=837) in Mexico (n=261), Taiwan (n=250), and the United States (n=326) were questioned about challenges implementing MNT in clinical practice and the projected utilization and impact of tDNA-PATh. To assess the international portability and applicability of tDNA-PATh, the survey was conducted in countries with distinct ethnic and cultural attributes. Potential respondents were screened for professional and practice demographics related to diabetes. The questionnaire was administered electronically after respondents were exposed to core tDNA-PATh components. Overall, 61% of respondents thought that tDNA-PATh could help overcome MNT implementation challenges, 91% indicated positive impressions, 83% believed they would adopt tDNA-PATh, and 80% thought tDNA-PATh would be fairly easy to implement. tDNA-PATh appears to be an effective culturally sensitive tool to foster MNT in clinical practice. By providing simple culturally specific instructions, tDNA-PATh may help to overcome current impediments to implementing recommended lifestyle modifications. Specific guidance provided by tDNA-PATh, together with included patient education materials, may increase healthcare provider efficiency.

  8. Infertility and impaired fecundity in the United States, 1982-2010: data from the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anjani; Copen, Casey E; Stephen, Elizabeth Hervey

    2013-08-14

    This report presents nationally representative estimates and trends for infertility and impaired fecundity-two measures of fertility problems-among women aged 15-44 in the United States. Data are also presented on a measure of infertility among men aged 15-44. Data for this report come primarily from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), which consisted of 22,682 interviews with men and women aged 15-44, conducted from June 2006 through June 2010. The response rate for women in the 2006-2010 NSFG was 78%, and for men was 75%. Selected trends are shown based on prior NSFG years. The percentage of married women aged 15-44 who were infertile fell from 8.5% in 1982 (2.4 million women) to 6.0% (1.5 million) in 2006-2010. Impaired fecundity among married women aged 15-44 increased from 11% in 1982 to 15% in 2002, but decreased to 12% in 2006-2010. Among all women, 11% had impaired fecundity in 2006-2010. Both infertility and impaired fecundity remain closely associated with age for nulliparous women. Among married, nulliparous women aged 35-44, the percentage infertile declined from 44% in 1982 to 27% in 2006-2010, reflecting greater delays in childbearing over this period. Among married women in 2006-2010, non-Hispanic black women were more likely to be infertile than non-Hispanic white women. Some form of infertility (either subfertility or nonsurgical sterility) was reported by 9.4% of men aged 15-44 and 12% of men aged 25-44 in 2006-2010, similar to levels seen in 2002.

  9. Is the state of health of rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving adequate treatment, predictable? - Results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Rudolf; Brezinschek, Hans Peter; Fritz, Josef; Herold, Manfred; Mustak, Monika; Nothnagl, Thomas; Puchner, Stephan E; Studnicka-Benke, Andrea; Leeb, Burkhard F

    2015-05-06

    A survey was conducted to evaluate whether a steady improvement in the quality of life of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients as frequently reported in clinical studies, does actually occur. The focus of this study laid on the personal perception of RA patients. How do patients who have been treated along accepted guidelines see the state of their health and their joint pain at different points in time? RA patients were asked to complete a questionnaire and return it to an opinion research centre. The questionnaire, which was developed by the authors, was divided into the areas: demography, symptom description and medical care, as well as the illness in a personal context. Three telephone interviews followed in monthly intervals when the patients' feelings about their illness, their every-day coping mechanisms and their social lives were rated. Intra-subject correlation and the level of agreement among patients when assessed at three different points within a two month period, was determined. 127 patients replied to the questionnaire. RA exerts a significant impact on a patient's daily life. Average ratings of current state of health and joint pain (answered on a 5-part scale extending from 1 (very good) to 5 (very bad)) range between 2.6 and 2.9 all three times. However, intra-subject correlation between the different assessment times, is in general quite modest. Concerning the question: "How is your join pain today?" only 14 of 127 participants express identical ratings all three times , while in one third of the participants, a difference of two digits on the 5-part scale, at least twice had to be noticed. Intra-class correlation coefficients between answers at different points are often much smaller than 0.5. Results were similar in all subgroups analysed (men vs. women; patients receiving biologics vs. those not receiving biologics; disease duration ≤3 years vs. 4 to 10 years vs. ≥11 years). On an individual level personal assessments of health, well

  10. Third annual state of logistics survey for South Africa 2006: Implementing logistics strategies in a developing economy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the focus is on the challenges of implementing logistics strategies in the macro-economic, industry and small business development contexts. The data contained in this survey represents the 2005 reporting year. The aim of the survey...

  11. Technology transfer with system analysis, design, decision making, and impact (Survey-2000) in acute care hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, M

    2001-10-01

    This paper provides the results of the Survey-2000 measuring technology transfer for management information systems in health care. The relationships with systems approaches, user involvement, usersatisfaction, and decision-making were measured and are presented. The survey also measured the levels Internet and Intranet presents in acute care hospitals, which will be discussed in future articles. The depth of the survey includes e-commerce for both business to business and customers. These results are compared, where appropriate, with results from survey 1997 and changes are discussed. This information will provide benchmarks for hospitals to plan their network technology position and to set goals. This is the first of three articles based upon the results of the Srvey-2000. Readers are referred to a prior article by the author that discusses the survey design and provides a tutorial on technology transfer in acute care hospitals.

  12. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Soil Polygons for the State of Rhode Island: Bristol, Kent, Newport, Providence, and Washington Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — 2013 VERSION 6 Spatial: This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative...

  13. Preliminary survey of Geray reservoir, Amhara National Regional State, West Gojjam, Jabitehnan Woreda, Ethiopia: focus on wetland management

    OpenAIRE

    Miheret Endalew Tegegnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To collect baseline information, to raise public awareness on the reservoir wetland situation, and to recommend an intervention mechanism to sustain its ecosystem services. Methods: Survey on Geray reservoir was carried out during 2010-2011. Questionnaire survey to collect data in Geray reservoir watershed kebeles was deployed and the data included land use and land cover, livestock and human population, crop patterns, topography and soil type in these kebeles. Focus...

  14. Survey of the actual state of the coal related research and development in Japan. 11; Nippon ni okeru sekitan kanren kenkyu kaihatsu jittai chosa. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    NEDO is surveying the actual state of the coal related research/development in Japan to supply information on the coal related research/development in Japan to IEA`s coal research project database. This book of fiscal 1997 version includes 338 subjects. The details described are name of research institute, the section in charge, address, name of country, telephone No., name of joint researcher, research theme, classification, outline of research, project No., name of researcher, sponsor, the budget appropriated, term of research, remarks, etc. The books of data collected from each country in surveys of the actual state of the coal related R and D and IEA`s coal researches which have been made so far are submitted for general viewing at NEDO Information Center. Also, a part of those can be accessible from the energy database of which NEDO Information Center is performing on-line service for user members

  15. A Short Survey on the State of the Art in Architectures and Platforms for Large Scale Data Analysis and Knowledge Discovery from Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begoli, Edmon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Intended as a survey for practicing architects and researchers seeking an overview of the state-of-the-art architectures for data analysis, this paper provides an overview of the emerg- ing data management and analytic platforms including par- allel databases, Hadoop-based systems, High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms and platforms popularly re- ferred to as NoSQL platforms. Platforms are presented based on their relevance, analysis they support and the data organization model they support.

  16. Length of Residence in the United States is Associated With a Higher Prevalence of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Immigrants: A Contemporary Analysis of the National Health Interview Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Commodore?Mensah, Yvonne; Ukonu, Nwakaego; Obisesan, Olawunmi; Aboagye, Jonathan Kumi; Agyemang, Charles; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Okosun, Ike S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia are high among United States ethnic minorities, and the immigrant population continues to burgeon. Methods and Results Hypothesizing that acculturation (length of residence) would be associated with a higher prevalence of CMR factors, the authors analyzed data on 54, 984 US immigrants in the 2010?2014 National Health Interview Surveys. The main predictor was length o...

  17. Issue Brief: A Survey of State Policies to Support Utility-Scale and Distributed-Energy Storage (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This document summarizes proposed and enacted legislation and activities related to energy storage for nine states, which are presented alphabetically. These states were selected to provide a high-level view of various energy storage efforts taking place across the United States.

  18. History Education in the United States: A Survey of Teacher Certification and State-Based Standards and Assessments for Teachers and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah Drake; Patrick, John J.

    The major goal of a study sponsored by the Organization of American Historians and the American Historical Association was to provide information about the state of history education in each of the United States, to be used constructively to appraise and improve school-based history education. This report addresses teacher certification in…

  19. Prevalence and trends in physical activity among older adults in the United States: A comparison across three national surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah Kozey; McKinnon, Robin; Graubard, Barry I; Troiano, Richard P

    2016-08-01

    This paper examined how many older adults (65+years) are meeting physical activity (PA) Guidelines (PAG; 150min/week of moderate-to-vigorous PA) using data from three leading national surveys (NHANES, BRFSS and NHIS). The proportion of individuals meeting aerobic PAG was determined for the most recent cycle available for each survey (NHANES 2011-12, NHIS and BRFSS 2013). We also assessed whether PAG adherence has changed over time. Predicted margins from multinomial logistic regression were computed after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity and gender and sample weights. The proportion of older adults meeting PAG was 27.3% for NHANES, 35.8% for NHIS and 44.3% for BRFSS. Across all surveys, men reported higher levels of activity than women, Non-Hispanic whites reported higher levels than Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, activity declined with age and was lower in those with functional limitations, all P<0.05. The proportion of older adults meeting PAG in the NHIS survey, the only survey where PA questions remained the same over time, increased from 25.7% in 1998 to 35.8% in 2013 (P<0.01). Point-estimates for activity levels are different between surveys but they consistently identify sub-groups who are less active. Although older adults are reporting more activity over time, adherence to aerobic and strength training PAG remains low in this population and there is a need for effective interventions to prevent age-related declines in PA and address health disparities among older adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Attitudes of radiation oncologists toward palliative and supportive care in the United States: Report on national membership survey by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Randy L; Mattes, Malcolm D; Yu, James; Thrasher, Adrienne; Shu, Hui-Kuo; Paganetti, Harald; De Los Santos, Jennifer; Koontz, Bridget; Abraham, Christopher; Balboni, Tracy

    Radiation oncologists are frequently involved in providing palliative and supportive care (PSC) for patients with advanced cancers through delivery of palliative radiation. Whether they are confident in their ability to assess and initiate treatments for pain, nonpain, and psychosocial distress is unknown. The American Society for Radiation Oncology surveyed its practicing members in the United States on self-assessment of their primary PSC skills and access to continuing medical education on PSC. We electronically surveyed 4093 practicing radiation oncologists in the United States. The survey consisted of 16-questions in 5 sections1: demographics,2 PSC training,3 domains of PSC,4 perceived barriers as a radiation oncologist to initiate advanced care planning, and5 discussion of prognosis. The survey was e-mailed to 4093 American Society for Radiation Oncology members, and 649 responses were received (response rate 16%). The majority (91%) of radiation oncologists surveyed believe PSC is an important competency for radiation oncologists. Most radiation oncologists reported that they are moderately confident in their ability to assess and manage pain and gastrointestinal symptoms, but less confident in their ability to manage anorexia, anxiety, and depression. Despite areas of decreased confidence, a large number (42%) of radiation oncologists do not receive any additional PSC education beyond their residency training. Lastly, a perceived fear of upsetting referring medical oncologists and lack of clinic time are concerns for radiation oncologists who may want to initiate goals of care/advance care planning discussions with patients and their families. Radiation oncologists are more confident in their ability to assess and manage pain than in their ability to manage depression, anxiety, anorexia, and fatigue. There is a need for increasing continuing medical educational efforts in PSC for practicing radiation oncologists, and strengthening PSC training in residency

  1. A State-Wide Survey of South Australian Secondary Schools to Determine the Current Emphasis on Ergonomics and Computer Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Janet; Penman, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pattern of teaching of healthy computing skills to high school students in South Australia. A survey approach was used to collect data, specifically to determine the emphasis placed by schools on ergonomics that relate to computer use. Participating schools were recruited through the Department for Education and Child…

  2. Urban forests' potential to supply marketable carbon emission offsets: a survey of municipal governments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Jacek P. Siry; J. M. Bowker

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the motivation, willingness, and technical as well as managerial capacities of U.S. cities to store carbon and sell carbon offsets. Based on a national survey of urban foresters, arborists, and other officials responsible for urban forest management within U.S. municipal governments, results indicate that local governments are interested in selling...

  3. Physician stated atrial fibrillation management in light of treatment guidelines: data from an international, observational prospective survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowey, Peter R; Breithardt, Günter; Camm, John

    2010-01-01

    The Registry on Cardiac Rhythm Disorders Assessing the Control of Atrial Fibrillation (RecordAF) study is the first worldwide, prospective, survey of real-life management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in recently diagnosed patients (n = 5604) with a 1-year follow-up....

  4. Attitudes regarding perioperative care of patients with OSA: a survey study of four specialties in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auckley, Dennis; Cox, Robynn; Bolden, Norman; Thornton, J Daryl

    2015-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for significant perioperative complications. This national survey study sought to determine the attitudes of physicians involved in the perioperative care of OSA patients. We modified the perioperative survey used by Turner et al. among Canadian anesthesiologists. We mailed the survey to 3,000 US physicians practicing in the following specialties (750 of each specialty): anesthesiology (A), primary care (family practice or internal medicine) (PC), sleep (SM), and general surgery (S). The survey asked questions about attitudes and practice patterns regarding OSA in the perioperative setting. Of 2,730 eligible subjects, 783 questionnaires (28.7 %) were returned. Overall, 94 % felt OSA was a risk factor for perioperative complications (no difference by specialty) and 90 % felt it was a moderate to major risk factor (A = 91 %, PC = 81 %, SM = 94 %, S = 72 %; p OSA in the perioperative setting. Despite this, only 71 % reported regularly screening for OSA preoperatively, mostly by history and physical examination (A = 89 %, PC = 52 %, SM = 88 %, S = 49 %; p OSA, 32 % would delay surgery pending a sleep study (A = 4 %, PC = 41 %, SM = 54 %, S = 27 %; p OSA patients. The majority of physicians in this survey felt OSA was a significant risk factor for perioperative complications and most reported experience with OSA patients having an adverse outcome. Perioperative management guidelines for OSA are not available at most institutions. Further work is needed to help physicians identify and intervene on patients with OSA in the perioperative setting before adverse events develop.

  5. Mutual health assistance measures to be applied in the event of disasters or particularly serious accidents or diseases. Survey carried out in Member States

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    At their meeting in Brussels on 16 November 1978, the Health Ministers of the Member States noted with interest the Commission's proposals for action to facilitate the provision of cross-frontier aid in the event of disasters. In particular, the proposed action was aimed at streamlining administrative formalities, making emergency aid more effective and hastening its supply. In this connection, the Commission has worked hand in hand with experts in Member States in surveying existing resources, study ing ways of optimizing them, and detailing the various facilities available nationally for use in the event of disasters. The purpose of this publication is, simply, to provide information for the persons concerned in Member States who are likely to be consulted as to the possibility of supplying some form of aid to a neighbouring country, or to be responsible for requesting aid should a serious disaster occur in their own country

  6. A survey of stated physician practices and beliefs on the use of steroids in pediatric fluid and/or vasoactive infusion-dependent shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Kusum; McNally, James D; Choong, Karen; Ward, Roxanne E; Lawson, Margaret L; Ramsay, Tim; Wong, Hector R

    2013-06-01

    Limited evidence exists on the use of corticosteroids in pediatric shock. We sought to determine physicians' practices and beliefs with regard to the management of pediatric shock. Cross-sectional, Internet-based survey. Canada. Physicians identified as practicing pediatric intensive care in any of 15 academic centers. Seventy of 97 physicians (72.2%) responded. Physicians stated that they were more likely to prescribe steroids for septic shock than for shock following cardiac surgery (odds ratio, 1.9 [95% CI, 0.9-4.3]) or trauma (odds ratio, 11.46 [95% CI, 2.5-51.2]), and 91.4% (64/70) would administer steroids to patients who had received 60 cc/kg of fluid and two or more vasoactive medications. Thirty-five percent of respondents (25/70) reported that they rarely or never conducted adrenal axis testing before giving steroids to patients in shock. Eighty-seven percent of respondents (61/70) stated that the role of steroids in the treatment of fluid and/or vasoactive drug-dependent shock needed to be clarified and that 84.3% would be willing to randomize patients into a trial of steroid efficacy who were fluid resuscitated and on one high-dose vasoactive medication. However, 74.3% stated that they would start open-label steroids in patients who required two high-dose vasoactive medications. This survey provides information on the stated beliefs and practices of pediatric critical care physicians with regard to the use of steroids in fluid and/or vasoactive drug-dependent shock. Clinicians feel that the role of steroids in shock still requires clarification and that they would be willing to randomize patients into a trial. This survey may be useful as an initial framework for the development of a future trial on the use of steroids in pediatric shock.

  7. Alternative Approaches to Assessing Nonresponse Bias in Longitudinal Survey Estimates: An Application to Substance-Use Outcomes Among Young Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brady Thomas; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated alternative approaches to assessing and correcting for nonresponse bias in a longitudinal survey. We considered the changes in substance-use outcomes over a 3-year period among young adults aged 18-24 years (n = 5,199) in the United States, analyzing data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. This survey collected a variety of substance-use information from a nationally representative sample of US adults in 2 waves: 2001-2002 and 2004-2005. We first considered nonresponse rates in the second wave as a function of key substance-use outcomes in wave 1. We then evaluated 5 alternative approaches designed to correct for nonresponse bias under different attrition mechanisms, including weighting adjustments, multiple imputation, selection models, and pattern-mixture models. Nonignorable attrition in a longitudinal survey can lead to bias in estimates of change in certain health behaviors over time, and only selected procedures enable analysts to assess the sensitivity of their inferences to different assumptions about the extent of nonignorability. We compared estimates based on these 5 approaches, and we suggest a road map for assessing the risk of nonresponse bias in longitudinal studies. We conclude with directions for future research in this area given the results of our evaluations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Survey of Technology with Possible Applications to United States Coast Guard Buoy Tenders. Volume 2. Literature Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Transportation In the Interest of Information i exchange . The United States Government assumes no liability for Its contents or use thereof. The United States...Boat, March 1983, pp 81, 121-2, (’Point Bravo, Chaleur , Liberty, & Normandy’) "Halter’s awesome ’Acadian Commander", The Work Boat, January ". 1982

  9. The Core Curricula of Information Systems Undergraduate Programs: A Survey of AACSB-Accredited Colleges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Samuel C.

    2016-01-01

    The author examines the present state of information systems undergraduate programs in the United States. He reviewed 516 institutions and collected data on 234 institutions offering information systems (IS) undergraduate programs. Of seven core courses required by the IS 2010 curriculum model, four are required by more than 50% of the programs,…

  10. Current state of musculoskeletal ultrasound training and implementation in Europe: results of a survey of experts and scientific societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naredo, Esperanza; D'Agostino, Maria A; Conaghan, Philip G

    2010-01-01

    To document the current state of musculoskeletal US (MSUS) training and extent of implementation among rheumatologists in the member countries of EULAR.......To document the current state of musculoskeletal US (MSUS) training and extent of implementation among rheumatologists in the member countries of EULAR....

  11. On the Trail of Preventing Meningococcal Disease: A Survey of Students Planning to Travel to the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Hsien‐Liang; Cheng, Shao‐Yi; Lee, Long‐Teng; Yao, Chien‐An; Chu, Chia‐Wei; Lu, Chia‐Wen; Chiu, Tai‐Yuan; Huang, Kuo‐Chin

    2013-01-01

    .... Because of this, students from overseas who are planning to live in college dormitories are usually required to provide proof of meningococcal immunization in the United States and other countries such as the United Kingdom. Many Taiwanese students preparing to study in the United States are required to have the vaccination, which is not a routine immun...

  12. Smart material interfaces as a methodology for interaction: a survey of SMIs' state of the art and development

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown; Minuto, A.; Kretzer, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Giusti, L

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give an overview of the work done on the methodology of using smart material interfaces as it appears in the literature until now. We address the opportunities oered by smart materials as they have been exploited by other researchers who created smart material interfaces. We do so by surveying smart materials by kind and by looking at how they have been exploited.

  13. [The state of hygienic training of the workers occupied in the area of public catering: a sociological survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesskiĭ, V A; Krasil'shchikov, M I; Osipova, E M; Potemkin, E L; Tsymbalova, T V; Kutumova, O Iu; Nemets, M G

    2010-01-01

    The outcomes of a survey research completed in the workers of public catering facilities in two large cities of the Russian Federation are presented which show that the system of hygienic training for this occupational group of the population needs updating. This includes improving the programs and teaching and learning materials, as well as developing criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of educational activities in the field of occupational hygienic education and training.

  14. Patient Engagement Practices in Clinical Research among Patient Groups, Industry, and Academia in the United States: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sophia K; Selig, Wendy; Harker, Matthew; Roberts, Jamie N; Hesterlee, Sharon; Leventhal, David; Klein, Richard; Patrick-Lake, Bray; Abernethy, Amy P

    2015-01-01

    Patient-centered clinical trial design and execution is becoming increasingly important. No best practice guidelines exist despite a key stakeholder declaration to create more effective engagement models. This study aims to gain a better understanding of attitudes and practices for engaging patient groups so that actionable recommendations may be developed. Individuals from industry, academic institutions, and patient groups were identified through Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and Drug Information Association rosters and mailing lists. Objectives, practices, and perceived barriers related to engaging patient groups in the planning, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials were reported in an online survey. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of survey data followed a literature review to inform survey questions. Survey respondents (n = 179) valued the importance of involving patient groups in research; however, patient group respondents valued their contributions to research protocol development, funding acquisition, and interpretation of study results more highly than those contributions were valued by industry and academic respondents (all p group respondents placed higher value in open communications, clear expectations, and detailed contract execution than did non-patient group respondents (all p group respondents (all p groups reported that a lack of transparency and understanding of the benefits of collaboration on the part of industry and academia were greater barriers than did non-patient group respondents (all pgroups, key differences exist in perceived barriers and benefits to partnering with patient groups among the sectors studied. This recognition could inform the development of best practices for patient-centered clinical trial design and execution. Additional research is needed to define and optimize key success factors.

  15. Patient Engagement Practices in Clinical Research among Patient Groups, Industry, and Academia in the United States: A Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia K Smith

    Full Text Available Patient-centered clinical trial design and execution is becoming increasingly important. No best practice guidelines exist despite a key stakeholder declaration to create more effective engagement models. This study aims to gain a better understanding of attitudes and practices for engaging patient groups so that actionable recommendations may be developed.Individuals from industry, academic institutions, and patient groups were identified through Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and Drug Information Association rosters and mailing lists. Objectives, practices, and perceived barriers related to engaging patient groups in the planning, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials were reported in an online survey. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of survey data followed a literature review to inform survey questions.Survey respondents (n = 179 valued the importance of involving patient groups in research; however, patient group respondents valued their contributions to research protocol development, funding acquisition, and interpretation of study results more highly than those contributions were valued by industry and academic respondents (all p < .001. Patient group respondents placed higher value in open communications, clear expectations, and detailed contract execution than did non-patient group respondents (all p < .05. Industry and academic respondents more often cited internal bureaucratic processes and reluctance to share information as engagement barriers than did patient group respondents (all p < .01. Patient groups reported that a lack of transparency and understanding of the benefits of collaboration on the part of industry and academia were greater barriers than did non-patient group respondents (all p< .01.Despite reported similarities among approaches to engagement by the three stakeholder groups, key differences exist in perceived barriers and benefits to partnering with patient groups among the

  16. Family Formation Processes: Assessing the Need for a New Nationally Representative Household Panel Survey in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    The American family has undergone rapid transformation. Careful measurement attention to family formation is important because families are at the heart of numerous decisions, roles, and responsibilities with implications for understanding the well-being of families, adults and children. This paper considers whether there is a need for a new household panel study that addresses family formation. This paper consists of a review of the recent body of population-based, American surveys and finds a considerable gap in the ability to study the implications of families for the health and well-being of Americans. Earlier panel surveys used to assess family life anchored questions around marital events, but changes in family patterns require attention to a more diverse set of family forms. The paper concludes with recommendations for a multi-purpose panel study. The key challenge is to keep to pace with complexity and changes in American family life while at the same time maintaining a parsimonious set of survey questions. PMID:26612969

  17. Preliminary survey of Geray reservoir, Amhara National Regional State, West Gojjam, Jabitehnan Woreda, Ethiopia: focus on wetland management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miheret Endalew Tegegnie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To collect baseline information, to raise public awareness on the reservoir wetland situation, and to recommend an intervention mechanism to sustain its ecosystem services. Methods: Survey on Geray reservoir was carried out during 2010-2011. Questionnaire survey to collect data in Geray reservoir watershed kebeles was deployed and the data included land use and land cover, livestock and human population, crop patterns, topography and soil type in these kebeles. Focus group discussion with local community to obtain indigenous knowledge was considered. Secondary data collection and relevant literature were surveyed. The collected data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results: Critical problems observed on the wetland and the surrounding watershed included vegetation cover removal, land degradation, wetland hardening, pressurized grazing, expansion of floating macrophytes on the reservoir, water seepage at the weir, water use management and water use conflicts, drainage structures maintenance and lack of institutional accountability. Open access and inadequate management has increased anthropogenic factors resulting amplified decline of ecosystem goods and services. Conclusions: The reservoir is under growing stress and nearing to disappearance unless and otherwise timely measures are taken to mitigate the prevailing encroachment towards the wetland. Sustainable management of hydrological, ecological, social, biodiversity and economical values based on knowledge and experience on environment, land use, extension services and research to restore and sustain the various values and functions, calls for different stakeholders to alleviate negatively impacting factors on the wetland. Further information generation on the wetland situation on the Geray wetland specifically on wetland valuation is highly demanded.

  18. Embryo transfer practices in the United States: a survey of clinics registered with the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungheim, Emily S; Ryan, Ginny L; Levens, Eric D; Cunningham, Alexandra F; Macones, George A; Carson, Kenneth R; Beltsos, Angeline N; Odem, Randall R

    2010-09-01

    To gain a better understanding of factors influencing clinicians' embryo transfer practices. Cross-sectional survey. Web-based survey conducted in December 2008 of individuals practicing IVF in centers registered with the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART). None. None. Prevalence of clinicians reporting following embryo transfer guidelines recommended by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), prevalence among these clinicians to deviate from ASRM guidelines in commonly encountered clinical scenarios, and practice patterns related to single embryo transfer. Six percent of respondents reported following their own, independent guidelines for the number of embryos to transfer after IVF. Of the 94% of respondents who reported routinely following ASRM embryo transfer guidelines, 52% would deviate from these guidelines for patient request, 51% for cycles involving the transfer of frozen embryos, and 70% for patients with previously failed IVF cycles. All respondents reported routinely discussing the risks of multiple gestations associated with standard embryo transfer practices, whereas only 34% reported routinely discussing single embryo transfer with all patients. Although the majority of clinicians responding to our survey reported following ASRM embryo transfer guidelines, at least half would deviate from these guidelines in a number of different situations. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumers' characteristics associated with the use of mail pharmacy services in the United States: Findings from the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashrash, Mohamed E; Tomaszewski, Daniel M; Schommer, Jon C; Brown, Lawrence M

    The purpose of this study was to describe current users of mail pharmacy services and to evaluate factors associated with the use of mail pharmacy services. Cross-sectional online survey-based study. The data were obtained from the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience, which included 26,173 adults from throughout the United States. Mail pharmacy utilization was based on participant self-report. Demographic variables included age, education, race, gender, insurance status, distance to nearest pharmacy, number of disease states, and income. Chi-square and t test analyses were conducted to assess the factors associated with mail pharmacy use. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to compute the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the predictors of mail pharmacy usage. Overall, 17% of respondents reported the use of mail pharmacy services. Based on chi-square analysis, use of mail pharmacy services was significantly associated with age, education, race, and region. In addition, distance to nearest pharmacy and the report of the presence of certain disease states were significantly associated with mail pharmacy use (P association of mail pharmacy use by age, having chronic diseases, level of education, distance to nearest pharmacy, and other included variables (P associated with the use of mail pharmacies. Further research is needed to better understand patient-specific reasons for choosing mail pharmacies or community pharmacies. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public......Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state...

  1. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public......Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...

  2. Measuring job satisfaction among healthcare staff in the United States: a confirmatory factor analysis of the Satisfaction of Employees in Health Care (SEHC) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eva; Cohen, Julia; Koethe, Benjamin; Smith, Kevin; Bir, Anupa

    2017-04-01

    To validate the Satisfaction of Employees in Health Care (SEHC) survey with multidisciplinary, healthcare staff in the United States (U.S.). A cross-sectional psychometric study using confirmatory factor analysis. The original three-factor model was tested and modified using half-samples. Models were assessed using goodness-of-fit measures. Scale reliability and validity were tested with Cronbach's α coefficient and correlation of total SEHC score with two global satisfaction items, respectively. We administered a web-based survey from January to May 2015 to healthcare staff participating in initiatives aimed at delivering better care and reducing costs. The overall response rate was 38% (N = 1089), and respondents were from 86 healthcare projects. A total of 928 respondents completed the SEHC survey in full and were used in this study. Model fit of 18 SEHC items and total SEHC score. The mean SEHC score was 77.6 (SD: 19.0). A one-factor model of job satisfaction had high loadings on all items, and demonstrated adequate model fit (second half-sample RMSEA: 0.069). The scale demonstrated high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.942) and validity (r = 0.77 and 0.76, both P job satisfaction construct. The scale has adequate reliability and validity to recommend its use to assess satisfaction among multidisciplinary, U.S. healthcare staff. Our findings suggest that this survey is a good candidate for reduction to a short-form, and future research should validate this survey in other healthcare populations.

  3. Use of a population-based survey to determine incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses among HIV-positive persons receiving medical care in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan Patrick S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of an opportunistic illness (OI in a person with HIV infection is a sentinel event, indicating opportunities for improving diagnosis of HIV infection and secondary prevention efforts. In the past, rates of OIs in the United States have been calculated in observational cohorts, which may have limited representativeness. Methods We used data from a 1998 population-based survey of persons in care for HIV infection to demonstrate the utility of population-based survey data for the calculation of OI rates, with inference to populations in care for HIV infection in three geographic areas: King County Washington, selected health districts in Louisiana, and the state of Michigan. Results The overall OI rate was 13.8 per 100 persons with HIV infection in care during 1998 (95% CI, 10.2–17.3. In 1998, an estimated 11.3% of all persons with HIV in care in these areas had at least one OI diagnosis (CI, 8.8–13.9. The most commonly diagnosed OIs were Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP (annual incidence 2.4 per 100 persons, CI 1.0–3.8 and cytomegalovirus retinitis (annual incidence 2.4 per 100 persons, CI 1.0–3.7. OI diagnosis rates were higher in Michigan than in the other two geographic areas, and were different among patients who were white, black and of other races, but were not different by sex or history of injection drug use. Conclusion Data from population-based surveys – and, in the coming years, clinical outcomes surveillance systems in the United States – can be used to calculate OI rates with improved generalizability, and such rates should be used in the future as a meaningful indicator of clinical outcomes in persons with HIV infection in care.

  4. Changes in smoking prevalence among U.S. adults by state and region: Estimates from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, 1992-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Center Melissa M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control policies at the state level have been a critical impetus for reduction in smoking prevalence. We examine the association between recent changes in smoking prevalence and state-specific tobacco control policies and activities in the entire U.S. Methods We analyzed the 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS by state and two indices of state tobacco control policies or activities [initial outcome index (IOI and the strength of tobacco control (SOTC index] measured in 1998-1999. The IOI reflects cigarette excise taxes and indoor air legislation, whereas the SOTC reflects tobacco control program resources and capacity. Pearson Correlation coefficient between the proportionate change in smoking prevalence from 1992-93 to 2006-07 and indices of tobacco control activities or programs was the main outcome measure. Results Smoking prevalence decreased from 1992-93 to 2006-07 in both men and women in all states except Wyoming, where no reduction was observed among men, and only a 6.9% relative reduction among women. The percentage reductions in smoking in men and women respectively were the largest in the West (average decrease of 28.5% and 33.3% and the smallest in the Midwest (18.6% and 20.3%, although there were notable exceptions to this pattern. The decline in smoking prevalence by state was correlated with the state's IOI in both women and men (r = -0.49, p Conclusion State level policies on cigarette excise taxes and indoor air legislation correlate strongly with reductions in smoking prevalence since 1992. Strengthening and systematically implementing these policies could greatly accelerate further reductions in smoking.

  5. Patient perspectives on Parkinson’s disease therapy in Japan and the United States: results of two patient surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hattori N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nobutaka Hattori,1 Kenichi Fujimoto,2 Tomoyoshi Kondo,3 Miho Murata,4 Mark Stacy51Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo; 2Department of Neurology, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi; 3Department of Neurology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama; 4Department of Neurology, National Center Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan; 5Division of Neurology, Duke University, Durham, NC, USABackground: Despite evidence suggesting that patient attitudes towards therapy may influence treatment outcomes, the impact of these factors on treatment for Parkinson’s disease is poorly understood. These two surveys, based in Japan and the US, investigated the attitudes of patients towards antiparkinsonian medications, the complications of these therapies, and how these differ across geographies.Methods: The US PRELUDE survey collected data from May 13 to May 20, 2003, from 300 interviews with patients with Parkinson’s disease from the National Parkinson Foundation. The Japanese survey was carried out from June to December 2008 in a stepwise manner using questionnaires (n = 3548 followed by interviews with those who had consented to participate in the questionnaire (n = 407. Both surveys assessed the attitudes of patients towards therapies for Parkinson’s disease and associated complications.Results: Dyskinesia was not a major challenge of therapy for Parkinson’s disease, and wearing-off caused greater concern in the US, while hallucinations had a greater emphasis in Japan. Patients who had previously experienced dyskinesia were less concerned about this side effect than those who had not. Although pill burden was thought to be a concern in the US, Japanese patients did not indicate that pill burden would limit their drug intake. There were also discrepancies between the perspectives and concerns of patients and those of their treating physicians.Conclusion: Recognizing patient perspectives regarding therapies for

  6. Public Awareness and Use of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests: Results From 3 State Population-Based Surveys, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Debra; Zlot, Amy; Johnson, Jenny; Annis-Emeott, Ann; Lee, Patrick W.; Bland, Mary Pat; Edwards, Karen L.; Oehlke, Kristin; Giles, Rebecca T.; Rafferty, Ann; Cook, Michelle L.; Khoury, Muin J.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted population-based surveys on direct-to-consumer nutrigenomic testing in Michigan, Oregon, and Utah as part of the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Awareness of the tests was highest in Oregon (24.4%) and lowest in Michigan (7.6%). Predictors of awareness were more education, higher income, and increasing age, except among those 65 years or older. Less than 1% had used a health-related direct-to-consumer genetic test. Public health systems should increase consumer and provider education and continue surveillance on direct-to-consumer genetic tests. PMID:19106425

  7. Perceptions and practices regarding women's vaginal health following radiation therapy: A survey of radiation oncologists practicing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachnic, Lisa A; Bruner, Deborah W; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Russo, Gregory A

    Vaginal stenosis (VS) is a recognized complication of pelvic and vaginal radiation therapy (RT). A 26-item survey assessing the signs/symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and impact of VS on women's sexual health was distributed to radiation oncologists. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Chi-square tests examined differences in categorical responses. A total of 233 (10.5%) participants completed the entire survey. Twelve percent, 21%, and 68% report treating gynecologic (GYN) tumors only, non-GYN pelvic tumors only, or both, respectively. Regarding risk factors, 78% believed that VS can be caused by pelvic RT alone, 91% by vaginal brachytherapy alone, and 98% by combined pelvic RT and vaginal brachytherapy. Approximately one-half of respondents felt that being postmenopausal and having a hysterectomy before radiation therapy were risk factors for VS, whereas the other half felt that these were not risk factors. All respondents agreed that VS is a clinical diagnosis. Respondents indicated that VS symptoms include dyspareunia, vaginal pain, dryness, and/or bleeding (100%, 90%, 85%, and 72%, respectively); 65% indicated all 4. The most commonly recommended treatment for VS is vaginal dilator use. Radiation oncologists who treat GYN-only versus non-GYN cancers were more likely to perform a vaginal examination, to distribute written instructions regarding vaginal dilator use (P = .002), to have vaginal bleeding reported after RT (P = .001), and to refer patients to a sexual counselor (P = .007). Most providers (73%) expressed willingness to participate in prospective research on the diagnosis and treatment of VS. This is the first large-scale survey of radiation oncologists' perceptions and practices regarding VS. There is agreement among providers regarding the signs/symptoms of VS and strategies for its prevention/treatment using vaginal dilators. Further prospective and observational research is needed. This survey shows a willingness on

  8. State anxiety and depression as factors modulating and influencing postoperative pain in dental implant surgery. A prospective clinical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-de Diego, Rafael; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio; Montero-Martín, Javier; Prados-Frutos, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objetives: To determine whether preoperative state anxiety and depression modulate or influence objective and subjective postoperative pain following dental implant insertion. Study Design: Prospective, clinical study with 7-day follow-up of a sample of 105 subjects who preoperatively completed the state anxiety questionnaire (STAI-E) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and postoperatively, at 2 and 7 days, recorded objective pain with the Semmes-Weinstein mechanical esthesiometer (SW test) and subjective pain with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Results: 85.6% and 81.5% of patients, respectively, recorded no signs of state anxiety or depression. The correlation between anxiety and depression for both maxillary bones was the lower (P=0.02). The correlation between subjective and objective pain at 2 and 7 days, and the anatomic regions intervened, was statistically significant in the mandible at day 7 (P<0.01), and highly significant (P<0.001) for the other variables. The correlation between state anxiety and objective pain at day 7 was nearly statistically significant (P=0.07). Conclusions: The correlation between state anxiety and depression, and objective and subjective pain at day 7 was not statistically significant. A strong correlation was found between objective and subjective pain in the immediate postoperative period. Key words:Anxiety, depression, postoperative pain, dental implants. PMID:24880447

  9. Geographic Information System (GIS) representation of historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC), 1979 (NODC Accession 0000605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical seagrass coverage in Perdido Bay 1979 from United States Geological Survey/National Wetlands Research Center (USGS/NWRC).

  10. Characteristics of Public and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Library Media Centers in the United States: Results From the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey. NCES 2009-322

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Rebecca; Gruber, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    This report presents selected findings from the school library media center data files of the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public, private, and Bureau of Indian Education-funded (BIE) K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The public…

  11. Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Library Media Centers in the United States: Results from the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey. First Look. NCES 2013-315

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Amy; Gray, Lucinda; Goldring, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This report presents selected findings from the Public School Library Media Center Data File of the 2011-12 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). SASS is a nationally representative sample survey of public and private K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. School districts associated with public schools…

  12. Characteristics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Principals in the United States: Results from the 2015-16 National Teacher and Principal Survey. First Look. NCES 2017-070

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taie, Soheyla; Goldring, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    The 2015-16 National Teacher and Principal Survey (NTPS) is a nationally representative sample survey of public K-12 schools, principals, and teachers in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This report presents selected findings from the Public School Principal Data File of NTPS. The purpose of NTPS is to collect information that can…

  13. A Survey of the Current Study and Teaching of North American Indian Languages in the United States and Canada. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeanette

    This survey attempts to bring together as much information as possible on the current study and teaching of North American Indian languages in the United States and Canada. The primary source of data for this survey was a questionnaire distributed in the spring of 1973 to 61 universities and colleges in the U.S. and Canada. Other sources were…

  14. Survey of the actual state of energy consumption in the commercial/residential sector; Minsei bumon energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In relation to the energy consumption in the residential sector in fiscal 1996, a literature examination and a questionnaire survey were conducted in large- and medium-sized cities. The questionnaire survey was made in the 23 wards of Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Takamatsu and Fukuoka. Questionnaire papers of 1323 were recovered, which shows a recovery rate of 20.0%. The result of the investigational analysis was as follows. Concerning detached houses, unit requirement of energy consumption is the largest in Sapporo, 23,519 Mcal/household/year, which is twice 11,000 Mcal/household/year, the level of that in other five cities. In Hokkaido, the rate of space heating is high, and that of the detached house occupied 65% of all the energy consumption. In the other cities, the rate of hot water supply is 30-50% of it. By energy source and by use, kerosene largely dropped in unit requirement of the consumption from fiscal 1992 affected by a sharp decrease in demand for space heating. On the other hand, town gas largely increased by 14.7% over fiscal 1992 supported by the increased use in space heating. Electricity was also up by 8.0%. 110 figs., 53 tabs.

  15. Quality validation of data in national haemovigilance systems in Europe: report of a survey on current state of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersum-Osselton, J C; Faber, J C; Politis, C; Brand, A; van der Bom, J G; Schipperus, M R

    2013-04-01

    European Union member states must have national haemovigilance reporting of serious adverse reactions and events. We sent national competent authorities an email questionnaire about data validation. Responses were received from 23/27 countries. Nine previously had no national haemovigilance system. In 13 (57%), the serious adverse reactions and events can be verified. Coverage of blood establishments is documented in 20 systems (87%) and of hospitals in 15 systems (65%). Although all member states have implemented haemovigilance systems, there are currently wide variations in data quality assurance, not allowing comparisons between countries. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. A survey of the terrestrial mammals of the State Biological Reserve of Sassafrás, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rodrigo Tortato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A terrestrial mammal inventory was conducted in the State Biological Reserve of Sassafrás, Santa Catarina from August 2004 to March 2008. The objective of the study was to investigate and better describe the mammalian fauna of Santa Catarina state. We recorded species presence via several methods, including sightings, collection of fallen stock, identification of tracks, utilization of camera traps, and live animal trapping. In full, we recorded 43 mammalian species distributed among eight orders. Our constructed inventory includes information on the biology of some species recorded, as well as potential threats to the conservation of terrestrial mammals in this region.

  17. Prevalence of serious mental illness among parents in the United States: results from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, Leyla F; Forman-Hoffman, Valerie; Williams, Jason; Pemberton, Michael R; Ringeisen, Heather; Hedden, Sarra L; Bose, Jonaki

    2017-03-01

    This brief research report presents findings from a US national household survey on the number and percentage of parents with mental illness. Using combined annual data from the 2008-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, parents were defined as having children in the household from birth to 18 years. Prediction models developed in an earlier clinical study using a National Survey on Drug Use and Health subsample were used to estimate serious mental illness (SMI). A total of 2.7 million parents (3.8%) had a SMI in the past year and 12.8 million parents (18.2%) had any mental illness in the past year. Mental illness was more common among mothers than fathers and least common among Asians compared with other races. SMI was less prevalent in parents who were aged 50 years and older compared with younger age groups. The burden of mental illness in parents is high in the United States, especially among mothers. Physicians who treat parents should routinely screen for mental illness and discuss its implications for parenting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vision health disparities in the United States by race/ethnicity, education, and economic status: findings from two nationally representative surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzhi; Cotch, Mary Frances; Ryskulova, Asel; Primo, Susan A; Nair, Parvathy; Chou, Chiu-Fang; Geiss, Linda S; Barker, Lawrence E; Elliott, Amanda F; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2012-12-01

    To assess vision health disparities in the United States by race/ethnicity, education, and economic status. Cross-sectional, nationally representative samples. We used national survey data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Main outcome measures included, from NHANES, age-related eye diseases (ie, age-related macular degeneration [AMD], cataract, diabetic retinopathy [DR], glaucoma) and from NHIS, eye care use (ie, eye doctor visits and cannot afford eyeglasses when needed) among those with self-reported visual impairment. The estimates were age- and sex-standardized to the 2000 US Census population. Linear trends in the estimates were assessed by weighted least squares regression. Non-Hispanic whites had a higher prevalence of AMD and cataract surgery than non-Hispanic blacks, but a lower prevalence of DR and glaucoma (all P education (ie, high school) and lower income (poverty income ratio [PIR] education (trend P = .036), and those with PIR 1.00-1.99 (trend P educational and innovative interventions among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A Survey of Elementary and Secondary Music Educators' Professional Background, Teaching Responsibilities and Job Satisfaction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Wendy K.; Koner, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this exploratory study was to examine the current trends of K-12 music educators in the United States regarding their (a) professional background, (b) classroom teaching responsibilities, and (c) job satisfaction. Participants included seven thousand four hundred and sixty-three (N = 7,463) currently employed music teachers who were…

  20. Findings from the National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS), 1997-1998: A Demographic and Employment Profile of United States Farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kala; Gabbard, Susan M.; Barrat, Vanessa; Lewis, Melissa; Carroll, Daniel; Mines, Richard

    This report presents current information on the characteristics and work patterns of hired laborers who perform crop work in the United States. Information was obtained from interviews with 4,199 workers in 85 counties between October 1, 1996 and September 30, 1998. Chapters 1-3 provide information about the farmworkers themselves, including…

  1. A Transnational Survey of Mental Health Professionals in the United States and Europe on the Etiology of Infantile Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanua, Victor D.

    The paper first reviews previous studies made of the causes of schizophrenia as seen by mental health professionals in Western countries and in the Third World. The study at hand focuses on infantile autism and how it is viewed by professionals in the United States and Europe. Questionnaires addressed issues, characteristics and etiology,…

  2. Gender differences in the use of insecticide-treated nets after a universal free distribution campaign in Kano State, Nigeria: post-campaign survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garley, Ashley E; Ivanovich, Elizabeth; Eckert, Erin; Negroustoueva, Svetlana; Ye, Yazoume

    2013-04-10

    Recent expansion in insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution strategies range from targeting pregnant women and children under five and distributing ITN at antenatal care and immunization programmes, to providing free distribution campaigns to cover an entire population. These changes in strategy raise issues of disparities, such as equity of access and equality in ITN use among different groups, including females and males. Analysis is needed to assess the effects of gender on uptake of key malaria control interventions. A recent post-universal free ITN distribution campaign survey in Kano State, Nigeria offered an opportunity to look at gender effects on ITN use. A post-campaign survey was conducted three to five months after the campaign in Kano State, Nigeria from 19 October to 4 November, 2009, on a random sample of 4,602 individuals. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire adapted from the Malaria Indicator Survey. Using binary logistic regression, controlling for several covariates, the authors assessed gender effects on ITN use among individuals living in households with at least one ITN. The survey showed that household ITN ownership increased more than 10-fold, from 6% before to 71% after the campaign. There was no significant difference between the proportion of females and males living in households with at least one ITN. However, a higher percentage of females used ITNs compared to males (57.2% vs 48.8%). After controlling for several covariates, females remained more likely to use ITNs compared to males (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.3-1.7). Adolescent boys remained the least likely group to use an ITN. This study reveals gender disparity in ITN use, with males less likely to use ITNs particularly among ages 15-25 years. The uptake of the intervention among the most at-risk group (females) is higher than males, which may be reflective of earlier strategies for malaria interventions. Further research is needed to identify whether gender disparities

  3. The state of emergency obstetric care services in Nairobi informal settlements and environs: Results from a maternity health facility survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliku Teresa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge with estimates exceeding 1,000 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in some countries. Successful prevention of maternal deaths hinges on adequate and quality emergency obstetric care. In addition to skilled personnel, there is need for a supportive environment in terms of essential drugs and supplies, equipment, and a referral system. Many household surveys report a reasonably high proportion of women delivering in health facilities. However, the quality and adequacy of facilities and personnel are often not assessed. The three delay model; 1 delay in making the decision to seek care; 2 delay in reaching an appropriate obstetric facility; and 3 delay in receiving appropriate care once at the facility guided this project. This paper examines aspects of the third delay by assessing quality of emergency obstetric care in terms of staffing, skills equipment and supplies. Methods We used data from a survey of 25 maternity health facilities within or near two slums in Nairobi that were mentioned by women in a household survey as places that they delivered. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Kenya Medical Research Institute. Permission was also sought from the Ministry of Health and the Medical Officer of Health. Data collection included interviews with the staff in-charge of maternity wards using structured questionnaires. We collected information on staffing levels, obstetric procedures performed, availability of equipment and supplies, referral system and health management information system. Results Out of the 25 health facilities, only two met the criteria for comprehensive emergency obstetric care (both located outside the two slums while the others provided less than basic emergency obstetric care. Lack of obstetric skills, equipment, and supplies hamper many facilities from providing lifesaving emergency obstetric procedures. Accurate estimation of burden

  4. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupka, Richard C.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  5. Exploiting stock data: a survey of state of the art computational techniques aimed at producing beliefs regarding investment portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Linares Vásquez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Selecting an investment portfolio has inspired several models aimed at optimising the set of securities which an in-vesttor may select according to a number of specific decision criteria such as risk, expected return and planning hori-zon. The classical approach has been developed for supporting the two stages of portfolio selection and is supported by disciplines such as econometrics, technical analysis and corporative finance. However, with the emerging field of computational finance, new and interesting techniques have arisen in line with the need for the automatic processing of vast volumes of information. This paper surveys such new techniques which belong to the body of knowledge con-cerning computing and systems engineering, focusing on techniques particularly aimed at producing beliefs regar-ding investment portfolios.

  6. The State of Neurocritical Care Fellowship Training and Attitudes toward Accreditation and Certification: A Survey of Neurocritical Care Fellowship Program Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Dhar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurocritical care as a recognized and distinct subspecialty of critical care has grown remarkably since its inception in the 1980s. As of 2016, there were 61 fellowship training programs accredited by the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties (UCNS in the United States and more than 1,000 UCNS-certified neurointensivists from diverse medical backgrounds. In late 2015, the Program Accreditation, Physician Certification, and Fellowship Training (PACT Committee of the Neurocritical Care Society (NCS was convened to promote and support excellence in the training and certification of neurointensivists. One of the first tasks of the committee was to survey neurocritical care fellowship training program directors to ascertain the current state of fellowship training and attitudes regarding transition to Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME accreditation of training programs and American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS certification of physicians. First, the survey revealed significant heterogeneities in the manner of neurocritical care training and a lack of consistency in requirements for fellow procedural competency. Second, although a majority of the 33 respondents indicated that a move toward ACGME accreditation/ABMS certification would facilitate further growth and mainstreaming of training in neurocritical care, many programs do not currently meet administrative requirements and do not receive the level of institutional support that would be needed for such a transition. In summary, the results revealed that there is an opportunity for future harmonization of training standards and that a transition to ACGME accreditation/ABMS certification is preferred. While the results reflect the opinions of more than half of the survey respondents, they represent only a small sample of neurointensivists.

  7. Variability of Post-Cardiac Arrest Care Practices Among Cardiac Arrest Centers: United States and South Korean Dual Network Survey of Emergency Physician Research Principal Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppler, Patrick J; Sawyer, Kelly N; Youn, Chun Song; Choi, Seung Pill; Park, Kyu Nam; Kim, Young-Min; Reynolds, Joshua C; Gaieski, David F; Lee, Byung Kook; Oh, Joo Suk; Kim, Won Young; Moon, Hyung Jun; Abella, Benjamin S; Elmer, Jonathan; Callaway, Clifton W; Rittenberger, Jon C

    2017-03-01

    There is little consensus regarding many post-cardiac arrest care parameters. Variability in such practices could confound the results and generalizability of post-arrest care research. We sought to characterize the variability in post-cardiac arrest care practice in Korea and the United States. A 54-question survey was sent to investigators participating in one of two research groups in South Korea (Korean Hypothermia Network [KORHN]) and the United States (National Post-Arrest Research Consortium [NPARC]). Single investigators from each site were surveyed (N = 40). Participants answered questions based on local institutional protocols and practice. We calculated descriptive statistics for all variables. Forty surveys were completed during the study period with 30 having greater than 50% of questions completed (75% response rate; 24 KORHN and 6 NPARC). Most centers target either 33°C (N = 16) or vary the target based on patient characteristics (N = 13). Both bolus and continuous infusion dosing of sedation are employed. No single indication was unanimous for cardiac catheterization. Only six investigators reported having an institutional protocol for withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy (WLST). US patients with poor neurological prognosis tended to have WLST with subsequent expiration (N = 5), whereas Korean patients are transferred to a secondary care facility (N = 19). Both electroencephalography modality and duration vary between institutions. Serum biomarkers are commonly employed by Korean, but not US centers. We found significant variability in post-cardiac arrest care practices among US and Korean medical centers. These practice variations must be taken into account in future studies of post-arrest care.

  8. The State of Neurocritical Care Fellowship Training and Attitudes toward Accreditation and Certification: A Survey of Neurocritical Care Fellowship Program Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Rajat; Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Finley Caulfield, Anna; Maas, Matthew B; James, Michael L; Kumar, Avinash Bhargava; Figueroa, Stephen A; McDonagh, David; Ardelt, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Neurocritical care as a recognized and distinct subspecialty of critical care has grown remarkably since its inception in the 1980s. As of 2016, there were 61 fellowship training programs accredited by the United Council for Neurologic Subspecialties (UCNS) in the United States and more than 1,000 UCNS-certified neurointensivists from diverse medical backgrounds. In late 2015, the Program Accreditation, Physician Certification, and Fellowship Training (PACT) Committee of the Neurocritical Care Society (NCS) was convened to promote and support excellence in the training and certification of neurointensivists. One of the first tasks of the committee was to survey neurocritical care fellowship training program directors to ascertain the current state of fellowship training and attitudes regarding transition to Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accreditation of training programs and American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) certification of physicians. First, the survey revealed significant heterogeneities in the manner of neurocritical care training and a lack of consistency in requirements for fellow procedural competency. Second, although a majority of the 33 respondents indicated that a move toward ACGME accreditation/ABMS certification would facilitate further growth and mainstreaming of training in neurocritical care, many programs do not currently meet administrative requirements and do not receive the level of institutional support that would be needed for such a transition. In summary, the results revealed that there is an opportunity for future harmonization of training standards and that a transition to ACGME accreditation/ABMS certification is preferred. While the results reflect the opinions of more than half of the survey respondents, they represent only a small sample of neurointensivists.

  9. Eco-epidemiological survey of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Ribeira Valley River, Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Luz, Ennio; Telles, Flávio Queiroz; Pandey, Ashok; Biseto, Alceu; Dinaiski, Marlene; Sbalqueiro, Ives; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2005-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic since last century in Adrianópolis Municipality, Ribeira Valley and is a serious public health. A study carried out during 1993-2003 on epidemiological surveys conducted in rural communities showed 339 new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) detected from four municipalities (Adrianópolis, Cerro Azul, Doutor Ulysses and Rio Branco do Sul). A larger prevalence of cutaneous lesions was observed in rural workers (36%), women with domestic activities (18%), and younger students (31%). Multiple lesions were noticed in 53% of patients, but only one case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis was reported. Twenty stocks were isolated from patients with characteristics lesions and were identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis using multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and Random Amplified DNA (RAPD). In Phlebotominae survey, five species were obtained. Lutzomyia intermedia sl. represented 97.5% in peridomiciliar area and 100% in domicile. A canine serological survey made (Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test, IFAT and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay, ELISA) in six rural county of Adrianópolis Municipality during 1998-1999 showed that 15.1% (24/159) of dogs were sera reactive. No lesions were observed in dogs and no parasite was isolated from lymph node aspirates and biopsies. In wild reservoirs study, only seven animals (Cricetidae, Desmodus sp. and edentates) were captured, but no parasites were found in culture from deep organs. The paper presents results of our 10 years study on cutaneous leishmaniasis survey in the Ribeira River Valley, East Region of Paraná State, Brazil. Environment changes in this region are also discussed.

  10. Control of hypertension among adults--National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Paula W; Gillespie, Cathleen D; George, Mary G; Wall, Hilary K

    2012-06-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and approximately 1 million heart attacks and 700,000 strokes occur annually. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke; the unadjusted prevalence of hypertension among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years is approximately 31% (representing 68 million adults), and hypertension increases with age to approximately 70% among persons aged ≥65 years. Hypertension contributes to one out of every seven deaths in the United States, and approximately 70% of persons who have a first heart attack or stroke or who have heart failure have hypertension. In clinical trials, treatment of hypertension was associated with substantial reductions in stroke incidence (35%-40%), myocardial infarction (20%-25%), and heart failure (>50%). The estimated annual direct costs of hypertension are approximately $69.9 billion, and the estimated annual indirect costs are $23.6 billion.

  11. First survey of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae and parasitoid diversity among myrtaceae fruit across the state of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Nogueira Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae species that use myrtaceous fruit, particularly guava, as hosts in several localities in the state of Bahia and to determine the infestation rates, pupal viability rates, and fruit fly-parasitoid associations. Sampling of myrtaceous fruit was carried out in 24 municipalities in different regions in the state of Bahia. Four fruit fly species, Anastrepha fraterculus, Anastrepha zenildae, Anastrepha sororcula, and Ceratitis capitata were obtained from the collected fruit. Three parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae emerged from Anastrepha larvae/pupae, Doryctobracon areolatus, Utetes anastrephae, and Asobara anastrephae. Doryctobracon areolatus emerged from A. fraterculus, A. sororcula and A. zenildae; Utetes anastrephae emerged from A. fraterculus and A. zenildae; and Asobara anastrephae emerged from A. fraterculus. Fruit fly and myrtaceous fruit associations are reported for the first time in several municipalities in the state of Bahia. A. zenildae was found infesting Syzygium malaccense for the first time in Brazil.

  12. A survey of rabies virus antibodies in confined, hunting and roaming dogs in Ogun and Oyo States, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen for rabies virus (RABV antibodies in apparently healthy confined, hunting and roaming dogs by a community-based approach. Methods: Sera from 230 (80 confined, 92 hunting and 58 roaming dogs in some urban and periurban communities in Ogun and Oyo states, Southwestern Nigeria were screened for RABV antibodies using the indirect ELISA method. Results: Analysis of administered questionnaires showed that of 80 confined dog owners, 37 were aware of anti-rabies vaccination (i.e. they were informed while 17 were negligent and 26 uninformed. Of the 230 sera tested, only 13 (5.7% from vaccinated confined dogs in Oyo state were positive (i.e. had optimal RABV antibody titres (mean 0.54, 95% CI: 0.42–0.67 while all confined dog sera in Ogun state were negative. Eleven (12.0% and 14 (24.1% of the hunting and roaming dogs respectively had sub-optimal RABV antibody titres while the rest were negative. Conclusions: Evidently, these groups of dogs are a totally unprotected and susceptible dog population that can serve as potential reservoirs of RABV in the study area. Responsible pet ownership, vaccination of hunting and roaming dogs, and community-based active rabies surveillance are therefore advocated in Nigeria.

  13. Heterogeneity prevails: the state of clinical trial data management in Europe - results of a survey of ECRIN centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Ohmann, Christian; Yang, Qin; Salas, Nader; Lauritsen, Jens; Gueyffier, Francois; Leizorovicz, Alan; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Wittenberg, Michael; Voko, Zoltán; Gaynor, Siobhan; Cooney, Margaret; Doran, Peter; Maggioni, Aldo; Lorimer, Andrea; Torres, Ferràn; McPherson, Gladys; Charwill, Jim; Hellström, Mats; Lejeune, Stéphane

    2010-07-21

    The use of Clinical Data Management Systems (CDMS) has become essential in clinical trials to handle the increasing amount of data that must be collected and analyzed. With a CDMS trial data are captured at investigator sites with "electronic Case Report Forms". Although more and more of these electronic data management systems are used in academic research centres an overview of CDMS products and of available data management and quality management resources for academic clinical trials in Europe is missing. The ECRIN (European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network) data management working group conducted a two-part standardized survey on data management, software tools, and quality management for clinical trials. The questionnaires were answered by nearly 80 centres/units (with an overall response rate of 47% and 43%) from 12 European countries and EORTC. Our survey shows that about 90% of centres have a CDMS in routine use. Of these CDMS nearly 50% are commercial systems; Open Source solutions don't play a major role. In general, solutions used for clinical data management are very heterogeneous: 20 different commercial CDMS products (7 Open Source solutions) in addition to 17/18 proprietary systems are in use. The most widely employed CDMS products are MACRO and Capture System, followed by solutions that are used in at least 3 centres: eResearch Network, CleanWeb, GCP Base and SAS. Although quality management systems for data management are in place in most centres/units, there exist some deficits in the area of system validation. Because the considerable heterogeneity of data management software solutions may be a hindrance to cooperation based on trial data exchange, standards like CDISC (Clinical Data Interchange Standard Consortium) should be implemented more widely. In a heterogeneous environment the use of data standards can simplify data exchange, increase the quality of data and prepare centres for new developments (e.g. the use of EHR for clinical

  14. Heterogeneity prevails: the state of clinical trial data management in Europe - results of a survey of ECRIN centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doran Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of Clinical Data Management Systems (CDMS has become essential in clinical trials to handle the increasing amount of data that must be collected and analyzed. With a CDMS trial data are captured at investigator sites with "electronic Case Report Forms". Although more and more of these electronic data management systems are used in academic research centres an overview of CDMS products and of available data management and quality management resources for academic clinical trials in Europe is missing. Methods The ECRIN (European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network data management working group conducted a two-part standardized survey on data management, software tools, and quality management for clinical trials. The questionnaires were answered by nearly 80 centres/units (with an overall response rate of 47% and 43% from 12 European countries and EORTC. Results Our survey shows that about 90% of centres have a CDMS in routine use. Of these CDMS nearly 50% are commercial systems; Open Source solutions don't play a major role. In general, solutions used for clinical data management are very heterogeneous: 20 different commercial CDMS products (7 Open Source solutions in addition to 17/18 proprietary systems are in use. The most widely employed CDMS products are MACRO™ and Capture System™, followed by solutions that are used in at least 3 centres: eResearch Network™, CleanWeb™, GCP Base™ and SAS™. Although quality management systems for data management are in place in most centres/units, there exist some deficits in the area of system validation. Conclusions Because the considerable heterogeneity of data management software solutions may be a hindrance to cooperation based on trial data exchange, standards like CDISC (Clinical Data Interchange Standard Consortium should be implemented more widely. In a heterogeneous environment the use of data standards can simplify data exchange, increase the quality of

  15. Messaging to Increase Public Support for Naloxone Distribution Policies in the United States: Results from a Randomized Survey Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A Bachhuber

    Full Text Available Barriers to public support for naloxone distribution include lack of knowledge, concerns about potential unintended consequences, and lack of sympathy for people at risk of overdose.A randomized survey experiment was conducted with a nationally-representative web-based survey research panel (GfK KnowledgePanel. Participants were randomly assigned to read different messages alone or in combination: 1 factual information about naloxone; 2 pre-emptive refutation of potential concerns about naloxone distribution; and 3 a sympathetic narrative about a mother whose daughter died of an opioid overdose. Participants were then asked if they support or oppose policies related to naloxone distribution. For each policy item, logistic regression models were used to test the effect of each message exposure compared with the no-exposure control group.The final sample consisted of 1,598 participants (completion rate: 72.6%. Factual information and the sympathetic narrative alone each led to higher support for training first responders to use naloxone, providing naloxone to friends and family members of people using opioids, and passing laws to protect people who administer naloxone. Participants receiving the combination of the sympathetic narrative and factual information, compared to factual information alone, were more likely to support all policies: providing naloxone to friends and family members (OR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.4 to 2.9], training first responders to use naloxone (OR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.2 to 3.4], passing laws to protect people if they administer naloxone (OR: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.04 to 2.2], and passing laws to protect people if they call for medical help for an overdose (OR: 1.7 [95% CI: 1.2 to 2.5].All messages increased public support, but combining factual information and the sympathetic narrative was most effective. Public support for naloxone distribution can be improved through education and sympathetic portrayals of the population who stands to benefit

  16. The prevalence of and attitudes toward neonatal functional echocardiography use and training in the United States: a survey of neonatal intensive care unit medical directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachinger, S; Stansfield, R B; Ensing, G; Schumacher, R

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, neonatologists are increasingly performing functional echocardiography to evaluate the hemodynamic status and cardiac function in neonates. The purpose of this study was to describe the current prevalence of and attitudes toward the use and training of neonatologists in functional echocardiography in the United States. An anonymous survey was sent to United States neonatal intensive care unit medical directors. Neonatologists scored availability of echocardiography and attitudes toward the use and training of neonatologists in functional echocardiography. Response rate was 43.7% (247 of 565 surveys sent) and captured 95% of the neonatal-perinatal training programs. Nine percent of units had a functional echocardiography trained neonatologist; eight percent of the neonatal-perinatal training programs offered functional echocardiography training. There was no difference in the timely ability to obtain hemodynamic status with echocardiography in units compared by the presence of functional echocardiography trained neonatologists (mean = 3.13 vs. 2.67, p = 0.08) and fellowships (mean = 2.69 vs. 2.72, p = 0.85). Overall positive attitudes (mean = 14.6 ± 3.46) towards the training of neonatologists in functional echocardiography did not correlate with the perceived timely availability of echocardiography support (mean = 2.72 ± 1.43, r = -0.11, p = 0.1). Functional echocardiography use and training is not prevalent in the United States. There are positive attitudes toward the training of neonatologists in functional echocardiography that are independent of the presence of fellowships, neonatologists with echocardiography training, and the perceived availability of echocardiography support.

  17. Discordance between patients' stated values and treatment preferences for end-of-life care: results of a multicentre survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Daren K; Heyland, Rebecca; Dodek, Peter; You, John J; Sinuff, Tasnim; Hiebert, Tim; Jiang, Xuran; Day, Andrew G

    2017-09-01

    Medical orders for the use of life-supports should be informed by patients' values and treatment preferences. The purpose of this study was to explore the internal consistency of patients' (or their family members') stated values, and the relationship between these values and expressed preferences. We conducted a prospective study in 12 acute care hospitals in Canada. We administered a questionnaire to elderly patients and their family members about their values related to end-of-life (EOL) care, treatment preferences and decisional conflict. Of 513 patients and 366 family members approached, 278 patients (54%) and 225 family members (61%) consented to participate. Participants' most important stated values were to be comfortable and suffer as little as possible, to have more time with family, to avoid being attached to machines and tubes and that death not be prolonged. The least important stated value was that life be preserved. Based on prespecified expected associations between the various values measured, there were inconsistencies in participants' expressed value statements. With few exceptions, participants' expressed values were not associated with expected corresponding treatment preferences. Of the 109 (40%) patients and 95 (42%) family members who had made decisions about use of life-supports, 68 (56%) patients and 60 (59%) family members had decisional conflict. Decision-making regarding medical treatments at the EOL is inadequate. To reduce decisional conflict, patients and their families need more support to clarify their values and ensure that their preferences are grounded in adequate understanding of their illness and treatment options. NCT01362855. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Physiotherapy practice in stroke rehabilitation: a cross-sectional survey of physiotherapists in the state of Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Vijesh, P V; Rahool, S; Radha, Archana A; Sukumaran, Sajith; Kurupath, Radhakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Physiotherapy, a major component of rehabilitation for stroke patients, has been shown to have a positive effect on outcome. However, there is debate over efficacy of different interventions related to stroke rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to compare knowledge and attitudes of physiotherapists working with stroke patients in Kerala, India, with emphasis on demographics, approach to treatment, and beliefs about stroke rehabilitation. Two hundred one physiotherapists in Kerala were surveyed using questionnaires, which were sent by post. Questionnaires consisted of items related to stroke rehabilitation such as approaches to physiotherapy, use of walking aids, and discharge issues. Data analysis was done using percentage-wise comparisons. Examination of results showed variation in the beliefs held by physiotherapists about treatment of stroke patients. Of the 201 respondents, 153 (76.1%) used a conventional treatment approach. There was a strong disparity among physiotherapists regarding use of walking aids by stroke patients: 119 (59.2%) agreed that tripods or quadripods should be given to patients, but 55 (27.4%) disagreed and 27 (13.4%) were unsure. In response to questions about discharge issues, 30 (14.9%) of the 118 respondents agreed that they were actively involved in discharge planning for stroke patients, and 158 (78.6%) agreed that skill of the physiotherapist influences outcomes. A great deal of variation among physiotherapists in treatment approaches and beliefs was revealed in this study, which indicates the need for development and implementation of a standardized protocol for stroke rehabilitation in Kerala.

  19. Current practice trends in allergy: results of a united states survey of otolaryngologists, allergist-immunologists, and primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Matthew W; Marple, Bradley F; Leatherman, Bryan; Mims, J Whit; Fornadley, John; Veling, Maria; Lin, Sandra Y

    2014-10-01

    Clinical practices for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease evolve over time in response to a variety of forces. The techniques used by various physician specialties are not clearly defined and may vary from published descriptions or recommendations in the literature. This work is a Web-based survey enrolling 250 U.S. physicians in the following specialties: otolaryngology (ENT), allergy-immunology (A/I), and primary care (PCP). Respondents reported that skin-prick testing is the most common diagnostic testing method, followed by in vitro specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing. ENTs were more likely to use intradermal testing compared to other specialties (p = 0.0003 vs A/I; p 60). Significant use of home immunotherapy injections (defined as >10% of immunotherapy patients) ranged from 27% to 36% of physicians, with no statistically significant difference noted based upon specialty. PCPs reported greater use of sublingual immunotherapy (PCP, 68%; A/I, 45%; otolaryngology, 35%; A/I vs PCP, p = 0.005; ENT vs PCP p allergy testing and treatment methods are employed by U.S. physicians, with some differences noted based upon specialty. Home immunotherapy continues to be employed in allergy practices, and sublingual immunotherapy is a common form of delivery, especially in primary care practices. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  20. The chemical composition of smokeless tobacco: a survey of products sold in the United States in 2006 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerding, M F; Bodnar, J A; Curtin, G M; Swauger, J E

    2012-12-01

    Selected toxicant concentrations and other chemical measures have been determined for 43 U.S. smokeless tobacco products sold in 2006 and 2007. Products evaluated included moist snuff, dry snuff, loose leaf, plug, dissolvable and snus tobacco brands. Reference products available for scientific research purposes and eleven Swedish products were also evaluated and compared to the commercial products studied. Chemical endpoints determined included benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), nitrite, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, chromium, chloride, water, pH and nicotine. Different toxicant profiles were observed for the products studied, with snus tobacco brands generally containing relatively low concentrations of B[a]P and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) compared to other moist snuffs. Smokeless tobacco reference product toxicant profiles were similar to corresponding commercial products, with the exception of the TSNA content of the dry snuff reference material. TSNA concentrations observed for all commercial products were lower than historically reported values, likely reflecting changes in product shelf life, tobacco curing practices and, possibly, product blend formulations during the last 20-30 years. The survey results summarized provide a temporal point of comparison with future data anticipated from FDA "harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products" reporting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of pain in patients with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional survey in a South Indian state

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    Shoba N Nair

    2009-01-01

    Secondary - To assess the type, site, severity, management of pain and impact of pain on quality of life in these patients. Design: Multicentre cross-sectional survey (This paper is a pilot study. Settings: ART centre at St. John′s Medical College Hospital, Bangalore and Snehadan, A supportive and care centre for HIV/ AIDS patients at Bangalore. Materials and Methods: Data sheet, Brief pain inventory and Short - Form McGill pain questionnaire. Subjects: This is an ongoing study and the pilot study includes 140 HIV/AIDS patients in different stages of the disease. Results: About 66.7% (28/42 in-patients and 24.5% (24/98 out-patients complained of pain. Of the 52 patients who reported pain, 32% (14/52 reported neuropathic pain and 68% (38/52 reported noci-ceptive pain. Headache was most common followed by pain in the soles of feet and low back. Only 26.9% (17/52 received any form of analgesic. Pain severity significantly affects the quality of life. Conclusions: Pain is a common and debilitating symptom of HIV/AIDS. It is however, under-estimated and under treated.

  2. Communicating Climate Change in the Agricultural Sector: Insights from Surveys and Interviews with Agricultural Advisors in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopy, L. S.; Carlton, S.; Dunn, M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding U.S. agricultural stakeholder views about the existence of climate change and what influences these views is central to developing communication in support of adaptation and mitigation. It has been postulated in the literature that extreme weather events can shape people's climate change beliefs and adaptation attitudes. In this presentation, we use data from pre- and post-extreme event surveys and interviews to examine the effects of the 2012 Midwestern US drought on agricultural advisors' climate change beliefs, adaptation attitudes, and risk perceptions. We found that neither climate change beliefs nor attitudes toward adaptation changed significantly as a result of the drought. Risk perceptions did change, however, with advisors becoming more concerned about risks from drought and pests and less concerned about risks related to flooding and ponding. Qualitative interviews revealed that while advisors readily accept the occurrence of extreme weather as a risk, the irregularity and unpredictability of extreme events for specific localities limits day-to-day consideration in respect to prescribed management advice. Instead, advisors' attention is directed towards planning for short-term changes encompassing weather, pests, and the market, as well as planning for long-term trends related to water availability. These findings provide important insights for communicating climate change in this critical sector while illustrating the importance of social science research in planning and executing communication campaigns.

  3. Alcohol-Attributable Calories Consumed as a Result of Binge Drinking: A National Survey of Drinkers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E; Whiteman, Shawn D; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer

    2016-06-06

    Estimate the alcohol-attributed calories associated with respondents' (a) most recent binge drinking episode, and (b) binge drinking across a thirty-day period. Examined responses to a module of the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), completed by a 10-state sample in the United States (n = 7,375), in order to estimate the alcohol-attributed calories consumed among binge drinkers. Alcohol-attributed calories were estimated by multiplying number of drinks consumed for each category (beer, wine, liquor drinks, and pre-mixed flavored drinks) collected in the BRFSS by caloric averages based on two data sources. In the past 30 days, respondents averaged 4.13 (SD = 5.84) binge drinking episodes, and consumed an average of 4.15 (SD = 3.55) beers, .67 (SD = 1.56) glasses of wine, 1.49 (SD = 2.53) shots of liquor, and .15 (SD = .79) pre-mixed flavored beverages during their most recent binge drinking episode. The average amount of alcohol-attributed calories consumed during this binge drinking episode was 991.76 (SD = 578.71), with men consuming significantly more calories than females. Dietary guidelines suggest the calories associated with alcoholic beverages should be considered as part of one's limited allotment of calories associated with solid fats and sugars, yet our results highlight alcohol as a major contributor (approximately 1,000 calories) to the proposed daily caloric needs on binge drinking days.

  4. A preliminary survey on parasitic occurrence in indigenous climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1972 from West Bengal state of India

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    Basudev Mandal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the parasitic infestations of Anabas testudineus (A. testudineus collected from three different fish producing districts of West Bengal state in India. Methods: A total number of 75 specimens of A. testudineus were collected from different floodplain areas of West Bengal, India. These specimens were examined for parasites using established techniques after measuring basic morphometric parameters. Results: A total 165 individual of 20 parasites (13 ectoparasites and 7 endoparasites belonging to 7 phyla were recorded from 64 infected A. testudineus. Among the observed parasites, 8 were protozoan including 3 ciliates; 2 monogenic trematodes, 2 strigeidid trematodes, 1 nematode, 3 crustaceans, 3 myxozoans and 1 echinorhynchus acanthocephalan parasites. The quantitative abundance of parasites were highest in gill (37% followed by body outer layer (35% and intestine (28%. District wise quantitative count of parasites in different investigated organ from A. testudineus revealed that North 24 Parganas is highly infected followed by West Midnapore and East Midnapore. The highest prevalence (% and mean abundance of parasitic occurrence was observed in North 24 Parganas followed by West Midnapore and East Midnapore. The highest mean intensity was found at West Midnapore followed by North 24 Parganas and East Midnapore. Conclusions: Especially West Bengal state of India, inland culture and capture fishery mainly rural based and operated by poor farmers. Developing right kind of interventions and management practice can prevent adverse impact of diseases and assist poor farmers for sustainable production.

  5. Influence of Information and Communication Technologies on the Resilience and Coping of Sexual and Gender Minority Youth in the United States and Canada (Project #Queery): Mixed Methods Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Shelley L; McInroy, Lauren B; D'Souza, Sandra A; Austin, Ashley; McCready, Lance T; Eaton, Andrew D; Shade, Leslie R; Wagaman, M Alex

    2017-09-28

    Sexual and gender minority youth are a population in peril, exemplified by their disproportionate risk of negative experiences and outcomes. Sexual and gender minority youth may be particularly active users of information and communication technologies (ICTs), and it is important to identify the potential contributions of ICTs to their resilience and well-being. Our aim was to (1) investigate the use of ICTs by sexual and gender minority youth, (2) identify the ways that ICTs influence the resilience and coping of sexual and gender minority youth, focusing on promotion of well-being through self-guided support-seeking (particularly using mobile devices), (3) develop a contextually relevant theoretical conceptualization of resilience incorporating minority stress and ecological approaches, (4) generate best practices and materials that are accessible to multiple interested groups, and (5) identify whether video narratives are a viable alternative to collect qualitative responses in Web-based surveys for youth. Mixed methods, cross-sectional data (N=6309) were collected via a Web-based survey from across the United States and Canada from March-July 2016. The sample was generated using a multipronged, targeted recruitment approach using Web-based strategies and consists of self-identified English-speaking sexual and gender minority youth aged 14-29 with technological literacy sufficient to complete the Web-based survey. The survey was divided into eight sections: (1) essential demographics, (2) ICT usage, (3) health and mental health, (4) coping and resilience, (5) sexual and gender minority youth identities and engagement, (6) fandom communities, (7) nonessential demographics, and (8) a video submission (optional, n=108). The option of a 3-5 minute video submission represents a new research innovation in Web-based survey research. Data collection is complete (N=6309), and analyses are ongoing. Proposed analyses include (1) structural equation modeling of quantitative

  6. Current State and Problems of Radiation Risk Communication: Based on the Results of a 2012 Whole Village Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yujiro

    2017-02-24

    The entire village of Iitate was contaminated by radioactive material from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant; even today, the residents remain evacuated. For the villagers, risk communication is an important element of recovery and maintaining health. This analysis focuses on the problem of radiation, presents results from a questionnaire of villagers, and examines methods for future risk communication activities. In May 2012, anonymous surveys were sent to 2914 heads of households whose addresses were registered in Iitate. Their understanding of radiation and information needs were extracted from the answers. There were 1755 valid responses (61.4%). In relation to understanding, the most frequent answer was "There are numerous opinions and I do not know which one is true" (72.2%), followed by "I definitely want opportunities to learn more about how radiation is created" (41.6%). Residents felt that they could not determine which of the available information was reliable. The 60s+ age group responded more than younger age groups that "I do not have much information and do not know much about it," "I do not know much about it, so I want to learn more," and "I definitely want opportunities to learn more about how radiation is created." Among information needs, "publications" (50.2%) and "community associations" (45.9%) received many responses; residents want study groups to be held at places and through media that give them regular opportunities to connect with each other. Residents in their 20s and 30s preferred "publications," while those in their 40s, 50s, and 60s+ were more likely to request "community associations" and "resident meetings." In addition, we found gender differences in both understanding and information needs. These results indicate that radiation and health risk communication should be addressed in a way that aligns with residents' needs by age and gender.

  7. Prevalence of Glaucoma in the United States: The 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Priya; Zhao, Di; Guallar, Eliseo; Ko, Fang; Boland, Michael V.; Friedman, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of glaucoma in the US population based on optic nerve head photography, to estimate the prevalence of glaucoma awareness, and to identify demographic and ocular risk factors for being unaware of having glaucoma. Methods The study included 5746 men and women 40 years of age and older participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008. Each participant had 45° photographs of the macula and optic disc of both eyes. Fundus photographs were first graded by a reading center, and those with a cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) ≥ 0.6 were regraded by three glaucoma specialists to determine the presence or absence of glaucoma. Analyses were performed using NHANES weights to account for the complex multistage probability sampling design. Results The estimated overall prevalence of glaucoma in the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population 40 years of age and older was 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%–2.6%). Glaucoma affected 2.9 million individuals, including 1.4 million women; 1.5 million men; 2.3 million people 60 years of age and older; and 0.9 million blacks, Mexican Americans, and people of other races. The prevalence of glaucoma was highest in non-Hispanic blacks, followed by non-Hispanic whites, Mexican Americans, and others. Over half of participants with glaucoma were unaware that they had the disease. Conclusions The prevalence of glaucoma based on optic nerve fundus photography assessment in the general US population 40 years of age and older was 2.1%. Approximately half of glaucoma cases were previously undiagnosed. Studies to determine whether and how to identify undiagnosed glaucoma are an important next step. PMID:27168366

  8. Length of Residence in the United States is Associated With a Higher Prevalence of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Immigrants: A Contemporary Analysis of the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Ukonu, Nwakaego; Obisesan, Olawunmi; Aboagye, Jonathan Kumi; Agyemang, Charles; Reilly, Carolyn M; Dunbar, Sandra B; Okosun, Ike S

    2016-11-04

    Cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia are high among United States ethnic minorities, and the immigrant population continues to burgeon. Hypothesizing that acculturation (length of residence) would be associated with a higher prevalence of CMR factors, the authors analyzed data on 54, 984 US immigrants in the 2010-2014 National Health Interview Surveys. The main predictor was length of residence. The outcomes were hypertension, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between length of US residence and these CMR factors.The mean (SE) age of the patients was 43 (0.12) years and half were women. Participants residing in the United States for ≥10 years were more likely to have health insurance than those with diabetic (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.17-1.73), and hypertensive (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32) than those residing in the United States for acculturation was associated with CMR factors. Culturally tailored public health strategies should be developed in US immigrant populations to reduce CMR. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Common Mental Disorders at the Time of Deportation: A Survey at the Mexico-United States Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Aguilera, Rosa M; Ramírez, Jacobo; Cerecero, Diego; Mejía, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Deportations from the Unites States (US) to Mexico increased substantially during the last decade. Considering deportation as a stressful event with potential consequences on mental health, we aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) among deported migrants; and (2) explore the association between migratory experience, social support and psychological variables, and CMD in this group. In repatriation points along the border, a probability sample of deportees responded to the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). The prevalence of CMD was 16.0% (95% CI 12.3, 20.6). There was a U-shaped association between time in the US and SRQ score. Times returned to Mexico, having a spouse in the US, number of persons in household, less social support, anxiety as a personality trait, and avoidant coping style were directly associated with SRQ score. Public health policies should address the need for mental health care among deported migrants.

  10. The comparative burden of mild, moderate and severe Fibromyalgia: results from a cross-sectional survey in the United States

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    Goldenberg Don

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is characterized by chronic, widespread pain, fatigue, and other symptoms; yet few studies have comprehensively assessed its humanistic burden. This observational study evaluates the impact of FM severity on patients' symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, and productivity in the United States. Methods 203 FM subjects were recruited from 20 physician offices. Subjects completed a questionnaire including the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF, Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS-SS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and questions about demographics, pain and other symptoms, HRQoL and productivity. FIQ total scores were used to define FM severity, with 0- Results Mean (SD age was 47.9 (10.9; 95% were female. Most (92% were prescribed medication for FM; 24% and 66% reported moderate and severe FM, respectively. Mean (SD scores were: 6.3 (2.1 for pain intensity; 0.35 (0.35 for EQ-5D; 30.7 (14.2 for MAF; 57.5 (18.4 for MOS-SS Sleep Problems Index; 10.2 (4.8 for HADS anxiety and 9.4 (4.4 for HADS depression. Subjects with worse FM severity reported significantly increased pain severity, HRQoL, fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety and depression (p Conclusions FM imposes a substantial humanistic burden on patients in the United States, and leads to substantial productivity loss, despite treatment. This burden is higher among subjects with worse FM severity.

  11. Iron deficiency is associated with food insecurity in pregnant females in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara Y; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2014-12-01

    Food-insecure pregnant females may be at greater risk of iron deficiency (ID) because nutrition needs increase and more resources are needed to secure food during pregnancy. This may result in a higher risk of infant low birth weight and possibly cognitive impairment in the neonate. The relationships of food insecurity and poverty income ratio (PIR) with iron intake and ID among pregnant females in the United States were investigated using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 data (n=1,045). Food security status was classified using the US Food Security Survey Module. One 24-hour dietary recall and a 30-day supplement recall were used to assess iron intake. Ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, or total body iron classified ID. Difference of supplement intake prevalence, difference in mean iron intake, and association of ID and food security status or PIR were assessed using χ(2) analysis, Student t test, and logistic regression analysis (adjusted for age, race, survey year, PIR/food security status, education, parity, trimester, smoking, C-reactive protein level, and health insurance coverage), respectively. Mean dietary iron intake was similar among groups. Mean supplemental and total iron intake were lower, whereas odds of ID, classified by ferritin status, were 2.90 times higher for food-insecure pregnant females compared with food-secure pregnant females. Other indicators of ID were not associated with food security status. PIR was not associated with iron intake or ID. Food insecurity status may be a better indicator compared with income status to identify populations at whom to direct interventions aimed at improving access and education regarding iron-rich foods and supplements. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diet and nutrition in psoriasis: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J A; Ma, C; Kanada, K N; Armstrong, A W

    2014-03-01

    There is limited research examining the association between psoriasis, dietary intake and nutritional status in the general U.S. population. This study aimed to compare levels of vitamins and carotenoids as well as intake of protein, fats, sugar, carbohydrates and total calories between individuals with and without psoriasis. We used data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in the U.S. Demographic information, physical examination, serum laboratory values and questionnaires on past medical history and dietary intake were used to determine the relationship between psoriasis and nutritional status and diet. The cohort consisted of 6260 participants who provided responses to their psoriasis status. Prior psoriasis diagnosis was reported in 156 (2.49%) of the respondents. Based on multivariate regression analysis, psoriasis was significantly associated with increased vitamin A level (OR: 1.01; CI: 1.00-1.02; P = 0.03), increased α-carotene level (OR: 1.02; CI: 1.01-1.04; P = 0.01), lower sugar intake (OR: 0.998; CI: 0.996-1; P = 0.04), increased body mass index (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02-1.07; P = 0.0003) and arthritis (OR: 2.31; CI: 1.37-3.90; P = 0.002). Non-Hispanic black (OR: 0.56; CI: 0.34-0.96; P = 0.03) and Hispanic race (OR: 0.37; CI: 0.19-0.75; P = 0.005) were inversely associated with a diagnosis of psoriasis compared with non-Hispanic white race. Psoriasis is significantly associated with elevated serum levels of vitamin A and α-carotene and reduced intake of sugar. Longitudinal monitoring of nutritional status in psoriasis patients is necessary to determine the effect of nutrition on psoriasis progression and the modifying role of treatments. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Race and health profiles in the United States: an examination of the social gradient through the 2009 CHIS adult survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A B; Moser, R; Chou, W-Y

    2014-12-01

    To examine the role of the social gradient on multiple health outcomes and behaviors. It was predicted that higher levels of SES, measured by educational attainment and family income, would be associated with positive health behaviors (i.e., smoking, drinking, physical activity, and diet) and health status (i.e., limited physical activity due to chronic condition, blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, BMI, and perceived health condition). The study also examined the differential effects of the social gradient in health among different racial/ethnic groups (i.e., non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, Asian, Hispanics, and American Indians). Cross-sectional study. The data were from the adult 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Weighted multivariable linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine trends found between SES and health conditions and health behaviors. Polynomial trends were examined for all linear and logistic models to test for the possible effects (linear, quadratic, and cubic) of the social gradient on health behaviors and outcomes stratified by race/ethnicity. Findings indicated that, in general, Whites had more favorable health profiles in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups with the exception of Asians who were likely to be as healthy as or healthier than Whites. Predicted marginals indicated that Asians in the upper two strata of social class display the healthiest outcomes of health status among all other racial/ethnic groups. Also, the social gradient was differentially associated with health outcomes across race/ethnicity groups. While the social gradient was most consistently observed for Whites, education did not have the same protective effect on health among Blacks and American Indians. Also, compared to other minority groups, Hispanics and Asians were more likely to display curvilinear trends of the social gradient: an initial increase from low SES to mid-level SES was associated with worse health outcomes and

  14. Access to Cancer Care and General Medical Care Services Among Cancer Survivors in the United States: An Analysis of 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Janet S; Virgo, Katherine S; Li, Chunyu; Chawla, Neetu; Han, Xuesong; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Ekwueme, Donatus U; McNeel, Timothy S; Rodriguez, Juan L; Yabroff, K Robin

    2016-11-01

    Cancer survivors require appropriate health care to manage their unique health needs. This study describes access to cancer care among cancer survivors in the United States and compares access to general medical care between cancer survivors and people who have no history of cancer. We assessed access to general medical care using the core 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). We assessed access to cancer care using the MEPS Experiences With Cancer Survey. We used multivariable logistic regression to compare access to general medical care among 2 groups of cancer survivors (those who reported having access to all necessary cancer care [n = 1088] and those who did not [n = 70]) with self-reported access to general medical care among people who had no history of cancer (n = 22 434). Of the 1158 cancer survivors, 70 (6.0%) reported that they did not receive all necessary cancer care. Adjusted analyses found that cancer survivors who reported not receiving all necessary cancer care were also less likely to report receiving general medical care (78.0%) than cancer survivors who reported having access to necessary cancer care (87.1%) and people who had no history of cancer (87.8%). This study provides nationally representative data on the proportion of cancer survivors who have access to necessary cancer care and yields insight into factors that impede survivors' access to both cancer care and general medical care. This study is a reference for future work on access to care.

  15. Exclusive breast-feeding of newborns among married women in the United States: the National Natality Surveys of 1969 and 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Fetterly, K; Graubard, B I; Wooton, K G

    1985-11-01

    Questions about infant feeding practices after birth were included in 1969 and 1980 National Natality Surveys (NNS). At 3-6 mo postpartum, NNS questionnaires were mailed to mothers of live infants born in wedlock, and responses were weighted to permit national estimates. Based on the NNS, the proportion of women who were exclusively breast-feeding newborns in the United States was significantly lower in 1969 (19% of white women, 9% of black women) compared with 1980 (51% of white women, 25% of black women). In 1969, the highest percentages of exclusive breast-feeding were observed among white women less than or equal to 34 yr, of parity less than or equal to 3 and greater than 7, and of higher than lower socioeconomic groups; and among black women greater than or equal to 30 yr, of parity greater than or equal to 4, and of lower than higher socioeconomic groups. Among women in both races in 1980, more primiparae than multiparae and the more highly educated were breast-feeding. More white than black women exclusively breast-fed within each birthweight and each sociodemographic characteristic in 1980; therefore, the racial differences remained across these factors. These findings are compared with results of the Ross Laboratories surveys of infant feeding.

  16. Relationship between socioeconomic status and HIV infection: findings from a survey in the Free State and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyasi, Erick Wekesa; Coetzee, David John

    2017-11-20

    Studies have shown a mixed association between socioeconomic status (SES) and prevalent HIV infection across and within settings in sub-Saharan Africa. In general, the relationship between years of formal education and HIV infection changed from a positive to a negative association with maturity of the HIV epidemic. Our objective was to determine the association between SES and HIV in women of reproductive age in the Free State (FSP) and Western Cape Provinces (WCP) of South Africa (SA). Cross-sectional. SA. We conducted secondary analysis on 1906 women of reproductive age from a 2007 to 2008 survey that evaluated effectiveness of Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Programmes. SES was measured by household wealth quintiles, years of formal education and employment status. Our analysis principally used logistic regression for survey data. There was a significant negative trend between prevalent HIV infection and wealth quintile in WCP (Pstated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Trends in the neuropsychological assessment of ethnic/racial minorities: a survey of clinical neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbulok-Charcape, Milushka M; Rabin, Laura A; Spadaccini, Amanda T; Barr, William B

    2014-07-01

    Despite the importance of diversity variables to the clinical practice of neuropsychology, little is known about neuropsychologists' multicultural assessment practices and perspectives. The current study was the first to survey issues related to neuropsychologists' assessment of minority populations, proficiency in languages other than English, approaches to interpreting the cognitive scores of minorities, and perceived challenges associated with assessing ethnic/racial minority patients. We also surveyed respondents with regard to their own demographic backgrounds, as neuropsychologists who identify as ethnic/racial minorities are reportedly underrepresented in the field. Respondents were 512 (26% usable response rate; 54% female) doctorate-level psychologists affiliated with the International Neuropsychology Society or the National Academy of Neuropsychology who resided in the United States or Canada. Overall, results suggest that lack of appropriate norms, tests, and referral sources are perceived as the greatest challenges associated with assessment of ethnic/racial minorities, that multicultural training is not occurring for some practitioners, and that some are conducting assessments in foreign languages despite limited proficiency. In addition, ethnic/racial minorities appear to be grossly underrepresented in the field of neuropsychology. Findings are discussed in relation to the need for appropriate education and training of neuropsychologists in multicultural issues and the provision of more valid assessments for ethnic/racial minority individuals.

  18. Survey of care for the underserved: a control group study of practicing physicians who were graduates of The Ohio State University College of Medicine premedical postbaccalaureate training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougle, Leon; Way, David P; Rucker, Yosman L

    2010-01-01

    Multiple publications describe short- term and intermediate outcomes of premedical postbaccalaureate programs (PBPs). However, the authors could find no control group studies reporting the service provided by graduates of PBPs to patients who are medically indigent (e.g., on Medicaid or uninsured) and/or poor. The authors explored the relationship between successful completion of a midwestern PBP and providing care for the underserved. In 2008, the authors surveyed 1996-2002 graduates of The Ohio State University College of Medicine who had been in practice for at least one year about their current practice population. The authors compared two groups: (1) physicians who completed the PBP and (2) a stratified random control group of physicians who graduated from the same medical school, in the same graduating classes, but did not participate in the PBP. The survey return rate was 70.9% (73/103). Findings suggest that PBP graduates were more likely to be practicing medicine in a federally designated underserved area (29.4% versus 5.1%, P < .009) or providing service where 40% or more of the patients were medically indigent or poor (67.6% versus 33.3%, P < .003). PBP graduates were also more likely to be volunteering their services to patients who were indigent (47.1% versus 10.3%, P < .001). This is likely the first control group study demonstrating the increased likelihood of graduates of a PBP providing health care to patients who are medically indigent and/or poor.

  19. The Need for Social Ethics in Interdisciplinary Environmental Science Graduate Programs: Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Troy E; Engebretson, Jesse; O'Rourke, Michael; Piso, Zach; Whyte, Kyle; Valles, Sean

    2017-04-01

    Professionals in environmental fields engage with complex problems that involve stakeholders with different values, different forms of knowledge, and contentious decisions. There is increasing recognition of the need to train graduate students in interdisciplinary environmental science programs (IESPs) in these issues, which we refer to as "social ethics." A literature review revealed topics and skills that should be included in such training, as well as potential challenges and barriers. From this review, we developed an online survey, which we administered to faculty from 81 United States colleges and universities offering IESPs (480 surveys were completed). Respondents overwhelmingly agreed that IESPs should address values in applying science to policy and management decisions. They also agreed that programs should engage students with issues related to norms of scientific practice. Agreement was slightly less strong that IESPs should train students in skills related to managing value conflicts among different stakeholders. The primary challenges to incorporating social ethics into the curriculum were related to the lack of materials and expertise for delivery, though challenges such as ethics being marginalized in relation to environmental science content were also prominent. Challenges related to students' interest in ethics were considered less problematic. Respondents believed that social ethics are most effectively delivered when incorporated into existing courses, and they preferred case studies or problem-based learning for delivery. Student competence is generally not assessed, and respondents recognized a need for both curricular materials and assessment tools.

  20. A Survey of N′-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and Total Water Content in Select Smokeless Tobacco Products Purchased in the United States in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Jeffrey R.; Lovejoy, Katherine S.; Walters, Matthew J.; Holman, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    This investigation provides an updated survey measuring the levels of N′-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and water content of a select number of smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States in 2015. A total of 34 smokeless tobacco products were collected and analyzed for NNN and water content using LC-MS/MS and GC-TCD, respectively. Smokeless tobacco products were chosen to obtain a representative sample of the different types of products on the U.S. market. These smokeless products represent 12 of the 25 top-selling smokeless tobacco products according to 2013 Nielsen net sales data while five of the smokeless tobacco products are of lower selling smokeless tobacco products. The NNN levels and the water content of the smokeless tobacco products were determined and compared to previous studies. Although the range of NNN levels found was broad for the examined smokeless tobacco products (0.64–12.0 µg/g dry weight), dry snuff had the highest levels of NNN observed (>5 µg/g dry weight). We observed a general decrease in NNN levels for the same six moist snuff products that were analyzed in 2004 compared to our current 2015 study. The water content of the smokeless tobacco products surveyed ranged from 3.92 to 54.8%. PMID:27192054

  1. A Survey of N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and Total Water Content in Select Smokeless Tobacco Products Purchased in the United States in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Jeffrey R; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    This investigation provides an updated survey measuring the levels of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and water content of a select number of smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States in 2015. A total of 34 smokeless tobacco products were collected and analyzed for NNN and water content using LC-MS/MS and GC-TCD, respectively. Smokeless tobacco products were chosen to obtain a representative sample of the different types of products on the U.S. market. These smokeless products represent 12 of the 25 top-selling smokeless tobacco products according to 2013 Nielsen net sales data while five of the smokeless tobacco products are of lower selling smokeless tobacco products. The NNN levels and the water content of the smokeless tobacco products were determined and compared to previous studies. Although the range of NNN levels found was broad for the examined smokeless tobacco products (0.64-12.0 μg/g dry weight), dry snuff had the highest levels of NNN observed (>5 μg/g dry weight). We observed a general decrease in NNN levels for the same six moist snuff products that were analyzed in 2004 compared to our current 2015 study. The water content of the smokeless tobacco products surveyed ranged from 3.92 to 54.8%.

  2. A survey for endodontists in today's economy: exploring the current state of endodontics as a profession and the relationship between endodontists and their referral base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Stan; Sabbah, Wael; Sedgley, Christine M; Whitten, Brian

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions, referral trends, and practice patterns of practicing endodontists in the United States and any effect the recent economy may have had on these. A 24-question survey was formulated and sent via www.surveymonkey.com to 3255 active members of the American Association of Endodontists. Overall, 875 participants completed the survey, a response rate of 26.9%. The average number of treatment cases per day was 5.7. Average work hours per week were 34.3 for men and 30.7 for women (P endodontic procedures, and 7.7% placed implants. Among endodontists who practice in urban areas, 69.7% believed there were too many endodontists, and 50% have delayed their retirement plans because of recent economic impact, compared with their suburban and rural counterparts at 66.1% and 38%, 25.9% and 33.1%, respectively (P endodontics as a specialty, but those who have practiced more than 20 years were more pessimistic than those with less experience (P 20 years), practice in urban settings, and practice in a solo environment are most significantly affected. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Osteoarthritis Measurement in Routine Rheumatology Outpatient Practice (OMIRROP) in Australia: a survey of practice style, instrument use, responder criteria, and state-attainment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Elizabeth; Wilson, Cecilia; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the 2007 Osteoarthritis Measurement in Routine Rheumatology Outpatient Practice survey was to describe practice styles, instrument usage, and perceptions of responder criteria and state-attainment criteria in osteoarthritis (OA) management in routine clinical rheumatology practice. A 16-item questionnaire (65 subcomponents) was developed, pretested, revised, formatted, and mailed to rheumatologists residing in Australia. Responses were obtained from 136 rheumatologists (response rate 58%). Approximately half the Australian respondents did not follow up their patients with hip and knee OA and two-thirds did not follow up their patients with hand OA. Health status measures (HSM) were infrequently used, even by those respondents who followed their patients with OA longitudinally, and the scores from those HSM that were used, were rarely if ever formally recorded. Respondents rated the following 6 requirements of a measure for use in clinical practice as very important: validity, reliability, responsiveness, simplicity, quick completion, and easy scoring. One-fifth to one-quarter of respondents indicated they did not know quantitatively what constituted a clinically important improvement, or a health state acceptable to patients with OA. The majority of the remainder selected values not closely aligned with published values in the peer review literature. While simply describing the health status of the patient is interesting, the more strategic applications are in benchmarking, and using the data to inform shared decision-making and therapeutic goal-setting. The OMIRROP survey suggests that further investigation of interpretation issues are essential, before evaluating the role of quantitative measurement in routine OA clinical practice.

  4. Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual identity in the United States: data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anjani; Mosher, William D; Copen, Casey; Sionean, Catlainn

    2011-03-03

    This report presents national estimates of several measures of sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual identity among males and females aged 15-44 years in the United States, based on the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These data are relevant to demographic and public health concerns, including fertility and sexually transmitted infections among teenagers and adults. Data from the 2006-2008 NSFG are compared with data from the 2002 NSFG and other national surveys. Data for 2006-2008 were collected through in-person interviews with a national sample of 13,495 males and females in the household population of the United States. The measures presented in this report were collected using audio computer-assisted self interviewing (ACASI), in which the respondent enters his or her own answers into the computer without telling them to an interviewer. The overall response rate for the 2006-2008 NSFG was 75%. Sexual behaviors among males and females aged 15-44 based on the 2006-2008 NSFG were generally similar to those reported based on the 2002 NSFG. Among adults aged 25-44, about 98% of women and 97% of men ever had vaginal intercourse, 89% of women and 90% of men ever had oral sex with an opposite-sex partner, and 36% of women and 44% of men ever had anal sex with an opposite-sex partner. Twice as many women aged 25-44 (12%) reported any same-sex contact in their lifetimes compared with men (5.8%). Among teenagers aged 15-19, 7% of females and 9% of males have had oral sex with an opposite-sex partner, but no vaginal intercourse. Sexual attraction and identity correlates closely but not completely with reports of sexual behavior. Sexual behaviors, attraction, and identity vary by age, marital or cohabiting status, education, and race and Hispanic origin.

  5. A survey of alkylphenols, bisphenols, and triclosan in personal care products from China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2014-07-01

    Exposure of humans to environmental phenolic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenols is a matter of concern, due to these compounds' ubiquitous occurrence and estrogenic potencies. Little is known about the levels of environmental phenolics in personal care products (PCPs). In this study, nonylphenol, two octylphenols, eight bisphenols (BPA and its analogs), and triclosan (TCS) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in PCP samples (n = 231) collected from China and the United States (U.S.). The concentrations of 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and TCS were in the ranges of China and the U.S. The estimated GM daily intakes of 4-NP, ∑OPs (sum of 4-OP and 4-t-OP), ∑BPs (sum of eight bisphenols), and TCS through dermal absorption from the use of PCPs were 0.932, 0.093, 0.072, and 0.016 μg/day, respectively, for adult Chinese women and 0.340, 0.054, 0.120, and 0.068 μg/day, respectively, for adult U.S. women. Body lotions, face creams, and liquid foundations accounted for the majority (>85 %) of the dermal exposure doses of the target phenolics.

  6. Survey of causative agents for acute respiratory infections among patients in Khartoum- State, Sudan, 2010–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to determine causative agents of acute respiratory illness of patients in Khartoum State, Sudan. Methods Four hundred patients experiencing respiratory infections within January-March 2010 and January-March 2011 were admitted at Khartoum Hospital and had their throat swab samples subjected to multiplex real-time RT-PCR to detect influenza viruses (including subtypes) and other viral agents. Isolation, nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis on some influenza viruses based on the HA gene were done. Results Out of 400 patients, 66 were found to have influenza viruses (35, 27, 2, and 2 with types A, B, C, and A and B co-infections, respectively). Influenza viruses were detected in 28, 33 and 5 patients in the age groups Sudan strains belong to the same clade and are related to those strains from several countries such as USA, Japan, Italy, United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, Greece, Denmark, Taiwan, Turkey and Kenya. Seasonal A H3 subtypes have close similarity to strains from Singapore, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, USA and Nicaragua. For influenza B, Sudan strains belong to two different clades, and just like influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and A H3 subtypes, seem to be part of worldwide endemic population (Kenya, USA, Brazil, Russia, Taiwan and Singapore). Conclusions In Sudan, the existence of respiratory viruses in patients with acute respiratory infection was confirmed and characterized for the first time by using molecular techniques. PMID:24160894

  7. Survey of giardiosis in household and shelter dogs from metropolitan areas of Curitiba, Paraná state, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Paola; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2008-04-15

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan parasite that causes a broad range of clinical symptoms varying from none--in asymptomatic carriers--to mild recurring diarrhea consisting of soft, light-colored stools to acute severe diarrhea. In different parts of the world this parasite has raised increased interest due to its possible zoonotic transmission. Among domestic animals, dogs can play an important role in environmental contamination. As there is little information on the frequency of giardiosis in dogs from the Metropolitan Area of Curitiba-State of Paraná, Southern Brazil, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the prevalence of G. duodenalis in two dog populations (household and shelter). To attain the proposed aim, we collected fecal samples from 200 dogs and utilized three diagnostic techniques: Faust's technique (Faust et al. 1939), Benbrook's technique (1963) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Faust's technique presented the best results, as it was able to detect a larger number of Giardia cases. Taking Faust's technique as the standard, Benbrook's technique presented 66% sensitivity and PCR demonstrated 69% sensitivity. The shelter dog population showed a 24% occurrence of G. duodenalis while the household population showed a 9% occurrence. Other epidemiological aspects like age, sex, environmental conditions and methodological aspects are discussed in the present article.

  8. Survey of state health information exchanges regarding inclusion of Continuity of Care Documents for long-term post-acute care (LTPAC) patient assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassol, Andrea; Goodman, Laura; Younkin, Jim; Honicker, Mary; Chaundy, Kimberly; Walker, James M

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to measure awareness and interest among state health information exchanges (HIEs) in a tool that translates long-term post-acute care (LTPAC) patient assessment information to a Continuity of Care Document (CCD) format for sharing; whether any state HIEs currently integrate patient information from LTPAC providers; and the anticipated benefits and barriers to using such a tool. The study consisted of an online survey of state HIEs. Responses were received from representatives of 29 of the 51 HIEs (57 percent). Eleven of the 29 respondents (38 percent) were aware of the LTPAC-to-CCD translation tool, and 24 (83 percent of respondents) were interested in it or felt LTPAC providers in their state would be interested. Twenty-one of the 24 interested respondents (88 percent) indicated a desire for more information about this technology. Skilled nursing facilities and home health agencies receive no incentives for adoption of electronic health record systems and are not commonly included in HIEs. These organizations do, however collect extensive structured data about their patients (Minimum Data Set for nursing facilities, Outcome and Assessment Information Set for home health agencies) and transmit the data electronically to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). A tool is now available that will intercept the transmissions to CMS, transform content extracted from patient assessments into CCDs, and send the CCDs to a designated HIE. Responding HIEs reported almost no experience exchanging patient assessment information from LTPAC providers. Anticipated benefits include safer care transitions; anticipated barriers include information technology constraints in LTPAC settings.

  9. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): the United States of America in 2011. Chapter I: erectile dysfunction among English-speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama; Shaeer, Kamal

    2012-12-01

    The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders, based on validated questionnaires and applying age adjustment to the World Standard Population (WSP) by the World Health Organization. In 2010, the first report of GOSS came from the Middle East, describing an erectile dysfunction (ED) prevalence rate of 47%. This report studies the prevalence rate of ED in the United States as of 2011-2012 and evaluates risk factors for ED. Prevalence of ED. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male web surfers in the United States via paid advertising on Facebook, comprising 146 questions including the abbreviated 5-item International Index of Erectile Function. Two thousand twenty-two males participated; with a mean age was 52.38 years ± 14.5. Prevalence of ED was 37.7%, adjusted to 33.7% according to WSP, comparable across ethnic groups. The following risk factors were associated with higher risk for ED: diabetes mellitus, hypertension with and without antihypertensive treatment, coronary heart disease, obesity (defined by body mass index), difficult micturition, subjectively reported depression, interpersonal distress, subjectively reported impotence, in addition to novel factors such as subjectively reported premature ejaculation (PE) and concerns over genital size (not a smaller penis per se), low libido, and irregular coitus. Frequency of smoking and alcohol were not associated with higher prevalence of ED, although duration of smoking was. Adjusted to WSP, prevalence rate of ED in the United States of America is 33.7% in the year 2011, in contrast to the adjusted prevalence in the Middle East (47%). Most of the classical risk factors for ED play the same role in the United States and the World, including diabetes, hypertension, and aging. Concerns over genital size and PE are emerging risk factors for ED. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that

  11. A 6-year survey of pathological conditions of slaughtered animals at Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawa, Clement B I; Etukudo-Joseph, I; Alawa, Judith N

    2011-01-01

    A 6-year retrospective study (2000-2005) of animals slaughtered at the Zango abattoir in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was carried out to determine disease conditions encountered in slaughtered animals. Records kept at the abattoir were analysed. A total of 69,307 cattle, 3,820 goats and 1,763 sheep were slaughtered for the period under study. Of the 69,307 cattle slaughtered for the period, 22,459 (32.41%) were males and 46,848 (67.59%) were females, while 1,763 sheep were slaughtered comprising of 506 (28.70%) males and 1,257 (71.30%) females, and 3,820 goats made up of 1,212 (31.73%) males and 2,608 (68.27%) were females. The major disease and/or pathological conditions were helminthosis (fascioliasis, haemonchosis and paramphistomosis) 16.20%, Streptothricosis 4.15%, Pericarditis 2.20%, liver cirrhosis 2.08%, abscesses 1.04%, pneumonia 0.14%, nephritis 0.05% and Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia, Tuberculosis and Nocardiosis 0.01% each. Out of the 15,075 infected organs, 13,314 (88.38%) were partially salvaged while 1,751 (11.6%) whole organs were condemned. A total of 1,239 pregnant cows, 221 pregnant ewes and 637 pregnant does were slaughtered, representing a foetal wastage of 2.65% for cattle, 17.58% for sheep and 24.43% for goats. The result of this study apart from serving as an indicator of field disease condition also demonstrates cases of serious losses in production due to slaughter of pregnant animals especially for sheep and goats.

  12. The contribution of physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners toward rural primary care: findings from a 13-state survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doescher, Mark P; Andrilla, C Holly A; Skillman, Susan M; Morgan, Perri; Kaplan, Louise

    2014-06-01

    Estimates of the relative contributions of physicians, physician assistants (PAs), and nurse practitioners (NPs) toward rural primary care are needed to inform workforce planning activities aimed at reducing rural primary shortages. For each provider group, this study quantifies the average weekly number of outpatient primary care visits and the types of services provided within and beyond the outpatient setting. A randomly drawn sample of 788 physicians, 601 PAs, and 918 NPs with rural addresses in 13 US states responded to a mailed questionnaire that measured reported weekly outpatient visits and scope of services provided within and beyond the outpatient setting. Analysis of variance and χ(2) testing were used to test for bivariate associations. Multivariate regression was used to model average weekly outpatient volume adjusting for provider sociodemographics and geographical location. Compared with physicians, average weekly outpatient visit quantity was 8% lower for PAs and 25% lower for NPs (P<0.001). After multivariate adjustment, this gap became negligible for PAs (P=0.56) and decreased to 10% for NPs (P<0.001). Compared with PAs and NPs, primary care physicians were more likely to provide services beyond the outpatient setting, including hospital care, emergency care, childbirth attending deliveries, and after-hours call coverage (all P<0.001). Although our findings suggest that a greater reliance on PAs and NPs in rural primary settings would have a minor impact on outpatient practice volume, this shift might reduce the availability of services that have more often been traditionally provided by rural primary care physicians beyond the outpatient clinic setting.

  13. A survey of state-of-the-art surface chemistries to minimize fouling from human and animal biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszykowski, Christophe; Sheikh, Sonia; Thompson, Michael

    2015-10-15

    Upon contact with bodily fluids, synthetic materials spontaneously acquire a layer of various species (most notably proteins) on their surface. The concern with respect to biomedical equipment, implants or devices resides in the possibility for biological processes with potentially harmful effects to ensue. In biosensor technology, the issue with this natural fouling phenomenon is that of non-specific adsorption to sensing platforms, which generates an often overwhelming interference signal that prevents the detection, not to mention the quantification, of target analytes present at considerably lower concentration. To alleviate this ubiquitous, recurrent problem - this genuine biotechnological plague - considerable research efforts have been devoted over the last few decades to engineer antifouling coatings. Extensive literature now exists that describes stealth organic adlayers capable of reducing fouling surface coverage Γ down to a few ng cm(-2)- however from biotechnologically irrelevant buffered solutions free or nearly depleted of any potentially interfering species. Regrettably indeed, few coatings are known to display/retain such level of performance when exposed to otherwise more complex, real-life biosamples (even diluted). Herein, we comprehensively review the state-of-the-art surface chemistries developed to date (January 2015) to minimize fouling from 8 such uncomparatively more challenging biological media (blood plasma, blood serum, cell lysate, cerebrospinal fluid, egg, milk, saliva, and urine) - whether of human or animal origin. Literature search for another 25 biological milieux generated no (exploitable) hit. Also discussed in this Review are the identification of the species responsible for fouling, and the dependence of antifouling properties on biosample source variability.

  14. Recapturing Traditional Culture - A Survey of Uvinmi Body Tattoo as a Curative Procedure in Esanland, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Mohammed Palmer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Body tattooing in traditional Nigerian culture was basically believed to be used for identification as well as aesthetic purposes. In some cultures, such as seen amongst the traditional ethnic Hausa and Fulani people, permanent facial marks were used to identify slaves within a community and also used to enhance the beauty and appearance of the women folk especially. In the southern part of Nigeria, amongst the Yorubas, it is used as a tribal identification symbol that provides information about the individual, as well as some culturally-related beliefs. The use of tattoos among the Esan ethnic people transcends the purposes of identification and enhancement of physical appearance as discovered. Thus this study examines the use of tattoo as a curative process for the illness called Udeh among the Esan ethnic people of Edo state Nigeria. Udeh is an illness associated with infection of the spleen. Data was collected through visitation of traditional healing venues, oral interview of some traditional doctors and elders as well as direct observation of the treatment processes. Findings indicated that the practice of Uvinmi has been in existence from time immemorial and it is a familial profession inherited from generation to generation as the most effective medium for treating spleen related diseases among the Esan people. It was also discovered contemporarily modern medical anaesthesia is employed to help reduce the agony felt in the process of blade incision as practiced by one of the traditional doctors. Recommendation made include an indebt study of the herbs used during and after treatment to gauge its efficacy on Western medicinal practices as well as proper sterilisization processes on incision equipments and procedures amongst others.

  15. PLSS Townships and Sections, The PLSS vector data provides value added, vector representations of the United States Public Land Survey System for Louisiana as depicted on the USGS 1:24,000 DRGs., Published in 2004, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — PLSS Townships and Sections dataset current as of 2004. The PLSS vector data provides value added, vector representations of the United States Public Land Survey...

  16. Epidemiological survey of breast and cervical radiotherapy patients in 2008-2010 from the state of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Mariana L.O.; Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Franca, Elvis J., E-mail: ejfranca@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com, E-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Oliveira Neto, Aristides M.; Melo, Jonathan A., E-mail: aristidesoliveira466@hotmail.com, E-mail: jonathan@truenet.com.br [Centro de Radioterapia de Pernambuco (CERAPE), Santo Amaro, PE (Brazil); Pessoa, Juanna G.; Melo, Ana M.M.A.; Amancio, Francisco F., E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: amanciobike@gmail.com, E-mail: juannapessoa@gmail.com, E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2014-07-01

    Breast and cervical cancer are, respectively, the second and the third most common cancers that affect the female population. The State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is one of the highest occurrence of both cancers. Radiotherapy is a powerful alternative usually associated to surgery and chemotherapy for cancer treatment. The knowledge of the disease characteristics, as well as the patient profile, contributes for public policy delineation for prevention, treatment and control of breast and cervical cancers. This work investigated the characteristics concerning patients affected by these diseases, also analyzing intrinsic aspects of the tumor. In the period of the years of 2008, 2009 and 2010, age and region of origin of patients treated by radiotherapy were compiled based on medical records available at the Center of Radiotherapy of Pernambuco (CERAPE), which is the reference center for radiotherapy in Pernambuco. Moreover, the staging of the tumor were evaluated. Results showed that 317 patients were treated in this period for breast cancer, and, in 2010, the highest number of registered cases was observed with 162 diagnosed patients for breast cancer. In the total evaluated period, 306 cases were reported for cervix cancer, however, almost 40% (118 patients) occurred only in 2010. Breast cancer has affected individuals of 50-55 years old, while those from 40 to 60 years old were mostly affected by cervix cancer. There was the highest prevalence of patients originated from the Metropolitan Region of Recife - MRR for both cancers. Stage III was predominated in cervix cancer, while stage II for breast cancer. Although most of patients have been from MRR, this region might not be the most affected by breast and cervix cancer, considering the lack of information on the interior population especially concerning to radiotherapy. It seems that the number of women with breast and cervical cancer has increased in recent years. Considering the risk factors such as physical

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization--national intimate partner and sexual violence survey, United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Matthew J; Smith, Sharon G; Basile, Kathleen C; Walters, Mikel L; Chen, Jieru; Merrick, Melissa T

    2014-09-05

    Sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence are public health problems known to have a negative impact on millions of persons in the United States each year, not only by way of immediate harm but also through negative long-term health impacts. Before implementation of the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) in 2010, the most recent detailed national data on the public health burden from these forms of violence were obtained from the National Violence against Women Survey conducted during 1995-1996. This report examines sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization using data from 2011. The report describes the overall prevalence of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization; racial/ethnic variation in prevalence; how types of perpetrators vary by violence type; and the age at which victimization typically begins. For intimate partner violence, the report also examines a range of negative impacts experienced as a result of victimization, including the need for services. January-December, 2011. NISVS is a national random-digit-dial telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized English- and Spanish-speaking U.S. population aged ≥18 years. NISVS gathers data on experiences of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence among adult women and men in the United States by using a dual-frame sampling strategy that includes both landline and cellular telephones. The survey was conducted in 50 states and the District of Columbia; in 2011, the second year of NISVS data collection, 12,727 interviews were completed, and 1,428 interviews were partially completed. In the United States, an estimated 19.3% of women and 1.7% of men have been raped during their lifetimes; an estimated 1.6% of women reported that they were raped in the 12 months preceding the survey. The case count for men reporting rape in the preceding 12 months was too small to produce a statistically reliable

  18. Which Point-of-Care Tests Would Be Most Beneficial to Add to Clinical Practice?: Findings From a Survey of 3 Family Medicine Clinics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Victoria; Alto, William; Keppel, Gina A; Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Thompson, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Point-of-care tests (POCTs) are increasingly used in family medicine to facilitate screening, diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, and referral decisions for a variety of conditions. Point-of-care tests that clinicians believe might be beneficial to add to clinical practice and the conditions for which they would be most useful in family medicine remain poorly understood in the United States. Forty-two clinicians at 3 family medicine residency clinics completed a brief survey asking which POCTs they believed would be beneficial to add to their clinical practice and the conditions POCTs would be most useful for. We calculated frequencies of reported POCTs and conditions using descriptive statistics. Clinicians identified 34 POCTs that would be beneficial to add to family medicine, of which hemoglobin A1c, chemistry panels, and human immunodeficiency virus and gonococcal and/or chlamydia were most frequently reported and anticipated would be used weekly. Clinicians reported 30 conditions for which they considered POCTs would be useful. Diabetes mellitus, sexually transmitted infections, and respiratory tract infections were the most often reported and were identified as benefiting diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment decisions. Clinicians identified a number of POCTs they viewed as being beneficial to add to their routine clinical practice, mostly to inform diagnosis and treatment planning. Some POCTs identified are available in the United States; thus, understanding barriers to implementation of these POCTs in primary care settings is necessary to optimize adoption.

  19. HIV Testing Among Foreign-Born Men and Women in the United States: Results from a Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Eduardo; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Oraka, Emeka; Bautista, Gregory; Chavez, Pollyanna

    2017-09-15

    HIV disproportionately affects the foreign-born population in the United States. This analysis describes the prevalence of ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born individuals residing in the United States. Data from a national health survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population was used to describe prevalence of ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born individuals by birth place. Multivariate logistic-regression procedures were used to determine factors associated with ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born men and women. The prevalence of ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born individuals varied by region of birth ranging from 31 to 67%. Factors related to ever-testing for HIV varied by gender. Efforts need to continue in order to improve HIV testing rates among Asian foreign-born individuals, lower educated foreign-born and foreign-born gay/bisexual men. Health care providers can play an important role by counseling new arrivals regarding the importance of testing for HIV and practicing HIV risk reduction activities.

  20. Assessment of dog owner adherence to veterinarians' flea and tick prevention recommendations in the United States using a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavan, Robert P; Tunceli, Kaan; Zhang, Dongmu; Normile, Dorothy; Armstrong, Rob

    2017-06-06

    Adherence to a prescribed therapeutic regimen is a critical factor for achieving medication effectiveness and therefore treatment success. In the case of companion animal ectoparasite control, suboptimal owner adherence to medication recommendations is thought to be a common cause of treatment failure, and previous reports have found pet owners applying an average of 4.0-4.6 monthly flea and tick treatments per year to their dogs. This study investigated: US veterinary hospital self-reported flea and tick prevention recommendations; dog owner recollection of these recommendations; dog owner opinion on flea/tick recommendations and estimated owner flea and tick medication adherence based on veterinary hospital purchase records. Veterinarians at 24 veterinary hospitals in 4 United States regions provided their flea and tick prevention recommendations. Five hundred fifty-nine dog owners, clients of the 24 hospitals, completed a survey evaluating their recollection of the hospitals' recommendations and their opinions regarding required treatment frequency. Almost all veterinary hospitals in this study recommended 12 months of flea and tick prevention but only 62% of participating dog owners recalled this recommendation. The average owner response was that their dogs require 10.5 months of flea and tick prevention annually. Owner opinions were significantly different among U.S. regions with pet owners in the northeast U.S. believing that they needed significantly less canine flea and tick protection than pet owners in other parts of the United States. The estimated actual flea and tick prevention coverage was 6.1 months based on owner medication purchases over a 12-month period. In the United States, dog owner opinions and actions show that their flea and tick treatment adherence falls short of veterinarians' recommendations.

  1. A Survey of Primary School Libraries to Determine the Availability and Adequacy of Services for Universal Basic Education (UBE in Oyo State, Nigeria

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    Belau Olatunde Gbadamosi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective -- As a first step in gathering evidence, this study surveyed school libraries and examined the services those libraries provide in relation to the Universal Basic Education (UBE program at a primary level. The purpose of this paper is to explore these UBE factors in relation to school libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria.Methods -- A questionnaire was sent to the 33 schools which have a library and information centre staffed by a teacher-librarian, in order to examine library services and the views of those providing them. The questionnaire covers library space, categories of library resources, student activities during library visits, mobile library services, and the teacher-librarians’ perception of the adequacy of the collection and the challenges in the use of library.Results -- Questionnaires were returned by 30 teacher-librarians out of 33, a response rate of 91%. Although pupils across each local government area have the chance to visit school libraries, the system of one short visit per week is inadequate for developing a universal interest in reading and in study skills. Staff responsible for the libraries consider many of the resources to be inadequate or outdated and stock is depleted as pupils borrow books, leaving fewer for those who follow.Conclusions -- As a first step to implementing evidence based practice, this paper describes the primary school library system in Nigeria and provides evidence on how it operates in Oyo State. Teacher-librarians who staff the libraries confirm the inadequacies in the system. They perceive collections to be inadequate and confirm that some pupils in the state have only limited access to library resources. Respondents also believe that they need further training, particularly in computer and information literacy.

  2. Results of the 2012-2013 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) Job Search and Career Planning Survey of Graduating Residents in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdm9007@nyp.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Kharofa, Jordan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Zeidan, Youssef H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Tung, Kaity [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Gondi, Vinai [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Golden, Daniel W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To determine the timeline used by postgraduate year (PGY)-5 radiation oncology residents during the job application process and the factors most important to them when deciding on a first job. Methods and Materials: In 2012 and 2013, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide electronic survey of PGY-5 radiation oncology residents in the United States during the final 2 months of their training. Descriptive statistics are reported. In addition, subgroup analysis was performed. Results: Surveys were completed by 180 of 314 residents contacted. The median time to start networking for the purpose of employment was January PGY-4; to start contacting practices, complete and upload a curriculum vitae to a job search website, and use the American Society of Radiation Oncology Career Center was June PGY-4; to obtain letters of recommendation was July PGY-5; to start interviewing was August PGY-5; to finish interviewing was December PGY-5; and to accept a contract was January PGY-5. Those applying for a community position began interviewing at an earlier average time than did those applying for an academic position (P=.04). The most important factors to residents when they evaluated job offers included (in order from most to least important) a collegial environment, geographic location, emphasis on best patient care, quality of support staff and facility, and multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Factors that were rated significantly different between subgroups based on the type of position applied for included adequate mentoring, dedicated research time, access to clinical trials, amount of time it takes to become a partner, geographic location, size of group, starting salary, and amount of vacation and days off. Conclusions: The residents' perspective on the job application process over 2 years is documented to provide a resource for current and future residents and employers to use.

  3. Results of the 2005-2008 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology Survey of Chief Residents in the United States: Clinical Training and Resident Working Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondi, Vinai, E-mail: gondi@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bernard, Johnny Ray [Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Jabbari, Siavash [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Keam, Jennifer [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Amorim Bernstein, Karen L. de [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Dad, Luqman K. [SUNY Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Li, Linna [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Poppe, Matthew M. [University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Hospital (United States); Strauss, Jonathan B. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Chollet, Casey T. [Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To document clinical training and resident working conditions reported by chief residents during their residency. Methods and Materials: During the academic years 2005 to 2006, 2006 to 2007, and 2007 to 2008, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide survey of all radiation oncology chief residents in the United States. Chi-square statistics were used to assess changes in clinical training and resident working conditions over time. Results: Surveys were completed by representatives from 55 programs (response rate, 71.4%) in 2005 to 2006, 60 programs (75.9%) in 2006 to 2007, and 74 programs (93.7%) in 2007 to 2008. Nearly all chief residents reported receiving adequate clinical experience in commonly treated disease sites, such as breast and genitourinary malignancies; and commonly performed procedures, such as three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clinical experience in extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy increased over time (p < 0.001), whereas clinical experience in endovascular brachytherapy (p <0.001) decreased over time. The distribution of gynecologic and prostate brachytherapy cases remained stable, while clinical case load in breast brachytherapy increased (p = 0.006). A small but significant percentage of residents reported receiving inadequate clinical experience in pediatrics, seeing 10 or fewer pediatric cases during the course of residency. Procedures involving higher capital costs, such as particle beam therapy and intraoperative radiotherapy, and infrequent clinical use, such as head and neck brachytherapy, were limited to a minority of institutions. Most residency programs associated with at least one satellite facility have incorporated resident rotations into their clinical training, and the majority of residents at these programs find them valuable experiences. The majority of residents reported working 60 or fewer hours per week on required clinical duties

  4. Results of the 2005 to 2008 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology surveys of chief residents in the United States: didactics and research experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondi, Vinai; Bernard, Johnny Ray; Jabbari, Siavash; Keam, Jennifer; de Amorim Bernstein, Karen L; Dad, Luqman K; Li, Linna; Poppe, Matthew M; Strauss, Jonathan B; Chollet, Casey T

    2012-02-01

    To analyze the didactics and research experience reported by chief residents during their residency training. During the academic years 2005 to 2006, 2006 to 2007, and 2007 to 2008, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) conducted a nationwide survey of all radiation oncology chief residents in the United States. Chi-square statistic was used to assess for changes in didactics and research experience over time. During the years surveyed, an increasing percentage of programs offered curriculum-based didactics in clinical oncology (P=0.042), with a similar trend of borderline significance observed in biostatistics (P = 0.056). Each year, the majority of programs offered >40 hours of curriculum-based training in clinical oncology and physics, >20 hours in radiobiology, and 10 hours or fewer in biostatistics. 11% to 13% of residents reported having no full-time equivalent radiation biologists affiliated with their training program. Less than 64% of programs incorporated mock oral boards into their training. An increasing percentage of programs evaluated residents in a "360 degree" manner, with a trend to significance (P=0.073). Over 80% of programs required resident participation in research activities and allocated dedicated elective research time, typically 4 months or longer. Though the vast majority of programs make clinical research activities available to interested residents, borderline significance (P = 0.051) was observed for a decreasing percentage of such programs during the years analyzed. Trends in didactics and research experience over three years are documented to allow residents and program directors to assess their residency training.

  5. Cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with HIV compared with the general adult population in the United States: cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdodo, Rennatus; Frazier, Emma L; Dube, Shanta R; Mattson, Christine L; Sutton, Madeline Y; Brooks, John T; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-03-03

    The negative health effects of cigarette smoking and HIV infection are synergistic. To compare the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and smoking cessation between adults with HIV receiving medical care and adults in the general population. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. United States. 4217 adults with HIV who participated in the Medical Monitoring Project and 27 731 U.S. adults who participated in the National Health Interview Survey in 2009. The main exposure was cigarette smoking. The outcome measures were weighted prevalence of cigarette smoking and quit ratio (ratio of former smokers to the sum of former and current smokers). Of the estimated 419 945 adults with HIV receiving medical care, 42.4% (95% CI, 39.7% to 45.1%) were current cigarette smokers, 20.3% (CI, 18.6% to 22.1%) were former smokers, and 37.3% (CI, 34.9% to 39.6%) had never smoked. Compared with the U.S. adult population, in which an estimated 20.6% of adults smoked cigarettes in 2009, adults with HIV were nearly twice as likely to smoke (adjusted prevalence difference, 17.0 percentage points [CI, 14.0 to 20.1 percentage points]) but were less likely to quit smoking (quit ratio, 32.4% vs. 51.7%). Among adults with HIV, factors independently associated with greater smoking prevalence were older age, non-Hispanic white or non-Hispanic black race, lower educational level, poverty, homelessness, incarceration, substance use, binge alcohol use, depression, and not achieving a suppressed HIV viral load. Cross-sectional design with some generalizability limitations. Adults with HIV were more likely to smoke and less likely to quit smoking than the general adult population. Tobacco screening and cessation strategies are important considerations as part of routine HIV care.

  6. Barriers and Disparities in Emergency Medical Services 911 Calls for Stroke Symptoms in the United States Adult Population: 2009 BRFSS Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munseok Seo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study examines barriers and disparities in the intentions of American citizens, when dealing with stroke symptoms, to call 911. This study hypothesizes that low socioeconomic populations are less likely to call 911 in response to stroke recognition. Methods: The study is a cross-sectional design analyzing data from the Centers for Disease Control’s 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, collected through a telephone-based survey from 18 states and the District of Columbia. The study identified the 5 most evident stroke-warning symptoms based on those given by the American Stroke Association. We conducted appropriate weighting procedures to account for the complex survey design. Results: A total of 131,988 respondents answered the following question: “If you thought someone was having a heart attack or a stroke, what is the first thing you would do?” A majority of those who said they would call 911 were insured (85.1%, had good health (84.1%, had no stroke history (97.3%, had a primary care physician (PCP (81.4%, and had no burden of medical costs (84.9%. Those less likely to call 911 were found in the following groups: 65 years or older, men, other race, unmarried, less than or equal to high school degree, less than $25,000 family income, uninsured, no PCP, burden of medical costs, fair/poor health, previous history of strokes, or interaction between burden of medical costs and less than $50,000 family income (p<0.0001 by X2 tests. The only factors significantly associated with “would call 911” were age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and previous history of strokes. Conclusion: Barriers and disparities exist among subpopulations of different socioeconomic statuses. This study suggests that some potential stroke victims could have limited access to EMS services. Greater effort targeting certain populations is needed to motivate citizens to call 911. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:251–259].

  7. Medical toxicologists' practice patterns regarding drug-induced QT prolongation in overdose patients: a survey in the United States of America, Europe, and Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othong, Rittirak; Devlin, John J; Kazzi, Ziad N

    2015-05-01

    To describe practice patterns of medical toxicologists in the United States of America (USA), Europe, and Asia Pacific Region regarding management of drug induced QT prolongation and torsades de pointes in overdose. A survey was developed to assess current practice patterns and consistency with guidelines published by the American Heart Association (AHA), American College of Cardiology (ACC), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC). It was reviewed by our department research committee and the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT). The ACMT, European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists, and Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology electronically disseminated the survey to their physician members in the USA, Europe and Asia Pacific Region. The overall response rate was 37% (229/617) (36% USA; 32% Europe; 52% Asia Pacific Region). Twelve toxicologists from Asia Pacific Region and Europe used the QT nomogram (Australia-5, New Zealand-1, United Kingdom-1) or QT alone (France-1, Russia-1, Romania-1, Germany-1, Philippines-1), in lieu of the corrected QT (QTc) to determine risks of developing torsades de pointes. Because only those who used QTc could proceed through the remainder of the survey, only 217 could do so. Approximately half of the respondents (52%) did not calculate QTc manually and based decisions on the electrocardiogram machines automated measurement. For those who corrected the QT interval themselves, the most common formula used was Bazett's (40%). There is great variation in the QTc value considered prolonged. Most responders considered QTc greater than 450 ms in men (28%) and 460 ms in women (25%) to be prolonged. Interestingly, approximately 15% of participants did not consider the QTc prolonged until it exceeded 500 ms in both men and women. Given an overdose scenario of a male patient with a QTc of 560 ms, heart rate of 90 beats/minute, 59% would not recommend administering intravenous magnesium sulfate. Forty

  8. Caffeine intake and its association with urinary incontinence in United States men: results from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2005-2006 and 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nicole J; Vaughan, Camille P; Johnson, Theodore M; Goode, Patricia S; Burgio, Kathryn L; Redden, David T; Markland, Alayne D

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies in women have revealed an association between caffeine intake and urinary incontinence, although evidence among men is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the association between caffeine intake and urinary incontinence in United States men. Data were used from male NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys) 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 participants. Urinary incontinence was defined using a standard questionnaire with Incontinence Severity Index scores 3 or greater categorized as moderate to severe. Structured dietary recall was used to determine caffeine consumption (mg per day), water intake (gm per day) and total dietary moisture (gm per day). Stepwise multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between caffeine intake at or above the 75th and 90th percentiles and moderate to severe urinary incontinence, controlling for potential confounders, urinary incontinence risk factors and prostate conditions in men age 40 years or older. Of the 5,297 men 3,960 (75%) were 20 years old or older with complete data. Among these men the prevalence of any urinary incontinence was 12.9% and moderate to severe urinary incontinence was 4.4%. Mean caffeine intake was 169 mg per day. Caffeine intake at the upper 75th percentile (234 mg or more daily) and 90th percentile (392 mg or more per day) was significantly associated with having moderate to severe urinary incontinence (1.72, 95% 1.18-2.49 and 2.08, 95% 1.15-3.77, respectively). In addition, after adjusting for prostate conditions, the effect size for the association between caffeine intake and moderate to severe urinary incontinence remained. Caffeine consumption equivalent to approximately 2 cups of coffee daily (250 mg) is significantly associated with moderate to severe urinary incontinence in United States men. Our findings support the further study of caffeine modification in men with urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association

  9. Food safety and health: a survey of rural and urban household consumer practices, knowledge to food safety and food related illnesses in Ogun State.

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    Oluwawemimo Adebowale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumers’ knowledge on food safety and related practices play central role in reducing foodborne diseases, which represents significant concerns to public health. Objectives: To evaluate rural and urban household consumers knowledge of food safety and related practices in Ogun state, Nigeria. Also, awareness of foodborne illnesses, and  association between respondents’ demographic characteristics and food safety knowledge were investigated. Methods: A crossectional study, which involved a questionnaire based interview of a group of 120 volunteers from four different local government areas (LGA in Ogun State was conducted. Pearson chi-square analysis was used to test the association between consumers’ demographic parameters and knowledge of food safety. Results: Overall,  eighteen (15.8%, 95% Cl, 10.0 – 23.7 male, and ninety-six (82.2%, 95% Cl, 76.3 – 89.9 female within the age range 16 – 60 years took part in the study. Our data showed that there was poor knowledge regarding food safety practices and food borne illnesses among rural and urban consumers surveyed. However, there was a significant difference in the awareness of rural and urban household consumers to foodborne illnesses and associated complications, (p <0.05. Also, Respondents’ marital status were significantly associated with knowledge of food safety (p <0.000. Conclusion: Poor consumer knowledge of food safety, and food related illnesses  were reported, informing the urgent need to improve on  food safety education such as food handling, preparation, storage and general hygiene practices in homes in Nigeria.

  10. Chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation for children in the United States: an analysis of data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetan, Harrison; Evans, Marion Willard; Hawk, Cheryl; Walker, Clark

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe use of chiropractic and/or osteopathic manipulation by children in the United States along with the specific health conditions for which they sought care. The study was a secondary data analysis of the National Health Interview Survey 2007, Child Alternative Medicine file as well as the Child Core Sample. National population estimates were generated for reported use of chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation (C/OM) by children for specific health conditions. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were generated from binary logistic regression models that assessed the likelihood that children of specific characteristics would use this therapy. National estimates indicated that 2.3 million children (2.3%) in the United States had used C/OM in 2007. C/OM was the most common complementary and alternative medicine procedure. Children aged 12-18 years were more likely to have seen these providers than were younger age groups (OR=3.4 [95% CI, 2.1-5.5]). Homeopathy (1.2%), massage (1.0), and naturopathy (0.3%) were the next most common procedures. The most common complaints were back and neck pain. Other conditions for which children were seen included other musculoskeletal conditions, sinusitis, allergies, and nonmigraine headaches. Racial categories did not differ significantly regarding use of manipulation, but those children with both mother and father in the household were more likely to have used this form of care (OR=1.7 [95% CI, 1.1-2.6]). C/OM is primarily used for back and neck pain, which is increasing in prevalence in children. Teens are more likely to use it than are younger children.

  11. Comparison of Health and Health Risk Factors Between Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults and Heterosexual Adults in the United States: Results From the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Przedworski, Julia; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies identified disparities in health and health risk factors among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults, but prior investigations have been confined to samples not representative of the US adult population or have been limited in size or geographic scope. For the first time in its long history, the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey included a question on sexual orientation, providing health information on sexual minorities from one of the nation's leading health surveys. To compare health and health risk factors between LGB adults and heterosexual adults in the United States. Data from the nationally representative 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey were used to compare health outcomes among lesbian (n = 525), gay (n = 624), and bisexual (n = 515) adults who were 18 years or older and their heterosexual peers (n = 67 150) using logistic regression. Self-rated health, functional status, chronic conditions, psychological distress, alcohol consumption, and cigarette use. The study cohort comprised 68 814 participants. Their mean (SD) age was 46.8 (11.8) years, and 51.8% (38 063 of 68 814) were female. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, gay men were more likely to report severe psychological distress (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% CI, 1.55-5.14), heavy drinking (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.08-3.58), and moderate smoking (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.39-2.81) than heterosexual men; bisexual men were more likely to report severe psychological distress (OR, 4.70; 95% CI, 1.77-12.52), heavy drinking (OR, 3.15; 95% CI, 1.22-8.16), and heavy smoking (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.08-4.10) than heterosexual men; lesbian women were more likely to report moderate psychological distress (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.76), poor or fair health (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.24-2.95), multiple chronic conditions (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.12-2.22), heavy drinking (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.54-4.50), and heavy smoking (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.36-3.88) than

  12. [Use of anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic drugs by the elderly: a survey in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontijo, Mônica de Fátima; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Rozenfeld, Suely; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis

    2012-07-01

    Concern over the harmful effects of drug use by the elderly has motivated studies aimed at identifying problems in such utilization. This was a household survey with retirees aged > 60 years living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2003, who reported having a diagnosis of diabetes and/or hypertension. Quality of anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic medication was measured by redundancy, combinations of drugs, and inappropriate drugs. Among 283 elderly patients (89%) with self-reported hypertension and use of anti-hypertensive pharmacotherapy, 68.2% were using diuretics and 37.8% ACE inhibitors. Among the 22 (64.7%) self-reported diabetic patients under pharmacotherapy, 45.5% were using insulin and 77.3% oral anti-diabetic agents. Among the 89 self-reported diabetic and hypertensive patients, 80 (90%) were using anti-hypertensive drugs and 51 (57.3%) anti-diabetic agents. The study revealed the use of dose combinations, redundant use, and inappropriate medicines, thus indicating the need to monitor treatment protocols and improve healthcare for elderly patients.

  13. Giardia survey in live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals in four regions in the southwest region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês L. Sogayar

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, a survey on Giardia in the live-trapped small domestic and wild mammals was perfomed in four regions of state of the São Paulo, Brazil, with special attention to the parasitism of Rattus rattus rattus by Giardia. This species was found infected in all studied sites: Botucatu (15.4%, Conchas (28.5%, Itaporanga (38.7% and São Roque (100 %. Two new hosts and their frequency of infection were described for Giardia in Nectomys squamipes, an aquatic rodent and in Bolomys lasiurus, a forest rodent (100 % and 14.3 %, respectively. Both G. muris and G. duodenalis groups were found in scrapings of intestinal mucosa of those rodents. Mixed infection was observed in some animals. It is important to emphasize the infection by G. duodenalis in the black rat as this species lives as a comensal with man and in N. squamipes as it may contaminate small streams used for domestic consumption. Therefore, further investigation will be necessary to elucidate the potential of these rodents to act as reservoirs of Giardia for man.

  14. Biomarkers of exposure to molybdenum and other metals in relation to testosterone among men from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Meeker, John D

    2015-01-01

    To examine the potential associations between biomarkers of metal exposure and serum testosterone in men of reproductive age in the general US population. Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. Not applicable. Men recruited in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Metal concentrations measured in whole blood, urine, and/or serum samples collected from 484 men. Serum T concentration. Concentrations of the metals were detected in 69%-100% of the samples. In adjusted analyses where metals were modeled as a continuous variable, we found significant inverse associations between urinary molybdenum and serum copper and serum T, whereas there were significant positive associations between blood lead and cadmium and serum T. When metals were categorized into quartiles, analyses for serum copper and blood lead and cadmium produced significant associations in the same direction as the continuous measures. A suggestive inverse association was observed between quartiles of urinary molybdenum and serum T, but the association was statistically significant when molybdenum was categorized into quintiles. Significant positive associations were also observed for quartiles of blood Se and serum Zn and serum T. These findings add to the limited human evidence that exposure to molybdenum and other metals is associated with altered T in men, which may have important implications for male health. More research is needed to confirm the findings of our study. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Toxic Metal Concentrations in Cigarettes Obtained from U.S. Smokers in 2009: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC United States Survey Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalie V. Caruso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, and lead (Pb in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320. The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 µg/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA and R.J. Reynolds (RJR brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001, PMUSA and other manufacturer (OM brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001, and RJR and OM brands (RJR higher; p = 0.006. For Cr, RJR brands had higher levels than did OM brands (p = 0.02. Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10. Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced.

  16. Trends in clinical management of women with von Willebrand disease: a survey of 75 women enrolled in haemophilia treatment centres in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtava, A; Crudder, S; Dilley, A; Lally, C; Evatt, B

    2004-03-01

    To assess the management of women with von Willebrand disease( vWD) in an Heamophilia Treatment Center (HTC) setting. A total of 75 women with vWd who were registered in HTCs in the United States participated in this study. A telephone interview elicited information about symptoms pertaining to bleeding disorders, diagnostic issues, referral patterns, treatment modalities before and after the enrollment in the HTC, HTC services provided, and satisfaction with care in the HTC. Menorrhagia was the most commonly reported symptom (84%). The average time from the first symptom until clinician recognition was 16 years (range 0-39). In HTC, DDAVP was the most commonly used drug (31%). Of the 75 women, 71 reported a strong positive opinion and satisfaction about their care in the HTCs. Women with VWD were typically diagnosed with the condition well into adulthood, in spite of the fact that majority of them experienced several bleeding symptoms beginning in early childhood. In general an HTC setting is appropriate for management of women with bleeding disorders. Diagnosis, treatment and education provided in the HTCs were viewed positively by those surveyed.

  17. Immigration and generational trends in body mass index and obesity in the United States: results of the National Latino and Asian American Survey, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lisa M; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Alegría, Margarita; Krieger, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    We examined patterns of body mass index (BMI) and obesity among a nationally representative sample of first-, second-, and third-generation Latinos and Asian Americans to reveal associations with nativity or country of origin. We used data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey (2002-2003) to generate nationally representative estimates of mean BMI and obesity prevalence and explored changes in the distribution of BMI by generational status. Analyses tested the association between generational status and BMI and examined whether this association varied by ethnicity, education, or gender. We found substantial heterogeneity in BMI and obesity by country of origin and an increase in BMI in later generations among most subgroups. The data suggest different patterns for Latinos and Asian Americans in the nature and degree of distributional changes in BMI with generational status in the United States. Generational status is associated with increased BMI and obesity among Latinos and Asian Americans. Aggregate estimates not accounting for nativity and country of origin may mask significant heterogeneity in the prevalence of obesity and patterns of distributional change, with implications for prevention strategies.

  18. A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Methods Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study. Results Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae. In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%. Conclusions The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity.

  19. Perceptions of Food Advertising and Association With Consumption of Energy-Dense Nutrient-Poor Foods Among Adolescents in the United States: Results From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chan L; Serrano, Katrina J; Yaroch, Amy L; Nebeling, Linda; Oh, April

    2017-08-01

    The advertising and marketing of energy-dense, nutrient-poor (EDNP) food and drink has been cited as one contributor to unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. The present study examines perceptions about and trust in food advertising and their association with consumption of EDNP foods and drinks among adolescents in the United States. Data (n = 1,384) come from the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Survey. One way ANOVAs were conducted to assess differences between population subgroups in advertising perceptions. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the associations between perceptions toward and trust in food advertising and consumption of EDNP foods and drinks, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Results show that there are significant differences between racial/ethnic groups on advertising perceptions (F = 16.32, p = food advertising increase among adolescents, there is an associated increase in daily frequency of consumption of EDNP foods and drinks (β = 0.10, p food advertising, the higher the reported daily frequency of EDNP food and drink consumption (β = 0.08, p = .01). Targeting perceptions about food advertising may be a worthy intervention strategy to reduce the impact of food marketing and the consumption of heavily advertised EDNP foods and drinks among adolescents.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 61: The Technical Communications Practices of ESL Aerospace Engineering Students in the United States: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, John R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    When engineering students graduate and enter the world of work, they make the transition from an academic to a professional community of knowledge. The importance of oral and written communication to the professional success and advancement of engineers is well documented. For example, studies such as those conducted by Mailloux (1989) indicate that communicating data, information, and knowledge takes up as much as 80% of an engineer's time. However, these same studies also indicate that many engineering graduates cannot (a) write technical reports that effectively inform and influence decisionmaking, (b) present their ideas persuasively, and (c) communicate with their peers. If these statements are true, how is learning to communicate effectively in their professional knowledge community different for engineering students educated in the United States but who come from other cultures-cultures in which English is not the primary language of communication? Answering this question requires adequate and generalizable data about these students' communications abilities, skills, and competencies. To contribute to the answer, we undertook a national (mail) survey of 1,727 student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The focus of our analysis and this paper is a comparison of the responses of 297 student members for whom English is a second language with the responses of 1,430 native English speaking students to queries regarding career choice, bilingualism and language fluency, communication skills, collaborative writing, computer use, and the use of electronic (computer) networks.