WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey research methods

  1. Methods for integrated use of fisheries research survey information in understanding marine fish population ecology and better management advice : improving methods for evaluation of research survey information under consideration of survey fish detection and catch efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The thesis developed and improved methods for the integrated analysis of different types of fishery independent research surveys (trawl surveys, acoustic surveys, hydrographical surveys, and gillnet surveys) to study the distribution, density, abundance, migration and

  2. Enhancing Field Research Methods with Mobile Survey Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the experience of undergraduate students using mobile devices and a commercial application, iSurvey, to conduct a neighborhood survey. Mobile devices offer benefits for enhancing student learning and engagement. This field exercise created the opportunity for classroom discussions on the practicalities of urban research, the…

  3. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  4. Enhancing Field Research Methods with Mobile Survey Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses the experience of undergraduate students using mobile devices and a commercial application, iSurvey, to conduct a neighborhood survey. Mobile devices offer benefits for enhancing student learning and engagement. This field exercise created the opportunity for classroom discussions on the practicalities of urban research, the…

  5. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  6. Workshop on Survey Methods in Education Research: Facilitator's Guide and Resources. REL 2017-214

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Jill; Redford, Jeremy; Bhatt, Monica P.

    2017-01-01

    This Workshop on Survey Methods in Education Research tool consists of a facilitator guide and workshop handouts. The toolkit is intended for use by state or district education leaders and others who want to conduct training on developing and administering surveys. The facilitator guide provides materials related to various phases of the survey…

  7. Engaging Students in Survey Research Projects across Research Methods and Statistics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovekamp, William E.; Soboroff, Shane D.; Gillespie, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    One innovative way to help students make sense of survey research has been to create a multifaceted, collaborative assignment that promotes critical thinking, comparative analysis, self-reflection, and statistical literacy. We use a short questionnaire adapted from the Higher Education Research Institute's Cooperative Institutional Research…

  8. Engaging Students in Survey Research Projects across Research Methods and Statistics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovekamp, William E.; Soboroff, Shane D.; Gillespie, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    One innovative way to help students make sense of survey research has been to create a multifaceted, collaborative assignment that promotes critical thinking, comparative analysis, self-reflection, and statistical literacy. We use a short questionnaire adapted from the Higher Education Research Institute's Cooperative Institutional Research…

  9. White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TOR-2015-02548 White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and...voltage phenomena where the verification power level is chosen such that the maximum instantaneous operational voltage in the component is excited . In...analysis methods under investigation for multicarrier excitation threshold prediction based on a survey of the research literature. In general, this

  10. Getting from neuron to checkmark: Models and methods in cognitive survey research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. Holleman; J.M.J. Murre

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1980s much work has been done in the field of Cognitive Survey Research. In an interdisciplinary endeavour, survey methodologists and cognitive psychologists (as well as social psychologists and linguists) have worked to unravel the cognitive processes underlying survey responses: to impro

  11. A Method for Recruiting Participants from Isolated Islands of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) for Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Sheena; Koopman-Boyden, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Representing isolated small island communities through social survey research continues to be challenging. We examine a locally developed method to reach and recruit older people (65+ years) for a survey on well-being in the small island developing state of Maldives. The use of messengers to recruit participants is examined in the context of these…

  12. Using key informant methods in organizational survey research: assessing for informant bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, L C; Preski, S

    1997-02-01

    Specification of variables that reflect organizational processes can add an important dimension to the investigation of outcomes. However, many contextual variables are conceptualized at a macro unit of analysis and may not be amenable to direct measurement. In these situations, proxy measurement is obtained by treating organizational members as key informants who report about properties of the work group or organization. Potential sources of bias when using key informant methods in organizational survey research are discussed. Statistical procedures for assessment of rater-trait interaction as a type of informant bias are illustrated using data from a study in which multiple key informants were sampled to obtain proxy measurement of the organizational climate for caring among baccalaureate schools of nursing.

  13. International survey of methods used in health technology assessment (HTA: does practice meet the principles proposed for good research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephens JM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer M Stephens,1 Bonnie Handke,2 Jalpa A Doshi3 On behalf of the HTA Principles Working Group, part of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR HTA Special Interest Group (SIG1Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 2Medtronic Neuromodulation, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Center for Evidence-Based Practice and Center for Health Incentives and Behavioral Economics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USAObjective: To describe research methods used internationally in health technology assessment (HTA and health-care reimbursement policies; compare the survey findings on research methods and processes to published HTA principles; and discuss important issues/trends reported by HTA bodies related to current research methods and applications of the HTA process.Methods: Representatives from HTA bodies worldwide were recruited to complete an online survey consisting of 47 items within four topics: (1 organizational information and process, (2 primary HTA methodologies and importance of attributes, (3 HTA application and dissemination, and (4 quality of HTA, including key issues. Results were presented as a comparison of current HTA practices and research methods to published HTA principles.Results: The survey was completed by 30 respondents representing 16 countries in five major regions, Australia (n = 3, Canada (n = 2, Europe (n = 17, Latin America (n = 2, and the United States (n = 6. The most common methodologies used were systematic review, meta-analysis, and economic modeling. The most common attributes evaluated were effectiveness (more commonly than efficacy, cost-effectiveness, safety, and quality of life. The attributes assessed, relative importance of the attributes, and conformance with HTA principles varied by region/country. Key issues and trends facing HTA bodies included standardizing methods for economic evaluations and grading of evidence, lack of evidence

  14. EHRA research network surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Chen, Jian; Dagres, Nikolaos;

    2015-01-01

    of surveys covering the controversial issues in clinical electrophysiology (EP). With this in mind, an EHRA EP research network has been created, which included EP centres in Europe among which the surveys on 'hot topic' were circulated. This review summarizes the overall experience conducting EP wires over...

  15. Research on Mail Surveys: Response Rates and Methods in Relation to Population Group and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; Green, Kathy

    The purpose of this review was to look for trends across time in response rates and variables studied for published mail surveys and to compare response rates and variables studied for different target populations. Studies were identified in databases in four fields: education, psychology, business and marketing, and sociology. A total of 225…

  16. The Acceptability Among Health Researchers and Clinicians of Social Media to Translate Research Evidence to Clinical Practice: Mixed-Methods Survey and Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnecliff, Jacqueline; Ilic, Dragan; Morgan, Prue; Keating, Jennifer; Gaida, James E; Clearihan, Lynette; Sadasivan, Sivalal; Davies, David; Ganesh, Shankar; Mohanty, Patitapaban; Weiner, John; Reynolds, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Establishing and promoting connections between health researchers and health professional clinicians may help translate research evidence to clinical practice. Social media may have the capacity to enhance these connections. Objective The aim of this study was to explore health researchers’ and clinicians’ current use of social media and their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for communicating research evidence. Methods This study used a mixed-methods approach to obtain qualitative and quantitative data. Participation was open to health researchers and clinicians. Data regarding demographic details, current use of social media, and beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for professional purposes were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. The survey was distributed via email to research centers, educational and clinical institutions, and health professional associations in Australia, India, and Malaysia. Consenting participants were stratified by country and role and selected at random for semistructured telephone interviews to explore themes arising from the survey. Results A total of 856 participants completed the questionnaire with 125 participants declining to participate, resulting in a response rate of 87.3%. 69 interviews were conducted with participants from Australia, India, and Malaysia. Social media was used for recreation by 89.2% (749/840) of participants and for professional purposes by 80.0% (682/852) of participants. Significant associations were found between frequency of professional social media use and age, gender, country of residence, and graduate status. Over a quarter (26.9%, 229/852) of participants used social media for obtaining research evidence, and 15.0% (128/852) of participants used social media for disseminating research evidence. Most participants (95.9%, 810/845) felt there was a role for social media in disseminating or obtaining research evidence. Over half of the

  17. The acceptability among health researchers and clinicians of social media to translate research evidence to clinical practice: mixed-methods survey and interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnecliff, Jacqueline; Ilic, Dragan; Morgan, Prue; Keating, Jennifer; Gaida, James E; Clearihan, Lynette; Sadasivan, Sivalal; Davies, David; Ganesh, Shankar; Mohanty, Patitapaban; Weiner, John; Reynolds, John; Maloney, Stephen

    2015-05-20

    Establishing and promoting connections between health researchers and health professional clinicians may help translate research evidence to clinical practice. Social media may have the capacity to enhance these connections. The aim of this study was to explore health researchers' and clinicians' current use of social media and their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for communicating research evidence. This study used a mixed-methods approach to obtain qualitative and quantitative data. Participation was open to health researchers and clinicians. Data regarding demographic details, current use of social media, and beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for professional purposes were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. The survey was distributed via email to research centers, educational and clinical institutions, and health professional associations in Australia, India, and Malaysia. Consenting participants were stratified by country and role and selected at random for semistructured telephone interviews to explore themes arising from the survey. A total of 856 participants completed the questionnaire with 125 participants declining to participate, resulting in a response rate of 87.3%. 69 interviews were conducted with participants from Australia, India, and Malaysia. Social media was used for recreation by 89.2% (749/840) of participants and for professional purposes by 80.0% (682/852) of participants. Significant associations were found between frequency of professional social media use and age, gender, country of residence, and graduate status. Over a quarter (26.9%, 229/852) of participants used social media for obtaining research evidence, and 15.0% (128/852) of participants used social media for disseminating research evidence. Most participants (95.9%, 810/845) felt there was a role for social media in disseminating or obtaining research evidence. Over half of the participants (449/842, 53.3%) felt they had a

  18. White Paper on Multicarrier Excitation of Multipactor Breakdown: A Survey of Current Methods and Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    Executive Summary Multipactor breakdown is a failure mode that occurs in RF systems and system components that operate in a vacuum. For component and...However, for RF components exposed to multiple distinct signals simultaneously, there are a variety of methods used to address multipactor breakdown...and method for carrier combination )? • Consistency of results obtained • Ability to understand and interpret results obtained • Are results too

  19. Research design and statistical methods in Indian medical journals: a retrospective survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbeer Hassan

    Full Text Available Good quality medical research generally requires not only an expertise in the chosen medical field of interest but also a sound knowledge of statistical methodology. The number of medical research articles which have been published in Indian medical journals has increased quite substantially in the past decade. The aim of this study was to collate all evidence on study design quality and statistical analyses used in selected leading Indian medical journals. Ten (10 leading Indian medical journals were selected based on impact factors and all original research articles published in 2003 (N = 588 and 2013 (N = 774 were categorized and reviewed. A validated checklist on study design, statistical analyses, results presentation, and interpretation was used for review and evaluation of the articles. Main outcomes considered in the present study were - study design types and their frequencies, error/defects proportion in study design, statistical analyses, and implementation of CONSORT checklist in RCT (randomized clinical trials. From 2003 to 2013: The proportion of erroneous statistical analyses did not decrease (χ2=0.592, Φ=0.027, p=0.4418, 25% (80/320 in 2003 compared to 22.6% (111/490 in 2013. Compared with 2003, significant improvement was seen in 2013; the proportion of papers using statistical tests increased significantly (χ2=26.96, Φ=0.16, p<0.0001 from 42.5% (250/588 to 56.7 % (439/774. The overall proportion of errors in study design decreased significantly (χ2=16.783, Φ=0.12 p<0.0001, 41.3% (243/588 compared to 30.6% (237/774. In 2013, randomized clinical trials designs has remained very low (7.3%, 43/588 with majority showing some errors (41 papers, 95.3%. Majority of the published studies were retrospective in nature both in 2003 [79.1% (465/588] and in 2013 [78.2% (605/774]. Major decreases in error proportions were observed in both results presentation (χ2=24.477, Φ=0.17, p<0.0001, 82.2% (263/320 compared to 66.3% (325/490 and

  20. Research design and statistical methods in Indian medical journals: a retrospective survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Shabbeer; Yellur, Rajashree; Subramani, Pooventhan; Adiga, Poornima; Gokhale, Manoj; Iyer, Manasa S; Mayya, Shreemathi S

    2015-01-01

    Good quality medical research generally requires not only an expertise in the chosen medical field of interest but also a sound knowledge of statistical methodology. The number of medical research articles which have been published in Indian medical journals has increased quite substantially in the past decade. The aim of this study was to collate all evidence on study design quality and statistical analyses used in selected leading Indian medical journals. Ten (10) leading Indian medical journals were selected based on impact factors and all original research articles published in 2003 (N = 588) and 2013 (N = 774) were categorized and reviewed. A validated checklist on study design, statistical analyses, results presentation, and interpretation was used for review and evaluation of the articles. Main outcomes considered in the present study were - study design types and their frequencies, error/defects proportion in study design, statistical analyses, and implementation of CONSORT checklist in RCT (randomized clinical trials). From 2003 to 2013: The proportion of erroneous statistical analyses did not decrease (χ2=0.592, Φ=0.027, p=0.4418), 25% (80/320) in 2003 compared to 22.6% (111/490) in 2013. Compared with 2003, significant improvement was seen in 2013; the proportion of papers using statistical tests increased significantly (χ2=26.96, Φ=0.16, pdesign decreased significantly (χ2=16.783, Φ=0.12 pdesigns has remained very low (7.3%, 43/588) with majority showing some errors (41 papers, 95.3%). Majority of the published studies were retrospective in nature both in 2003 [79.1% (465/588)] and in 2013 [78.2% (605/774)]. Major decreases in error proportions were observed in both results presentation (χ2=24.477, Φ=0.17, presearch seems to have made no major progress regarding using correct statistical analyses, but error/defects in study designs have decreased significantly. Randomized clinical trials are quite rarely published and have high proportion of

  1. The Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, a novel infrastructure for population health research: rationale and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedman Elliot M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based public health requires the existence of reliable information systems for priority setting and evaluation of interventions. Existing data systems in the United States are either too crude (e.g., vital statistics, rely on administrative data (e.g., Medicare or, because of their national scope (e.g., NHANES, lack the discriminatory power to assess specific needs and to evaluate community health activities at the state and local level. This manuscript describes the rationale and methods of the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, a novel infrastructure for population health research. Methods/Design The program consists of a series of independent annual surveys gathering health-related data on representative samples of state residents and communities. Two-stage cluster sampling is used to select households and recruit approximately 800-1,000 adult participants (21-74 years old each year. Recruitment and initial interviews are done at the household; additional interviews and physical exams are conducted at permanent or mobile examination centers. Individual survey data include physical, mental, and oral health history, health literacy, demographics, behavioral, lifestyle, occupational, and household characteristics as well as health care access and utilization. The physical exam includes blood pressure, anthropometry, bioimpedance, spirometry, urine collection and blood draws. Serum, plasma, and buffy coats (for DNA extraction are stored in a biorepository for future studies. Every household is geocoded for linkage with existing contextual data including community level measures of the social and physical environment; local neighborhood characteristics are also recorded using an audit tool. Participants are re-contacted bi-annually by phone for health history updates. Discussion SHOW generates data to assess health disparities across state communities as well as trends on prevalence of health outcomes and

  2. Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Navy Personnel Research and Development Center REPORT NUMBER San Diego, California 92152-6800 BK -92-05 9. SPONSORING...other interneurons , IN2, which inhibit the ganglion cell. By preferentially stimulating the suround, green light covering the receptive field lowers

  3. 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (VERS) was conducted to determine the factors that impact veterans' employability resulting from participation in the...

  4. 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (VERS) was conducted to determine the factors that impact veterans' employability resulting from participation in the...

  5. Evaluation of different methods to handle misreporting in obesity research: evidence from the Canadian national nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2016-01-14

    The association of dietary exposures with health outcomes may be attenuated or reversed as a result of energy intake (EI) misreporting. This study evaluated several methods for dealing with implausible recalls when analysing the association between dietary factors and obesity. We examined data from 16,187 Canadians aged ≥12 years in the nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Under- and over-reporting were defined as the ratio of EI:estimated energy requirement 1·42, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression-generalised logit model was conducted to test the utility of different methods for handling misreporting, including (a) adjusting for variables related to misreporting, (b) excluding misreported recalls, (c) adjusting for reporting groups (under-, plausible and over-reporters), (d) adjusting for propensity score and (e) stratifying the analyses by reporting groups. In the basic model, EI showed a negative association with overweight (OR 0·988; 95% CI 0·979, 0·998) and obesity (OR 0·989; 95% CI 0·977, 0·999). Similarly, the association between total energy density and overweight (OR 0·670; 95% CI 0·487, 0·923) and obesity (OR 0·709; 95% CI 0·495, 1·016) was inverse. Among all methods of handling misreporting, adjusting for the reporting status revealed the most satisfactory results, where a positive association between EI and overweight (OR 1·037; 95% CI 1·019, 1·055) and obesity (OR 1·109; 95% CI 1·082, 1·137) was observed (Pobesity (Pobesity and demonstrate to researchers and nutrition policy makers the importance of adjusting for recall plausibility in obesity research, which is highly relevant in light of global obesity epidemic.

  6. Using electronic surveys in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2014-11-01

    Computer and Internet use in businesses and homes in the United States has dramatically increased since the early 1980s. In 2011, 76% of households reported having a computer, compared with only 8% in 1984 (File, 2013). A similar increase in Internet use has also been seen, with 72% of households reporting access of the Internet in 2011 compared with 18% in 1997 (File, 2013). This emerging trend in technology has prompted use of electronic surveys in the research community as an alternative to previous telephone and postal surveys. Electronic surveys can offer an efficient, cost-effective method for data collection; however, challenges exist. An awareness of the issues and strategies to optimize data collection using web-based surveys is critical when designing research studies. This column will discuss the different types and advantages and disadvantages of using electronic surveys in nursing research, as well as methods to optimize the quality and quantity of survey responses.

  7. SKUTHI: Developing a tablet-based survey technology and its application in teaching research methods in social sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridvan Peshkopia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital tablets and smartphones are increasingly becoming part of the daily life of people and a must in professional developments in so many disciplines. The dependence on internet availability of current tabled-based technologies prevents successful public polling in areas where there is no internet connection. In order to overcome those restrictions we have developed the Skuthi platform for android tablets and smartphones. Skuthi allows the selection of convenient samples on android tablets independent to internet connection. Moreover, Skuthi enables probability samples by polling the public via cellphones by using a random digit dealing (RDD technique, and also filling the questionnaire on the same smartphone from where the interviewer is calling. The multifunctional potentials of Skuthi offer opportunities for its successful application in both developed and developing countries in a wide variety of survey setting. We are implementing Skuthi as a medium of public polling with students from our Research Methods courses as part of their fieldwork requirement for the course. The ability of today’s students to navigate smartphones and digital tablets facilitates such an application and produces enjoyable and productive learning experiences.

  8. Survey design research: a tool for answering nursing research questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, Sandra L; Butler, Robert S; Burchill, Christian N

    2015-01-01

    The clinical nurse specialist is in a unique position to identify and study clinical problems in need of answers, but lack of time and resources may discourage nurses from conducting research. However, some research methods can be used by the clinical nurse specialist that are not time-intensive or cost prohibitive. The purpose of this article is to explain the utility of survey methodology for answering a number of nursing research questions. The article covers survey content, reliability and validity issues, sample size considerations, and methods of survey delivery.

  9. Survey practices in dental education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J W; Kuster, C G

    1983-10-01

    Approximately 40 percent of the data-based articles reported in the Journal of Dental Education in the last five years have used survey research procedures. This study examines the use of one type of survey procedure, mailed questionnaires, in research on dental education. Specifically, the discussion identifies several factors that dental education researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors. These factors are discussed using examples of adequate and inadequate procedures reported in the method sections of studies in the Journal of Dental Education in the last five years.

  10. 动态调度的研究方法综述%Dynamic Scheduling: A Survey of Research Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓龙; 唐立新; 刘文新

    2001-01-01

    A systemic introduction of existing research methods and latestdevelopment of d ynamic scheduling are given. The research methods are divided into two classes from a new point of view. Methods such as optimization, heuristic and simulation belong to the traditional class. While methods such as expert system, artificial neural network, intelligent search and multi-agent belong to the intelligent class. Characters of each method are analyzed and compared here. At last, problems which need further research and possible research directions are pointed out.%介绍了动态调度的研究方法和最新进展。将动态调度的研究方法分成两类:一类是传统方法,如最优化方法、启发式方法和仿真方法等;另一类是智能方法,如专家系统、神经网络、智能搜索以及Multi-agent等。对动态调度的各种研究方法逐一进行分析,并指出该领域应进一步研究的问题和未来的可能发展方向。

  11. Mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  12. Teaching research methods in nursing using Aronson's Jigsaw Technique. A cross-sectional survey of student satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Moral, Juan M; Riu Camps, Marta

    2016-05-01

    To adapt nursing studies to the European Higher Education Area, new teaching methods have been included that assign maximum importance to student-centered learning and collaborative work. The Jigsaw Technique is based on collaborative learning and everyone in the group must play their part because each student's mark depends on the other students. Home group members are given the responsibility to become experts in a specific area of knowledge. Experts meet together to reach an agreement and improve skills. Finally, experts return to their home groups to share all their findings. The aim of this study was to evaluate nursing student satisfaction with the Jigsaw Technique used in the context of a compulsory course in research methods for nursing. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire administered to students who completed the Research Methods course during the 2012-13 and 2013-14 academic years. The questionnaire was developed taking into account the learning objectives, competencies and skills that should be acquired by students, as described in the course syllabus. The responses were compared by age group (younger or older than 22years). A total of 89.6% of nursing students under 22years believed that this methodology helped them to develop teamwork, while this figure was 79.6% in older students. Nursing students also believed it helped them to work independently, with differences according to age, 79.7% and 58% respectively (p=0.010). Students disagreed with the statement "The Jigsaw Technique involves little workload", with percentages of 88.5% in the group under 22years and 80% in older students. Most believed that this method should not be employed in upcoming courses, although there were differences by age, with 44.3% of the younger group being against and 62% of the older group (p=0.037). The method was not highly valued by students, mainly by those older than 22years, who concluded that they did not learn

  13. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation......This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  14. Research methods with disabled populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Elizabeth; Anastas, Jeane

    2006-01-01

    Although social work and related fields need more research involving people with disabilities, such studies can pose special challenges due to lack of understanding of disability issues, the disempowerment and invisibility of many who are disabled, and communication barriers. This article discusses ways of eliminating bias and maintaining ethical safeguards when designing and conducting research on people with disabilities. Participatory action research, which engages those studied in the design and conduct of research, is discussed as a model, as is the use of qualitative methods. Recent methodological innovations in survey research with deaf populations are also described and illustrated.

  15. Geodetic surveying as part of archaeological research in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pacina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying is an important part of any archaeological research. In this paper we focus on the archaeological research in north Sudan (6th Nile cataract and the surveying methods applicable under the local conditions. Surveying in the Third World countries is affected by the political situation (limited import of surveying tools, local conditions (lack of fixed points, GNSS correction signal, inaccessible basemaps and fixed point network. This article describes the methods and results obtained during the three archaeological seasons (2011-2014. The classical surveying methods were combined with KAP (Kite Aerial Photography to obtain the desired results in form of archaeological maps, detailed orthophoto images and other analyses results.

  16. Research Methods in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  17. Research Methods in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, Joseph; Schutt, Russell K.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Methods in Education" introduces research methods as an integrated set of techniques for investigating questions about the educational world. This lively, innovative text helps students connect technique and substance, appreciate the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and make ethical research decisions.…

  18. A novel recruiting and surveying method: Participatory research during a Pacific Islander community’s traditional cultural event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Donoho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the health status of Marshallese, a Pacific Islander subpopulation living in the United States. The Marshallese have established a growing community in Northwest Arkansas, providing a unique opportunity for increasing knowledge regarding the health of this minority group. This article describes how a community-based participatory research process was used by a community and university coalition to identify and refine questionnaires and recruit study participants. Questionnaires were self-administered on computers during a one-week traditional cultural event. A total of 874 Marshallese from Arkansas completed the questionnaire, exceeding the goal of 600 respondents. Lessons learned, including the level and timing of involvement of both the leadership and the community at large, are discussed in detail. This approach enhanced communication and collaboration between the Marshallese community, service providers and researchers, resulting in higher participation and interest among the Marshallese community. Keywords: participatory research, minority populations, community health assessment, community coalition, Marshallese

  19. Initial nonresponse and survey response mode biases in survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Chen, Chao Ying

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated survey response factors (particularly initial nonresponse and survey mode) that may be associated with bias in survey research. We examined prevention-related beliefs and outcomes for initial mail survey responders (n=209), follow-up mail survey responders (n=78), and follow-up telephone survey responders (n=74). The Pearson chi-square test and analysis of variance identified beliefs and behavioral outcomes associated with survey response mode. Follow-up options to the initial mail survey improved response rates (22.0-38.0 percent). Initial mail survey responders more strongly believed topical fluoride protects teeth from cavities than others (P=0.04). A significantly larger proportion of parents completing a follow-up telephone survey (30.8 percent) refused topical fluoride for their child than those completing mail surveys (10.3-10.4 percent) (Psurveys with follow-up improve response rates. Initial nonresponse and survey response mode may be associated with biases in survey research. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  1. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  2. A Concurrent Mixed Methods Approach to Examining the Quantitative and Qualitative Meaningfulness of Absolute Magnitude Estimation Scales in Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2014-01-01

    This small "n" observational study used a concurrent mixed methods approach to address a void in the literature with regard to the qualitative meaningfulness of the data yielded by absolute magnitude estimation scaling (MES) used to rate subjective stimuli. We investigated whether respondents' scales progressed from less to more and…

  3. Application of Sampling Methods to Geological Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@There are two kinds of research methods in geological observation study. One is the remote-sensing observation. The other is the partial sampling method extensively used in every stage of the geological work, for example, in arranging the lines and points of geologic survey, and in arranging the exploration engineering. Three problems may occur in practical application of the sampling method: (1) Though we use the partial sampling method in geological work, we must make use of many labor powers, materials and money to accomplish the geological task. Is the method we use appropriate to some special geological task? (2) How many samples or observation points should be appropriate to the geological research?

  4. AGILE METHODS AND QUALITY _ A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BODJE N'Kauh Nathan-Regis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agile software processes, such as extreme programming (XP, Scrum, Lean, etc., rely on best practices that are considered to improve software development quality. It can be said that best practices aim to induce software quality assurance (SQA into the project at hand. Some researchers of agile methods claim that because of the very nature of such methods, quality in agile software projects should be a natural outcome of the applied method. As a consequence, agile quality is expected to be more or less embedded in the agile software processes. Many reports support and evangelize the advantages of agile methods with respect to quality assurance, Is it so ? An ambitious goal of this paper is to present work done to understand how quality is or should be handled. This paper as all survey papers attempt to summarize and organizes research results in the field of software engineering, precisely for the topic of agile methods related to software quality.

  5. Phenomenographic Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem ÇEKMEZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenography, an approach to educational research, emerged from the studies carried out by Ference Marton and his colleagues at the University of Göteborg, Sweden, in the early 1970s. Phenomenography is the empirical study of the different ways in which people experience, perceive, apprehend, understand, conceptualize various phenomena in the world around them. Not only this method has been used much in educational researches in Turkey, but also the books about research methods do not provide detailed information about this method in details. This study explains the aim, characteristics, historical background and how to ensure the generalization, validity and reliability of phenomenographic research outcomes, besides mentions to the studies in which phenomenographic research method was used. In addition, the differences and similarities between this method and methods similar to phenomenology are explained.

  6. Surveys and questionnaires in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Fiona

    2015-06-17

    Surveys and questionnaires are often used in nursing research to elicit the views of large groups of people to develop the nursing knowledge base. This article provides an overview of survey and questionnaire use in nursing research, clarifies the place of the questionnaire as a data collection tool in quantitative research design and provides information and advice about best practice in the development of quantitative surveys and questionnaires.

  7. THE ACTION RESEARCH METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GEORGIEVSKI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The effort in this work to elaborate an action research method as a central research problem considering the recent contemporary sociological and educa­tional literature. The author begins with the statement that the method is a complex notion, composed of three main components: approach to the research problem, data gathering procedures and data analysis procedures. This point of view is further applied and elaborated in the author's text, emphasizing the action research characteristics: interruption with the positive tradition in social research and the divided of the objective and subjective, application of the qualitative data. The sub­stantial difference between the action research in regard with the other kinds of research, is not only in getting to new knowledge's, but also in problem solving or a change in the situation in a concrete social context.

  8. 2010 Student Survey. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) conducts an annual survey of college students to identify: (1) how students approach the job market as they near graduation; (2) how responsive the market is to the graduating students; (3) the resources students use to seek their first full-time job after getting their degree; and (4) the…

  9. Research methods in information

    CERN Document Server

    Pickard, Alison Jane

    2013-01-01

    The long-awaited 2nd edition of this best-selling research methods handbook is fully updated and includes brand new coverage of online research methods and techniques, mixed methodology and qualitative analysis. There is an entire chapter contributed by Professor Julie McLeod, Sue Childs and Elizabeth Lomas focusing on research data management, applying evidence from the recent JISC funded 'DATUM' project. The first to focus entirely on the needs of the information and communications community, it guides the would-be researcher through the variety of possibilities open to them under the heading "research" and provides students with the confidence to embark on their dissertations. The focus here is on the 'doing' and although the philosophy and theory of research is explored to provide context, this is essentially a practical exploration of the whole research process with each chapter fully supported by examples and exercises tried and tested over a whole teaching career. The book will take readers through eac...

  10. Ergonomics research methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskiy, S. I.; Yermakova, S. V.; Chaynova, L. D.; Mitkin, A. A.; Gushcheva, T. M.; Strelkov, Y. K.; Tsvetkova, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    Various factors used in ergonomic research are given. They are: (1) anthrometric measurement, (2) polyeffector method of assessing the functional state of man, (3) galvanic skin reaction, (4) pneumography, (5) electromyography, (6) electrooculography, and (7) tachestoscopy. A brief summary is given of each factor and includes instrumentation and results.

  11. Using Electronic Mail to Conduct Survey Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Liz

    1995-01-01

    Describes public and private online networks and the characteristics of electronic mail. Reviews the literature on survey research conducted via electronic mail, and examines the issues of design, implementation, and response. A table displays advantages and disadvantages of electronic mail surveys. (AEF)

  12. Global thunderstorm activity research survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroniti, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The published literature on the subject of the monitoring of global thunderstorm activity by instrumented satellites was reviewed. A survey of the properties of selected physical parameters of the thunderstorm is presented. The concepts used by satellites to identify and to measure terrestrial lightning pulses are described. The experimental data acquired by satellites are discussed. The scientific achievements of the satellites are evaluated against the needs of scientists and the potential requirements of user agencies. The performances of the satellites are rated according to their scientific and operational achievements.

  13. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  14. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  15. Prenotification, Incentives, and Survey Modality: An Experimental Test of Methods to Increase Survey Response Rates of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robin Tepper; Jacob, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teacher and principal surveys are among the most common data collection techniques employed in education research. Yet there is remarkably little research on survey methods in education, or about the most cost-effective way to raise response rates among teachers and principals. In an effort to explore various methods for increasing survey response…

  16. Prenotification, Incentives, and Survey Modality: An Experimental Test of Methods to Increase Survey Response Rates of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robin Tepper; Jacob, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teacher and principal surveys are among the most common data collection techniques employed in education research. Yet there is remarkably little research on survey methods in education, or about the most cost-effective way to raise response rates among teachers and principals. In an effort to explore various methods for increasing survey response…

  17. The importance of survey research standards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fincham, Jack E; Draugalis, Jolaine R

    2013-01-01

    .... A similar need for quality and standardization also exists for survey research and scholarship. The purpose of this paper is to clarify why this is important and crucial for the Journal and our academy.

  18. Survey and Certification - Transplant Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — University of Michigan Kidney Epidemiology and Cost Center (UMKECC) is contracted with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to provide research and...

  19. Ethnographic Methods are Becoming More Popular in LIS Research. A Review of: Khoo, M., Rozaklis, L., & Hall, C. (2012. A survey of the use of ethnographic methods in the study of libraries and library users. Library & Information Science Research, 34(2, 82-91. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2011.07.010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Wakimoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the number of ethnographic studies of libraries and library users, where these studies are published, how researchers define ethnography, and which methods are used by the researchers.Design – Literature survey.Setting – The researchers are located at Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.Subjects – 81 ethnographic studies of libraries and library users.Methods – The researchers conducted a literature survey, starting with a pilot study of selected library and information science (LISjournals, to find ethnographic studies and to determine key terms in research using ethnographic methods. The researchers used these terms in the main study to identify more LIS research using ethnographic methods. The same journals used in the pilot study were then searched online as part of the main study, along with three LIS databases (LISA, LISTA,LLIS. The researchers also searched the open web in order to capture grey literature in the LIS field. All literature found, including those sources found through secondary citations, was screened for inclusion in coding. Studies with non-LIS settings were excluded as were studies that utilized non-ethnographic methods. The screened studies were coded to determine categories of methods used. Main Results – The researchers found 81 articles, reports, and conference presentations that used ethnographic methods, which they compiled into a bibliography. This is an order of magnitude larger than that found by previous literature surveys. Of these studies, 51.9% were published after 2005. The majority (64.2% of the studies were published in journals. Many studies did not provide clear or detailed definitions of ethnography and the definitions that were provided varied widely. The researchers identified themes which had been used to support ethnographic methods as a research methodology. These included using ethnographic methods to gain richer insight into

  20. Methods of bicycle users’ survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tokmylenko, Olena

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides a review of data collection methods that can be used for bicycling modeling and planning. The review includes fifteen international studies that use different methods of data collection. The main advantages and disadvantages of each method are listed and the recommendations on when to use particular method are provided.

  1. MIXED METHOD RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed Method Research adalah metode penelitian yang diaplikasikan bila peneliti memiliki pertanyaan yang perlu diuji dari segi outcomes dan prosesnya, serta menyangkut kombinasi antara metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif dalam satu penelitian. Karena berfokus pada outcomes dan proses, maka desain MMR biasa digunakan dalam penelitian evaluasi program. Namun sekarang, MMR sudah sering digunakan untuk ilmu-ilmu sosial, seperti: konseling, psikologi social manajemen, dan pengorganisasian perilaku.

  2. MIXED METHOD RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2012-01-01

    Mixed Method Research adalah metode penelitian yang diaplikasikan bila peneliti memiliki pertanyaan yang perlu diuji dari segi outcomes dan prosesnya, serta menyangkut kombinasi antara metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif dalam satu penelitian. Karena berfokus pada outcomes dan proses, maka desain MMR biasa digunakan dalam penelitian evaluasi program. Namun sekarang, MMR sudah sering digunakan untuk ilmu-ilmu sosial, seperti: konseling, psikologi social manajemen, dan pengorganisasian perilaku.

  3. Who Sends the Email? Using Electronic Surveys in Violence Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Sutherland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Students aged 16–24 years are at greatest risk for interpersonal violence and the resulting short and long-term health consequences. Electronic survey methodology is well suited for research related to interpersonal violence. Yet methodological questions remain about best practices in using electronic surveys. While researchers often indicate that potential participants receive multiple emails as reminders to complete the survey, little mention is made of the sender of the recruitment email. The purpose of this analysis is to describe the response rates from three violence-focused research studies when the recruitment emails are sent from a campus office, researcher or survey sampling firm. Methods: Three violence-focused studies were conducted about interpersonal violence among college students in the United States. Seven universities and a survey sampling firm were used to recruit potential participants to complete an electronic survey. The sender of the recruitment emails varied within and across the each of the studies depending on institutional review boards and university protocols.Results: An overall response rate of 30% was noted for the 3 studies. Universities in which researcher initiated recruitment emails were used had higher response rates compared to universities where campus officials sent the recruitment emails. Researchers found lower response rates to electronic surveys at Historically Black Colleges or Universities and that other methods were needed to improve response rates.Conclusion: The sender of recruitment emails for electronic surveys may be an important factor in response rates for violence-focused research. For researchers identification of best practices for survey methodology is needed to promote accurate disclosure and increase response rates. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:363–369.

  4. A survey of big data research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hua; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Chanpaul Jin; Daneshmand, Mahmoud; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Honggang

    2015-01-01

    Big data create values for business and research, but pose significant challenges in terms of networking, storage, management, analytics and ethics. Multidisciplinary collaborations from engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and social scientists are needed to tackle, discover and understand big data. This survey presents an overview of big data initiatives, technologies and research in industries and academia, and discusses challenges and potential solutions. PMID:26504265

  5. A survey of big data research

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Big data create values for business and research, but pose significant challenges in terms of networking, storage, management, analytics and ethics. Multidisciplinary collaborations from engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and social scientists are needed to tackle, discover and understand big data. This survey presents an overview of big data initiatives, technologies and research in industries and academia, and discusses challenges and potential solutions.

  6. Academic Achievement Survey and Educational Assessment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The recent "Nationwide academic achievement and study situation survey" was clearly influenced by the idea of "authentic assessment", an educational assessment perspective focused on "quality" and "engagement". However, when "performance assessment", the assessment method corresponding to this…

  7. Application of Situation Survey Method in Industrial Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晓琳

    2014-01-01

    in the industrial design method, basic user research methods can be divided into many forms, this paper mainly analyzes the situation of the survey method. And mainly from the four aspects of context, collaboration, explain and focus to be explained, and illustrated.

  8. Research on the influence of piloti on residential block’s outdoor thermal comfort by questionnaire survey and coupled simulation method in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Tianyu; Jin, Hong; Mochida, Akashi; Ding, Jianhua

    2017-06-01

    Piloti is commonly used to optimize the outdoor thermal environment in subtropical climate cities, and there are few studies regarding to the systematic influence of piloti on outdoor thermal comfort. As the outdoor thermal comfort differed by various climates and locations, this work firstly carried out a questionnaire survey in Guangzhou, China, to study on the local acceptance rate (TSV is lower than 1.5) during different SET* intervals. Secondly, a series of cases were simulated by coupled simulation method, which considering convection, radiation and conduction, offering high precision prediction results. At last, by adopting SET* as standard index, taking both of the questionnaire survey result and ASHRAE standard into consideration, the influence of piloti on residential block’s outdoor thermal comfort was analysed and discussed.

  9. Y-STR frequency surveying method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willuweit, Sascha; Caliebe, Amke; Andersen, Mikkel Meyer;

    2011-01-01

    reached a new quality with the establishment of the comprehensive neatly quality-controlled reference database YHRD. Grounded on such unrivalled empirical material from hundreds of populations studies the core assumption of the Haplotype Frequency Surveying Method originally described 10 years ago can...... be tested and improved. Here we provide new approaches to calculate the parameters used in the frequency surveying method: a maximum likelihood estimation of the regression parameters (r1, r2, s1 and s2) and a revised Frequency Surveying framework with variable binning and a database preprocessing to take...

  10. Mixed methods research for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James; Farr, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Defining and discussing the relevance of theoretical and practical issues involved in mixed methods research. Covering the basics of research methodology, this textbook shows you how to choose and combine quantitative and qualitative research methods to b

  11. Mixed methods research in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Burns, Debra S; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists have an ethical and professional responsibility to provide the highest quality care possible to their patients. Much of the time, high quality care is guided by evidence-based practice standards that integrate the most current, available research in making decisions. Accordingly, music therapists need research that integrates multiple ways of knowing and forms of evidence. Mixed methods research holds great promise for facilitating such integration. At this time, there have not been any methodological articles published on mixed methods research in music therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce mixed methods research as an approach to address research questions relevant to music therapy practice. This article describes the core characteristics of mixed methods research, considers paradigmatic issues related to this research approach, articulates major challenges in conducting mixed methods research, illustrates four basic designs, and provides criteria for evaluating the quality of mixed methods articles using examples of mixed methods research from the music therapy literature. Mixed methods research offers unique opportunities for strengthening the evidence base in music therapy. Recommendations are provided to ensure rigorous implementation of this research approach.

  12. Research Methods Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    A guiding principle for conducting research in technology, science, and engineering, leading to innovation is based on our use of research methodology (both qualitative and quantitative). A brief review of research methodology will be presented with an overview of NASA process in developing aeronautics technologies and other things to consider in research including what is innovation.

  13. Research Methods Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    A guiding principle for conducting research in technology, science, and engineering, leading to innovation is based on our use of research methodology (both qualitative and qualitative). A brief review of research methodology will be presented with an overview of NASA process in developing aeronautics technologies and other things to consider in research including what is innovation.

  14. Mixed methods research for the novice researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Lynne S; Grant, Barbara M

    2006-10-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular in the health and social science disciplines. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the varieties of mixed methods designs. We begin by situating mixed methods research in the context of a paradigmatic framework which assists a researcher in making decisions concerning the design of their study. Although the most commonly used mixed methods designs are underpinned by positivist/postpositivist assumptions, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods can be used within any research paradigm.

  15. Library Research Support in Queensland: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joanna; Nolan-Brown, Therese; Loria, Pat; Bradbury, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    University libraries worldwide are reconceptualising the ways in which they support the research agenda in their respective institutions. This paper is based on a survey completed by member libraries of the Queensland University Libraries Office of Cooperation (QULOC), the findings of which may be informative for other university libraries. After…

  16. Mixed Method Research: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Mahboob HOSSAIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a general overview of mixed method research. In mixed method, the researchers combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches in a single research project. The article first attempts to define mixed method research. Then it gives a comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches. It also introduces the well-known controversy among the researchers: which of these approaches is superior? By explaining this controversy, the article identifies the need for mixed method research. Lastly, the article describes the process of mixed method research.

  17. [Research survey on the information gathering methods, attitudes, and requests from care managers about the pharmaceutical service by pharmacists in home care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanaumi, Yoko; Onda, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Hidehiko; Tanaka, Rie; Tsubota, Kenichi; Matoba, Shunya; Mukai, Yusuke; Arakawa, Yukio; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Care Managers (CMs) were surveyed to clarify the issues involving the promotion of cooperation between care managers and pharmacists in long-term-care and explore solutions. The length of work experience, occupational background, experience of pharmaceutical service; pharmacist visit patients' home for providing medicine and pharmaceutical care into a care plan, degree of understanding on pharmaceutical service, and awareness of work involved in pharmaceutical service were studied to see whether there made differences in the requests from CMs for information on pharmacists and for information gathering methods. The χ(2) test was used to this end. The opinions and requests described by the CMs were validated through text mining. More CMs tended to obtain information and knowledge through training sessions and professional magazines than those who did so through cooperation with pharmacists on a practical level. However, the survey strongly indicated that CMs with high level of understanding and awareness of pharmaceutical service wished to obtain information on pharmacists through cooperation with them on a practical level, and CMs with low level of understanding and awareness of pharmaceutical service wished to obtain such information through training sessions and professional magazines. Results of text mining showed that CMs wished pharmacists to strengthen the cooperation with physicians and provide information on pharmaceutical service. These findings have led to the conclusion that the issues surrounding the promotion of cooperation between CMs and pharmacists centered around "work cooperation on a practical level" and "provision of information to CMs about the roles of pharmacies and pharmacists and their work."

  18. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  19. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  20. Mixed Method Research: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Dewan Mahboob

    2012-01-01

    This article gives a general overview of mixed method research. In mixed method, the researchers combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches in a single research project. The article first attempts to define mixed method research. Then it gives a comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches. It also introduces the well-known controversy among the researchers: which of these approaches is superior? By explaining this controversy, the article identifies the need for mixed meth...

  1. Mixed Method Research: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Dewan Mahboob

    2012-01-01

    This article gives a general overview of mixed method research. In mixed method, the researchers combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches in a single research project. The article first attempts to define mixed method research. Then it gives a comparison of qualitative and quantitative approaches. It also introduces the well-known controversy among the researchers: which of these approaches is superior? By explaining this controversy, the article identifies the need for mixed meth...

  2. Problems and Recommendations for Rural Statistics and Survey Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    With constant deepening of the reform and opening-up,national economic system has changed from planned economy to market economy,and rural survey and statistics remain in a difficult transition period. In this period,China needs transforming original statistical mode according to market economic system. All levels of government should report and submit a lot and increasing statistical information. Besides,in this period,townships,villages and counties are faced with old and new conflicts. These conflicts perplex implementation of rural statistics and survey and development of rural statistical undertaking,and also cause researches and thinking of reform of rural statistical and survey methods.

  3. Response to ERIS 2014 States' Research Needs Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is ORD’s response to the states’ needs and priorities, as identified in the 2014 survey. ORD identified existing methods, models, tools and databases on these topics, as well as near-term research and development efforts, that could assist states in thei...

  4. Stirling laboratory research engine survey report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. W.; Hoehn, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    As one step in expanding the knowledge relative to and accelerating the development of Stirling engines, NASA, through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is sponsoring a program which will lead to a versatile Stirling Laboratory Research Engine (SLRE). An objective of this program is to lay the groundwork for a commercial version of this engine. It is important to consider, at an early stage in the engine's development, the needs of the potential users so that the SLRE can support the requirements of educators and researchers in academic, industrial, and government laboratories. For this reason, a survey was performed, the results of which are described.

  5. Survey of Electronic Payment Methods and Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Helme, Arne

    1996-01-01

    In this paper an overview of electronic payment methods and systems is given. This survey is done as part of the Moby Dick project. Electronic payment systems can be grouped into three broad classes: traditional money transactions, digital currency and creditdebit payments. Such payment systems have

  6. Methods in mummy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well as minima......Mummies are human remains with preservation of non-bony tissue. Many mummy studies focus on the development and application of non-destructive methods for examining mummies, including radiography, CT-scanning with advanced 3-dimensional visualisations, and endoscopic techniques, as well...... as minimally-destructive chemical, physical and biological methods for, e.g., stable isotopes, trace metals and DNA....

  7. A survey of modal synthesis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, G. C.; Hurty, W. C.; Collins, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Several modal synthesis procedures for the dynamic analysis of largy composite structural systems are surveyed. The matrix formulation of the free-free modal synthesis procedures is presented. Also given are schematic flow charts of the analysis procedure used in three prominent methods. The advantages and disadvantages of several modal synthesis methods for different classes of structural problems are presented in order to enable the engineer to select the best procedure for his particular type of problem.

  8. Methods for Evaluating Respondent Attrition in Web-Based Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochheimer, Camille J; Sabo, Roy T; Krist, Alex H; Day, Teresa; Cyrus, John; Woolf, Steven H

    2016-11-22

    Electronic surveys are convenient, cost effective, and increasingly popular tools for collecting information. While the online platform allows researchers to recruit and enroll more participants, there is an increased risk of participant dropout in Web-based research. Often, these dropout trends are simply reported, adjusted for, or ignored altogether. To propose a conceptual framework that analyzes respondent attrition and demonstrates the utility of these methods with existing survey data. First, we suggest visualization of attrition trends using bar charts and survival curves. Next, we propose a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to detect or confirm significant attrition points. Finally, we suggest applications of existing statistical methods to investigate the effect of internal survey characteristics and patient characteristics on dropout. In order to apply this framework, we conducted a case study; a seventeen-item Informed Decision-Making (IDM) module addressing how and why patients make decisions about cancer screening. Using the framework, we were able to find significant attrition points at Questions 4, 6, 7, and 9, and were also able to identify participant responses and characteristics associated with dropout at these points and overall. When these methods were applied to survey data, significant attrition trends were revealed, both visually and empirically, that can inspire researchers to investigate the factors associated with survey dropout, address whether survey completion is associated with health outcomes, and compare attrition patterns between groups. The framework can be used to extract information beyond simple responses, can be useful during survey development, and can help determine the external validity of survey results.

  9. Survey of emissivity measurement by radiometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honner, M; Honnerová, P

    2015-02-01

    A survey of the state of the art in the field of spectral directional emissivity measurements by using radiometric methods is presented. Individual quantity types such as spectral, band, or total emissivity are defined. Principles of emissivity measurement by various methods (direct and indirect, and calorimetric and radiometric) are discussed. The paper is focused on direct radiometric methods. An overview of experimental setups is provided, including the design of individual parts such as the applied reference sources of radiation, systems of sample clamping and heating, detection systems, methods for the determination of surface temperature, and procedures for emissivity evaluation.

  10. Survey Instrument Validity Part I: Principles of Survey Instrument Development and Validation in Athletic Training Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Laura J.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Instrument validation is an important facet of survey research methods and athletic trainers must be aware of the important underlying principles. Objective: To discuss the process of survey development and validation, specifically the process of construct validation. Background: Athletic training researchers frequently employ the use of…

  11. New Viewpoint of Science Literacy Research:Discussion on Survey Method Targeted on Occupational Groups%科学素养研究的新视角:基于职业人群的测评方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可炜; 陈曦; 梁皑莹; 羊芳明; 邓乔丹

    2012-01-01

    Based on the theory research for science literacy so far and its survey actuality, the article discussed a new survey model targeted on occupational groups and proposed a 5 - dimension survey system after analyzed science literacy structure and some main limitations on public survey. Furthermore, the article employed Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process to bring forward a new method to determine the weights of the five dimensions, and developed a case survey targeted on traditional Chinese medicine professionals.%根据目前科学素养理论研究和测评现状,分析了公众“全民科学素养测评”存在的主要缺陷,探讨了从公众“全民科学素养测评”走向职业人群“分众科学素养测评”的新模式,分析了科学素养的结构并提出了五维度测评体系;同时,采用模糊层次分析法,提出了确定五维度权重的一种方法.在此基础上,对中医药从业人群的科学素养开展了案例测评,从而验证了职业人群测评的可行性.

  12. African primary care research: performing surveys using questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Indiran; Mabuza, Langalibalele H; Ogunbanjo, Gboyega A; Mash, Bob

    2014-04-25

    The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The articleis part of a larger series on primary care research, with other articles in the series focusing on the structure of the research proposal and the literature review, as well as quantitative data analysis.

  13. African primary care research: performing surveys using questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiran Govender

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide practical guidance on conducting surveys and the use of questionnaires for postgraduate students at a Masters level who are undertaking primary care research. The article is intended to assist with writing the methods section of the research proposal and thinking through the relevant issues that apply to sample size calculation, sampling strategy, design of a questionnaire and administration of a questionnaire. The article is part of a larger series on primary care research, with other articles in the series focusing on the structure of the research proposal and the literature review, as well as quantitative data analysis.

  14. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  15. Research Methods in Sociolinguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Campoy, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of Sociolinguistics has been qualitatively and quantitatively outstanding within Linguistic Science since its beginning in the 1950s, with a steady growth in both theoretical and methodological developments as well as in its interdisciplinary directions within the spectrum of language and society. Field methods in sociolinguistic…

  16. Methods of the National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resano-Pérez Elsa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the methods and analyses of the 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 1999 National Nutrition Survey (NNS-99 is a probabilistic survey with nationwide representativity. The NNS-99 included four regions and urban and rural areas of Mexico. The last sampling units were households, selected through stratified cluster sampling. The study population consisted of children under five years of age, school-age children (6-11 years, and women of childbearing age (12-49 years. Data were collected on anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin levels, morbidity and its determinants, and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. In addition, data on diet and micronutrients intakes (iron, zinc, vitamin A, folic acid, vitamin C, and iodine were obtained in a sub-sample of subjects. RESULTS: The response rate for the NNS-99 was 82.3%; the non-response rate was 5.9% and the remaining did not participate due to uninhabited houses. CONCLUSIONS: This survey updates the information on nutritional status in Mexico and should serve as the basis for food and nutrition policy-making and priority program design.

  17. Tourism research and audio methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    • Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences.......• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences....

  18. Regression methods for medical research

    CERN Document Server

    Tai, Bee Choo

    2013-01-01

    Regression Methods for Medical Research provides medical researchers with the skills they need to critically read and interpret research using more advanced statistical methods. The statistical requirements of interpreting and publishing in medical journals, together with rapid changes in science and technology, increasingly demands an understanding of more complex and sophisticated analytic procedures.The text explains the application of statistical models to a wide variety of practical medical investigative studies and clinical trials. Regression methods are used to appropriately answer the

  19. Impacts of Colonialism: A Research Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ziltener

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of colonialism in Africa and Asia have never been compared in a systematic manner for a large sample of countries. This research survey presents the results of a new and thorough assessment of the highly diverse phenomenon - including length ofdomination , violence, partition, proselytization, instrumentalization of ethno-linguistic and religious cleavages, trade, direct investment, settlements, plantations, and migration -organized through a dimensional analysis (political, social, and economic impacts. It is shown that while in some areas, colonial domination has triggered profound changes in economy and social structure, others have remained almost untouched.

  20. Mixed methods in gerontological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Mary Beth

    2009-04-01

    This article distinguishes between parallel and integrated mixed methods research approaches. Barriers to integrated mixed methods approaches in gerontological research are discussed and critiqued. The author presents examples of mixed methods gerontological research to highlight approaches to data integration at the levels of data analysis, interpretation, and research reporting. As a summary of the methodological literature, four basic levels of mixed methods data combination are proposed. Opportunities for mixing qualitative and quantitative data are explored using contemporary examples from published studies. Data transformation and visual display, judiciously applied, are proposed as pathways to fuller mixed methods data integration and analysis. Finally, practical strategies for mixing qualitative and quantitative data types are explicated, as gerontological research moves beyond parallel mixed methods approaches to achieve data integration.

  1. Getting Back to the Basics of Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbach, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    Because surveys now can be implemented with relative ease and little cost, many researchers are overlooking the basic principles of survey research. This chapter discusses sources of error that researchers should consider when conducting a survey, and gives readers basic suggestions for reducing error. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  2. Getting Back to the Basics of Survey Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbach, Paul D.

    2005-01-01

    Because surveys now can be implemented with relative ease and little cost, many researchers are overlooking the basic principles of survey research. This chapter discusses sources of error that researchers should consider when conducting a survey, and gives readers basic suggestions for reducing error. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  3. A Survey Data Quality Strategy: The Institutional Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin

    2009-01-01

    This paper intends to construct a survey data quality strategy for institutional researchers in higher education in light of total survey error theory. It starts with describing the characteristics of institutional research and identifying the gaps in literature regarding survey data quality issues in institutional research. Then it is followed by…

  4. A survey of infrared and visual image fusion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, Qian; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Dongming; Nie, Rencan; Hai, Jinjin; He, Kangjian

    2017-09-01

    Infrared (IR) and visual (VI) image fusion is designed to fuse multiple source images into a comprehensive image to boost imaging quality and reduce redundancy information, which is widely used in various imaging equipment to improve the visual ability of human and robot. The accurate, reliable and complementary descriptions of the scene in fused images make these techniques be widely used in various fields. In recent years, a large number of fusion methods for IR and VI images have been proposed due to the ever-growing demands and the progress of image representation methods; however, there has not been published an integrated survey paper about this field in last several years. Therefore, we make a survey to report the algorithmic developments of IR and VI image fusion. In this paper, we first characterize the IR and VI image fusion based applications to represent an overview of the research status. Then we present a synthesize survey of the state of the art. Thirdly, the frequently-used image fusion quality measures are introduced. Fourthly, we perform some experiments of typical methods and make corresponding analysis. At last, we summarize the corresponding tendencies and challenges in IR and VI image fusion. This survey concludes that although various IR and VI image fusion methods have been proposed, there still exist further improvements or potential research directions in different applications of IR and VI image fusion.

  5. Qualitative Research: Methods and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Gabb, Jacqui

    2016-01-01

    This entry provides an overview of qualitative LGBTQ research. It begins by mapping out the qualities and character of studies that use this approach with particular attention to psycho-social research. It then highlights how reflexivity, the iterative process of self-identity making, has informed qualitative research, influencing both understandings of sexualities and also the underlying methodologies and research methods used. Finally, it considers how “the everyday” and a practices approac...

  6. "Phenomenology" and qualitative research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Y

    1994-01-01

    Phenomenology is generally based on phenomenological tradition from Husserl to Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty. As philosophical stances provide the assumptions in research methods, different philosophical stances produce different methods. However, the term "phenomenology" is used in various ways without the definition being given, such as phenomenological approach, phenomenological method, phenomenological research, etc. The term "phenomenology" is sometimes used as a paradigm and it is sometimes even viewed as synonymous with qualitative methods. As a result, the term "phenomenology" leads to conceptual confusions in qualitative research methods. The purpose of this paper is to examine the term "phenomenology" and explore philosophical assumptions, and discuss the relationship between philosophical stance and phenomenology as a qualitative research method in nursing.

  7. Bibliometric Analysis of Current Web Survey Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; SHAO Peiji; FANG Jiaming

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, with the advancement of information technology and its application in survey activities, web surveys have not only greatly developed, but have also encountered many problems in China. An analysis of domestic research is important for better understanding of web surveys, to guide further research and application. This paper gives a bibliometric analysis of 120 domestic articles on web surveys from 1998 to 2006, on publication growth, author and organization distribution, journal distribution, and research subjects. Research on web surveys in China should make progress comparable with research abroad in comparative studies, specific studies, and technical application studies.

  8. Laboratory Learning in a Research Methods Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Knapp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-based learning is increasingly considered to be an integral component of undergraduate education. However, students do not always perceive the value of laboratory learning in the college classroom. The current research sought to create an effective laboratory learning environment within a research methods course and to assess students’ perceptions of this approach at the end of one semester. This article reports the findings for two studies; in Study 1, a survey was given to 17 criminal justice, health care management and advocacy, and psychology students. In a subsequent semester, challenges from Study 1 were addressed, and the same survey (i.e., Study 2 was given to 20 criminal justice and psychology majors. Across both samples, students’ responses to the laboratory learning paradigm were generally positive, yet concerns and challenges were identified. Future research should attempt to address these concerns and to assess objective student outcomes, such as grades in the course.

  9. PRES 2013: Results from the Postgraduate Research Experience Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul; Turner, Gosia

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines the results of the "2013 Postgraduate Research Experience Survey" ("PRES"), where 48,401 replies were received from 122 participating institutions. Redeveloped for 2013, our biennial survey is the only national survey to gather insight from postgraduate research students about their learning and…

  10. PRES 2013: Results from the Postgraduate Research Experience Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul; Turner, Gosia

    2013-01-01

    This document outlines the results of the "2013 Postgraduate Research Experience Survey" ("PRES"), where 48,401 replies were received from 122 participating institutions. Redeveloped for 2013, our biennial survey is the only national survey to gather insight from postgraduate research students about their learning and…

  11. Survey of research activity among multidisciplinary health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrea P; Roberts, Shelley; Baker, Mark J; Keijzers, Gerben; Young, Jessica; Stapelberg, N J Chris; Crilly, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the research activities being undertaken by health service employees within one Australian health service and explore their experiences with undertaking research.Methods The present mixed-methods study was conducted across one health service in Queensland, Australia, and included a cross-sectional online survey and interviews with healthcare service employees. The anonymous survey was a self-administered online questionnaire, distributed to all 6121 employees at the health service via email, asking about research activity and engagement. Willing participants were also interviewed on their perceptions and experiences with research and capacity building.Results In all, 151 participants responded to the survey and 22 participated in interviews. Three-quarters of respondents reported actively participating in research over the past 6 years and several research outputs, such as publications, conference presentations and competitive grant funding, were displayed. Four concepts emerged from interview findings, namely collaborative partnerships, skilled mentorship, embedding research and organisational support, which represented the overall theme 'opportunities for a research-infused health service'.Conclusion Employees of the health service recognised the importance of research and had a range of research skills, knowledge and experience. They also identified several opportunities for building research capacity in this service.What is known about the topic? Building research capacity among healthcare professionals is important for enabling the conduct of high-quality research in healthcare institutions. However, building research capacity is complex and influenced by the uniqueness of organisational context. In order to successfully build research capacity among employees at any health service, current research activity, skills and experience, as well as staff perceptions around building research capacity in that

  12. CSM parallel structural methods research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storaasli, Olaf O.

    1989-01-01

    Parallel structural methods, research team activities, advanced architecture computers for parallel computational structural mechanics (CSM) research, the FLEX/32 multicomputer, a parallel structural analyses testbed, blade-stiffened aluminum panel with a circular cutout and the dynamic characteristics of a 60 meter, 54-bay, 3-longeron deployable truss beam are among the topics discussed.

  13. A quick guide to survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T L; Baxter, M A J; Khanduja, V

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are a very useful survey tool that allow large populations to be assessed with relative ease. Despite a widespread perception that surveys are easy to conduct, in order to yield meaningful results, a survey needs extensive planning, time and effort. In this article, we aim to cover the main aspects of designing, implementing and analysing a survey as well as focusing on techniques that would improve response rates.

  14. [Application of Delphi method in traditional Chinese medicine clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, Delphi method has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical research. This article analyzed the present application situation of Delphi method in TCM clinical research, and discussed some problems presented in the choice of evaluation method, classification of observation indexes and selection of survey items. On the basis of present application of Delphi method, the author analyzed the method on questionnaire making, selection of experts, evaluation of observation indexes and selection of survey items. Furthermore, the author summarized the steps of application of Delphi method in TCM clinical research.

  15. [Qualitative methods in psychiatric research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Glaesmer, Heide

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the usage of qualitative methods in psychiatric research and presents the qualitative approach in more detail. Recent original empirical work of a German psychiatric journal was systematically reviewed. Methods used to collect and analyse the information are detailed. One third of the articles used a solely qualitative research design. One further article applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Three kinds of the qualitative interviews were used (in depth, narrative and problem-focussed interview). Additionally, focus groups (group discussions) and qualitative content analysis were applied by studies. Qualitative approaches are an integral part of psychiatric research. Further work should assure to use adequate sampling strategies.

  16. Survey of NASA research on crash dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, R. G.; Carden, H. D.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Ten years of structural crash dynamics research activities conducted on general aviation aircraft by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. Thirty-two full-scale crash tests were performed at Langley Research Center, and pertinent data on airframe and seat behavior were obtained. Concurrent with the experimental program, analytical methods were developed to help predict structural behavior during impact. The effects of flight parameters at impact on cabin deceleration pulses at the seat/occupant interface, experimental and analytical correlation of data on load-limiting subfloor and seat configurations, airplane section test results for computer modeling validation, and data from emergency-locator-transmitter (ELT) investigations to determine probable cause of false alarms and nonactivations are assessed. Computer programs which provide designers with analytical methods for predicting accelerations, velocities, and displacements of collapsing structures are also discussed.

  17. Qualitative research as methodical hermeneutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, David L

    2012-09-01

    The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many qualitative research methods into 3 main kinds, then applies to them 4 propositions offered as such a methodology: (1) Qualitative research is hermeneutical, entailing application of the method of the hermeneutic circle to text about experience and/or action. (2) Implicit in the use of the hermeneutic circle method is the activity of educing and articulating the meaning of text, an activity that modifies and interacts with C. S. Peirce's (1965, 1966) logical operations of abduction, theorematic deduction, and induction. (3) The cycling of these 4 moments enables demonstration, achieved rhetorically, of the validity of the understandings resulting from the exegesis of the text under study. (4) This demonstrative rhetoric is enhanced when researchers disclose reflexively those aspects of their perspectives they judge to have most relevant bearing on their understandings. The author compares abduction as formulated here with other recent uptakes of it. As an installment on the generality of the methodology, he explores its fit with the descriptive phenomenological psychological method, conversation analysis, and thematic analysis.

  18. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  19. Method selection in adaptation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, Saskia Elisabeth; Loon-Steensma, van Jantsje Mintsje; Oost, Albert Peter

    2016-01-01

    Many methods are available to support adaptation planning. Yet there is little guidance on their selection. A recently developed diagnostic framework offers a structured set of criteria to choose research methods for specific adaptation questions. It has been derived from science-driven cases mos

  20. Behavioral Methods in Consciousness Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that the research literature has expanded greatly, particularly in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science. Interestingly, this scientific work has made use of a wide variety of different methods without much consensus on how one might in fact measure subjective consciousness. This situation makes...... it potentially impossible to compare and contrast experimental findings, and difficult to show that consciousness research is a discipline going in a particular direction or has a particular focus. This book provides an overview of methods and approaches for studying consciousness. It aims to make progress...... giving concrete tools for how to investigate consciousness in combination with theoretical discussions of possibilities and limitations of each method...

  1. Formal methods for industrial critical systems a survey of applications

    CERN Document Server

    Margaria-Steffen, Tiziana

    2012-01-01

    "Today, formal methods are widely recognized as an essential step in the design process of industrial safety-critical systems. In its more general definition, the term formal methods encompasses all notations having a precise mathematical semantics, together with their associated analysis methods, that allow description and reasoning about the behavior of a system in a formal manner.Growing out of more than a decade of award-winning collaborative work within the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics, Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems: A Survey of Applications presents a number of mainstream formal methods currently used for designing industrial critical systems, with a focus on model checking. The purpose of the book is threefold: to reduce the effort required to learn formal methods, which has been a major drawback for their industrial dissemination; to help designers to adopt the formal methods which are most appropriate for their systems; and to offer a panel of state-of...

  2. Survey of Four Decades of Addiction Prevalence Researches in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sarrami

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this research is the survey of addiction and drug abuse and psychotropic drugs prevalence researches which have been done in our country in last decades Method: To do this research all addiction and drug abuse prevalence researches that have been taken place were collected and analyzed. Results: the results of the researches show that the statistics of addiction has been in an oscillation as in 1390, the survey in 15 to 64 years old people (according to 1385 census that is 50 million people, is equal to one million and three hundred thousand and twenty five persons. Conclusion: the results of the four decades of addiction prevalence in Iran show that in according to the size of the threat of drugs and psychotropic drugs and addiction prevalence and also the change of gender, matrimony, age, job and the level of addicts education, less attention has been given to the drug abuse prevalence researches in public, youngsters, students and governmental and governmental non- officials.

  3. Nationwide survey on barriers for dental research in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundendu Arya Bishen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Research in the dental field is progressing at mightier speed worldwide, but an unfortunately representation of India at this platform is negligible. The present study was undertaken to unearth the barriers for dental research among dental professionals in Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted on 1514 participant′s (Master of Dental Surgery and Bachelor of Dental Surgery staff and postgraduates in 40 dental colleges of India selected by multistage random sampling. The response rate was 75.7%. The survey was undertaken from July 2013 to December 2013. The survey instrument was 24-item, investigator developed, self-structured, close-ended, and self-administered questionnaire grouped into four categories that are, institutional/departmental support related barriers, financial/training support related barriers, time-related barriers, and general barriers. Results: Among all respondents 47.23% informed that they are administrative and educational work rather than research work as (P < 0.001. Overall 57.53% of study participants reported lack of administrative and technical support for research work as (P < 0.001. Overall 64.9% reported meager college funding was the barrier (P < 0.001. Overall 61.5% respondents reported lack of time to do research work due to clinical and teaching responsibilities (P < 0.001 was the barrier for research. Largely 80.25% agreed that, the lack of documentation and record maintenance are an obvious barrier for research (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Present study unearths certain barriers for research in an Indian scenario, which includes administrative overburden, lack of funds, and lack of documentation of the dental data. Governing authorities of dentistry in India have to make major interventions to make research non-intensive environment to research-friendly environment.

  4. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV/AIDS intervention ... the HIV/AIDS pandemic has seen construction management taking on a vital ... commenced with a quantitative survey to establish base-line information.

  5. The Four Methods of Qualitative Research in Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧

    1996-01-01

    "Research is a systematic investigation to find answers to a problem" ( Introduction to Research Methods in Deucation 1990:1). Educational research, like research in the other areas, includes quantitative and qualitative methods, both of which are equally important, but serve different roles. Qualitative research focuses on people' s behaviour, attitudes, opinions and so on. Then, what is the nature of qualitative research? Upon what assumption is it based? This paper will try to address four qualitative methods - survey, case study, action research and ethnography to look at how each of them works in educational research.

  6. A survey of real face modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Dai, Yugang; He, Xiangzhen; Wan, Fucheng

    2017-09-01

    The face model has always been a research challenge in computer graphics, which involves the coordination of multiple organs in faces. This article explained two kinds of face modeling method which is based on the data driven and based on parameter control, analyzed its content and background, summarized their advantages and disadvantages, and concluded muscle model which is based on the anatomy of the principle has higher veracity and easy to drive.

  7. Quantitative vs qualitative research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, M; Sinha, L; Biswas, M; Charles, M; Arora, N K

    2000-05-01

    Quantitative methods have been widely used because of the fact that things that can be measured or counted gain scientific credibility over the unmeasurable. But the extent of biological abnormality, severity, consequences and the impact of illness cannot be satisfactorily captured and answered by the quantitative research alone. In such situations qualitative methods take a holistic perspective preserving the complexities of human behavior by addressing the "why" and "how" questions. In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of both the methods and also that a balanced mix of both qualitative as well as quantitative methods yield the most valid and reliable results.

  8. A telephone survey of factors affecting willingness to participate in health research surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, D C; Kelsall, H L; Slegers, C; Forbes, A B; Loff, B; Zion, D; Fritschi, L

    2015-10-05

    In recent years, reduced participation has been encountered across all epidemiological study designs, both in terms of non-response as well as refusal. A low response rate may reduce the statistical power but, more importantly, results may not be generalizable to the wider community. In a telephone survey of 1413 randomly selected members of the Australian general population and of 690 participants sourced from previous studies, we examined factors affecting people's stated willingness to participate in health research. The majority of participants (61 %) expressed willingness to participate in health research in general but the percentage increased when provided with more specific information about the research. People were more willing if they have personal experience of the disease under study, and if the study was funded by government or charity rather than pharmaceutical companies. Participants from previous studies, older people and women were the groups most willing to participate. Younger men preferred online surveys, older people a written questionnaire, and few participants in any age and sex groups preferred a telephone questionnaire. Despite a trend toward reduced participation rates, most participants expressed their willingness to participate in health research. However, when seeking participants, researchers should be concrete and specific about the nature of the research they want to carry out. The preferred method of recommended contact varies with the demographic characteristics.

  9. Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of geosmin and methylisoborneol in water using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Ziegler, A.C.; Thurman, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    A method for the determination of two common odor-causing compounds in water, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, was modified and verified by the U.S. Geological Survey's Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas. The optimized method involves the extraction of odor-causing compounds from filtered water samples using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane cross-link coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. Detection of the compounds is accomplished using capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Precision and accuracy were demonstrated using reagent-water, surface-water, and ground-water samples. The mean accuracies as percentages of the true compound concentrations from water samples spiked at 10 and 35 nanograms per liter ranged from 60 to 123 percent for geosmin and from 90 to 96 percent for 2-methylisoborneol. Method detection limits were 1.9 nanograms per liter for geosmin and 2.0 nanograms per liter for 2-methylisoborneol in 45-milliliter samples. Typically, concentrations of 30 and 10 nanograms per liter of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, respectively, can be detected by the general public. The calibration range for the method is equivalent to concentrations from 5 to 100 nanograms per liter without dilution. The method is valuable for acquiring information about the production and fate of these odor-causing compounds in water.

  10. A Survey of Venture Capital Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Rin, M.; Hellmann, T.; Puri, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    This survey reviews the growing body of academic work on venture capital. It lays out the major data sources used. It examines the work on venture capital investments in companies, looking at issues of selection, contracting, post-investment services and exits. The survey considers recent work on or

  11. Cooperative Research Pilot Flatfish Survey (Yellowtail)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An industry-based pilot flatfish survey of Georges Bank conducted aboard the F/V Mary K and the F/V Yankee Pride. The surveyed used a two-seam, two-bridle flounder...

  12. Survey research: it's just a few questions, right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alan R; Voepel-Lewis, Terri

    2015-07-01

    While most anesthesiologists and other physician- or nurse-scientists are familiar with traditional descriptive, observational, and interventional study design, survey research has typically remained the preserve of the social scientists. To that end, this article provides a basic overview of the elements of good survey design and offers some rules of thumb to help guide investigators through the survey process.

  13. The use of advanced web-based survey design in Delphi research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Christopher; Gardner, Anne; McInnes, Elizabeth

    2017-07-16

    A discussion of the application of metadata, paradata and embedded data in web-based survey research, using two completed Delphi surveys as examples. Metadata, paradata and embedded data use in web-based Delphi surveys has not been described in the literature. The rapid evolution and widespread use of online survey methods imply that paper-based Delphi methods will likely become obsolete. Commercially available web-based survey tools offer a convenient and affordable means of conducting Delphi research. Researchers and ethics committees may be unaware of the benefits and risks of using metadata in web-based surveys. Discussion paper. Two web-based, three-round Delphi surveys were conducted sequentially between August 2014 - January 2015 and April - May 2016. Their aims were to validate the Australian nurse practitioner metaspecialties and their respective clinical practice standards. Our discussion paper is supported by researcher experience and data obtained from conducting both web-based Delphi surveys. Researchers and ethics committees should consider the benefits and risks of metadata use in web-based survey methods. Web-based Delphi research using paradata and embedded data may introduce efficiencies that improve individual participant survey experiences and reduce attrition across iterations. Use of embedded data allows the efficient conduct of multiple simultaneous Delphi surveys across a shorter timeframe than traditional survey methods. The use of metadata, paradata and embedded data appears to improve response rates, identify bias and give possible explanation for apparent outlier responses, providing an efficient method of conducting web-based Delphi surveys. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Articles were reviewed, analyzed, and coded through a qualitative content analysis approach. Overall trends are presented with respect to the entire collection of articles followed by an analysis of mixed methods research approaches identified in the subset of 55 studies. The most commonly used research approaches involved collecting data from people through interview, focus group, and survey methodologies. Content analysis was the second most commonly used approach whereby researchers use Facebook posts, Tweets (Twitter posts, YouTube videos, or other social media content as a data source. Many of the studies involving combinations of quantitative and qualitative data followed a design resembling Creswell and Plano Clark’s basic mixed methods typology (e.g., convergent parallel, explanatory sequential, and exploratory sequential.

  15. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    In National Institute of Radiological Sciences, a survey was made on radioactivities in the environment due to the substances released from nuclear installations and radioactive fall-out brought out by nuclear explosion tests since 1959. As the marked progress of non-military utilization of nuclear energy the national concern on environmental radioactivity has been increasing in Japan and thus it has become more and more important to make a survey research of radioactivities, which might affect the environment and human health. In these situations, the institute attempted to make the following six surveys in the fiscal year of 1996; `a survey on radioactive levels in environment, foods and human bodies`, `survey on the radioactive level in the regions around nuclear installations`, `works in radioactive data center`, `fundamental survey on the evaluation of the results from radioactivity survey`, `workshop for technical experts of environmental radioactivity monitoring` and `survey research on the measurement and countermeasures for emergency exposure`. (M.N.)

  16. Report of radioactivity survey research in fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    In National Institute of Radiological Sciences, a survey was made on radioactivities in the environment due to the substances released from nuclear installations and radioactive fall-out brought out by nuclear explosion tests since 1959. As the marked progress of non-military utilization of nuclear energy the national concern on environmental radioactivity has been increasing in Japan and thus it has become more and more important to make a survey research of radioactivities, which might affect the environment and human health. In these situations, the institute attempted to make the following six surveys in the fiscal year of 1997; `a survey on radioactive levels in environment, foods and human bodies`, `survey on the radioactive level in the regions around nuclear installations`, `works in radioactive data center`, `fundamental survey on the evaluation of the results from radioactivity survey`, `workshop for technical experts of environmental radioactivity monitoring` and `survey research on the measurement and countermeasures for emergency exposure`. (J.P.N.)

  17. Green Cellular Networks: A Survey, Some Research Issues and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Ziaul; Bhargava, Vijay K

    2011-01-01

    Energy efficiency in cellular networks is a growing concern for cellular operators to not only maintain profitability, but also to reduce the overall environment effects. This emerging trend of achieving energy efficiency in cellular networks is motivating the standardization authorities and network operators to continuously explore future technologies in order to bring improvements in the entire network infrastructure. In this article, we present a brief survey of methods to improve the power efficiency of cellular networks, explore some research issues and challenges and suggest some techniques to enable an energy efficient or "green" cellular network. Since base stations consume a maximum portion of the total energy used in a cellular system, we will first provide a comprehensive survey on techniques to obtain energy savings in base stations. Next, we discuss how heterogenous network deployment based on micro, pico and femto-cells can be used to achieve this goal. Since cognitive radio and cooperative rela...

  18. Reporting Guidelines for Survey Research: An Analysis of Published Guidance and Reporting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carol; Khangura, Sara; Brehaut, Jamie C.; Graham, Ian D.; Moher, David; Potter, Beth K.; M. Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Background Research needs to be reported transparently so readers can critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of the design, conduct, and analysis of studies. Reporting guidelines have been developed to inform reporting for a variety of study designs. The objective of this study was to identify whether there is a need to develop a reporting guideline for survey research. Methods and Findings We conducted a three-part project: (1) a systematic review of the literature (including “Instructions to Authors” from the top five journals of 33 medical specialties and top 15 general and internal medicine journals) to identify guidance for reporting survey research; (2) a systematic review of evidence on the quality of reporting of surveys; and (3) a review of reporting of key quality criteria for survey research in 117 recently published reports of self-administered surveys. Fewer than 7% of medical journals (n = 165) provided guidance to authors on survey research despite a majority having published survey-based studies in recent years. We identified four published checklists for conducting or reporting survey research, none of which were validated. We identified eight previous reviews of survey reporting quality, which focused on issues of non-response and accessibility of questionnaires. Our own review of 117 published survey studies revealed that many items were poorly reported: few studies provided the survey or core questions (35%), reported the validity or reliability of the instrument (19%), defined the response rate (25%), discussed the representativeness of the sample (11%), or identified how missing data were handled (11%). Conclusions There is limited guidance and no consensus regarding the optimal reporting of survey research. The majority of key reporting criteria are poorly reported in peer-reviewed survey research articles. Our findings highlight the need for clear and consistent reporting guidelines specific to survey research. Please see

  19. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    -ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products...

  20. Take It or Leave It: Students' Attitudes about Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisecup, Allison K.

    2017-01-01

    This study employs a cross-sectional design to explore sociology majors' attitudes toward research methods. Survey data from a convenience sample of students enrolled in 16 departments are used to compare the attitudes of students who have and have not completed a research methods course. Despite consistent anecdotal claims that students harbor…

  1. Take It or Leave It: Students' Attitudes about Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisecup, Allison K.

    2017-01-01

    This study employs a cross-sectional design to explore sociology majors' attitudes toward research methods. Survey data from a convenience sample of students enrolled in 16 departments are used to compare the attitudes of students who have and have not completed a research methods course. Despite consistent anecdotal claims that students harbor…

  2. Infusing Active Learning into the Research Methods Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The research methods unit of survey psychology classes introduces important concepts of scientific reasoning and fluency, making it an ideal course in which to deliver enhanced curricula. To increase interest and engagement, the author developed an expanded research methods and statistics module to give students the opportunity to explore…

  3. A SURVEY OF CURRENT RESEARCH ON CAPTCHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Khalifa Abdullah Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been playing an increasingly important role in our daily life, with the availability of many web services such as email and search engines. However, these are often threatened by attacks from computer programs such as bots. To address this problem, CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart was developed to distinguish between computer programs and human users. Although this mechanism offers good security and limits automatic registration to web services, some CAPTCHAs have several weaknesses which allow hackers to infiltrate the mechanism of the CAPTCHA. This paper examines recent research on various CAPTCHA methods and their categories. Moreover it discusses the weakness and strength of these types.

  4. Using Person Fit Statistics to Detect Outliers in Survey Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, John M; Castaneda, Ruben; Tiemensma, Jitske; Depaoli, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Context: When working with health-related questionnaires, outlier detection is important. However, traditional methods of outlier detection (e.g., boxplots) can miss participants with "atypical" responses to the questions that otherwise have similar total (subscale) scores. In addition to detecting outliers, it can be of clinical importance to determine the reason for the outlier status or "atypical" response. Objective: The aim of the current study was to illustrate how to derive person fit statistics for outlier detection through a statistical method examining person fit with a health-based questionnaire. Design and Participants: Patients treated for Cushing's syndrome (n = 394) were recruited from the Cushing's Support and Research Foundation's (CSRF) listserv and Facebook page. Main Outcome Measure: Patients were directed to an online survey containing the CushingQoL (English version). A two-dimensional graded response model was estimated, and person fit statistics were generated using the Zh statistic. Results: Conventional outlier detections methods revealed no outliers reflecting extreme scores on the subscales of the CushingQoL. However, person fit statistics identified 18 patients with "atypical" response patterns, which would have been otherwise missed (Zh > |±2.00|). Conclusion: While the conventional methods of outlier detection indicated no outliers, person fit statistics identified several patients with "atypical" response patterns who otherwise appeared average. Person fit statistics allow researchers to delve further into the underlying problems experienced by these "atypical" patients treated for Cushing's syndrome. Annotated code is provided to aid other researchers in using this method.

  5. Comparison of Satellite Surveying to Traditional Surveying Methods for the Resources Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, B. P.; Osborne, V. J.; Kruger, M. L.

    Modern ground-based survey methods involve detailed survey, which provides three-space co-ordinates for surveyed points, to a high level of accuracy. The instruments are operated by surveyors, who process the raw results to create survey location maps for the subject of the survey. Such surveys are conducted for a location or region and referenced to the earth global co- ordinate system with global positioning system (GPS) positioning. Due to this referencing the survey is only as accurate as the GPS reference system. Satellite survey remote sensing utilise satellite imagery which have been processed using commercial geographic information system software. Three-space co-ordinate maps are generated, with an accuracy determined by the datum position accuracy and optical resolution of the satellite platform.This paper presents a case study, which compares topographic surveying undertaken by traditional survey methods with satellite surveying, for the same location. The purpose of this study is to assess the viability of satellite remote sensing for surveying in the resources industry. The case study involves a topographic survey of a dune field for a prospective mining project area in Pakistan. This site has been surveyed using modern surveying techniques and the results are compared to a satellite survey performed on the same area.Analysis of the results from traditional survey and from the satellite survey involved a comparison of the derived spatial co- ordinates from each method. In addition, comparisons have been made of costs and turnaround time for both methods.The results of this application of remote sensing is of particular interest for survey in areas with remote and extreme environments, weather extremes, political unrest, poor travel links, which are commonly associated with mining projects. Such areas frequently suffer language barriers, poor onsite technical support and resources.

  6. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods: Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and…

  7. A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods: Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlaw, Corey; Brown-Welty, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys have become more prevalent in areas such as evaluation, research, and marketing research to name a few. The proliferation of these online surveys raises the question, how do response rates compare with traditional surveys and at what cost? This research explored response rates and costs for Web-based surveys, paper surveys, and…

  8. Polymer matrix composites research: A survey of federally sponsored programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This report identifies research conducted by agencies of the federal government other than the Department of Energy (DOE) in the area of advanced polymer matrix composites (PMCs). DOE commissioned the report to avoid duplicating other agencies' efforts in planning its own research program for PMCs. PMC materials consist of high-strength, short or continuous fibers fused together by an organic matrix. Compared to traditional structural metals, PMCs provide greater strength and stiffness, reduced weight and increased heat resistance. The key contributors to PMC research identified by the survey are the Department of Defense (DOD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). The survey identified a total of 778 projects. More than half of the total projects identified emphasize materials research with a goal toward developing materials with improved performance. Although an almost equal number of identified materials projects focus on thermosets and thermoplastics receive more attention because of their increased impact resistance and their easy formability and re-formability. Slightly more than one third of projects identified target structures research. Only 15 percent of the projects identified focus on manufacturing techniques, despite the need for efficient, economical methods manufacturing products constructed of PMCs--techniques required for PMCs to gain widespread acceptance. Three issues to be addressed concerning PMCs research are economy of use, improvements in processing, and education and training. Five target technologies have been identified that could benefit greatly from increased use of PMCs: aircraft fuselages, automobile frames, high-speed machinery, electronic packaging, and construction.

  9. Survey Practices in Dental Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Kuster, Curtis G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of mailed questionnaires in research on dental education is examined, and several factors that researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors are identified. Examples from the "Journal of Dental Education" are used. (Author/MLW)

  10. Survey Practices in Dental Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Kuster, Curtis G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of mailed questionnaires in research on dental education is examined, and several factors that researchers should consider when reporting mailed questionnaire research to journal editors are identified. Examples from the "Journal of Dental Education" are used. (Author/MLW)

  11. Survey of cogeneration: Advanced cogeneration research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonski, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The consumption of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil was surveyed. The potential electricity that could be generated in the SCE service territory using cogeneration technology was estimated. It was found that an estimated 3700 MWe could potentially be generated in Southern California using cogenerated technology. It is suggested that current technology could provide 2600 MWe and advanced technology could provide 1100 MWe. Approximately 1600 MWt is considered not feasible to produce electricity with either current or advanced cogeneration technology.

  12. Cross-linked survey analysis is an approach for separating cause and effect in survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Thiruchelvam, Deva; Lustig, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    We developed a new research approach, called cross-linked survey analysis, to explore how an acute exposure might lead to changes in survey responses. The goal was to identify associations between exposures and outcomes while reducing some ambiguities related to interpreting cause and effect in survey responses from a population-based community questionnaire. Cross-linked survey analysis differs from a cross-sectional, longitudinal, and panel survey analysis by individualizing the timeline to the unique history of each respondent. Cross-linked survey analysis, unlike a repeated-measures self-matching design, does not track changes in a repeated survey question given to the same respondent at multiple time points. Pilot data from three analyses (n = 1,177 respondents) illustrate how a cross-linked survey analysis can control for population shifts, temporal trends, and reverse causality. Accompanying graphs provide an intuitive display to readers, summarize results, and show differences in response distributions. Population-based individual-level linkages also reduce selection bias and increase statistical power compared with a single-center cross-sectional survey. Cross-linked survey analysis has limitations related to unmeasured confounding, pragmatics, survivor bias, statistical models, and the underlying artifacts in survey responses. We suggest that a cross-linked survey analysis may help in epidemiology science using survey data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethics Review of Survey Research: A Mandatory Requirement for Publication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicher, Danielle; Wu, Albert W

    2015-12-01

    National regulations governing human subjects research differ with regard to whether they require survey research to be overseen by institutional ethics boards or committees. In cases where ethical review has been waived, or was provided by an individual or group other than an institutional ethics board, journals may question the appropriateness of the waiver or alternative review when making determinations about whether to accept the manuscript for publication. The purpose of this article is to provide guidance for journals to consider when making determinations about the necessity of ethical review for survey research projects. We review the functions of ethics oversight and consider the importance of those functions within the context of survey research. In survey research, no intervention is delivered to research participants. As a result, there is no risk of physical harm to individuals who participate. However, there can be a risk of informational or psychological harms. In situations where there is greater than minimal risk of informational or psychological harms, the survey research should have received institutional ethics oversight. Additionally, survey research projects that enroll vulnerable individuals with diminished autonomy should receive institutional ethics oversight. We hope that this article leads to further guidance on this subject by authoritative group such as the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

  14. The use of the Delphi survey as a research tool in understanding church trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Elkington

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the practical theological research process, as in most disciplines, extant literature is vital in assisting a researcher to formulate a foundational understanding of the topic under review. A literature review is also valuable in understanding the meta-theoretical aspects of the research topic. What does a researcher do, though, if there is little current literature on the topic under scrutiny? If there is a small corpus of literature around a subject, the Delphi method can serve as an extremely helpful research tool. This article discussed the use of the Delphi survey in a practical theological research endeavour and surveyed its history from inception to current usage. The article also reviewed the various types of Delphi survey and supported the use of the Lockean Delphi survey in this particular example of practical theological research. The article finished with an actual Delphi survey of Canadian Evangelical church pastors as an example of how the Delphi method can be used as a research tool in practical theology. The article concluded that the Delphi survey is an extremely useful research tool across the wide domain of social science research.

  15. A Survey of Campus Coordinators of Undergraduate Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Merinda Kaye; Shreeves, Sarah L.; Davis-Kahl, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Interest in supporting undergraduate research programs continues to grow within academic librarianship. This article presents how undergraduate research program coordinators perceive and value library support of their programs. Undergraduate research coordinators from a variety of institutions were surveyed on which elements of libraries and…

  16. A Review of Missing Data Handling Methods in Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.

    2014-01-01

    Missing data are a common occurrence in survey-based research studies in education, and the way missing values are handled can significantly affect the results of analyses based on such data. Despite known problems with performance of some missing data handling methods, such as mean imputation, many researchers in education continue to use those…

  17. Reexamining traditional issues in survey research: Just how evil is the anathema of low response rate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S.B. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States). Science/Engineering Education Division; Boser, J.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Survey researchers have long been exhorted to strive for high response rates in order to maximize the likelihood that the respondents are representative of the population being surveyed. It is not surprising then, that much survey research has been directed towards examining the effects of various manipulatable factors on response rate. It is clear that attempts to reach the goal of minimizing the likelihood of nonresponse bias through testing various methods of increasing survey response rates have consumed much research and debate. The results obtained in this research have been inconsistent. Some studies have found significant differences, others have found none. The present study was designed to determine the extent to which the results of an employment survey of former graduates of a teacher preparation program would have been affected by changes in response rate.

  18. A NEW METHOD FOR INCREASING PRECISIONIN SURVEY SAMPLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯士雍; 邹国华

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for increasing the precision in survey sampling, i.e., a method combining sampling with prediction. The two cases where auxiliary information is or not available are considered. A numerical example is given.

  19. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C

    2015-01-01

    the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses......Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops...

  20. [Survey of research on acupoints compatibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Ren

    2010-05-01

    The research papers that meet the criteria of evidence-based medicine and randomized controlled trial were retrieved in Chinese journals data bases (CNKI knowledge network) from 1992 to 2009. Twenty-five papers indicate that acupoints compatibility rules are closely related to organism regional anatomy, nerve, the blood vessel and the endocrine gland; acupoints compatibility rules produce synergism, inhibit or antagonistic effect that affect the clinical effectiveness. The acupoints compatibility rules based on experimental researches are applied to clinic practice is the key to improve the acupuncture clinical effectiveness.

  1. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), conducted December 14 through 18, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with SERI. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SERI, and interviews with site personnel. 33 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

  2. Basic Project Management Methodologies for Survey Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Robert H.

    To be effective, project management requires a heavy dependence on the document, list, and computational capability of a computerized environment. Now that microcomputers are readily available, only the rediscovery of classic project management methodology is required for improved resource allocation in small research projects. This paper provides…

  3. Research engagement of health sciences librarians: a survey of research-related activities and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lessick, MA, MLS, AHIP, FMLA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extent to which health sciences librarians are engaged in research is a little-studied question. This study assesses the research activities and attitudes of Medical Library Association (MLA members, including the influence of work affiliation. Methods: An online survey was designed using a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions and distributed to MLA members. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and significance testing. The authors used statistical tools and categorized openended question topics by the constant comparative method, also applying the broad subject categories used in a prior study. Pearson’s chi-square analysis was performed on responses to determine significant differences among respondents employed in three different institutional environments. Results: Analysis showed that 79% of respondents read research articles at least once a month; 58% applied published research studies to practice; 44% had conducted research; 62% reported acting on research had enhanced their libraries; 38% had presented findings; and 34% had authored research articles. Hospital librarians were significantly less likely than academic librarians to have participated in research activities. Highly ranked research benefits, barriers, and competencies of health sciences librarians are described. Conclusions: Findings indicate that health sciences librarians are actively engaged in research activities. Practice implications for practitioners, publishers, and stakeholders are discussed. Results suggest that practitioners can use published research results and results from their own research to affect practice decisions and improve services. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings, including the need for intervention studies to increase research and writing productivity.

  4. Why, and how, mixed methods research is undertaken in health services research in England: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Murphy, Elizabeth; Nicholl, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Background Recently, there has been a surge of international interest in combining qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study – often called mixed methods research. It is timely to consider why and how mixed methods research is used in health services research (HSR). Methods Documentary analysis of proposals and reports of 75 mixed methods studies funded by a research commissioner of HSR in England between 1994 and 2004. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers sampled from these studies. Results 18% (119/647) of HSR studies were classified as mixed methods research. In the documentation, comprehensiveness was the main driver for using mixed methods research, with researchers wanting to address a wider range of questions than quantitative methods alone would allow. Interviewees elaborated on this, identifying the need for qualitative research to engage with the complexity of health, health care interventions, and the environment in which studies took place. Motivations for adopting a mixed methods approach were not always based on the intrinsic value of mixed methods research for addressing the research question; they could be strategic, for example, to obtain funding. Mixed methods research was used in the context of evaluation, including randomised and non-randomised designs; survey and fieldwork exploratory studies; and instrument development. Studies drew on a limited number of methods – particularly surveys and individual interviews – but used methods in a wide range of roles. Conclusion Mixed methods research is common in HSR in the UK. Its use is driven by pragmatism rather than principle, motivated by the perceived deficit of quantitative methods alone to address the complexity of research in health care, as well as other more strategic gains. Methods are combined in a range of contexts, yet the emerging methodological contributions from HSR to the field of mixed methods research are currently limited to the single

  5. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, J. R. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    The topics considered in the seven sessions were nuclear methods in atmospheric research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in tracer applications; energy exploration, production, and utilization; nuclear methods in environmental monitoring; nuclear methods in water research; and nuclear methods in biological research. Individual abstracts were prepared for each paper. (JSR)

  6. A Survey of European Robotics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-27

    The material and operations of the US Navy. information in this report is based on Material will be influenced first--by on-site visits to 21 of the...in Table I these areas will make the acquisition were chosen from the results of a and maintenance of the materials neces- literature review...analysis, and lic actuators. Dr. Burckhardt expected gray level image processing techniques. future robot research in gray scale The Laboratorio per

  7. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ......-ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products...... as applied research and on evaluation of devel-oped products in the field or in the lab. Also, we find that much research is conducted in natural setting environments with strong focus on field studies....

  8. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  9. A Survey of Voice over IP Security Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keromytis, Angelos D.

    We present a survey of Voice over IP security research. Our goal is to provide a roadmap for researchers seeking to understand existing capabilities and, and to identify gaps in addressing the numerous threats and vulnerabilities present in VoIP systems. We also briefly discuss the implications of our findings with respect to actual vulnerabilities reported in a variety VoIP products.

  10. The OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie M. Dooley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the outcomes of the 2009 OCLC Research survey of 275 research libraries in the United States and Canada regarding the current status of their special collections and archives. The resulting report, Taking Our Pulse: The OCLC Research Survey of Special Collections and Archives, includes detailed analysis of the data and thirteen recommendations for community action. The three most common challenges named by respondents were space, digitization, and born-digital materials. Collections are growing dramatically, use of all types of material has increased, substantial backlogs remain, and 75% of library budgets have been reduced in recent years.

  11. Hydroclimatic variability and predictability: a survey of recent research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Koster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in large-scale hydroclimatic variability is surveyed, focusing on five topics: (i variability in general, (ii droughts, (iii floods, (iv land–atmosphere coupling, and (v hydroclimatic prediction. Each surveyed topic is supplemented by illustrative examples of recent research, as presented at a 2016 symposium honoring the career of Professor Eric Wood. Taken together, the recent literature and the illustrative examples clearly show that current research into hydroclimatic variability is strong, vibrant, and multifaceted.

  12. Powder metallurgy in aerospace research: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    The various techniques by which powders can be produced, as pure metals or as alloys, are discussed; the methods by which these powders can be formed into the final parts are explained as well as further processing that may be necessary to meet specific requirements. The NASA developments are detailed, and references are provided for those who wish to obtain further information characteristic of any methodology.

  13. Mathematics without boundaries surveys in interdisciplinary research

    CERN Document Server

    Rassias, Themistocles

    2014-01-01

    This volume consists of chapters written by eminent scientists and engineers from the international community and presents significant advances in several theories, and applications of an interdisciplinary research. These contributions focus on both old and recent developments of Global Optimization Theory, Convex Analysis, Calculus of Variations, and Discrete Mathematics and Geometry, as well as several applications to a large variety of concrete problems, including  applications of computers  to the study of smoothness and analyticity of functions, applications to epidemiological diffusion, networks, mathematical models of elastic and piezoelectric fields, optimal algorithms, stability of neutral type vector functional differential equations, sampling and rational interpolation for non-band-limited signals, recurrent neural network for convex optimization problems, and experimental design.  The book also contains some review works, which could prove particularly useful for a broader audience of readers i...

  14. METHODS IN THE POST-METHODS ERA. REPORT ON AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY ON LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Do methods still have a place in 21" century language teaching? To answer this question, an international survey was conducted in the surnmer of 1999. A sample of 800 language teachers world-wide randomly drawn from 17,800 TESOLers were each given a 2-page survey. The return rate was 58.5% with the actual usable data set of448, which was analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Among the ten commonly recognized teaching methods surveyed, both the Communicative Language Teaching Approach and an eclectic method seem to have the highest rate in familiarity, preference, and use. But when multiple factors, such as teaching contexts, instructional settings, learners' proficiency levels, class size, teaching experience and educational backgrounds of the teachers, and the status of being a native or nonnative English speaking professional were taken into consideration, various patterns and themes emerged. One interesting finding is that Grammar Translation is still used in EFL contexts, in larger classes, and with learners at low proficiency levels, though the ratio between the actual use of this method and teachers' preference does not match. Based on the results of the survey, a new theoretical framework is proposed to conceptualize language teaching methods in the post-methods era.

  15. Basic Research Methods for Librarians, Fifth Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Connaway, Lynn Silipigni

    2010-01-01

    Fifty-nine percent of the respondents to a 2000 survey reported that their master's programs had not adequately prepared them to conduct research, something that has not changed much in the ensuing decade. Yet, many library and information services (LIS) practitioners are routinely called upon to conducted job-related research. Where can they turn for the guidance they need?

  16. A survey of mixed finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to and an overview of mixed finite element methods. It discusses the mixed formulation of certain basic problems in elasticity and hydrodynamics. It also discusses special techniques for solving the discrete problem.

  17. Institutional Researchers' Use of Qualitative Research Methods for Institutional Accountability at Two Year Colleges in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Bishar M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined institutional researchers' use of qualitative methods to document institutional accountability and effectiveness at two-year colleges in Texas. Participants were Institutional Research and Effectiveness personnel. Data were collected through a survey consisting of closed and open ended questions which was administered…

  18. Institutional Researchers' Use of Qualitative Research Methods for Institutional Accountability at Two Year Colleges in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Bishar M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined institutional researchers' use of qualitative methods to document institutional accountability and effectiveness at two-year colleges in Texas. Participants were Institutional Research and Effectiveness personnel. Data were collected through a survey consisting of closed and open ended questions which was administered…

  19. ADDRESSING RESEARCH DESIGN PROBLEM IN MIXED METHODS RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed ALAVI; Patrycja HĄBEK

    2016-01-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be...

  20. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Burke; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research ("mixed research" is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods…

  1. Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Burke; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to position mixed methods research ("mixed research" is a synonym) as the natural complement to traditional qualitative and quantitative research, to present pragmatism as offering an attractive philosophical partner for mixed methods research, and to provide a framework for designing and conducting mixed methods…

  2. Designing and conducting survey research a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rea, Louis M

    2014-01-01

    The industry standard guide, updated with new ideas and SPSS analysis techniques Designing and Conducting Survey Research: A Comprehensive Guide Fourth Edition is the industry standard resource that covers all major components of the survey process, updated to include new data analysis techniques and SPSS procedures with sample data sets online. The book offers practical, actionable guidance on constructing the instrument, administrating the process, and analyzing and reporting the results, providing extensive examples and worksheets that demonstrate the appropriate use of survey and data tech

  3. 不同调查方法森林资源调查结果的整合技术研究%Integration Technology Research of Survey Results of Forest Resources of Different Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱磊

    2012-01-01

    At present, Most places get different survey results of forest resources for different survey methods, managers of Forest resources frequently encountered problems, which results are used on different occasions. How to integrate survey results are becoming urgent problems for forest resources management departments and academic experts. The author use geographic information system technology, get feature of sample plot through small class of the class II survey, and Stretch or compress the data of sample plot, thus realize integration of the class I survey and the class II survey.%目前各地普遍存在一类清查和二类调查"两套数"、"两张皮"的现象,给森林资源管理带来很大不便。如何将一类清查成果和二类调查成果进行有效整合,成为森林资源管理部门和学术界专家共同期待解决的燃眉问题。利用地理信息系统技术,将基于小班的二类成果面状数据转化为基于样地的点状数据,以一类数据为控制,根据二套数据的差值对加密样地数据进行拉伸或压缩,从而实现两套数的技术性整合。

  4. Survey Of Wind Tunnels At Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Report presented at AIAA 14th Aerodynamic Testing Conference on current capabilities and planned improvements at NASA Langley Research Center's major wind tunnels. Focuses on 14 major tunnels, 8 unique in world, 3 unique in country. Covers Langley Spin Tunnel. Includes new National Transonic Facility (NTF). Also surveys Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). Addresses resurgence of inexpensive simple-to-operate research tunnels. Predicts no shortage of tools for aerospace researcher and engineer in next decade or two.

  5. Survey Of Wind Tunnels At Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Report presented at AIAA 14th Aerodynamic Testing Conference on current capabilities and planned improvements at NASA Langley Research Center's major wind tunnels. Focuses on 14 major tunnels, 8 unique in world, 3 unique in country. Covers Langley Spin Tunnel. Includes new National Transonic Facility (NTF). Also surveys Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). Addresses resurgence of inexpensive simple-to-operate research tunnels. Predicts no shortage of tools for aerospace researcher and engineer in next decade or two.

  6. Horvitz-Thompson survey sample methods for estimating large-scale animal abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Garton, E.O.

    1994-01-01

    Large-scale surveys to estimate animal abundance can be useful for monitoring population status and trends, for measuring responses to management or environmental alterations, and for testing ecological hypotheses about abundance. However, large-scale surveys may be expensive and logistically complex. To ensure resources are not wasted on unattainable targets, the goals and uses of each survey should be specified carefully and alternative methods for addressing these objectives always should be considered. During survey design, the impoflance of each survey error component (spatial design, propofiion of detected animals, precision in detection) should be considered carefully to produce a complete statistically based survey. Failure to address these three survey components may produce population estimates that are inaccurate (biased low), have unrealistic precision (too precise) and do not satisfactorily meet the survey objectives. Optimum survey design requires trade-offs in these sources of error relative to the costs of sampling plots and detecting animals on plots, considerations that are specific to the spatial logistics and survey methods. The Horvitz-Thompson estimators provide a comprehensive framework for considering all three survey components during the design and analysis of large-scale wildlife surveys. Problems of spatial and temporal (especially survey to survey) heterogeneity in detection probabilities have received little consideration, but failure to account for heterogeneity produces biased population estimates. The goal of producing unbiased population estimates is in conflict with the increased variation from heterogeneous detection in the population estimate. One solution to this conflict is to use an MSE-based approach to achieve a balance between bias reduction and increased variation. Further research is needed to develop methods that address spatial heterogeneity in detection, evaluate the effects of temporal heterogeneity on survey

  7. A Survey on Clinical Research Training Status and Needs in Public Hospitals from Shenzhen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ping; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Min; Zhou, Liping; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Yanfang; Wu, Yangfeng

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To obtain information on the current clinical research training status and evaluate the training needs comprehensively for medical staff in hospitals. Methods: This survey was initiated and conducted by the Health and Family Planning Commission of Shenzhen in conjunction with the Peking University Clinical Research Institute (Shenzhen)…

  8. Methods of marketing research in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Kraevskiy, B.; Makukhina, Ya.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the nature of marketing research in banking activities, the main directions of marketing research in the banking sector, identified tasks that can be solved based on the methods of marketing research

  9. Methods of marketing research in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Kraevskiy, B.; Makukhina, Ya.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the nature of marketing research in banking activities, the main directions of marketing research in the banking sector, identified tasks that can be solved based on the methods of marketing research

  10. Survey: interpolation methods in medical image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, T M; Gönner, C; Spitzer, K

    1999-11-01

    Image interpolation techniques often are required in medical imaging for image generation (e.g., discrete back projection for inverse Radon transform) and processing such as compression or resampling. Since the ideal interpolation function spatially is unlimited, several interpolation kernels of finite size have been introduced. This paper compares 1) truncated and windowed sinc; 2) nearest neighbor; 3) linear; 4) quadratic; 5) cubic B-spline; 6) cubic; g) Lagrange; and 7) Gaussian interpolation and approximation techniques with kernel sizes from 1 x 1 up to 8 x 8. The comparison is done by: 1) spatial and Fourier analyses; 2) computational complexity as well as runtime evaluations; and 3) qualitative and quantitative interpolation error determinations for particular interpolation tasks which were taken from common situations in medical image processing. For local and Fourier analyses, a standardized notation is introduced and fundamental properties of interpolators are derived. Successful methods should be direct current (DC)-constant and interpolators rather than DC-inconstant or approximators. Each method's parameters are tuned with respect to those properties. This results in three novel kernels, which are introduced in this paper and proven to be within the best choices for medical image interpolation: the 6 x 6 Blackman-Harris windowed sinc interpolator, and the C2-continuous cubic kernels with N = 6 and N = 8 supporting points. For quantitative error evaluations, a set of 50 direct digital X rays was used. They have been selected arbitrarily from clinical routine. In general, large kernel sizes were found to be superior to small interpolation masks. Except for truncated sinc interpolators, all kernels with N = 6 or larger sizes perform significantly better than N = 2 or N = 3 point methods (p cubic 6 x 6 interpolator with continuous second derivatives, as defined in (24), can be recommended for most common interpolation tasks. It appears to be the fastest

  11. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, J R [ed.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  12. A survey of quantum Lyapunov control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Shuang; Meng, Fangfang

    2013-01-01

    The condition of a quantum Lyapunov-based control which can be well used in a closed quantum system is that the method can make the system convergent but not just stable. In the convergence study of the quantum Lyapunov control, two situations are classified: nondegenerate cases and degenerate cases. For these two situations, respectively, in this paper the target state is divided into four categories: the eigenstate, the mixed state which commutes with the internal Hamiltonian, the superposition state, and the mixed state which does not commute with the internal Hamiltonian. For these four categories, the quantum Lyapunov control methods for the closed quantum systems are summarized and analyzed. Particularly, the convergence of the control system to the different target states is reviewed, and how to make the convergence conditions be satisfied is summarized and analyzed.

  13. Authentication Methods in Cloud Computing: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnoush Babaeizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a review on the various methods of authentication in cloud environment. Authentication plays an important role in security of Cloud Computing (CC. It protects Cloud Service Providers (CSP against various types of attacks, where the aim is to verify a user’s identity when a user wishes to request services from cloud servers. There are multiple authentication technologies that verify the identity of a user before granting access to resources.

  14. Action Research Methods: Plain and Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sheri R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…

  15. Action Research Methods: Plain and Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sheri R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…

  16. Using Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…

  17. Response rate, response time, and economic costs of survey research: A randomized trial of practicing pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardigan, Patrick C; Popovici, Ioana; Carvajal, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    There is a gap between increasing demands from pharmacy journals, publishers, and reviewers for high survey response rates and the actual responses often obtained in the field by survey researchers. Presumably demands have been set high because response rates, times, and costs affect the validity and reliability of survey results. Explore the extent to which survey response rates, average response times, and economic costs are affected by conditions under which pharmacist workforce surveys are administered. A random sample of 7200 U.S. practicing pharmacists was selected. The sample was stratified by delivery method, questionnaire length, item placement, and gender of respondent for a total of 300 observations within each subgroup. A job satisfaction survey was administered during March-April 2012. Delivery method was the only classification showing significant differences in response rates and average response times. The postal mail procedure accounted for the highest response rates of completed surveys, but the email method exhibited the quickest turnaround. A hybrid approach, consisting of a combination of postal and electronic means, showed the least favorable results. Postal mail was 2.9 times more cost effective than the email approach and 4.6 times more cost effective than the hybrid approach. Researchers seeking to increase practicing pharmacists' survey participation and reduce response time and related costs can benefit from the analytical procedures tested here. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Research and development of evaluation system for photovoltaic power generation system. Research and survey on test and evaluation method for BOS component devices; Taiyoko hatsuden system hyoka gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu. Shuhen gijutsu hyoka system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on R and D of the evaluation method for BOS component devices in fiscal 1994. (1) On the study on requirements of BOS component devices for practical use, the study results on storage battery, inverter, protective device for system interconnection, and effective use means for storage battery were summarized. On the future device technology, it was clarified that the following value added technologies are promising: simple design of inverter circuit, cost reduction by common specification and mass production, and stabilization of voltage and compensation of momentary peak load by combining inverter with small-capacity storage batteries. (2) On the study on the performance test method for BOS component devices, basic characteristic (capacity, efficiency) test, PSOC charge/discharge cycle test, and accelerated life cycle test were performed for 4 kinds of new storage batteries developed by NEDO. The whole characteristic test results satisfied specifications, and long-term cycle test is in promotion for all new storage batteries. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Global priorities for research and the relative importance of different research outcomes: an international Delphi survey of malaria research experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Conteh, Lesong

    2016-12-06

    As global research investment increases, attention inevitably turns to assessing and measuring the outcomes and impact from research programmes. Research can have many different outcomes such as producing advances in scientific knowledge, building research capacity and, ultimately, health and broader societal benefits. The aim of this study was to test the use of a Delphi methodology as a way of gathering views from malaria research experts on research priorities and eliciting relative valuations of the different types of health research impact. An international Delphi survey of 60 malaria research experts was used to understand views on research outcomes and priorities within malaria and across global health more widely. The study demonstrated the application of the Delphi technique to eliciting views on malaria specific research priorities, wider global health research priorities and the values assigned to different types of research impact. In terms of the most important past research successes, the development of new anti-malarial drugs and insecticide-treated bed nets were rated as the most important. When asked about research priorities for future funding, respondents ranked tackling emerging drug and insecticide resistance the highest. With respect to research impact, the panel valued research that focuses on health and health sector benefits and informing policy and product development. Contributions to scientific knowledge, although highly valued, came lower down the ranking, suggesting that efforts to move research discoveries to health products and services are valued more highly than pure advances in scientific knowledge. Although the Delphi technique has been used to elicit views on research questions in global health this was the first time it has been used to assess how a group of research experts value or rank different types of research impact. The results suggest it is feasible to inject the views of a key stakeholder group into the research

  20. A survey of NAPNAP members' clinical and professional research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Kathleen J; Lewin, Linda C; Niederhauser, Victoria P; Brady, Margaret A; Jones, Dolores; Butz, Arlene; Gallo, Agatha M; Schindler, Christine A; Trent, Cynthia A

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this methodological article is to describe the development, implementation, and analysis of the survey used to determine NAPNAP members' ranking of research priorities, to describe the top priorities ranked by participants, and to determine if priorities differed by area of practice (primary, acute, or specialty care) or participant age. A cross-sectional descriptive design with an online survey was used. Completed by 324 NAPNAP members, the survey consisted of a demographic section and 90 statements in two domains: Clinical Priorities and Professional Role Priorities. Survey respondents strongly supported the top priorities with an average overall mean score of 4.0 or above on a 5-point Likert scale. Only three of the top 10 clinical and professional priorities differed by area of practice. No clinical priorities and only three professional priorities differed by age. The survey results were used to develop the NAPNAP Research Agenda. Both the survey results and the agenda can provide guidance for the NAPNAP Board, committees and interests groups as they develop initiatives and programs. Copyright © 2012 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ADDRESSING RESEARCH DESIGN PROBLEM IN MIXED METHODS RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed ALAVI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be theoretically related to it. Second is that concurrent approach of mixed research method to inductive and deductive research logic provides researchers with opportunity to generate theory and test hypothesis in one study simultaneously. In addition, it provides a better justification for chosen method of investigation and higher validity for obtained answers to research questions. Despite increasing popularity of mixed research methods among management scholars, there is still need for a comprehensive approach to research design typology and process in mixed research method from the perspective of management science. The authors in this paper try to explain fundamental principles of mixed research method, its typology and different steps in its design process.

  2. Surveys of Health Professions Trainees: Prevalence, Response Rates, and Predictive Factors to Guide Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew W; Friedman, Benjamin T; Utrankar, Amol; Ta, Andrew Q; Reddy, Shalini T; Durning, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    To establish a baseline overall response rate for surveys of health professions trainees, determine strategies associated with improved response rates, and evaluate for the presence of nonresponse bias. The authors performed a comprehensive analysis of all articles published in Academic Medicine, Medical Education, and Advances in Health Sciences Education in 2013, recording response rates. Additionally, they reviewed nonresponse bias analyses and factors suggested in other fields to affect response rate including survey delivery method, prenotification, and incentives. The search yielded 732 total articles; of these, 356 were research articles, and of these, 185 (52.0%) used at least one survey. Of these, 66 articles (35.6%) met inclusion criteria and yielded 73 unique surveys. Of the 73 surveys used, investigators reported a response rate for 63.0% of them; response rates ranged from 26.6% to 100%, mean (standard deviation) 71.3% (19.5%). Investigators reported using incentives for only 16.4% of the 73 surveys. The only survey methodology factor significantly associated with response rate was single- vs. multi-institutional surveys (respectively, 74.6% [21.2%] vs. 62.0% [12.8%], P = .022). Notably, statistical power for all analyses was limited. No articles evaluated for nonresponse bias. Approximately half of the articles evaluated used a survey as part of their methods. Limited data are available to establish a baseline response rate among health professions trainees and inform researchers which strategies are associated with higher response rates. Journals publishing survey-based health professions education research should improve reporting of response rate, nonresponse bias, and other survey factors.

  3. Improvement Research Priorities: USA Survey and Expert Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen R. Stevens

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify stakeholder views about national priorities for improvement science and build agreement for action in a national improvement and implementation research network in the USA. This was accomplished using three stages of identification and consensus. (1 Topics were identified through a multipronged environmental scan of the literature and initiatives. (2 Based on this scan, a survey was developed, and stakeholders (n=2,777 were invited to rate the resulting 33-topic, 9-category list, via an online survey. Data from 560 respondents (20% response were analyzed. (3 An expert panel used survey results to further refine the research priorities through a Rand Delphi process. Priorities identified were within four categories: care coordination and transitions, high-performing clinical systems and microsystems improvement approaches, implementation of evidence-based improvements and best practices, and culture of quality and safety. The priorities identified were adopted by the improvement science research network as the research agenda to guide strategy. The process and conclusions may be of value to quality improvement research funding agencies, governments, and research units seeking to concentrate their resources on improvement topics where research is capable of yielding timely and actionable answers as well as contributing to the knowledge base for improvement.

  4. Survey Research in the Forest Science Journals - Insights from Journal Editors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Stevanov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Survey research is one of the most commonly applied approaches in the social sciences. In the forest research it has been used for more than five decades. In spite of that or the fact that the amount of survey-based articles in the forest science journals has increased during the last decade, their share in all articles published in 20 forest science journals (9,372 articles, 2005-2014 is quite modest (3.2%. In our paper we look at the opinions and attitudes of forest science journal editors towards survey research, as their perspective might enlarge our understanding of the use of this approach in the field of forestry. Materials and Methods: We selected 20 forest science journals - 15 from the SCI list and five non-SCI journals and contacted editors of these journals with the self-administered e-mail questionnaire. Data were collected in October 2014 and analyzed by descriptive statistics. The overall response rate was 75%. The assumptions for the study were based on the evidence addressing opinions and attitudes of journal editors from other research fields (finance since no similar study was found in the field of forestry. Results: The majority of editors reported the same review process for survey-based articles as for all others. In two journals, articles with the survey-based content are screened more rigorously and in two journals their publishing is generally discouraged. 40% of journal editors hold the view that no difference should be made between survey research and other types of original research, and another 40% think that survey research should in the first place play a complementary role. As the main strength of survey research editors see the possibility to obtain data unavailable from other sources. They perceive adverse selection and the difficulty to generalize results as the main weaknesses. Conclusions: Editors of forest science journals have similar opinion on survey research as those from the

  5. Using mixed methods in health research

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Shema; Woodman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixe...

  6. Qualitative Methods in Drug Utilization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Bastholm Rahmner, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research methods derive from the social sciences. Their use in drug utilization research is increasingly widespread, especially in understanding patient and prescriber perspectives. The main focus in qualitative research is exploration of a given phenomenon in order to get a wider...... understanding of why and how it appears. Qualitative research methods build on various theoretical underpinnings/schools of thought. The same validity and quality criteria cannot be used for both qualitative and quantitative methods....

  7. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research methods and designs from the social sciences and beyond can, and should, be applied in research directed at EU affairs. The purpose of this edited collection is twofold: (1) to provide a state-of-the-art examination of social science research methods in EU studies and (2) to provide...... innovative guidelines to the advancement of more inclusive and empirically sensitive research methods in EU studies....

  8. A Survey on Banknote Recognition Methods by Various Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Woo; Hong, Hyung Gil; Kim, Ki Wan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-02-08

    Despite a decrease in the use of currency due to the recent growth in the use of electronic financial transactions, real money transactions remain very important in the global market. While performing transactions with real money, touching and counting notes by hand, is still a common practice in daily life, various types of automated machines, such as ATMs and banknote counters, are essential for large-scale and safe transactions. This paper presents studies that have been conducted in four major areas of research (banknote recognition, counterfeit banknote detection, serial number recognition, and fitness classification) in the accurate banknote recognition field by various sensors in such automated machines, and describes the advantages and drawbacks of the methods presented in those studies. While to a limited extent some surveys have been presented in previous studies in the areas of banknote recognition or counterfeit banknote recognition, this paper is the first of its kind to review all four areas. Techniques used in each of the four areas recognize banknote information (denomination, serial number, authenticity, and physical condition) based on image or sensor data, and are actually applied to banknote processing machines across the world. This study also describes the technological challenges faced by such banknote recognition techniques and presents future directions of research to overcome them.

  9. Research methods for subgrouping low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    important distinctions in their treatment needs or prognoses. Due to a proliferation of research methods and variability in how subgrouping results are interpreted, it is timely to open discussion regarding a conceptual framework for the research designs and statistical methods available for subgrouping...... studies (a method framework). The aims of this debate article are: (1) to present a method framework to inform the design and evaluation of subgrouping research in low back pain, (2) to describe method options when investigating prognostic effects or subgroup treatment effects, and (3) to discuss...... the strengths and limitations of research methods suitable for the hypothesis-setting phase of subgroup studies....

  10. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C; Poole, C; Almstrup, K; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27 hypotheses were related to exposures during pregnancy. Hypotheses with the highest mean plausibility ratings were either related to pre-natal exposures or exposures that might have an effect during pregnancy and in post-natal life. The results of the survey may be helpful for triggering more specific etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer.

  11. A Survey on Educational Data Mining and Research Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Jindal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Educational Data Mining (EDM is an emerging fieldexploring data in educational context by applyingdifferent Data Mining (DM techniques/tools. It provides intrinsic knowledge of teaching and learningprocess for effective education planning. In this survey work focuses on components, research trends (1998to 2012 of EDM highlighting its related Tools, Techniques and educational Outcomes. It also highlightsthe Challenges EDM.

  12. A Survey on Educational Data Mining and Research Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rajni Jindal; Malaya Dutta Borah

    2013-01-01

    Educational Data Mining (EDM) is an emerging fieldexploring data in educational context by applyingdifferent Data Mining (DM) techniques/tools. It provides intrinsic knowledge of teaching and learningprocess for effective education planning. In this survey work focuses on components, research trends (1998to 2012) of EDM highlighting its related Tools, Techniques and educational Outcomes. It also highlightsthe Challenges EDM.

  13. Adaptation of the methodology of sample surveys for marketing researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataev Andrey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the theory of adaptation of sample survey for the purposes of marketing, that allows to answer the fundamental question of any marketing research – how many objects should be studied for drawing adequate conclusions.

  14. A Survey of Instructional Support for Undergraduate Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Merinda Kaye

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate research and other high-impact educational practices simulate real-world learning environments and present an opportunity for high-level information literacy teaching to be better incorporated into the curriculum. The purpose of this survey is to examine efforts of libraries currently offering IL instruction to undergraduate research…

  15. Decomposition methods in turbulence research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uruba Václav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we have the dynamical velocity vector field of turbulent flow at our disposal coming thanks advances of either mathematical simulation (DNS or of experiment (time-resolved PIV. Unfortunately there is no standard method for analysis of such data describing complicated extended dynamical systems, which is characterized by excessive number of degrees of freedom. An overview of candidate methods convenient to spatiotemporal analysis for such systems is to be presented. Special attention will be paid to energetic methods including Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD in regular and snapshot variants as well as the Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition (BOD for joint space-time analysis. Then, stability analysis using Principal Oscillation Patterns (POPs will be introduced. Finally, the Independent Component Analysis (ICA method will be proposed for detection of coherent structures in turbulent flow-field defined by time-dependent velocity vector field. Principle and some practical aspects of the methods are to be shown. Special attention is to be paid to physical interpretation of outputs of the methods listed above.

  16. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey: multilevel survey methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxman, Faye S; Young, Douglas W; Wiersema, Brian; Rhodes, Anne; Mitchell, Suzanne

    2007-04-01

    The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey provides a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of programs and services provided to adult and juvenile offenders involved in the justice system in the United States. The multilevel survey design covers topics such as the mission and goals of correctional and treatment programs; organizational climate and culture for providing services; organizational capacity and needs; opinions of administrators and staff regarding rehabilitation, punishment, and services provided to offenders; treatment policies and procedures; and working relationships between correctional and other agencies. The methodology generates national estimates of the availability of programs and services for offenders. This article details the methodology and sampling frame for the NCJTP survey, response rates, and survey procedures. Prevalence estimates of juvenile and adult offenders under correctional control are provided with externally validated comparisons to illustrate the veracity of the methodology. Limitations of the survey methods are also discussed.

  17. Checklist and "Pollard Walk" butterfly survey methods on public lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Ronald A.; Austin, Jane E.; Newton, Wesley E.

    1998-01-01

    Checklist and “Pollard Walk” butterfly survey methods were contemporaneously applied to seven public sites in North Dakota during the summer of 1995. Results were compared for effect of method and site on total number of butterflies and total number of species detected per hour. Checklist searching produced significantly more butterfly detections per hour than Pollard Walks at all sites. Number of species detected per hour did not differ significantly either among sites or between methods. Many species were detected by only one method, and at most sites generalist and invader species were more likely to be observed during checklist searches than during Pollard Walks. Results indicate that checklist surveys are a more efficient means for initial determination of a species list for a site, whereas for long-term monitoring the Pollard Walk is more practical and statistically manageable. Pollard Walk transects are thus recommended once a prairie butterfly fauna has been defined for a site by checklist surveys.

  18. Teaching Method Research of Civil Engineering Surveying Practice ---Prominent Personal Competency Development%土木工程专业测绘实习教学方法研究——突出个人能力培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨谈蜀

    2012-01-01

    测绘实习是高校土木工程专业工程测量教学的重要组成部分,是学生从学校走向生产实际的桥梁。作者在测绘实习教学中紧紧围绕土木工程生产实践,以提高每个学生独立应用能力为中心,总结出一套传统与启发教育相结合的教学方法,采取合理配备师资、科学分组、突出个人独立观测成果要求、加强日常启发辅导、强调仪器考核等措施,提高学生的实习积极性和能动性,在掌握测绘技能的同时深化理解理论知识,培养符合社会需要的应用型高级技术人才。%Surveying and Mapping internship is an important part of the College of Civil Engineering professional engin- eering survey teaching, the students from the school to the actual production of bridge. Tightly around the civil engineering production practices of practice teaching in the surveying and mapping, standalone application to improve each student-cen- tered, summed up the combination of a set of traditional and inspired education teaching methods, to take reasonable with teachers, scientific grouping, highlighting the personal independence the observation results of requirements, to strengthen daily inspiration counseling, stressed instrument assessment and other measures to improve the student's internship enthusi- asm and initiative, mastered surveying and mapping skills, while deepening the understanding of the theoretical knowledge, training of applied senior technical personnel to meet the social needs.

  19. Using mixed methods in health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixed methods studies. The objective of this paper is to provide an accessible introduction to mixed methods for clinicians and researchers unfamiliar with this approach. We present a synthesis of key methodological literature on mixed methods research, with examples from our own work and that of others, to illustrate the practical applications of this approach within health research. We summarize definitions of mixed methods research, the value of this approach, key aspects of study design and analysis, and discuss the potential challenges of combining quantitative and qualitative methods and data. One of the key challenges within mixed methods research is the successful integration of quantitative and qualitative data during analysis and interpretation. However, the integration of different types of data can generate insights into a research question, resulting in enriched understanding of complex health research problems. PMID:23885291

  20. Using mixed methods in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Shema; Woodman, Jenny

    2013-06-01

    Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixed methods studies. The objective of this paper is to provide an accessible introduction to mixed methods for clinicians and researchers unfamiliar with this approach. We present a synthesis of key methodological literature on mixed methods research, with examples from our own work and that of others, to illustrate the practical applications of this approach within health research. We summarize definitions of mixed methods research, the value of this approach, key aspects of study design and analysis, and discuss the potential challenges of combining quantitative and qualitative methods and data. One of the key challenges within mixed methods research is the successful integration of quantitative and qualitative data during analysis and interpretation. However, the integration of different types of data can generate insights into a research question, resulting in enriched understanding of complex health research problems.

  1. Research Methods in Interlanguage Pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Dahl, Merete

    1991-01-01

    A review of data collection methods used in 39 studies of interlanguage pragmatics, focusing on the validity of different types of data resulting from discourse completion, role play, observation of authentic speech, and multiple approaches, concludes that caution is needed in determining the true validity of the collected data. (72 references)…

  2. RESEARCH METHODS OF LOCATIVE ELEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULAYMANOVA N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methods of investigation of locative elements. Sentence analysis with locative elements is taken according to the results of component analysis in the system of contradicting – opposition. More over the article is full of examples related to the description of various syntactic units.

  3. Multiple Methods: Research Methods in Education Projects at NSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Larry E.

    2005-01-01

    Projects on science and mathematics education research supported by the National Science Foundation (US government) rarely employ a single method of study. Studies of educational practices that use experimental design are very rare. The most common research method is the case study method and the second most common is some form of experimental…

  4. Recommendations for Culturally Sensitive Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H.; Patall, Erika A.; Rackley, Kadie R.; Reilly, Erin D.

    2016-01-01

    As the US continues to diversify, methods for accurately assessing human behavior must evolve. This paper offers multicultural research considerations at several stages of the research process for psychological research and consultation. Implications regarding the comparative research framework are discussed and suggestions are offered on how to…

  5. Recommendations for Culturally Sensitive Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H.; Patall, Erika A.; Rackley, Kadie R.; Reilly, Erin D.

    2016-01-01

    As the US continues to diversify, methods for accurately assessing human behavior must evolve. This paper offers multicultural research considerations at several stages of the research process for psychological research and consultation. Implications regarding the comparative research framework are discussed and suggestions are offered on how to…

  6. Research Dilemmas: Paradigms, Methods and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Noella; Knipe, Sally

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss issues faced by early career researchers, including the dichotomy, which many research textbooks and journal articles create and perpetuate between qualitative and quantitative research methodology despite considerable literature to support the use of mixed methods. The authors review current research literature…

  7. 基于流形学习的航空影像匹配方法研究%Research of Matching Method about Aerial Images of Surveying Based on Manifold Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付冬暇; 赵淮; 李爱霞

    2013-01-01

    提出了一种基于流形学习的航空影像匹配方法.该方法利用同一幅影像中特征点之间的空间结构和不同影像中特征点之间的相似性作为特征点映射的约束条件,利用流形学习方法对影像的特征点进行映射,将所有影像的特征点映射到同一空间后采用最小距离方法进行特征点的匹配.利用实际的航空影像进行实验,与SIFT方法、SVD-LLE方法进行综合分析,结果表明本文方法在匹配性能方面具有明显的优越性,并且能够同时获得多幅影像之间的匹配关系.%This paper proposes a matching method about aerial images of surveying based on manifold learning.Based on manifold learning,and by using the differencies of spatial structures among feature points in one image and similarities among feature points in different images,this method mapping all feature points in a same space,then matching them in min distance classification.By using actual aerial images of surveying,comprehensive analysis and SIFT method,SVD-LLE method,the results of experiment show that this method not only has obvious advantages in matching performance,but also can obtain the matching relationship between multiple images.

  8. The Delphi Method for Graduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulmoski, Gregory J.; Hartman, Francis T.; Krahn, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The Delphi method is an attractive method for graduate students completing masters and PhD level research. It is a flexible research technique that has been successfully used in our program at the University of Calgary to explore new concepts within and outside of the information systems body of knowledge. The Delphi method is an iterative process…

  9. Teaching Sociological Research Methods to Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Stanford W.; O'Toole, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Reports the development of a three-course eight-week summer program for medical students. One course covers research methods and the other two involve research practicums in public health and medical sociology. (JDH)

  10. Knowledge, attitudes, practices, and barriers related to research utilization: a survey among pharmacists in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sin Yee; Hatah, Ernieda

    2017-04-01

    Background Research utilization is part of evidence-based practice referring to the process of reviewing and critiquing scientific research and applying the findings to one's own clinical practice. Many studies on research utilization have been conducted with doctors and nurses, but to our knowledge, none have been investigated amongst pharmacists. Objective To assess research utilization and its barriers among pharmacists and identify potential influencing factors. Setting Malaysia. Methods This cross-sectional survey was administered online and by mail to a convenient sample of pharmacists working in hospitals, health clinics, and retail pharmacies in rural and urban areas. Main outcome measure Pharmacists' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Results Six hundred surveys were mailed to potential respondents, and 466 were returned (77.7% response rate). Twenty-eight respondents completed the survey online. The respondents' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices were found to be moderate. Research utilization was associated with respondents' knowledge and attitude scores (P research utilization were modelled, higher educational level was associated with higher level of research utilization (P research utilization, respectively. The main reported barrier to research utilization was lack of sufficient authority to change patient care procedures. Conclusion Pharmacists' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices can be improved by encouraging pharmacists to pursue higher degrees, promoting active participation in institutions' journal clubs, and introducing senior clinical pharmacist specialization.

  11. [Framework analysis method in qualitative research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xing; Liu, Jian-ping; Robison, Nicola; Xie, Ya-ming

    2014-05-01

    In recent years a number of qualitative research methods have gained popularity within the health care arena. Despite this popularity, different qualitative analysis methods pose many challenges to most researchers. The present paper responds to the needs expressed by recent Chinese medicine researches. The present paper is mainly focused on the concepts, nature, application of framework analysis, especially on how to use it, in such a way to assist the newcomer of Chinese medicine researchers to engage with the methodology.

  12. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional

  13. Research on the Application of GPS Rapid Static Measurement Method in Geological Engineering Survey%GPS快速静态法在地质工程测量中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵智明

    2012-01-01

    文章介绍了GPS快速静态测量法的概念、运作原理、作业模式及实际作业中的优缺点和改进办法.在某些地区,动态卫星定位无法实施地质测绘与测量,而GPS静态测量方法却效率太低.使用GPS快速静态测量方法,既克服了动态卫星定位在地质工程测量中的局限性,也弥补了GPS静态测量方法速度慢的不足,值得推广.%This paper introduces the concept, principle and mode of operation of GPS rapid static measurement method and its advantages and disadvantages in actual operation as well as improvement methods. In some areas, the dynamic satellite positioning can not implement geological mapping and measurement, GPS measurement methods are inefficient. Using GPS rapid static measurement method not only overcome the limitations of dynamic satellite positioning in geological engineering survey, but also make up for the shortage of slow speed of GPS static measurement method, which is worth promoting.

  14. Qualitative research methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Anya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the investigation of Software Engineering coexist two different research methods: 1 the quantitative that try to measure and analyze the casual relationship between the variables in a frame with free values, and 2 the qualitative that examine the creation process of meanings from which is generated new theorems or improve. Apply this methods separately in the research in software engineer makes evident that obtain results are incomplete and so is difficult to choose definitively wit which of them embark in a specific research. To approach this problem, in this article are described the quantitative methods as research methods to this engineer, and described its benefits and difficulties.

  15. SATELLITE GRAVITY SURVEYING TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH OF EARTH'S GRAVITY FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Jinsheng

    2003-01-01

    This is a summarized paper. Two topics are discussed: Firstly, the concept, development and application of four kinds of satellite gravity surveying technology are introduced; Secondly, some problems of theory and method, which must be considered in the study of the Earth's gravity field based on satellite gravity data, are expounded.

  16. The use of qualitative methods to inform Delphi surveys in core outcome set development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, T; Williamson, P; Callery, P; Jones, L L; Mathers, J; Jones, J; Young, B; Calvert, M

    2016-05-04

    Core outcome sets (COS) help to minimise bias in trials and facilitate evidence synthesis. Delphi surveys are increasingly being used as part of a wider process to reach consensus about what outcomes should be included in a COS. Qualitative research can be used to inform the development of Delphi surveys. This is an advance in the field of COS development and one which is potentially valuable; however, little guidance exists for COS developers on how best to use qualitative methods and what the challenges are. This paper aims to provide early guidance on the potential role and contribution of qualitative research in this area. We hope the ideas we present will be challenged, critiqued and built upon by others exploring the role of qualitative research in COS development. This paper draws upon the experiences of using qualitative methods in the pre-Delphi stage of the development of three different COS. Using these studies as examples, we identify some of the ways that qualitative research might contribute to COS development, the challenges in using such methods and areas where future research is required. Qualitative research can help to identify what outcomes are important to stakeholders; facilitate understanding of why some outcomes may be more important than others, determine the scope of outcomes; identify appropriate language for use in the Delphi survey and inform comparisons between stakeholder data and other sources, such as systematic reviews. Developers need to consider a number of methodological points when using qualitative research: specifically, which stakeholders to involve, how to sample participants, which data collection methods are most appropriate, how to consider outcomes with stakeholders and how to analyse these data. A number of areas for future research are identified. Qualitative research has the potential to increase the research community's confidence in COS, although this will be dependent upon using rigorous and appropriate

  17. Integrating Research Skills Training into Non--Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Research skills are a valued commodity by industry and university administrators. Despite the importance placed on these skills students typically dislike taking research method courses where these skills are learned. However, training in research skills does not necessarily have to be confined to these courses. In this study participants at a…

  18. Information Systems Development as a Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Hasan

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes the stance that some cases of information systems development can be considered knowledge creating activities, and, in those cases, information systems development can be a legitimate research method. In these cases not only is knowledge created about the development process itself but also a deeper understanding emerges about the organisational problem that the system is designed to solve. The paper begins with a brief overview of research in the design sciences and a comparison of research methods that are concerned with the design, and use, of information systems. This is followed by an assessment of the way systems development as a research method deals with the scientific research processes of data collection, analysis, synthesis and display. A case study, where the systems development research method was use, is described to illustrate the method and give the reader a better understanding of the approach.

  19. 10 best resources on ... mixed methods research in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Pongpirul, Krit

    2014-05-01

    Mixed methods research has become increasingly popular in health systems. Qualitative approaches are often used to explain quantitative results and help to develop interventions or survey instruments. Mixed methods research is especially important in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, where understanding social, economic and cultural contexts are essential to assess health systems performance. To provide researchers and programme managers with a guide to mixed methods research in health systems, we review the best resources with a focus on LMICs. We selected 10 best resources (eight peer-reviewed articles and two textbooks) based on their importance and frequency of use (number of citations), comprehensiveness of content, usefulness to readers and relevance to health systems research in resource-limited contexts. We start with an overview on mixed methods research and discuss resources that are useful for a better understanding of the design and conduct of mixed methods research. To illustrate its practical applications, we provide examples from various countries (China, Vietnam, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and India) across different health topics (tuberculosis, malaria, HIV testing and healthcare costs). We conclude with some toolkits which suggest what to do when mixed methods findings conflict and provide guidelines for evaluating the quality of mixed methods research.

  20. Making Meaningful Measurement in Survey Research: A Demonstration of the Utility of the Rasch Model. IR Applications. Volume 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Quality measurement is essential in every form of research, including institutional research and assessment. This paper addresses the erroneous assumptions institutional researchers often make with regard to survey research and provides an alternative method to producing more valid and reliable measures. Rasch measurement models are discussed and…

  1. Advances in structure research by diffraction methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hoppe, W

    1974-01-01

    Advances in Structure Research by Diffraction Methods: Volume 5 presents discussions on application of diffraction methods in structure research. The book provides the aspects of structure research using various diffraction methods. The text contains 2 chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the general theory and experimental methods used in the study of all types of amorphous solid, by both X-ray and neutron diffraction, and the detailed bibliography of work on inorganic glasses. The second chapter discusses electron diffraction, one of the major methods of determining the structures of molecules in the

  2. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group-Update and Additions to the Determination of Chloroacetanilide Herbicide Degradation Compounds in Water Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.A.; Kish, J.L.; Zimmerman, L.R.; Thurman, E.

    2001-01-01

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1999 for the analysis of selected chloroacetanilide herbicide degradation compounds in water. These compounds were acetochlor ethane sulfonic acid (ESA), acetochlor oxanilic acid (OXA), alachlor ESA, alachlor OXA, metolachlor ESA, and metolachlor OXA. The HPLC/MS method was updated in 2000, and the method detection limits were modified accordingly. Four other degradation compounds also were added to the list of compounds that can be analyzed using HPLC/MS; these compounds were dimethenamid ESA, dimethenamid OXA, flufenacet ESA, and flufenacet OXA. Except for flufenacet OXA, good precision and accuracy were demonstrated for the updated HPLC/MS method in buffered reagent water, surface water, and ground water. The mean HPLC/MS recoveries of the degradation compounds from water samples spiked at 0.20 and 1.0 ?g/L (microgram per liter) ranged from 75 to 114 percent, with relative standard deviations of 15.8 percent or less for all compounds except flufenacet OXA, which had relative standard deviations ranging from 11.3 to 48.9 percent. Method detection levels (MDL's) using the updated HPLC/MS method varied from 0.009 to 0.045 ?g/L, with the flufenacet OXA MDL at 0.072 ?g/L. The updated HPLC/MS method is valuable for acquiring information about the fate and transport of the parent chloroacetanilide herbicides in water.

  3. Research on improving outpatients' satisfaction by using "Intercept survey and feedback" method%探索应用“拦截调查和反馈”法提高门诊患者满意度的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卉; 夏春萍; 邹波; 王海银

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore approaches for improving out-patients' satisfaction and provide a scientific basis to build harmonious relationship between doctors and patients.METHODS "Intercept surveys and feedback" method was adopted and about 100 out-patients daily were randomly selected to be surveyed,timely feedback was given to relative department and rectify and reform was asked to be implemented.Indices such as satisfaction rate,satisfaction coefficient were used for analyzing.RESULTS 48 995 valid questionnaires were investigated from November 2009 to June 2011; the overall satisfaction rate was 93.70 percent.An upward trend was shown for the satisfaction rate (P =0.010 7) ; top five departments with high satisfaction rates were pediatrics,outpatient department,surgery,internal medicine,ambulatory surgery centers respectively.The attitude of medical providers was the largest proportion in the patient feedback and accounted 28.5 percents.CONCLUSION A rising trend is shown for outpatient satisfaction after using "Intercept surveys and feedback" method,quality of service is gradually improved and the management is further more perfect."Intercept surveys and feedback"method may be one effective method for improving outpatients' satisfaction.%目的 探索提高门诊患者满意度的方法,为建设和谐医患关系提供科学依据.方法 采用“拦截调查和反馈”法,每日随机抽取100名左右门诊病人开展问卷调查,并将结果及时反馈至相关部门并要求整改,分析采用满意率、满意系数等指标.结果 2009年11月~2011年6月,共调查有效问卷48 995份,总体满意率为93.70%.满意率呈波动上升趋势(P=0.010 7);满意度排在前5位的部门为儿科、门诊科室、外科、内科、日间手术中心.病人意见反馈中服务态度类比例最大,占28.5%.结论 采用“拦截调查和反馈”法后门诊病人满意度呈上升趋势,医院服务质量逐步提升,管理进一步完善.“拦截调

  4. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Looz, T.

    1995-04-01

    Results are presented of the environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1993. No activity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne discharges during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv, which is one per cent of the dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council. A list of previous environmental survey reports is attached. 22 refs., 21 tabs., 4 figs.

  5. Environmental survey at Lucas Heights Research Laboratories, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.L.; Looz, T.

    1995-04-01

    Results are presented of the environmental survey conducted in the neighbourhood of the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories during 1993. No activity which could have originated from these laboratories was found in samples collected from possible human food chains. All low-level liquid and gaseous waste discharges were within authorised limits. The maximum possible annual dose to the general public from airborne discharges during this period is estimated to be less than 0.01 mSv, which is one per cent of the dose limit for long term exposure that is recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council. A list of previous environmental survey reports is attached. 22 refs., 21 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. 77 FR 47676 - Comment Request: Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research Jurisdictional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... Comment Request: Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research Jurisdictional Survey AGENCY... Research Jurisdictional Survey Evaluation for the National Science Foundation. OMB Number: 3145-NEW. Type... strengthen science and engineering research potential and education at all levels throughout the...

  7. Measuring Substance Use and Misuse via Survey Research: Unfinished Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews unfinished business regarding the assessment of substance use behaviors by using survey research methodologies, a practice that dates back to the earliest years of this journal's publication. Six classes of unfinished business are considered including errors of sampling, coverage, non-response, measurement, processing, and ethics. It may be that there is more now that we do not know than when this work began some 50 years ago.

  8. Remote sensing methods for power line corridor surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, Leena; Lehtomäki, Matti; Ahokas, Eero; Hyyppä, Juha; Karjalainen, Mika; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Kukko, Antero; Heinonen, Tero

    2016-09-01

    To secure uninterrupted distribution of electricity, effective monitoring and maintenance of power lines are needed. This literature review article aims to give a wide overview of the possibilities provided by modern remote sensing sensors in power line corridor surveys and to discuss the potential and limitations of different approaches. Monitoring of both power line components and vegetation around them is included. Remotely sensed data sources discussed in the review include synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, optical satellite and aerial images, thermal images, airborne laser scanner (ALS) data, land-based mobile mapping data, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data. The review shows that most previous studies have concentrated on the mapping and analysis of network components. In particular, automated extraction of power line conductors has achieved much attention, and promising results have been reported. For example, accuracy levels above 90% have been presented for the extraction of conductors from ALS data or aerial images. However, in many studies datasets have been small and numerical quality analyses have been omitted. Mapping of vegetation near power lines has been a less common research topic than mapping of the components, but several studies have also been carried out in this field, especially using optical aerial and satellite images. Based on the review we conclude that in future research more attention should be given to an integrated use of various data sources to benefit from the various techniques in an optimal way. Knowledge in related fields, such as vegetation monitoring from ALS, SAR and optical image data should be better exploited to develop useful monitoring approaches. Special attention should be given to rapidly developing remote sensing techniques such as UAVs and laser scanning from airborne and land-based platforms. To demonstrate and verify the capabilities of automated monitoring approaches, large tests in various environments

  9. Attitudinal survey component of the study Quantity, quality, and support for research in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: An organizational assessment: Report of methods and frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Jennifer R.; Lamb, Berton Lee; Swann, Earlene M.; Ratz, Joan; Ponds, Phadrea D.; Liverca, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is responsible for managing the Nation’s fish and wildlife resources so that these trust resources are preserved for the present and future use and enjoyment of the citizens of the United States. The FWS achieves this mission by managing many programs. These include the national system of refuges and fish hatcheries, Fish and Wildlife Management Assistance Offices, migratory birds program, law enforcement, and working with tribal, state, and other Federal agencies to ensure protection of threatened and endangered species. Another role of the FWS is consulting with tribal, state, and other Federal agencies and private sector interests on the best conservation management practices consistent with Federal law. Each of these activities requires a workforce that is recognized for its professionalism, dedication to public service, and command of expert knowledge. Recognition for expert knowledge in fish and wildlife conservation is demonstrated, in part, when FWS personnel direct, conduct, or report research that is well-designed to answer questions of importance for natural resource management. The data reported in this document are one part of a three-part study of the status of organizational support for research in FWS, which was commissioned by the Directorate of the FWS. Funding for this study was provided by the FWS, and the Science Support Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  10. Miscellaneous standard methods for Apis mellifera research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Human, H.; Brodschneider, R.; Dietemann, V.; Dively, G.; Ellis, J.D.; Forsgren, E.; Fries, I.; Hatjina, F.; Hu, F.L.; Jaffe, R.; Jensen, A.B.; Kohler, A.; Magyar, J.P.; Ouml; zkyrym, A.; Pirk, C.W.W.; Rose, R.; Strauss, U.; Tanner, G.; Tarpy, D.R.; Steen, van der J.J.M.; Vaudo, A.; Vejsnaes, F.; Wilde, de J.; Williams, G.R.; Zheng, H.Q.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of methods are used in honey bee research and differ depending on the level at which the research is conducted. On an individual level, the handling of individual honey bees, including the queen, larvae and pupae are required. There are different methods for the immobilising, killing and s

  11. e-Learning Business Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a generic Business Research Methods course from a simple name in a box to a full e-Learning web based module. It highlights particular issues surrounding the nature of the discipline and the integration of a large number of cross faculty subject specific research methods courses into a single generic module.…

  12. Exploring methods in information literacy research

    CERN Document Server

    Lipu, Suzanne; Lloyd, Annemaree

    2007-01-01

    This book provides an overview of approaches to assist researchers and practitioners to explore ways of undertaking research in the information literacy field. The first chapter provides an introductory overview of research by Dr Kirsty Williamson (author of Research Methods for Students, Academics and Professionals: Information Management and Systems) and this sets the scene for the rest of the chapters where each author explores the key aspects of a specific method and explains how it may be applied in practice. The methods covered include those representing qualitative, quantitative and mix

  13. Future methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice...... of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. © 2016, Springer International Publishing....... research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging...

  14. Autoethnography as an Accessible Method of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Polczyk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on my own experiences as a researcher with a disability who lives and works in Poland, I examine methodological issues critical to conducting qualitative research. I argue that autoethnography is a viable method for researchers who must overcome physical and/or cultural obstacles associated with a disability. I also maintain that autoethnography as well as its usefulness as a research method is inherently situated within the sociocultural conditions in which research is being conducted. Concluding, I imply that further studies are necessary for people with disabilities to re-gain voice and articulate their experiences.

  15. Mapping Methods Metadata for Research Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Chao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the methods and processes implemented by data producers to generate research data is essential for fostering data reuse. Yet, producing the metadata that describes these methods remains a time-intensive activity that data producers do not readily undertake. In particular, researchers in the long tail of science often lack the financial support or tools for metadata generation, thereby limiting future access and reuse of data produced. The present study investigates research journal publications as a potential source for identifying descriptive metadata about methods for research data. Initial results indicate that journal articles provide rich descriptive content that can be sufficiently mapped to existing metadata standards with methods-related elements, resulting in a mapping of the data production process for a study. This research has implications for enhancing the generation of robust metadata to support the curation of research data for new inquiry and innovation.

  16. Using the Case Survey Method To Analyze Policy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.; Heald, Karen A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a case study survey method that allows an analyst to aggregate (by means of a closed-ended questionnaire) the case study experiences and to assess the quality of each case study in a reliable and replicable manner. (Author/IRT)

  17. Using observational methods in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jenny

    2015-07-08

    Observation is a research data-collection method used generally to capture the activities of participants as well as when and where things are happening in a given setting. It checks description of the phenomena against what the researcher perceives to be fact in a rich experiential context. The method's main strength is that it provides direct access to the social phenomena under consideration. It can be used quantitatively or qualitatively, depending on the research question. Challenges in using observation relate to adopting the role of participant or non-participant researcher as observer. This article discusses some of the complexities involved when nurse researchers seek to collect observational data on social processes in naturalistic settings using unstructured or structured observational methods in qualitative research methodology. A glossary of research terms is provided.

  18. Research methods for formal consensus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Daphne; Warren-Forward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews three research methods for developing consensus. Consensus statements and guidelines are increasingly used to clarify and standardise practice, and inform health policy, when relevant and rigorous evidence is lacking. Clinicians need to evaluate the quality of practice guidelines to determine whether to incorporate them into clinical practice or reject them. Formal methods of developing consensus provide a scientific method that uses expert panel members to evaluate current evidence and expert opinions to produce consensus statements for clinical problems. Online search for relevant literature was conducted in Medline and CINAHL. A literature review of consensus, consensus development and research methods papers published in English in peer-reviewed journals. The three methods of developing consensus discussed are the Delphi technique, nominal group technique and the consensus development conference. The techniques and their respective advantages are described, and examples from the literature are provided. The three methods are compared and a flowchart to assist researchers selecting an appropriate method is included. Online resources with information on the development and evaluation of clinical guidelines are reviewed. This paper will help researchers to select an appropriate research method for developing consensus statements and guidelines. When developing consensus guidelines for clinical practice, researchers should use a formal research method to ensure rigour and credibility.

  19. Intercalibration of research survey vessels on Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, J.T.; Johnson, T.B.; Knight, C.T.; Bur, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Fish abundance indices obtained from annual research trawl surveys are an integral part of fisheries stock assessment and management in the Great Lakes. It is difficult, however, to administer trawl surveys using a single vessel-gear combination owing to the large size of these systems, the jurisdictional boundaries that bisect the Great Lakes, and changes in vessels as a result of fleet replacement. When trawl surveys are administered by multiple vessel-gear combinations, systematic error may be introduced in combining catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) data across vessels. This bias is associated with relative differences in catchability among vessel-gear combinations. In Lake Erie, five different research vessels conduct seasonal trawl surveys in the western half of the lake. To eliminate this systematic bias, the Lake Erie agencies conducted a side-by-side trawling experiment in 2003 to develop correction factors for CPUE data associated with different vessel-gear combinations. Correcting for systematic bias in CPUE data should lead to more accurate and comparable estimates of species density and biomass. We estimated correction factors for the 10 most commonly collected species age-groups for each vessel during the experiment. Most of the correction factors (70%) ranged from 0.5 to 2.0, indicating that the systematic bias associated with different vessel-gear combinations was not large. Differences in CPUE were most evident for vessels using different sampling gears, although significant differences also existed for vessels using the same gears. These results suggest that standardizing gear is important for multiple-vessel surveys, but there will still be significant differences in catchability stemming from the vessel effects and agencies must correct for this. With standardized estimates of CPUE, the Lake Erie agencies will have the ability to directly compare and combine time series for species abundance. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  20. Research methods for English language teachers

    CERN Document Server

    McDonough, Jo

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a lively introduction to the research methods and techniques available to English language teachers who wish to investigate aspects of their own practice. It covers qualitative and quantitative methodology and includes sections on observation, introspection, diary studies, experiments, interviews, questionnaires, numerical techniques and case study research. Each method is illustrated with examples in language teaching contexts, and techniques of data collection and analysis are introduced. The authors focus particularly on research in the classroom, on tests, materials, the

  1. Mixed method designs in implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Aarons, Gregory A; Horwitz, Sarah; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael; Landsverk, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the application of mixed method designs in implementation research in 22 mental health services research studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 5 years. Our analyses revealed 7 different structural arrangements of qualitative and quantitative methods, 5 different functions of mixed methods, and 3 different ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data together. Complexity of design was associated with number of aims or objectives, study context, and phase of implementation examined. The findings provide suggestions for the use of mixed method designs in implementation research.

  2. Qualitative versus quantitative methods in psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafsha, Mahdi; Behforuzi, Hura; Azari, Hassan; Zhang, Zhiqun; Wang, Kevin K; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative studies are gaining their credibility after a period of being misinterpreted as "not being quantitative." Qualitative method is a broad umbrella term for research methodologies that describe and explain individuals' experiences, behaviors, interactions, and social contexts. In-depth interview, focus groups, and participant observation are among the qualitative methods of inquiry commonly used in psychiatry. Researchers measure the frequency of occurring events using quantitative methods; however, qualitative methods provide a broader understanding and a more thorough reasoning behind the event. Hence, it is considered to be of special importance in psychiatry. Besides hypothesis generation in earlier phases of the research, qualitative methods can be employed in questionnaire design, diagnostic criteria establishment, feasibility studies, as well as studies of attitude and beliefs. Animal models are another area that qualitative methods can be employed, especially when naturalistic observation of animal behavior is important. However, since qualitative results can be researcher's own view, they need to be statistically confirmed, quantitative methods. The tendency to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods as complementary methods has emerged over recent years. By applying both methods of research, scientists can take advantage of interpretative characteristics of qualitative methods as well as experimental dimensions of quantitative methods.

  3. Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity data are essential to drawing valid conclusions in treatment outcome studies. Such data, however, are not always included in peer-reviewed research articles in school psychology or related fields. To gain a better understanding of why treatment integrity data are lacking in the school psychology research, we surveyed the…

  4. Barriers to Implementing Treatment Integrity Procedures in School Psychology Research: Survey of Treatment Outcome Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity data are essential to drawing valid conclusions in treatment outcome studies. Such data, however, are not always included in peer-reviewed research articles in school psychology or related fields. To gain a better understanding of why treatment integrity data are lacking in the school psychology research, we surveyed the…

  5. Feminist research: definitions, methodology, methods and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C

    1993-03-01

    The literature relating to feminist research both within and beyond nursing is reviewed in this paper. Feminist research is located within a post-positivist paradigm, and various definitions are considered. The distinctive methodological approach of feminist research is discussed, and interviewing and ethnography are evaluated as suitable methods for use in feminist research. Oakley's (1981) paper on interviewing women is subjected to criticism. A final section examines attempts by three sets of writers to propose evaluation criteria for feminist research. The review concludes that a number of paradoxes and dilemmas in feminist research have yet to be resolved.

  6. Mixed Method Designs in Implementation Research

    OpenAIRE

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Aarons, Gregory A.; Horwitz, Sarah; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael; Landsverk, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of mixed method designs in implementation research in 22 mental health services research studies published in peer-reviewed journals over the last 5 years. Our analyses revealed 7 different structural arrangements of qualitative and quantitative methods, 5 different functions of mixed methods, and 3 different ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data together. Complexity of design was associated with number of aims or objectives, study context, and...

  7. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  8. Biological variables for the site survey of surface ecosystems - existing data and survey methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylaekorpi, Lasse; Berggren, Jens; Larsson, Mats; Liberg, Maria; Rydgren, Bernt [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    In the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep level repository of nuclear waste, site surveys will be carried out. These site surveys will also include studies of the biota at the site, in order to assure that the chosen site will not conflict with important ecological interests, and to establish a thorough baseline for future impact assessments and monitoring programmes. As a preparation to the site survey programme, a review of the variables that need to be surveyed is conducted. This report contains the review for some of those variables. For each variable, existing data sources and their characteristics are listed. For those variables for which existing data sources are inadequate, suggestions are made for appropriate methods that will enable the establishment of an acceptable baseline. In this report the following variables are reviewed: Fishery, Landscape, Vegetation types, Key biotopes, Species (flora and fauna), Red-listed species (flora and fauna), Biomass (flora and fauna), Water level, water retention time (incl. water body and flow), Nutrients/toxins, Oxygen concentration, Layering, stratification, Light conditions/transparency, Temperature, Sediment transport, (Marine environments are excluded from this review). For a major part of the variables, the existing data coverage is most likely insufficient. Both the temporal and/or the geographical resolution is often limited, which means that complementary surveys must be performed during (or before) the site surveys. It is, however, in general difficult to make exact judgements on the extent of existing data, and also to give suggestions for relevant methods to use in the site surveys. This can be finally decided only when the locations for the sites are decided upon. The relevance of the different variables also depends on the environmental characteristics of the sites. Therefore, we suggest that when the survey sites are selected, an additional review is

  9. Healthy ageing, narrative method and research ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe research and teaching activities related to healthy ageing, narrative methods and research ethics at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV during 1999 - 2012. Healthy ageing was conceived in terms of The World Health Organization's (WHO) model of active ageing and of quality of life defined as a sense of well-being, meaning and value. Qualitative research on ageing and health conducted at NHV showed how elderly people themselves experience health and what they perceive to be health promoting. Narrative method was one the qualitative methods used in research at NHV. By adopting holistic and categorical content analysis the life stories of elderly Finnish migrants, the stories of home-dwelling persons about falls, and working persons' stories of alcohol use were studied. The courses on research ethics took their point of departure in a model that describes the role of scientific, economic, aesthetic and ethical values in research.

  10. Relationships between the Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) and self-reported research practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; Thrush, Carol R

    2013-09-01

    The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SORC) is a validated tool to facilitate promotion of research integrity and research best practices. This work uses the SORC to assess shared and individual perceptions of the research climate in universities and academic departments and relate these perceptions to desirable and undesirable research practices. An anonymous web- and mail-based survey was administered to randomly selected biomedical and social science faculty and postdoctoral fellows in the United States. Respondents reported their perceptions of the research climates at their universities and primary departments, and the frequency with which they engaged in desirable and undesirable research practices. More positive individual perceptions of the research climate in one's university or department were associated with higher likelihoods of desirable, and lower likelihoods of undesirable, research practices. Shared perceptions of the research climate tended to be similarly predictive of both desirable and undesirable research practices as individuals' deviations from these shared perceptions. Study results supported the central prediction that more positive SORC-measured perceptions of the research climate were associated with more positive reports of research practices. There were differences with respect to whether shared or individual climate perceptions were related to desirable or undesirable practices but the general pattern of results provide empirical evidence that the SORC is predictive of self-reported research behavior.

  11. The Role of Qualitative Research Methods in Discrete Choice Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Caroline; Rigby, Dan; Payne, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Background. The use of qualitative research (QR) methods is recommended as good practice in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This study investigated the use and reporting of QR to inform the design and/or interpretation of healthcare-related DCEs and explored the perceived usefulness of such methods. Methods. DCEs were identified from a systematic search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were classified by the quantity of QR reported (none, basic, or extensive). Authors (n = 91) of papers reporting the use of QR were invited to complete an online survey eliciting their views about using the methods. Results. A total of 254 healthcare DCEs were included in the review; of these, 111 (44%) did not report using any qualitative methods; 114 (45%) reported “basic” information; and 29 (11%) reported or cited “extensive” use of qualitative methods. Studies reporting the use of qualitative methods used them to select attributes and/or levels (n = 95; 66%) and/or pilot the DCE survey (n = 26; 18%). Popular qualitative methods included focus groups (n = 63; 44%) and interviews (n = 109; 76%). Forty-four studies (31%) reported the analytical approach, with content (n = 10; 7%) and framework analysis (n = 5; 4%) most commonly reported. The survey identified that all responding authors (n = 50; 100%) found that qualitative methods added value to their DCE study, but many (n = 22; 44%) reported that journals were uninterested in the reporting of QR results. Conclusions. Despite recommendations that QR methods be used alongside DCEs, the use of QR methods is not consistently reported. The lack of reporting risks the inference that QR methods are of little use in DCE research, contradicting practitioners’ assessments. Explicit guidelines would enable more clarity and consistency in reporting, and journals should facilitate such reporting via online supplementary materials. PMID:28061040

  12. Samples and data accessibility in research biobanks: an explorative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Capocasa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biobanks, which contain human biological samples and/or data, provide a crucial contribution to the progress of biomedical research. However, the effective and efficient use of biobank resources depends on their accessibility. In fact, making bio-resources promptly accessible to everybody may increase the benefits for society. Furthermore, optimizing their use and ensuring their quality will promote scientific creativity and, in general, contribute to the progress of bio-medical research. Although this has become a rather common belief, several laboratories are still secretive and continue to withhold samples and data. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire-based survey in order to investigate sample and data accessibility in research biobanks operating all over the world. The survey involved a total of 46 biobanks. Most of them gave permission to access their samples (95.7% and data (85.4%, but free and unconditioned accessibility seemed not to be common practice. The analysis of the guidelines regarding the accessibility to resources of the biobanks that responded to the survey highlights three issues: (i the request for applicants to explain what they would like to do with the resources requested; (ii the role of funding, public or private, in the establishment of fruitful collaborations between biobanks and research labs; (iii the request of co-authorship in order to give access to their data. These results suggest that economic and academic aspects are involved in determining the extent of sample and data sharing stored in biobanks. As a second step of this study, we investigated the reasons behind the high diversity of requirements to access biobank resources. The analysis of informative answers suggested that the different modalities of resource accessibility seem to be largely influenced by both social context and legislation of the countries where the biobanks operate.

  13. Implementing Project Based Survey Research Skills to Grade Six ELP Students with "The Survey Toolkit" and "TinkerPlots"[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    "Survey Toolkit Collecting Information, Analyzing Data and Writing Reports" (Walsh, 2009a) is discussed as a survey research curriculum used by the author's sixth grade students. The report describes the implementation of "The Survey Toolkit" curriculum and "TinkerPlots"[R] software to provide instruction to students learning a project based…

  14. Implementing Project Based Survey Research Skills to Grade Six ELP Students with "The Survey Toolkit" and "TinkerPlots"[R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Thomas, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    "Survey Toolkit Collecting Information, Analyzing Data and Writing Reports" (Walsh, 2009a) is discussed as a survey research curriculum used by the author's sixth grade students. The report describes the implementation of "The Survey Toolkit" curriculum and "TinkerPlots"[R] software to provide instruction to students learning a project based…

  15. Orthopaedic nurses' perception of research utilization - A cross sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    The call for evidence-based knowledge in clinical nursing practice has increased during recent decades and research in orthopaedic nursing is needed to improve patients' conditions, care and treatment. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the self-perceived theoretical...... knowledge and practical research competencies among orthopaedic nurses and their interest and motivation to increase these in everyday practice. A newly developed questionnaire was given to a convenience sample of 87 orthopaedic nurses. Forty three orthopaedic nurses (49.4%) completed the questionnaire....... The results indicated that despite the majority of orthopaedic nurses having low self-perceived theoretical knowledge and practical research competencies, their interest and motivation to improve these were high, especially their inner motivation. However, the nurses' inner motivation was inhibited by a lack...

  16. The IMACS Cluster Building Survey. I. Description of the Survey and Analysis Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Oemler,, Augustus; Gladders, Michael G; Rigby, Jane R; Bai, Lei; Kelson, Daniel; Villanueva, Edward; Fritz, Jacopo; Rieke, George; Poggianti, Bianca M; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    The IMACS Cluster Building Survey uses the wide field spectroscopic capabilities of the IMACS spectrograph on the 6.5m Baade Telescope to survey the large-scale environment surrounding rich intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. The goal is to understand the processes which may be transforming star-forming field galaxies into quiescent cluster members as groups and individual galaxies fall into the cluster from the surrounding supercluster. This first paper describes the survey: the data taking and reduction methods. We provide new calibrations of star formation rates derived from optical and infrared spectroscopy and photometry. We demonstrate that there is a tight relation between the observed star formation rate per unit B luminosity, and the ratio of the extinctions of the stellar continuum and the optical emission lines. With this, we can obtain accurate extinction-corrected colors of galaxies. Using these colors as well as other spectral measures, we determine new criteria for the existence of ongo...

  17. A Survey of Various Object Oriented Requirement Engineering Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandi Mahajan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In current years many industries have been moving to the use of object-oriented methods for the development of large scale information systems The requirement of Object Oriented approach in the development of software systems is increasing day by day. This paper is basically a survey paper on various Object-oriented requirement engineering methods. This paper contains a summary of the available Object-oriented requirement engineering methods with their relative advantages and disadvantages. On next, several features have been proposed. These features are the characteristics of a good model of Object-oriented requirement engineering.

  18. The Role of Qualitative Research Methods in Discrete Choice Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Caroline; Rigby, Dan; Payne, Katherine

    2017-04-01

    The use of qualitative research (QR) methods is recommended as good practice in discrete choice experiments (DCEs). This study investigated the use and reporting of QR to inform the design and/or interpretation of healthcare-related DCEs and explored the perceived usefulness of such methods. DCEs were identified from a systematic search of the MEDLINE database. Studies were classified by the quantity of QR reported (none, basic, or extensive). Authors ( n = 91) of papers reporting the use of QR were invited to complete an online survey eliciting their views about using the methods. A total of 254 healthcare DCEs were included in the review; of these, 111 (44%) did not report using any qualitative methods; 114 (45%) reported "basic" information; and 29 (11%) reported or cited "extensive" use of qualitative methods. Studies reporting the use of qualitative methods used them to select attributes and/or levels ( n = 95; 66%) and/or pilot the DCE survey ( n = 26; 18%). Popular qualitative methods included focus groups ( n = 63; 44%) and interviews ( n = 109; 76%). Forty-four studies (31%) reported the analytical approach, with content ( n = 10; 7%) and framework analysis ( n = 5; 4%) most commonly reported. The survey identified that all responding authors ( n = 50; 100%) found that qualitative methods added value to their DCE study, but many ( n = 22; 44%) reported that journals were uninterested in the reporting of QR results. Despite recommendations that QR methods be used alongside DCEs, the use of QR methods is not consistently reported. The lack of reporting risks the inference that QR methods are of little use in DCE research, contradicting practitioners' assessments. Explicit guidelines would enable more clarity and consistency in reporting, and journals should facilitate such reporting via online supplementary materials.

  19. Using mixed methods when researching communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Bertha M N; Meetoo, Danny

    2015-09-01

    To argue for the use of mixed methods when researching communities. Although research involving minority communities is now advanced, not enough effort has been made to formulate methodological linkages between qualitative and quantitative methods in most studies. For instance, the quantitative approaches used by epidemiologists and others in examining the wellbeing of communities are usually empirical. While the rationale for this is sound, quantitative findings can be expanded with data from in-depth qualitative approaches, such as interviews or observations, which are likely to provide insights into the experiences of people in those communities and their relationships with their wellbeing. Academic databases including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, INTERNURSE, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge and PubMed. An iterative process of identifying eligible literature was carried out by comprehensively searching electronic databases. Using mixed-methods approaches is likely to address any potential drawbacks of individual methods by exploiting the strengths of each at the various stages of research. Combining methods can provide additional ways of looking at a complex problem and improve the understanding of a community's experiences. However, it is important for researchers to use the different methods interactively during their research. The use of qualitative and quantitative methods is likely to enrich our understanding of the interrelationship between wellbeing and the experiences of communities. This should help researchers to explore socio-cultural factors and experiences of health and healthcare practice more effectively.

  20. Preliminary Survey on Empirical Research Practices in Requirements Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Daneva, Maia; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2012-01-01

    [Context and Motivation]. Based on published output in the premium RE conferences and journals, we observe a growing body of research using both quantitative and qualitative research methods to help understand which RE technique, process or tool work better in which context. Also, more and more

  1. Survey of biomass gasification. Volume III. Current technology and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    This survey of biomass gasification was written to aid the Department of Energy and the Solar Energy Research Institute Biological and Chemical Conversion Branch in determining the areas of gasification that are ready for commercialization now and those areas in which further research and development will be most productive. Chapter 8 is a survey of gasifier types. Chapter 9 consists of a directory of current manufacturers of gasifiers and gasifier development programs. Chapter 10 is a sampling of current gasification R and D programs and their unique features. Chapter 11 compares air gasification for the conversion of existing gas/oil boiler systems to biomass feedstocks with the price of installing new biomass combustion equipment. Chapter 12 treats gas conditioning as a necessary adjunct to all but close-coupled gasifiers, in which the product is promptly burned. Chapter 13 evaluates, technically and economically, synthesis-gas processes for conversion to methanol, ammonia, gasoline, or methane. Chapter 14 compiles a number of comments that have been assembled from various members of the gasifier community as to possible roles of the government in accelerating the development of gasifier technology and commercialization. Chapter 15 includes recommendations for future gasification research and development.

  2. Methods, goals and educational design research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2014-01-01

    McKenney, S. (2013). Methods, goals and educational design research. Invited panel presentation at the annual meeting of the European Association for Practitioner Resaerch on Improving Learning. November 27-29, Biel/Bienne, Switzerland.

  3. Methods, goals and educational design research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2014-01-01

    McKenney, S. (2013). Methods, goals and educational design research. Invited panel presentation at the annual meeting of the European Association for Practitioner Resaerch on Improving Learning. November 27-29, Biel/Bienne, Switzerland.

  4. METHODS OF TSUNAMI DETECTION AND OF POST-TSUNAMI SURVEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kurkin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In our paper we describe some of the methods of the last 25 years which have been used extensively to examine and register tsunami traces - particularly by satellite imaging of coastal zones before and after a tsunami has struck, thus assessing quickly the extent of coastal inundation over large areas without the need of a site visit. Nearly all countries bordering oceans, seas and bodies of water have established digital systems of water level registration in the range of tsunami waves. In this article we describe methods of tsunami detection and runup measurements, some based on our own participation in post-tsunami surveys. Also, we discuss the possibility of using robotic systems to survey tsunami traces in hard-to- reach places.

  5. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  6. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  7. The Delphi Method in Rehabilitation Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Ramos, Robinson; Leahy, Michael; Estrada Hernandez, Noel

    2007-01-01

    Rehabilitation researchers have found in the application of the Delphi method a more sophisticated way of obtaining consensus from experts in the field on certain matters. The application of this research methodology has affected and certainly advanced the body of knowledge of the rehabilitation counseling practice. However, the rehabilitation…

  8. A Survey of Theoretical and Experimental Coaxial Rotor Aerodynamic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Colin P.

    1997-01-01

    The recent appearance of the Kamov Ka-50 helicopter and the application of coaxial rotors to unmanned aerial vehicles have renewed international interest in the coaxial rotor configuration. This report addresses the aerodynamic issues peculiar to coaxial rotors by surveying American, Russian, Japanese, British, and German research. (Herein, 'coaxial rotors' refers to helicopter, not propeller, rotors. The intermeshing rotor system was not investigated.) Issues addressed are separation distance, load sharing between rotors, wake structure, solidity effects, swirl recovery, and the effects of having no tail rotor. A general summary of the coaxial rotor configuration explores the configuration's advantages and applications.

  9. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Country Risk Analysis: A Survey of the Quantitative Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hiranya K Nath

    2008-01-01

    With globalization and financial integration, there has been rapid growth of international lending and foreign direct investment (FDI). In view of this emerging trend, country risk analysis has become extremely important for the international creditors and investors. This paper briefly discusses the concepts and definitions, and presents a survey of the quantitative methods that are used to address various issues related to country risk. It also gives a summary review of selected empirical st...

  11. Rapid Mapping Method Based on Free Blocks of Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianwen; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Jinling

    2016-06-01

    While producing large-scale larger than 1:2000 maps in cities or towns, the obstruction from buildings leads to difficult and heavy tasks of measuring mapping control points. In order to avoid measuring the mapping control points and shorten the time of fieldwork, in this paper, a quick mapping method is proposed. This method adjusts many free blocks of surveys together, and transforms the points from all free blocks of surveys into the same coordinate system. The entire surveying area is divided into many free blocks, and connection points are set on the boundaries between free blocks. An independent coordinate system of every free block is established via completely free station technology, and the coordinates of the connection points, detail points and control points in every free block in the corresponding independent coordinate systems are obtained based on poly-directional open traverses. Error equations are established based on connection points, which are determined together to obtain the transformation parameters. All points are transformed from the independent coordinate systems to a transitional coordinate system via the transformation parameters. Several control points are then measured by GPS in a geodetic coordinate system. All the points can then be transformed from the transitional coordinate system to the geodetic coordinate system. In this paper, the implementation process and mathematical formulas of the new method are presented in detail, and the formula to estimate the precision of surveys is given. An example has demonstrated that the precision of using the new method could meet large-scale mapping needs.

  12. A Survey on Formal Methods for Web Service Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Web Service Composition creates new composite Web Services from existing Web Services which embodies the added values of Web Service technology and is a key technology to solve cross-organizational business process integrations. We do a survey on formal methods for Web Service Composition in the following way. Through analyses of Web Service Composition, we establish a reference model called RM-WSComposition to capture elements of Web Service Composition. Based on the RM-WSComposition, issues...

  13. a Survey on Topics, Researchers and Cultures in the Field of Digital Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, S.

    2017-08-01

    Digital heritage comprises a broad variety of approaches and topics and involves researchers from multiple disciplines. While the use of digital methods in the text-oriented disciplines dealing with cultural heritage is widely discussed and canonized, an up-to-date investigation on cultural heritage as a scholarly field is currently missing. The extended abstract is about a three-stage investigation on standards, publications, disciplinary cultures as well as scholars in the field of digital heritage, carried out in 2016 and 2017. It includes results of a workshop-based survey involving 44 researchers, 15 qualitative interviews as well as an online survey with nearly 1000 participants. As an overall finding, a community is driven by researchers from European countries and especially Italy with a background in humanities, dealing with topics of data acquisition, data management and visualization. Moreover, conference series are most relevant for a scientific discourse, and especially EU projects set pace as most important research endeavours.

  14. Social Experiments and Participatory Research as Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways to d...... practice-based methods where "social experiments with technology" and "dialogue research" are the key-words. ......Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways...... to discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope...

  15. Definition of spectrally separable classes for soil survey research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipra, J. E.; Swain, P. H.; Gill, J. H.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Kristof, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    A procedure is outlined for defining spectral classes such that the differences between classes can be quantified. It also facilitates determination of a number of classes such that the classes are spectrally discriminable. This is accomplished by partitioning the data into many classes and then combining similar spectral classes on the basis of appropriate criteria. Multispectral data were collected over a 12-mile flightline in White County, Indiana, in connection with the 1971 Corn Blight Watch Experiment. Data were collected in May by the University of Michigan airborne scanning spectrometer at an altitude of 5000 feet. Spectral maps resulting from the analysis were compared to existing soil surveys of the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The method should help determine the extent to which spectral properties of soil surfaces can be associated with morphologic and topographic differences of interest to soil surveyors engaged in operational soil mapping.

  16. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  17. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  18. Teaching Intercultural Communication in a Basic Technical Writing Course: A Survey of Our Current Practices and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    This research article reports the results of an online survey distributed among technical writing instructors in 2006. The survey aimed to examine how we teach intercultural communication in basic technical writing courses: our current practices and methods. The article discusses three major challenges that instructors may face when teaching about…

  19. Techniques for Surveying Urban Active Faults by Seismic Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Mingcai; Gao Jinghua; Liu Jianxun; Rong Lixin

    2005-01-01

    Using the seismic method to detect active faults directly below cities is an irreplaceable prospecting technique. The seismic method can precisely determine the fault position. Seismic method itself can hardly determine the geological age of fault. However, by considering in connection with the borehole data and the standard geological cross-section of the surveyed area, the geological age of reflected wave group can be qualitatively (or semi-quantitatively)determined from the seismic depth profile. To determine the upper terminal point of active faults directly below city, it is necessary to use the high-resolution seismic reflection technique.To effectively determine the geometric feature of deep faults, especially to determine the relation between deep and shallow fracture structures, the seismic reflection method is better than the seismic refraction method.

  20. Factors associated with survey response in hand surgery research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Arjan G J; Anderson, Jade A; Neuhaus, Valentin; Ring, David

    2013-10-01

    A low response rate is believed to decrease the validity of survey studies. Factors associated with nonresponse to surveys are poorly characterized in orthopaedic research. This study addressed whether (1) psychologic factors; (2) demographics; (3) illness-related factors; and (4) pain are predictors of a lower likelihood of a patient returning a mailed survey. One hundred four adult, new or return patients completed questionnaires including the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 depression scale, Short Health Anxiety Index, demographics, and a pain scale (0-10) during a routine visit to a hand and upper extremity surgeon. Of these patients, 38% had undergone surgery and the remainder was seen for various other conditions. Six months after their visit, patients were mailed the DASH questionnaire and a scale to rate their satisfaction with the visit (0-10). Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to determine risk factors for being a nonresponder to the followup of this study. The cohort consisted of 57 women and 47 men with a mean age of 51 years with various diagnoses. Thirty-five patients (34%) returned the questionnaire. Responders were satisfied with their visit (mean satisfaction, 8.7) and had a DASH score of 9.6. Compared with patients who returned the questionnaires, nonresponders had higher pain catastrophizing scores, were younger, more frequently male, and had more pain at enrollment. In logistic regression, male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.6), pain (OR, 1.3), and younger age (OR, 1.03) were associated with not returning the questionnaire. Survey studies should be interpreted in light of the fact that patients who do not return questionnaires in a hand surgery practice differ from patients who do return them. Hand surgery studies that rely on questionnaire evaluation remote from study enrollment should include tactics to improve the response of younger, male patients with more pain. Level II, prognostic study. See

  1. [Methodology, method, and quality of qualitative research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Jörg; Rennie, David L

    2006-05-01

    Over the last ten years qualitative research approaches have been increasingly recognized and applied to the fields of psychotherapy and psychosomatic medicine in German-speaking countries, although this development has lagged behind what has occurred at the same time in English-speaking countries. In the former, especially, a misunderstanding prevails that qualitative research methods are at best preliminary to real science. This misunderstanding has roots in the philosophy of science and the sociology of knowledge. It comes from the lack of recognition that the human sciences, unlike the natural sciences, entail a double rather than single hermeneutic and that qualitative research methods are logically coherent ways of working systematically and rigorously with this double hermeneutic. Indeed, this nature of qualitative research is generally not well understood by many qualitative researchers themselves. In this article, the need for qualitative research is shown and its methodology is seen as an integration of method and hermeneutics, or methodical hermeneutics, which in turn is distinguished from alternative qualitative research methodologies. The article closes with considerations of quality criteria and publication standards.

  2. Development of a perioperative medicine research agenda: a cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nadia A

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-operative complications are a significant source of morbidity and mortality for patients undergoing surgery. However, there is little research in the emerging field of perioperative medicine beyond cardiac risk stratification. We sought to determine the research priorities for perioperative medicine using a cross sectional survey of Canadian and American general internists. Methods Surveys were electronically sent to 312 general internists from the Canadian Society of Internal Medicine and 130 internists from the perioperative medicine research interest group within the US based Society of General Internal Medicine. The questionnaire contained thirty research questions and respondents were asked to rate the priority of these questions for future study. Results The research topics with the highest ratings included: the need for tight control of diabetes mellitus postoperatively and the value of starting aspirin on patients at increased risk for postoperative cardiac events. Research questions evaluating the efficacy and safety of perioperative interventions had higher ratings than questions relating to the prediction of postoperative risk. Questions relating to the yield of preoperative diagnostic tests had the lowest ratings (p Conclusion The results of this survey suggest that practicing general internists believe that interventions studies are a priority within perioperative medicine. These findings should help prioritize research in this emerging field.

  3. Qualitative methods in pharmacy practice research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research within pharmacy practice is concerned with understanding the behavior of actors such as pharmacy staff, pharmacy owners, patients, other healthcare professionals, and politicians to explore various types of existing practices and beliefs in order to improve them. As qualitative...... research attempts to answer the “why” questions, it is useful for describing, in rich detail, complex phenomena that are situated and embedded in local contexts. Typical methods include interviews, observation, document analysis, and netnography. Qualitative research has to live up to a set of rigid...... quality criteria of research conduct to provide trustworthy results that contribute to the further development of the area....

  4. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

  5. Dialectical Inquiry: A Structured Qualitative Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berniker, Eli; McNabb, David E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents Dialectical Inquiry (DI) as a structured qualitative research method for studying participant models of organizational processes. The method is applied to rich secondary anecdotal data on technology transfer, gathered by subject-matter experts in a large firm. DI assumes that the imposition of a dialectical structure will…

  6. Phenomenological Research Methods for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    This article familiarizes counseling psychologists with qualitative research methods in psychology developed in the tradition of European phenomenology. A brief history includes some of Edmund Husserl's basic methods and concepts, the adoption of existential-phenomenology among psychologists, and the development and formalization of qualitative…

  7. Research on BOM based composable modeling method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; He, Q.; Gong, J.

    2013-01-01

    Composable modeling method has been a research hotpot in the area of Modeling and Simulation for a long time. In order to increase the reuse and interoperability of BOM based model, this paper put forward a composable modeling method based on BOM, studied on the basic theory of composable modeling m

  8. A "Handy" Way to Introduce Research Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David E.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an exercise for introducing research methods to undergraduates. The students view a graph revealing that left-handed people are underrepresented in older age groups. Small group discussions attempt to explain this phenomenon. A follow-up class discussion focuses on the different approaches and methods available for interpreting the data.…

  9. A "Handy" Way to Introduce Research Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David E.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an exercise for introducing research methods to undergraduates. The students view a graph revealing that left-handed people are underrepresented in older age groups. Small group discussions attempt to explain this phenomenon. A follow-up class discussion focuses on the different approaches and methods available for interpreting the data.…

  10. Using Replication Projects in Teaching Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Lionel G.; Grenier, Manuel; Lane, Erica A.; Roberts, Meigan S.; Sykes, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that replication projects may be valuable in teaching research methods, and also address the current need in psychology for more independent verification of published studies. Their use in an undergraduate methods course is described, involving student teams who performed direct replications of four well-known experiments, yielding…

  11. Exploring community pharmacists' experiences of surveying patients for drug utilization research purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Pia; Bergman, Ulrika; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient self-reported data are important in drug utilization research, but often logistically difficult to collect. During 2006–2012, 72 Swedish community pharmacies regularly collected such data through structured survey interviews at the pharmacy counter, performed by the dispensing...... pharmacists. This study is part of a validation of that data acquisition method. Objectives (1) To explore the experiences of the pharmacists involved, (2) to explore a random or systematic exclusion of eligible patients by the pharmacists, and (3) to find areas of improvement to the applied method...... of the pharmacies. Main outcome measure Proportions of pharmacists reporting positive and negative experiences of structured survey interviews, the nature of their experiences, proportion of pharmacists reporting to avoid survey interviews and reasons for doing so, and suggested areas of improvement. Results...

  12. A Survey Data Quality Strategy: The Institutional Research Perspective. IR Applications, Volume 34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin

    2012-01-01

    This discussion constructs a survey data quality strategy for institutional researchers in higher education in light of total survey error theory. It starts with describing the characteristics of institutional research and identifying the gaps in literature regarding survey data quality issues in institutional research and then introduces the…

  13. Difficult Groups in Survey Research and the Development of Tailor-made Approach Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, R.C.W.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with ‘difficult groups’ in survey research, which are currently under-represented groups in survey research. The focus is on ethnic minorities and people living in non-private households. Ethnic minorities are under-represented in survey research because they have below-average

  14. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K; Kersey, Paul J; Maslen, Gareth L; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Oliva, Clelia F; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A; Wilson, Anthony J; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector-pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations.

  15. Miscellaneous standard methods for Apis mellifera research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Human, Hannelie; Brodschneider, Robert; Dietemann, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    A variety of methods are used in honey bee research and differ depending on the level at which the research is conducted. On an individual level, the handling of individual honey bees, including the queen, larvae and pupae are required. There are different methods for the immobilising, killing......, microinjection is often used. A method that is used by both researchers and beekeepers is the marking of queens that serves not only to help to locate her during her life, but also enables the dating of queens. Creating multiple queen colonies allows the beekeeper to maintain spare queens, increase brood......, estimation of population density is essential to evaluate the health status and using beelines help to locate wild colonies. These methods, described in this paper, are especially valuable when investigating the effects of pesticide applications, environmental pollution and diseases on colony survival....

  16. A Comprehensive Survey of Data Mining-based Fraud Detection Research

    CERN Document Server

    Phua, Clifton; Smith, Kate; Gayler, Ross

    2010-01-01

    This survey paper categorises, compares, and summarises from almost all published technical and review articles in automated fraud detection within the last 10 years. It defines the professional fraudster, formalises the main types and subtypes of known fraud, and presents the nature of data evidence collected within affected industries. Within the business context of mining the data to achieve higher cost savings, this research presents methods and techniques together with their problems. Compared to all related reviews on fraud detection, this survey covers much more technical articles and is the only one, to the best of our knowledge, which proposes alternative data and solutions from related domains.

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... community in the design, conduct and/or evaluation of these activities. ... During Phase I of the mixed-methods research design, data were collected by ... A questionnaire survey was administered to all students registered for ... Data analysis.

  18. Using a Forensic Research Method for Establishing an Alternative Method for Audience Measurement in Print Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus; Krause, Niels; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2012-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the survey approach are discussed. It is hypothesized that observational methods sometimes constitute reasonable and powerful substitute to traditional survey methods. Under certain circumstances, unobtrusive methods may even outperform traditional techniques. Non-...

  19. Using a Forensic Research Method for Establishing an Alternative Method for Audience Measurement in Print Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus; Krause, Niels; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2012-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the survey approach are discussed. It is hypothesized that observational methods sometimes constitute reasonable and powerful substitute to traditional survey methods. Under certain circumstances, unobtrusive methods may even outperform traditional techniques. Non...

  20. Studying Landslide Displacements in Megamendung (Indonesia Using GPS Survey Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Z. Abidin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that frequently affects Indonesia, especially in the rainy season. It destroys not only environment and property, but usually also causes deaths. Landslide monitoring is therefore very crucial and should be continuously done. One of the methods that can have a contribution in studying landslide phenomena is repeated GPS survey method. This paper presents and discusses the operational performances, constraints and results of GPS surveys conducted in a well known landslide prone area in West Java (Indonesia, namely Megamendung, the hilly region close to Bogor. Three GPS surveys involving 8 GPS points have been conducted, namely on April 2002, May 2003 and May 2004, respectively. The estimated landslide displacements in the area are relatively quite large in the level of a few dm to a few m. Displacements up to about 2-3 m were detected in the April 2002 to May 2003 period, and up to about 3-4 dm in the May 2003 to May 2004 period. In both periods, landslides in general show the northwest direction of displacements. Displacements vary both spatially and temporally. This study also suggested that in order to conclude the existence of real and significant displacements of GPS points, the GPS estimated displacements should be subjected to three types of testing namely: the congruency test on spatial displacements, testing on the agreement between the horizontal distance changes with the predicted direction of landslide displacement, and testing on the consistency of displacement directions on two consecutive periods.

  1. Social Psychology: research methods and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Emanoel Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify the research methods adopted by researchers in the field of Social Psychology, differentiating them by considerations derived from the four epistemic dimensions. Our starting point was a study conducted to identify the theoretical references and research methods used by educators and researchers in the field of social psychology. The results presented here refer to data, obtained in the years 2011 and 2012, relating to 545 social psychologists and professors of social psychology, of which 157 responded in Portuguese and 388 in Spanish. The average age of participants was 41.5 years (standard deviation = 11.4; minimum = 21 years; maximum = 78, being 54% female and 43% male. The participants originated from 19 countries, with Spain (158, Brazil (149, Mexico (64, and Argentina (45 the most frequent. Based on the results, we sought to classify and subsequently to estimate the frequency of use of the methods, considering them based on the distribution of the researchers from two geographic regions, Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula. Since geographical distribution did not provide a consistent criterion for differentiating between methods, we tried to understand the differences by considering ultimately the theoretical approach embraced by the researcher.

  2. Survey of Research Resources in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, John M.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of research resources in 24 veterinary colleges in the US and Canada reports information on university-wide research facilities, college-wide research facilities, personnel, and instrumentation resources. Corporate research resource management was compared with university research resource management. The survey form is outlined.…

  3. Using ethnographic methods in software engineering research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Helen, C.; Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the role of ethnography in Software Engineering research. It describes the use of ethnographic methods as a means to provide an in-depth understanding of the socio-technological realities surrounding everyday software development practice. The knowledge gained...... can be used to improve processes, methods and tools as well as develop observed industrial practices. The tutorial begins with a brief historical account of ethnography in the fields of Software Engineering, CSCW, Information Systems and other related areas. This sets the stage for a more in......-depth discussion of methods for data collection and analysis used in ethnographic studies. It then describes how these methods can be and have been used by software engineering researchers to understand developers' work practices, to inform the development of processes, methods and tools and to evaluate...

  4. Using ethnographic methods in software engineering research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Helen, C.; Dittrich, Yvonne; De Souza, Cleidson

    2010-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the role of ethnography in Software Engineering research. It describes the use of ethnographic methods as a means to provide an in-depth understanding of the socio-technological realities surrounding everyday software development practice. The knowledge gained......-depth discussion of methods for data collection and analysis used in ethnographic studies. It then describes how these methods can be and have been used by software engineering researchers to understand developers' work practices, to inform the development of processes, methods and tools and to evaluate...... can be used to improve processes, methods and tools as well as develop observed industrial practices. The tutorial begins with a brief historical account of ethnography in the fields of Software Engineering, CSCW, Information Systems and other related areas. This sets the stage for a more in...

  5. The Jamaica asthma and allergies national prevalence survey: rationale and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Nancy C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a significant public health problem in the Caribbean. Prevalence surveys using standardized measures of asthma provide valid prevalence estimates to facilitate regional and international comparisons and monitoring of trends. This paper describes methods used in the Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey, challenges associated with this survey and strategies used to overcome these challenges. Methods/Design An island wide, cross-sectional, community-based survey of asthma, asthma symptoms and allergies was done among adults and children using the European Community Respiratory Health Survey Questionnaire for adults and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children. Stratified multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select 2, 163 adults aged 18 years and older and 2, 017 children aged 2-17 years for the survey. The Kish selection table was used to select one adult and one child per household. Data analysis accounted for sampling design and prevalence estimates were weighted to produce national estimates. Discussion The Jamaica Asthma and Allergies National Prevalence Survey is the first population- based survey in the Caribbean to determine the prevalence of asthma and allergies both in adults and children using standardized methods. With response rates exceeding 80% in both groups, this approach facilitated cost-effective gathering of high quality asthma prevalence data that will facilitate international and regional comparison and monitoring of asthma prevalence trends. Another unique feature of this study was the partnership with the Ministry of Health in Jamaica, which ensured the collection of data relevant for decision-making to facilitate the uptake of research evidence. The findings of this study will provide important data on the burden of asthma and allergies in Jamaica and contribute to evidence-informed planning of comprehensive asthma management and education programs.

  6. A survey of occlusion detection method for visual object

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世辉

    2016-01-01

    Occlusion problem is one of the challenging issues in vision field for a long time , and the occlu-sion phenomenon of visual object will be involved in many vision research fields .Once the occlusion occurs in a visual system , it will affect the effects of object recognition , tracking, observation and operation , so detecting occlusion autonomously should be one of the abilities for an intelligent vision system .The research on occlusion detection method for visual object has increasingly attracted atten-tions of scholars .First, the definition and classification of the occlusion problem are presented . Then, the characteristics and deficiencies of the occlusion detection methods based on the intensity image and the depth image are analyzed respectively , and the existing occlusion detection methods are compared.Finally, the problems of existing occlusion detection methods and possible research directions are pointed out .

  7. Social Media as a Research Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Tarrin Jon

    2016-01-01

    methodologies using similar interfaces to those of social media platforms. It then discusses some research tools developed by the author as a way of facilitating the interaction between researchers and primary sources using digital methods. Although much more limited than social media tools, it shows a way...... with some delay from the wide-scale adoption of the same technologies in other areas of society. This delay allows for a prediction about what technologies may be adopted in the near future in DH. In particular, the rise of social media in recent years provides a potential model for future DH research......, particularly as it differs greatly from previous technologies in its capacity to engage end-users in digital methods. This paper argues that the techniques by which users interact with data in social media, particularly categorisation and semantic tagging, can be applied to a broad range of humanities research...

  8. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-01-01

    Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and q...

  9. Mapping collapsed columns in coal mines utilizing Microtremor Survey Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, P.F.; Li, C.J.; Ling, S.Q.; Zhang, Y.B.; Hou, Z.; Sun, Y.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-07-15

    Collapsed columns post one of the deadly safety risks to coal miners. Therefore, how to effectively map collapsed columns has become an urgent business matter for improving coal mine safety and coal production. This article documents the first application of the microtremor survey method to map geological hazards in the coal mining areas. Our results demonstrated the usefulness and effectiveness of the method, primarily due to the sensitivity of shear waves to the low-velocity collapsed columns. In the 2002 working region within the Shanxi Lu'an Zhangcun coal mine area, both the S-wave velocity structure inverted using the simple-point inversion method and the apparent S-wave velocity section obtained using the 2D microtremor profiling method clearly display the known collapsed columns. The collapsed column positions displayed in the 2D microtremor section are consistent with those seen from the tunnel, having a boundary error approximately 10 m. The microtremor method has been proved a very effective and useful geophysical tool to improve coal mining safety, because of the following characteristics: (1) high resolution, (2) no need of using the artificial source, (3) convenient and low-cost field data acquisition, and (4) little effect from local cultural structures. The microtremor survey method is also technically superior to any other geophysical method in detecting or mapping these low or high S-wave velocity anomalies. Therefore, it has a bright future in many geological and geophysical applications, such as investigation of coal seam structures and collapsed columns underneath villages.

  10. Refinement of Research Surveying in Software Methodologies by Analogy: finding your patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Doroshenko

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available To enhance research surveying in software methodologies, a model is introduced that can indicate field maturity based on vocabulary and relevant literature. This model is developed by drawing analogies with software methodologies. Two analogies are used: software models and software life cycles or processes. How this model can reduce research surveying problems for researchers is described using extracts from application results as examples. Although the model does support research surveying activities, it cannot choose the subject for the researcher.

  11. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  12. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  13. Advances in structure research by diffraction methods

    CERN Document Server

    Brill, R

    1970-01-01

    Advances in Structure Research by Diffraction Methods reviews advances in the use of diffraction methods in structure research. Topics covered include the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, with emphasis on Ewald waves in theory and experiment; dynamical theory of electron diffraction; small angle scattering; and molecular packing. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with an overview of the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction, especially in terms of how it explains all the absorption and propagation properties of X-rays at the Bragg setting in a perfect crystal. The next

  14. A Survey of Methods for Gas-Lift Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey of methods and techniques developed for the solution of the continuous gas-lift optimization problem over the last two decades. These range from isolated single-well analysis all the way to real-time multivariate optimization schemes encompassing all wells in a field. While some methods are clearly limited due to their neglect of treating the effects of inter-dependent wells with common flow lines, other methods are limited due to the efficacy and quality of the solution obtained when dealing with large-scale networks comprising hundreds of difficult to produce wells. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the approaches developed and to highlight the challenges that remain.

  15. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  16. Survey of Clustering based Financial Fraud Detection Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Sorin SABAU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the current global economic context, increasing efforts are being made to both prevent and detect fraud. This is a natural response to the ascendant trend in fraud activities recorded in the last couple of years, with a 13% increase only in 2011. Due to ever increasing volumes of data needed to be analyzed, data mining methods and techniques are being used more and more often. One domain data mining can excel at, suspicious transaction monitoring, has emerged for the first time as the most effective fraud detection method in 2011. Out of the available data mining techniques, clustering has proven itself a constant applied solution for detecting fraud. This paper surveys clustering techniques used in fraud detection over the last ten years, shortly reviewing each one.

  17. Research on Geological Survey Data Management and Automatic Mapping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The data management of a large geological survey is not an easy task. To efficiently store and manage the huge datasets, a database of geological information on the basis of Microsoft Access has been created. By using the database of geological information, we can make easily and scientifically store and manage the large geological information. The geological maps—borehole diagrams, the rose diagrams for the joint trends, and joint isointensity diagrams—are traditionally drawn by hand, which is not efficient way; next, it is not easily possible to modify. Therefore, to solve those problems, the automatic mapping method and associated interfaces have been developed by using VS2010 and geological information database; these developments are presented in this article. This article describes the theoretical basis of the new method in detail and provides a case study of practical engineering to demonstrate its application.

  18. Literature Survey of previous research work in Models and Methodologies in Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ravinder Singh; Dr. Kevin Lano

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of the existing literature and research carried out in the area of project management using different models, methodologies, and frameworks. Project Management (PM) broadly means programme management, portfolio management, practice management, project management office, etc. A project management system has a set of processes, procedures, framework, methods, tools, methodologies, techniques, resources, etc. which are used to manage the full life cycle of projects. ...

  19. Application effectiveness of the microtremor survey method in the exploration of geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baoqing; Xu, Peifen; Ling, Suqun; Du, Jianguo; Xu, Xueqiu; Pang, Zhonghe

    2017-10-01

    Geophysical techniques are critical tools of geothermal resource surveys. In recent years, the microtremor survey method, which has two branch techniques (the microtremor sounding technique and the two-dimensional (2D) microtremor profiling technique), has become a common method for geothermal resource exploration. The results of microtremor surveys provide important deep information for probing structures of geothermal storing basins and researching the heat-controlling structures, as well as providing the basis for drilling positions of geothermal wells. In this paper, the southern Jiangsu geothermal resources area is taken as a study example. By comparing the results of microtremor surveys and drilling conclusions, and analyzing microtremor survey effectiveness, and geological and technical factors such as observation radius and sampling frequency, we study the applicability of the microtremor survey method and the optimal way of working with this method to achieve better detection results. A comparative study of survey results and geothermal drilling results shows that the microtremor sounding technique effectively distinguishes sub-layers and determines the depth of geothermal reservoirs in the area with excellent layer conditions. The error of depth is generally no more than 8% compared with the results of drilling. It detects deeper by adjusting the size of the probing radius. The 2D microtremor profiling technique probes exactly the buried structures which display as low velocity anomalies in the apparent velocity profile of the S-wave. The anomaly is the critical symbol of the 2D microtremor profiling technique to distinguish and explain the buried geothermal structures. 2D microtremor profiling results provide an important basis for locating exactly the geothermal well and reducing the risk of drilling dry wells.

  20. A Survey: Recent Advances and Future Trends in Honeypot Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Bringer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a survey on recent advances in honeypot research from a review of 80+ papers on honeypots and related topics mostly published after year 2005. This paper summarizes 60 papers that had significant contribution to the field. In reviewing the literature, it became apparent that the research can be broken down into five major areas:  new types of honeypots to cope with emergent new security threats,  utilizing honeypot output data to improve the accuracy in threat detections,  configuring honeypots to reduce the cost of maintaining honeypots as well as to improve the accuracy in threat detections,  counteracting honeypot detections by attackers, and  legal and ethical issues in using honeypots. Our literature reviews indicate that the advances in the first four areas reflect the recent changes in our networking environments, such as those in user demography and the ways those diverse users use new applications. Our literature reviews on legal and ethical issues in using honeypots reveals that there has not been widely accepted agreement on the legal and ethical issues about honeypots, which must be an important agenda in future honeypot research.

  1. Research on an Agricultural Knowledge Fusion Method for Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengfu Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The object of our research is to develop an ontology-based agricultural knowledge fusion method that can be used as a comprehensive basis on which to solve agricultural information inconsistencies, analyze data, and discover new knowledge. A recent survey has provided a detailed comparison of various fusion methods used with Deep Web data (Li, 2013. In this paper, we propose an effective agricultural ontology-based knowledge fusion method by leveraging recent advances in data fusion, such as the semantic web and big data technologies, that will enhance the identification and fusion of new and existing data sets to make big data analytics more possible. We provide a detailed fusion method that includes agricultural ontology building, fusion rule construction, an evaluation module, etc. Empirical results show that this knowledge fusion method is useful for knowledge discovery.

  2. A survey of patients' attitudes to clinical research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Desmond, A

    2011-04-01

    Every year hundreds of patients voluntarily participate in clinical trials across Ireland. However, little research has been done as to how patients find the experience. This survey was conducted in an attempt to ascertain clinical trial participants\\' views on their experience of participating in a clinical trial and to see and how clinical trial participation can be improved. One hundred and sixty-six clinical trial participants who had recently completed a global phase IV cardiovascular endpoint clinical trial were sent a 3-page questionnaire. Ninety-one (91%) respondents found the experience of participating in a clinical trial a good one with 85 (84.16%) respondents saying they would recommend participating in a clinical trial to a friend or relative and eighty-five (87.63%) respondents feeling they received better healthcare because they had participated in a clinical trial.

  3. 基于神秘顾客调查法的服务质量管理研究--兼论市场研究学术与实践之间的差异%Study on Service Quality Management Based on Mystery Shopper Survey Method-A Brief Discussion on the Difference between Theory and Practice in Market Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章刚勇; 谢莉莎

    2015-01-01

    Service quality can be defined as the degree that services conform with the standards or meet customer require⁃ments based on service management objectives. Mystery shopper survey method, which has been widely applied to the practice of market research in China, can not only directly measure the degree to comply with a set of standards prepared, but also cap⁃ture behavioral traits of staff in service delivery, This paper reviews and summarizes research progress and application field of mystery shopper survey method in China, and focuses, in the methodology, on problems including the quality control method of data collected by mystery shopper survey, the choice of method of further analysis of data and so on, and shows by examples the general process of mystery shopper survey method applied to restaurant and hotel service quality management. Further⁃more, the paper pays attention to the difference between theory and practice in market research.%服务质量可以定义为基于服务管理目的,服务符合服务标准或满足顾客要求的程度。神秘顾客调查法不仅可以直接度量服务人员对事先制订的一整套标准的执行程度,而且可以捕获服务人员在执行过程中表现的行为特征。神秘顾客调查在我国市场研究实践中已被广泛采用。文章回顾和总结了神秘顾客调查法在我国的研究进展及应用领域,在方法论中重点探讨了对神秘顾客调查所收集的数据质量控制方法和进一步数据分析方法的选择等问题,并以实例展示了神秘顾客调查法应用于厅店服务质量管理的一般过程。除外,文章还关注了市场研究学术与实践之间的差异。

  4. New journal selection for quantitative survey of infectious disease research: application for Asian trend analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okabe Nobuhiko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to infectious disease research; however, previous studies were insufficient as they underestimated articles published in non-English or regional journals. Methods Using a combination of Scopus™ and PubMed, the databases of scientific literature, and English and non-English keywords directly linked to infectious disease control, we identified international and regional infectious disease journals. In order to ascertain whether the newly selected journals were appropriate to survey a wide range of research articles, we compared the number of original articles and reviews registered in the selected journals to those in the 'Infectious Disease Category' of the Science Citation Index Expanded™ (SCI Infectious Disease Category during 1998-2006. Subsequently, we applied the newly selected journals to survey the number of original articles and reviews originating from 11 Asian countries during the same period. Results One hundred journals, written in English or 7 non-English languages, were newly selected as infectious disease journals. The journals published 14,156 original articles and reviews of Asian origin and 118,158 throughout the world, more than those registered in the SCI Infectious Disease Category (4,621 of Asian origin and 66,518 of the world in the category. In Asian trend analysis of the 100 journals, Japan had the highest percentage of original articles and reviews in the area, and no noticeable increase in articles was revealed during the study period. China, India and Taiwan had relatively large numbers and a high increase rate of original articles among Asian countries. When adjusting the publication of original articles according to the country population and the gross domestic product (GDP, Singapore and

  5. New journal selection for quantitative survey of infectious disease research: application for Asian trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to infectious disease research; however, previous studies were insufficient as they underestimated articles published in non-English or regional journals. Methods Using a combination of Scopus™ and PubMed, the databases of scientific literature, and English and non-English keywords directly linked to infectious disease control, we identified international and regional infectious disease journals. In order to ascertain whether the newly selected journals were appropriate to survey a wide range of research articles, we compared the number of original articles and reviews registered in the selected journals to those in the 'Infectious Disease Category' of the Science Citation Index Expanded™ (SCI Infectious Disease Category) during 1998-2006. Subsequently, we applied the newly selected journals to survey the number of original articles and reviews originating from 11 Asian countries during the same period. Results One hundred journals, written in English or 7 non-English languages, were newly selected as infectious disease journals. The journals published 14,156 original articles and reviews of Asian origin and 118,158 throughout the world, more than those registered in the SCI Infectious Disease Category (4,621 of Asian origin and 66,518 of the world in the category). In Asian trend analysis of the 100 journals, Japan had the highest percentage of original articles and reviews in the area, and no noticeable increase in articles was revealed during the study period. China, India and Taiwan had relatively large numbers and a high increase rate of original articles among Asian countries. When adjusting the publication of original articles according to the country population and the gross domestic product (GDP), Singapore and Taiwan were the most

  6. Phenomenography: A Missed Method in Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assarroudi Abdolghader

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research is an approach with which human beings can attempt to answer questions and discover the unknowns. Research methodology is something that is determined by the researcher’s attitude toward the universe as well as by the question he is trying to answer. Some essential questions regarding the research process are: “What is the nature of reality?”, “What is the nature of the relationship between the scholar and the subject of interest?”, and “How can one understand the subject, and what are the methods?”. Research approaches can be categorized as quantitative and qualitative. In the former, measurement, prediction, and control are the bases, while in the latter, exploring, describing, and explaining the phenomena are fundamental. Among qualitative research methods, phenomenography is one of the newest methods. However, in spite of proving to be useful in various disciplines, it has yet to become popular, and many scholars mistake it for phenomenology. The focus of phenomenography is on what is known as the second-order perspective and the different ways that people can experience the same phenomenon, while phenomenology primarily emphasizes the first-order perspective and the similar essences that are derived from various experiences. This article aims to provide a better understanding of phenomenography through explaining it and comparing it with phenomenology in order to facilitate its proper and timely application in medical studies.

  7. The IMACS Cluster Building Survey. I. Description of the Survey and Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oemler Jr., Augustus; Dressler, Alan; Gladders, Michael G.; Rigby, Jane R.; Bai, Lei; Kelson, Daniel; Villanueva, Edward; Fritz, Jacopo; Rieke, George; Poggianti, Bianca M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The IMACS Cluster Building Survey uses the wide field spectroscopic capabilities of the IMACS spectrograph on the 6.5 m Baade Telescope to survey the large-scale environment surrounding rich intermediate-redshift clusters of galaxies. The goal is to understand the processes which may be transforming star-forming field galaxies into quiescent cluster members as groups and individual galaxies fall into the cluster from the surrounding supercluster. This first paper describes the survey: the data taking and reduction methods. We provide new calibrations of star formation rates (SFRs) derived from optical and infrared spectroscopy and photometry. We demonstrate that there is a tight relation between the observed SFR per unit B luminosity, and the ratio of the extinctions of the stellar continuum and the optical emission lines.With this, we can obtain accurate extinction-corrected colors of galaxies. Using these colors as well as other spectral measures, we determine new criteria for the existence of ongoing and recent starbursts in galaxies.

  8. Miscellaneous standard methods for Apis mellifera research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Human, Hannelie; Brodschneider, Robert; Dietemann, Vincent;

    2013-01-01

    , microinjection is often used. A method that is used by both researchers and beekeepers is the marking of queens that serves not only to help to locate her during her life, but also enables the dating of queens. Creating multiple queen colonies allows the beekeeper to maintain spare queens, increase brood...

  9. Using Experimental Methods in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steven M.; Morrison, Gary R.; Lowther, Deborah L.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental methods have been used extensively for many years to conduct research in education and psychology. However, applications of experiments to investigate technology and other instructional innovations in higher education settings have been relatively limited. The present paper examines ways in which experiments can be used productively…

  10. Sprint methods for web archive research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurdeman, H.C.; Ben David, A.; Samar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Web archives provide access to snapshots of the Web of the past, and could be valuable for research purposes. However, access to these archives is often limited, both in terms of data availability, and interfaces to this data. This paper explores new methods to overcome these limitations. It present

  11. Environmental Social Sciences: Methods and Research Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Spoon

    2012-01-01

    Review of Environmental Social Sciences: Methods and Research Design. Ismael Vaccaro, Eric Alden Smith, and Shankar Aswani, eds. 2010. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Pp. 396, 41 b/w illustrations, 20 tables. US$49.99 (paperback). ISBN 9780521125710.

  12. Higher Education Research Methodology-Literature Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guijuan

    2009-01-01

    Starting by a brief introduction of literature method, this paper raises the question of how to choose representative research literatures. For this question, Professor Hongcai Wang points out the root of this problem and the strategies to resolve it and provides the ways to choose representative literatures. Through analyzing and summarizing,…

  13. Relevant Research on Audio-Tutorial Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews two aspects of research related to audio-tutorial instructional methods. First, the learning theory of David P. Ausebel is summarized and applied to instructional procedures. Secondly, learning time for attainment of concept and knowledge levels is discussed. Concludes that studies are needed on designs based on Ausebel's theory,…

  14. Institutional Researchers' Use of Qualitative Research Methods for Institutional Accountability at Two Year Colleges in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Bishar M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined institutional researchers' use of qualitative methods to document institutional accountability and effectiveness at two-year colleges in Texas. Participants were Institutional Research and Effectiveness personnel. Data were collected through a survey consisting of closed and open ended questions which was administered…

  15. Survey: interpolation methods for whole slide image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowiak, L; Korzynska, A; Zak, J; Pijanowska, D; Swiderska-Chadaj, Z; Markiewicz, T

    2017-02-01

    Evaluating whole slide images of histological and cytological samples is used in pathology for diagnostics, grading and prognosis . It is often necessary to rescale whole slide images of a very large size. Image resizing is one of the most common applications of interpolation. We collect the advantages and drawbacks of nine interpolation methods, and as a result of our analysis, we try to select one interpolation method as the preferred solution. To compare the performance of interpolation methods, test images were scaled and then rescaled to the original size using the same algorithm. The modified image was compared to the original image in various aspects. The time needed for calculations and results of quantification performance on modified images were also compared. For evaluation purposes, we used four general test images and 12 specialized biological immunohistochemically stained tissue sample images. The purpose of this survey is to determine which method of interpolation is the best to resize whole slide images, so they can be further processed using quantification methods. As a result, the interpolation method has to be selected depending on the task involving whole slide images.

  16. Just Another Student Survey?--Point-of-Contact Survey Feedback Enhances the Student Experience and Lets Researchers Gather Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Warren; Boyd, William; Boyd, Wendy; Hellmundt, Suzi

    2017-01-01

    When student surveys are conducted within university environments, one outcome of feedback to the researcher is that it provides insight into the potential ways that curriculum can be modified and how content can be better delivered. However, the benefit to the current students undertaking the survey is not always evident. By modifying Biggs'…

  17. Recruiting and retaining youth and young adults: challenges and opportunities in survey research for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Hair, Elizabeth C; Smith, Alexandria; Bennett, Morgane; Rath, Jessica Miller; Thomas, Randall K; Fahimi, Mansour; Dennis, J Michael; Vallone, Donna

    2017-04-21

    Evaluation studies of population-based tobacco control interventions often rely on large-scale survey data from numerous respondents across many geographic areas to provide evidence of their effectiveness. Significant challenges for survey research have emerged with the evolving communications landscape, particularly for surveying hard-to-reach populations such as youth and young adults. This study combines the comprehensive coverage of an address-based sampling (ABS) frame with the timeliness of online data collection to develop a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of young people aged 15-21. We constructed an ABS frame, partially supplemented with auxiliary data, to recruit this hard-to-reach sample. Branded and tested mail-based recruitment materials were designed to bring respondents online for screening, consent and surveying. Once enrolled, respondents completed online surveys every 6 months via computer, tablet or smartphone. Numerous strategies were utilized to enhance retention and representativeness RESULTS: Results detail sample performance, representativeness and retention rates as well as device utilization trends for survey completion among youth and young adult respondents. Panel development efforts resulted in a large, nationally representative sample with high retention rates. This study is among the first to employ this hybrid ABS-to-online methodology to recruit and retain youth and young adults in a probability-based online cohort panel. The approach is particularly valuable for conducting research among younger populations as it capitalizes on their increasing access to and comfort with digital communication. We discuss challenges and opportunities of panel recruitment and retention methods in an effort to provide valuable information for tobacco control researchers seeking to obtain representative, population-based samples of youth and young adults in the U.S. as well as across the globe. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  18. A Survey of Research in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Army Research Laboratory A Survey of Research in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) by Sidney C Smith ARL-TR-7093 September 2014...Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5067 ARL-TR-7093 September 2014 A Survey of Research in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) Sidney C...A Survey of Research in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition ( SCADA ) ARL-TR-7093 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. August

  19. Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Survey and Research Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Radi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

  20. Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

  1. Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology. Research Methods for Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jerry W.

    2008-01-01

    "Qualitative Research Methods in Education and Educational Technology" was written for students and scholars interested in exploring the many qualitative methods developed over the last 50 years in the social sciences. The book does not stop, however, at the boundaries of the social sciences. Social scientists now consume and use research methods…

  2. Developing Investigative Entry Points: Exploring the Use of Quantitative Methods in English Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraner, Kristin L.; Robbins, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Although many research questions in English education demand the use of qualitative methods, this paper will briefly explore how English education researchers and doctoral students may use statistics and quantitative methods to inform, complement, and/or deepen their inquiries. First, the authors will provide a general overview of the survey areas…

  3. Survey of the quality of experimental design, statistical analysis and reporting of research using animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Kilkenny

    Full Text Available For scientific, ethical and economic reasons, experiments involving animals should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported. This increases the scientific validity of the results, and maximises the knowledge gained from each experiment. A minimum amount of relevant information must be included in scientific publications to ensure that the methods and results of a study can be reviewed, analysed and repeated. Omitting essential information can raise scientific and ethical concerns. We report the findings of a systematic survey of reporting, experimental design and statistical analysis in published biomedical research using laboratory animals. Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies reporting research on live rats, mice and non-human primates carried out in UK and US publicly funded research establishments. Detailed information was collected from 271 publications, about the objective or hypothesis of the study, the number, sex, age and/or weight of animals used, and experimental and statistical methods. Only 59% of the studies stated the hypothesis or objective of the study and the number and characteristics of the animals used. Appropriate and efficient experimental design is a critical component of high-quality science. Most of the papers surveyed did not use randomisation (87% or blinding (86%, to reduce bias in animal selection and outcome assessment. Only 70% of the publications that used statistical methods described their methods and presented the results with a measure of error or variability. This survey has identified a number of issues that need to be addressed in order to improve experimental design and reporting in publications describing research using animals. Scientific publication is a powerful and important source of information; the authors of scientific publications therefore have a responsibility to describe their methods and results comprehensively, accurately and transparently, and peer

  4. Survey of the Quality of Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis and Reporting of Research Using Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Carol; Parsons, Nick; Kadyszewski, Ed; Festing, Michael F. W.; Cuthill, Innes C.; Fry, Derek; Hutton, Jane; Altman, Douglas G.

    2009-01-01

    For scientific, ethical and economic reasons, experiments involving animals should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported. This increases the scientific validity of the results, and maximises the knowledge gained from each experiment. A minimum amount of relevant information must be included in scientific publications to ensure that the methods and results of a study can be reviewed, analysed and repeated. Omitting essential information can raise scientific and ethical concerns. We report the findings of a systematic survey of reporting, experimental design and statistical analysis in published biomedical research using laboratory animals. Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies reporting research on live rats, mice and non-human primates carried out in UK and US publicly funded research establishments. Detailed information was collected from 271 publications, about the objective or hypothesis of the study, the number, sex, age and/or weight of animals used, and experimental and statistical methods. Only 59% of the studies stated the hypothesis or objective of the study and the number and characteristics of the animals used. Appropriate and efficient experimental design is a critical component of high-quality science. Most of the papers surveyed did not use randomisation (87%) or blinding (86%), to reduce bias in animal selection and outcome assessment. Only 70% of the publications that used statistical methods described their methods and presented the results with a measure of error or variability. This survey has identified a number of issues that need to be addressed in order to improve experimental design and reporting in publications describing research using animals. Scientific publication is a powerful and important source of information; the authors of scientific publications therefore have a responsibility to describe their methods and results comprehensively, accurately and transparently, and peer reviewers and

  5. Survey of the quality of experimental design, statistical analysis and reporting of research using animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Carol; Parsons, Nick; Kadyszewski, Ed; Festing, Michael F W; Cuthill, Innes C; Fry, Derek; Hutton, Jane; Altman, Douglas G

    2009-11-30

    For scientific, ethical and economic reasons, experiments involving animals should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported. This increases the scientific validity of the results, and maximises the knowledge gained from each experiment. A minimum amount of relevant information must be included in scientific publications to ensure that the methods and results of a study can be reviewed, analysed and repeated. Omitting essential information can raise scientific and ethical concerns. We report the findings of a systematic survey of reporting, experimental design and statistical analysis in published biomedical research using laboratory animals. Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies reporting research on live rats, mice and non-human primates carried out in UK and US publicly funded research establishments. Detailed information was collected from 271 publications, about the objective or hypothesis of the study, the number, sex, age and/or weight of animals used, and experimental and statistical methods. Only 59% of the studies stated the hypothesis or objective of the study and the number and characteristics of the animals used. Appropriate and efficient experimental design is a critical component of high-quality science. Most of the papers surveyed did not use randomisation (87%) or blinding (86%), to reduce bias in animal selection and outcome assessment. Only 70% of the publications that used statistical methods described their methods and presented the results with a measure of error or variability. This survey has identified a number of issues that need to be addressed in order to improve experimental design and reporting in publications describing research using animals. Scientific publication is a powerful and important source of information; the authors of scientific publications therefore have a responsibility to describe their methods and results comprehensively, accurately and transparently, and peer reviewers and

  6. Web-based Survey Data Collection With Peer Support and Advocacy Organizations: Implications of Participatory Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Laysha; Penney, Darby; Stuart, Elizabeth; Leaf, Phillip J

    2017-01-01

    The 2012 National Survey of Peer-Run Organizations is one of the first to survey a nationally representative sample of mental health peer-run organizations, nonprofit venues for support and advocacy which are defined by people with psychiatric histories being in positions of authority and control. This paper describes data collection methods and demonstrates how participatory strategies to involve people with psychiatric histories intersected with Internet research to achieve study aims. People with psychiatric histories were involved in designing and implementing a web-based survey to collect data on peer-run organizations' operations and views on national policy. Participatory approaches were used throughout design, data collection analysis, and dissemination. The extensive involvement of people with psychiatric histories in project design and implementation were important strategies that contributed to this study's success.

  7. Creative Research Methods - a reflective online discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Leary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In November 2013, the Institute of Advanced Studies (University of Warwick hosted a meeting of interdisciplinary colleagues interested in Creative Research Methods. The aspirations were to kick-start the debate at Warwick and create a platform from which researchers can develop projects that embrace new forms of intellectual enquiry and knowledge production. Following the meeting, several of the attendees agreed to develop some of the discussion points and briefly responded to a number of questions in an online document over a period of a few weeks. This paper is the result of that real space and online collaboration.

  8. Applying the Scientific Method of Cybersecurity Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardiff, Mark F.; Bonheyo, George T.; Cort, Katherine A.; Edgar, Thomas W.; Hess, Nancy J.; Hutton, William J.; Miller, Erin A.; Nowak, Kathleen E.; Oehmen, Christopher S.; Purvine, Emilie AH; Schenter, Gregory K.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2016-09-15

    The cyber environment has rapidly evolved from a curiosity to an essential component of the contemporary world. As the cyber environment has expanded and become more complex, so have the nature of adversaries and styles of attacks. Today, cyber incidents are an expected part of life. As a result, cybersecurity research emerged to address adversarial attacks interfering with or preventing normal cyber activities. Historical response to cybersecurity attacks is heavily skewed to tactical responses with an emphasis on rapid recovery. While threat mitigation is important and can be time critical, a knowledge gap exists with respect to developing the science of cybersecurity. Such a science will enable the development and testing of theories that lead to understanding the broad sweep of cyber threats and the ability to assess trade-offs in sustaining network missions while mitigating attacks. The Asymmetric Resilient Cybersecurity Initiative at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multi-year, multi-million dollar investment to develop approaches for shifting the advantage to the defender and sustaining the operability of systems under attack. The initiative established a Science Council to focus attention on the research process for cybersecurity. The Council shares science practices, critiques research plans, and aids in documenting and reporting reproducible research results. The Council members represent ecology, economics, statistics, physics, computational chemistry, microbiology and genetics, and geochemistry. This paper reports the initial work of the Science Council to implement the scientific method in cybersecurity research. The second section describes the scientific method. The third section in this paper discusses scientific practices for cybersecurity research. Section four describes initial impacts of applying the science practices to cybersecurity research.

  9. National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey 2010/2011 : Individual refuge results for Patuxent Research Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the National Wildlife Refuge Visitor Survey for Patuxent Research Refuge and is part of the USGS Data Series 643. The survey was conducted to...

  10. Barriers to and facilitators of research utilization: a survey of registered nurses in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ping Wang

    Full Text Available AIMS: This survey aims to describe the perception of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization by registered nurses in Sichuan province, China, and to explore the factors influencing the perceptions of the barriers to and facilitators of research utilization. METHODS: A cross sectional survey design and a double cluster sampling method were adopted. A total of 590 registered nurses from 3 tertiary level hospitals in Sichuan province, China, were recruited in a period from September 2006 to January 2007. A modified BARRUERS Scale and a Facilitators Scale were used. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, rank transformation test, and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Barriers related to the setting subscale were more influential than barriers related to other subscales. The lack of authority was ranked as the top greatest barrier (15.7%, followed by the lack of time (13.4% and language barrier (15.0%. Additional barriers identified were the reluctance of patients to research utilization, the lack of funding, and the lack of legal protection. The top three greatest facilitators were enhancing managerial support (36.9%, advancing education to increase knowledge base (21.1%, and increasing time for reviewing and implementing (17.5%, while cooperation of patients to research utilization, establishing a panel to evaluate researches, and funding were listed as additional facilitators. Hospital, educational background, research experience, and knowledge on evidence-based nursing were the factors influencing perceptions of the barriers and facilitators. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses in China are facing a number of significant barriers in research utilization. Enhancing managerial support might be the most promising facilitator, given Chinese traditional culture and existing health care system. Hospital, educational background, research experience and knowledge on evidence-based nursing should be taken into account to promote research

  11. A survey of attitudes toward clinical research among physicians at Kyoto University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokode Masayuki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, only clinical research related to investigational new drug trials must be notified to regulatory bodies, and this lack of a uniform standard for clinical research has caused a number of difficulties. The objective of this study was to assess the willingness of physicians to participate in clinical research and to identify effective methods to promote and enhance clinical research. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey by administrating questionnaires to physicians in 31 departments in Kyoto University Hospital from October through November 2007. Results A total of 51.5% (310 of 602 of physicians completed the questionnaire. More than two-thirds of them reported currently participating in clinical research, and nearly all believed that clinical research is necessary for physicians. Less than 20% of respondents had specific training regarding clinical research, and most reported a need to acquire concepts and skills regarding clinical research, especially those related to statistics. "Paperwork was complicated and onerous" was the most frequently cited obstacle in conducting clinical research, followed by "few eligible patients" and "lack of time". Previous participation in and prospective participation in clinical research, previous writing a research protocol were positively associated with current participation in clinical research. Conclusions Physicians in university hospitals need more training regarding clinical research, particularly in biostatistics. They also require administrative assistance. Our findings indicate that the quality of clinical research could be improved if training in clinical research methodology and biostatistics were provided, and if greater assistance in the preparation of study documents requested by the institutional Independent Ethics Committee were available.

  12. What We Mean by Scope and Methods: A Survey of Undergraduate Scope and Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles C.; Thies, Cameron G.

    2009-01-01

    Self-reflective political scientists have extensively reviewed the history of the discipline and argued over its future, but to date there has been little effort to systematically survey undergraduate scope and methods courses (for an exception see Thies and Hogan 2005). This lack of data leaves the discipline unable to assess how much we are…

  13. The RCCM 2009 Survey: Mapping Doctoral and Postdoctoral CAM Research in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Robinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM is widely available in the UK and used frequently by the public, but there is little high quality research to sustain its continued use and potential integration into the NHS. There is, therefore, a need to develop rigorous research in this area. One essential way forward is to train and develop more CAM researchers so that we can enhance academic capacity and provide the evidence upon which to base strategic healthcare decisions. This UK survey identified 80 research active postgraduates registered for MPhils/PhDs in 21 universities and were either current students or had completed their postgraduate degree during the recent UK Research Assessment Exercise (RAE 2001–2008. The single largest postgraduate degree funder was the university where the students registered (26/80. Thirty-two projects involved randomized controlled trials and 33 used qualitative research methods. The UK RAE also indicates a significant growth of postdoctoral and tenured research activity over this period (in 2001 there were three full time equivalents; in 2008 there were 15.5 with a considerable improvement in research quality. This mapping exercise suggests that considerable effort is currently being invested in developing UK CAM research capacity and thus inform decision making in this area. However, in comparative international terms UK funding is very limited. As in the USA and Australia, a centralized and strategic approach by the National Institute of Health Research to this currently uncoordinated and underfunded activity may benefit CAM research in the UK.

  14. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel

    together with the patients. Participatory design is a research design and methodology that encourages the participation of users in the design process of technological solutions. Therefore, it has a potential for designing technologies that actually reflect the needs of the users, why it is relevant within...... telemedicine. The aim of this presentation is to explain the process and theoretical framework of a PD project; give an example of a project including the applied methods, and to determine its application to telemedicine with focus on the rationale for genuine participation. Theory: Participation implies....... Methods: Key activities of a Participatory Design project comprise methods such as fieldwork; literature reviewing; development and testing, and user activities as workshops. Methods that support telling, making, enacting. For instance telling activities as drivers for participation, where practitioners...

  15. Mixed methods research: a design for emergency care research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon; Porter, Jo; Endacott, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    This paper follows previous publications on generic qualitative approaches, qualitative designs and action research in emergency care by this group of authors. Contemporary views on mixed methods approaches are considered, with a particular focus on the design choice and the amalgamation of qualitative and quantitative data emphasising the timing of data collection for each approach, their relative 'weight' and how they will be mixed. Mixed methods studies in emergency care are reviewed before the variety of methodological approaches and best practice considerations are presented. The use of mixed methods in clinical studies is increasing, aiming to answer questions such as 'how many' and 'why' in the same study, and as such are an important and useful approach to many key questions in emergency care.

  16. Experimental methods of shock wave research

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in Shock Waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this 9th volume of the “Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library” presents the experimental methods used in Shock Tubes, Shock Tunnels and Expansion Tubes facilities. Also described is their set-up and operation. The uses of an arc heated wind tunnel and a gun tunnel are also contained in this volume. Whenever possible, in addition to the technical description some typical scientific results obtained using such facilities are described. Additionally, this authoritative book includes techniques for measuring physical properties of blast waves and laser generated shock waves. Information about active shock wave laboratories at different locations around the world that are not described in the chapters herein is given in the Appendix, making this book useful for every researcher involved in shock/blast wave phenomena.

  17. Mixed Methods Research as Third Methodological Movement:

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mohammadpour; Rasoul Sadeghi; Mehdi Rezaei

    2010-01-01

    AbstractMixed Method Research is considered as the latest methodological orientation in social and behavioralsciences and sociology which has been developed following a long period of intra-paradigm controversiesbetween quantitative and qualitative approaches. Based on pragmatist perspective, the mixed methodresearch, while emphasizing on paradigm convergence, seeks to combine both quantitative and qualitativemethodologies in a single study which takes three forms containing of concurrent, se...

  18. Research of the heliostat cleaning method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Liu, Xiaobin [Himin Solar Energy Group Co., Ltd, Dezhou City (China); Wang, Zhifeng [CAS, Beijing (China). Inst. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Heliostat is the core component of Solar Power Tower system. It can straightly affect the efficiency of whole system. Because the heliostats run outside, and are discovered in the air, dust and dirt accumulates gradually on the surface of reflector. Then, it will gradually decrease the reflectivity of mirror so that reduce the whole efficiency. The article analyzed environment factors, and researched selecting availably cleaning method of heliostat for different conditions. (orig.)

  19. Research on cost management methods used in new product development and their relationship to strategic priorities and collaborative competences: A systematic literature review and survey of the German manufacturing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Cueva, Susana Patricia

    2016-01-01

    This doctoral thesis presents a systematic review in both the management accounting as well as the innovation and operation management literature on 15 different methods for cost management. Subsequently, six antecedents of the adoption of cost management methods are identified and empirically analysed. It was found that the antecedents explaining the adoption of this methods during NPD are cost leadership,

  20. A survey of modelling methods for high-fidelity wind farm simulations using large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breton, Simon-Philippe; Sumner, J.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2017-01-01

    Large eddy simulations (LES) of wind farms have the capability to provide valuable and detailed information about the dynamics of wind turbine wakes. For this reason, their use within the wind energy research community is on the rise, spurring the development of new models and methods. This review...... surveys the most common schemes available to model the rotor, atmospheric conditions and terrain effects within current state-of-the-art LES codes, of which an overview is provided. A summary of the experimental research data available for validation of LES codes within the context of single and multiple...

  1. [Research on the method of stress assessment--from the research findings of 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese Society for Occupational Mental Health has conducted research on assessment of the psychological load (i.e., stress) among workers. Investigations were conducted three times, and those were contract research projects assigned by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In this project, the author was the primary researcher. In the latest research, a survey utilizing the Live Event Method was performed extensively nationwide; the survey covered 10,494 subjects (including 1,977 females) from all types of industry and occupation. The objective of this research was to reevaluate the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet used as an evaluation basis for the "Certification of workers' compensation related to mental disorders from psychological load." Two previous research investigations, conducted in 2002 and 2006, had suggested the need for such reevaluation. The outcomes revealed that, the longer the monthly overtime working hours, the higher the stress scores (in the range of 0 to 10), and the lower the appearance rate of stress. Subjects who performed 140 hours or more of overtime work per month, which fell under the category of "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," showed 6.3 points, which was markedly high, and ranked fourth in the survey with 63 assessment items. The category, "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," includes two working hour ranges, 120 hours or more and 160 hours or more; those working hour ranges were defined in the revision based on the latest research. Monthly overtime work of 120 hours or more, but less than 140 hours, was ranked ninth and scored 6.3 points. Monthly overtime work of 80 hours or more, but less than 100 hours, scored 5.3 points with a frequency of 14.2%. Based on the above results, new assessment items were added to the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet. This paper addresses and studies the issues explained above.

  2. Total Survey Error & Institutional Research: A Case Study of the University Experience Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Total Survey Error (TSE) is a component of Total Survey Quality (TSQ) that supports the assessment of the extent to which a survey is "fit-for-purpose". While TSQ looks at a number of dimensions, such as relevance, credibility and accessibility, TSE is has a more operational focus on accuracy and minimising errors. Mitigating survey…

  3. Risk Assessment Techniques and Survey Method for COTS Components

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    The Rational Unified Process a software engineering process is gaining popularity nowadays. RUP delivers best software practices for component software Development life cycle It supports component based software development. Risk is involved in every component development phase .neglecting those risks sometimes hampers the software growth and leads to negative outcome. In Order to provide appropriate security and protection levels, identifying various risks is very vital. Therefore Risk identification plays a very crucial role in the component based software development This report addresses incorporation of component based software development cycle into RUP phases, assess several category of risk encountered in the component based software. It also entails a survey method to identify the risk factor and evaluating the overall severity of the component software development in terms of the risk. Formula for determining risk prevention cost and finding the risk probability is also been included. The overall go...

  4. A SURVEY ON METHODS OF UNDERGRADUATE PHARMACOLOGY TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHANBABU AMBERKAR, LALIT MOHAN, MEENA KUMARI, BAIRY K.L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of pharmacology to choose and prescribe drugs is a major challenge encountered by medical practitioners. A number of initiatives have been carried out to improve the teaching of pharmacology and applied therapeutics.Material & methods-A survey was conducted on medical students,pursuing pharmacology at Kasturba Medical College,Manipal,during the month of August 2010,to obtain information regarding students attitude towards Pharmacology. Result-Two hundred and fourteen students participated.The total median score was 56 (maximum score 80.Majority of them suggested to have more problem based learning than didactic lectures and to have integrated teaching with other clinical subjects. Suggestions to improve pharmacology teaching were noted.Conclusion-The findings of the study would be of interest to medical educators in modifying undergraduate pharmacology teaching programme

  5. Comparison of the National Survey of Compensation with other surveys of research and development professionals. Final report on universe update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newborg, J.; Spurgeon, M.; Price, B.; Evans, P.

    1981-10-01

    The National Survey of Compensation Paid Scientists and Engineers Engaged in Research and Development (NSC) has been conducted for the Department of Energy since 1967. During this time the NSC has come to be considered the most comprehensive survey of its kind available in the United States. Its methodology and results are reliable and highly useful to compensation personnel in research and development (R and D) establishments. Each year project staff pinpoint areas of improvement which are necessary and desirable. The three tasks that are the subject of this report have been undertaken to maintain and improve the NSC and increase its usefulness to participants. The three tasks are: an update of the universe listing; comparison of NSC survey methodology and results with other surveys of research and development professionals; and development of a methodology to project salaries for the near-term. Each task is described.

  6. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Synergies between exoplanet surveys and variable star research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Geza

    2017-09-01

    With the discovery of the first transiting extrasolar planetary system back in 1999, a great number of projects started to hunt for other similar systems. Because the incidence rate of such systems was unknown and the length of the shallow transit events is only a few percent of the orbital period, the goal was to monitor continuously as many stars as possible for at least a period of a few months. Small aperture, large field of view automated telescope systems have been installed with a parallel development of new data reduction and analysis methods, leading to better than 1% per data point precision for thousands of stars. With the successful launch of the photometric satellites CoRoT and Kepler, the precision increased further by one-two orders of magnitude. Millions of stars have been analyzed and searched for transits. In the history of variable star astronomy this is the biggest undertaking so far, resulting in photometric time series inventories immensely valuable for the whole field. In this review we briefly discuss the methods of data analysis that were inspired by the main science driver of these surveys and highlight some of the most interesting variable star results that impact the field of variable star astronomy.

  8. New Survey Methods : Tools to Dig for Gold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. de Jong (Martijn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSurveys are widely used by scholars, companies, and public policymakers to generate invaluable insights. Despite the popularity of surveys, there are several biases that can affect the validity of self-reported data. In his inaugural address, Martijn de Jong discusses how new survey

  9. Why Don't Our Students Respond? Understanding Declining Participation in Survey Research among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschepikow, William K.

    2012-01-01

    Declining response rates among college students threaten the effectiveness of survey research at institutions of higher education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the conditions that promote participation in survey research among this population. The researcher identified three themes through this study. First, participants…

  10. Exploring Ethical Issues Associated with Using Online Surveys in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Allen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly used in educational research, yet little attention has focused on ethical issues associated with their use in educational settings. Here, we draw on the broader literature to discuss 5 key ethical issues in the context of educational survey research: dual teacher/researcher roles; informed consent; use of…

  11. Exploring Ethical Issues Associated with Using Online Surveys in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Allen, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Online surveys are increasingly used in educational research, yet little attention has focused on ethical issues associated with their use in educational settings. Here, we draw on the broader literature to discuss 5 key ethical issues in the context of educational survey research: dual teacher/researcher roles; informed consent; use of…

  12. Why Don't Our Students Respond? Understanding Declining Participation in Survey Research among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschepikow, William K.

    2012-01-01

    Declining response rates among college students threaten the effectiveness of survey research at institutions of higher education. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the conditions that promote participation in survey research among this population. The researcher identified three themes through this study. First, participants…

  13. Survey on research and development of reconfigurable modular robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comprehensive survey of reconfigurable modular robots, which covers the origin, history, the state of the art, key technologies, challenges, and applications of reconfigurable modular robots. An elaborative classification of typical reconfigurable modular robots is proposed based on the characteristics of the modules and the reconfiguration mechanism. As the system characteristics of reconfigurable modular robots are mainly dependent on the functions of modules, the mechanical and electrical design features of modules of typical reconfigurable modular robots are discussed in detail. Furthermore, an in-depth comparison analysis is conducted, which encompasses discussions of module shape, module degrees of freedom, module attribute, connection mechanisms, interface autonomy, locomotion modes, and workspace. Meanwhile, many reconfigurable modular robot researches focus on the study of self-X capabilities (i.e. self-reconfiguration, self-assembly, self-adaption, etc., which embodies autonomy performance of reconfigurable modular robots in certain extent. An evolutionary cobweb evaluation model is proposed in this article to evaluate the autonomy level of reconfigurable modular robots. Although various reconfigurable modular robots have been developed and some of them have been put into practical applications such as search and rescue missions, there still exist many open theoretical, technical, and practical challenges in this field. This work is hopefully to offer a reference for the further developments of reconfigurable modular robots.

  14. A survey of animal welfare needs in Soweto : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.E. McCrindle

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic phase of an interactive research evaluation model was used in the investigation of the animal welfare needs of a low-income urban community in South Africa. Data were gathered by means of a structured interview and direct observations by animal welfare officers. During the survey of 871 animal owners in Soweto, it was found that dogs were owned by 778 households and cats by 88 households. The dog to human ratio was estimated at 1:12.4. Respondents were asked whether they enjoyed owning animals and 96.1 % said that they did. Only 26.3 % mentioned that they had problems with their own animals and 16.6 % had problems with other people's animals. Treatment of sick animals (29.7 % was seen as a priority. However, less than 1 % (n = 6 used the services of private veterinarians. Others took their animals to welfare organisations or did not have them treated. Perceptions of affordable costs of veterinary treatments were also recorded. In addition to treatment, respondents indicated a need for vaccination (22.5 %, sterilisation (16.5 %, control of internal (3.7 % and external (8.8 % parasites, education and extension (6.6 %, prevention of cruelty to animals (3.2 % and expansion of veterinary clinics to other parts of Soweto (1.3 %.

  15. Designing a mixed methods study in pediatric oncology nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Krista; Woodgate, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Despite the appeal of discovering the different strengths of various research methods, mixed methods research remains elusive in pediatric oncology nursing research. If pediatric oncology nurses are to succeed in mixing quantitative and qualitative methods, they need practical guidelines for managing the complex data and analyses of mixed methods research. This article discusses mixed methods terminology, designs, and key design features. Specific areas addressed include the myths about mixed methods research, types of mixed method research designs, steps involved in developing a mixed method research study, and the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods designs in pediatric oncology research. Examples of recent research studies that have combined quantitative and qualitative research methods are provided. The term mixed methods research is used throughout this article to reflect the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods within one study rather than the use of these methods in separate studies concerning the same research problem.

  16. Reporting guidelines for survey research: an analysis of published guidance and reporting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carol; Khangura, Sara; Brehaut, Jamie C; Graham, Ian D; Moher, David; Potter, Beth K; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2010-08-01

    Research needs to be reported transparently so readers can critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of the design, conduct, and analysis of studies. Reporting guidelines have been developed to inform reporting for a variety of study designs. The objective of this study was to identify whether there is a need to develop a reporting guideline for survey research. We conducted a three-part project: (1) a systematic review of the literature (including "Instructions to Authors" from the top five journals of 33 medical specialties and top 15 general and internal medicine journals) to identify guidance for reporting survey research; (2) a systematic review of evidence on the quality of reporting of surveys; and (3) a review of reporting of key quality criteria for survey research in 117 recently published reports of self-administered surveys. Fewer than 7% of medical journals (n = 165) provided guidance to authors on survey research despite a majority having published survey-based studies in recent years. We identified four published checklists for conducting or reporting survey research, none of which were validated. We identified eight previous reviews of survey reporting quality, which focused on issues of non-response and accessibility of questionnaires. Our own review of 117 published survey studies revealed that many items were poorly reported: few studies provided the survey or core questions (35%), reported the validity or reliability of the instrument (19%), defined the response rate (25%), discussed the representativeness of the sample (11%), or identified how missing data were handled (11%). There is limited guidance and no consensus regarding the optimal reporting of survey research. The majority of key reporting criteria are poorly reported in peer-reviewed survey research articles. Our findings highlight the need for clear and consistent reporting guidelines specific to survey research.

  17. Comparing probability and non-probability sampling methods in Ecstasy research: implications for the internet as a research tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; Johnston, Jennifer; Dunn, Matthew; Fry, Craig L; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2010-02-01

    The usage of Ecstasy and related drug (ERD) has increasingly been the focus of epidemiological and other public health-related research. One of the more promising methods is the use of the Internet as a recruitment and survey tool. However, there remain methodological concerns and questions about representativeness. Three samples of ERD users in Melbourne, Australia surveyed in 2004 are compared in terms of a number of key demographic and drug use variables. The Internet, face-to-face, and probability sampling methods appear to access similar but not identical groups of ERD users. Implications and limitations of the study are noted and future research is recommended.

  18. Examination of the Equivalence of Self-Report Survey-Based Paper-and-Pencil and Internet Data Collection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigold, Arne; Weigold, Ingrid K.; Russell, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Self-report survey-based data collection is increasingly carried out using the Internet, as opposed to the traditional paper-and-pencil method. However, previous research on the equivalence of these methods has yielded inconsistent findings. This may be due to methodological and statistical issues present in much of the literature, such as…

  19. Research on polarization imaging information parsing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongwu; Zhou, Pucheng; Wang, Xiaolong

    2016-11-01

    Polarization information parsing plays an important role in polarization imaging detection. This paper focus on the polarization information parsing method: Firstly, the general process of polarization information parsing is given, mainly including polarization image preprocessing, multiple polarization parameters calculation, polarization image fusion and polarization image tracking, etc.; And then the research achievements of the polarization information parsing method are presented, in terms of polarization image preprocessing, the polarization image registration method based on the maximum mutual information is designed. The experiment shows that this method can improve the precision of registration and be satisfied the need of polarization information parsing; In terms of multiple polarization parameters calculation, based on the omnidirectional polarization inversion model is built, a variety of polarization parameter images are obtained and the precision of inversion is to be improve obviously; In terms of polarization image fusion , using fuzzy integral and sparse representation, the multiple polarization parameters adaptive optimal fusion method is given, and the targets detection in complex scene is completed by using the clustering image segmentation algorithm based on fractal characters; In polarization image tracking, the average displacement polarization image characteristics of auxiliary particle filtering fusion tracking algorithm is put forward to achieve the smooth tracking of moving targets. Finally, the polarization information parsing method is applied to the polarization imaging detection of typical targets such as the camouflage target, the fog and latent fingerprints.

  20. Educational research methods for researching innovations in teaching, learning and assessment: The nursing lecturer as researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks-Maran, Diane

    2015-11-01

    The author, who has had previous experience as a nurse researcher, has been engaged in helping nurse lecturers to undertake evaluation research studies into innovations in their teaching, learning and assessment methods. In order to undertake this work successfully, it was important to move from thinking like a nurse researcher to thinking like an educational researcher and developing the role of the nursing lecturer as researcher of their teaching. This article explores the difference between evaluation and evaluation research and argues for the need to use educational research methods when undertaking evaluation research into innovations in teaching, learning and assessment. A new model for educational evaluation research is presented together with two case examples of the model in use. The model has been tested on over 30 research studies into innovations in teaching, learning and assessment over the past 8 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Komić

    Full Text Available Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology's Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23% used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%, mental health (71%, sciences (61%, other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate or a few of them (management, media, engineering. A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5% on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1-4.6%, respectively (P<0.001. Overall, 62% of all statements addressing research integrity/ethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities.

  2. Rainfall Simulation: methods, research questions and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, J. B.; Iserloh, T.

    2012-04-01

    In erosion research, rainfall simulations are used for the improvement of process knowledge as well as in the field for the assessment of overland flow generation, infiltration, and erosion rates. In all these fields of research, rainfall experiments have become an indispensable part of the research methods. In this context, small portable rainfall simulators with small test-plot sizes of one square-meter or even less, and devices of low weight and water consumption are in demand. Accordingly, devices with manageable technical effort like nozzle-type simulators seem to prevail against larger simulators. The reasons are obvious: lower costs and less time consumption needed for mounting enable a higher repetition rate. Regarding the high number of research questions, of different fields of application, and not least also due to the great technical creativity of our research staff, a large number of different experimental setups is available. Each of the devices produces a different rainfall, leading to different kinetic energy amounts influencing the soil surface and accordingly, producing different erosion results. Hence, important questions contain the definition, the comparability, the measurement and the simulation of natural rainfall and the problem of comparability in general. Another important discussion topic will be the finding of an agreement on an appropriate calibration method for the simulated rainfalls, in order to enable a comparison of the results of different rainfall simulator set-ups. In most of the publications, only the following "nice" sentence can be read: "Our rainfall simulator generates a rainfall spectrum that is similar to natural rainfall!". The most substantial and critical properties of a simulated rainfall are the drop-size distribution, the fall velocities of the drops, and the spatial distribution of the rainfall on the plot-area. In a comparison of the most important methods, the Laser Distrometer turned out to be the most up

  3. Aerial Survey of Ames Research Center - Flight Simulation Complex' Flight simulators create an

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Aerial Survey of Ames Research Center - Flight Simulation Complex' Flight simulators create an authentic aircraft environment by generating the appropriate physical cues that provide the sensations of flight.

  4. A survey of attitudes toward clinical research among physicians at Kyoto University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Eriko; Murayama, Toshinori; Yokode, Masayuki

    2009-12-22

    In Japan, only clinical research related to investigational new drug trials must be notified to regulatory bodies, and this lack of a uniform standard for clinical research has caused a number of difficulties. The objective of this study was to assess the willingness of physicians to participate in clinical research and to identify effective methods to promote and enhance clinical research. We conducted a cross-sectional survey by administrating questionnaires to physicians in 31 departments in Kyoto University Hospital from October through November 2007. A total of 51.5% (310 of 602) of physicians completed the questionnaire. More than two-thirds of them reported currently participating in clinical research, and nearly all believed that clinical research is necessary for physicians. Less than 20% of respondents had specific training regarding clinical research, and most reported a need to acquire concepts and skills regarding clinical research, especially those related to statistics. "Paperwork was complicated and onerous" was the most frequently cited obstacle in conducting clinical research, followed by "few eligible patients" and "lack of time". Previous participation in and prospective participation in clinical research, previous writing a research protocol were positively associated with current participation in clinical research. Physicians in university hospitals need more training regarding clinical research, particularly in biostatistics. They also require administrative assistance. Our findings indicate that the quality of clinical research could be improved if training in clinical research methodology and biostatistics were provided, and if greater assistance in the preparation of study documents requested by the institutional Independent Ethics Committee were available.

  5. Verification survey of geothermal exploration technology, etc. Report on the result of the developmental research on the development of the fracture type reservoir exploration method; Chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Danretsugata choryuso tansaho kaihatsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika sokatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of grasping fracture groups forming geothermal reservoirs with accuracy, the development of the fracture type reservoir exploration method has advanced the technical development of exploration methods of seismic wave use, electromagnetic induction use, and micro-earthquake use. This paper summarized main results of the development and problems to be solved in the future. In the development of the seismic wave use exploration method, the high accuracy reflection method using seismic wave, VSP and seismic tomography were adopted to the geothermal field, and technology effective for the exploration of fracture type reservoirs was developed. In the development of the electromagnetic induction use exploration method, the array CSMT method which can measure multiple stations along the traverse line at the same time was developed with the aim of grasping effectively and accurately fracture groups forming geothermal reservoirs as changes of resistivity in the shallow-deep underground. In the fracture group forming geothermal reservoirs, micro-earthquakes are generated by movement of thermal water and pressure variations. In the development of the micro-earthquake use exploration method, developed was the micro-earthquake data processing and analysis system (MEPAS). 179 refs., 117 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Informatics methods to enable sharing of quantitative imaging research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mia A; Freymann, John B; Kirby, Justin S; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M; Eschrich, Steven A; Berglund, Anders E; Fenstermacher, David A; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L; Brown, Bartley J; Braun, Terry A; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-11-01

    The National Cancer Institute Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. There are a variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Power Control Method for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baang, Dane; Suh, Yongsuk; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Considering safety-oriented design concept and other control environment, we developed a simple controller that provides limiting function of power change- rate as well as fine tracking performance. The design result has been well-proven via simulation and actual application to a TRIGA-II type research reactor. The proposed controller is designed to track the PDM(Power Demand) from operator input as long as maintaining the power change rate lower than a certain value for stable reactor operation. A power control method for a TRIGA-II type research reactor has been designed, simulated, and applied to actual reactor. The control performance during commissioning test shows that the proposed controller provides fine control performance for various changes in reference values (PDM), even though there is large measurement noise from neutron detectors. The overshoot at low power level is acceptable in a sense of reactor operation.

  8. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Manuel Flores, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. ...... interactions. We give guidelines on the preferred methods used in current research and the application of molecular techniques. We have added photographs, drawings and illustrations to assist bee-extension personnel and bee scientists in the control of these two diseases....... tissues upon inhalation by humans. In the current chapter we describe the honey bee disease symptoms of these fungal pathogens. In addition, we provide research methodologies and protocols for isolating and culturing, in vivo and in vitro assays that are commonly used to study these host pathogen...

  9. Method of analysis and quality-assurance practices by the U. S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of four selected mosquito insecticides and a synergist in water using liquid-liquid extraction and gas chrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Strahan, A.P.; Thurman, E.M.

    2001-01-01

    A method of analysis and quality-assurance practices were developed for the determination of four mosquito insecticides (malathion, metho-prene, phenothrin, and resmethrin) and one synergist (piperonyl butoxide) in water. The analytical method uses liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Good precision and accuracy were demonstrated in reagent water, urban surface water, and ground water. The mean accuracies as percentages of the true compound concentrations from water samples spiked at 10 and 50 nanograms per liter ranged from 68 to 171 percent, with standard deviations in concentrations of 27 nanograms per liter or less. The method detection limit for all compounds was 5.9 nanograms per liter or less for 247-milliliter samples. This method is valuable for acquiring information about the fate and transport of these mosquito insecticides and one synergist in water.

  10. A survey of spectrum prediction methods in cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianwei; Li, Yanling

    2017-04-01

    Spectrum prediction technology is an effective way to solve the problems of processing latency, spectrum access, spectrum collision and energy consumption in cognitive radio networks. Spectral prediction technology is divided into three categories according to its nature, namely, spectral prediction method based on regression analysis, spectrum prediction method based on Markov model and spectrum prediction method based on machine learning. By analyzing and comparing the three kinds of prediction models, the author hopes to provide some reference for the later researchers. In this paper, the development situation, practical application and existent problems of three kinds of forecasting models are analyzed and summarized. On this basis, this paper discusses the development trend of the next step.

  11. 2011 Internship & Co-Op Survey. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The National Association of Colleges and Employers' (NACE's) "2011 Internship & Co-op Survey" indicates that internships are an integral and ever-important part of the college recruiting scene. The survey finds that employers expect to increase internship hiring by about 7 percent this year and co-op positions by nearly 9 percent. Furthermore,…

  12. The role and importance of victim surveys in criminal research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Kenan Gül

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing crime rates, insufficient policies and the limitations of the official statistics, victim surveys are being used as an alternative crime measurement technique. These types of surveys are inspired most of the criminological theories and regarded as a data source especially in shaping the crime policies of the Anglo-Saxon countries. Even though they have developed over time, victim surveys have limitations which create an obstacle in measuring crime. However, these surveys could be used as a useful data source in analyzing victims, their needs and behaviors. The recent victim surveys, which were conducted in Turkey, revealed significant findings. In the future, it is inevitable to use victim surveys as a management instrument in the field of security policies in Turkey. This study first examines the birth and development of the victim surveys, then it discusses the theoretical and methodological problems and the victim surveys conducted in Turkey. In conclusion section, this article provides recommendations related to the topic.

  13. GPR survey, as one of the best geophysical methods for social and industrial needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Anatolii

    2016-04-01

    This paper is about ways and methods of applying non-invasive geophysical method - Ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey in different spheres of science, industry, social life and culture. Author would like to show that geological methods could be widely used for solving great variety of industrial, human safety and other problems. In that article, we take GPR survey as an example of such useful geophysical methods. It is a fact that investigation of near surface underground medium is important process, which influence on development of different spheres of science and social life: investigation of near surface geology (layering, spreading of rock types, identification of voids, etc.), hydrogeology (depth to water horizons, their thickness), preparation step for construction of roads and buildings (civil geology, engineering geology), investigation of cultural heritage (burial places, building remains,...), ecological investigations (land slides, variation in underground water level, etc.), glaciology. These tasks can be solved by geological methods, but as usual, geophysical survey takes a lot of time and energy (especially electric current and resistivity methods, seismic survey). Author claims that GPR survey can be performed faster than other geophysical surveys and results of GPR survey are informative enough to make proper conclusions. Some problems even cannot be solved without GPR. For example, identification of burial place (one of author's research objects): results of magnetic and electric resistivity tomography survey do not contain enough information to identify burial place, but according to anomalies on GPR survey radarograms, presence of burial place can be proven. Identification of voids and non-magnetic objects also hardly can be done by another non-invasive geophysics surveys and GPR is applicable for that purpose. GPR can be applied for monitoring of dangerous processes in geological medium under roads, buildings, parks and other places of human

  14. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology’s Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1–4.6%), respectively (Pethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities. PMID:26192805

  15. Research Integrity and Research Ethics in Professional Codes of Ethics: Survey of Terminology Used by Professional Organizations across Research Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komić, Dubravka; Marušić, Stjepan Ljudevit; Marušić, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Professional codes of ethics are social contracts among members of a professional group, which aim to instigate, encourage and nurture ethical behaviour and prevent professional misconduct, including research and publication. Despite the existence of codes of ethics, research misconduct remains a serious problem. A survey of codes of ethics from 795 professional organizations from the Illinois Institute of Technology's Codes of Ethics Collection showed that 182 of them (23%) used research integrity and research ethics terminology in their codes, with differences across disciplines: while the terminology was common in professional organizations in social sciences (82%), mental health (71%), sciences (61%), other organizations had no statements (construction trades, fraternal social organizations, real estate) or a few of them (management, media, engineering). A subsample of 158 professional organizations we judged to be directly involved in research significantly more often had statements on research integrity/ethics terminology than the whole sample: an average of 10.4% of organizations with a statement (95% CI = 10.4-23-5%) on any of the 27 research integrity/ethics terms compared to 3.3% (95% CI = 2.1-4.6%), respectively (Pethics concepts used prescriptive language in describing the standard of practice. Professional organizations should define research integrity and research ethics issues in their ethics codes and collaborate within and across disciplines to adequately address responsible conduct of research and meet contemporary needs of their communities.

  16. National databases and rheumatology research II: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Krishnan, Eswar

    2004-11-01

    Three National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were conducted in the United States between 1971 and 1994 to provide data on the nutritional and health status of the population and on specific target conditions. This article describes features of the surveys and provides examples of research on musculoskeletal disorders that used the survey data.

  17. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group; determination of chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, L.R.; Hostetler, K.A.; Thurman, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    Analytical methods using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) were developed for the analysis of the following chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites in water: acetochlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA), acetochlor oxanilic acid (OXA), alachlor ESA, alachlor OXA, metolachlor ESA, and metolachlor OXA. Good precision and accuracy were demonstrated for both the HPLC-DAD and HPLC/MS methods in reagent water, surface water, and ground water. The mean HPLC-DAD recoveries of the chloroacetanilide herbicide metabolites from water samples spiked at 0.25, 0.50, and 2.0 mg/L (micrograms per liter) ranged from 84 to 112 percent, with relative standard deviations of 18 percent or less. The mean HPLC/MS recoveries of the metabolites from water samples spiked at 0.05, 0.20, and 2.0 mg/L ranged from 81 to 125 percent, with relative standard deviations of 20 percent or less. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for all metabolites using the HPLC-DAD method was 0.20 mg/L, whereas the LOQ using the HPLC/MS method was 0.05 mg/L. These metabolite-determination methods are valuable for acquiring information about water quality and the fate and transport of the parent chloroacetanilide herbicides in water.

  18. Towards the development of a comprehensive framework: Qualitative systematic survey of definitions of clinical research quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Niederhäusern, Belinda; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Mi Bonde, Marie; Brunner, Nicole; Hemkens, Lars G; Rutquist, Marielle; Bhatnagar, Neera; Guyatt, Gordon H; Pauli-Magnus, Christiane; Briel, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    To systematically survey existing definitions, concepts, and criteria of clinical research quality, both developed by stakeholder groups as well as in the medical literature. This study serves as a first step in the development of a comprehensive framework for the quality of clinical research. We systematically and in duplicate searched definitions, concepts and criteria of clinical research quality on websites of stakeholders in clinical research until no further insights emerged and in MEDLINE up to February 2015. Stakeholders included governmental bodies, regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, academic and commercial contract research organizations, initiatives, research ethics committees, patient organizations and funding agencies from 13 countries. Data synthesis involved descriptive and qualitative analyses following the Framework Method on definitions, concepts, and criteria of clinical research quality. Descriptive codes were applied and grouped into clusters to identify common and stakeholder-specific quality themes. Stakeholder concepts on how to assure quality throughout study conduct or articles on quality assessment tools were common, generally with no a priori definition of the term quality itself. We identified a total of 20 explicit definitions of clinical research quality including varying quality dimensions and focusing on different stages in the clinical research process. Encountered quality dimensions include ethical conduct, patient safety/rights/priorities, internal validity, precision of results, generalizability or external validity, scientific and societal relevance, transparency and accessibility of information, research infrastructure and sustainability. None of the definitions appeared to be comprehensive either in terms of quality dimensions, research stages, or stakeholder perspectives. Clinical research quality is often discussed but rarely defined. A framework defining clinical research quality across stakeholders

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sequential mixed-methods research design was chosen. This research ... development of the questionnaire used in the second phase of the survey. Quantitative data ... Microsoft Office Excel 2010 spreadsheet, descriptive data analysis was applied .... undergraduate curriculum, and implementation and evaluation thereof,.

  20. A brief qualitative survey on the utilization of Yoga research resources by Yoga teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavanani, Ananda Balayogi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Yoga has become popular worldwide with increasing research done on its therapeutic potential. However, it remains to be determined whether such findings actually percolate down into teaching and practice of Yoga teachers/therapists. Materials and Methods: The aim of this survey was to document awareness of Yoga research findings in the Yoga community and find out how these were utilized. It was undertaken with a select group of 34 international Yoga teachers and therapists utilizing email and social media between August and December 2015. Majority of responders had well-established reputation in Yoga and were from diverse lineages with 30 of them having more than 5 years of experience in the field. A set of eight questions were sent to them related to essentiality of Yoga research, how they updated themselves on research findings and whether such studies influenced their teaching and practice. Responses were compiled and appropriate statistics determined for quantitative aspects while feedback, comments and suggestions were noted in detail. Results and Discussion: About 89% agreed that it was essential to be up-to-date on Yoga research but only 70% updated themselves regularly with average papers read fully per year being <10. Most accessed information through general news reports, emails from contacts, and articles on internet sites whereas only 7% were through PubMed. About 60% felt these studies helped them in general teaching whereas 20% said that such studies had not really influenced it in any way. Conclusion: This survey provides a basic picture of a general lack of awareness of Yoga research amongst practicing Yoga teachers and therapists. Though a majority agree research is important, few seriously update themselves on this through scientific channels. With regard to future studies, most wanted “proof” that could be used to convince potential clients and felt that more qualitative methods should be applied. PMID:27104038

  1. A Survey of Research Performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Impact Dynamics Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, K. E.; Fasanella, E. L.

    2003-01-01

    The Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) is a 240-ft-high gantry structure located at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The facility was originally built in 1963 as a lunar landing simulator, allowing the Apollo astronauts to practice lunar landings under realistic conditions. The IDRF was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1985 based on its significant contributions to the Apollo Program. In 1972, the facility was converted to a full-scale crash test facility for light aircraft and rotorcraft. Since that time, the IDRF has been used to perform a wide variety of impact tests on full-scale aircraft and structural components in support of the General Aviation (GA) aircraft industry, the US Department of Defense, the rotorcraft industry, and NASA in-house aeronautics and space research programs. The objective of this paper is to describe most of the major full-scale crash test programs that were performed at this unique, world-class facility since 1974. The past research is divided into six sub-topics: the civil GA aircraft test program, transport aircraft test program, military test programs, space test programs, basic research, and crash modeling and simulation.

  2. Comparison of Different Recruitment Methods for Sexual and Reproductive Health Research: Social Media–Based Versus Conventional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoki, Yoko; Taguri, Masataka; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Enomoto, Takayuki; Wark, John Dennis; Garland, Suzanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background Prior research about the sexual and reproductive health of young women has relied mostly on self-reported survey studies. Thus, participant recruitment using Web-based methods can improve sexual and reproductive health research about cervical cancer prevention. In our prior study, we reported that Facebook is a promising way to reach young women for sexual and reproductive health research. However, it remains unknown whether Web-based or other conventional recruitment methods (ie, face-to-face or flyer distribution) yield comparable survey responses from similar participants. Objective We conducted a survey to determine whether there was a difference in the sexual and reproductive health survey responses of young Japanese women based on recruitment methods: social media–based and conventional methods. Methods From July 2012 to March 2013 (9 months), we invited women of ages 16-35 years in Kanagawa, Japan, to complete a Web-based questionnaire. They were recruited through either a social media–based (social networking site, SNS, group) or by conventional methods (conventional group). All participants enrolled were required to fill out and submit their responses through a Web-based questionnaire about their sexual and reproductive health for cervical cancer prevention. Results Of the 243 participants, 52.3% (127/243) were recruited by SNS, whereas 47.7% (116/243) were recruited by conventional methods. We found no differences between recruitment methods in responses to behaviors and attitudes to sexual and reproductive health survey, although more participants from the conventional group (15%, 14/95) chose not to answer the age of first intercourse compared with those from the SNS group (5.2%, 6/116; P=.03). Conclusions No differences were found between recruitment methods in the responses of young Japanese women to a Web–based sexual and reproductive health survey. PMID:28283466

  3. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group?Determination of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in water using online solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.A.; Strahan, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of 6 acetamide herbicides (acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid, flufenacet, metolachlor, and propachlor) and 16 of their degradation products in natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is described in this report. Special consideration was given during the development of the method to prevent the formation of degradation products during the analysis. Filtered water samples were analyzed using octadecylsilane as the solid-phase extraction media on online automated equipment followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method uses only 10 milliliters of sample per injection. Three different water-sample matrices, a reagent-water, a ground-water, and a surface-water sample spiked at 0.10 and 1.0 microgram per liter, were analyzed to determine method performance. Method detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.051 microgram per liter for the parent acetamide herbicides and their degradation products. Mean recoveries for the acetamide compounds in the ground- and surface-water samples ranged from 62.3 to 117.4 percent. The secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) was recovered at an average rate of 43.5 percent. The mean recoveries for propachlor and propachlor oxanilic acid (OXA) were next lowest, ranging from 62.3 to 95.5 percent. Mean recoveries from reagent-water samples ranged from 90.3 to 118.3 percent for all compounds. Overall the mean of the mean recoveries of all compounds in the three matrices spiked at 0.10 and 1.0 microgram per liter ranged from 89.9 to 100.7 percent, including the secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ESA and the propachlor compounds. The acetamide herbicides and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The upper concentration limit is 2.0 micrograms per liter for all compounds without dilution. With the exception of the secondary amide of

  4. CSM research: Methods and application studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Computational mechanics is that discipline of applied science and engineering devoted to the study of physical phenomena by means of computational methods based on mathematical modeling and simulation, utilizing digital computers. The discipline combines theoretical and applied mechanics, approximation theory, numerical analysis, and computer science. Computational mechanics has had a major impact on engineering analysis and design. When applied to structural mechanics, the discipline is referred to herein as computational structural mechanics. Complex structures being considered by NASA for the 1990's include composite primary aircraft structures and the space station. These structures will be much more difficult to analyze than today's structures and necessitate a major upgrade in computerized structural analysis technology. NASA has initiated a research activity in structural analysis called Computational Structural Mechanics (CSM). The broad objective of the CSM activity is to develop advanced structural analysis technology that will exploit modern and emerging computers, such as those with vector and/or parallel processing capabilities. Here, the current research directions for the Methods and Application Studies Team of the Langley CSM activity are described.

  5. Facebook advertisements recruit parents of children with cancer for an online survey of web-based research preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akard, Terrah Foster; Wray, Sarah; Gilmer, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Studies involving samples of children with life-threatening illnesses and their families face significant challenges, including inadequate sample sizes and limited diversity. Social media recruitment and Web-based research methods may help address such challenges yet have not been explored in pediatric cancer populations. This study examined the feasibility of using Facebook advertisements to recruit parent caregivers of children and teenagers with cancer. We also explored the feasibility of Web-based video recording in pediatric palliative care populations by surveying parents of children with cancer regarding (a) their preferences for research methods and (b) technological capabilities of their computers and phones. Facebook's paid advertising program was used to recruit parent caregivers of children currently living with cancer to complete an electronic survey about research preferences and technological capabilities. The advertising campaign generated 3 897 981 impressions, which resulted in 1050 clicks at a total cost of $1129.88. Of 284 screened individuals, 106 were eligible. Forty-five caregivers of children with cancer completed the entire electronic survey. Parents preferred and had technological capabilities for Web-based and electronic research methods. Participant survey responses are reported. Facebook was a useful, cost-effective method to recruit a diverse sample of parent caregivers of children with cancer. Web-based video recording and data collection may be feasible and desirable in samples of children with cancer and their families. Web-based methods (eg, Facebook, Skype) may enhance communication and access between nurses and pediatric oncology patients and their families.

  6. Survey of organizational research climates in three research intensive, doctoral granting universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James A; Thrush, Carol R; Martinson, Brian C; May, Terry A; Stickler, Michelle; Callahan, Eileen C; Klomparens, Karen L

    2014-12-01

    The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SOuRCe) is a new instrument that assesses dimensions of research integrity climate, including ethical leadership, socialization and communication processes, and policies, procedures, structures, and processes to address risks to research integrity. We present a descriptive analysis to characterize differences on the SOuRCe scales across departments, fields of study, and status categories (faculty, postdoctoral scholars, and graduate students) for 11,455 respondents from three research-intensive universities. Among the seven SOuRCe scales, variance explained by status and fields of study ranged from 7.6% (Advisor-Advisee Relations) to 16.2% (Integrity Norms). Department accounted for greater than 50% of the variance explained for each of the SOuRCe scales, ranging from 52.6% (Regulatory Quality) to 80.3% (Integrity Inhibitors). It is feasible to implement this instrument in large university settings across a broad range of fields, department types, and individual roles within academic units. Published baseline results provide initial data for institutions using the SOuRCe who wish to compare their own research integrity climates.

  7. Internet, Phone, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Tailored Design Method, 4th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Don A.; Smyth, Jolene D.; Christian, Lean Melani

    2014-01-01

    For over two decades, Dillman's classic text on survey design has aided both students and professionals in effectively planning and conducting mail, telephone, and, more recently, Internet surveys. The new edition is thoroughly updated and revised, and covers all aspects of survey research. It features expanded coverage of mobile phones, tablets,…

  8. Statistical and Mathematical Methods for Synoptic Time Domain Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabal, Ashish A.; SAMSI Synoptic Surveys Time Domain Working Group

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in detector technology, electronics, data storage, and computation have enabled astronomers to collect larger and larger datasets, and moreover, pose interesting questions to answer with those data. The complexity of the data allows data science techniques to be used. These have to be grounded in sound techniques. Identify interesting mathematical and statistical challenges and working on their solutions is one of the aims of the year-long ‘Statistical, Mathematical and Computational Methods for Astronomy (ASTRO)’ program of SAMSI. Of the many working groups that have been formed, one is on Synoptic Time Domain Surveys. Within this we have various subgroups discussing topics such as Designing Statistical Features for Optimal Classification, Scheduling Observations, Incorporating Unstructured Information, Detecting Outliers, Lightcurve Decomposition and Interpolation, Domain Adaptation, and also Designing a Data Challenge. We will briefly highlight some of the work going on in these subgroups along with their interconnections, and the plans for the near future. We will also highlight the overlaps with the other SAMSI working groups and also indicate how the wider astronomy community can both participate and benefit from the activities.

  9. Literature Survey of previous research work in Models and Methodologies in Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a survey of the existing literature and research carried out in the area of project management using different models, methodologies, and frameworks. Project Management (PM broadly means programme management, portfolio management, practice management, project management office, etc. A project management system has a set of processes, procedures, framework, methods, tools, methodologies, techniques, resources, etc. which are used to manage the full life cycle of projects. This also means to create risk, quality, performance, and other management plans to monitor and manage the projects efficiently and effectively.

  10. A Survey of Formal Methods for Intelligent Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike; Rouff, Chrustopher A.

    2004-01-01

    cutting edge in system correctness, and requires higher levels of assurance than other (traditional) missions that use a single or small number of spacecraft that are deterministic in nature and have near continuous communication access. One of the highest possible levels of assurance comes from the application of formal methods. Formal methods are mathematics-based tools and techniques for specifying and verifying (software and hardware) systems. They are particularly useful for specifying complex parallel systems, such as exemplified by the ANTS mission, where the entire system is difficult for a single person to fully understand, a problem that is multiplied with multiple developers. Once written, a formal specification can be used to prove properties of a system (e.g., the underlying system will go from one state to another or not into a specific state) and check for particular types of errors (e.g., race or livelock conditions). A formal specification can also be used as input to a model checker for further validation. This report gives the results of a survey of formal methods techniques for verification and validation of space missions that use swarm technology. Multiple formal methods were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring the behavior of swarms of spacecraft using the ANTS mission as an example system. This report is the first result of the project to determine formal approaches that are promising for formally specifying swarm-based systems. From this survey, the most promising approaches were selected and are discussed relative to their possible application to the ANTS mission. Future work will include the application of an integrated approach, based on the selected approaches identified in this report, to the formal specification of the ANTS mission.

  11. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group : determination of triazine and phenylurea herbicides and their degradation products in water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward Alan; Strahan, Alex P.; Thurman, Earl Michael

    2002-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of 7 triazine and phenylurea herbicides and 12 of their degradation products in natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is presented in this report. Special consideration was given during the development of the method to prevent the formation of degradation products during the analysis. Filtered water samples were analyzed using 0.5 gram graphitized carbon as the solid-phase extraction media followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Three different water-sample matrices?ground-water, surface-water, and reagent-water samples?spiked at 0.2 and 2.0 micrograms per liter were analyzed. Method detection limits ranged from 0.013 to 0.168 microgram per liter for the parent triazine herbicides and the triazine degradation products. Method detection limits ranged from 0.042 to 0.141 microgram per liter for the parent phenylurea herbicides and their degradation products. Mean recoveries for the triazine compounds in the ground- and surface-water samples generally ranged from 72.6 to 117.5 percent, but deethyl-cyanazine amide was recovered at 140.5 percent. Mean recoveries from the ground- and surface-water samples for the phenylurea compounds spiked at the 2.0-micrograms-per-liter level ranged from 82.1 to 114.4 percent. The mean recoveries for the phenylureas spiked at 0.2-microgram per liter were less consistent, ranging from 87.0 to 136.0 percent. Mean recoveries from reagent-water samples ranged from 87.0 to 109.5 percent for all compounds. The triazine compounds and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 micrograms per liter, with the exception of deethylcyanazine and deethylcyanazine amide which are reported at 0.20 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The phenylurea compounds and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The upper concentration limit was 2

  12. Evaluation of the Total Design Method in a survey of Japanese dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara Chikako; Yoshida Toshiko; Milgrom Peter; Nakai Yukie; Shimono Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background This study assessed the application of the Total Design Method (TDM) in a mail survey of Japanese dentists. The TDM was chosen because survey response rates in Japan are unacceptably low and the TDM had previously been used in a general population survey. Methods Four hundred and seventy eight dentist members of the Okayama Medical and Dental Practitioner's Association were surveyed. The nine-page, 27-item questionnaire covered dentist job satisfaction, physical practice, ...

  13. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions…

  14. Survey instruments used in clinical and epidemiological research on waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunukula Sameer K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objective was to systematically review the medical literature for instruments validated for use in epidemiological and clinical research on waterpipe smoking. Methods We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included papers reporting on the development and/or validation of survey instruments to measure waterpipe tobacco consumption or related concepts. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested data abstraction form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We also determined the percentage of observational studies assessing the health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking and the percentage of studies of prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking that have used validated survey instruments. Results We identified a total of five survey instruments. One instrument was designed to measure knowledge, attitudes, and waterpipe use among pregnant women and was shown to have internal consistency and content validity. Three instruments were designed to measure waterpipe tobacco consumption, two of which were reported to have face validity. The fifth instrument was designed to measure waterpipe dependence and was rigorously developed and validated. One of the studies of prevalence and none of the studies of health effects of waterpipe smoking used validated instruments. Conclusions A number of instruments for measuring the use of and dependence on waterpipe smoking exist. Future research should study content validity and cross cultural adaptation of these instruments.

  15. Extent, Awareness and Perception of Dissemination Bias in Qualitative Research: An Explorative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Ingrid; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Berg, Rigmor C.; Noyes, Jane; Booth, Andrew; Marusic, Ana; Malicki, Mario; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M.; Meerpohl, Joerg J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Qualitative research findings are increasingly used to inform decision-making. Research has indicated that not all quantitative research on the effects of interventions is disseminated or published. The extent to which qualitative researchers also systematically underreport or fail to publish certain types of research findings, and the impact this may have, has received little attention. Methods A survey was delivered online to gather data regarding non-dissemination and dissemination bias in qualitative research. We invited relevant stakeholders through our professional networks, authors of qualitative research identified through a systematic literature search, and further via snowball sampling. Results 1032 people took part in the survey of whom 859 participants identified as researchers, 133 as editors and 682 as peer reviewers. 68.1% of the researchers said that they had conducted at least one qualitative study that they had not published in a peer-reviewed journal. The main reasons for non-dissemination were that a publication was still intended (35.7%), resource constraints (35.4%), and that the authors gave up after the paper was rejected by one or more journals (32.5%). A majority of the editors and peer reviewers “(strongly) agreed” that the main reasons for rejecting a manuscript of a qualitative study were inadequate study quality (59.5%; 68.5%) and inadequate reporting quality (59.1%; 57.5%). Of 800 respondents, 83.1% “(strongly) agreed” that non-dissemination and possible resulting dissemination bias might undermine the willingness of funders to support qualitative research. 72.6% and 71.2%, respectively, “(strongly) agreed” that non-dissemination might lead to inappropriate health policy and health care. Conclusions The proportion of non-dissemination in qualitative research is substantial. Researchers, editors and peer reviewers play an important role in this. Non-dissemination and resulting dissemination bias may impact on

  16. The Documentary Method in Intercultural Research Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Evers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The documentary method appears to be especially suitable for preventing possible ethnocentrisms in the interpretation of data in reconstructive research, as well as for precluding concessions with a statistic and normative cultural concept. As an illustration of this thesis, this article presents a study—undertaken at the Bremen University of Applied Sciences—in which the effects of an intercultural contact programme between international students and German families are analysed. Special emphasis is placed on the question of the students' emotional and cognitive changes, called educational processes ("Bildung" in the educational science. The theoretical and methodological background of the study and exemplary results are presented. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901478

  17. Analysis of vignette method data in sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh V Puzanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the vignette method as a projective technique that can be an alternative for the traditional methods in mass surveys. The authors present an example of the study of the social representations of an intelligent man with the vignette method: identify the meaning of the concept ‘social representations’ suggested by S. Moscovici, a scientist who introduced its conceptualization and empirical interpretation; and describe the structure of social representations which consists of a ‘core’ and a ‘periphery’ according to the theory of J.-C. Abric. The article shows the process of creating vignettes, choosing their number and conditions for the tool application. The main emphasis is made on the analysis of data obtained through the vignette method by calculating indices, discriminant analysis and logistic regression, and the explanation for the application of these three techniques is given. The authors describe the research procedure, the creation of the tool and the sample; compare the results of each method of analysis. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression data confirm each other, which is an important verification of the results of different methods of analysis.

  18. Virtual and super - virtual refraction method: Application to synthetic data and 2012 of Karangsambung survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Andri Dian; Adisatrio, Philipus Ronnie

    2013-09-01

    Seismic refraction survey is one of geophysical method useful for imaging earth interior, definitely for imaging near surface. One of the common problems in seismic refraction survey is weak amplitude due to attenuations at far offset. This phenomenon will make it difficult to pick first refraction arrival, hence make it challenging to produce the near surface image. Seismic interferometry is a new technique to manipulate seismic trace for obtaining Green's function from a pair of receiver. One of its uses is for improving first refraction arrival quality at far offset. This research shows that we could estimate physical properties such as seismic velocity and thickness from virtual refraction processing. Also, virtual refraction could enhance the far offset signal amplitude since there is stacking procedure involved in it. Our results show super - virtual refraction processing produces seismic image which has higher signal-to-noise ratio than its raw seismic image. In the end, the numbers of reliable first arrival picks are also increased.

  19. Survey on methods of increasing the efficiency of extended state disturbance observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoński, R; Herman, P

    2015-05-01

    This survey presents various methods of improving the overall estimation quality in the class of extended state observers (ESO), which estimate not only the conventional states of the system, but the acting disturbance as well. This type of observers is crucial in forming the active disturbance rejection control structure (ADRC), where the precision of online perturbation reconstruction and cancellation directly influences the robustness of the closed-loop control system. Various aspects of the observer-based disturbance estimation/rejection loop are covered by this work and divided into three categories, related with observer: structure, tuning, and working conditions. The survey is dedicated to researchers and practitioners who are interested in increasing the efficiency of their ADRC-based governing schemes.

  20. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Flores, José Manuel; Vojvodic, Svjetlana; Palacio, María Alejandra; Spivak, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. that are rarely observed, so the impact on colony health is not very well understood. A major concern with the presence of Aspergillus in honey bees is the production of airborne conidia, which can lead to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, pulmonary aspergilloma, or even invasive aspergillosis in lung tissues upon inhalation by humans. In the current chapter we describe the honey bee disease symptoms of these fungal pathogens. In addition, we provide research methodologies and protocols for isolating and culturing, in vivo and in vitro assays that are commonly used to study these host pathogen interactions. We give guidelines on the preferred methods used in current research and the application of molecular techniques. We have added photographs, drawings and illustrations to assist bee-extension personnel and bee scientists in the control of these two diseases.

  1. A review of neutron scattering correction for the calibration of neutron survey meters using the shadow cone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang In; Kim, Bong Hwan; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Jung Il [Health Physics Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The calibration methods of neutron-measuring devices such as the neutron survey meter have advantages and disadvantages. To compare the calibration factors obtained by the shadow cone method and semi-empirical method, 10 neutron survey meters of five different types were used in this study. This experiment was performed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI; Daejeon, South Korea), and the calibration neutron fields were constructed using a {sup 252}Californium ({sup 252}Cf) neutron source, which was positioned in the center of the neutron irradiation room. The neutron spectra of the calibration neutron fields were measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide scintillator in combination with KAERI's Bonner sphere system. When the shadow cone method was used, 10 single moderator-based survey meters exhibited a smaller calibration factor by as much as 3.1 - 9.3% than that of the semi-empirical method. This finding indicates that neutron survey meters underestimated the scattered neutrons and attenuated neutrons (i.e., the total scatter corrections). This underestimation of the calibration factor was attributed to the fact that single moderator-based survey meters have an under-ambient dose equivalent response in the thermal or thermal-dominant neutron field. As a result, when the shadow cone method is used for a single moderator-based survey meter, an additional correction and the International Organization for Standardization standard 8529-2 for room-scattered neutrons should be considered.

  2. The state of web-based research: A survey and call for inclusion in curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, John H; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-04-13

    The first papers that reported on conducting psychological research on the web were presented at the Society for Computers in Psychology conference 20 years ago, in 1996. Since that time, there has been an explosive increase in the number of studies that use the web for data collection. As such, it seems a good time, 20 years on, to examine the health and adoption of sound practices of research on the web. The number of studies conducted online has increased dramatically. Overall, it seems that the web can be a method for conducting valid psychological studies. However, it is less clear that students and researchers are aware of the nature of web research. While many studies are well conducted, there is also a certain laxness appearing regarding the design and conduct of online studies. This laxness appears both anecdotally to the authors as managers of large sites for posting links to online studies, and in a survey of current researchers. One of the deficiencies discovered is that there is no coherent approach to educating researchers as to the unique features of web research.

  3. PARTAKE survey of public knowledge and perceptions of clinical research in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Burt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A public that is an informed partner in clinical research is important for ethical, methodological, and operational reasons. There are indications that the public is unaware or misinformed, and not sufficiently engaged in clinical research but studies on the topic are lacking. PARTAKE - Public Awareness of Research for Therapeutic Advancements through Knowledge and Empowerment is a program aimed at increasing public awareness and partnership in clinical research. The PARTAKE Survey is a component of the program. OBJECTIVE: To study public knowledge and perceptions of clinical research. METHODS: A 40-item questionnaire combining multiple-choice and open-ended questions was administered to 175 English- or Hindi-speaking individuals in 8 public locations representing various socioeconomic strata in New Delhi, India. RESULTS: Interviewees were 18-84 old (mean: 39.6, SD ± 16.6, 23.6% female, 68.6% employed, 7.3% illiterate, 26.3% had heard of research, 2.9% had participated and 58.9% expressed willingness to participate in clinical research. The following perceptions were reported (% true/% false/% not aware: 'research benefits society' (94.1%/3.5%/2.3%, 'the government protects against unethical clinical research' (56.7%/26.3%/16.9%, 'research hospitals provide better care' (67.2%/8.7%/23.9%, 'confidentiality is adequately protected' (54.1%/12.3%/33.5%, 'participation in research is voluntary' (85.3%/5.8%/8.7%; 'participants treated like 'guinea pigs'' (20.7%/53.2%/26.0%, and 'compensation for participation is adequate' (24.7%/12.9%/62.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest the Indian public is aware of some key features of clinical research (e.g., purpose, value, voluntary nature of participation, and supports clinical research in general but is unaware of other key features (e.g., compensation, confidentiality, protection of human participants and exhibits some distrust in the conduct and reporting of clinical trials. Larger, cross

  4. Two methods for engaging with the community in setting priorities for child health research: who engages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wavne Rikkers

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess participatory methods for obtaining community views on child health research.Community participation in research is recognised as an important part of the research process; however, there has been inconsistency in its implementation and application in Australia. The Western Australian Telethon Kids Institute Participation Program employs a range of methods for fostering active involvement of community members in its research. These include public discussion forums, called Community Conversations. While participation levels are good, the attendees represent only a sub-section of the Western Australian population. Therefore, we conducted a telephone survey of randomly selected households to evaluate its effectiveness in eliciting views from a broader cross-section of the community about our research agenda and community participation in research, and whether the participants would be representative of the general population. We also conducted two Conversations, comparing the survey as a recruitment tool and normal methods using the Participation Program.While the telephone survey was a good method for eliciting community views about research, there were marked differences in the profile of study participants compared to the general population (e.g. 78% vs 50% females. With a 26% response rate, the telephone survey was also more expensive than a Community Conversation. The cold calling approach proved an unsuccessful recruitment method, with only two out of a possible 816 telephone respondents attending a Conversation.While the results showed that both of the methods produced useful input for our research program, we could not conclude that either method gained input that was representative of the entire community. The Conversations were relatively low-cost and provided more in-depth information about one subject, whereas the telephone survey provided information across a greater range of subjects, and allowed

  5. Undergraduate Research-Methods Training in Political Science: A Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Unlike other disciplines in the social sciences, there has been relatively little attention paid to the structure of the undergraduate political science curriculum. This article reports the results of a representative survey of 200 political science programs in the United States, examining requirements for quantitative methods, research methods,…

  6. Advanced cogeneration research study. Survey of cogeneration potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonski, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-five facilities that consumed substantial amounts of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil were surveyed by telephone in 1983. The primary objective of the survey was to estimate the potential electricity that could be generated in the SCE service territory using cogeneration technology. An estimated 3667 MW sub e could potentially be generated using cogenerated technology. Of this total, current technology could provide 2569 MW sub p and advanced technology could provide 1098 MW sub e. Approximately 1611 MW sub t was considered not feasible to produce electricity with either current or advanced cogeneration technology.

  7. Survey of Argentine health researchers on the use of evidence in policymaking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrijana Corluka

    Full Text Available In this study, Argentine health researchers were surveyed regarding their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to evidence-based policymaking in Argentina, as well as their publication activities, and research environment satisfaction.A self-administered online survey was sent to health researchers in Argentina. The survey questions were based on a preceding qualitative study of Argentine health researchers, as well as the scientific literature.Of the 647 researchers that were reached, 226 accessed the survey, for a response rate of 34.9%. Over 80% of researchers surveyed had never been involved in or contributed to decision-making, while over 90% of researchers indicated they would like to be involved in the decision-making process. Decision-maker self-interest was perceived to be the driving factor in the development of health and healthcare policies. Research conducted by a research leader was seen to be the most influential factor in influencing health policy, followed by policy relevance of the research. With respect to their occupational environment, researchers rated highest and most favourably the opportunities available to present, discuss and publish research results and their ability to further their education and training. Argentine researchers surveyed demonstrated a strong interest and willingness to contribute their work and expertise to inform Argentine health policy development.Despite Argentina's long scientific tradition, there are relatively few institutionalized linkages between health research results and health policymaking. Based on the results of this study, the disconnect between political decision-making and the health research system, coupled with fewer opportunities for formalized or informal researcher/decision-maker interaction, contribute to the challenges in evidence informing health policymaking in Argentina. Improving personal contact and the building of relationships between researchers and policymakers in

  8. Student Use of Communication Technologies--Parent/Guardian Survey Report. Survey Research Center Report 2010/8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julka, Ashley; Stehr, Grady; Parks, Denise; Trechter, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how middle school students and their parents are using technologies and what programs citizens of Wisconsin might need with respect to these technologies. During the month of February 2010, staff from the Survey Research Center (SRC) at the University of Wisconsin-River Falls, Lori…

  9. Large Scale Survey Data in Career Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Large scale survey datasets have been underutilized but offer numerous advantages for career development scholars, as they contain numerous career development constructs with large and diverse samples that are followed longitudinally. Constructs such as work salience, vocational expectations, educational expectations, work satisfaction, and…

  10. Standardized methods for Grand Canyon fisheries research 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, William R.; Ward, David L.; Avery, Luke A.

    2013-01-01

    This document presents protocols and guidelines to persons sampling fishes in the Grand Canyon, to help ensure consistency in fish handling, fish tagging, and data collection among different projects and organizations. Most such research and monitoring projects are conducted under the general umbrella of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program and include studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), National Park Service (NPS), the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD), various universities, and private contractors. This document is intended to provide guidance to fieldworkers regarding protocols that may vary from year to year depending on specific projects and objectives. We also provide herein documentation of standard methods used in the Grand Canyon that can be cited in scientific publications, as well as a summary of changes in protocols since the document was first created in 2002.

  11. [Basic theory and research method of urban forest ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingyuan; Jin, Yingshan; Zhu, Wenquan; Xu, Wenduo; Chen, Wei

    2002-12-01

    With the development of world economy and the increment of urban population, the urban environment problem hinders the urban sustainable development. Now, more and more people realized the importance of urban forests in improving the quality of urban ecology. Therefore, a new subject, urban forest ecology, and correlative new concept frame in the field formed. The theoretic foundation of urban forest ecology derived from the mutual combination of theory relating to forest ecology, landscape ecology, landscape architecture ecology and anthrop-ecology. People survey the development of city from the view of ecosystem, and regard the environment, a colony of human, animals and plants, as main factors of the system. The paper introduces systematically the urban forest ecology as follows: 1) the basic concept of urban forest ecology; 2) the meaning of urban forest ecology; 3) the basic principle and theoretic base of urban forest ecology; 4) the research method of urban forest ecology; 5) the developmental expectation of urban forest ecology.

  12. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey: Multilevel survey methods and procedures⋆

    OpenAIRE

    Taxman, Faye S.; Young, Douglas W.; Wiersema, Brian; Rhodes, Anne; Mitchell, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey provides a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of programs and services provided to adult and juvenile offenders involved in the justice system in the United States. The multilevel survey design covers topics such as the mission and goals of correctional and treatment programs; organizational climate and culture for providing services; organizational capacity and needs; opinions of administrators and staff regarding rehabilita...

  13. Environmental Survey Report for ORNL: Small Mammal Abundance and Distribution Survey Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 2009 - 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffen, Neil R [ORNL; Reasor, R. Scott [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Campbell, Claire L. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes a 1-year small mammal biodiversity survey conducted on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The task was implemented through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Natural Resources Management Program and included researchers from the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division, interns in the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education Higher Education Research Experiences Program, and ORNL Environmental Protection Services staff. Eight sites were surveyed reservation wide. The survey was conducted in an effort to determine species abundance and diversity of small mammal populations throughout the reservation and to continue the historical inventory of small mammal presence for biodiversity records. This data collection effort was in support of the approved Wildlife Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, a major goal of which is to maintain and enhance wildlife biodiversity on the Reservation. Three of the sites (Poplar Creek, McNew Hollow, and Deer Check Station Field) were previously surveyed during a major natural resources inventory conducted in 1996. Five new sites were included in this study: Bearden Creek, Rainy Knob (Natural Area 21), Gum Hollow, White Oak Creek and Melton Branch. The 2009-2010 small mammal surveys were conducted from June 2009 to July 2010 on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (OR Research Park). The survey had two main goals: (1) to determine species abundance and diversity and (2) to update historical records on the OR Research Park. The park is located on the Department of Energy-owned Oak Ridge Reservation, which encompasses 13,580 ha. The primary focus of the study was riparian zones. In addition to small mammal sampling, vegetation and coarse woody debris samples were taken at certain sites to determine any correlations between habitat and species presence. During the survey all specimens were captured and released using live trapping techniques including

  14. Geothermal Research Program of the US Geological Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffield, W.A.; Guffanti, M.

    1981-01-01

    The beginning of the Geothermal Research Program, its organization, objectives, fiscal history, accomplishments, and present emphasis. The projects of the Geothermal Research Program are presented along with a list of references.

  15. PMARC - PANEL METHOD AMES RESEARCH CENTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    Panel methods are moderate cost tools for solving a wide range of engineering problems. PMARC (Panel Method Ames Research Center) is a potential flow panel code that numerically predicts flow fields around complex three-dimensional geometries. PMARC's predecessor was a panel code named VSAERO which was developed for NASA by Analytical Methods, Inc. PMARC is a new program with many additional subroutines and a well-documented code suitable for powered-lift aerodynamic predictions. The program's open architecture facilitates modifications or additions of new features. Another improvement is the adjustable size code which allows for an optimum match between the computer hardware available to the user and the size of the problem being solved. PMARC can be resized (the maximum number of panels can be changed) in a matter of minutes. Several other state-of-the-art PMARC features include internal flow modeling for ducts and wind tunnel test sections, simple jet plume modeling essential for the analysis and design of powered-lift aircraft, and a time-stepping wake model which allows the study of both steady and unsteady motions. PMARC is a low-order panel method, which means the singularities are distributed with constant strength over each panel. In many cases low-order methods can provide nearly the same accuracy as higher order methods (where the singularities are allowed to vary linearly or quadratically over each panel). Low-order methods have the advantage of a shorter computation time and do not require exact matching between panels. The flow problem is solved by assuming that the body is at rest in a moving flow field. The body is modeled as a closed surface which divides space into two regions -- one region contains the flow field of interest and the other contains a fictitious flow. External flow problems, such as a wing in a uniform stream, have the external region as the flow field of interest and the internal flow as the fictitious flow. This arrangement is

  16. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongracic Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.

  17. Towards Horizon 2020: challenges and advances for clinical mental health research – outcome of an expert survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Os, Jim; Knappe, Susanne; Schumann, Gunter; Vieta, Eduard; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lewis, Shôn W; Elfeddali, Iman; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Linszen, Donald; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background The size and increasing burden of disease due to mental disorders in Europe poses substantial challenges to its population and to the health policy of the European Union. This warrants a specific research agenda concerning clinical mental health research as one of the cornerstones of sustainable mental health research and health policy in Europe. The aim of this research was to identify the top priorities needed to address the main challenges in clinical research for mental disorders. Methods The research was conducted as an expert survey and expert panel discussion during a scientific workshop. Results Eighty-nine experts in clinical research and representing most European countries participated in this survey. Identified top priorities were the need for new intervention studies, understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of mechanisms of disease, and research in the field of somatic-psychiatric comorbidity. The “subjectivity gap” between basic neuroscience research and clinical reality for patients with mental disorders is considered the main challenge in psychiatric research, suggesting that a shift in research paradigms is required. Conclusion Innovations in clinical mental health research should bridge the gap between mechanisms underlying novel therapeutic interventions and the patient experience of mental disorder and, if present, somatic comorbidity. Clinical mental health research is relatively underfunded and should receive specific attention in Horizon 2020 funding programs. PMID:25061300

  18. A narrative method for consciousness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José-Luis

    2013-01-01

    Some types of first-person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological accounts and texts, such as internal monolog statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monolog in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1) the relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2) some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3) a preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monolog excerpted from James Joyce's Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, (4) an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno) is presented using some mathematical tools.

  19. A narrative method for consciousness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis eDíaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Some types of first person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological parliaments and texts, such as internal monologue statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monologue in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1 The relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2 Some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3 A preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monologue excerpted from James Joyce’s Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno is presented using some

  20. Application of QMC methods to PDEs with random coefficients : a survey of analysis and implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Kuo, Frances

    2016-01-05

    In this talk I will provide a survey of recent research efforts on the application of quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) methods to PDEs with random coefficients. Such PDE problems occur in the area of uncertainty quantification. In recent years many papers have been written on this topic using a variety of methods. QMC methods are relatively new to this application area. I will consider different models for the randomness (uniform versus lognormal) and contrast different QMC algorithms (single-level versus multilevel, first order versus higher order, deterministic versus randomized). I will give a summary of the QMC error analysis and proof techniques in a unified view, and provide a practical guide to the software for constructing QMC points tailored to the PDE problems.

  1. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  2. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  3. Qualitative methods: a research approach worth considering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and collects data about it to describe it-this is qualitative research. With enough ... Purposive sampling or judgmental sampling is utilised by the researcher. ... Data collection involves interviews, observation and field notes as well as document ...

  4. The Case Survey and Alternative Methods for Research Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    naowledge acquisition. As the knowledge base grows, it will cumulate and patterns will emerge that will provide a broader understanding of social life ...of FolLow-Through programs were found to predollinate Jin one set of pooled data with common statistical characteristics, aod studies of Montessori ...be mad compatible. l"’we" and other mundane d if f icu ties have a t renendous ca ac i tv to ctonsurW ’ i M- and energy. Montessori ), or they could be

  5. ASPECTS REGARDING NEUROMARKETING SPECIFIC RESEARCH METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA-CRISTINA VOICU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Information is one of the most important resources that a company must posses. Some informations are hidden deep in the black box - the mind of the consumer. Neuromarketing helps us find what is inside of the black box without troubling the consumer with questions that he doesn’t want to answer or that he can’t answer. Today because of an extensive research in mapping cortical and subcortical activity in association with behaviors and thoughts, the confidence in neurological data is growing. Thanks to discoveries in perceptual sciences we can identify the parts of the brain that are responsible for the phenomena that we experience daily. For all those interested in information obtained through neuromarketing techniques it becomes evident that there are corresponding neural substrates of consumer decision making process and these substrates can be observed, measured, and possibly manipulated. The following paper reveals some important aspects of the use of neuromarketing in studying consumer behavior by presenting the concepts, methods and techniques used under this sophisticated name, the limitations and advantages of using neuromarketing techniques and the importance of this type of information in decision making process at a company level.

  6. Mixed Methods in Nursing Research : An Overview and Practical Examples

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Mixed methods research methodologies are increasingly applied in nursing research to strengthen the depth and breadth of understanding of nursing phenomena. This article describes the background and benefits of using mixed methods research methodologies, and provides two examples of nursing research that used mixed methods. Mixed methods research produces several benefits. The examples provided demonstrate specific benefits in the creation of a culturally congruent picture of chronic pain man...

  7. Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Harry T.; Judd, Charles M.

    2000-03-01

    This volume provides an overview of research methods in contemporary social psychology. Coverage includes conceptual issues in research design, methods of research, and statistical approaches. Because the range of research methods available for social psychology have expanded extensively in the past decade, both traditional and innovative methods are presented. The goal is to introduce new and established researchers alike to new methodological developments in the field.

  8. "Reading" Mixed Methods Research: Contexts for Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Health and social care researchers, in their haste to "belong" to academia, have adopted the system of mixed methodology research, overestimating its ability to reveal the truth and occasionally imprisoning their thought in one system. In this article, some of the assumptions underpinning mixed methodology research and its discourse are subjected…

  9. "Reading" Mixed Methods Research: Contexts for Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Health and social care researchers, in their haste to "belong" to academia, have adopted the system of mixed methodology research, overestimating its ability to reveal the truth and occasionally imprisoning their thought in one system. In this article, some of the assumptions underpinning mixed methodology research and its discourse are subjected…

  10. Survey Methods for Educators: Analysis and Reporting of Survey Data (Part 3 of 3). REL 2016-164

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Angela M.; Stafford, Erin T.; Rodriguez, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    This guide describes a five-step collaborative process that educators can use with other educators, researchers, and content experts to write or adapt questions and develop surveys for education contexts. This process allows educators to leverage the expertise of individuals within and outside of their organization to ensure a high-quality survey…

  11. Nuclear power and the public: analysis of collected survey research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melber, B.D.; Nealey, S.M.; Hammersla, J.; Rankin, W.L.

    1977-11-01

    This executive summary highlights the major findings of a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of over 100 existing surveys dealing with public attitudes toward nuclear power issues. Questions of immediate policy relevance to the nuclear debate are posed and answered on the basis of these major findings. For each issue area, those sections of the report in which more-detailed discussion and presentation of relevant data may be found are indicated.

  12. Student Opinion Survey, 1976. Research Report: BCC 1-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Norman

    A student opinion survey was administered to a sample of 1,100 students at Bronx Community College (BCC) in 1976. Respondent ethnicity distribution was 46.2% black, 29.1% hispanic, 17.0% white, 1.5% Oriental, and 6.3% other. More than half of the respondents were in either liberal arts and music (42.8%) or business curricula (21.8%). Results…

  13. Numerical simulation research on multi-electrodes resistivity imaging survey array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun NIU; Xiaopei ZHANG; Lizhi DU

    2008-01-01

    Multi-electrodes Resistivity Imaging Survey (MRIS) is an array method of electrical survey. In practice how to choose a reasonable array is the key to get reliable survey results. Based on four methods of MRIS such as Wenner, Schlumberger, Pole-pole and Dipole-dipole the authors established the model, by studying the result of the forward numerical simulation modeling and inverse modeling, and analyzed the differences among the different forms of detection devices.

  14. Survey of supersonic combustion ramjet research at Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. B.; Anderson, G. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The Hypersonic Propulsion Branch at NASA Langley Research Center has maintained an active research program in supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) and high speed ramjet propulsion since the 1960s. The focus for this research has centered on propulsion for manned reuseable vehicles with cryogenic hydrogen fuel. This paper presents some highlights of this research. The design philosophy of the Langley fixed-geometry airframe-integrated modular scramjet is discussed. The component development and research programs that have supported the successful demonstration of the engine concept using subscale engine module hardware is reviewed and a brief summary of the engine tests presented. An extensive bibliography of research supported by the Langley program is also included.

  15. Survey of supersonic combustion ramjet research at Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northam, G. B.; Anderson, G. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The Hypersonic Propulsion Branch at NASA Langley Research Center has maintained an active research program in supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) and high speed ramjet propulsion since the 1960s. The focus for this research has centered on propulsion for manned reuseable vehicles with cryogenic hydrogen fuel. This paper presents some highlights of this research. The design philosophy of the Langley fixed-geometry airframe-integrated modular scramjet is discussed. The component development and research programs that have supported the successful demonstration of the engine concept using subscale engine module hardware is reviewed and a brief summary of the engine tests presented. An extensive bibliography of research supported by the Langley program is also included.

  16. Handbook of biodiversity methods: survey, evaluation and monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, David A

    2005-01-01

    ... is the requirement for a comprehensive biodiversity audit. For those needing to undertake such audits, this Handbook provides standard procedures for planning and conducting a survey of any terrestrial or freshwater species or habitat and for evaluating the data so as to determine its local, national and international significance. Organised in three parts, the Handb...

  17. A survey of core research in information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sidorova, Anna; Torres, Russell; Johnson, Vess

    2013-01-01

    The Information Systems (IS) discipline was founded on the intersection of computer science and organizational sciences, and produced a rich body of research on topics ranging from database design and the strategic role of IT to website design and online consumer behavior. In this book, the authors provide an introduction to the discipline, its development, and the structure of IS research, at a level that is appropriate for emerging and current IS scholars. Guided by a bibliometric study of all research articles published in eight premier IS research journals over a 20-year period, the author

  18. A survey of modelling methods for high-fidelity wind farm simulations using large eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, S-P; Sumner, J; Sørensen, J N; Hansen, K S; Sarmast, S; Ivanell, S

    2017-04-13

    Large eddy simulations (LES) of wind farms have the capability to provide valuable and detailed information about the dynamics of wind turbine wakes. For this reason, their use within the wind energy research community is on the rise, spurring the development of new models and methods. This review surveys the most common schemes available to model the rotor, atmospheric conditions and terrain effects within current state-of-the-art LES codes, of which an overview is provided. A summary of the experimental research data available for validation of LES codes within the context of single and multiple wake situations is also supplied. Some typical results for wind turbine and wind farm flows are presented to illustrate best practices for carrying out high-fidelity LES of wind farms under various atmospheric and terrain conditions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  19. A Survey of Library Support for Formal Undergraduate Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Merinda Kaye; Shreeves, Sarah L.; Davis-Kahl, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research is defined by the Council on Undergraduate Research (CUR) as "an inquiry or investigation conducted by an undergraduate student that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline." This study serves as a snapshot of current library practices in relation to formal undergraduate research…

  20. Abstracts of the 2. survey of research symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The abstracts presented in this issue show scientific accomplishments of scientists working in the Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Interest of research teams gradually moved from classic biochemistry and physiological chemistry toward molecular biology. One line of research is focused on repair of DNA damages caused by X-rays and UV.

  1. Recent Progress in DIB Research: Survey of PAHS and DIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Galazutdinov, G.; Krelowski, J.; Biennier, L.; Beletsky, Y.; Song, I.

    2013-01-01

    The spectra of several neutral and ionized PAHs isolated in the gas phase at low temperature have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars [1, 2]. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data provide upper limits for the abundances of specific neutral PAH molecules and ions along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from infrared observations alone. We present the characteristics of the laboratory facility (COSmIC) that was developed for this study and discuss the findings resulting from the comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. COSmIC combines a supersonic free jet expansion with discharge plasma and high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy and provides experimental conditions that closely mimic the interstellar conditions. The column densities of the individual neutral PAH molecules and ions probed in these surveys are derived from the comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data lead to clear and unambiguous conclusions regarding the expected abundances for PAHs of various sizes and charge states in the interstellar environments probed in the surveys. Band profile comparisons between laboratory and astronomical spectra lead to information regarding the molecular structures and characteristics associated with the DIB carriers in the corresponding lines-of-sight. These quantitative surveys of neutral and ionized PAHs in the optical range open the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of PAHs and complex organics in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments.

  2. A Survey of Video Game Players in a Public, Urban Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunarayanan, M. O.; Vilchez, Manuel; Abreu, Liala; Ledesma, Cyntianna; Lopez, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted in a public, research university located in a large and diverse metropolitan area in the southeastern part of the USA. The purpose of the survey was to determine both the positive and negative personal, educational, social, and work related consequences of playing video games. Nearly two-thirds of the 203 participants in…

  3. Surveying the Field: The Research Model of Women in Librarianship, 1882-1898

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Women who promoted library services to children in the United States in the late nineteenth century introduced the systematic use of survey research on library practice to the field of professional librarianship. They created a series of qualitative survey-based reports, the "Reading of the Young" reports, which were presented at ALA conferences…

  4. Survey Team On: Conceptualisation of the Role of Competencies, Knowing and Knowledge in Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niss, Mogens; Bruder, Regina; Planas, Núria; Turner, Ross; Villa-Ochoa, Jhony Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of the work of the ICME 13 Survey Team on "Conceptualisation and the role of competencies, knowing and knowledge in mathematics education research". It surveys a variety of historical and contemporary views and conceptualisations of what it means to master mathematics, focusing on notions such as…

  5. A Survey of Video Game Players in a Public, Urban Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunarayanan, M. O.; Vilchez, Manuel; Abreu, Liala; Ledesma, Cyntianna; Lopez, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    A survey was conducted in a public, research university located in a large and diverse metropolitan area in the southeastern part of the USA. The purpose of the survey was to determine both the positive and negative personal, educational, social, and work related consequences of playing video games. Nearly two-thirds of the 203 participants in…

  6. Bird, mammal, and vegetation community surveys of research natural areas in the Tongass National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.P. Smith; M.J. Stotts; B.A. Andres; J.M. Melton; A. Garibaldi; K. Boggs

    2001-01-01

    In June 1977, we surveyed seven research natural areas (RNAs) in the Tongass National Forest (Tongass). We documented the composition of biotic communities using rare plant and tidal community surveys, targeted searches for rare animals, and samples of permanent vegetation plots. Birds were sampled once along each transect with 10-minute point counts at stations 8...

  7. Researching the Family: A Guide to Survey and Statistical Data on U.S. Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas, Ed.; Daily, Margaret, Ed.

    This guide catalogs and describes over 60 major survey and statistical databases containing useful information about the characteristics, experiences, and behavior of U.S. families and is designed to assist researchers in locating suitable databases. The surveys described deal with substantive issues, including health, education, employment and…

  8. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Lisa A; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. © 2015 L. A. Corwin et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. 土地调查工作方法、经验及成果应用研究--以呼伦贝尔市第二次土地调查工作为例%Research on Method, Experience and Application of Land Survey-A Case Study ofThe second round land survey in Hulunbuir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利群; 海军; 张德平; 李德重

    2016-01-01

    The second round land survey in Hulunbuir launched in 2006 and completed in late 2009. The main survey area are consisted of urban land, basic farmland, land tenure and other content, and established a land use database, currently the survey results have provided a wide range of social applications. The main experience are as follows: Firstly, local government should attach great attention to this work and have a strong organization and leadership, to ensure funding in place, in which the overall arrangement is the key; Secondly, to ensure the quality and authenticity of data in reality, which is the lifeblood of the outcome; Thirdly, the thorough and meticulous investigation of land tenure is the core; Fourthly, pay close attention to personnel training and application of the results is an important guarantee for land survey results of vitality. There’re some recommendations for carrying out land survey again in future: Firstly, we should have the multi-sectoral linkage, to improve the overall level of land survey; Secondly, urban land survey should further reifne the list of land use status within the survey; Thirdly, we should make the underlying data source diversity, and to improve and enhance image correction techniques, to ensure the geometric accuracy; Fourthly, we should prevent duplicate investigations and investment; Fifthly, we should pay close attention to personnel training and application of the results.%呼伦贝尔市第二次土地调查2006年启动、2009年底完成。主要调查了城镇土地、基本农田、土地权属等内容,并建立土地利用数据库,目前调查成果已提供社会广泛应用。主要经验:①地方政府重视、组织领导有力、经费保障到位、统筹安排是关键;②从实际出发,确保数据质量和真实性是成果的生命线。③深入细致的调查权属是核心。④狠抓人才培养和成果应用是土地调查成果生命力的重要保障。对再次开展土地调

  10. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  11. Variation and Commonality in Phenomenographic Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlind, Gerlese S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the data analysis stage of phenomenographic research, elucidating what is involved in terms of both commonality and variation in accepted practice. The analysis stage of phenomenographic research is often not well understood. This paper helps to clarify the process, initially by collecting together in one location the more…

  12. Speculative Method in Digital Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jen

    2017-01-01

    The question of "what works" is currently dominating educational research, often to the exclusion of other kinds of inquiries and without enough recognition of its limitations. At the same time, digital education practice, policy and research over-emphasises control, efficiency and enhancement, neglecting the "not-yetness" of…

  13. Making Meaningful Measurement in Survey Research: The Use of Person and Item Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Quality measurement is essential in every form of research, including institutional research and assessment. Unfortunately, most survey research today (both published and unpublished) is lacking with regards to quality measurement. Reporting means and standard deviations based on ordinal measures is an inappropriate, yet widespread practice in the…

  14. Methods used for research regarding iteration in instructional design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, D.M.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the search for suitable research methods for research regarding iteration in instructional design. More specifically my research concerned the question how instructional designers can be supported during an iterative design process. Although instructional design and development

  15. Why, and how, mixed methods research is undertaken in health services research in England: a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently, there has been a surge of international interest in combining qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study – often called mixed methods research. It is timely to consider why and how mixed methods research is used in health services research (HSR). Methods Documentary analysis of proposals and reports of 75 mixed methods studies funded by a research commissioner of HSR in England between 1994 and 2004. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 res...

  16. Writing Competitions as a New Research Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raija Warkentin

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to introduce the international audience to writing competitions as a data collection method. Although commonly used in Finland this method is less known elsewhere. The article will use a Canada-wide writing competition on the Finnish-Canadian sauna as an example of this method. It compares and contrasts the method to two other more commonly used methods, interviewing and auto-ethnography. The advantages, disadvantages and challenges of this method are described and discussed. According to the author, a writing competition is a fast way of gathering a large amount of data from a wide geographical area.

  17. Concordance and discordance of sequence survey methods for molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Hasan, Nur A; Cebula, Thomas A; Colwell, Rita R; Robison, Richard A; Johnson, W Evan; Crandall, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    The post-genomic era is characterized by the direct acquisition and analysis of genomic data with many applications, including the enhancement of the understanding of microbial epidemiology and pathology. However, there are a number of molecular approaches to survey pathogen diversity, and the impact of these different approaches on parameter estimation and inference are not entirely clear. We sequenced whole genomes of bacterial pathogens, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Yersinia pestis, and Brucella spp. (60 new genomes), and combined them with 55 genomes from GenBank to address how different molecular survey approaches (whole genomes, SNPs, and MLST) impact downstream inferences on molecular evolutionary parameters, evolutionary relationships, and trait character associations. We selected isolates for sequencing to represent temporal, geographic origin, and host range variability. We found that substitution rate estimates vary widely among approaches, and that SNP and genomic datasets yielded different but strongly supported phylogenies. MLST yielded poorly supported phylogenies, especially in our low diversity dataset, i.e., Y. pestis. Trait associations showed that B. pseudomallei and Y. pestis phylogenies are significantly associated with geography, irrespective of the molecular survey approach used, while Brucella spp. phylogeny appears to be strongly associated with geography and host origin. We contrast inferences made among monomorphic (clonal) and non-monomorphic bacteria, and between intra- and inter-specific datasets. We also discuss our results in light of underlying assumptions of different approaches.

  18. Concordance and discordance of sequence survey methods for molecular epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Castro-Nallar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The post-genomic era is characterized by the direct acquisition and analysis of genomic data with many applications, including the enhancement of the understanding of microbial epidemiology and pathology. However, there are a number of molecular approaches to survey pathogen diversity, and the impact of these different approaches on parameter estimation and inference are not entirely clear. We sequenced whole genomes of bacterial pathogens, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Yersinia pestis, and Brucella spp. (60 new genomes, and combined them with 55 genomes from GenBank to address how different molecular survey approaches (whole genomes, SNPs, and MLST impact downstream inferences on molecular evolutionary parameters, evolutionary relationships, and trait character associations. We selected isolates for sequencing to represent temporal, geographic origin, and host range variability. We found that substitution rate estimates vary widely among approaches, and that SNP and genomic datasets yielded different but strongly supported phylogenies. MLST yielded poorly supported phylogenies, especially in our low diversity dataset, i.e., Y. pestis. Trait associations showed that B. pseudomallei and Y. pestis phylogenies are significantly associated with geography, irrespective of the molecular survey approach used, while Brucella spp. phylogeny appears to be strongly associated with geography and host origin. We contrast inferences made among monomorphic (clonal and non-monomorphic bacteria, and between intra- and inter-specific datasets. We also discuss our results in light of underlying assumptions of different approaches.

  19. Increasing the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bioscientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scita, Giorgio; Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Hemenway, David; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method.  Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries.  This survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists.  In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a "basic bibliography" for each new approved drug.

  20. Pitfalls, Potentials, and Ethics of Online Survey Research: LGBTQ and Other Marginalized and Hard-to-Access Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInroy, Lauren B

    2016-06-01

    Online research methodologies may serve as an important mechanism for population-focused data collection in social work research. Online surveys have become increasingly prevalent in research inquiries with young people and have been acknowledged for their potential in investigating understudied and marginalized populations and subpopulations, permitting increased access to communities that tend to be less visible-and thus often less studied-in offline contexts. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) young people are a socially stigmatized, yet digitally active, youth population whose participation in online surveys has been previously addressed in the literature. Many of the opportunities and challenges of online survey research identified with LGBTQ youths may be highly relevant to other populations of marginalized and hard-to-access young people, who are likely present in significant numbers in the online environment (for example, ethnoracialized youths and low-income youths). In this article, the utility of online survey methods with marginalized young people is discussed, and recommendations for social work research are provided.