WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey included measures

  1. Surveying techniques in vibration measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuras Przemyslaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the actual dynamic characteristics of engineering structures, it is necessary to perform direct measurements. The paper focuses on the problem of using various devices to measure vibration, with particular emphasis on surveying instruments. The main tool used in this study is the radar interferometer, which has been compared to: robotic total station, GNSS receivers and sensors (accelerometer and encoder. The results of four dynamic experiments are presented. They were performed on: industrial chimney, drilling tower, railway bridge and pedestrian footbridge. The obtained results have been discussed in terms of the requirements imposed by the standard ISO 4866:2010.

  2. Survey of emissivity measurement by radiometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honner, M; Honnerová, P

    2015-02-01

    A survey of the state of the art in the field of spectral directional emissivity measurements by using radiometric methods is presented. Individual quantity types such as spectral, band, or total emissivity are defined. Principles of emissivity measurement by various methods (direct and indirect, and calorimetric and radiometric) are discussed. The paper is focused on direct radiometric methods. An overview of experimental setups is provided, including the design of individual parts such as the applied reference sources of radiation, systems of sample clamping and heating, detection systems, methods for the determination of surface temperature, and procedures for emissivity evaluation.

  3. Harmonic measure for percolation and ising clusters including rare events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David A; Sander, Leonard M; Ziff, Robert M

    2008-10-03

    We obtain the harmonic measure of the hulls of critical percolation clusters and Ising-model Fortuin-Kastelyn clusters using a biased random-walk sampling technique which allows us to measure probabilities as small as 10{-300}. We find the multifractal D(q) spectrum including regions of small and negative q. Our results for external hulls agree with Duplantier's theoretical predictions for D(q) and his exponent -23/24 for the harmonic measure probability distribution for percolation. For the complete hull, we find the probability decays with an exponent of -1 for both systems.

  4. Measuring Sexual Violence on Campus: Climate Surveys and Vulnerable Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke; Jones, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Since the 2014 "Not Alone" report on campus sexual assault, the use of climate surveys to measure sexual violence on campuses across the United States has increased considerably. The current study utilizes a quasi meta-analysis approach to examine the utility of general campus climate surveys, which include a measure of sexual violence,…

  5. Measuring Galaxy Environments with Deep Redshift Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, M C; Madgwick, D S; Gerke, B F; Yan, R; Davis, M; Cooper, Michael C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Madgwick, Darren S.; Gerke, Brian F.; Yan, Renbin; Davis, Marc

    2005-01-01

    We study the applicability of several galaxy environment measures (n^th-nearest-neighbor distance, counts in an aperture, and Voronoi volume) within deep redshift surveys. Mock galaxy catalogs are employed to mimic representative photometric and spectroscopic surveys at high redshift (z ~ 1). We investigate the effects of survey edges, redshift precision, redshift-space distortions, and target selection upon each environment measure. We find that even optimistic photometric redshift errors (\\sigma_z = 0.02) smear out the line-of-sight galaxy distribution irretrievably on small scales; this significantly limits the application of photometric redshift surveys to environment studies. Edges and holes in a survey field dramatically affect the estimation of environment, with the impact of edge effects depending upon the adopted environment measure. These edge effects considerably limit the usefulness of smaller survey fields (e.g. the GOODS fields) for studies of galaxy environment. In even the poorest groups and c...

  6. Measurement equivalence in mixed mode surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop J. Hox

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surveys increasingly use mixed mode data collection (e.g., combining face-to-face and web because this controls costs and helps to maintain good response rates. However, a combination of different survey modes in one study, be it cross-sectional or longitudinal, can lead to different kinds of measurement errors. For example, respondents in a face-to-face survey or a web survey may interpret the same question differently, and might give a different answer, just because of the way the question is presented. This effect of survey mode on the question-answer process is called measurement mode effect. This study develops methodological and statistical tools to identify the existence and size of mode effects in a mixed mode survey. In addition, it assesses the size and importance of mode effects in measurement instruments using a specific mixed mode panel survey (Netherlands Kinship Panel Study. Most measurement instruments in the NKPS are multi-item scales, therefore confirmatory factor analysis (CFA will be used as the main analysis tool, using propensity score methods to correct for selection effects.The results show that the NKPS scales by and large have measurement equivalence, but in most cases only partial measurement equivalence. Controlling for respondent differences on demographic variables, and on scale scores from the previous uni-mode measurement occasion, tends to improve measurement equivalence, but not for all scales. The discussion ends with a review of the implications of our results for analyses employing these scales.

  7. Measuring and exposures from National Media Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    2000-01-01

    Natinal media surveys inform about the number and kind of people being exposed to the media in question. This paper discusses to what extent these numbers may be used as measures for the exposure to ads in the media in question. In this context attention is also focussed on elements in the media...... surveys themselves that might invalidate or give unreliable measures, both when measuring a single exposure and accumulated exposures. Four media types will be discussed: TV, radio, print and the internet....

  8. Computing poverty measures with survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Van Kerm

    2009-01-01

    I discuss estimation of poverty measures from household survey data in Stata and show how to derive analytic standard errors that take into account survey design features. Where needed, standard errors are adjusted for the estimation of the poverty line as a fraction of the mean or median income. The linearization approach based on influence functions is generally applicable to many estimators.

  9. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  10. Global Analysis of Solar Neutrino Oscillations Including SNO CC Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, J N; Peña-Garay, C; Bahcall, John N; Peña-Garay, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    For active and sterile neutrinos, we present the globally allowed solutions for two neutrino oscillations. We include the SNO CC measurement and all other relevant solar neutrino and reactor data. Five active neutrino oscillation solutions (LMA, LOW, SMA, VAC, and Just So2) are currently allowed at 3 sigma; three sterile neutrino solutions (Just So2, SMA, and VAC) are allowed at 3 sigma. The goodness of fit is satisfactory for all eight solutions. We also investigate the robustness of the allowed solutions by carrying out global analyses with and without: 1) imposing solar model constraints on the 8B neutrino flux, 2) including the Super-Kamiokande spectral energy distribution and day-night data, 3) using an enhanced CC cross section for deuterium (due to radiative corrections), and 4) a optimistic, hypothetical reduction by a factor of three of the error of the SNO CC rate. For every analysis strategy used in this paper, the most favored solutions all involve large mixing angles: LMA, LOW, or VAC. The favore...

  11. Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raccanelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available –819 (2012) doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.20634.x Cosmological measurements with forthcoming radio continuum surveys Alvise Raccanelli,1� Gong-Bo Zhao,1 David J. Bacon,1 Matt J. Jarvis,2,3 Will J. Percival,1 Ray P. Norris,4 Huub Ro¨ttgering,5 Filipe B. Abdalla... of Universe – radio continuum: galaxies. 1 IN T RO D U C T I O N Radio surveys for cosmology are entering a new phase with the construction of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) for radio �E-mail: alvise.raccanelli@port.ac.uk astronomy (Ro¨ttgering 2003...

  12. Expanding the North American Breeding Bird Survey analysis to include additional species and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John; Niven, Daniel; Pardieck, Keith L.; Ziolkowski, David; Link, William

    2017-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) contains data for >700 bird species, but analyses often focus on a core group of ∼420 species. We analyzed data for 122 species of North American birds for which data exist in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) database but are not routinely analyzed on the BBS Summary and Analysis Website. Many of these species occur in the northern part of the continent, on routes that fall outside the core survey area presently analyzed in the United States and southern Canada. Other species not historically analyzed occur in the core survey area with very limited data but have large portions of their ranges in Mexico and south. A third group of species not historically analyzed included species thought to be poorly surveyed by the BBS, such as rare, coastal, or nocturnal species. For 56 species found primarily in regions north of the core survey area, we expanded the scope of the analysis, using data from 1993 to 2014 during which ≥3 survey routes had been sampled in 6 northern strata (Bird Conservation regions in Alaska, Yukon, and Newfoundland and Labrador) and fitting log-linear hierarchical models for an augmented BBS survey area that included both the new northern strata and the core survey area. We also applied this model to 168 species historically analyzed in the BBS that had data from these additional northern strata. For both groups of species we calculated survey-wide trends for the both core and augmented survey areas from 1993 to 2014; for species that did not occur in the newly defined strata, we computed trends from 1966 to 2014. We evaluated trend estimates in terms of established credibility criteria for BBS results, screening for imprecise trends, small samples, and low relative abundance. Inclusion of data from the northern strata permitted estimation of trend for 56 species not historically analyzed, but only 4 of these were reasonably monitored and an additional 13 were questionably monitored; 39

  13. Measuring Employee Engagement in Hotels: Survey Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Kolomiets, Arina

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis are to understand nature of employee engagements, analyse popular theories used to understand this phenomenon and comprehend importance of employee engagement for organization; as well as to analyse Employee Engagement Survey conducted by leading hospitality organization, question its effectiveness and propose suggestion to improve measuring process of employee engagement to ensure live, valid data, thus the managers can understand where their employees stand in ...

  14. A survey report: how hospitals measure liquidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, W O; Massar, G S

    1983-11-01

    Liquidity is an important financial concept that is widely understood although not authoritatively defined. In many situations the actual assessment of liquidity is based on the relationship of current assets and current liabilities. Nationally, a decline in traditional measures of liquidity such as current and quick ratios has occurred for both general industry and the hospital industry. There are a variety of possible explanations for this trend, but one of special interest in this article was the effect of financial reporting practices. A recent Principles & Practices Board survey of Financial Analysis Service subscribers indicated that there is a potential for underreporting working capital, (current assets less current liabilities), in the hospital industry. However, this does not necessarily imply that the recent decline in liquidity measures is in any way due to reporting practices. No information about changes in reporting practices was obtained in this study. Finally, the results of the study do suggest that examination of more than one liquidity indicator is useful. Specifically, restricting attention to just the current ratio could be misleading. In this vein, it is interesting to note that six measures of liquidity are used in the FAS. All may provide insight into an accurate assessment of liquidity.

  15. Measuring Substance Use and Misuse via Survey Research: Unfinished Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews unfinished business regarding the assessment of substance use behaviors by using survey research methodologies, a practice that dates back to the earliest years of this journal's publication. Six classes of unfinished business are considered including errors of sampling, coverage, non-response, measurement, processing, and ethics. It may be that there is more now that we do not know than when this work began some 50 years ago.

  16. Measuring Bulk Flows in Large Scale Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, H A; Feldman, Hume A.; Watkins, Richard

    1993-01-01

    We follow a formalism presented by Kaiser to calculate the variance of bulk flows in large scale surveys. We apply the formalism to a mock survey of Abell clusters \\'a la Lauer \\& Postman and find the variance in the expected bulk velocities in a universe with CDM, MDM and IRAS--QDOT power spectra. We calculate the velocity variance as a function of the 1--D velocity dispersion of the clusters and the size of the survey.

  17. 2007 Merit Principles Survey: Performance Management Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Merit Systems Protection Board — 2007 survey responses from selected Federal agencies summarizing the existence of positive performance management practices and employee engagement scores for each...

  18. Workplace aggression, including bullying in nursing and midwifery: a descriptive survey (the SWAB study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Gerald A; Shafiei, Touran

    2012-11-01

    Workplace aggression remains an important source of distress among nurses and midwives and has negative effects on staff health, patient care and organisations' reputation and fiscal health. To report on the nature and extent of workplace aggression, including bullying experienced by nurses and midwives in Victoria, Australia. A descriptive study design was chosen. The Nurses Board of Victoria posted 5000 surveys to the randomly selected registered nurses and midwives in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. The participants were asked about their experiences of violence (from clients) and bullying (from colleagues) within their most recent four working weeks. In addition, the study investigated staff actions following incidents, staff training and safety at work, and what staff believe contribute to incidents. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, including frequencies and percentages. Chi square tests and P value were used to assess differences in categorical data. 1495 returned questionnaires were included in the study (30% response rate). Over half of the participants (52%) experienced some form of workplace aggression. Thirty-six percent experienced violence mostly from patients or their visitors/relatives and 32% experienced bullying mostly from colleagues or from their managers/supervisors. Significant differences were found between those who experienced aggression from patients and those who were bullied in respect to handling of incidents; factors thought to contribute to incidents; and organisations' handling of incidents. The study suggests that staff are less worried by patient initiated aggression compared to bullying from colleagues. For all types of aggression, respondents clearly wanted better/more realistic training, as well as enforcement of policies and support when incidents arise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement equivalence in mixed mode surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, Joop; de Leeuw, Edith; Zijlmans, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Surveys increasingly use mixed mode data collection (e.g., combining face-to-face and web) because this controls costs and helps to maintain good response rates. However, a combination of different survey modes in one study, be it cross-sectional or longitudinal, can lead to different kinds of measu

  20. Measuring our Universe from Galaxy Redshift Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahav Ofer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy redshift surveys have achieved significant progress over the last couple of decades. Those surveys tell us in the most straightforward way what our local Universe looks like. While the galaxy distribution traces the bright side of the Universe, detailed quantitative analyses of the data have even revealed the dark side of the Universe dominated by non-baryonic dark matter as well as more mysterious dark energy (or Einstein's cosmological constant. We describe several methodologies of using galaxy redshift surveys as cosmological probes, and then summarize the recent results from the existing surveys. Finally we present our views on the future of redshift surveys in the era of precision cosmology.

  1. Adult exposures from MDCT including multiphase studies: first Italian nationwide survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palorini, Federica; Origgi, Daniela [Fisica Sanitaria Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (Italy); Granata, Claudio [UOC di Radiologia Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa (Italy); Matranga, Domenica [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Promozione della Salute e Materno-infantile ' ' G. D' Alessandro' ' , Palermo (Italy); Salerno, Sergio [Policlinico Universita di Palermo, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Palermo (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the radiation dose in routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) examinations in Italian population. This was a retrospective multicentre study included 5,668 patients from 65 radiology departments who had undergone common CT protocols: head, chest, abdomen, chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP), spine and cardiac. Data included patient characteristics, CT parameters, volumetric CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP) for each CT acquisition phase. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multi-regression analysis was used to outline the main factors affecting exposure. The 75th percentiles of CTDI{sub vol} (mGy) and DLP (mGy cm) for whole head were 69 mGy and 1,312 mGy cm, respectively; for chest, 15 mGy and 569 mGy cm; spine, 42 mGy and 888 mGy cm; cardiac, 7 mGy and 131 mGy cm for calcium score, and 61 mGy and 1,208 mGy cm for angiographic CT studies. High variability was present in the DLP of abdomen and CAP protocols, where multiphase examinations dominated (71 % and 73 % respectively): for abdomen, 18 mGy, with 555 and 920 mGy cm in abdomen and abdomen-pelvis acquisitions respectively; for CAP, 17 mGy, with 508, 850 and 1,200 mGy cm in abdomen, abdomen-pelvis and CAP acquisitions respectively. The results of this survey could help in the definition of updated diagnostic reference levels (DRL). (orig.)

  2. Photovoltaics characterization: A survey of diagnostic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L. [Center for Measurements and Characterization, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The advancement of the photovoltaic technology is closely linked to the standard evaluation of the product, the diagnosis of problems, the validation of materials and cell properties, and the engineering and documentation of the ensemble of device properties from internal interfaces through power outputs. The focus of this paper is on some of the more common, visible, and important techniques dealing with physical-chemical through electro-optical parameters, which are linked intimately to the performance quality of materials and devices. Two areas, defined by their spatial-resolution qualities, are emphasized: macroscale and microscale measurement technologies. The importance, strengths, and limitations of these techniques are stressed, especially their significance to photovoltaics. Included are several techniques that have been developed specifically to address problems and requirements for photovoltaics. The regime of measurement literally covers arrays through atoms. {copyright} {ital 1998 Materials Research Society.}

  3. Survey of spectral response measurements for photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, J.S.; Lind, M.A.

    1981-11-01

    A survey of the photovoltaic community was conducted to ascertain the present state-of-the-art for PV spectral response measurements. Specific topics explored included measurement system designs, good and bad features of the systems, and problems encountered in the evaluation of specific cell structures and materials. The survey showed that most spectral response data are used in diagnostic analysis for the optimization of developmental solar cells. Measurement systems commonly utilize a chopped narrowband source in conjunction with a constant bias illumination which simulates the ambient end use environment. Researchers emphasized the importance of bias illumination for all types of cells in order to minimize the effects of nonlinearities in cell response. Not surprisingly single crystal silicon cells present the fewest measurement problems to the researcher and have been studied more thoroughly than any other type of solar cell. But, the accurate characterization of silicon cells is still difficult and laboratory intercomparison studies have yielded data scatter ranging from +-5% to +-15%. The measurement experience with other types of cells is less extensive. The development of reliable data bases for some solar cells is complicated by problems of cell nonuniformity, environmental instability, nonlinearity, etc. Cascade cells present new problems associated with their structue (multiple cells in series) which are just beginning to be understood. In addition, the importance of many measurement parameters (spectral content of bias light, bias light intensity, bias voltage, chopping frequency, etc.) are not fully understood for most types of solar cells.

  4. Public Land Survey (Township, Range, and Section) for northern Arizona, including Grand Canyon National Park.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This ALRIS (Arizona Land Resource Information System) coverage contains Public Land Survey gridding and labels for Townships, Ranges, and Sections for Northern Arizona

  5. A Survey of Advanced Microwave Frequency Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Swaroop Khare

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwaves are radio waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter, or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. The science of photonics includes the generation, emission, modulation, signal processing, switching, transmission, amplification, detection and sensing of light. Microwave photonics has been introduced for achieving ultra broadband signal processing. Instantaneous Frequency Measurement (IFM receivers play an important role in electronic warfare. Technologies used for signal processing, include conventional direct Radio Frequency (RF techniques, digital techniques, intermediate frequency (IF techniques and photonic techniques. Direct RF techniques suffer an increased loss, high dispersion, and unwanted radiation problems in high frequencies. The systems that use traditional RF techniques can be bulky and often lack the agility required to perform advanced signal processing in rapidly changing environments. In this paper we discussed a survey of Microwave Frequency Measurement Techniques. The microwaves techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper provides the major advancement in the Microwave Frequency MeasurementTechniques research; using these approaches the features and categories in the surveyed existing work.

  6. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Michaels Stuart; Lhomond Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the re...

  7. A randomised controlled trial to determine the effect on response of including a lottery incentive in health surveys [ISRCTN32203485

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridge P

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postal questionnaires are an economical and simple method of data collection for research purposes but are subject to non-response bias. Several studies have explored the effect of monetary and non-monetary incentives on response. Recent meta-analyses conclude that financial incentives are an effective way of increasing response rates. However, large surveys rarely have the resources to reward individual participants. Three previous papers report on the effectiveness of lottery incentives with contradictory results. This study aimed to determine the effect of including a lottery-style incentive on response rates to a postal health survey. Methods Randomised controlled trial. Setting: North and West Birmingham. 8,645 patients aged 18 or over randomly selected from registers of eight general practices (family physician practices. Intervention: Inclusion of a flyer and letter with a health questionnaire informing patients that returned questionnaires would be entered into a lottery-style draw for £100 of gift vouchers. Control: Health questionnaire accompanied only by standard letter of explanation. Main outcome measures: Response rate and completion rate to questionnaire. Results 5,209 individuals responded with identical rates in both groups (62.1%. Practice, patient age, sex and Townsend score (a postcode based deprivation measure were identified as predictive of response, with higher response related to older age, being female and living in an area with a lower Townsend score (less deprived. Conclusion This RCT, using a large community based sample, found that the offer of entry into a lottery style draw for £100 of High Street vouchers has no effect on response rates to a postal health questionnaire.

  8. Measuring the Accuracy of Survey Responses using Administrative Register Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Lassen, David Dreyer; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows how Danish administrative register data can be combined with survey data at the person level and be used to validate information collected in the survey. Register data are collected by automatic third party reporting and the potential errors associated with the two data sources...... are therefore plausibly orthogonal. Two examples are given to illustrate the potential of combining survey and register data. In the first example expenditure survey records with information about total expenditure are merged with income tax records holding information about income and wealth. Income and wealth...... data are used to impute total expenditure which is then compared to the survey measure. Results suggest that the two measures match each other well on average. In the second example we compare responses to a one-shot recall question about total gross personal income ¿collected in another survey...

  9. Measuring customer satisfaction using SERQUAL survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Tajzadeh Namin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research is on assessing the quality of services of Tehran’s Saman bank and the available gap between customer’s expectation and perception. Also the relationship between customer’s satisfaction and each dimension of service quality (ie: reliability, tangibility, responsiveness, assurance and empathy and ranking them accordingly, is investigated. The statistical population of this research is consisted of Tehran’s Saman bank customers. The research methods of this study are descriptive-survey as well as correlation. The statistical approaches of this study are correlation, t-student as well as Friedman tests. The results from a sample of 276, shows the service quality dimensions affect customers' perception based on SERQUAL. In addition, there are significant relationship between customers' perception and their satisfaction of the offered services. However, there are negative gaps between customers' perception and their level of expectation.

  10. 45 CFR 2522.570 - What information on performance measures must my grant application include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information on performance measures must my... APPLICANTS Evaluation Requirements Performance Measures: Requirements and Procedures § 2522.570 What information on performance measures must my grant application include? You must submit all of the following...

  11. Effect on Mail Survey Return Rates of Including Questionnaires With Follow-Up Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Charles M.; Lamb, Charles W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Two thousand questionnaires were mailed to respondents allocated among seven treatments. Controls received an initial mailing (questionnaire and cover letter) only. The remaining six treatments varied by number of follow-up mailings and whether another questionnaire copy was included. Results suggest more than one follow-up letter with a…

  12. MEASUREMENT OF FRICTIONAL PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS DURING A VENTILATION SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.S. Prosser, PE; I.M. Loomis, PE, PhD

    2003-11-03

    During the course of a ventilation survey, both airflow quantity and frictional pressure losses are measured and quantified. The measurement of airflow has been extensively studied as the vast majority of ventilation standards/regulations are tied to airflow quantity or velocity. However, during the conduct of a ventilation survey, measurement of airflow only represents half of the necessary parameters required to directly calculate the airway resistance. The measurement of frictional pressure loss is an often misunderstood and misapplied part of the ventilation survey. This paper compares the two basic methods of frictional pressure drop measurements; the barometer and the gauge and tube. Personal experiences with each method will be detailed along with the authors' opinions regarding the applicability and conditions favoring each method.

  13. Making Meaningful Measurement in Survey Research: The Use of Person and Item Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Quality measurement is essential in every form of research, including institutional research and assessment. Unfortunately, most survey research today (both published and unpublished) is lacking with regards to quality measurement. Reporting means and standard deviations based on ordinal measures is an inappropriate, yet widespread practice in the…

  14. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  15. A Survey of Binary Similarity and Distance Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Seok Choi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The binary feature vector is one of the most common representations of patterns and measuring similarity and distance measures play a critical role in many problems such as clustering, classification, etc. Ever since Jaccard proposed a similarity measure to classify ecological species in 1901, numerous binary similarity and distance measures have been proposed in various fields. Applying appropriate measures results in more accurate data analysis. Notwithstanding, few comprehensive surveys on binary measures have been conducted. Hence we collected 76 binary similarity and distance measures used over the last century and reveal their correlations through the hierarchical clustering technique.

  16. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Millstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass to determine which might be the best indicator(s of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg, 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2, 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%, and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg. All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI.

  17. Natural language in measuring user emotions: A qualitative approach to quantitative survey-based emotion measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonetto, L.M.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to developing surveys that measure user experiences with the use of natural everyday language. The common approach to develop questionnaires that measure experience is to translate theoretical factors into verbal survey items. This theory-based approach can impair the

  18. Measuring socio-economic data in tuberculosis prevalence surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, F; Guilatco, R S; Hossain, S; Van't Hoog, A H; Hoa, N B; van der Werf, M J; Lönnroth, K

    2011-06-01

    Addressing social determinants in the field of tuberculosis (TB) has received great attention in the past years, mainly due to the fact that worldwide TB incidence has not declined as much as expected, despite highly curative control strategies. One of the objectives of the World Health Organization Global Task Force on TB Impact Measurement is to assess the prevalence of TB disease in 22 high-burden countries by active screening of a random sample of the general population. These surveys provide a unique opportunity to assess socio-economic determinants in relation to prevalent TB and its risk factors. This article describes methods of measuring the socio-economic position in the context of a TB prevalence survey. An indirect measurement using an assets score is the most feasible way of doing this. Several examples are given from recently conducted prevalence surveys of the use of an assets score, its construction, and the analyses of the obtained data.

  19. Creating a Screening Measure of Health Literacy for the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52.53 years (SD = 16.24). A health literacy screening measure was created using four items included in the HINTS survey. Scores could range from 0 (no questions affirmative/correct) to 4 (all questions answered affirmatively/correctly). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether demographic variables known to predict health literacy were indeed associated with the constructed health literacy screening measure. The weighted average health literacy score was 2.63 (SD = 1.00). Those who were nonwhite (p = .0005), were older (p literacy screening measure scores. This study highlights the need to assess health literacy in national surveys, but also serves as evidence that screening measures can be created within existing datasets to give researchers the ability to consider the impact of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. The harmonic measure of diffusion-limited aggregates including rare events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D. A.; Sander, L. M.; Somfai, E.; Ziff, R. M.

    2009-07-01

    We obtain the harmonic measure of diffusion-limited aggregate (DLA) clusters using a biased random-walk sampling technique which allows us to measure probabilities of random walkers hitting sections of clusters with unprecedented accuracy; our results include probabilities as small as 10- 80. We find the multifractal D(q) spectrum including regions of small and negative q. Our algorithm allows us to obtain the harmonic measure for clusters more than an order of magnitude larger than those achieved using the method of iterative conformal maps, which is the previous best method. We find a phase transition in the singularity spectrum f(α) at α≈14 and also find a minimum q of D(q), qmin=0.9±0.05.

  1. Individual Social Capital and Its Measurement in Social Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With its popularity has come an unresolved issue about social capital: is it an individual or a collective property, or both? Many researchers take it for granted that social capital is collective, but most social surveys implicitly measure social capital at the individual level. After reviewing the definitions by Bourdieu, Coleman, and Putnam, I become to agree with Portes that social capital can be an individual asset and should be firstly analyzed as such; if social capital is to be analyzed as a collective property, then the analysis should explicitly draw on a clear definition of individual social capital. I thus define individual social capital as the features of social groups or networks that each individual member can access and use for obtaining further benefits. Four types of features are identified (basic, specific, generalized, and structural, and example formulations of survey questions are proposed. Following this approach, I then assess some survey questions organized under five themes commonly found in social surveys for measuring social capital: participation in organizations, social networks, trust, civic participation, and perceptions of local area. I conclude that most of these themes and questions only weakly or indirectly measure individual social capital; therefore, they should be strengthened with the conceptual framework proposed in this paper and complemented with the items used in independent surveys on social networks.

  2. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches...... for including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g...

  3. Measuring Nonresponse Bias in a Cross-Country Enterprise Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bańkowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonresponse is a common issue affecting the vast majority of surveys. Efforts to convince those unwilling to participate in a survey might not necessary result in a better picture of the target population and can lead to higher, not lower, nonresponse bias.We investigate the impact of non-response in the European Commission & European Central Bank Survey on the Access to Finance of Enterprises (SAFE, which collects evidence on the financing conditions faced by European SMEs compared with those of large firms. This survey, conducted by telephone bi-annually since 2009 by the ECB and the European Commission, provides a valuable means to search for this kind of bias, given the high heterogeneity of response propensities across countries.The study relies on so-called “Representativity Indicators” developed within the Representativity Indicators of Survey Quality (RISQ project, which measure the distance to a fully representative response. On this basis, we examine the quality of the SAFE Survey at different stages of the fieldwork as well as across different survey waves and countries. The RISQ methodology relies on rich sampling frame information, which is however partly limited in the case of the SAFE. We also assess the representativeness of the SAFE particular subsample created by linking the survey responses with the companies’ financial information from a business register; this sub-sampling is another potential source of bias which we also attempt to quantify. Finally, we suggest possible ways how to improve monitoring of the possible nonresponse bias in the future rounds of the survey.

  4. Can patient safety be measured by surveys of patient experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Leif I; Asche, Stephen E; Averbeck, Beth M; Hayek, Anita M; Schmitt, Kay G; Lindquist, Tim C; Carlson, Richard R

    2008-05-01

    A study was conducted to test whether patient reports of medical errors via surveys could produce sufficiently accurate information to be used as a measure of patient safety. A survey mailed regularly by a large multispecialty medical group to recent patients to assess their satisfaction and error experiences was expanded to collect more details about the patient-perceived errors. Following an initial mailing to 3,109 patients and parents of child patients soon after they had office visits in June 2005, usable mailed or phone follow-up responses were obtained from 1,998 respondents (65.1% adjusted). Responses were reviewed through a two-stage process that included chart audits and implicit physician reviewer judgments. The analysis categorized the review results and compared patient-reported errors with satisfaction. Of the 1,998 respondents, 219 (11.0%) reported 247 separate incidents, for a rate of 12.4 errors per 100 patients. After complete review, only 5 (2.0%) of these incidents were judged to be real clinician errors. Most appeared to represent misunderstandings or behavior/communication problems, but 15.4% lacked sufficient information to categorize. Women, Hispanics, and those aged 41-60 years were most likely to report errors. Those respondents making error reports were much more likely to report visit dissatisfaction than those not reporting them (odds ratio [OR] = 13.8, p technical medical errors and patient safety reliably without added evaluation. This study's findings need to be replicated elsewhere before generalizing from one metropolitan region and a patient population that is about two-thirds members of one health plan.

  5. Working meeting on blood pressure measurement: suggestions for measuring blood pressure to use in populations surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    As part of the Pan American Hypertension Initiative (PAHI), the Pan American Health Organization and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health of the United States of America conducted a working meeting to discuss blood pressure (BP) measurement methods used in various hypertension prevalence surveys and clinical trials, with the objective of developing a BP measurement protocol for use in hypertension prevalence surveys in the Americas. No such common protocol has existed in the Americas, so it has been difficult to compare hypertension prevention and intervention strategies. This piece describes a proposed standard method for measuring blood pressure for use in population surveys in the Region of the Americas. The piece covers: considerations for developing a common blood pressure measurement protocol, critical issues in measuring blood pressure in national surveys, minimum procedures for blood pressure measurement during surveillance, and quality assessment of blood pressure.

  6. Neutrino masses and cosmological parameters from a Euclid-like survey: Markov Chain Monte Carlo forecasts including theoretical errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audren, Benjamin; Lesgourgues, Julien [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, École PolytechniqueFédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Bird, Simeon [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ, 08540 (United States); Haehnelt, Martin G. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: benjamin.audren@epfl.ch, E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch, E-mail: spb@ias.edu, E-mail: haehnelt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, 34143, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-01-01

    We present forecasts for the accuracy of determining the parameters of a minimal cosmological model and the total neutrino mass based on combined mock data for a future Euclid-like galaxy survey and Planck. We consider two different galaxy surveys: a spectroscopic redshift survey and a cosmic shear survey. We make use of the Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMC) technique and assume two sets of theoretical errors. The first error is meant to account for uncertainties in the modelling of the effect of neutrinos on the non-linear galaxy power spectrum and we assume this error to be fully correlated in Fourier space. The second error is meant to parametrize the overall residual uncertainties in modelling the non-linear galaxy power spectrum at small scales, and is conservatively assumed to be uncorrelated and to increase with the ratio of a given scale to the scale of non-linearity. It hence increases with wavenumber and decreases with redshift. With these two assumptions for the errors and assuming further conservatively that the uncorrelated error rises above 2% at k = 0.4 h/Mpc and z = 0.5, we find that a future Euclid-like cosmic shear/galaxy survey achieves a 1-σ error on M{sub ν} close to 32 meV/25 meV, sufficient for detecting the total neutrino mass with good significance. If the residual uncorrelated errors indeed rises rapidly towards smaller scales in the non-linear regime as we have assumed here then the data on non-linear scales does not increase the sensitivity to the total neutrino mass. Assuming instead a ten times smaller theoretical error with the same scale dependence, the error on the total neutrino mass decreases moderately from σ(M{sub ν}) = 18 meV to 14 meV when mildly non-linear scales with 0.1 h/Mpc < k < 0.6 h/Mpc are included in the analysis of the galaxy survey data.

  7. Measurement of Ethnic Background in Cross-national School Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Krølner, Rikke; Páll, Gabrilla

    2011-01-01

    Indicators such as country of birth and language spoken at home have been used as proxy measures for ethnic background, but the validity of these indicators in surveys among school children remains unclear. This study aimed at comparing item response and student-parent agreement on four questions...

  8. Bayesian Mass Estimates of the Milky Way: Including measurement uncertainties with hierarchical Bayes

    CERN Document Server

    Eadie, Gwendolyn; Harris, William

    2016-01-01

    We present a hierarchical Bayesian method for estimating the total mass and mass profile of the Milky Way Galaxy. The new hierarchical Bayesian approach further improves the framework presented by Eadie, Harris, & Widrow (2015) and Eadie & Harris (2016) and builds upon the preliminary reports by Eadie et al (2015a,c). The method uses a distribution function $f(\\mathcal{E},L)$ to model the galaxy and kinematic data from satellite objects such as globular clusters to trace the Galaxy's gravitational potential. A major advantage of the method is that it not only includes complete and incomplete data simultaneously in the analysis, but also incorporates measurement uncertainties in a coherent and meaningful way. We first test the hierarchical Bayesian framework, which includes measurement uncertainties, using the same data and power-law model assumed in Eadie & Harris (2016), and find the results are similar but more strongly constrained. Next, we take advantage of the new statistical framework and in...

  9. Including health insurance in poverty measurement: The impact of Massachusetts health reform on poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Sanders D; Remler, Dahlia K

    2016-12-01

    We develop and implement what we believe is the first conceptually valid health-inclusive poverty measure (HIPM) - a measure that includes health care or insurance in the poverty needs threshold and health insurance benefits in family resources - and we discuss its limitations. Building on the Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, we construct a pilot HIPM for the under-65 population under ACA-like health reform in Massachusetts. This pilot demonstrates the practicality, face validity and value of a HIPM. Results suggest that public health insurance benefits and premium subsidies accounted for a substantial, one-third reduction in the health inclusive poverty rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. IntelliGO: a new vector-based semantic similarity measure including annotation origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devignes Marie-Dominique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology (GO is a well known controlled vocabulary describing the biological process, molecular function and cellular component aspects of gene annotation. It has become a widely used knowledge source in bioinformatics for annotating genes and measuring their semantic similarity. These measures generally involve the GO graph structure, the information content of GO aspects, or a combination of both. However, only a few of the semantic similarity measures described so far can handle GO annotations differently according to their origin (i.e. their evidence codes. Results We present here a new semantic similarity measure called IntelliGO which integrates several complementary properties in a novel vector space model. The coefficients associated with each GO term that annotates a given gene or protein include its information content as well as a customized value for each type of GO evidence code. The generalized cosine similarity measure, used for calculating the dot product between two vectors, has been rigorously adapted to the context of the GO graph. The IntelliGO similarity measure is tested on two benchmark datasets consisting of KEGG pathways and Pfam domains grouped as clans, considering the GO biological process and molecular function terms, respectively, for a total of 683 yeast and human genes and involving more than 67,900 pair-wise comparisons. The ability of the IntelliGO similarity measure to express the biological cohesion of sets of genes compares favourably to four existing similarity measures. For inter-set comparison, it consistently discriminates between distinct sets of genes. Furthermore, the IntelliGO similarity measure allows the influence of weights assigned to evidence codes to be checked. Finally, the results obtained with a complementary reference technique give intermediate but correct correlation values with the sequence similarity, Pfam, and Enzyme classifications when compared to

  11. Bayesian Mass Estimates of the Milky Way: Including Measurement Uncertainties with Hierarchical Bayes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Gwendolyn M.; Springford, Aaron; Harris, William E.

    2017-02-01

    We present a hierarchical Bayesian method for estimating the total mass and mass profile of the Milky Way Galaxy. The new hierarchical Bayesian approach further improves the framework presented by Eadie et al. and Eadie and Harris and builds upon the preliminary reports by Eadie et al. The method uses a distribution function f({ E },L) to model the Galaxy and kinematic data from satellite objects, such as globular clusters (GCs), to trace the Galaxy’s gravitational potential. A major advantage of the method is that it not only includes complete and incomplete data simultaneously in the analysis, but also incorporates measurement uncertainties in a coherent and meaningful way. We first test the hierarchical Bayesian framework, which includes measurement uncertainties, using the same data and power-law model assumed in Eadie and Harris and find the results are similar but more strongly constrained. Next, we take advantage of the new statistical framework and incorporate all possible GC data, finding a cumulative mass profile with Bayesian credible regions. This profile implies a mass within 125 kpc of 4.8× {10}11{M}ȯ with a 95% Bayesian credible region of (4.0{--}5.8)× {10}11{M}ȯ . Our results also provide estimates of the true specific energies of all the GCs. By comparing these estimated energies to the measured energies of GCs with complete velocity measurements, we observe that (the few) remote tracers with complete measurements may play a large role in determining a total mass estimate of the Galaxy. Thus, our study stresses the need for more remote tracers with complete velocity measurements.

  12. Development of the Perceived Nutrition Environment Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sarah H; Glanz, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Objective, observational measures of nutrition environments are now well established and widely used. Individuals' perceptions of their nutrition environments may be equally or more important, but are less well conceptualized, and comprehensive measures are not available. This paper describes the development of the Perceived Nutrition Environment Measures Survey (NEMS-P), its test-retest reliability, and its ability to discern differences between lower- and higher-SES neighborhoods. This research involved five steps: (1) development of a conceptual model and inventory of items; (2) expert review; (3) pilot testing and cognitive interviews; (4) revising the survey; and (5) administering the revised survey to participants in neighborhoods of high and low SES on two occasions to evaluate neighborhood differences and test-retest reliability. Data were collected in 2010 and 2011 and analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The final survey has 118 items. Fifty-three core items represent three types of perceived nutrition environments: community nutrition environment, consumer nutrition environment, and home food environment. Test-retest reliability for core constructs of perceived nutrition environments was moderate to good (0.52-0.83) for most measured constructs. Residents of higher-SES neighborhoods reported higher availability scores in stores, stronger agreement that healthy options were available in nearby restaurants, and higher scores for accessibility of healthy foods in their homes. The NEMS-P has moderate to good test-retest reliability and can discriminate perceptions of nutrition environments between residents of higher- and lower-SES neighborhoods. This survey is available and ready to be used. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gleason-Type Theorem for Projective Measurements, Including Qubits: The Born Rule Beyond Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zela, F.

    2016-10-01

    Born's quantum probability rule is traditionally included among the quantum postulates as being given by the squared amplitude projection of a measured state over a prepared state, or else as a trace formula for density operators. Both Gleason's theorem and Busch's theorem derive the quantum probability rule starting from very general assumptions about probability measures. Remarkably, Gleason's theorem holds only under the physically unsound restriction that the dimension of the underlying Hilbert space {H} must be larger than two. Busch's theorem lifted this restriction, thereby including qubits in its domain of validity. However, while Gleason assumed that observables are given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors, Busch made the mathematically stronger assumption that observables are given by positive operator-valued measures. The theorem we present here applies, similarly to the quantum postulate, without restricting the dimension of {H} and for observables given by complete sets of orthogonal projectors. We also show that the Born rule applies beyond the quantum domain, thereby exhibiting the common root shared by some quantum and classical phenomena.

  14. Characteristics of physical measurement consent in a population-based survey of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakshaug, Joseph W; Couper, Mick P; Ofstedal, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Collecting physical measurements in population-based health surveys has increased in recent years, yet little is known about the characteristics of those who consent to these measurements. To examine the characteristics of persons who consent to physical measurements across several domains, including one's demographic background, health status, resistance behavior toward the survey interview, and interviewer characteristics. We conducted a secondary data analysis of the 2006 Health and Retirement Study, a nationally-representative panel survey of older adults aged 51 and older. We performed multilevel logistic regressions on a sample of 7457 respondents who were eligible for physical measurements. The primary outcome measure was consent to all physical measurements. Seventy-nine percent (unweighted) of eligible respondents consented to all physical measurements. In weighted multilevel logistic regressions controlling for respondent demographics, current health status, survey resistance indicators, and interviewer characteristics, the propensity to consent was significantly greater among Hispanic respondents matched with bilingual Hispanic interviewers, patients with diabetes, and those who visited a doctor in the past 2 years. The propensity to consent was significantly lower among younger respondents, those who have several Nagi functional limitations and infrequently participate in "mildly vigorous" activities, and those interviewed by black interviewers. Survey resistance indicators, such as number of contact attempts and interviewer observations of resistant behavior in prior wave iterations of the Health and Retirement Study were also negatively associated with physical measurement consent. The propensity to consent was unrelated to prior medical diagnoses, including high blood pressure, cancer (excluding skin), lung disease, heart abnormalities, stroke, and arthritis, and matching of interviewer and respondent on race and gender. Physical measurement consent

  15. [Several common biases and control measures during sampling survey of eye diseases in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai-jin

    2008-06-01

    Bias is a common artificial error during sampling survey in eye diseases, and is a major impact factor for validity and reliability of the survey. The causes and the control measures of several biases regarding current sampling survey of eye diseases in China were analyzed and discussed, including the sampling bias, non-respondent bias, and diagnostic bias. This review emphasizes that controlling bias is the key to ensure quality of sampling survey. Random sampling, sufficient sample quantity, careful examination and taking history, improving examination rate, accurate diagnosis, strict training and preliminary study, as well as quality control can eliminate or minimize biases and improve the sampling survey quality of eye diseases in China

  16. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triclosan (TCS) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in consumer products such as hand soap and toothpaste, and human exposure is widespread. TCS is suspected of having endocrine-disrupting properties, but few human studies have examined the developmental effects of prenatal TCS......, Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, Lind DV, Husby S, Wohlfahrt-Veje C, Skakkebæk NE, Jensen TK. 2016. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Environ Health Perspect 124:1261-1268; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409637....

  17. Applying OGC Standards to Develop a Land Surveying Measurement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Sofos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC is committed to developing quality open standards for the global geospatial community, thus enhancing the interoperability of geographic information. In the domain of sensor networks, the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE initiative has been developed to define the necessary context by introducing modeling standards, like ‘Observation & Measurement’ (O&M and services to provide interaction like ‘Sensor Observation Service’ (SOS. Land surveying measurements on the other hand comprise a domain where observation information structures and services have not been aligned to the OGC observation model. In this paper, an OGC-compatible, aligned to the ‘Observation and Measurements’ standard, model for land surveying observations has been developed and discussed. Furthermore, a case study instantiates the above model, and an SOS implementation has been developed based on the 52° North SOS platform. Finally, a visualization schema is used to produce ‘Web Map Service (WMS’ observation maps. Even though there are elements that differentiate this work from classic ‘O&M’ modeling cases, the proposed model and flows are developed in order to provide the benefits of standardizing land surveying measurement data (cost reducing by reusability, higher precision level, data fusion of multiple sources, raw observation spatiotemporal repository access, development of Measurement-Based GIS (MBGIS to the geoinformation community.

  18. CP violation and limits on New Physics including recent B{sub s} measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botella, Francisco J. [Departament de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Branco, Gustavo C. [Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Nebot, Miguel [Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: miguel.nebot@uv.es

    2007-04-16

    We analyse present constraints on the SM parameter space and derive, in a model independent way, various bounds on New Physics contributions to B{sub d}{sup 0}-B-bar{sub d}{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0}-B-bar{sub s}{sup 0} mixings. Our analyses include information on a large set of asymmetries, leading to the measurement of the CKM phases {gamma} and {beta}-bar, as well as recent data from D0 and CDF related to the B{sub s}{sup 0}-B-bar{sub s}{sup 0} system such as the measurement of {delta}M{sub B{sub s}}, A and {delta}{gamma}{sub s}{sup CP}. We examine in detail several observables such as the asymmetries A{sub sl}{sup d}, A, the width differences {delta}{gamma}{sub d} and {delta}{gamma}{sub s}{sup CP} and discuss the role they play in establishing the limits on New Physics. The present data clearly favour the SM, with the New Physics favoured region placed around the SM solution. A New Physics solution significantly different from the SM is still allowed, albeit quite disfavoured (2.6% probability). We analyse the presently available indirect knowledge on the phase {chi}-bar entering in B{sub s}{sup 0}-B-bar{sub s}{sup 0} mixing and study the impact of a future measurement of {chi}-bar to be achieved at LHC, through the measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry in B{sub s}->J/{psi}{phi} decays.

  19. Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures Including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Tina Harmer; Frederiksen, Hanne; Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Swan, Shanna H.; Main, Katharina M.; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Lind, Dorte Vesterholm; Husby, Steffen; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Skakkebæk, Niels E.; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2016-01-01

    compatible with an anti-androgenic effect of prenatal TCS exposure on fetal growth in boys. Citation: Lassen TH, Frederiksen H, Kyhl HB, Swan SH, Main KM, Andersson AM, Lind DV, Husby S, Wohlfahrt-Veje C, Skakkebæk NE, Jensen TK. 2016. Prenatal triclosan exposure and anthropometric measures including anogenital distance in Danish infants. Environ Health Perspect 124:1261–1268; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409637 PMID:26908126

  20. Can A Galaxy Redshift Survey Measure Dark Energy Clustering?

    CERN Document Server

    Takada, M

    2006-01-01

    (abridged) A wide-field galaxy redshift survey allows one to probe galaxy clustering at largest spatial scales, which carries an invaluable information on horizon-scale physics complementarily to the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Assuming the planned survey consisting of z~1 and z~3 surveys with areas of 2000 and 300 square degrees, respectively, we study the prospects for probing dark energy clustering from the measured galaxy power spectrum, assuming the dynamical properties of dark energy are specified in terms of the equation of state and the effective sound speed c_e in the context of an adiabatic cold dark matter (CDM) model. The dark energy clustering adds a power to the galaxy power spectrum amplitude at spatial scales greater than the sound horizon, and the enhancement is sensitive to redshift evolution of the net dark energy density, i.e. the equation of state. We find that the galaxy survey, when combined with Planck, can distinguish dark energy clustering from a smooth dark energy model such ...

  1. Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk in the United States including regional and seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Barbano, D M; Bauman, D E

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are increasingly aware that food components have the potential to influence human health maintenance and disease prevention, and dietary fatty acids (FA) have been of special interest. It has been 25 years since the last survey of US milk FA composition, and during this interval substantial changes in dairy rations have occurred, including increased use of total mixed rations and byproduct feeds as well as the routine use of lipid and FA supplements. Furthermore, analytical procedures have improved allowing greater detail in the routine analysis of FA, especially trans FA. Our objective was to survey US milk fat and determine its FA composition. We obtained samples of fluid milk from 56 milk processing plants across the US every 3 mo for one year to capture seasonal and geographical variations. Processing plants were selected based on the criteria that they represented 50% or more of the fluid milk produced in that area. An overall summary of the milk fat analysis indicated that saturated fatty acids comprised 63.7% of total milk FA with palmitic and stearic acids representing the majority (44.1 and 18.3% of total saturated fatty acids, respectively). Unsaturated fatty acids were 33.2% of total milk FA with oleic acid predominating (71.0% of total unsaturated fatty acids). These values are comparable to those of the previous survey in 1984, considering differences in analytical techniques. Trans FA represented 3.2% of total FA, with vaccenic acid being the major trans isomer (46.5% of total trans FA). Cis-9, trans-11 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid represented 0.55% total milk FA, and the major n-3 FA (linolenic acid, 18:3) composed 0.38%. Analyses for seasonal and regional effects indicated statistical differences for some FA, but these were minor from an overall human nutrition perspective as the FA profile for all samples were numerically similar. Overall, the present study provides a valuable database for current FA composition of US fluid milk, and

  2. Including information about comorbidity in estimates of disease burden: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jordi; Vilagut, Gemma; Chatterji, Somnath; Heeringa, Steven; Schoenbaum, Michael; Üstün, T. Bedirhan; Rojas-Farreras, Sonia; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Karam, Aimee N.; Kovess, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Liu, Zhaorui; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, Jose; Uda, Hidenori; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The methodology commonly used to estimate disease burden, featuring ratings of severity of individual conditions, has been criticized for ignoring comorbidity. A methodology that addresses this problem is proposed and illustrated here with data from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Although the analysis is based on self-reports about one’s own conditions in a community survey, the logic applies equally well to analysis of hypothetical vignettes describing comorbid condition profiles. Methods Face-to-face interviews in 13 countries (six developing, nine developed; n = 31,067; response rate = 69.6%) assessed 10 classes of chronic physical and 9 of mental conditions. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess overall perceived health. Multiple regression analysis with interactions for comorbidity was used to estimate associations of conditions with VAS. Simulation was used to estimate condition-specific effects. Results The best-fitting model included condition main effects and interactions of types by numbers of conditions. Neurological conditions, insomnia, and major depression were rated most severe. Adjustment for comorbidity reduced condition-specific estimates with substantial between-condition variation (.24–.70 ratios of condition-specific estimates with and without adjustment for comorbidity). The societal-level burden rankings were quite different from the individual-level rankings, with the highest societal-level rankings associated with conditions having high prevalence rather than high individual-level severity. Conclusions Plausible estimates of disorder-specific effects on VAS can be obtained using methods that adjust for comorbidity. These adjustments substantially influence condition-specific ratings. PMID:20553636

  3. Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Baseline Surveys for Emergency Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, C

    2012-06-04

    Originally established in the 1960s to support the Nuclear Test Program, the AMS mission is to provide a rapid and comprehensive worldwide aerial measurement, analysis, and interpretation capability in response to a nuclear/radiological emergency. AMS provides a responsive team of individuals whose processes allow for a mission to be conducted and completed with results available within hours. This presentation slide-show reviews some of the history of the AMS, summarizes present capabilities and methods, and addresses the value of the surveys.

  4. The Advantage of the Second Military Survey in Fluvial Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, completed in the 19th century, can be very useful in different scientific investigations owing to its accuracy and data content. The fact, that the mapmakers used geodetic projection, and the high accuracy of the survey guarantee that scientists can use these maps and the represented objects can be evaluated in retrospective studies. Among others, the hydrological information of the map sheets is valuable. The streams were drawn with very thin lines that also ascertain the high accuracy of their location, provided that the geodetic position of the sheet can be constructed with high accuracy. After geocoding these maps we faced the high accuracy of line elements. Not only the location of these lines but the form of the creeks are usually almost the same as recent shape. The goal of our study was the neotectonic evaluation of the western part of the Pannonian Basin, bordered by Pinka, Rába and Répce Rivers. The watercourses, especially alluvial ones, react very sensitively to tectonic forcing. However, the present-day course of the creeks and rivers are mostly regulated, therefore they are unsuitable for such studies. Consequently, the watercourses should be reconstructed from maps surveyed prior to the main water control measures. The Second Military Survey is a perfect source for such studies because it is the first survey has drawn in geodetic projection but the creeks haven't been regulated yet. The maps show intensive agricultural cultivation and silviculture in the study area. Especially grazing cultivation precincts of the streams is important for us. That phenomenon and data from other sources prove that the streams haven't been regulated in that time. The streams were able to meander, and flood its banks, and only natural levees are present. The general morphology south from the Kőszegi Mountains shows typical SSE slopes with low relief cut off by 30-60 meter high scarps followed by streams. That

  5. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey IV: Data Reduction Procedures for Surface Brightness Fluctuation Measurements with the Advanced Camera for Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, S; Tonry, J L; Jordan, A; Peng, E W; Côté, P; Ferrarese, L; Merritt, D; Milosavljevic, M; West, M J; Mei, Simona; Blakeslee, John P.; Tonry, John L.; Jordan, Andres; Peng, Eric W.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Merritt, David; Milosavljevic, Milos; West, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Virgo Cluster Survey is a large program to image 100 early-type Virgo galaxies using the F475W and F850LP bandpasses of the Wide Field Channel of the ACS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The scientific goals of this survey include an exploration of the three-dimensional structure of the Virgo Cluster and a critical examination of the usefulness of the globular cluster luminosity function as a distance indicator. Both of these issues require accurate distances for the full sample of 100 program galaxies. In this paper, we describe our data reduction procedures and examine the feasibility of accurate distance measurements using the method of surface brightness fluctuations (SBF) applied to the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey F850LP imaging. The ACS exhibits significant geometrical distortions due to its off-axis location in the HST focal plane; correcting for these distortions by resampling the pixel values onto an undistorted frame results in pixel correlations tha...

  6. Fault Location Based on Synchronized Measurements: A Comprehensive Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Al-Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive survey on transmission and distribution fault location algorithms that utilize synchronized measurements. Algorithms based on two-end synchronized measurements and fault location algorithms on three-terminal and multiterminal lines are reviewed. Series capacitors equipped with metal oxide varistors (MOVs, when set on a transmission line, create certain problems for line fault locators and, therefore, fault location on series-compensated lines is discussed. The paper reports the work carried out on adaptive fault location algorithms aiming at achieving better fault location accuracy. Work associated with fault location on power system networks, although limited, is also summarized. Additionally, the nonstandard high-frequency-related fault location techniques based on wavelet transform are discussed. Finally, the paper highlights the area for future research.

  7. Measurement model equivalence in web- and paper-based surveys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    participated in the survey; of these, 899 used paper questionnaires ... 9Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a Structural Equation Modelling ... settings and, of course, the general survey and survey research industry. ...... Survey design features .... used to evaluate the tenability of a series of increasingly restrictive models.

  8. Augmentation of the In Vivo Elastic Properties Measurement System to Include Bulk Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    estimates based on measured displacement magnitudes. APPROACH The bulk properties measurement methods are intended to run concurrently with the...to better understand biomechanics of sound reception and production in cetaceans, and 2) to understand and hopefully mitigate any harmful effects of

  9. Measurement of Transmission Error Including Backlash in Angle Transmission Mechanisms for Mechatronic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Aiguo; Kajitani, Makoto; Kanamori, Chisato; Ishikawa, Jiro

    The characteristics of angle transmission mechanisms exert a great influence on the servo performance in the robotic or mechatronic mechanism. Especially, the backlash of angle transmission mechanism is preferable the small amount. Recently, some new types of gear reducers with non-backlash have been developed for robots. However, the measurement and evaluation method of the backlash of gear trains has not been considered except old methods which can statically measure at only several meshing points of gears. This paper proposes an overall performance testing method of angle transmission mechanisms for the mechatronic systems. This method can measure the angle transmission error both clockwise and counterclockwise. In addition the backlash can be continuously measured in all meshing positions automatically. This system has been applied to the testing process in the production line of gear reducers for robots, and it has been effective for reducing the backlash of the gear trains.

  10. Roughing It Up: Including Jump Components in the Measurement, Modeling and Forecasting of Return Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Andersen, Torben G.; Diebold, Francis X.

    -Nielsen and Shephard (2004a, 2005) for related bi-power variation measures, the present paper provides a practical and robust framework for non-parametrically measuring the jump component in asset return volatility. In an application to the DM/$ exchange rate, the S&P500 market index, and the 30-year U.S. Treasury......A rapidly growing literature has documented important improvements in financial return volatility measurement and forecasting via use of realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns coupled with simple modeling procedures. Building on recent theoretical results in Barndorff...... but sophisticated volatility forecasting model, we find that almost all of the predictability in daily, weekly, and monthly return volatilities comes from the non-jump component. Our results thus set the stage for a number of interesting future econometric developments and important financial applications...

  11. Survey of attitudes and practices of Irish nursing students towards hand hygiene, including handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Liz M; O'Connell, Nuala H; Dunne, Colum P

    2017-05-01

    Hand hygiene is widely recognised as the most important measure a healthcare worker can take in preventing the spread of healthcare associated infections. As a member of the healthcare team, nursing students have direct patient contact during clinical practice; hence, good hand hygiene practice among nursing students is essential. Low to moderate levels of hand hygiene knowledge and poor attitudes and practices are reported among nursing students. However, less is known about their attitudes and practices of handrubbing with ABHR, even though handrubbing is the recommended optimum practice in most situations. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes and practices of hand hygiene, in particular handrubbing with alcohol-based hand rub, among nursing students in Ireland. This survey employed a descriptive, self-report design using a questionnaire to gather data. It was administered electronically to all undergraduate nursing students (n=342) in the Department of Nursing and Midwifery at the University of Limerick, Ireland in March and April 2015. Response rate was 66%. Attitudes towards hand hygiene were generally positive. Compliance with hand hygiene after contact with body fluid was high (99.5%) and before a clean or aseptic procedure (98.5%). However, suboptimal practices emerged, before touching a patient (85%), after touching a patient (87%) and after touching patients' surroundings (61%), with first year students more compliant than fourth year students. 16% of students were not aware of the clinical contraindications for using alcohol-based hand rub and 9% did not know when to use soap and water and when to use alcohol-based hand rub. Educators and practitioners play an important role in ensuring that nursing students develop appropriate attitudes towards hand hygiene and engage in optimal handrubbing practices. Raising awareness among nursing students of their responsibility in preventing the occurrence and reducing the transmission of HCAI as an on

  12. Measuring vaccine hesitancy: The development of a survey tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi J; Jarrett, Caitlin; Schulz, William S; Chaudhuri, Mohuya; Zhou, Yuqing; Dube, Eve; Schuster, Melanie; MacDonald, Noni E; Wilson, Rose

    2015-08-14

    In March 2012, the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy was convened to define the term "vaccine hesitancy", as well as to map the determinants of vaccine hesitancy and develop tools to measure and address the nature and scale of hesitancy in settings where it is becoming more evident. The definition of vaccine hesitancy and a matrix of determinants guided the development of a survey tool to assess the nature and scale of hesitancy issues. Additionally, vaccine hesitancy questions were piloted in the annual WHO-UNICEF joint reporting form, completed by National Immunization Managers globally. The objective of characterizing the nature and scale of vaccine hesitancy issues is to better inform the development of appropriate strategies and policies to address the concerns expressed, and to sustain confidence in vaccination. The Working Group developed a matrix of the determinants of vaccine hesitancy informed by a systematic review of peer reviewed and grey literature, and by the expertise of the working group. The matrix mapped the key factors influencing the decision to accept, delay or reject some or all vaccines under three categories: contextual, individual and group, and vaccine-specific. These categories framed the menu of survey questions presented in this paper to help diagnose and address vaccine hesitancy.

  13. Policy interventions related to medicines: Survey of measures taken in European countries during 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; de Joncheere, Kees

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included. 557 measures were reported between January 2010 and December 2015. The most frequently mentioned measure was price reductions and price freezes, followed by changes in patient co-payments, modifications related to the reimbursement lists and changes in distribution remuneration. Most policy measures were identified in Portugal, Greece, Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Spain and Germany. 22% of the measures surveyed could be classified as austerity. Countries that were strongly hit by the financial crisis implemented most policy changes, usually aiming to generate savings and briefly after the emergence of the crisis. Improvements in the economic situation tended to lead to an easing of austerity measures. Countries also implemented policies that aimed to enhance enforcement of existing measures and increase efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Making Meaningful Measurement in Survey Research: A Demonstration of the Utility of the Rasch Model. IR Applications. Volume 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Quality measurement is essential in every form of research, including institutional research and assessment. This paper addresses the erroneous assumptions institutional researchers often make with regard to survey research and provides an alternative method to producing more valid and reliable measures. Rasch measurement models are discussed and…

  15. Survey of independent inventors: An overview. [Includes information on demographics, gender, ethnicity, education, income, employment, areas of invention, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalley, P.

    1992-01-01

    Independent inventors are important but little-researched members of the US technical community. The survey reported on here is the first in modern times to attempt to provide a profile of the US independent inventor that goes beyond a single geographical or organizational locale. The report that follows provides an overview of the demographics, practices and concerns of the modern US inventor as represented by the members of leading US inventor organizations. It is by no means comprehensive but seeks to be indicative of the issues raised in the survey each which will be dealt with more comprehensively in future publications.

  16. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as "low-energy class 1" in a new settlement called Stenløse Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats....... This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58......The municipality of Egedal decided in 2006 to make use of the possibility in the Danish Planning Law for a municipality to tighten the energy requirements in the local plan for a new settlement to be erected in the municipality. During the years 2007-2011 a total of 442 dwellings were...

  17. Measures of language outcomes using the Aboriginal Children's Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Kohen, Dafna E

    2013-01-01

    Speech and language skills are an important developmental milestone for all children, and one of the most prevalent forms of developmental delay among Aboriginal children. However, population-based indicators of Aboriginal children's language outcomes are limited. Data from the Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS) were used to examine measures of language for Aboriginal children who were 2 to 5 years of age. Responses to ACS questions on ability in any language were examined in exploratory factor analyses to determine possible language indicators. Construct validity was examined by regressing language outcomes onto socio-demographic characteristics known to be associated with children's language. Four language outcomes were identified and labelled: expressive language, mutual understanding, story-telling, and speech and language difficulties. The conceptualization of items from the ACS into separate language indicators can be used by researchers examining young Aboriginal children's language outcomes.

  18. SURVEY ON CLUSTERING ALGORITHM AND SIMILARITY MEASURE FOR CATEGORICAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anitha Elavarasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning is the process of generating useful information from a huge volume of data. Learning can be either supervised learning (e.g. classification or unsupervised learning (e.g. Clustering Clustering is the process of grouping a set of physical objects into classes of similar object. Objects in real world consist of both numerical and categorical data. Categorical data are not analyzed as numerical data because of the absence of inherit ordering. This paper describes about ten different clustering algorithms, its methodology and the factors influencing its performance. Each algorithm is evaluated using real world datasets and its pro and cons are specified. The various similarity / dissimilarity measure applied to categorical data and its performance is also discussed. The time complexity defines the amount of time taken by an algorithm to perform the elementary operation. The time complexity of various algorithms are discussed and its performance on real world data such as mushroom, zoo, soya bean, cancer, vote, car and iris are measured. In this survey Cluster Accuracy and Error rate for four different clustering algorithm (K-modes, fuzzy K-modes, ROCK and Squeezer, two different similarity measure (DISC and Overlap and DILCA applied for hierarchy and partition algorithm are evaluated.

  19. PROBABILISTIC MEASURES FOR INTERESTINGNESS OF DEVIATIONS – A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Masood

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Association rule mining has long being plagued with the problem of finding meaningful, actionable knowledge from the large set of rules. In this age of data deluge with modern computing capabilities, we gather, distribute, and store information in vast amounts from diverse data sources. With such data profusion, the core knowledge discovery problem becomes efficient data retrieval rather than simply finding heaps of information. The most common approach is to employ measures of rule interestingness to filter the results of the association rule generation process. However, study of literature suggests that interestingness is difficult to define quantitatively and can be best summarized as, a record or pattern is interesting if it suggests a change in an established model. Almost twenty years ago, Gregory Piatetsky-Shapiro and Christopher J. Matheus, in their paper, “The Interestingness of Deviations,” argued that deviations should be grouped together in a finding and that the interestingness of a finding is the estimated benefit from a possible action connected to it. Since then, this field has progressed and new data mining techniques have been introduced to address the subjective, objective, and semantic interestingness measures. In this brief survey, we review the current state of literature around interestingness of deviations, i.e. outliers with specific interest around probabilistic measures using Bayesian belief networks.

  20. Neutrino masses and cosmological parameters from a Euclid-like survey: Markov Chain Monte Carlo forecasts including theoretical errors

    CERN Document Server

    Audren, Benjamin; Bird, Simeon; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Viel, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    We present forecasts for the accuracy of determining the parameters of a minimal cosmological model and the total neutrino mass based on combined mock data for a future Euclid-like galaxy survey and Planck. We consider two different galaxy surveys: a spectroscopic redshift survey and a cosmic shear survey. We make use of the Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMC) technique and assume two sets of theoretical errors. The first error is meant to account for uncertainties in the modelling of the effect of neutrinos on the non-linear galaxy power spectrum and we assume this error to be fully correlated in Fourier space. The second error is meant to parametrize the overall residual uncertainties in modelling the non-linear galaxy power spectrum at small scales, and is conservatively assumed to be uncorrelated and to increase with the ratio of a given scale to the scale of non-linearity. It hence increases with wavenumber and decreases with redshift. With these two assumptions for the errors and assuming further conservat...

  1. High-resolution gamma ray attenuation density measurements on mining exploration drill cores, including cut cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P.-S.; Bourke, A.

    2017-01-01

    Physical property measurements are increasingly important in mining exploration. For density determinations on rocks, one method applicable on exploration drill cores relies on gamma ray attenuation. This non-destructive method is ideal because each measurement takes only 10 s, making it suitable for high-resolution logging. However calibration has been problematic. In this paper we present new empirical, site-specific correction equations for whole NQ and BQ cores. The corrections force back the gamma densities to the "true" values established by the immersion method. For the NQ core caliber, the density range extends to high values (massive pyrite, 5 g/cm3) and the correction is thought to be very robust. We also present additional empirical correction factors for cut cores which take into account the missing material. These "cut core correction factors", which are not site-specific, were established by making gamma density measurements on truncated aluminum cylinders of various residual thicknesses. Finally we show two examples of application for the Abitibi Greenstone Belt in Canada. The gamma ray attenuation measurement system is part of a multi-sensor core logger which also determines magnetic susceptibility, geochemistry and mineralogy on rock cores, and performs line-scan imaging.

  2. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaels Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  3. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Michaels

    Full Text Available This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  4. Conceptualization and measurement of homosexuality in sex surveys: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Stuart; Lhomond, Brigitte

    2006-07-01

    This article reviews major national population sex surveys that have asked questions about homosexuality focusing on conceptual and methodological issues, including the definitions of sex, the measured aspects of homosexuality, sampling and interviewing technique, and questionnaire design. Reported rates of major measures of same-sex attraction, behavior, partners, and sexual identity from surveys are also presented and compared. The study of homosexuality in surveys has been shaped by the research traditions and questions ranging from sexology to the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Sexual behavior has been a central topic at least since Kinsey. Issues of sexual attraction and/or orientation and sexual identity have emerged more recently. Differences in the treatment of men and women in the design and analysis of surveys as well as in the reported rates in different surveys, in different countries and time periods are also presented and discussed. We point out the importance of the consideration of both methodological and social change issues in assessing such differences.

  5. Subjectivity of LiDAR-Based Offset Measurements: Results from a Public Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, J. B.; Arrowsmith, R.; Rockwell, T. K.; Haddad, D. E.; Zielke, O.; Madden, C.

    2012-12-01

    Geomorphic features (e.g., stream channels) that are offset in an earthquake can be measured to determine slip at that location. Analysis of these and other offset features can provide useful information for generating fault slip distributions. Remote analyses of active fault zones using high-resolution LiDAR data have recently been pursued in several studies, but there is a lack of consistency between users both for data analysis and results reporting. Individual investigators typically make offset measurements in a particular study area with their own protocols for measurement, assessing uncertainty, and quality rating, yet there is no coherent understanding of the reliability and repeatability of the measurements from observer to observer. We invited the participation of colleagues, interested geoscience communities, and the general public to measure ten geomorphic offsets from active faults in western North America using remote measurement methods that span a range of complexity (e.g., paper image and scale, the Google Earth ruler tool, and a MATLAB GUI for calculating backslip required to properly restore tectonic deformation) to explore the subjectivity involved with measuring geomorphic offsets. We provided a semi-quantitative quality-rating rubric for a description of offset quality, but there was a general lack of quality rating/offset uncertainty reporting. Survey responses (including mapped fault traces and piercing lines) were anonymously submitted along with user experience information. We received 11 paper-, 28 Google Earth-, and 16 MATLAB-based survey responses, though not all individuals measured every feature provided. For all survey methods, the majority of responses are in close agreement. However, large discrepancies arise where users interpret landforms differently, specifically the pre-earthquake morphologies and total offset accumulation of geomorphic features. Experienced users make more consistent measurements, whereas beginners less

  6. Roughing It Up: Including Jump Components in the Measurement, Modeling and Forecasting of Return Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Andersen, Torben G.; Diebold, Francis X.

    A rapidly growing literature has documented important improvements in financial return volatility measurement and forecasting via use of realized variation measures constructed from high-frequency returns coupled with simple modeling procedures. Building on recent theoretical results in Barndorff...... bond yield, we find that jumps are both highly prevalent and distinctly less persistent than the continuous sample path variation process. Moreover, many jumps appear directly associated with specific macroeconomic news announcements. Separating jump from non-jump movements in a simple...... but sophisticated volatility forecasting model, we find that almost all of the predictability in daily, weekly, and monthly return volatilities comes from the non-jump component. Our results thus set the stage for a number of interesting future econometric developments and important financial applications...

  7. Tensiometer for shallow or deep measurements including vadose zone and aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    1999-01-01

    A two cell tensiometer is described in which water level in the lower cell is maintained at a relatively constant height, and in equilibrium with the water pressure of materials that surround the tensiometer. An isolated volume of air in the lower cell changes pressure proportionately to the changing water pressure of the materials that surround the tensiometer. The air pressure is measured remotely. The tensiometer can be used in drying as well as wetting cycles above and below the water table.

  8. Polarization birefringence measurements for characterizing the myocardium, including healthy, infarcted, and stem-cell-regenerated tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael F. G.; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Wallenburg, Marika A.; Li, Shu-Hong; Weisel, Richard D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Li, Ren-Ke; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2010-07-01

    Myocardial infarction leads to structural remodeling of the myocardium, in particular to the loss of cardiomyocytes due to necrosis and an increase in collagen with scar formation. Stem cell regenerative treatments have been shown to alter this remodeling process, resulting in improved cardiac function. As healthy myocardial tissue is highly fibrous and anisotropic, it exhibits optical linear birefringence due to the different refractive indices parallel and perpendicular to the fibers. Accordingly, changes in myocardial structure associated with infarction and treatment-induced remodeling will alter the anisotropy exhibited by the tissue. Polarization-based linear birefringence is measured on the myocardium of adult rat hearts after myocardial infarction and compared with hearts that had received mesenchymal stem cell treatment. Both point measurement and imaging data show a decrease in birefringence in the region of infarction, with a partial rebound back toward the healthy values following regenerative treatment with stem cells. These results demonstrate the ability of optical polarimetry to characterize the micro-organizational state of the myocardium via its measured anisotropy, and the potential of this approach for monitoring regenerative treatments of myocardial infarction.

  9. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  10. Augmentation of the In Vivo Elastic Properties Measurement System to Include Bulk Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    vivo shear and bulk properties of cetacean soft tissues, including jaw fats and brain. The ultimate goal is to field a prototype system for...pattern. A second ultrasonic transducer monitors the tissue displacement along the ultrasound beam axis, and supports an enhanced embodiment of an...Figure 1. CFE concept. Color contour plots illustrate soft tissue displacements parallel to the transducer beam axes. (A) The annular force generation

  11. Including Pressure Measurements in Supervision of Energy Efficiency of Wastewater Pump Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Arensman, Mareike; Nerup-Jensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater pump systems decompose relatively rapidly compared to other pump systems because of the demanding properties of the pump medium. Only a systematic maintenance of the systems can prevent a significant and continuous decrease of the energy consumption per unit volume pumped (the specific...... energy). This article presents a method for a continuous supervision of the performance of both the pump and the pipeline in order to maintain the initial specific energy consumption as close as possible to the original value from when the system was commissioned. The method is based on pressure...... measurements only. The flow is determined indirectly from pressure fluctuations during pump run-up....

  12. Multiple shooting applied to robust reservoir control optimization including output constraints on coherent risk measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codas, Andrés; Hanssen, Kristian G.; Foss, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    The production life of oil reservoirs starts under significant uncertainty regarding the actual economical return of the recovery process due to the lack of oil field data. Consequently, investors and operators make management decisions based on a limited and uncertain description of the reservoir....... In this work, we propose a new formulation for robust optimization of reservoir well controls. It is inspired by the multiple shooting (MS) method which permits a broad range of parallelization opportunities and output constraint handling. This formulation exploits coherent risk measures, a concept...

  13. Human calcium metabolism including bone resorption measured with {sup 41}Ca tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.P.H.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); King, J.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nutritional Science; Vieira, N.E. [National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States); Woodhouse, L.R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nutritional Science; Yergey, A.L. [National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is so sensitive to small quantities of {sup 41}Ca that it might be used as a tracer in the study of human calcium kinetics to generate unique kinds of data. In contrast with the use of other Ca isotopic tracers, {sup 41}Ca tracer can be so administered that the tracer movements between the various body pools achieve a quasi steady state. Resorbing bone may thus be directly measured. We have tested such a protocol against a conventional stable isotope experiment with good agreement.

  14. A Methodological Evaluation of Volumetric Measurement Techniques including Three-Dimensional Imaging in Breast Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hoeffelin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses, and in clinical patients and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes’ principle under the same conditions. We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, and low patient stress and limitations (underestimation of the in situ volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery.

  15. A methodological evaluation of volumetric measurement techniques including three-dimensional imaging in breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffelin, H; Jacquemin, D; Defaweux, V; Nizet, J L

    2014-01-01

    Breast surgery currently remains very subjective and each intervention depends on the ability and experience of the operator. To date, no objective measurement of this anatomical region can codify surgery. In this light, we wanted to compare and validate a new technique for 3D scanning (LifeViz 3D) and its clinical application. We tested the use of the 3D LifeViz system (Quantificare) to perform volumetric calculations in various settings (in situ in cadaveric dissection, of control prostheses, and in clinical patients) and we compared this system to other techniques (CT scanning and Archimedes' principle) under the same conditions. We were able to identify the benefits (feasibility, safety, portability, and low patient stress) and limitations (underestimation of the in situ volume, subjectivity of contouring, and patient selection) of the LifeViz 3D system, concluding that the results are comparable with other measurement techniques. The prospects of this technology seem promising in numerous applications in clinical practice to limit the subjectivity of breast surgery.

  16. Design and Optimization of Capacitated Supply Chain Networks Including Quality Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystel K. Castillo-Villar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents (1 a novel capacitated model for supply chain network design which considers manufacturing, distribution, and quality costs (named SCND-COQ model and (2 five combinatorial optimization methods, based on nonlinear optimization, heuristic, and metaheuristic approaches, which are used to solve realistic instances of practical size. The SCND-COQ model is a mixed-integer nonlinear problem which can be used at a strategic planning level to design a supply chain network that maximizes the total profit subject to meeting an overall quality level of the final product at minimum costs. The SCND-COQ model computes the quality-related costs for the whole supply chain network considering the interdependencies among business entities. The effectiveness of the proposed solution approaches is shown using numerical experiments. These methods allow solving more realistic (capacitated supply chain network design problems including quality-related costs (inspections, rework, opportunity costs, and others within a reasonable computational time.

  17. A Survey of Advanced Microwave Frequency Measurement Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Swaroop Khare,

    2012-01-01

    Microwaves are radio waves with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter, or equivalently, with frequencies between 300 MHz and 300 GHz. The science of photonics includes the generation, emission, modulation, signal processing, switching, transmission, amplification, detection and sensing of light. Microwave photonics has been introduced for achieving ultra broadband signal processing. Instantaneous Frequency Measurement (IFM) receivers play an important ro...

  18. Simulation and Evaluation of Urban Growth for Germany Including Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hoymann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-makers in the fields of urban and regional planning in Germany face new challenges. High rates of urban sprawl need to be reduced by increased inner-urban development while settlements have to adapt to climate change and contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions at the same time. In this study, we analyze conflicts in the management of urban areas and develop integrated sustainable land use strategies for Germany. The spatial explicit land use change model Land Use Scanner is used to simulate alternative scenarios of land use change for Germany for 2030. A multi-criteria analysis is set up based on these scenarios and based on a set of indicators. They are used to measure whether the mitigation and adaptation objectives can be achieved and to uncover conflicts between these aims. The results show that the built-up and transport area development can be influenced both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution to contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Strengthening the inner-urban development is particularly effective in terms of reducing built-up and transport area development. It is possible to reduce built-up and transport area development to approximately 30 ha per day in 2030, which matches the sustainability objective of the German Federal Government for the year 2020. In the case of adaptation to climate change, the inclusion of extreme flood events in the context of spatial planning requirements may contribute to a reduction of the damage potential.

  19. Measuring redshift-space distortions with future SKA surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Camera, Stefano; Bacon, David; Blake, Chris; Dore, Olivier; Ferreira, Pedro; Maartens, Roy; Santos, Mario; Viel, Matteo; Zhao, Gong-bo

    2015-01-01

    The peculiar motion of galaxies can be a particularly sensitive probe of gravitational collapse. As such, it can be used to measure the dynamics of dark matter and dark energy as well the nature of the gravitational laws at play on cosmological scales. Peculiar motions manifest themselves as an overall anisotropy in the measured clustering signal as a function of the angle to the line-of-sight, known as redshift-space distortion (RSD). Limiting factors in this measurement include our ability to model non-linear galaxy motions on small scales and the complexities of galaxy bias. The anisotropy in the measured clustering pattern in redshift-space is also driven by the unknown distance factors at the redshift in question, the Alcock-Paczynski distortion. This weakens growth rate measurements, but permits an extra geometric probe of the Hubble expansion rate. In this chapter we will briefly describe the scientific background to the RSD technique, and forecast the potential of the SKA phase 1 and the SKA2 to measu...

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting {sup 238}U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected {sup 241}Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area.

  1. Measuring coverage in MNCH: total survey error and the interpretation of intervention coverage estimates from household surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Eisele

    Full Text Available Nationally representative household surveys are increasingly relied upon to measure maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH intervention coverage at the population level in low- and middle-income countries. Surveys are the best tool we have for this purpose and are central to national and global decision making. However, all survey point estimates have a certain level of error (total survey error comprising sampling and non-sampling error, both of which must be considered when interpreting survey results for decision making. In this review, we discuss the importance of considering these errors when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage estimates derived from household surveys, using relevant examples from national surveys to provide context. Sampling error is usually thought of as the precision of a point estimate and is represented by 95% confidence intervals, which are measurable. Confidence intervals can inform judgments about whether estimated parameters are likely to be different from the real value of a parameter. We recommend, therefore, that confidence intervals for key coverage indicators should always be provided in survey reports. By contrast, the direction and magnitude of non-sampling error is almost always unmeasurable, and therefore unknown. Information error and bias are the most common sources of non-sampling error in household survey estimates and we recommend that they should always be carefully considered when interpreting MNCH intervention coverage based on survey data. Overall, we recommend that future research on measuring MNCH intervention coverage should focus on refining and improving survey-based coverage estimates to develop a better understanding of how results should be interpreted and used.

  2. Measuring patient safety culture in Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen I-Chi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is a critical component to the quality of health care. As health care organizations endeavour to improve their quality of care, there is a growing recognition of the importance of establishing a culture of patient safety. In this research, the authors use the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC questionnaire to assess the culture of patient safety in Taiwan and attempt to provide an explanation for some of the phenomena that are unique in Taiwan. Methods The authors used HSOPSC to measure the 12 dimensions of the patient safety culture from 42 hospitals in Taiwan. The survey received 788 respondents including physicians, nurses, and non-clinical staff. This study used SPSS 15.0 for Windows and Amos 7 software tools to perform the statistical analysis on the survey data, including descriptive statistics and confirmatory factor analysis of the structural equation model. Results The overall average positive response rate for the 12 patient safety culture dimensions of the HSOPSC survey was 64%, slightly higher than the average positive response rate for the AHRQ data (61%. The results showed that hospital staff in Taiwan feel positively toward patient safety culture in their organization. The dimension that received the highest positive response rate was "Teamwork within units", similar to the results reported in the US. The dimension with the lowest percentage of positive responses was "Staffing". Statistical analysis showed discrepancies between Taiwan and the US in three dimensions, including "Feedback and communication about error", "Communication openness", and "Frequency of event reporting". Conclusions The HSOPSC measurement provides evidence for assessing patient safety culture in Taiwan. The results show that in general, hospital staffs in Taiwan feel positively toward patient safety culture within their organization. The existence of discrepancies between the US data and the Taiwanese data

  3. Survey of tracking systems and rotary joints for coolant piping. Final report, August 15, 1978-August 14, 1978. [Includes patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furaus, J P; Gruchalla, M E; Sower, G D

    1980-01-01

    Problems were surveyed and evaluated with respect to solar tracking mechanisms and rotary joints for coolant piping. An analytical development of celestial mechanics, one- and two-axis tracking configurations and the effect of tracking accuracy versus collector efficiency are reported. Daily operational requirements and tracking modes were defined and evaluated. A literature and patent search on solar tracking technology was performed. Tracking system and control system performance specifications were determined. Alternative conceptual tracking approaches were defined and a cost and performance evaluation of a mechanical tracking concept was performed. Fluid coupling service specifications were determined. The cost and performance of several types of actuators and error detectors were evaluated with respect to solar tracking mechanisms.

  4. The 2-degree Field Lensing Survey: design and clustering measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Chris; Amon, Alexandra; Childress, Michael; Erben, Thomas; Glazebrook, Karl; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hinton, Samuel R.; Janssens, Steven; Johnson, Andrew; Joudaki, Shahab; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Lidman, Chris; Marin, Felipe A.; Parkinson, David; Poole, Gregory B.; Wolf, Christian

    2016-11-01

    We present the 2-degree Field Lensing Survey (2dFLenS), a new galaxy redshift survey performed at the Anglo-Australian Telescope. 2dFLenS is the first wide-area spectroscopic survey specifically targeting the area mapped by deep-imaging gravitational lensing fields, in this case the Kilo-Degree Survey. 2dFLenS obtained 70 079 redshifts in the range z relevant algorithms for joint imaging and spectroscopic analysis. The redshift sample consists first of 40 531 Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs), which enable analyses of galaxy-galaxy lensing, redshift-space distortion, and the overlapping source redshift distribution by cross-correlation. An additional 28 269 redshifts form a magnitude-limited (r values are consistent with those obtained from LRGs in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. 2dFLenS data products will be released via our website http://2dflens.swin.edu.au.

  5. Coexistence of DTT and Mobile Broadband: A Survey and Guidelines for Field Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Kalliovaara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey and a general methodology for coexistence studies between digital terrestrial television (DTT and mobile broadband (MBB systems in the ultra high frequency (UHF broadcasting band. The methodology includes characterization of relevant field measurement scenarios and gives a step-by-step guideline on how to obtain reliable field measurement results to be used in conjunction with link budget analyses, laboratory measurements, and simulations. A survey of potential European coexistence scenarios and regulatory status is given to determine feasible future use scenarios for the UHF television (TV broadcasting band. The DTT reception system behavior and performance are also described as they greatly affect the amount of spectrum potentially available for MBB use and determine the relevant coexistence field measurement scenarios. Simulation methods used in determining broadcast protection criteria and in coexistence studies are briefly described to demonstrate how the information obtained from field measurements can be used to improve their accuracy. The presented field measurement guidelines can be applied to any DTT-MBB coexistence scenarios and to a wide range of spectrum sharing and cognitive radio system coexistence measurements.

  6. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into `active` drill hole methods, and `passive` indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial `leak` of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm{sup -1}, temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  7. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level and individual (lower level exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure. More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure. In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models. METHODS: Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure. RESULTS: Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions. CONCLUSIONS: When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self

  8. Measuring baryon acoustic oscillations with future SKA surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, Philip; Raccanelli, Alvise; Blake, Chris; Ferreira, Pedro G; Santos, Mario G; Schwarz, Dominik J

    2015-01-01

    The imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in large-scale structure can be used as a standard ruler for mapping out the cosmic expansion history, and hence for testing cosmological models. In this article we briefly describe the scientific background to the BAO technique, and forecast the potential of the Phase 1 and 2 SKA telescopes to perform BAO surveys using both galaxy catalogues and intensity mapping, assessing their competitiveness with current and future optical galaxy surveys. We find that a 25,000 sq. deg. intensity mapping survey on a Phase 1 array will preferentially constrain the radial BAO, providing a highly competitive 2% constraint on the expansion rate at z ~ 2. A 30,000 sq. deg. galaxy redshift survey on SKA2 will outperform all other planned experiments for z < 1.4.

  9. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kristensen, Kasper; Lewy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP) statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes...

  10. Stability, Singularities and Mass Thresholds in Child Universe Production: a concise survey including some recent results and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Ansoldi, Stefano; Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Shilon, Idan

    2007-01-01

    Comment: 19 pages LaTeX, including 68 references; to appear in the Proceedings of "BH2, Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Blackholes and Naked Singularities", May 10-12 2007, Milano, Italy; conference website: http://www.mate.polimi.it/bh2

  11. No galaxy left behind: accurate measurements with the faintest objects in the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Suchyta, E; Aleksić, J; Melchior, P; Jouvel, S; MacCrann, N; Crocce, M; Gaztanaga, E; Honscheid, K; Leistedt, B; Peiris, H V; Ross, A J; Rykoff, E S; Sheldon, E; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Banerji, M; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Estrada, J; Evrard, A E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; James, D J; Jarvis, M; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Lima, M; Maia, M A G; March, M; Marshall, J L; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Neilsen, E; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Percival, W J; Reil, K; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Wechsler, R H; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Accurate statistical measurement with large imaging surveys has traditionally required throwing away a sizable fraction of the data. This is because most measurements have have relied on selecting nearly complete samples, where variations in the composition of the galaxy population with seeing, depth, or other survey characteristics are small. We introduce a new measurement method that aims to minimize this wastage, allowing precision measurement for any class of stars or galaxies detectable in an imaging survey. We have implemented our proposal in Balrog, a software package which embeds fake objects in real imaging in order to accurately characterize measurement biases. We demonstrate this technique with an angular clustering measurement using Dark Energy Survey (DES) data. We first show that recovery of our injected galaxies depends on a wide variety of survey characteristics in the same way as the real data. We then construct a flux-limited sample of the faintest galaxies in DES, chosen specifically for th...

  12. Measuring the success of electronic medical record implementation using electronic and survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavjee, K; Troyan, S; Holbrook, A M; VanderMolen, D

    2001-01-01

    Computerization of physician practices is increasing. Stakeholders are demanding demonstrated value for their Electronic Medical Record (EMR) implementations. We developed survey tools to measure medical office processes, including administrative and physician tasks pre- and post-EMR implementation. We included variables that were expected to improve with EMR implementation and those that were not expected to improve, as controls. We measured the same processes pre-EMR, at six months and 18 months post-EMR. Time required for most administrative tasks decreased within six months of EMR implementation. Staff time spent on charting increased with time, in keeping with our anecdotal observations that nurses were given more responsibility for charting in many offices. Physician time to chart increased initially by 50%, but went down to original levels by 18 months. However, this may be due to the drop-out of those physicians who had a difficult time charting electronically.

  13. A new weighted balance measure helped to select the variables to be included in a propensity score model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Emmanuel; Chevret, Sylvie; Resche-Rigon, Matthieu; Pirracchio, Romain

    2015-12-01

    The propensity score (PS) is a balancing score. Following PS matching, balance checking usually relies on estimating separately the standardized absolute mean difference for each baseline characteristic. The average standardized absolute mean difference and the Mahalanobis distances have been proposed to summarize the information across the covariates. However, they might be minimized when nondesirable variables such as instrumental variables (IV) are included in the PS model. We propose a new weighted summary balance measure that takes into account, for each covariate, its strength of association with the outcome. This new measure was evaluated using a simulation study to assess whether minimization of the measure coincided with minimally biased estimates. All measures were then applied to a real data set from an observational cohort study. Contrarily to the other measures, our proposal was minimized when including the confounders, which coincided with minimal bias and mean squared error, but increased when including an IV in the PS model. Similar findings were observed in the real data set. A balance measure taking into account the strength of association between the covariates and the outcome may be helpful to identify the most parsimonious PS model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 1999 Customer Satisfaction Survey Report: How Do We Measure Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Sameena; Parker, Albert C. E.; Cash, R. William; Thurgood, Lori

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes results of a 1999 survey regarding the satisfaction of various groups with publications, databases, and services of the National Center for Education Statistics. Groups studied were federal, state, and local policymakers; academic researchers; and journalists. Compared 1999 results with 1997 results. (Author/SLD)

  15. The 2-degree Field Lensing Survey: design and clustering measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Chris; Childress, Michael; Erben, Thomas; Glazebrook, Karl; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hinton, Samuel R; Janssens, Steven; Johnson, Andrew; Joudaki, Shahab; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Lidman, Chris; Marin, Felipe A; Parkinson, David; Poole, Gregory B; Wolf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We present the 2-degree Field Lensing Survey (2dFLenS), a new galaxy redshift survey performed at the Anglo-Australian Telescope. 2dFLenS is the first wide-area spectroscopic survey specifically targeting the area mapped by deep-imaging gravitational lensing fields, in this case the Kilo-Degree Survey. 2dFLenS obtained 70,079 redshifts in the range z < 0.9 over an area of 731 sq deg, and is designed to extend the datasets available for testing gravitational physics and promote the development of relevant algorithms for joint imaging and spectroscopic analysis. The redshift sample consists first of 40,531 Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs), which enable analyses of galaxy-galaxy lensing, redshift-space distortion, and the overlapping source redshift distribution by cross-correlation. An additional 28,269 redshifts form a magnitude-limited (r < 19.5) nearly-complete sub-sample, allowing direct source classification and photometric-redshift calibration. In this paper, we describe the motivation, target selection...

  16. The case for survey-based comparative measures of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The author argues that statistics of police-recorded crimes have limited utility for cross-country analyses of crime, due to varying legal definitions, reporting patterns and recording practices. In his view stand alone national victimisation surveys, with their varying methodologies and questionnai

  17. Validity of temporal measures as proxies for measuring acculturation in Asian Indian survey respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharmal, Nazleen; Hays, Ron D; McCarthy, William J

    2014-10-01

    There are few validated acculturation measures for Asian Indians in the U.S. We used the 2004 California Asian Indian Tobacco Survey to examine the relationship between temporal measures and eleven self-reported measures of acculturation. These items were combined to form an acculturation scale. We performed psychometric analysis of scale properties. Greater duration of residence in the U.S., greater percentage of lifetime in the U.S., and younger age at immigration were associated with more acculturated responses to the items for Asian Indians. Item-scale correlations for the 11-item acculturation scale ranged from 0.28-0.55 and internal consistency reliability was 0.73. Some support was found for a two-factor solution; one factor corresponding to cultural activities (α = 0.70) and the other to social behaviors (α = 0.59). Temporal measures only partially capture the full dimensions of acculturation. Our scale captured several domains and possibly two dimensions of acculturation.

  18. The measurement invariance of job diagnostic survey (JDS) across three university student groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Gomez, M.; Marin-Garcia, J.A.; Girado Omeara, M.

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this study is to apply a multigroup confirmatory analysis to examine the measurement invariance (MI) of the adapted version of the Job Diagnosis Survey (JDS) as a measurement tool that analyses the relationship between the features of teaching methodologies with university students’ motivation and satisfaction across data collected on different degrees and academic years. Design/methodology/approach: Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out using a multigroup structural equation model, using the program EQS 6.1 to test the invariance of the adapted version of JDS in a sample constituted by 535 student of a Spanish public university. The assessment of invariance included the levels of configural, metric, scalar, covariance and latent variables invariance. Several goodness-of-fit measures were assessed... (Author)

  19. Measuring temporary employment. Do survey or register data tell the truth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlopoulos, D.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main variables in the Dutch Labour Force Survey is the variable measuring whether a respondent has a permanent or a temporary job. The aim of our study is to determine the measurement error in this variable by matching the information obtained by the longitudinal part of this survey with

  20. 34 CFR 403.202 - What must each State's system of core standards and measures of performance include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Are the Administrative Responsibilities of a State... academic skills; (2) One or more measures of the following: (i) Student competency attainment. (ii) Job or work skill attainment or enhancement including student progress in achieving occupational skills...

  1. A portable UAV LIDAR system for coastal topographic surveys and sea surface measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Philip L.-F.; Tseng, Kuo-Hsin; Yeh, Sunny

    2017-04-01

    A light-weight UAV system for coastal topography and coastal sea surface measurements is developed. This system is based on techniques of a multirotor UAV, a light detection and ranging (LIDAR), an inertial measurement unit, and a real-time kinematic global navigation satellite system (RTK-GNSS). The synchronization and data recording are achieved using Labview. This system can be operated in a very low attitude flight within a range of 10m that can provide very high resolution of point cloud data. The performance of this system has been tested and calibrated with known targets. The vertical root-mean-square error is less than about 10 cm, depending on the flight height. Applications of the system, including coastal topographic surveys, tidal elevation measurement, wave measurements, and bottom roughness measurements are presented and discussed. The tide and wave measurements are compared with in-situ measurements using pressure sensors. The results of comparison suggest that this system is a useful tool to measure the sea surface elevation and topography. The challenges of applying this system are also discussed.

  2. The Green Bank Telescope 350 MHz Drift-scan Survey II: Data Analysis and the Timing of 10 New Pulsars, Including a Relativistic Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Ryan S; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Lorimer, Duncan R; McLaughlin, Maura A; Hessels, Jason W T; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kondratiev, Vladislav I; Archibald, Anne M; Berndsen, Aaron; Cardoso, Rogerio F; Cherry, Angus; Karako-Argaman, Chen; van Leeuwen, Joeri; McPhee, Christie A; Pennucci, Tim; Roberts, Mallory S E

    2012-01-01

    We have completed a 350 MHz drift scan survey using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope with the goal of finding new radio pulsars, especially millisecond pulsars that can be timed to high precision. This survey covered ~10300 square degrees and all of the data have now been fully processed. We have discovered a total of 31 new pulsars, seven of which are recycled pulsars. A companion paper by Boyles et al. (2012) describes the survey strategy, sky coverage, and instrumental set-up, and presents timing solutions for the first 13 pulsars. Here we describe the data analysis pipeline, survey sensitivity, and follow-up observations of new pulsars, and present timing solutions for 10 other pulsars. We highlight several sources---two interesting nulling pulsars, an isolated millisecond pulsar with a measurement of proper motion, and a partially recycled pulsar, PSR J0348+0432, which has a white dwarf companion in a relativistic orbit. PSR J0348+0432 will enable unprecedented tests of theories of gravity.

  3. 1997 Customer Satisfaction Survey Report: How Do We Measure Up? Technical Report. Survey Report, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgood, Lori; Fink, Steven; Bureika, Rita; Scott, Julie; Salvucci, Sameena

    The 1997 National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Customer Satisfaction survey was conducted to find out whether the NCES as an agency was responding to the needs of customers and to identify areas for improvement. Federal, state, and local education officials and academic researchers were asked about their satisfaction with NCES products…

  4. The Climate Change Attitude Survey: Measuring Middle School Student Beliefs and Intentions to Enact Positive Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Change Attitude Survey is composed of 15 Likert-type attitudinal items selected to measure students' beliefs and intentions toward the environment with a focus on climate change. This paper describes the development of the instrument and psychometric performance characteristics including reliability and validity. Data were gathered…

  5. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  6. Development and Field-Testing of a Study Protocol, including a Web-Based Occupant Survey Tool, for Use in Intervention Studies of Indoor Environmental Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Spears, Michael; Fisk, William J.

    2009-06-01

    We developed and pilot-tested an overall protocol for intervention studies to evaluate the effects of indoor environmental changes in office buildings on the health symptoms and comfort of occupants. The protocol includes a web-based survey to assess the occupant's responses, as well as specific features of study design and analysis. The pilot study, carried out on two similar floors in a single building, compared two types of ventilation system filter media. With support from the building's Facilities staff, the implementation of the filter change intervention went well. While the web-based survey tool worked well also, low overall response rates (21-34percent among the three work groups included) limited our ability to evaluate the filter intervention., The total number of questionnaires returned was low even though we extended the study from eight to ten weeks. Because another simultaneous study we conducted elsewhere using the same survey had a high response rate (>70percent), we conclude that the low response here resulted from issues specific to this pilot, including unexpected restrictions by some employing agencies on communication with occupants.

  7. Measuring the health of the Indian elderly: evidence from National Sample Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahal Ajay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparable health measures across different sets of populations are essential for describing the distribution of health outcomes and assessing the impact of interventions on these outcomes. Self-reported health (SRH is a commonly used indicator of health in household surveys and has been shown to be predictive of future mortality. However, the susceptibility of SRH to influence by individuals' expectations complicates its interpretation and undermines its usefulness. Methods This paper applies the empirical methodology of Lindeboom and van Doorslaer (2004 to investigate elderly health in India using data from the 52nd round of the National Sample Survey conducted in 1995-96 that includes both an SRH variable as well as a range of objective indicators of disability and ill health. The empirical testing was conducted on stratified homogeneous groups, based on four factors: gender, education, rural-urban residence, and region. Results We find that region generally has a significant impact on how women perceive their health. Reporting heterogeneity can arise not only from cut-point shifts, but also from differences in health effects by objective health measures. In contrast, we find little evidence of reporting heterogeneity due to differences in gender or educational status within regions. Rural-urban residence does matter in some cases. The findings are robust with different specifications of objective health indicators. Conclusions Our exercise supports the thesis that the region of residence is associated with different cut-points and reporting behavior on health surveys. We believe this is the first paper that applies the Lindeboom-van Doorslaer methodology to data on the elderly in a developing country, showing the feasibility of applying this methodology to data from many existing cross-sectional health surveys.

  8. Air Force Materiel Command: A Survey of Performance Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonard, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    ... and Transformation all represent efforts to find and implement effective answers (RAND, 2003:ix). And, while there appears to be a consensus that better performance measures are needed, there is little agreement on exactly what should be measured, and how...

  9. Using the Consumer Expenditure Survey to Teach Poverty Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diduch, Amy McCormick

    2012-01-01

    Poverty measurement is often controversial, but good public policy relies crucially on a broadly supported and understood poverty measure. In 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau announced it would begin regular reporting of a new supplemental poverty measure in October 2011. The present article provides background information for a student exercise…

  10. Using the Consumer Expenditure Survey to Teach Poverty Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diduch, Amy McCormick

    2012-01-01

    Poverty measurement is often controversial, but good public policy relies crucially on a broadly supported and understood poverty measure. In 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau announced it would begin regular reporting of a new supplemental poverty measure in October 2011. The present article provides background information for a student exercise…

  11. The Use of PCs, Smartphones, and Tablets in a Probability-Based Panel Survey : Effects on Survey Measurement Error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter; Toepoel, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Respondents in an Internet panel survey can often choose which device they use to complete questionnaires: a traditional PC, laptop, tablet computer, or a smartphone. Because all these devices have different screen sizes and modes of data entry, measurement errors may differ between devices. Using

  12. The Use of PCs, Smartphones, and Tablets in a Probability-Based Panel Survey : Effects on Survey Measurement Error

    OpenAIRE

    Lugtig, Peter; Toepoel, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Respondents in an Internet panel survey can often choose which device they use to complete questionnaires: a traditional PC, laptop, tablet computer, or a smartphone. Because all these devices have different screen sizes and modes of data entry, measurement errors may differ between devices. Using data from the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Study for the Social sciences panel, we evaluate which devices respondents use over time. We study the measurement error associated with each device and sho...

  13. Fast optical 3D form measurement of aspheres including determination of thickness and wedge and decenter errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, E.; Berger, G.; Wendel, M.; Petter, J.

    2015-10-01

    A method for non-contact 3D form testing of aspheric surfaces including determination of decenter and wedge errors and lens thickness is presented. The principle is based on the absolute measurement capability of multi-wavelength interferometry (MWLI). The approach produces high density 3D shape information and geometric parameters at high accuracy in short measurement times. The system allows inspection of aspheres without restrictions in terms of spherical departures, of segmented and discontinuous optics. The optics can be polished or ground and made of opaque or transparent materials.

  14. Measuring primordial non-Gaussianity with weak-lensing surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Hilbert, Stefan; Smith, Robert E; Desjacques, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We study the ability of future weak lensing (WL) surveys to constrain primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type. We use a large ensemble of simulated WL maps with survey specifications relevant to Euclid and LSST. The simulations assume Cold Dark Matter cosmologies that vary certain parameters around fiducial values: the non-Gaussianity parameter f_NL, the matter density parameter Omega_m, the amplitude of the matter power spectrum sigma_8, the spectral index of the primordial power spectrum n_s, and the dark-energy equation-of-state parameter w_0. We assess the sensitivity of the cosmic shear correlation functions, the third-order aperture mass statistics, and the abundance of shear peaks to these parameters. We find that each of the considered probes provides unmarginalized constraints of Delta f_NL ~ 20 on f_NL. Marginalized constraints from any individual WL probe are much weaker due to strong correlations between parameters. However, the parameter errors can be substantially reduced by combining infor...

  15. Measuring Impact of Stabilization Initiatives Survey Data (MISTI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The raw data from the Measuring Impact of Stabilization Initiatives (MISTI) project is the largest and most comprehensive evaluations of stabilization interventions...

  16. LITERATURE SURVEY ON ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO MEASUREMENTS - 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-13

    Along with my usual weekly review of the published literature for new nuclear data, I also search for new candidates for best measurements of isotopic abundances from a single source. Most of the published articles, that I previously had found in the Research Library at the Brookhaven Lab, have already been sent to the members of the Atomic Weights Commission, by either Michael Berglund or Thomas Walczyk. In the last few days, I checked the published literature for any other articles in the areas of natural variations in isotopic abundance ratios, measurements of isotopic abundance ratios on samples of extra-terrestrial material and isotopic abundance ratio measurements performed using ICPMS instruments. Hopefully this information will be of interest to members of the Commission, the sub-committee on isotopic abundance measurements (SIAM), members of the former sub-committee on natural isotopic fractionation (SNIF), the sub-committee on extra-terrestrial isotope ratios (SETIR), the RTCE Task Group and the Guidelines Task Group, who are dealing with ICPMS and TIMS comparisons. In the following report, I categorize the publications in one of four areas. Measurements performed using either positive or negative ions with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer, TIMS, instruments; measurements performed on Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer, ICPMS, instruments; measurements of natural variations of the isotopic abundance ratios; and finally measurements on extra-terrestrial samples with instrumentation of either type. There is overlap in these areas. I selected out variations and ET results first and then categorized the rest of the papers by TIMS and ICPMS.

  17. Understanding CMMI Measurement Capabilities & Impact on Performance: Results from the 2007 SEI State of the Measurement Practice Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Practice Survey New this year • Screening question to identify respondents whose organizations develop software but rarely if ever do measurement...Questions about — Resources & infrastructure devoted to measurement — Practices to ensure data quality & integrity — Value added by doing measurement — The...University Project & Organizational Measurement Results Reported2 Business Growth & Profitability ML1&DK ML2 ML3 ML4&5 N = 70 N = 55 N = 45 N = 51

  18. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions…

  19. Spectral Classification and Redshift Measurement for the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bolton, Adam S; Aubourg, Eric; Bailey, Stephen; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Brownstein, Joel R; Burles, Scott; Chen, Yan-Mei; Gunn, James E; Dawson, Kyle; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Knapp, G R; Loomis, Craig P; Lupton, Robert H; Maraston, Claudia; Muna, Demitri; Myers, Adam D; Olmstead, Matthew D; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Paris, Isabelle; Percival, Will J; Petitjean, Patrick; Rockosi, Constance M; Ross, Nicholas P; Schneider, Donald P; Shu, Yiping; Strauss, Michael A; Thomas, Daniel; Tremonti, Christy A; Wake, David A; Weaver, Benjamin A; Wood-Vasey, W Michael

    2012-01-01

    (abridged) We describe the automated spectral classification, redshift determination, and parameter measurement pipeline in use for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) as of Data Release 9, encompassing 831,000 moderate-resolution optical spectra. We give a review of the algorithms employed, and describe the changes to the pipeline that have been implemented for BOSS relative to previous SDSS-I/II versions, including new sets of stellar, galaxy, and quasar redshift templates. For the color-selected CMASS sample of massive galaxies at redshift 0.4 <~ z <~ 0.8 targeted by BOSS for the purposes of large-scale cosmological measurements, the pipeline achieves an automated classification success rate of 98.7% and confirms 95.4% of unique CMASS targets as galaxies (with the balance being mostly M stars). Based on visual inspections of a subset of BOSS galaxies, we find that ~0.2% of confidently reported CMASS sample classifications and redshifts are...

  20. GPS survey in long baseline neutrino-oscillation measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Noumi, H; Inagaki, T; Hasegawa, T; Katoh, Y; Kohama, M; Kurodai, M; Kusano, E; Maruyama, T; Minakawa, M; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Sakuda, M; Suzuki, Y; Takasaki, M; Tanaka, K H; Yamanoi, Y; 10.1109/TNS.2004.836042

    2004-01-01

    We made a series of surveys to obtain neutrino beam line direction toward SuperKamiokande (SK) at a distance of 250 km for the long- baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at KEK. We found that the beam line is directed to SK within 0.03 mr and 0.09 mr (in sigma) in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. During beam operation, we monitored the muon distribution from secondary pions produced at the target and collected by a magnetic horn system. We found that the horn system functions like a lens of a point-to- parallel optics with magnification of approximately -100 and the focal length of 2.3 m. Namely, a small displacement of the primary beam position at the target is magnified about a factor -100 at the muon centroid, while the centroid position is almost stable against a change of the incident angle of the primary beam. Therefore, the muon centroid can be a useful monitor of the neutrino beam direction. We could determine the muon centroid within 6 mm and 12 mm in horizontal and vertical ...

  1. Trends in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL Genes in a Dutch Teaching Hospital, Measured in 5 Yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (2010-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Ina; Oome, Stijn; Verhulst, Carlo; Pettersson, Annika; Verduin, Kees; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the trends in prevalence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and ESBL genes, measured in five consecutive yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (PPS). All patients present in the hospital and in a day-care clinic (including patients on dialysis) on the day of the survey,

  2. Trends in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL Genes in a Dutch Teaching Hospital, Measured in 5 Yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (2010-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Ina; Oome, Stijn; Verhulst, Carlo; Pettersson, Annika; Verduin, Kees; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the trends in prevalence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and ESBL genes, measured in five consecutive yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (PPS). All patients present in the hospital and in a day-care clinic (including patients on dialysis) on the day of the survey, wer

  3. Comparing econometric and survey-based methodologies in measuring offshoring: The Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    such as the national or regional level. Most macro analyses are based on proxies and trade statistics with limitations. Drawing on unique Danish survey data, this article demonstrates how survey data can provide important insights into the national scale and impacts of offshoring, including changes of employment...

  4. The measurement invariance of job diagnostic survey (JDS across three university student groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Martinez-Gomez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to apply a multigroup confirmatory analysis to examine the measurement invariance (MI of the adapted version of the Job Diagnosis Survey (JDS as a measurement tool that analyses the relationship between the features of teaching methodologies with university students’ motivation and satisfaction across data collected on different degrees and academic years. Design/methodology/approach: Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out using a multigroup structural equation model, using the program EQS 6.1 to test the invariance of the adapted version of JDS in a sample constituted by 535 student of a Spanish public university. The assessment of invariance included the levels of configural, metric, scalar, covariance and latent variables invariance. Several goodness-of-fit measures were assessed. Findings: The results show that measurements are equivalent at the configural, metric, covariance and latent factors invariance. Although the hypotheses of scalar invariance is rejected, results suggest that JDS is partial strict invariant and has satisfactory psychometric properties on all samples. Research limitations/implications: The sample is framed in university students aged between 18 and 30 and for a questionnaire on teaching methodology and students' satisfaction in the context of a Spanish university and the generalization to other questionnaire, or population, should be proved with specific data. Furthermore, the sample size is rather small. Originality/value: In the current process of change that is taking place in universities according to the plan developed by the European Space of Higher Education, focused on increasing the student skills, validate instruments as the satisfaction scale of JDS, are necessary to evaluate students’ satisfaction with new active methodologies. These findings are useful for researchers since they add the first sample in which the MI of a student’s satisfaction survey

  5. Measuring neutrino masses with a future galaxy survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    that the minimum mass sum of sum m_nu ~ 0.06 eV in the normal hierarchy can be detected at 1.5 sigma to 2.5 sigma significance, depending on the model complexity, using a combination of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements in conjunction with CMB temperature and polarisation observations from Planck....... With better knowledge of the galaxy bias, the significance of the detection could potentially reach 5.4 sigma. Interestingly, neither Planck+shear nor Planck+galaxy alone can achieve this level of sensitivity; it is the combined effect of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements that breaks...... the persistent degeneracies between the neutrino mass, the physical matter density, and the Hubble parameter. Notwithstanding this remarkable sensitivity to sum m_nu, Euclid-like shear and galaxy data will not be sensitive to the exact mass spectrum of the neutrino sector; no significant bias (sigma...

  6. Development of a comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including a self-report version of the International Spinal Cord Injury sexual function basic data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, P W; Currie, K E

    2016-08-01

    Questionnaire development, validation and completion. Develop comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including validated self-report versions of the International Spinal Cord Injury male sexual function and female sexual and reproductive function basic data sets (SR-iSCI-sexual function). People with spinal cord damage (SCD) living in the community, Australia from August 2013 to June 2014. An iterative process involving rehabilitation medicine clinicians, a nurse specialising in sexuality issues in SCD and people with SCD who developed a comprehensive survey that included the SR-iSCI-sexual function. Participants recruitment through spinal rehabilitation review clinic and community organisations that support people with SCD. Surveys completed by 154 people. Most were male (n=101, 65.6%). Respondents' median age was 50 years (interquartile range (IQR) 38-58), and they were a median of 10 years (IQR 4-20) after the onset of SCD. Sexual problems unrelated to SCD were reported by 12 (8%) respondents, and 114 (n=75.5%) reported sexual problems because of SCD. Orgasms were much less likely (χ(2)=13.1, P=0.006) to be normal in males (n=5, 5%) compared with females (n=11, 22%). Males had significantly worse (χ(2)=26.0, P=0.001) psychogenic genital functioning (normal n=9, 9%) than females (normal n=13, 26%) and worse (χ(2)=10.8, P=0.013) reflex genital functioning. Normal ejaculation was reported in only three (3%) men. Most (n=26, 52%) women reported reduced or absent menstruation pattern since SCD. The SR-iSCI-sexual function provides a useful tool for researchers and clinicians to collect information regarding patient-reported sexual functioning after SCD and to facilitate comparative studies.

  7. Improved characterisation of measurement errors in electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, C. H. M.; Binley, A. M.; Kuras, O.; Graham, J.

    2016-12-01

    Measurement errors can play a pivotal role in geophysical inversion. Most inverse models require users to prescribe a statistical model of data errors before inversion. Wrongly prescribed error levels can lead to over- or under-fitting of data, yet commonly used models of measurement error are relatively simplistic. With the heightening interests in uncertainty estimation across hydrogeophysics, better characterisation and treatment of measurement errors is needed to provide more reliable estimates of uncertainty. We have analysed two time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) datasets; one contains 96 sets of direct and reciprocal data collected from a surface ERT line within a 24h timeframe, while the other is a year-long cross-borehole survey at a UK nuclear site with over 50,000 daily measurements. Our study included the characterisation of the spatial and temporal behaviour of measurement errors using autocorrelation and covariance analysis. We find that, in addition to well-known proportionality effects, ERT measurements can also be sensitive to the combination of electrodes used. This agrees with reported speculation in previous literature that ERT errors could be somewhat correlated. Based on these findings, we develop a new error model that allows grouping based on electrode number in additional to fitting a linear model to transfer resistance. The new model fits the observed measurement errors better and shows superior inversion and uncertainty estimates in synthetic examples. It is robust, because it groups errors together based on the number of the four electrodes used to make each measurement. The new model can be readily applied to the diagonal data weighting matrix commonly used in classical inversion methods, as well as to the data covariance matrix in the Bayesian inversion framework. We demonstrate its application using extensive ERT monitoring datasets from the two aforementioned sites.

  8. Behavioral Health Needs Assessment Survey (BHNAS): Overview of Survey Items and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    are not opioids (including Celebrex, Vioxx, Bextra, topical lidocaine ) • Prescription opioid/narcotic painkiller (including OxyContin, Percocet...Service Members (reversed) (1 = Never to 5 = Always). • Exhibit clear thinking and reasonable action under stress (1 = Never to 5 = Always). • Show...make evidence-based decisions and policy changes impacting the psychological health of Navy expeditionary sailors. The results constitute actionable

  9. The Effects of Survey Timing on Student Evaluation of Teaching Measures Obtained Using Online Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelami, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    Teaching evaluations are an important measurement tool used by business schools in gauging the level of student satisfaction with the educational services delivered by faculty. The growing use of online teaching evaluations has enabled educational administrators to expand the time period during which student evaluation of teaching (SET) surveys…

  10. RCPAQAP First Combined Measurement and Reference Interval Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham Rd; Koetsier, Sabrina DA

    2014-11-01

    Reference intervals are commonly considered to allow for between-laboratory bias. The RCPAQAP Liquid Serum Chemistry Program has collected data on laboratory measurements as well as reference intervals. This allows assessment of the between-laboratory variation in results, reference intervals and the information transmitted by the combination of these factors. For the majority of common chemistry analytes, the between-laboratory variation in reference intervals is greater than the variation in results. Additionally the reference interval variation is generally not related to bias between the results. Use of common reference intervals, either as an average of the current intervals in use, or the intervals proposed by the AACB Harmonisation Group, improved the variation seen in the information produced by different laboratories.

  11. Measure and category a survey of the analogies between topological and measure spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Oxtoby, John C

    1980-01-01

    In this edition, a set of Supplementary Notes and Remarks has been added at the end, grouped according to chapter. Some of these call attention to subsequent developments, others add further explanation or additional remarks. Most of the remarks are accompanied by a briefly indicated proof, which is sometimes different from the one given in the reference cited. The list of references has been expanded to include many recent contributions, but it is still not intended to be exhaustive. John C. Oxtoby Bryn Mawr, April 1980 Preface to the First Edition This book has two main themes: the Baire category theorem as a method for proving existence, and the "duality" between measure and category. The category method is illustrated by a variety of typical applications, and the analogy between measure and category is explored in all of its ramifications. To this end, the elements of metric topology are reviewed and the principal properties of Lebesgue measure are derived. It turns out that Lebesgue integration is not es...

  12. Transgender-inclusive measures of sex/gender for population surveys: Mixed-methods evaluation and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R.; Braimoh, Jessica; Scheim, Ayden I.; Dharma, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Given that an estimated 0.6% of the U.S. population is transgender (trans) and that large health disparities for this population have been documented, government and research organizations are increasingly expanding measures of sex/gender to be trans inclusive. Options suggested for trans community surveys, such as expansive check-all-that-apply gender identity lists and write-in options that offer maximum flexibility, are generally not appropriate for broad population surveys. These require limited questions and a small number of categories for analysis. Limited evaluation has been undertaken of trans-inclusive population survey measures for sex/gender, including those currently in use. Using an internet survey and follow-up of 311 participants, and cognitive interviews from a maximum-diversity sub-sample (n = 79), we conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of two existing measures: a two-step question developed in the United States and a multidimensional measure developed in Canada. We found very low levels of item missingness, and no indicators of confusion on the part of cisgender (non-trans) participants for both measures. However, a majority of interview participants indicated problems with each question item set. Agreement between the two measures in assessment of gender identity was very high (K = 0.9081), but gender identity was a poor proxy for other dimensions of sex or gender among trans participants. Issues to inform measure development or adaptation that emerged from analysis included dimensions of sex/gender measured, whether non-binary identities were trans, Indigenous and cultural identities, proxy reporting, temporality concerns, and the inability of a single item to provide a valid measure of sex/gender. Based on this evaluation, we recommend that population surveys meant for multi-purpose analysis consider a new Multidimensional Sex/Gender Measure for testing that includes three simple items (one asked only of a small sub-group) to assess gender

  13. Transgender-inclusive measures of sex/gender for population surveys: Mixed-methods evaluation and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R; Braimoh, Jessica; Scheim, Ayden I; Dharma, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Given that an estimated 0.6% of the U.S. population is transgender (trans) and that large health disparities for this population have been documented, government and research organizations are increasingly expanding measures of sex/gender to be trans inclusive. Options suggested for trans community surveys, such as expansive check-all-that-apply gender identity lists and write-in options that offer maximum flexibility, are generally not appropriate for broad population surveys. These require limited questions and a small number of categories for analysis. Limited evaluation has been undertaken of trans-inclusive population survey measures for sex/gender, including those currently in use. Using an internet survey and follow-up of 311 participants, and cognitive interviews from a maximum-diversity sub-sample (n = 79), we conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of two existing measures: a two-step question developed in the United States and a multidimensional measure developed in Canada. We found very low levels of item missingness, and no indicators of confusion on the part of cisgender (non-trans) participants for both measures. However, a majority of interview participants indicated problems with each question item set. Agreement between the two measures in assessment of gender identity was very high (K = 0.9081), but gender identity was a poor proxy for other dimensions of sex or gender among trans participants. Issues to inform measure development or adaptation that emerged from analysis included dimensions of sex/gender measured, whether non-binary identities were trans, Indigenous and cultural identities, proxy reporting, temporality concerns, and the inability of a single item to provide a valid measure of sex/gender. Based on this evaluation, we recommend that population surveys meant for multi-purpose analysis consider a new Multidimensional Sex/Gender Measure for testing that includes three simple items (one asked only of a small sub-group) to assess gender

  14. Measuring teamwork in health care settings: a review of survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Melissa A; Nembhard, Ingrid M; Edmondson, Amy C

    2015-04-01

    Teamwork in health care settings is widely recognized as an important factor in providing high-quality patient care. However, the behaviors that comprise effective teamwork, the organizational factors that support teamwork, and the relationship between teamwork and patient outcomes remain empirical questions in need of rigorous study. To identify and review survey instruments used to assess dimensions of teamwork so as to facilitate high-quality research on this topic. We conducted a systematic review of articles published before September 2012 to identify survey instruments used to measure teamwork and to assess their conceptual content, psychometric validity, and relationships to outcomes of interest. We searched the ISI Web of Knowledge database, and identified relevant articles using the search terms team, teamwork, or collaboration in combination with survey, scale, measure, or questionnaire. We found 39 surveys that measured teamwork. Surveys assessed different dimensions of teamwork. The most commonly assessed dimensions were communication, coordination, and respect. Of the 39 surveys, 10 met all of the criteria for psychometric validity, and 14 showed significant relationships to nonself-report outcomes. Evidence of psychometric validity is lacking for many teamwork survey instruments. However, several psychometrically valid instruments are available. Researchers aiming to advance research on teamwork in health care should consider using or adapting one of these instruments before creating a new one. Because instruments vary considerably in the behavioral processes and emergent states of teamwork that they capture, researchers must carefully evaluate the conceptual consistency between instrument, research question, and context.

  15. Spectral Classification and Redshift Measurement for the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Schlegel, David J.; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Bhardwaj, Vaishali; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burles, Scott; Chen, Yan-Mei; Dawson, Kyle; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gunn, James E.; Knapp, G. R.; Loomis, Craig P.; Lupton, Robert H.; Maraston, Claudia; Muna, Demitri; Myers, Adam D.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Pâris, Isabelle; Percival, Will J.; Petitjean, Patrick; Rockosi, Constance M.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shu, Yiping; Strauss, Michael A.; Thomas, Daniel; Tremonti, Christy A.; Wake, David A.; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael

    2012-11-01

    We describe the automated spectral classification, redshift determination, and parameter measurement pipeline in use for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) as of the survey's ninth data release (DR9), encompassing 831,000 moderate-resolution optical spectra. We give a review of the algorithms employed, and describe the changes to the pipeline that have been implemented for BOSS relative to previous SDSS-I/II versions, including new sets of stellar, galaxy, and quasar redshift templates. For the color-selected "CMASS" sample of massive galaxies at redshift 0.4 visual inspections of a subset of BOSS galaxies, we find that approximately 0.2% of confidently reported CMASS sample classifications and redshifts are incorrect, and about 0.4% of all CMASS spectra are objects unclassified by the current algorithm which are potentially recoverable. The BOSS pipeline confirms that ~51.5% of the quasar targets have quasar spectra, with the balance mainly consisting of stars and low signal-to-noise spectra. Statistical (as opposed to systematic) redshift errors propagated from photon noise are typically a few tens of km s-1 for both galaxies and quasars, with a significant tail to a few hundreds of km s-1 for quasars. We test the accuracy of these statistical redshift error estimates using repeat observations, finding them underestimated by a factor of 1.19-1.34 for galaxies and by a factor of two for quasars. We assess the impact of sky-subtraction quality, signal-to-noise ratio, and other factors on galaxy redshift success. Finally, we document known issues with the BOSS DR9 spectroscopic data set and describe directions of ongoing development.

  16. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as "low-energy class 1" in a new settlement called Stenløse Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats...... preparation. The dense low-rise houing are to be heated by a district heating network. All dwellings were to be equipped with a mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery and an electronic system for energy monitoring and control of the heating systems. The first houses were occupied in 2008...... were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m². Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m² thermal solar system for hot water...

  17. Testing General Relativity with Growth rate measurement from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Shadab; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Schneider, Donald P

    2015-01-01

    The measured redshift ($z$) of an astronomical object is a combination of Hubble recession, gravitational redshift and peculiar velocity. In particular, the line of sight distance to a galaxy inferred from redshift is affected by the peculiar velocity component of galaxy redshift, which can also be observed as an anisotropy in the correlation function. This anisotropy allows us to measure the linear growth rate of matter ($f\\sigma_8$). In this paper, we measure the linear growth rate of matter ($f\\sigma_8$) at $z=0.57$ using the CMASS sample from Data Release 11 of Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS III) Baryon Oscillations Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The galaxy sample consists of 690,826 Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) in the redshift range 0.43 to 0.7 covering 8498 deg$^2$. Here we report the first measurement of $f\\sigma_8$ and cosmology using Convolution Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (CLPT) with Gaussian streaming model (GSRSD). We arrive at a constraint of $f\\sigma_8=0.462\\pm0.041$ (9\\% accuracy) at effec...

  18. What questionnaires to use when measuring quality of life in sacral tumor patients: the updated sacral tumor survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wulfften Palthe, Olivier D R; Janssen, Stein J; Wunder, Jay S; Ferguson, Peter C; Wei, Guo; Rose, Peter S; Yaszemski, Micheal J; Sim, Franklin H; Boland, Patrick J; Healey, John H; Hornicek, Francis J; Schwab, Joseph H

    2017-05-01

    Patient-reported outcomes are becoming increasingly important when investigating results of patient and disease management. In sacral tumor, the symptoms of patients can vary substantially; therefore, no single questionnaire can adequately account for the full spectrum of symptoms and disability. The purpose of this study is to analyze redundancy within the current sacral tumor survey and make a recommendation for an updated version based on the results and patient and expert opinions. A survey study from a tertiary care orthopedic oncology referral center was used. The patient sample included 70 patients with sacral tumors (78% chordoma). The following 10 questionnaires included in the current sacral tumor survey were evaluated: the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Item short form, PROMIS Pain Intensity short form, PROMIS Pain Interference short form, PROMIS Neuro-QOL v1.0 Lower Extremity Function short form, PROMIS v1.0 Anxiety short form, the PROMIS v1.0 Depression short form, the International Continence Society Male short form, the Modified Obstruction-Defecation Syndrome questionnaire, the PROMIS Sexual Function Profile v1.0, and the Stoma Quality of Life tool. We performed an exploratory factor analysis to calculate the possible underlying latent traits. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to measure to what extent the questionnaires converged. We hypothesized the existence of six domains based on current literature: mental health, physical health, pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, sexual function, and urinary incontinence. To assess content validity, we surveyed 32 patients, 9 orthopedic oncologists, 1 medical oncologist, 1 radiation oncologist, and 1 orthopedic oncology nurse practitioner with experience in treating sacral tumor patients on the relevance of the domains. Reliability as measured by Cronbach alpha ranged from 0.65 to 0.96. Coverage measured by floor and ceiling effects ranged from 0% to 52

  19. SED_ARCHIVE - Database for the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples, including locations, sample data and collection information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community for over 40 years. In that time...

  20. SED_ARCHIVE - Database for the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Science Center's marine sediment samples, including locations, sample data and collection information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Science Center (WHSC) has been an active member of the Woods Hole research community for over 40 years. In that time...

  1. Development and validation of a survey instrument to measure children's advertising literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey measurement instrument for children's advertising literacy. Based on the multidimensional conceptualization of advertising literacy by 0056"> Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal, and Buijzen (2011), 39 items were created to measure two d

  2. Development and validation of a survey instrument to measure children's advertising literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Opree, S.J.; Buijzen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a survey measurement instrument for children's advertising literacy. Based on the multidimensional conceptualization of advertising literacy by 0056"> Rozendaal, Lapierre, Van Reijmersdal, and Buijzen (2011), 39 items were created to measure two

  3. Can i just check...? Effects of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter; Jäckle, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Household income is difficult to measure, since it requires the collection of information about all potential income sources for each member of a household.Weassess the effects of two types of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates: within-wave edit checks use responses to

  4. Developing a weighting strategy to include mobile phone numbers into an ongoing population health survey using an overlapping dual-frame design with limited benchmark information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Margo L; Ferguson, Raymond A; Hughes, Phil J; Steel, David G

    2014-09-04

    In 2012 mobile phone numbers were included into the ongoing New South Wales Population Health Survey (NSWPHS) using an overlapping dual-frame design. Previously in the NSWPHS the sample was selected using random digit dialing (RDD) of landline phone numbers. The survey was undertaken using computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The weighting strategy needed to be significantly expanded to manage the differing probabilities of selection by frame, including that of children of mobile-only phone users, and to adjust for the increased chance of selection of dual-phone users. This paper describes the development of the final weighting strategy to properly combine the data from two overlapping sample frames accounting for the fact that population benchmarks for the different sampling frames were not available at the state or regional level. Estimates of the number of phone numbers for the landline and mobile phone frames used to calculate the differing probabilities of selection by frame, for New South Wales (NSW) and by stratum, were obtained by apportioning Australian estimates as none were available for NSW. The weighting strategy was then developed by calculating person selection probabilities, selection weights, applying a constant composite factor to the dual-phone users sample weights, and benchmarking to the latest NSW population by age group, sex and stratum. Data from the NSWPHS for the first quarter of 2012 was used to test the weighting strategy. This consisted of data on 3395 respondents with 2171 (64%) from the landline frame and 1224 (36%) from the mobile frame. However, in order to calculate the weights, data needed to be available for all core weighting variables and so 3378 respondents, 2933 adults and 445 children, had sufficient data to be included. Average person weights were 3.3 times higher for the mobile-only respondents, 1.3 times higher for the landline-only respondents and 1.7 times higher for dual-phone users in the mobile frame

  5. Hot Big Planets Kepler Survey: Measuring the Repopulation Rate of the Shortest-Period Planets

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2013-01-01

    By surveying new fields for the shortest-period "big" planets, the Kepler spacecraft could provide the statistics to more clearly measure the occurrence distributions of giant and medium planets. This would allow separate determinations for giant and medium planets of the relationship between the inward rate of tidal migration of planets and the strength of the stellar tidal dissipation (as expressed by the tidal quality factor Q). We propose a "Hot Big Planets Survey" to find new big planets...

  6. Production and evaluation of measuring equipment for share viscosity of polymer melts included nanofiller with injection molding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takao; Sugino, Naoto; Takei, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Shear viscosity measurement device was produced to evaluate the injection molding workability for high-performance resins. Observation was possible in shear rate from 10 to 10000 [1/sec] that were higher than rotary rheometer by measuring with a plasticization cylinder of the injection molding machine. The result of measurements extrapolated result of a measurement of the rotary rheometer.

  7. Will kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements enhance the science return from galaxy redshift surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Naonori S.; Okumura, Teppei; Spergel, David N.

    2017-01-01

    Yes. Future CMB experiments such as Advanced ACTPol and CMB-S4 should achieve measurements with S/N of > 0.1 for the typical host halo of galaxies in redshift surveys. These measurements will provide complementary measurements of the growth rate of large scale structure f and the expansion rate of the Universe H to galaxy clustering measurements. This paper emphasizes that there is significant information in the anisotropy of the relative pairwise kSZ measurements. We expand the relative pairwise kSZ power spectrum in Legendre polynomials and consider up to its octopole. Assuming that the noise in the filtered maps is uncorrelated between the positions of galaxies in the survey, we derive a simple analytic form for the power spectrum covariance of the relative pairwise kSZ temperature in redshift space. While many previous studies have assumed optimistically that the optical depth of the galaxies τT in the survey is known, we marginalize over τT, to compute constraints on the growth rate f and the expansion rate H. For realistic survey parameters, we find that combining kSZ and galaxy redshift survey data reduces the marginalized 1-σ errors on H and f to ~50-70% compared to the galaxy-only analysis.

  8. Outcome measure for stress urinary incontinence treatment (OMIT): results of two society of urodynamics and female urology (SUFU) surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmern, Philippe; Kobashi, Kathleen; Lemack, Gary

    2010-06-01

    To reach some agreement on a minimum set of outcomes measures (OMs) for the post-operative evaluation of stress incontinent women, we applied the concept of "lower common denominator" to study which OM instruments are used amongst SUFU members. With SUFU approval, a short online, 11 items, email-based survey was prepared to assess what OMs current SUFU members are using in daily practice. The first survey administered after the annual SUFU meeting targeted recent SUFU meeting attendees. The same survey was redistributed later on to include all SUFU members. Each survey ran for a 10-day period. Response rate for the first survey was 50 (approximately 30%) and 106 (approximately 25%) for the second. Responders were geographically well distributed, had been in practice for 1-15 years (approximately 75%), performed 5-15 cases/month, and practiced in a university (56%) or group (30%) setting. Great consistency was noted between surveys for preferred questionnaires [UDI-6 (40-52%), UDI-6, and IIQ-7 (30-34%)], office tests [urinalysis and post-void residual (30-35%)], exam [Baden-Walker and/or POP-Q (38-55%), cough stress test (54-51%)], imaging (none), and urodynamics (none, unless complications). The most common "dislikes" in descending order were: 24 hr pad test, Q-tip test, bladder diary, long questionnaires, POP-Q. These two SUFU surveys did not explore what each physician thinks is the best OM but what members use regularly in their practices. Similar findings were noted in both surveys, supporting the concept that a minimum set of OM could be developed for reporting surgical outcomes of incontinence procedures in the future. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Measuring the Impact of Active Learning in a Redesigned Large-enrollment Introductory Geoscience Survey Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.; Lyons, D. J.; Manhart, K.; Wehunt, M.; Kapp, J.; Richardson, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past two years, faculty in the UA Geosciences engaged in a major course redesign effort with the goal of improving student learning and attitudes while, at the same time, dramatically reducing costs of offering such a course. The course serves as an undergraduate general education science requirement. Using a reformed teaching framework of learner-centered education, the large-enrollment, introductory geosciences survey course was overhauled to include interactive lectures, just-in-time online quizzes, a next- generation textbook, and weekly discussions lead by graduate students and undergraduate peer mentors. The Geosciences Concept Inventory (GCI) was given as a pre-test/post-test to students in the pre-modified course and the reformed course to compare student learning in terms of gain scores. Although the entire 78-items were administered, divided into three forms, only the 36-items that most directly related to course content were used for analysis. Students in the unmodified course had a pre-test GCI percentage correct of 28.67 (SD=11.45, n=96) which increased to 45.26 (SD=11.76, n=84) on the post-test. After course redesign, students had a pre-test GCI percentage correct of 38.62 (SD=8.42, n=144) which increased a post-test GCI score of 48.73 (SD=7.49, n=132). Although the gains from pre-test to post-test are statistically significant, the different in post-test GCI scores between the two groups is not. This is interpreted as students' knowledge levels, insofar as the GCI can measure, were equivalent in both courses. The Likert-style Attitudes Toward Science Survey was given as an end-of-class post-test to students in the pre-modified course and as a pre-test post-test the reformed course to compare student attitudes between the courses. The average ranking on a 5-point scale as a pre-test was 3.454 (SD=1.259, n=508) whereas the post-tests for the unmodified course was 3.49 (SD=1.05, n=101) and 3.50 (SD=1.127, n=369) for the reformed course. As is

  10. Treatment approach, delivery, and follow-up evaluation for cardiac rhythm disease management patients receiving radiation therapy: Retrospective physician surveys including chart reviews at numerous centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossman, Michael S., E-mail: MGossman@TSRCC.com [Regulation Directive Medical Physics, Russell, KY (United States); Wilkinson, Jeffrey D. [Medtronic, Inc., Mounds View, MN (United States); Mallick, Avishek [Department of Mathematics, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In a 2-part study, we first examined the results of 71 surveyed physicians who provided responses on how they address the management of patients who maintained either a pacemaker or a defibrillator during radiation treatment. Second, a case review study is presented involving 112 medical records reviewed at 18 institutions to determine whether there was a change in the radiation prescription for the treatment of the target cancer, the method of radiation delivery, or the method of radiation image acquisition. Statistics are provided to illustrate the level of administrative policy; the level of communication between radiation oncologists and heart specialists; American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging and classification; National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines; tumor site; patient's sex; patient's age; device type; manufacturer; live monitoring; and the reported decisions for planning, delivery, and imaging. This survey revealed that 37% of patient treatments were considered for some sort of change in this regard, whereas 59% of patients were treated without regard to these alternatives when available. Only 3% of all patients were identified with an observable change in the functionality of the device or patient status in comparison with 96% of patients with normal behavior and operating devices. Documented changes in the patient's medical record included 1 device exhibiting failure at 0.3-Gy dose, 1 device exhibiting increased sensor rate during dose delivery, 1 patient having an irregular heartbeat leading to device reprogramming, and 1 patient complained of twinging in the chest wall that resulted in a respiratory arrest. Although policies and procedures should directly involve the qualified medical physicist for technical supervision, their sufficient involvement was typically not requested by most respondents. No treatment options were denied to any patient based on AJCC staging, classification, or NCCN practice standards.

  11. Treatment approach, delivery, and follow-up evaluation for cardiac rhythm disease management patients receiving radiation therapy: retrospective physician surveys including chart reviews at numerous centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossman, Michael S; Wilkinson, Jeffrey D; Mallick, Avishek

    2014-01-01

    In a 2-part study, we first examined the results of 71 surveyed physicians who provided responses on how they address the management of patients who maintained either a pacemaker or a defibrillator during radiation treatment. Second, a case review study is presented involving 112 medical records reviewed at 18 institutions to determine whether there was a change in the radiation prescription for the treatment of the target cancer, the method of radiation delivery, or the method of radiation image acquisition. Statistics are provided to illustrate the level of administrative policy; the level of communication between radiation oncologists and heart specialists; American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging and classification; National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines; tumor site; patient׳s sex; patient׳s age; device type; manufacturer; live monitoring; and the reported decisions for planning, delivery, and imaging. This survey revealed that 37% of patient treatments were considered for some sort of change in this regard, whereas 59% of patients were treated without regard to these alternatives when available. Only 3% of all patients were identified with an observable change in the functionality of the device or patient status in comparison with 96% of patients with normal behavior and operating devices. Documented changes in the patient׳s medical record included 1 device exhibiting failure at 0.3-Gy dose, 1 device exhibiting increased sensor rate during dose delivery, 1 patient having an irregular heartbeat leading to device reprogramming, and 1 patient complained of twinging in the chest wall that resulted in a respiratory arrest. Although policies and procedures should directly involve the qualified medical physicist for technical supervision, their sufficient involvement was typically not requested by most respondents. No treatment options were denied to any patient based on AJCC staging, classification, or NCCN practice standards.

  12. A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ammon Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Power Plant. Methods Mollusks were collected in 18 municipalities in the State of Mato Grosso between February 2002 and February 2004 (qualitative study and from April 2009 to February 2011 (quantitative study. Results Thirty-one species of mollusks were collected, including newly recorded species (Antillorbis nordestensis and Burnupia ingae. In addition, the geographic distributions of known species, including Biomphalaria straminea, a snail vector of Schistosoma mansoni, were expanded. A total of 4,507 specimens were collected in the APM Manso reservoir (Usina Hidrelétrica de Aproveitamento Múltiplo de Manso during the quantitative study, and Biomphalaria amazonica was found in six of the 10 localities analyzed. The Afroasiatic species Melanoides tuberculata, introduced after February 2009, was the dominant species (relative abundance 94.96%. Conclusions The study area is epidemiologically important due to the occurrence of B. straminea and B. amazonica, which are vectors of schistosomiasis, and M. tuberculata, a snail host of Centrocestus formosanus, which is responsible for centrocestiasis transmission. Observations of M. tuberculata and the exotic freshwater clams Corbicula fluminea and Corbicula largillierti raise concerns about biodiversity.

  13. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rasmus Nielsen

    Full Text Available Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes zero observations and over-dispersion. The model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correlation between size groups in a haul increases when the difference in size decreases. Here the model is extended in two ways. Instead of assuming a natural scale size correlation, the model is further developed to allow for a transformed length scale. Furthermore, in the present application, the spatial- and size-dependent correlation between species was included. For cod (Gadus morhua and whiting (Merlangius merlangus, a common structured size correlation was fitted, and a separable structure between the time and space-size correlation was found for each species, whereas more complex structures were required to describe the correlation between species (and space-size. The within-species time correlation is strong, whereas the correlations between the species are weaker over time but strong within the year.

  14. Measurements of Greenhouse Gases around the Sacramento Area: The Airborne Greenhouse Emissions Survey (AGES) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karion, A.; Fischer, M. L.; Turnbull, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Faloona, I. C.; Zagorac, N.; Guilderson, T. P.; Saripalli, S.; Sherwood, T.

    2009-12-01

    The state of California is leading the United States by enacting legislation (AB-32) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. The success of reduction efforts can be gauged with accurate emissions inventories and potentially verified with atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) over time. Measurements of multiple GHGs and associated trace gas species in a specific region also provide information on emissions ratios for source apportionment. We conducted the Airborne Greenhouse Emissions Survey (AGES) campaign to determine emissions signature ratios for the sources that exist in the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento Valley areas. Specifically, we attempt to determine the emissions signatures of sources that influence ongoing measurements made at a tall-tower measurement site near Walnut Grove, CA. For two weeks in February and March of 2009, a Cessna 210 was flown throughout the Sacramento region, making continuous measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO while also sampling discrete flasks for a variety of additional tracers, including SF6, N2O, and 14C in CO2 (Δ14CO2). Flight paths were planned using wind predictions for each day to maximize sampling of sources whose emissions would also be sampled contemporaneously by the instrumentation at the Walnut Grove tower (WGC), part of the ongoing California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project between NOAA/ESRL’s Carbon Cycle group and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Flights were performed in two distinct patterns: 1) flying across a plume upwind and downwind of the Sacramento urban area, and 2) flying across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta from Richmond to Walnut Grove, a region consisting of natural wetlands as well as several power plants and refineries. Results show a variety of well-correlated mixing ratio signals downwind of Sacramento, documenting the urban signature emission ratios, while emissions ratios in the Delta region were more variable, likely due

  15. Two Millisecond Pulsars Discovered by the PALFA Survey and a Shapiro Delay Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Deneva, J S; Cordes, J M; Lyne, A G; Ransom, S M; Cognard, I; Camilo, F; Nice, D J; Stairs, I H; Allen, B; Bhat, N D R; Bogdanov, S; Brazier, A; Champion, D J; Chatterjee, S; Crawford, F; Desvignes, G; Hessels, J W T; Jenet, F A; Kaspi, V M; Knispel, B; Kramer, M; Lazarus, P; van Leeuwen, J; Lorimer, D R; Lynch, R S; McLaughlin, M A; Scholz, P; Siemens, X; Stappers, B W; Stovall, K; Venkataraman, A

    2012-01-01

    We present two millisecond pulsar discoveries from the PALFA survey of the Galactic plane with the Arecibo telescope. PSR J1955+2527 is an isolated pulsar with a period of 4.87 ms, and PSR J1949+3106 has a period of 13.14 ms and is in a 1.9-day binary system with a massive companion. Their timing solutions, based on 4 years of timing measurements with the Arecibo, Green Bank, Nan\\c{c}ay and Jodrell Bank telescopes, allow precise determination of spin and astrometric parameters, including precise determinations of their proper motions. For PSR J1949+3106, we can clearly detect the Shapiro delay. From this we measure the pulsar mass to be 1.47(+0.43/-0.31) solar masses, the companion mass to be 0.85(+0.14/-0.11) solar masses and the orbital inclination to be i = 79.9(+1.6/-1.9) degrees, where uncertainties correspond to +/- 1-\\sigma\\ confidence levels. With continued timing, we expect to also be able to detect the advance of periastron for the J1949+3106 system. This effect, combined with the Shapiro delay, wil...

  16. Measuring Model-Based High School Science Instruction: Development and Application of a Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Gavin W.; Liang, Ling L.

    2013-02-01

    This study tested a student survey to detect differences in instruction between teachers in a modeling-based science program and comparison group teachers. The Instructional Activities Survey measured teachers' frequency of modeling, inquiry, and lecture instruction. Factor analysis and Rasch modeling identified three subscales, Modeling and Reflecting, Communicating and Relating, and Investigative Inquiry. As predicted, treatment group teachers engaged in modeling and inquiry instruction more than comparison teachers, with effect sizes between 0.55 and 1.25. This study demonstrates the utility of student report data in measuring teachers' classroom practices and in evaluating outcomes of a professional development program.

  17. Indoor Environment and Energy Use in Historic Buildings - Comparing Survey Results with Measurements and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohdin, P.; Dalewski, M.; Moshfegh, B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing demand for energy efficiency places new requirements on energy use in historic buildings. Efficient energy use is essential if a historic building is to be used and preserved, especially buildings with conventional uses such as residential buildings and offices. This paper presents...... results which combine energy auditing with building energy simulation and an indoor environment survey among the occupants of the building. Both when comparing simulations with measurements as well as with survey results good agreement was found. The two efficiency measures that are predicted to increase...... energy and thermal performance the most for this group of buildings were reduced infiltration and increasing heat-exchanger efficiency....

  18. Standardization of physical measurements in European health examination surveys-experiences from the site visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Mäki-Opas, Johanna; Mindell, Jennifer S; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Männistö, Satu; Giampaoli, Simona; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Koponen, Päivikki

    2017-01-23

    Health examination surveys (HESs) provide valuable data on health and its determinants at the population level. Comparison of HES results within and between countries and over time requires measurements which are free of bias due to differences in or adherence to measurement procedures and/or measurement devices. In the European HES (EHES) Pilot Project, 12 countries conducted a pilot HES in 2010-11 using standardized measurement protocols and centralized training. External evaluation visits (site visits) were performed by the EHES Reference Centre staff to evaluate the success of standardization and quality of data collection. In general, standardized EHES protocols were followed adequately in all the pilot surveys. Small deviations were observed in the posture of participants during the blood pressure and height measurement; in the use of a tourniquet when drawing blood samples; and in the calibration of measurement devices. Occasionally, problems with disturbing noise from outside or people coming into the room during the measurements were observed. In countries with an ongoing national HES or a long tradition of conducting national HESs at regular intervals, it was more difficult to modify national protocols to fulfil EHES requirements. The EHES protocols to standardize HES measurements and procedures for collection of blood samples are feasible in cross-country settings. The prerequisite for successful standardization is adequate training. External and internal evaluation activities during the survey fieldwork are also needed to monitor compliance to standards. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Accounting for uncertainty in volumes of seabed change measured with repeat multibeam sonar surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, Alexandre C. G.; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hulands, Lachlan; Kennedy, David M.

    2015-12-01

    Seafloors of unconsolidated sediment are highly dynamic features; eroding or accumulating under the action of tides, waves and currents. Assessing which areas of the seafloor experienced change and measuring the corresponding volumes involved provide insights into these important active sedimentation processes. Computing the difference between Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) obtained from repeat Multibeam Echosounders (MBES) surveys has become a common technique to identify these areas, but the uncertainty in these datasets considerably affects the estimation of the volumes displaced. The two main techniques used to take into account uncertainty in volume estimations are the limitation of calculations to areas experiencing a change in depth beyond a chosen threshold, and the computation of volumetric confidence intervals. However, these techniques are still in their infancy and, as a result, are often crude, seldom used or poorly understood. In this article, we explored a number of possible methodological advances to address this issue, including: (1) using the uncertainty information provided by the MBES data processing algorithm CUBE, (2) adapting fluvial geomorphology techniques for volume calculations using spatially variable thresholds and (3) volumetric histograms. The nearshore seabed off Warrnambool harbour - located in the highly energetic southwest Victorian coast, Australia - was used as a test site. Four consecutive MBES surveys were carried out over a four-months period. The difference between consecutive DEMs revealed an area near the beach experiencing large sediment transfers - mostly erosion - and an area of reef experiencing increasing deposition from the advance of a nearby sediment sheet. The volumes of sediment displaced in these two areas were calculated using the techniques described above, both traditionally and using the suggested improvements. We compared the results and discussed the applicability of the new methodological improvements

  20. Measuring the Ultimate Mass of Galaxy Clusters: Redshifts and Mass Profiles from the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS)

    CERN Document Server

    Rines, Kenneth; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Kurtz, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a $\\Lambda$CDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these haloes. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1$<$$z$$<$0.3. The survey includes 21,314 unique MMT/Hectospec redshifts for individual galaxies; 10,275 of these galaxies are cluster members. For each cluster we acquired high signal-to-noise spectra for $\\sim 200$ cluster members and a comparable number of foreground/background galaxies. The cluster members trace out infall patterns around the clusters. The members define a very narrow red sequence. The velocity dispersions decline with radius; we demonstrate that the determination of the velocity dispersion is inse...

  1. BUSINESS SURVEY LIQUIDITY MEASURE AS A LEADING INDICATOR OF CROATIAN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Čižmešija

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Business survey liquidity measure is one of the modifications of the uniform EU business survey methodology applied in Croatia. Consequent liquidity problem have been, since socialist times, one of the major problem for Croatia's business. The problem rapidly increased between 1995 and 2000 and now it again represents the main difficulty for the Croatian economy. In order to improve the forecasting properties of business survey liquidity measure, some econometric models ware applied. Based on the regression analysis we concluded that the changes in the liquidity variable can predict the direction of changes in industrial production with one quarter lead. The results also show that liquidity can be a proxy of the Industrial Confidence Indicator in the observed period. The empirical analysis was performed using quarterly data covering the period from the first quarter 2005 to the fourth quarter 2011. The data sources were Privredni vjesnik (a business magazine in Croatia and the Croatian Bureau of Statistics.

  2. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  3. Measuring cosmic velocities with 21cm intensity mapping and galaxy redshift survey cross-correlation dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of measuring the effects of peculiar velocities in large-scale structure using the dipole of the redshift-space cross-correlation function. We combine number counts of galaxies with brightness-temperature fluctuations from 21cm intensity mapping, demonstrating that the dipole may be measured at modest significance ($\\lesssim 2\\sigma$) by combining the upcoming radio survey CHIME with the future redshift surveys of DESI and Euclid. More significant measurements ($\\lesssim~10\\sigma$) will be possible by combining intensity maps from the SKA with these of DESI or Euclid, and an even higher significance measurement ($\\lesssim 100\\sigma$) may be made by combining observables completely internally to the SKA. We account for effects such as contamination by wide-angle terms, interferometer noise and beams in the intensity maps, non-linear enhancements to the power spectrum, stacking multiple populations, sensitivity to the magnification slope, and the possibility that number counts and...

  4. Car-borne survey measurements with a 3x3` NaI detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, E.; Ugletveit, F.; Floe, L.; Mikkelborg, O. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraas (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) took part in the international survey measurement exercise RESUME95 that was arranged in Finland in August 1995. NRPA performed measurements with a simple car-borne measuring system based on standard equipment, a 3x3` NaI detector, an MCA and a GPS connected to a portable PC. The results show substantial variations in dose rate inside areas of a few square kilometres. Spectrum analysis shows that a major part of these differences are caused by variations in deposition of {sup 137}Cs. Our results show that even standard 3x3` NaI detectors can be used for car based survey measurements in fall out situations and search for sources. The detection limits are higher than for larger detectors, but the main limiting factor seem to be the timing capabilities of the acquisition system. (au).

  5. The Development of an Emotional Response to Writing Measure: The Affective Cognition Writing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald G.; Fischer, Jerome M.; Jain, Sachin

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and initiate the validation of the Affective Cognition Writing Survey (ACWS), a psychological instrument used to measure emotional expression through writing. Procedures for development and validation of the instrument are reported. Subsequently, factor analysis extracted six factors: Positive Processing,…

  6. American Healthy Homes Survey: A National Study of Residential Phthalates Measured from Floor Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), conducted a survey measuring phthalates in randomly selected residential homes throughout the U.S. Multistage sampling with clustering w...

  7. Proposing a survey instrument for measuring operational, formal, information and strategic Internet skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van A.J.A.M.; Dijk, van J.A.G.M.; Peters, O.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies prove to be very suitable to provide a realistic view of people's Internet skills. However, their cost and time are a strong limitation for large-scale data gathering. A useful addition to the measurement of Internet skills would be the development of survey questions for measu

  8. Measurement error in earnings data : Using a mixture model approach to combine survey and register data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.; Rohwedder, S.; Wansbeek, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Survey data on earnings tend to contain measurement error. Administrative data are superior in principle, but are worthless in case of a mismatch. We develop methods for prediction in mixture factor analysis models that combine both data sources to arrive at a single earnings figure. We apply the me

  9. Harmonizing Measures of Cognitive Performance Across International Surveys of Aging Using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kitty S; Gross, Alden L; Pezzin, Liliana E; Brandt, Jason; Kasper, Judith D

    2015-12-01

    To harmonize measures of cognitive performance using item response theory (IRT) across two international aging studies. Data for persons ≥65 years from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 9,471) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, N = 5,444). Cognitive performance measures varied (HRS fielded 25, ELSA 13); 9 were in common. Measurement precision was examined for IRT scores based on (a) common items, (b) common items adjusted for differential item functioning (DIF), and (c) DIF-adjusted all items. Three common items (day of date, immediate word recall, and delayed word recall) demonstrated DIF by survey. Adding survey-specific items improved precision but mainly for HRS respondents at lower cognitive levels. IRT offers a feasible strategy for harmonizing cognitive performance measures across other surveys and for other multi-item constructs of interest in studies of aging. Practical implications depend on sample distribution and the difficulty mix of in-common and survey-specific items. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. American Healthy Homes Survey: A National Study of Residential Phthalates Measured from Floor Wipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), conducted a survey measuring phthalates in randomly selected residential homes throughout the U.S. Multistage sampling with clustering w...

  11. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. VII. Elliptical galaxy scaling laws from direct observational mass measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Treu, Tommaso; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Burles, Scott; Schlegel, David J.; Wayth, Randall

    2008-01-01

    We use a sample of 53 massive early-type strong gravitational lens galaxies with well-measured redshifts (ranging from z = 0.06 to 0.36) and stellar velocity dispersions (between 175 and 400 km s(-1)) from the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey to derive numerous empirical scaling relations. The ratio be

  12. Physical measurements including temperature profiles of coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006 (NODC Accession 0019214)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical measurements of Coastal Waters off Central California in October 2006. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, Technical Report NPS-OC-07-002. This...

  13. Questionnaire survey, indoor climate measurements and energy consumption: Concerto initiative. Class1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellemose Knudsen, H.; Engelund Thomsen, K.; Bergsoee, N.C. [Aalborg Univ., Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBi), Koebenhavn (Denmark); Moerck, O.; Holmegaard Andersen, K. [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    The municipality of Egedal decided in 2006 to make use of the possibility in the Danish Planning Law for a municipality to tighten the energy requirements in the local plan for a new settlement to be erected in the municipality. During the years 2007-2011 a total of 442 dwellings were to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as ''low-energy class 1'' in a new settlement called Stenloese Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats were to be designed and constructed with a yearly heating demand of 15 kWh/m{sup .} Furthermore, the Concerto community include a kindergarten and an activity centre for elderly people. All the single family houses were to be heated by a heat pump supported by a 3 m{sup }thermal solar system for hot water preparation. The dense low-rise housing are to be heated by a district heating network. All dwellings were to be equipped with a mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery and an electronic system for energy monitoring and control of the heating systems. The first houses were occupied in 2008. This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58 flats, and measurements, assessments, and a series of physical measurements of selected indoor climate parameters in 7 selected single-family houses during March 2012. (Author)

  14. Mitigating Systematic Errors in Angular Correlation Function Measurements from Wide Field Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Christopher Brian

    2015-01-01

    We present an investigation into the effects of survey systematics such as varying depth, point spread function (PSF) size, and extinction on the galaxy selection and correlation in photometric, multi-epoch, wide area surveys. We take the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) as an example. Variations in galaxy selection due to systematics are found to cause density fluctuations of up to 10% for some small fraction of the area for most galaxy redshift slices and as much as 50% for some extreme cases of faint high-redshift samples. This results in correlations of galaxies against survey systematics of order $\\sim$1% when averaged over the survey area. We present an empirical method for mitigating these systematic correlations from measurements of angular correlation functions using weighted random points. These weighted random catalogs are estimated from the observed galaxy over densities by mapping these to survey parameters. We are able to model and mitigate the effect of systematic correl...

  15. Making sense of sexual orientation measures: findings from a cognitive processing study with adolescents on health survey questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Conron, Kerith; Patel, Aarti; Freedner, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    To carry out a study using cognitive processing interview methods to explore ways in which adolescents understand sexual orientation questions currently used on epidemiologic surveys. In-depth, individual interviews were conducted to probe cognitive processes involved in answering four self-report survey questions assessing sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sex of sexual partners.A semi-structured interview guide was used to explore variation in question interpretation, information retrieval patterns and problems, item clarity, valence of reactions to items (positive, negative, neutral), respondent burden, and perceived threat associated with the measures. Thirty adolescents aged 15 to 21 of diverse sexual orientations and race/ethnicities participated in the study, including female, male, and transgender youth. A question on sexual attraction was the most consistently understood and thus was easy for nearly all youth to answer. In contrast, a measure of sexual identity with options heterosexual, bisexual, gay/lesbian, and unsure was the most difficult to answer. Most preferred a sexual identity item that also provided the intermediate options mostly heterosexual and mostly homosexual, which many said reflected their experience of feeling between categories. Participants had varying and inconsistent interpretations of sexual behavior terms, such as sex and sexual intercourse, used in assessing the sex of sexual partners. Differences in understanding could affect interpretation of survey data in important ways. Development of valid measures of sexual orientation will be essential to better monitor health disparities.

  16. A high-resolution spectropolarimetric survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars - I. Observations and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Alecian, E; Catala, C; Grunhut, J H; Landstreet, J D; Bagnulo, S; Böhm, T; Folsom, C P; Marsden, S; Waite, I

    2012-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers in which we describe and report the analysis of a large survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars in circular spectropolarimetry. Using the ESPaDOnS and Narval high-resolution spectropolarimeters at the Canada-France-Hawaii and Bernard Lyot Telescopes, respectively, we have acquired 132 circularly-polarised spectra of 70 Herbig Ae/Be stars and Herbig candidates. The large majority of these spectra are characterised by a resolving power of about 65,000, and a spectral coverage from about 3700 ang to 1 micron. The peak SNR per CCD pixel ranges from below 100 (for the faintest targets) to over 1000 (for the brightest). The observations were acquired with the primary aim of searching for magnetic fields in these objects. However, our spectra are suitable for a variety of other important measurements, including rotational properties, variability, binarity, chemical abundances, circumstellar environment conditions and structure, etc. In this first paper, we describe the sample selection, ...

  17. Prospects for clustering and lensing measurements with forthcoming intensity mapping and optical surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Pourtsidou, Alkistis; Crittenden, Robert; Metcalf, R Benton

    2015-01-01

    We explore the potential of using intensity mapping surveys (MeerKAT, SKA) and optical galaxy surveys (DES, LSST) to detect HI clustering and weak gravitational lensing of 21cm emission in auto- and cross-correlation. Our forecasts show that high precision measurements of the clustering and lensing signals can be made in the near future using the intensity mapping technique. Such studies can be used to test the intensity mapping method, and constrain parameters such as the HI density $\\Omega_{\\rm HI}$, the HI bias $b_{\\rm HI}$ and the galaxy-HI correlation coefficient $r_{\\rm HI-g}$.

  18. Prospects for clustering and lensing measurements with forthcoming intensity mapping and optical surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtsidou, A.; Bacon, D.; Crittenden, R.; Metcalf, R. B.

    2016-06-01

    We explore the potential of using intensity mapping surveys (MeerKAT, SKA) and optical galaxy surveys (DES, LSST) to detect H I clustering and weak gravitational lensing of 21 cm emission in auto- and cross-correlation. Our forecasts show that high-precision measurements of the clustering and lensing signals can be made in the near future using the intensity mapping technique. Such studies can be used to test the intensity mapping method, and constrain parameters such as the H I density Ω _{H I}, the H I bias b_{H I} and the galaxy-H I correlation coefficient r_{H I-g}.

  19. Validation of the Crime and Violence Scale (CVS) against the Rasch Measurement Model Including Differences by Gender, Race, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Riley, Barth B.; Conrad, Karen M.; Chan, Ya-Fen; Dennis, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    In assessing criminality, researchers have used counts of crimes, arrests, and so on, because interval measures were not available. Additionally, crime seriousness varies depending on demographic factors. This study examined the Crime and Violence Scale (CVS) regarding psychometric quality using item response theory (IRT) and invariance of the…

  20. Taking the Pulse: Monitoring the Quality and Progress of Internationalization, Including Tracking Measures. CBIE Research Millennium Series No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Jane

    2000-01-01

    Internalization of higher education will be remembered as one of the major challenges and accomplishments of the last two decades. This paper introduces the concept of qualitative and quantitative tracking measures to enable a monitoring of progress and quality toward specified objects or targets. The purpose of this paper is: (1) to emphasize the…

  1. Geophysical Surveys of the San Andreas and Crystal Springs Reservoir System Including Seismic-Reflection Profiles and Swath Bathymetry, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, David P.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes geophysical data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in San Andreas Reservoir and Upper and Lower Crystal Springs Reservoirs, San Mateo County, California, as part of an effort to refine knowledge of the location of traces of the San Andreas Fault within the reservoir system and to provide improved reservoir bathymetry for estimates of reservoir water volume. The surveys were conducted by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the USGS for the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC). The data were acquired in three separate surveys: (1) in June 2007, personnel from WCMG completed a three-day survey of San Andreas Reservoir, collecting approximately 50 km of high-resolution Chirp subbottom seismic-reflection data; (2) in November 2007, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of San Andreas reservoir; and finally (3) in April 2008, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of both the upper and lower Crystal Springs Reservoir system. Top of PageFor more information, contact David Finlayson.

  2. Measuring self-rated social health of Iranians: a population based survey in three cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Background and objectives: Social health as third dimension of health, along with physical and mental health, has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. No other study, to our knowledge, has documented measuring individual-level social health in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians self-rated social health through conducting a survey in 3 cities of Iran. Methods: We conducted a survey using cross sectional method in three cities of Iran included people more than 18 years old. We use a random sample size of 800 people. The scale provides a total score of social health and three sub-scores. Total score was calculated by summing all 33 items, so the range was between 33 to 165, considering that higher score indicating better social health. Psychometric parameters of scale were acceptable. To interpret scores, respondents were categorized into five ordered groups as quintiles for amount of social health. To compare social health scores in different demographic groups multiple linear regression was employed to interpret association between demographic variables and social health score. Results: From a pool of 800 persons, 794 (99% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of self-rated social health score was 105.0 (95% confidence interval, 103.8 to 106.2. 50% of participants had medium level of social health. social health score was higher for those who live in Urmia as a small city in comparison with big cities- Tehran and Isfahan (P V< 0.001 and was lower for unemployed people (PV= 0.029. There was no association between social health score and other factors such as sex, age and educational level (PV>0.05 Conclusion:This study may be considered as the first step in evidence-based policy-making in the field of social health in Iran. Certainly, it is necessary to conduct more studies to measure social health and its

  3. Prediction of objectively measured physical activity and sedentariness among blue-collar workers using survey questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed at developing and evaluating statistical models predicting objectively measured occupational time spent sedentary or in physical activity from self-reported information available in large epidemiological studies and surveys. METHODS: Two-hundred-and-fourteen blue-collar workers...... responded to a questionnaire containing information about personal and work related variables, available in most large epidemiological studies and surveys. Workers also wore accelerometers for 1-4 days measuring time spent sedentary and in physical activity, defined as non-sedentary time. Least......-squares linear regression models were developed, predicting objectively measured exposures from selected predictors in the questionnaire. RESULTS: A full prediction model based on age, gender, body mass index, job group, self-reported occupational physical activity (OPA), and self-reported occupational sedentary...

  4. Ground level ice nuclei particle measurements including Saharan dust events at a Po Valley rural site (San Pietro Capofiume, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosi, F.; Rinaldi, M.; Decesari, S.; Tarozzi, L.; Nicosia, A.; Santachiara, G.

    2017-04-01

    Filter-collected aerosol samples in the PM1 and PM10 fractions and particle number concentration were measured during experimental campaigns in a rural area near Bologna (Italy) in the periods 10-21 February 2014 and 19-30 May 2014. Ice nuclei particle (INP) concentrations measured off-line showed prevalently higher average values in the morning with respect to the afternoon, in the PM1 fraction with respect to PM1-10 (with the exception of the first campaign, at Sw = 1.01), and at water saturation ratio Sw = 1.01 with respect to Sw = 0.96. The aerosol in the coarse size range (1-10 μm) contributed significantly to the total INP concentration. In the first campaign, the average INP concentration in the coarse fraction was 80% of the total in the morning and 74% in the afternoon, at Sw = 1.01. In the second campaign, the contribution of the coarse size fraction to the INP number concentration was lower. On the whole, the results showed that the freezing activity of aerosol diameters larger than 1 μm needs to be measured to obtain the entire INP population. Sahara dust events (SDEs) took place during both campaigns, in the periods 17-20 February and 21-23 May 2014. Results show that the averaged particle number concentration was higher during SDE than during no-Saharan dust events. A low correlation between INP and total aerosol number concentration was generally measured, except for SDEs observed in February, in which the correlation coefficient between aerosol concentration in the coarse fraction and INP in the same range, at water supersaturation, was about 0.8. Precipitation events influenced the aerosol concentration. In the February campaign, lower values of INP and particle concentrations were measured in case of heavy rain events. During the May campaign, an average number concentration of the aerosol in the range 0.5-10 μm was slightly higher than on days when no precipitation was measured, the rainfall intensity being low. Only in a few cases did we note

  5. Will Kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Measurements Enhance the Science Return from Galaxy Redshift Surveys?

    CERN Document Server

    Sugiyama, Naonori S; Spergel, David N

    2016-01-01

    Yes. Future CMB experiments such as Advanced ACTPol and CMB-S4 should achieve measurements with S/N of $> 0.1$ for the typical galaxies in redshift surveys. These measurements will provide complementary measurements of the growth rate of large scale structure $f$ and the expansion rate of the Universe $H$ to galaxy clustering measurements. This paper emphasizes that there is significant information in the anisotropy of the relative pairwise kSZ measurements. We expand the relative pairwise kSZ power spectrum in Legendre polynomials and consider up to its octopole. Assuming that the noise in the filtered maps is uncorrelated between the positions of galaxies in the survey, we derive a simple analytic form for the power spectrum covariance of the relative pairwise kSZ temperature in redshift space. While many previous studies have assumed optimistically that the optical depth of the galaxies $\\tau_{\\rm T}$ in the survey is known, we marginalize over $\\tau_{\\rm T}$, to compute constraints on the growth rate $f$ ...

  6. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods: Prospecti

  7. Quantification of β-region IgA monoclonal proteins - should we include immunochemical Hevylite® measurements? Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Josie A R; Jenner, Ellen L; Carr Smith, Hugh D; Berlanga, Oscar; Harding, Stephen J

    2016-06-01

    Accurate measurement of IgA monoclonal proteins presents a significant challenge to laboratory staff. IgA heavy/light chain (Hevylite, HLC) analysis is an alternative methodology for monoclonal protein assessment, giving an independent measure of IgAκ and IgAλ concentrations. Clonality is assessed by calculating the ratio of involved immunoglobulin to background uninvolved immunoglobulin concentrations (e.g. IgAκ/IgAλ in an IgAκ patient). Here we discuss the challenges faced by the laboratory in IgA monoclonal protein assessment, and compare the performance of Hevylite assays with electrophoresis and total IgA results. We present data which validates the use of Hevylite for response assessment: in most cases, Hevylite provides comparable response assignment to that provided by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and total IgA; in other cases Hevylite provides additional information, such as detection of residual disease or relapse.

  8. Comparing two survey methods of measuring health-related indicators: Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoke, Sarah C; Mwai, Paul; Jeffery, Caroline; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Two common methods used to measure indicators for health programme monitoring and evaluation are the demographic and health surveys (DHS) and lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS); each one has different strengths. We report on both methods when utilised in comparable situations. We compared 24 indicators in south-west Uganda, where data for prevalence estimations were collected independently for the two methods in 2011 (LQAS: n = 8876; DHS: n = 1200). Data were stratified (e.g. gender and age) resulting in 37 comparisons. We used a two-sample two-sided Z-test of proportions to compare both methods. The average difference between LQAS and DHS for 37 estimates was 0.062 (SD = 0.093; median = 0.039). The average difference among the 21 failures to reject equality of proportions was 0.010 (SD = 0.041; median = 0.009); among the 16 rejections, it was 0.130 (SD = 0.010, median = 0.118). Seven of the 16 rejections exhibited absolute differences of 0.10 and 0.20 (mean = 0.261, SD = 0.083). There is 75.7% agreement across the two surveys. Both methods yield regional results, but only LQAS provides information at less granular levels (e.g. the district level) where managerial action is taken. The cost advantage and localisation make LQAS feasible to conduct more frequently, and provides the possibility for real-time health outcomes monitoring. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Measuring galaxy [OII] emission line doublet with future ground-based wide-field spectroscopic surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Comparat, Johan; Bacon, Roland; Mostek, Nick J; Newman, Jeffrey A; Schlegel, David J; Yèche, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The next generation of wide-field spectroscopic redshift surveys will map the large-scale galaxy distribution in the redshift range 0.7< z<2 to measure baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). The primary optical signature used in this redshift range comes from the [OII] emission line doublet, which provides a unique redshift identification that can minimize confusion with other single emission lines. To derive the required spectrograph resolution for these redshift surveys, we simulate observations of the [OII] (3727,3729) doublet for various instrument resolutions, and line velocities. We foresee two strategies about the choice of the resolution for future spectrographs for BAO surveys. For bright [OII] emitter surveys ([OII] flux ~30.10^{-17} erg /cm2/s like SDSS-IV/eBOSS), a resolution of R~3300 allows the separation of 90 percent of the doublets. The impact of the sky lines on the completeness in redshift is less than 6 percent. For faint [OII] emitter surveys ([OII] flux ~10.10^{-17} erg /cm2/s like ...

  10. Measuring galaxy environment with the synergy of future photometric and spectroscopic surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Cucciati, O; Cimatti, A; Merson, A I; Norberg, P; Pozzetti, L; Baugh, C M; Branchini, E

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] We exploit the synergy between low-resolution spectroscopy and photometric redshifts to study environmental effects on galaxy evolution in slitless spectroscopic surveys from space. As a test case, we consider the future Euclid Deep survey (~40deg$^2$), which combines a slitless spectroscopic survey limited at H$\\alpha$ flux $\\leq5\\times 10^{-17}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ and a photometric survey limited in H-band ($H\\leq26$). To test the power of the method, we use Euclid-like galaxy mock catalogues, in which we anchor the photometric redshifts to the 3D galaxy distribution of the available spectroscopic redshifts. We then estimate the local density contrast by counting objects in cylindrical cells with radius ranging from 1 to 10 h$^{-1}$Mpc over the redshift range 0.9survey (H=26) but without redshift measurement errors. We find that our method is successful in separating hi...

  11. How useful is the DSM-5 severity indicator in bulimia nervosa? A clinical study including a measure of impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Luck, Amy; Cardy, Jessica; Staniford, Jessica

    2016-12-30

    The severity criterion used in DSM-5 for bulimia nervosa (BN) was investigated in 214 individuals referred for treatment at a regional eating disorders service in the UK. In addition to comparing eating disorder symptoms, impairment secondary to these symptoms was also assessed. According to guidance in DSM-5, 94 individuals were classified as mild (43.9%), 70 as moderate (32.7%), 32 as severe (15.0%), and 8 as extreme (3.7%) levels of BN severity. Due to small numbers in the latter two groups, it was necessary to combine these to form one 'severe/extreme' group. Analyses on these three groups suggested no group effect on demographic variables but differences were seen on measures of eating pathology, psychological distress, and psychosocial impairment between the mild group and other groups. Individuals in the moderate and severe/extreme groups scored comparably on most measures of pathology and impairment. The results are broadly consistent with past studies on community samples although together question the demarcation between moderate and more severe groups of individuals with BN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantification of β region IgA paraproteins - should we include immunochemical "heavy/light chain" measurements? Counterpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), serum immunofixation (s-IFE), free light chain measurement (FLC) and nephelometric measurements of total immunoglobulin in serum (IgTot) are some of the laboratory tests required for the management of plasma cell proliferative disorders. The monoclonal protein is usually visible on SPE as a spike (M-spike) in the γ region and the derived densitogram is used to quantify it relative to serum total protein concentration. IgA M-protein, however, often migrates in the β region on SPE and its quantification can be masked by other serum proteins that migrate in this region. The immunoassay Hevylite™ (heavy/light chain, HLC) seems to solve this problem: it quantifies the involved/uninvolved isotype, calculating the ratio IgAκ/IgAλ, considered indicative of clonal proliferation. However, this test seems redundant in the case of artifacts on SPE such as obvious hemolysis or lipemia, or if the IgA M-spike is clearly visible in the β region. In conclusion whereas the IgA HLC assay does not represent an alternative to SPE and s-IFE in the diagnostic patient workup, it may prove to be an alternative to SPE, s-IFE and total IgA quantification in risk stratification and evaluation of response to therapy in patients affected by MM and other monoclonal plasma proliferative disorders.

  13. An avifaunal survey of the Istranca mountains, turkish thrace: novel breeding bird records including the first breeding record of Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkan, Korhan

    2011-01-01

    A breeding bird survey in the Istranca (Yıldız) mountains of Turkish Thrace seawards to the Black sea was conducted May–August 2009. Eighty-eight days of field work in 697 locations generated novel breeding evidence for several species. The survey provided the first certain evidence of Wood Warbler...... in the study area. Moreover, breeding evidence was gathered for Garden Warbler Sylvia borin, Baillon’s Crake Porzana pusilla, Stock Dove Columba oenas, Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina and Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus for the first time in Turkish Thrace. Furthermore, the survey provided some...... cinclus, Sardinian Warbler Sylvia melanocephala, Barred Warbler Sylvia nisoria and Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva, which require further research on their breeding distributions in the study area....

  14. A method of measuring the [α/Fe] ratios from the spectra of the LAMOST survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Han, Chen; Xiang, Mao-Sheng; Shi, Jian-Rong; Zhao, Jing-Kun; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Ci, Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Yue-Xiang; Huang, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yong-Hui; Wang, Yue-Fei; Cao, Zi-Huang

    2016-07-01

    The [α/Fe] ratios in stars are good tracers to probe the formation history of stellar populations and the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The spectroscopic survey of LAMOST provides a good opportunity to determine [α/Fe] of millions of stars in the Galaxy. We present a method of measuring the [α/Fe] ratios from LAMOST spectra using the template-matching technique of the LSP3 pipeline. We use three test samples of stars selected from the ELODIE and MILES libraries, as well as the LEGUE survey to validate our method. Based on the test results, we conclude that our method is valid for measuring [α/Fe] from low-resolution spectra acquired by the LAMOST survey. Within the range of the stellar parameters T eff = [5000, 7500] K, log g = [1.0, 5.0] dex and [Fe/H]= [-1.5, +0.5] dex, our [α/Fe] measurements are consistent with values derived from high-resolution spectra, and the accuracy of our [α/Fe] measurements from LAMOST spectra is better than 0.1 dex with spectral signal-to-noise higher than 20.

  15. Measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T blood concentration in population surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jennifer S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The blood test for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (HS-CTnT) has been proposed as a marker of cardiovascular risk in the general population, as it is associated with subsequent incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. We aimed at evaluating the feasibility of HS-CTnT testing within large nationally-representative population surveys in which blood samples are collected during household visits, shipped using the standard civil postal service, and then frozen for subsequent analyses. Methods The Health Survey for England (HSE) consists of a series of annual surveys beginning in 1991. It is designed to provide regular information on various aspects of the nation’s health and risk factors. We measured HS-CTnT in the blood of 200 people from the HSE 2016 wave, then froze and stored their blood samples at -40°C for 5–10 weeks, and then thawed and retested them to appreciate the extent of within-person agreement or test-retest reliability of the two measurements. Results The Cronbach's Alpha (Scale Reliability Coefficient) and the Interclass Correlation Coefficient (two-way mixed-effects model for consistency of agreement at individual level) were 0.97 (95%CI = 0.96–0.99) and 0.95 (95%CI = 0.94–0.96) respectively. The time delay from blood withdrawal to analysis and storage (1–4 days) did not affect the results, nor did the freezing time before the retest (5–10 weeks). Conclusion The measurement of HS-CTnT plasma concentration within large nationally-representative surveys such as the Health Survey for England is feasible. PMID:28141863

  16. A survey of nematodes of the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777 (Nematoda, Seuratoidea) parasitic in marine fishes off Brazil, including description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Pereira, Felipe B; Pantoja, Camila; Soares, Iris A; Pereira, Aldenice N; Timi, Juan T; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-11-05

    A taxonomic survey of six nematode species (including three new taxa) from the genus Cucullanus Müller, 1777, parasites of marine fishes off the Brazilian coast, is provided. Nematodes were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cucullanus gastrophysi n. sp. parasitic in Lophius gastrophysus Miranda Ribeiro differs from its congeners by the combination of the following features: shape and number of sclerotized structures in the oesophastome (a pair of lateral elongate structures and a single small reniform one), position of deirids and excretory pore (both anterior to oesophagus base), spicule length and spicule/body length ratio (0.97-1.29 mm and 6.5-10.5%, respectively), morphology and length of gubernaculum (V-shaped, 107-135 µm long). Cucullanus protrudens n. sp. from Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus) has the cloacal lips broadly protruded, which differentiates it from several species of Cucullanus; other features, e.g., the length of spicules and gubernaculum (400-415 µm and 91-103 µm, respectively), arrangement of caudal papillae and position of excretory pore (slightly posterior to oesophagus-intestine junction) also characterize this species. Cucullanus pseudopercis n. sp. from Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier) has deirids and excretory pore posterior to the oesophagus-intestine junction, which distinguishes the species from most of the congeners; furthermore, the arrangement of caudal papillae in combination with the length of spicules and gubernaculum (1.0-1.5 mm and 178-196 µm, respectively) separate this species from other taxa. Newly collected specimens of C. cirratus Müller, 1777 (type species of the genus) from Urophycis brasiliensis (Kaup), C. pedroi from Conger orbignianus Valenciennes (type host of the species) and C. genypteri Sardella, Navone & Timi, 1997 from Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, were studied as well. Comparisons between newly collected samples and the taxonomic data available for each respective species revealed

  17. Pitfalls with weight for height measurements in surveys of acute malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeters, R

    1986-10-01

    A combined survey of weight for height measurement was done by 2 emergency aid organizations. The same 131 children were measured independently by 2 survey teams. 1 team measured 24.4% and the other team 47.7% of the 131 children as under 80% weight/height. The serious logistical consequences of these differences for the emergency aid program are discussed. The main cause of the difference was observer error. A reason for systematic bias could be that an observer using the Nabarro chart tends to classify children who are slightly above 80% as under 80%. This bias is understandable because one does not want to miss out malnourished children. This systematic bias does not occur when weight and height are measured separately and the % read from a card. The importance of following a strict protocol when measuring is stressed. Another less important cause for the different results was that the teams used 2 weight for height standards. The use of 2 standards in the same Oxfam kit is unfortunate. It would be better to choose 1 uniform standard, to avoid misinterpretations. The Nabarro chart is the quickest method for weight/height measurement, but is prone to observer error. The method in which weight and height are measured separately and the % read from a chart is more reliable. A plea is made for the use of uniform standards.

  18. The master equation for the reduced open-system dynamics, including a Lindbladian description of finite-duration measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Brasil, Carlos Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    The most general form for the generator of quantum dynamical semigroups is the one proposed by Lindblad, which can be used in several approaches involving quantum mechanics for open systems, from analysis of noise and dissipation to fundamental aspects of the quantum theory of measurement. When dealing with a system interacting with its environment, the trace of the environmental degrees of freedom using the traditional approach of exponentiation of the Hamiltonian terms, originates prohibitive and difficult calculations. This paper presents an alternative analytic method to derive, through superoperator algebra and Nakajima-Zwanzig thermodynamic projectors, a compact and fairly simple master equation describing the reduced system dynamics. As a simple example of the present approach, we analyze a two-level system in contact with an environment, which allows us to observe the decoherence intensification by the interaction.

  19. Measurement of uptake rates of internal organs including thyroid gland and daily urinary excretion rates for adult Korean males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Whang, Joo Ho [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Geun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    In this study, uptake rates of internal organs and daily urinary excretion rates were measured to get more reliable estimation results for Korean. Radioactive iodine({sup 131}I) of 100{mu}Ci was administered by ingestion to 28 adult males for the experiment and then the radioactivity in thyroid gland, liver, stomach, small intestine, kidneys, and urine was measured after time intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours. Uptake rates of each organ and daily urinary excretion rates were calculated on the basis of these experimental results. As a result, uptake rates of 19.70% for thyroid and daily urinary excretion rates of 71.12%, on the average, were indicated. The maximum of uptake rates and daily urinary excretion rates were recorded after 2 hours of administration of {sup 131}I, but those rates were decreased gradually later. It was also found that uptake rates were the highest in stomach, followed by the left kidney, liver, small intestine and right kidney except for thyroid gland. In this experiment, the calculated uptake change rate in thyroid gland after 24 hours of administration of {sup 131}I was different from that of ICRP-54/67(30%) and ICRP-78(25%). Thus, it is necessary to apply more reliable approach, reflecting the characteristic of Korean physiology and to obtain the basic data of results using this approach for calculation of the internal adsorbed dose. In the future, this approach can be helpful for the internal dose assessment of radiation workers in a nuclear power plant or in a hospital.

  20. Activation cross-section measurement of a sort of nuclide produced with a target including two isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng-Qun; TIAN Ming-Li; SONG Yue-Li; LAN Chang-Lin; KONG Xiang-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Based on a formula used to calculate the activation cross-section sum of two reactions producing a sort of nuclide with a target including two isotopes,the related problems in some references have been analyzed and discussed.It is pointed out that the calculation methods of the cross-section sum of two reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for two isotopes in some references are improper and usually it is impossible to obtain the correct cross-section sum of two reactions producing the same radioactive nuclide for two isotopes in the case of using natural samples.At the same time,the related concepts are clarified and the correct processing method and representation are given.The comparison with the experimental results show that the theoretical analysis results are right.

  1. Measuring the velocity field from type Ia supernovae in an LSST-like sky survey

    CERN Document Server

    Odderskov, Io

    2016-01-01

    With the upcoming sky survey with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope a great sample of type Ia supernovae will be observed, allowing for a precise mapping of the velocity structure of the universe. Since the source of peculiar velocities is variations in the density field, cosmological parameters related to the matter distribution can subsequently be extracted from the velocity power spectrum. One way to quantify this is through the angular power spectrum of radial peculiar velocities on spheres at different redshifts. We investigate how well this observable can be measured, despite the problems caused by areas with no information. To obtain a realistic distribution of supernovae, we create mock supernova catalogs by using a semi-analytical code for galaxy formation on the merger trees extracted from N-body simulations. We measure the cosmic variance in the velocity power spectrum by repeating the procedure many times for differently located observers, and vary different aspects of the analysis, such as the ...

  2. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  3. Snow measurement system for airborne snow surveys (GPR system from helicopter) in high mountian areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorteberg, Hilleborg K.

    2010-05-01

    In the hydropower industry, it is important to have precise information about snow deposits at all times, to allow for effective planning and optimal use of the water. In Norway, it is common to measure snow density using a manual method, i.e. the depth and weight of the snow is measured. In recent years, radar measurements have been taken from snowmobiles; however, few energy supply companies use this method operatively - it has mostly been used in connection with research projects. Agder Energi is the first Norwegian power producer in using radar tecnology from helicopter in monitoring mountain snow levels. Measurement accuracy is crucial when obtaining input data for snow reservoir estimates. Radar screening by helicopter makes remote areas more easily accessible and provides larger quantities of data than traditional ground level measurement methods. In order to draw up a snow survey system, it is assumed as a basis that the snow distribution is influenced by vegetation, climate and topography. In order to take these factors into consideration, a snow survey system for fields in high mountain areas has been designed in which the data collection is carried out by following the lines of a grid system. The lines of this grid system is placed in order to effectively capture the distribution of elevation, x-coordinates, y-coordinates, aspect, slope and curvature in the field. Variation in climatic conditions are also captured better when using a grid, and dominant weather patterns will largely be captured in this measurement system.

  4. Measuring galaxy environment with the synergy of future photometric and spectroscopic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciati, O.; Marulli, F.; Cimatti, A.; Merson, A. I.; Norberg, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Baugh, C. M.; Branchini, E.

    2016-10-01

    We exploit the synergy between low-resolution spectroscopy and photometric redshifts to study environmental effects on galaxy evolution in slitless spectroscopic surveys from space. As a test case, we consider the future Euclid Deep survey (˜40 deg2), which combines a slitless spectroscopic survey limited at Hα flux ≥5 × 10-17 erg cm-2 s-1 and a photometric survey limited in H band (H ≤ 26). We use Euclid-like galaxy mock catalogues, in which we anchor the photometric redshifts to the 3D galaxy distribution of the available spectroscopic redshifts. We then estimate the local density contrast by counting objects in cylindrical cells with radius from 1 to 10 h-1Mpc, over the redshift range 0.9 < z < 1.8. We compare this density field with the one computed in a mock catalogue with the same depth as the Euclid Deep survey (H = 26) but without redshift measurement errors. We find that our method successfully separates high- from low-density environments (the last from the first quintile of the density distribution), with higher efficiency at low redshift and large cells: the fraction of low-density regions mistaken by high-density peaks is <1 per cent for all scales and redshifts explored, but for scales of 1 h-1Mpc for which is a few per cent. These results show that we can efficiently study environment in photometric samples if spectroscopic information is available for a smaller sample of objects that sparsely samples the same volume. We demonstrate that these studies are possible in the Euclid Deep survey, i.e. in a redshift range in which environmental effects are different from those observed in the local Universe, hence providing new constraints for galaxy evolution models.

  5. A measurement of secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies from the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey

    CERN Document Server

    George, E M; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H-M; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Dudley, J; Halverson, N W; Harrington, N L; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hou, Z; Hrubes, J D; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Millea, M; Mocanu, L M; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K T; van Engelen, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Williamson, R; Zahn, O

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) covering the complete 2540 sq.deg. SPT-SZ survey area. Data in the three SPT-SZ frequency bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, are used to produce six angular power spectra (three single-frequency auto-spectra and three cross-spectra) covering the multipole range 2000 \\theta > 1'). These are the most precise measurements of the angular power spectra at ell > 2500 at these frequencies. The main contributors to the power spectra at these angular scales and frequencies are the primary CMB, CIB, thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (tSZ and kSZ), and radio galaxies. We include a constraint on the tSZ power from a measurement of the tSZ bispectrum from 800 sq.deg. of the SPT-SZ survey. We measure the tSZ power at 143 GHz to be DtSZ = 4.08 +0.58 -0.67 \\mu K^2 and the kSZ power to be DkSZ = 2.9 +- 1.3 \\mu K^2. The data pre...

  6. Can I Just Check...? Effects of Edit Check Questions on Measurement Error and Survey Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugtig Peter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Household income is difficult to measure, since it requires the collection of information about all potential income sources for each member of a household.Weassess the effects of two types of edit check questions on measurement error and survey estimates: within-wave edit checks use responses to questions earlier in the same interview to query apparent inconsistencies in responses; dependent interviewing uses responses from prior interviews to query apparent inconsistencies over time.Weuse data from three waves of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS to assess the effects of edit checks on estimates, and data from an experimental study carried out in the context of the BHPS, where survey responses were linked to individual administrative records, to assess the effects on measurement error. The findings suggest that interviewing methods without edit checks underestimate non-labour household income in the lower tail of the income distribution. The effects on estimates derived from total household income, such as poverty rates or transition rates into and out of poverty, are small.

  7. Probing primordial non-Gaussianity via iSW measurements with SKA continuum surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Doré, Olivier, E-mail: alvise@jhu.edu, E-mail: olivier.dore@caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Bacon, David J.; Maartens, Roy, E-mail: David.Bacon@port.ac.uk, E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth P01 3FX (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-01-01

    The Planck CMB experiment has delivered the best constraints so far on primordial non-Gaussianity, ruling out early-Universe models of inflation that generate large non-Gaussianity. Although small improvements in the CMB constraints are expected, the next frontier of precision will come from future large-scale surveys of the galaxy distribution. The advantage of such surveys is that they can measure many more modes than the CMB—in particular, forthcoming radio surveys with the Square Kilometre Array will cover huge volumes. Radio continuum surveys deliver the largest volumes, but with the disadvantage of no redshift information. In order to mitigate this, we use two additional observables. First, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect—the cross-correlation of the radio number counts with the CMB temperature anisotropies—helps to reduce systematics on the large scales that are sensitive to non-Gaussianity. Second, optical data allows for cross-identification in order to gain some redshift information. We show that, while the single redshift bin case can provide a σ(f{sub NL}) ∼ 20, and is therefore not competitive with current and future constraints on non-Gaussianity, a tomographic analysis could improve the constraints by an order of magnitude, even with only two redshift bins. A huge improvement is provided by the addition of high-redshift sources, so having cross-ID for high-z galaxies and an even higher-z radio tail is key to enabling very precise measurements of f{sub NL}. We use Fisher matrix forecasts to predict the constraining power in the case of no redshift information and the case where cross-ID allows a tomographic analysis, and we show that the constraints do not improve much with 3 or more bins. Our results show that SKA continuum surveys could provide constraints competitive with CMB and forthcoming optical surveys, potentially allowing a measurement of σ(f{sub NL}) ∼ 1 to be made. Moreover, these measurements would act as a useful check

  8. Semiquantitative RT-PCR measurement of gene expression in rat tissues including a correction for varying cell size and number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Montserrat

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current methodology of gene expression analysis limits the possibilities of comparison between cells/tissues of organs in which cell size and/or number changes as a consequence of the study (e.g. starvation. A method relating the abundance of specific mRNA copies per cell may allow direct comparison or different organs and/or changing physiological conditions. Methods With a number of selected genes, we analysed the relationship of the number of bases and the fluorescence recorded at a present level using cDNA standards. A lineal relationship was found between the final number of bases and the length of the transcript. The constants of this equation and those of the relationship between fluorescence and number of bases in cDNA were determined and a general equation linking the length of the transcript and the initial number of copies of mRNA was deduced for a given pre-established fluorescence setting. This allowed the calculation of the concentration of the corresponding mRNAs per g of tissue. The inclusion of tissue RNA and the DNA content per cell, allowed the calculation of the mRNA copies per cell. Results The application of this procedure to six genes: Arbp, cyclophilin, ChREBP, T4 deiodinase 2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and IRS-1, in liver and retroperitoneal adipose tissue of food-restricted rats allowed precise measures of their changes irrespective of the shrinking of the tissue, the loss of cells or changes in cell size, factors that deeply complicate the comparison between changing tissue conditions. The percentage results obtained with the present methods were essentially the same obtained with the delta-delta procedure and with individual cDNA standard curve quantitative RT-PCR estimation. Conclusion The method presented allows the comparison (i.e. as copies of mRNA per cell between different genes and tissues, establishing the degree of abundance of the different molecular species tested.

  9. The MOSDEF Survey: First Measurement of Nebular Oxygen Abundance at z > 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Alice E.; Sanders, Ryan L.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Kriek, Mariska; Freeman, William R.; Mobasher, Bahram; Siana, Brian; Coil, Alison L.; Leung, Gene C. K.; deGroot, Laura; Shivaei, Irene; Price, Sedona H.; Azadi, Mojegan; Aird, James

    2017-09-01

    We present the first spectroscopic measurement of multiple rest-frame optical emission lines at z > 4. During the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey, we observed the galaxy GOODSN-17940 with the Keck I/MOSFIRE spectrograph. The K-band spectrum of GOODSN-17940 includes significant detections of the [O ii]λλ3726,3729, [Ne iii]λ3869, and Hγ emission lines and a tentative detection of Hδ, indicating z spec = 4.4121. GOODSN-17940 is an actively star-forming z > 4 galaxy based on its K-band spectrum and broadband spectral energy distribution. A significant excess relative to the surrounding continuum is present in the Spitzer/IRAC channel 1 photometry of GOODSN-17940, due primarily to strong Hα emission with a rest-frame equivalent width of EW(Hα) = 1200 Å. Based on the assumption of 0.5 Z ⊙ models and the Calzetti attenuation curve, GOODSN-17940 is characterized by {M}* ={5.0}-0.2+4.3× {10}9 {M}ȯ . The Balmer decrement inferred from Hα/Hγ is used to dust correct the Hα emission, yielding {{SFR(H}}α )={320}-140+190 {M}ȯ {{{yr}}}-1. These M * and star formation rate (SFR) values place GOODSN-17940 an order of magnitude in SFR above the z ∼ 4 star-forming “main sequence.” Finally, we use the observed ratio of [Ne iii]/[O ii] to estimate the nebular oxygen abundance in GOODSN-17940, finding O/H ∼ 0.2 (O/H)⊙. Combining our new [Ne iii]/[O ii] measurement with those from stacked spectra at z ∼ 0, 2, and 3, we show that GOODSN-17940 represents an extension to z > 4 of the evolution toward higher [Ne iii]/[O ii] (i.e., lower O/H) at fixed stellar mass. It will be possible to perform the measurements presented here out to z ∼ 10 using the James Webb Space Telescope. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was made possible by the generous financial support

  10. Tutorial on technology transfer and survey design and data collection for measuring Internet and Intranet existence, usage, and impact (survey-2000) in acute care hospitals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, M

    2001-02-01

    This paper provides a tutorial of technology transfer for management information systems in health care. Additionally it describes the process for a national survey of acute care hospitals using a random sample of 813 hospitals. The purpose of the survey was to measure the levels of Internet and Intranet existence and usage in acute care hospitals. The depth of the survey includes e-commerce for both business to business and with customers. The relationships with systems approaches, user involvement, user satisfaction and decision-making will be studied. Changes with results of a prior survey conducted in 1997 can be studied and enabling and inhabiting factors identified. This information will provide benchmarks for hospitals to plan their network technology position and to set goals.

  11. Overview of hydro-acoustic current-measurement applications by the U.S. geological survey in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, Scott E.; Stewart, James A.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains a network of 170 streamflow-gaging stations in Indiana to collect data from which continuous records of river discharges are produced. Traditionally, the discharge record from a station is produced by recording river stage and making periodic discharge measurements through a range of stage, then developing a relation between stage and discharge. Techniques that promise to increase data collection accuracy and efficiency include the use of hydro-acoustic instrumentation to measure river velocities. The velocity measurements are used to compute river discharge. In-situ applications of hydro-acoustic instruments by the USGS in Indiana include acoustic velocity meters (AVM's) at six streamflow-gaging stations and newly developed Doppler velocity meters (DVM's) at two stations. AVM's use reciprocal travel times of acoustic signals to measure average water velocities along acoustic paths, whereas DVM's use the Doppler shift of backscattered acoustic signals to compute water velocities. In addition to the in-situ applications, three acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP's) are used to make river-discharge measurements from moving boats at streamflow-gaging stations in Indiana. The USGS has designed and is testing an innovative unmanned platform from which to make ADCP discharge measurements.

  12. Probing primordial non-Gaussianity via iSW measurements with SKA continuum surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Bacon, David J; Maartens, Roy; Santos, Mario G; Camera, Stefano; Davis, Tamara; Drinkwater, Michael J; Jarvis, Matt; Norris, Ray; Parkinson, David

    2014-01-01

    The Planck CMB experiment has delivered the best constraints so far on primordial non-Gaussianity, ruling out early-Universe models of inflation that generate large non-Gaussianity. Although small improvements in the CMB constraints are expected, the next frontier of precision will come from future large-scale surveys of the galaxy distribution. The advantage of such surveys is that they can measure many more modes than the CMB -- in particular, forthcoming radio surveys with the SKA will cover huge volumes. Radio continuum surveys deliver the largest volumes, but with the disadvantage of no redshift information. In order to mitigate this, we use two additional observables. First, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect -- the cross-correlation of the radio number counts with the CMB temperature anisotropies -- helps to reduce systematics on the large scales that are sensitive to non-Gaussianity. Second, optical data allows for cross-identification in order to gain some redshift information. We show that, while the...

  13. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antarctica is the planet's fifth largest continent [13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2)]; it contains the Earth's largest (of two) remaining ice sheets; it is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. This report is the introduction to a series that covers 60 years of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientific activity in Antarctica. It will concentrate primarily on three major topics:

  14. A malacological survey in the Manso Power Plant, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil: new records of freshwater snails, including transmitters of schistosomiasis and exotic species

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Ammon Fernandez; Aline Carvalho de Mattos; Elizangela Feitosa da Silva; Sonia Barbosa dos Santos; Silvana Carvalho Thiengo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of public health concern in Brazil, and the construction of hydroelectric dams, in addition to increasing permanent human settlement and tourism, has created conditions suitable for the establishment of mollusks that can transmit schistosomiasis. Such areas require a number of actions to prevent the establishment of schistosomiasis. This paper reports on a freshwater malacological survey carried out in the geographical area of the Manso Powe...

  15. Laser Scanning in Engineering Surveying: Methods of Measurement and Modeling of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenda Grzegorz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the uses of laser scanning in the field of engineering surveying. It is currently one of the main trends of research which is developed at the Department of Engineering Surveying and Civil Engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering of AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. They mainly relate to the issues associated with tower and shell structures, infrastructure of rail routes, or development of digital elevation models for a wide range of applications. These issues often require the use of a variety of scanning techniques (stationary, mobile, but the differences also regard the planning of measurement stations and methods of merging point clouds. Significant differences appear during the analysis of point clouds, especially when modeling objects. Analysis of the selected parameters is already possible basing on ad hoc measurements carried out on a point cloud. However, only the construction of three-dimensional models provides complete information about the shape of structures, allows to perform the analysis in any place and reduces the amount of the stored data. Some structures can be modeled in the form of simple axes, sections, or solids, for others it becomes necessary to create sophisticated models of surfaces, depicting local deformations. The examples selected for the study allow to assess the scope of measurement and office work for a variety of uses related to the issue set forth in the title of this study. Additionally, the latest, forward-looking technology was presented - laser scanning performed from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (drones. Currently, it is basically in the prototype phase, but it might be expected to make a significant progress in numerous applications in the field of engineering surveying.

  16. Laser Scanning in Engineering Surveying: Methods of Measurement and Modeling of Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenda, Grzegorz; Uznański, Andrzej; Strach, Michał; Lewińska, Paulina

    2016-06-01

    The study is devoted to the uses of laser scanning in the field of engineering surveying. It is currently one of the main trends of research which is developed at the Department of Engineering Surveying and Civil Engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering of AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. They mainly relate to the issues associated with tower and shell structures, infrastructure of rail routes, or development of digital elevation models for a wide range of applications. These issues often require the use of a variety of scanning techniques (stationary, mobile), but the differences also regard the planning of measurement stations and methods of merging point clouds. Significant differences appear during the analysis of point clouds, especially when modeling objects. Analysis of the selected parameters is already possible basing on ad hoc measurements carried out on a point cloud. However, only the construction of three-dimensional models provides complete information about the shape of structures, allows to perform the analysis in any place and reduces the amount of the stored data. Some structures can be modeled in the form of simple axes, sections, or solids, for others it becomes necessary to create sophisticated models of surfaces, depicting local deformations. The examples selected for the study allow to assess the scope of measurement and office work for a variety of uses related to the issue set forth in the title of this study. Additionally, the latest, forward-looking technology was presented - laser scanning performed from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (drones). Currently, it is basically in the prototype phase, but it might be expected to make a significant progress in numerous applications in the field of engineering surveying.

  17. The Deaf Mentoring Survey: A Community Cultural Wealth Framework for Measuring Mentoring Effectiveness with Underrepresented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Derek C.; Gormally, Cara; Clark, M. Diane

    2017-01-01

    Disabled individuals, women, and individuals from cultural/ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Research has shown that mentoring improves retention for underrepresented individuals. However, existing mentoring surveys were developed to assess the majority population, not underrepresented individuals. We describe the development of a next-generation mentoring survey built upon capital theory and critical race theory. It emphasizes community cultural wealth, thought to be instrumental to the success of individuals from minority communities. Our survey targets relationships between deaf mentees and their research mentors and includes Deaf community cultural wealth. From our results, we identified four segregating factors: Being a Scientist, which incorporated the traditional capitals; Deaf Community Capital; Asking for Accommodations; and Communication Access. Being a Scientist scores did not vary among the mentor and mentee variables that we tested. However, Deaf Community Capital, Asking for Accommodations, and Communication Access were highest when a deaf mentee was paired with a mentor who was either deaf or familiar with the Deaf community, indicating that cultural competency training should improve these aspects of mentoring for deaf mentees. This theoretical framework and survey will be useful for assessing mentoring relationships with deaf students and could be adapted for other underrepresented groups. PMID:28188283

  18. Development of measurement apparatus for high resolution electrical surveys; Komitsudo denki tansa sokuteiki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriuchi, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Shiokawa, Y. [Sumiko Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchino, Y. [Cosmic Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    For the enforcement of the {rho}a-{rho}u survey method which is a type of high-density electrical survey, a multichannel resistivity measuring instrument has been developed. This instrument, in addition to the above, conducts resistivity tomography and various other kinds of high-density electrical survey. A potential produced by a low frequency rectangular current of 1Hz or lower outputted by the transmitter of this instrument is received and measured by the receiver connected to electrodes positioned at 100 or less locations. The receiver comprises a scanner that automatically switches from electrode to electrode, conditioner that processes signals, and controller. A transmitter of the standard design outputs a maximum voltage of 800V and maximum current of 2A, making a device suitable for probing 50 to several 100m-deep levels. The receiver is operated by a personal computer that the controller is provided with. The newly-developed apparatus succeeded in presenting high-precision images of the result of a {rho}a-{rho}u analysis for an apparent resistivity section and of the underground structure, verifying the high quality of the data collected by this apparatus. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Detection, size, measurement and structural analysis limits for the 2MASS, UKIDSS-LAS & VISTA VIKING surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Stephen K; Driver, Simon P; Robotham, Aaron S G

    2013-01-01

    The 2MASS, UKIDSS-LAS and VISTA VIKING surveys have all now observed the GAMA 9hr region in the $K_s$ band. Here we compare the detection rates, photometry, basic size measurements, and single-component GALFIT structural measurements for a sample of 37,591 galaxies. We explore the sensitivity limits where the data agree for a variety of issues including: detection, star-galaxy separation, photometric measurements, size and ellipticity measurements, and S\\'{e}rsic measurements. We find that 2MASS fails to detect at least 20% of the galaxy population within all magnitude bins, however for those that are detected we find photometry is robust ($\\pm$ 0.2 mag) to 14.7 AB mag and star-galaxy separation to 14.8 AB mag. For UKIDSS-LAS we find incompleteness starts to enter at a flux limit of 18.9 AB mag, star-galaxy separation is robust to 16.3 AB mag and structural measurements are robust to 17.7 AB mag. VISTA VIKING data is complete to approximately 20.0 AB mag and structural measurements appear robust to 18.8 AB ma...

  20. Rapid Survey For Measuring The Level And Causes Of Maternal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of problem of maternal mortality in a given population? Objective: 1. To evolve a rapid survey methodology aimed at measuring maternal mortality ratio. 2. To find out the probable medical causes of maternal deaths and behavioural factors associated with them. Study Design: cross- sectional. Setting: Urban and rural areas of district Mohindergarh, Haryana. Participants: Members of families in which a maternal death had taken place in last 12 months. Sample size: All 275 deaths among women 15-44 years occurring in the district from 1st April 95 to 31st March 96. Study variables: Age, gravida, parity, literacy, caste, land holding, health care facilities, distance from health centers, mode of conveyance. Statistical Analysis: Rates and ratios. Results: Maternal mortality ratio was estimated to be 275 per 100,000 live births (298 rural and 82 urban. Major causes of death were â€" sepsis(30%, haemorrhage (21%, abortion(5%, eclampsia (3% and obstructed labour(3%. Twenty-nine causes of deaths occurred at home and 26% on way to hospital. Out of 59(93.7% cases who could avail medical consultation, 61% arranged it within five hours after onset of symptoms, and 78% availed two, 21% three, and 11% four consulations. The survey was completed in three months at a cost of Rs. 54,000. Recommendations: Such rapid surveys should be carried out periodically (every 4-5 years to monitor the progress in maternal health. Staff of heath deptt. Should be involved in carrying out these surveys. This will not only help in reducing cost of the survey but information about specific problems of maternal mortality in the area can be utilized by health staff for taking appropriate action to improve maternal health care.

  1. Reliability, precision, and measurement in the context of data from ability tests, surveys, and assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, W P Jr [LivingCapitalMetrics.com 5252 Annunciation St, New Orleans, Louisiana 70115 (United States); Elbaum, B [University of Miami, Florida (United States); Coulter, A, E-mail: william@livingcapitalmetrics.co, E-mail: elbaum@miami.ed, E-mail: acoulter@lsuhsc.ed [Louisiana State University, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Reliability coefficients indicate the proportion of total variance attributable to differences among measures separated along a quantitative continuum by a testing, survey, or assessment instrument. Reliability is usually considered to be influenced by both the internal consistency of a data set and the number of items, though textbooks and research papers rarely evaluate the extent to which these factors independently affect the data in question. Probabilistic formulations of the requirements for unidimensional measurement separate consistency from error by modelling individual response processes instead of group-level variation. The utility of this separation is illustrated via analyses of small sets of simulated data, and of subsets of data from a 78-item survey of over 2,500 parents of children with disabilities. Measurement reliability ultimately concerns the structural invariance specified in models requiring sufficient statistics, parameter separation, unidimensionality, and other qualities that historically have made quantification simple, practical, and convenient for end users. The paper concludes with suggestions for a research program aimed at focusing measurement research more on the calibration and wide dissemination of tools applicable to individuals, and less on the statistical study of inter-variable relations in large data sets.

  2. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, Cobus M.; Yilmaz, Neriman; Renaud, Justin B.

    2017-01-01

    Xerophilic fungi grow at low water activity or low equilibrium relative humidity and are an important part of the indoor fungal community, of which Aspergillus is one of the dominant genera. A survey of xerophilic fungi isolated from Canadian and Hawaiian house dust resulted in the isolation...... of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called Eurotium) was one of the most predominant groups from house dust with nine species identified...

  3. A survey tool for measuring evidence-based decision making capacity in public health agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Julie A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While increasing attention is placed on using evidence-based decision making (EBDM to improve public health, there is little research assessing the current EBDM capacity of the public health workforce. Public health agencies serve a wide range of populations with varying levels of resources. Our survey tool allows an individual agency to collect data that reflects its unique workforce. Methods Health department leaders and academic researchers collaboratively developed and conducted cross-sectional surveys in Kansas and Mississippi (USA to assess EBDM capacity. Surveys were delivered to state- and local-level practitioners and community partners working in chronic disease control and prevention. The core component of the surveys was adopted from a previously tested instrument and measured gaps (importance versus availability in competencies for EBDM in chronic disease. Other survey questions addressed expectations and incentives for using EBDM, self-efficacy in three EBDM skills, and estimates of EBDM within the agency. Results In both states, participants identified communication with policymakers, use of economic evaluation, and translation of research to practice as top competency gaps. Self-efficacy in developing evidence-based chronic disease control programs was lower than in finding or using data. Public health practitioners estimated that approximately two-thirds of programs in their agency were evidence-based. Mississippi participants indicated that health department leaders' expectations for the use of EBDM was approximately twice that of co-workers' expectations and that the use of EBDM could be increased with training and leadership prioritization. Conclusions The assessment of EBDM capacity in Kansas and Mississippi built upon previous nationwide findings to identify top gaps in core competencies for EBDM in chronic disease and to estimate a percentage of programs in U.S. health departments that are evidence

  4. Evaluation of a survey tool to measure safety climate in Australian hospital pharmacy staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ramesh L; Chen, Timothy F; Fois, Romano A; Ashcroft, Darren M; Lalor, Daniel J

    Safety climate evaluation is increasingly used by hospitals as part of quality improvement initiatives. Consequently, it is necessary to have validated tools to measure changes. To evaluate the construct validity and internal consistency of a survey tool to measure Australian hospital pharmacy patient safety climate. A 42 item cross-sectional survey was used to evaluate the patient safety climate of 607 Australian hospital pharmacy staff. Survey responses were initially mapped to the factor structure previously identified in European community pharmacy. However, as the data did not adequately fit the community pharmacy model, participants were randomly split into two groups with exploratory factor analysis performed on the first group (n = 302) and confirmatory factor analyses performed on the second group (n = 305). Following exploratory factor analysis (59.3% variance explained) and confirmatory factor analysis, a 6-factor model containing 28 items was obtained with satisfactory model fit (χ(2) (335) = 664.61 p  0.643) and model nesting between the groups (Δχ(2) (22) = 30.87, p = 0.10). Three factors (blame culture, organisational learning and working conditions) were similar to those identified in European community pharmacy and labelled identically. Three additional factors (preoccupation with improvement; comfort to question authority; and safety issues being swept under the carpet) highlight hierarchical issues present in hospital settings. This study has demonstrated the validity of a survey to evaluate patient safety climate of Australian hospital pharmacy staff. Importantly, this validated factor structure may be used to evaluate changes in safety climate over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Population survey sampling methods in a rural African setting: measuring mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byass Peter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based sample surveys and sentinel surveillance methods are commonly used as substitutes for more widespread health and demographic monitoring and intervention studies in resource-poor settings. Such methods have been criticised as only being worthwhile if the results can be extrapolated to the surrounding 100-fold population. With an emphasis on measuring mortality, this study explores the extent to which choice of sampling method affects the representativeness of 1% sample data in relation to various demographic and health parameters in a rural, developing-country setting. Methods Data from a large community based census and health survey conducted in rural Burkina Faso were used as a basis for modelling. Twenty 1% samples incorporating a range of health and demographic parameters were drawn at random from the overall dataset for each of seven different sampling procedures at two different levels of local administrative units. Each sample was compared with the overall 'gold standard' survey results, thus enabling comparisons between the different sampling procedures. Results All sampling methods and parameters tested performed reasonably well in representing the overall population. Nevertheless, a degree of variation could be observed both between sampling approaches and between different parameters, relating to their overall distribution in the total population. Conclusion Sample surveys are able to provide useful demographic and health profiles of local populations. However, various parameters being measured and their distribution within the sampling unit of interest may not all be best represented by a particular sampling method. It is likely therefore that compromises may have to be made in choosing a sampling strategy, with costs, logistics the intended use of the data being important considerations.

  6. Comparing Multiple Evapotranspiration-calculating Methods, Including Eddy Covariance and Surface Renewal, Using Empirical Measurements from Alfalfa Fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, J.; Kent, E. R.; Leinfelder-Miles, M.; Lambert, J. J.; Little, C.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Eddy covariance and surface renewal measurements were used to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) over a variety of crop fields in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta during the 2016 growing season. However, comparing and evaluating multiple measurement systems and methods for determining ET was focused upon at a single alfalfa site. The eddy covariance systems included two systems for direct measurement of latent heat flux: one using a separate sonic anemometer and an open path infrared gas analyzer and another using a combined system (Campbell Scientific IRGASON). For these methods, eddy covariance was used with measurements from the Campbell Scientific CSAT3, the LI-COR 7500a, the Campbell Scientific IRGASON, and an additional R.M. Young sonic anemometer. In addition to those direct measures, the surface renewal approach included several energy balance residual methods in which net radiation, ground heat flux, and sensible heat flux (H) were measured. H was measured using several systems and different methods, including using multiple fast-response thermocouple measurements and using the temperatures measured by the sonic anemometers. The energy available for ET was then calculated as the residual of the surface energy balance equation. Differences in ET values were analyzed between the eddy covariance and surface renewal methods, using the IRGASON-derived values of ET as the standard for accuracy.

  7. Water quality measurements in San Francisco Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1969-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraga, Tara S; Cloern, James E

    2017-08-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains a place-based research program in San Francisco Bay (USA) that began in 1969 and continues, providing one of the longest records of water-quality measurements in a North American estuary. Constituents include salinity, temperature, light extinction coefficient, and concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, suspended particulate matter, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, silicate, and phosphate. We describe the sampling program, analytical methods, structure of the data record, and how to access all measurements made from 1969 through 2015. We provide a summary of how these data have been used by USGS and other researchers to deepen understanding of how estuaries are structured and function differently from the river and ocean ecosystems they bridge.

  8. Water quality measurements in San Francisco Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1969–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraga, Tara; Cloern, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains a place-based research program in San Francisco Bay (USA) that began in 1969 and continues, providing one of the longest records of water-quality measurements in a North American estuary. Constituents include salinity, temperature, light extinction coefficient, and concentrations of chlorophyll-a, dissolved oxygen, suspended particulate matter, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, silicate, and phosphate. We describe the sampling program, analytical methods, structure of the data record, and how to access all measurements made from 1969 through 2015. We provide a summary of how these data have been used by USGS and other researchers to deepen understanding of how estuaries are structured and function differently from the river and ocean ecosystems they bridge.

  9. Cardiovascular risk-factor profiles of normal and overweight children and adolescents: insights from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, Katerina; Kuhle, Stefan; Davidson, Zachary; Fung, Christina; Veugelers, Paul J

    2013-08-01

    There is no cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile in a representative sample of Canadian children and adolescents according to weight status. The 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey, launched by Statistics Canada in partnership with Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada, provides an opportunity to address this gap. The Canadian Health Measures Survey collected information at 15 sites across Canada from March 2007 to March 2009 from Canadians aged 6 to 79 years living in private households. The survey consisted of a household interview and a visit to a mobile examination centre to perform physical measurements, including anthropometry, blood pressure, and biospecimen collection. The present analysis is based on data from 2087 children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years. Children and adolescents who were overweight or obese had on average higher mean concentrations and higher prevalence of adverse levels of CVD risk factors (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and insulin levels) than did normal-weight children and adolescents. Adjustment for covariates (gender, age, household education, household income adequacy, and province of residence) and compliance with recommendations for daily steps, soft-drink intake, and sleep duration did not alter the differences in CVD risk factors between normal weight and overweight or obese children and adolescents. Results of this study underscore the importance of excess weight as an independent risk factor for CVD health in early life and call for primary prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood to reduce CVD risk. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Survey Scales for Measuring Exposure and Behavioral Responses to Disruptive Intraoperative Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafranca, Alexander; Hamlin, Colin; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Robinson, Sandra; Jacobsohn, Eric

    2017-09-10

    Disruptive intraoperative behavior has detrimental effects to clinicians, institutions, and patients. How clinicians respond to this behavior can either exacerbate or attenuate its effects. Previous investigations of disruptive behavior have used survey scales with significant limitations. The study objective was to develop appropriate scales to measure exposure and responses to disruptive behavior. We obtained ethics approval. The scales were developed in a sequence of steps. They were pretested using expert reviews, computational linguistic analysis, and cognitive interviews. The scales were then piloted on Canadian operating room clinicians. Factor analysis was applied to half of the data set for question reduction and grouping. Item response analysis and theoretical reviews ensured that important questions were not eliminated. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach α. Model fit was examined on the second half of the data set using confirmatory factor analysis. Content validity of the final scales was re-evaluated. Consistency between observed relationships and theoretical predictions was assessed. Temporal stability was evaluated on a subsample of 38 respondents. A total of 1433 and 746 clinicians completed the exposure and response scales, respectively. Content validity indices were excellent (exposure = 0.96, responses = 1.0). Internal consistency was good (exposure = 0.93, responses = 0.87). Correlations between the exposure scale and secondary measures were consistent with expectations based on theory. Temporal stability was acceptable (exposure = 0.77, responses = 0.73). We have developed scales measuring exposure and responses to disruptive behavior. They generate valid and reliable scores when surveying operating room clinicians, and they overcome the limitations of previous tools. These survey scales are freely available.

  11. Measuring determinants of career satisfaction of anesthesiologists: validation of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Anoushka M; Diaz, James H; Scher, Corey S; Beyl, Robbie A; Nair, Singh R; Kaye, Alan David

    2013-06-01

    To measure the parameter of job satisfaction among anesthesiologists. Survey instrument. Academic anesthesiology departments in the United States. 320 anesthesiologists who attended the annual meeting of the ASA in 2009 (95% response rate). The anonymous 50-item survey collected information on 26 independent demographic variables and 24 dependent ranked variables of career satisfaction among practicing anesthesiologists. Mean survey scores were calculated for each demographic variable and tested for statistically significant differences by analysis of variance. Questions within each domain that were internally consistent with each other within domains were identified by Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.7. P-values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Cronbach's alpha analysis showed strong internal consistency for 10 dependent outcome questions in the practice factor-related domain (α = 0.72), 6 dependent outcome questions in the peer factor-related domain (α = 0.71), and 8 dependent outcome questions in the personal factor-related domain (α = 0.81). Although age was not a variable, full-time status, early satisfaction within the first 5 years of practice, working with respected peers, and personal choice factors were all significantly associated with anesthesiologist job satisfaction. Improvements in factors related to job satisfaction among anesthesiologists may lead to higher early and current career satisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Computer-assisted measurement of perceived stress: an application for a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomoaki; Uchida, Seiya; Tsuda, Yasutami; Eboshida, Akira

    2005-09-01

    The assessment of stress is a key issue in health promotion policies as well as in treatment strategies for patients. The aim of this study was to confirm the accessibility and reliability of computer-assisted data collection for perceived stress measurement, using the Japanese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (JPSS), within the setting of a community-based survey. There were two groups of participants in this survey. One group responded to a Web-based application, and the other to the VBA of a spreadsheet software. The total scores of JPSS were almost normally distributed. The means of total scores of JPSS were 23.6 and 23.1. These results were lower than the previous study of JPSS. Since Cronbach's alpha coefficients in both surveys were more than 0.8, high reliability was demonstrated despite a number of computer-illiterate and/or aged participants. They felt that the spreadsheet form was easier to respond to. Two components were extracted with the Varimax rotation of principal component analysis, and these were named "perception of stress and stressors" and "behavior to stress". This finding suggests that it is possible to determine sub-scales. From the viewpoint of preventive medicine, it is expected that the JPSS applications will be utilized to investigate the relationship between stress and other factors such as lifestyle, environment and quality of life.

  13. A MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES FROM THE 2500 SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E. M.; Reichardt, C. L.; Aird, K. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H-M.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Millea, M.; Mocanu, L. M.; Mohr, J. J.; Montroy, T. E.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shaw, L.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; van Engelen, A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.

    2015-01-28

    We present measurements of secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) covering the complete 2540 deg(2) SPT-SZ survey area. Data in the three SPT-SZ frequency bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, are used to produce six angular power spectra (three single-frequency auto-spectra and three cross-spectra) covering the multipole range 2000 < ℓ < 11, 000 (angular scales 5' gsim θ gsim 1'). These are the most precise measurements of the angular power spectra at ℓ > 2500 at these frequencies. The main contributors to the power spectra at these angular scales and frequencies are the primary CMB, CIB, thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (tSZ and kSZ), and radio galaxies. We include a constraint on the tSZ power from a measurement of the tSZ bispectrum from 800 deg(2) of the SPT-SZ survey. We measure the tSZ power at 143  GHz to be $D^{\\rm tSZ}_{3000} = 4.08^{+0.58}_{-0.67}\\,\\mu {\\rm K}^2{}$ and the kSZ power to be $D^{\\rm kSZ}_{3000} = 2.9 \\pm 1.3\\, \\mu {\\rm K}^2{}$. The data prefer positive kSZ power at 98.1% CL. We measure a correlation coefficient of $\\xi = 0.113^{+0.057}_{-0.054}$ between sources of tSZ and CIB power, with ξ < 0 disfavored at a confidence level of 99.0%. The constraint on kSZ power can be interpreted as an upper limit on the duration of reionization. When the post-reionization homogeneous kSZ signal is accounted for, we find an upper limit on the duration Δz < 5.4  at 95% CL.

  14. A measurement of secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies from the 2500-square-degree SPT-SZ survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E.M.; et al.

    2015-01-28

    We present measurements of secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) covering the complete 2540 deg(2) SPT-SZ survey area. Data in the three SPT-SZ frequency bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, are used to produce six angular power spectra (three single-frequency auto-spectra and three cross-spectra) covering the multipole range 2000 < ℓ < 11, 000 (angular scales 5' gsim θ gsim 1'). These are the most precise measurements of the angular power spectra at ℓ > 2500 at these frequencies. The main contributors to the power spectra at these angular scales and frequencies are the primary CMB, CIB, thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (tSZ and kSZ), and radio galaxies. We include a constraint on the tSZ power from a measurement of the tSZ bispectrum from 800 deg(2) of the SPT-SZ survey. We measure the tSZ power at 143  GHz to be $D^{\\rm tSZ}_{3000} = 4.08^{+0.58}_{-0.67}\\,\\mu {\\rm K}^2{}$ and the kSZ power to be $D^{\\rm kSZ}_{3000} = 2.9 \\pm 1.3\\, \\mu {\\rm K}^2{}$. The data prefer positive kSZ power at 98.1% CL. We measure a correlation coefficient of $\\xi = 0.113^{+0.057}_{-0.054}$ between sources of tSZ and CIB power, with ξ < 0 disfavored at a confidence level of 99.0%. The constraint on kSZ power can be interpreted as an upper limit on the duration of reionization. When the post-reionization homogeneous kSZ signal is accounted for, we find an upper limit on the duration Δz < 5.4  at 95% CL.

  15. The Servant Leadership Survey: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dierendonck, Dirk; Nuijten, Inge

    2011-09-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and validation of a multi-dimensional instrument to measure servant leadership. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Based on an extensive literature review and expert judgment, 99 items were formulated. In three steps, using eight samples totaling 1571 persons from The Netherlands and the UK with a diverse occupational background, a combined exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis approach was used. This was followed by an analysis of the criterion-related validity. FINDINGS: The final result is an eight-dimensional measure of 30 items: the eight dimensions being: standing back, forgiveness, courage, empowerment, accountability, authenticity, humility, and stewardship. The internal consistency of the subscales is good. The results show that the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) has convergent validity with other leadership measures, and also adds unique elements to the leadership field. Evidence for criterion-related validity came from studies relating the eight dimensions to well-being and performance. IMPLICATIONS: With this survey, a valid and reliable instrument to measure the essential elements of servant leadership has been introduced. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The SLS is the first measure where the underlying factor structure was developed and confirmed across several field studies in two countries. It can be used in future studies to test the underlying premises of servant leadership theory. The SLS provides a clear picture of the key servant leadership qualities and shows where improvements can be made on the individual and organizational level; as such, it may also offer a valuable starting point for training and leadership development.

  16. Diagnosis, prevalence estimation and burden measurement in population surveys of headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Timothy J; Gururaj, Gopalakrishna; Andrée, Colette

    2014-01-01

    initiatives to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies. One requirement is for a survey instrument with proven cross-cultural validity. This report describes the development of such an instrument. Two of the authors developed the initial version, which was used with adaptations...... of headache-attributed burden: symptom burden; health-care utilization; disability and productive time losses; impact on education, career and earnings; perception of control; interictal burden; overall individual burden; effects on relationships and family dynamics; effects on others, including household...

  17. Clowning as a supportive measure in paediatrics - a survey of clowns, parents and nursing staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hospital clowns, also known as clown doctors, can help paediatric patients with the stress of a hospitalization and to circumvent the accompanying feelings of fear, helplessness and sadness, thus supporting the healing process. The objectives of the present study were to clarify the structural and procedural conditions of paediatric clowning in Germany and to document the evaluations of hospital clowns, parents and hospital staff. Methods A nationwide online survey of hospital clowns currently active in paediatric departments and an accompanying field evaluation in Hamburg hospitals with surveys of parents and hospital staff were conducted. In addition to items developed specifically for the study regarding general conditions, procedures, assessments of effects and attitudes, the Work Satisfaction Scale was used. The sample included n = 87 hospital clowns, 37 parents and 43 hospital staff members. Results The online survey showed that the hospital clowns are well-trained, motivated and generally satisfied with their work. By their own estimate, they primarily boost morale and promote imagination in the patients. However, hospital clowns also desire better interdisciplinary collaboration and financial security as well as more recognition of their work. The Hamburg field study confirmed the positive results of the clown survey. According to the data, a clown intervention boosts morale and reduces stress in the patients. Moreover, there are practically no side effects. Both parents and hospital staff stated that the patients as well as they themselves benefited from the intervention. Conclusions The results match those of previous studies and give a very positive picture of hospital clowning, so that its routine use and expansion thereof can be recommended. Furthermore, the intervention should be subject to the rules of evidence-based medicine like other medical treatments. PMID:24112744

  18. Results of chemical analysis from the 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment Survey, including persistent organic pollutants and pharmaceuticals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In 2008-2009, fish are were collected from approximately 560 national streams, which included a representative subset of 154 urban river sites, which were in close...

  19. Measuring infertility in populations: constructing a standard definition for use with demographic and reproductive health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Maya N; Cheung, Hoiwan; Mathers, Colin D; Stevens, Gretchen A

    2012-08-31

    Infertility is a significant disability, yet there are no reliable estimates of its global prevalence. Studies on infertility prevalence define the condition inconsistently, rendering the comparison of studies or quantitative summaries of the literature difficult. This study analyzed key components of infertility to develop a definition that can be consistently applied to globally available household survey data. We proposed a standard definition of infertility and used it to generate prevalence estimates using 53 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). The analysis was restricted to the subset of DHS that contained detailed fertility information collected through the reproductive health calendar. We performed sensitivity analyses for key components of the definition and used these to inform our recommendations for each element of the definition. Exposure type (couple status, contraceptive use, and intent), exposure time, and outcomes were key elements of the definition that we proposed. Our definition produced estimates that ranged from 0.6% to 3.4% for primary infertility and 8.7% to 32.6% for secondary infertility. Our sensitivity analyses showed that using an exposure measure of five years is less likely to misclassify fertile unions as infertile. Additionally, using a current, rather than continuous, measure of contraceptive use over five years resulted in a median relative error in secondary infertility of 20.7% (interquartile range of relative error [IQR]: 12.6%-26.9%), while not incorporating intent produced a corresponding error in secondary infertility of 58.2% (IQR: 44.3%-67.9%). In order to estimate the global burden of infertility, prevalence estimates using a consistent definition need to be generated. Our analysis provided a recommended definition that could be applied to widely available global household data. We also summarized potential biases that should be considered when making estimates of infertility prevalence using household survey data.

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical survey of well waters from an area around Pie Town, Catron County, West-Central New Mexico, including concentrations of twenty-three additional elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, T.L.; George, W.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Langhorst, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    As part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed hydrogeochemical survey of well waters in a 4250-km/sup 2/ area near Pie Town in west-central New Mexico. A total of 300 well samples was collected and analyzed for uranium and 23 other elements. The results of these analyses and carbonate and bicarbonate ion concentrations are presented in the Appendixes of this report. Uranium concentrations range from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to 293.18 ppB and average 8.71 ppB. Samples containing high levels of uranium were collected from the Largo Creek valley west of Quemado, from a small area about 6 km east of Quemado, from a small area surrounding Pie Town, and from scattered locations in the area surrounding Adams Diggings north of Pie Town. Most of the samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from wells associated with the volcanic sedimentary facies of the Datil formation. This formation is a likely source of mobile uranium that may be precipitating in the underlying Baca formation, a known uranium host unit. Bicarbonate ion concentration, while proportional to uranium concentration in some cases, is not a strong controlling factor in the uranium concentrations in samples from this area.

  1. Discovery of 11 New T Dwarfs in the Two Micron All-Sky Survey, Including a Possible L/T Transition Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Looper, Dagny L; Burgasser, Adam J

    2007-01-01

    We present the discovery of 11 new T dwarfs, found during the course of a photometric survey for mid-to-late T dwarfs in the 2MASS Point Source Catalog and from a proper motion selected sample of ultracool dwarfs in the 2MASS Working Database. Using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX spectrograph, we obtained low-resolution (R~150) spectroscopy, allowing us to derive near-infrared spectral types of T2-T8. One of these new T dwarfs, 2MASS J13243559+6358284, was also discovered independently by Metchev et al., in prep. This object is spectroscopically peculiar and possibly a binary and/or very young (<300 Myr). We specifically attempted to model the spectrum of this source as a composite binary to reproduce its peculiar spectral characteristics. The latest-type object in our sample is a T8 dwarf, 2MASS J07290002-3954043, now one of the four latest-type T dwarfs known. All 11 T dwarfs are nearby given their spectrophotometric distance estimates, with 1 T dwarf within 10 pc and 8 additional T dwarfs wit...

  2. FY 1997 report on the field survey on country situations including efficient energy consumption. Vietnam; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (energy shohi koritsuka nado chiiki josei genchi chosa). Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Field survey was made on the current state of and issues on energy in Vietnam. In Vietnam, firewood is in wide use as non-commercial energy, and sums to a half of total energy consumption. Other energies such as hydroelectric power, petroleum, natural gas and coal are self-sustainable. Commercial energy consumption in 1995 is estimated at 10,070,000t in oil equivalent, which is broken down into 23% for coal, 42% in oil, 5% for natural gas and 30% for electricity. Abundant water resources will form the mainstay of future electric power supply. Commercial production of oil started in 1986 becoming an oil exporting country. Several promising natural gas fields were discovered as the result of the exploration by foreign capital. Coal deposits are estimated to be nearly 3.5 billion tons, and most of them are anthracite. Electric power demand is growing at a higher rate than the economic growth of Vietnam. The growth rate of electric power demand is set to be 1.3 times that of GDP. Since construction funds for new plants cannot be satisfied with the national budget and domestic investment alone, the country is expecting foreign capitals. 21 figs., 36 tabs.

  3. A survey of xerophilic Aspergillus from indoor environment, including descriptions of two new section Aspergillus species producing eurotium-like sexual states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobus M. Visagie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Xerophilic fungi grow at low water activity or low equilibrium relative humidity and are an important part of the indoor fungal community, of which Aspergillus is one of the dominant genera. A survey of xerophilic fungi isolated from Canadian and Hawaiian house dust resulted in the isolation of 1039 strains; 296 strains belong to Aspergillus and represented 37 species. Reference sequences were generated for all species and deposited in GenBank. Aspergillus sect. Aspergillus (formerly called Eurotium was one of the most predominant groups from house dust with nine species identified. Additional cultures deposited as Eurotium were received from the Canadian Collection of Fungal Cultures and were also re-identified during this study. Among all strains, two species were found to be new and are introduced here as A. mallochii and A. megasporus. Phylogenetic comparisons with other species of section Aspergillus were made using sequences of ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit. Morphological observations were made from cultures grown under standardized conditions. Aspergillus mallochii does not grow at 37 °C and produces roughened ascospores with incomplete equatorial furrows. Aspergillus megasporus produces large conidia (up to 12 µm diam and roughened ascospores with equatorial furrows. Echinulin, quinolactacin A1 & A2, preechinulin and neoechinulin A & B were detected as major extrolites of A. megasporus, while neoechinulin A & B and isoechinulin A, B & C were the major extrolites from A. mallochii.

  4. Survey of the situation of technology succession. Databases of articles including in industrial technology museums; Gijutsu keisho jokyo chosa. Sangyo gijutsu hakubutsukan shuzohin D.B. hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    To promote the succession of history of and the creative use of industrial science technologies, the paper made lists and databases of the articles of industrial technology museums and material halls in Japan. Record/preservation and collection/systematization of history of the industrial technology is useful for forming bases necessary for promotion of future research/development and international contribution. Museums and material halls are the fields for making comprehensive and practical activities. The data were made as one of the basic databases as the first step for promoting activities for examining the technical succession situation in a long term range continuously and systematically. In the classification of the data, the energy relation was divided into electric power, nuclear power, oil, coal, gas and energy in general. Others were classified into metal/mine, electricity/electronics/communication, chemistry/food, ship building/heavy machinery, printing/precision instrument, and textile/spinning. Moreover, the traffic relation was classified into railroad, automobiles/two-wheeled vehicles, airline/space, and ships. Items were also set of life relation, civil engineering/architecture, and general. The total number of the museums for the survey reached 208.

  5. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Lietz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA. Objective: The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design: All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS and integrated (CDA surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results: While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions: The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality

  6. Developing and testing a new measure of staff nurse clinical leadership: the clinical leadership survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Allison; Laschinger, Heather K Spence; Wong, Carol; Finegan, Joan

    2011-05-01

    To test the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure of staff nurse clinical leadership derived from Kouzes and Posner's model of transformational leadership. While nurses have been recognized for their essential role in keeping patients safe, there has been little empirical research that has examined clinical leadership at the staff nurse level.   A non-experimental survey design was used to test the psychometric properties of the clinical leadership survey (CLS). Four hundred and eighty registered nurses (RNs) providing direct patient care in Ontario acute care hospitals returned useable questionnaires.   Confirmatory factor analysis provided preliminary evidence for the construct validity for the new measure of staff nurse clinical leadership. Structural empowerment fully mediated the relationship between nursing leadership and staff nurse clinical leadership. The results provide encouraging evidence for the construct validity of the CLS. Nursing administrators must create empowering work environments to ensure staff nurses have access to work structures which enable them to enact clinical leadership behaviours while providing direct patient care. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Clustering of Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Photometric Luminous Galaxies: The Measurement, Systematics and Cosmological Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Shirley; Seo, Hee-Jong; de Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J; White, Martin; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Saito, Shun; Schlegel, David J; Schlafly, Eddie; Seljak, Uros; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sanchez, Ariel G; Percival, Will J; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Reid, Beth; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Prada, Francisco; Weaver, Benjamin; Bahcall, Neta; Bizyaev, Dimitry; Brewinton, Howard; Brinkman, Jon; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Gott, John R; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Nichol, Bob; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Ross, Nicholas P; Simmons, Audrey; de Simoni, Fernando; Snedden, Stephanie; Yeche, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 square degrees, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between $z=0.45$ and $z=0.65$, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. (2011). This data-set spans 11,000 square degrees and probes a volume of $3h^{-3} \\rm{Gpc}^3$, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at 4 redshift slices with an accuracy of ~15% with bin size of delta_l = 10 on scales of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) (at l~40-400). We derive cosmological constraints using the full-shape of the power-spectra. For a flat Lambda CDM model, when combined with Cosmic Microwave Background Wilkinson Microw...

  8. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey: Measuring the growth rate of structure around cosmic voids

    CERN Document Server

    Hawken, A J; Iovino, A; Guzzo, L; Peacock, J A; de la Torre, S; Garilli, B; Bolzonella, M; Scodeggio, M; Abbas, U; Adami, C; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cucciati, O; Davidzon, I; Fritz, A; Franzetti, P; Krywult, J; Brun, V Le; Fevre, O Le; Maccagni, D; Małek, K; Marulli, F; Polletta, M; Pollo, A; Tasca, L A M; Tojeiro, R; Vergani, D; Zanichelli, A; Arnouts, S; Bel, J; Branchini, E; De Lucia, G; Ilbert, O; Moscardini, L; Percival, W J

    2016-01-01

    We identified voids in the completed VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS), using an algorithm based on searching for empty spheres. We measured the cross-correlation between the centres of voids and the complete galaxy catalogue. The cross-correlation function exhibits a clear anisotropy in both VIPERS fields (W1 and W4), which is characteristic of linear redshift space distortions. By measuring the projected cross-correlation and then deprojecting it we are able to estimate the undistorted cross-correlation function. We propose that given a sufficiently well measured cross-correlation function one should be able to measure the linear growth rate of structure by applying a simple linear Gaussian streaming model for the redshift space distortions (RSD). Our study of voids in 306 mock galaxy catalogues mimicking the VIPERS fields would suggest that VIPERS is capable of measuring $\\beta$ with an error of around $25\\%$. Applying our method to the VIPERS data, we find a value for the redshift space ...

  9. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  10. Making high-accuracy null depth measurements for the LBTI exozodi survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennesson, Bertrand; Defrère, Denis; Nowak, Matthias; Hinz, Philip; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Absil, Olivier; Bailey, Vanessa; Bryden, Geoffrey; Danchi, William; Kennedy, Grant M.; Marion, Lindsay; Roberge, Aki; Serabyn, Eugene; Skemer, Andy J.; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Wyatt, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The characterization of exozodiacal light emission is both important for the understanding of planetary systems evolution and for the preparation of future space missions aiming to characterize low mass planets in the habitable zone of nearby main sequence stars. The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) exozodi survey aims at providing a ten-fold improvement over current state of the art, measuring dust emission levels down to a typical accuracy of 12 zodis per star, for a representative ensemble of 30+ high priority targets. Such measurements promise to yield a final accuracy of about 2 zodis on the median exozodi level of the targets sample. Reaching a 1 σ measurement uncertainty of 12 zodis per star corresponds to measuring interferometric cancellation ("null") levels, i.e visibilities at the few 100 ppm uncertainty level. We discuss here the challenges posed by making such high accuracy mid-infrared visibility measurements from the ground and present the methodology we developed for achieving current best levels of 500 ppm or so. We also discuss current limitations and plans for enhanced exozodi observations over the next few years at LBTI.

  11. Evaluating the measurement of mental health service accessibility, acceptability, and availability in the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Katherine P; Hunsley, John

    2015-05-01

    Given the underutilization of mental health services by those with mental health problems, growing attention has focused on barriers to utilizing services. Several researchers have used the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 1.2 dataset, including measures of barriers because of accessibility, acceptability, and availability, to explore the gap between mental health service need and use. Because the psychometric properties of these barrier measures have not been evaluated, the reliability and validity of the 3 measures were examined in the present study. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using data from CCHS participants who had indicated unmet need regarding information on mental illness and its treatments; availability of services, medication, and psychotherapy or counseling (n = 353); as well as the full sample of participants reporting any unmet need in the past year (n = 1,784). The hypothesized 3-factor model (i.e., accessibility, acceptability, and availability) failed to converge with both samples. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data from the full sample (n = 1,784), and a possible 2-factor solution was obtained. Reliability analyses on this 2-factor model, as well as the 3-factor model included in the CCHS, demonstrated that internal consistency values failed to attain acceptable levels of reliability (i.e., α < .70). Based on these analyses, these barrier measures are neither reliable nor valid. These measures should not be used to examine barriers to service within the CCHS 1.2 dataset, and caution should be exercised in interpreting the findings of studies that used these measures. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Measurement of the severity of disability in community-dwelling adults and older adults: interval-level measures for accurate comparisons in large survey data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buz, José; Cortés-Rodríguez, María

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To (1) create a single metric of disability using Rasch modelling to be used for comparing disability severity levels across groups and countries, (2) test whether the interval-level measures were invariant across countries, sociodemographic and health variables and (3) examine the gains in precision using interval-level measures relative to ordinal scores when discriminating between groups known to differ in disability. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting/participants Data were drawn from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), including comparable data across 16 countries and involving 58 489 community-dwelling adults aged 50+. Main outcome measures A single metric of disability composed of self-care and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and functional limitations. We examined the construct validity through the fit to the Rasch model and the know-groups method. Reliability was examined using person separation reliability. Results The single metric fulfilled the requirements of a strong hierarchical scale; was able to separate persons with different levels of disability; demonstrated invariance of the item hierarchy across countries; and was unbiased by age, gender and different health conditions. However, we found a blurred hierarchy of ADL and IADL tasks. Rasch-based measures yielded gains in relative precision (11–116%) in discriminating between groups with different medical conditions. Conclusions Equal-interval measures, with person-invariance and item-invariance properties, provide epidemiologists and researchers with the opportunity to gain better insight into the hierarchical structure of functional disability, and yield more reliable and accurate estimates of disability across groups and countries. Interval-level measures of disability allow parametric statistical analysis to confidently examine the relationship between disability and continuous measures so frequent in health sciences

  13. The Effect of Answering in a Preferred Versus a Non-Preferred Survey Mode on Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Smyth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that offering respondents their preferred mode can increase response rates, but the effect of doing so on how respondents process and answer survey questions (i.e., measurement is unclear. In this paper, we evaluate whether changes in question format have different effects on data quality for those responding in their preferred mode than for those responding in a non-preferred mode for three question types (multiple answer, open-ended, and grid. Respondents were asked about their preferred mode in a 2008 survey and were recontacted in 2009. In the recontact survey, respondents were randomly assigned to one of two modes such that some responded in their preferred mode and others did not. They were also randomly assigned to one of two questionnaire forms in which the format of individual questions was varied. On the multiple answer and open-ended items, those who answered in a non-preferred mode seemed to take advantage of opportunities to satisfice when the question format allowed or encouraged it (e.g., selecting fewer items in the check-all than the forced-choice format and being more likely to skip the open-ended item when it had a larger answer box, while those who answered in a preferred mode did not. There was no difference on a grid formatted item across those who did and did not respond by their preferred mode, but results indicate that a fully labeled grid reduced item missing rates vis-à-vis a grid with only column heading labels. Results provide insight into the effect of tailoring to mode preference on commonly used questionnaire design features.

  14. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 50R-5045, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Putter, Roland [ICC, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Saito, Shun [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlafly, Eddie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden St. MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos [Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon (CEFCA), Plaza de San Juan 1, planta 2, E-44001 Teruel (Spain); Sanchez, Ariel G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Skibba, Ramin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Don [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mena, Olga [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC (Spain); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: cwho@lbl.gov [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2012-12-10

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg{sup 2}, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg{sup 2} and probes a volume of 3 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3}, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of {approx}15%, with a bin size of {delta}{sub l} = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l {approx} 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H{sub 0} constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.73 {+-} 0.019 and H{sub 0} to be 70.5 {+-} 1.6 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km. For an open {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find {Omega}{sub K} = 0.0035 {+-} 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = -1.071 {+-} 0.078, and H{sub 0} to be 71.3 {+-} 1.7 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic

  15. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Lisa A; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. © 2015 L. A. Corwin et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Measuring social exclusion in routine public health surveys: construction of a multidimensional instrument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addi P L van Bergen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Social exclusion is considered a major factor in the causation and maintenance of health inequalities, but its measurement in health research is still in its infancy. In the Netherlands the Institute for Social Research (SCP developed an instrument to measure the multidimensional concept of social exclusion in social and economic policy research. Here, we present a method to construct a similar measure of social exclusion using available data from public health surveys. METHODS: Analyses were performed on data from the health questionnaires that were completed by 20,877 adults in the four largest cities in the Netherlands. From each of the four questionnaires we selected the items that corresponded to those of the SCP-instrument. These were entered into a nonlinear canonical correlation analysis. The measurement properties of the resulting indices and dimension scales were assessed and compared to the SCP-instrument. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the indices and most of the dimension scales were adequate and the internal structure of the indices was as expected. Both generalisabiliy and construct validity were good: in all datasets strong associations were found between the index and a number of known risk factors of social exclusion. A limitation of content validity was that the dimension "lack of normative integration" could not be measured, because no relevant items were available. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that a measure for social exclusion can be constructed with available health questionnaires. This provides opportunities for application in public health surveillance systems in the Netherlands and elsewhere in the world.

  17. A Survey of Channel Measurements and Models for Current and Future Railway Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Unterhuber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern society demands cheap, more efficient, and safer public transport. These enhancements, especially an increase in efficiency and safety, are accompanied by huge amounts of data traffic that need to be handled by wireless communication systems. Hence, wireless communications inside and outside trains are key technologies to achieve these efficiency and safety goals for railway operators in a cost-efficient manner. This paper briefly describes nowadays used wireless technologies in the railway domain and points out possible directions for future wireless systems. Channel measurements and models for wireless propagation are surveyed and their suitability in railway environments is investigated. Identified gaps are pointed out and solutions to fill those gaps for wireless communication links in railway environments are proposed.

  18. Measuring the mental health care system responsiveness: results of an outpatient survey in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh eForouzan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAs explained by the World Health Organisation (WHO in 2000, the concept of health system responsiveness is one of the core goals of health systems. Since 2000, further efforts have been made to measure health system responsiveness and the factors affecting responsiveness, yet few studies have applied responsiveness concepts to the evaluation of mental health systems. The present study aims to measure responsiveness and its related domains in the mental health care system of Tehran. Utilising the same method used by the WHO for its responsiveness survey, responsiveness for outpatient mental health care was evaluated using a validated Farsi questionnaire. A sample of 500 public mental health service users in Tehran participated and subsequently completed the questionnaire. On average, 47% of participants reported experiencing poor responsiveness. Among responsiveness domains, confidentiality and dignity were the best performing factors while autonomy, access to care and quality of basic amenities were the worst performing. Respondents who reported their social status as low were more likely to experience poor responsiveness overall. Autonomy, quality of basic amenities and clear communication were responsiveness dimensions that performed poorly but were considered to be important by study participants. In summary, the study suggests that measuring responsiveness could provide guidance for further development of mental health care systems to become more patient orientated and provide patients with more respect.

  19. Illumination Sufficiency Survey Techniques: In-situ Measurements of Lighting System Performance and a User Preference Survey for Illuminance in an Off-Grid, African Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-08-26

    Efforts to promote rechargeable electric lighting as a replacement for fuel-based light sources in developing countries are typically predicated on the notion that lighting service levels can be maintained or improved while reducing the costs and environmental impacts of existing practices. However, the extremely low incomes of those who depend on fuel-based lighting create a need to balance the hypothetically possible or desirable levels of light with those that are sufficient and affordable. In a pilot study of four night vendors in Kenya, we document a field technique we developed to simultaneously measure the effectiveness of lighting service provided by a lighting system and conduct a survey of lighting service demand by end-users. We took gridded illuminance measurements across each vendor's working and selling area, with users indicating the sufficiency of light at each point. User light sources included a mix of kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns, pressure lamps, and LED lanterns.We observed illuminance levels ranging from just above zero to 150 lux. The LED systems markedly improved the lighting service levels over those provided by kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns. Users reported that the minimum acceptable threshold was about 2 lux. The results also indicated that the LED lamps in use by the subjects did not always provide sufficient illumination over the desired retail areas. Our sample size is much too small, however, to reach any conclusions about requirements in the broader population. Given the small number of subjects and very specific type of user, our results should be regarded as indicative rather than conclusive. We recommend replicating the method at larger scales and across a variety of user types and contexts. Policymakers should revisit the subject of recommended illuminance levels regularly as LED technology advances and the price/service balance point evolves.

  20. High-resolution ionospheric observations and modeling over Belgium during the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 including first results of ionospheric tilt and plasma drift measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; Sapundjiev, Danislav; Stankov, Stanimir M.

    2016-06-01

    The ionospheric behavior over Belgium during the partial solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 is analyzed based on high-resolution solar radio flux, vertical incidence sounding, and GPS TEC measurements. First results of ionosonde-based ionospheric plasma drift and tilt observations are presented and analyzed, including some traveling ionospheric disturbances caused by the eclipse. Also, collocated ionosonde and GPS measurements are used to reconstruct the time evolution of the vertical electron density distribution using the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) ionospheric specification system, called Local Ionospheric Electron Density profile Reconstruction (LIEDR).

  1. Molecular and Parasitological Survey of Bovine Piroplasms in the Black Sea Region, Including the First Report of Babesiosis Associated with Babesia divergens in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, M; Ozubek, S

    2015-11-01

    Clinical cases of babesiosis were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites was determined in cattle. Blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 23 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis. In addition, tick and blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy cattle cograzing from the same area. Egg masses obtained from fully engorged female ticks were included. DNA isolated from blood and tick samples was screened for Babesia and Theileria by reverse line blot assay. Piroplasms compatible with Babesia spp. were observed microscopically for symptomatic cattle as circular, oval, elongated, or pear-shaped bodies. Parasitemia ranged from 0.08 to 0.9% for Babesia bovis, 2.5 to 15.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 7.4% for Babesia divergens. Reverse line blot showed positivity in 13 (13%) of the sampled clinically normal cattle and revealed the presence of three Babesia species. Babesia bovis was the most prevalent (9/100, 9%), followed by Babesia occultans (3/100, 3%) and B. bigemina (1/100, 1%). One animal infected with B. bigemina was also infected with B. bovis. The single animal infected with B. divergens showed symptoms of babesiosis. Ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus annulatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, and Ixodes ricinus. One female R. annulatus and its egg mass were infected with B. bigemina. Neither Theileria annulata nor Theileria buffeli/orientalis infections were observed in cattle or ticks. This is the first report of clinical babesiosis caused by B. divergens in cattle from Turkey. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A Measurement of the Correlation of Galaxy Surveys with CMB Lensing Convergence Maps from the South Pole Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Bleem, L E; Holder, G P; Aird, K A; Armstrong, R; Ashby, M L N; Becker, M R; Benson, B A; Biesiadzinski, T; Brodwin, M; Busha, M T; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H M; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Desai, S; Dobbs, M A; Doré, O; Dudley, J; Geach, J E; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Harrington, N; High, F W; Holden, B P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Marrone, D P; Martinez-Manso, J; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Natoli, T; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Stanford, S A; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Stern, D; Story, K; Vallinotto, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Wechsler, R H; Williamson, R; Zahn, O

    2012-01-01

    We compare cosmic microwave background lensing convergence maps derived from South Pole Telescope (SPT) data with galaxy survey data from the Blanco Cosmology Survey, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and a new large Spitzer/IRAC field designed to overlap with the SPT survey. Using optical and infrared catalogs covering between 17 and 68 square degrees of sky, we detect correlation between the SPT convergence maps and each of the galaxy density maps at >4 sigma, with zero cross-correlation robustly ruled out in all cases. The amplitude and shape of the cross-power spectra are in good agreement with theoretical expectations and the measured galaxy bias is consistent with previous work. The detections reported here utilize a small fraction of the full 2500 square degree SPT survey data and serve as both a proof of principle of the technique and an illustration of the potential of this emerging cosmological probe.

  3. How social processes distort measurement: the impact of survey nonresponse on estimates of volunteer work in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Katharine G; Presser, Stanley; Helms, Sara

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that both the large variability in survey estimates of volunteering and the fact that survey estimates do not show the secular decline common to other social capital measures are caused by the greater propensity of those who do volunteer work to respond to surveys. Analyses of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS)--the sample for which is drawn from the Current Population Survey (CPS)--together with the CPS volunteering supplement show that CPS respondents who become ATUS respondents report much more volunteering in the CPS than those who become ATUS nonrespondents. This difference is replicated within subgroups. Consequently, conventional adjustments for nonresponse cannot correct the bias. Although nonresponse leads to estimates of volunteer activity that are too high, it generally does not affect inferences about the characteristics of volunteers.

  4. The Measure of a Nation: The USDA and the Rise of Survey Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kevin T.; Baker, David B.

    2007-01-01

    Survey research has played a major role in American social science. An outgrowth of efforts by the United States Department of Agriculture in the 1930s, the Division of Program Surveys (DPS) played an important role in the development of survey methodology. The DPS was headed by the ambitious and entrepreneurial Rensis Likert, populated by young…

  5. Outcome measures in European patients with haemophilia: Survey of implementation in routine clinical practice, perception of relevance and recommendations by European treaters in the EHTSB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, C; Klamroth, R; Richards, M; de Moerloose, P; Garrido, R P

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the current implementation of outcome measures in routine clinical haemophilia practice and to explore and appreciate the perception of the relevance of such measures by treaters. A survey was completed by 19 of the 26 physicians involved in the European Haemophilia Therapy Strategy Board (EHTSB). Employing an extensive inventory of outcome measures used in patients with haemophilia, information was collected about the frequency of data collection and the subjective appreciation of their importance during clinic review. The survey revealed that most treaters currently collect data that are mainly related to the haemostatic treatment (consumption of concentrates) and the bleeding symptoms (number and location of bleeds) in a non-uniform and non-standardized way. By contrast, functional, physical and quality of life scorings are rarely used and show considerable heterogeneity between treaters. Also, many disparities emerged between practice and perception, in particular quality of life data that are perceived as being important but for most of the time are not collected. This survey represents, in our view, the first attempt to evaluate the actual utilization of outcome measures in haemophilia care. While the value of outcome measures is appreciated, they are not assessed regularly. Therefore, there is a need to include appropriate performance indicators (outcome measures) of haemophilia care in routine clinical practice. Consensus recommendations to provide a framework for achieving this aim are provided. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Measuring Ocean Literacy: What teens understand about the ocean using the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greely, T. M.; Lodge, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean issues with conceptual ties to science and global society have captured the attention, imagination, and concern of an international audience. Climate change, over fishing, marine pollution, freshwater shortages and alternative energy sources are a few ocean issues highlighted in our media and casual conversations. The ocean plays a role in our life in some way everyday, however, disconnect exists between what scientists know and the public understands about the ocean as revealed by numerous ocean and coastal literacy surveys. While the public exhibits emotive responses through care, concern and connection with the ocean, there remains a critical need for a baseline of ocean knowledge. However, knowledge about the ocean must be balanced with understanding about how to apply ocean information to daily decisions and actions. The present study analyzed underlying factors and patterns contributing to ocean literacy and reasoning within the context of an ocean education program, the Oceanography Camp for Girls. The OCG is designed to advance ocean conceptual understanding and decision making by engagement in a series of experiential learning and stewardship activities from authentic research settings in the field and lab. The present study measured a) what understanding teens currently hold about the ocean (content), b) how teens feel toward the ocean environment (environmental attitudes and morality), and c) how understanding and feelings are organized when reasoning about ocean socioscientific issues (e.g. climate change, over fishing, energy). The Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE), was used to measure teens understanding about the ocean. SOLE is a 57-item survey instrument aligned with the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Literacy (NGS, 2007). Rasch analysis was used to refine and validate SOLE as a reasonable measure of ocean content knowledge (reliability, 0.91). Results revealed that content knowledge and environmental

  7. [Survey of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus control measures in hospitals participating in the VINCat program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopena-Galindo, Nieves; Hornero-Lopez, Anna; Freixas-Sala, Núria; Bella-Cueto, Feliu; Pérez-Jové, Josefa; Limon-Cáceres, Enric; Gudiol-Munté, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    VINCat is a nosocomial infection surveillance program in hospitals in Catalonia. The aim of the study was to determine the surveillance and control measures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in these centres. An e-mail survey was carried out from January to March 2013 with questions related to the characteristics of the hospitals and their control measures for MRSA. A response was received from 53 hospitals (>500 beds: 7; 200-500 beds: 14;<200 beds: 32; had ICU: 29). Computer alert of readmissions was available in 63%. There was active surveillance of patients admitted from another hospital (46.2%) or a long-term-care centre (55.8%), both being significantly more common measures in hospitals with a rate of MRSA≤22% (global median). Compliance with hand hygiene was observed in 77.4% of the centres, and was greater than 50% in 69.7% of them. All hospitals had contact precautions, although 62.3% did not have exclusive frequently used clinical material in bedrooms. The room cleaning was performed more frequently in 54.7% of hospitals, and 67.9% of them had programs for the appropriate use of antibiotics. This study provides information on the implementation of measures to prevent MRSA in hospitals participating in the VINCat program. Most of the centres have an MRSA protocol, however compliance with it should be improved, especially in areas such as active detection on admission in patients at risk, hand hygiene adherence, cleaning frequency and optimising the use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring child maltreatment using multi-informant survey data: a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Salum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the validity and reliability of a multi-informant approach to measuring child maltreatment (CM comprising seven questions assessing CM administered to children and their parents in a large community sample. Methods Our sample comprised 2,512 children aged 6 to 12 years and their parents. Child maltreatment (CM was assessed with three questions answered by the children and four answered by their parents, covering physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit indices of different models. Convergent and divergent validity were tested using parent-report and teacher-report scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was investigated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment to divide subjects into five diagnostic groups: typically developing controls (n = 1,880, fear disorders (n = 108, distress disorders (n = 76, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 143 and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (n = 56. Results A higher-order model with one higher-order factor (child maltreatment encompassing two lower-order factors (child report and parent report exhibited the best fit to the data and this model's reliability results were acceptable. As expected, child maltreatment was positively associated with measures of psychopathology and negatively associated with prosocial measures. All diagnostic category groups had higher levels of overall child maltreatment than typically developing children. Conclusions We found evidence for the validity and reliability of this brief measure of child maltreatment using data from a large survey combining information from parents and their children.

  9. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. VII. Elliptical Galaxy Scaling Laws from Direct Observational Mass Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bolton, Adam S; Koopmans, Leon V E; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A; Burles, Scott; Schlegel, David J; Wayth, Randall

    2008-01-01

    We use a sample of 53 massive early-type strong gravitational lens galaxies with well-measured redshifts (ranging from z=0.06 to 0.36) and stellar velocity dispersions (between 175 and 400 km/s) from the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey to derive numerous empirical scaling relations. The ratio between central stellar velocity dispersion and isothermal lens-model velocity dispersion is nearly unity within errors. The SLACS lenses define a fundamental plane (FP) that is consistent with the FP of the general population of early-type galaxies. We measure the relationship between strong-lensing mass M_lens within one-half effective radius (R_e/2) and the dimensional mass variable M_dim = G^-1 sigma_e2^2 R_e/2 to be log_10 [M_lens/10^11 M_Sun] = (1.03 +/- 0.04) log_10 [M_dim/10^11 M_Sun] + (0.54 +/- 0.02) (where sigma_e2 is the projected stellar velocity dispersion within R_e/2). The near-unity slope indicates that the mass-dynamical structure of massive elliptical galaxies is independent of mass, and that the "tilt" ...

  10. The Keck+Magellan Survey for Lyman Limit Absorption III: Sample Definition and Column Density Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Prochaska, J Xavier; Fumagalli, Michele; Bernstein, Rebecca A; Burles, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    We present an absorption-line survey of optically thick gas clouds -- Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs) -- observed at high dispersion with spectrometers on the Keck and Magellan telescopes. We measure column densities of neutral hydrogen NHI and associated metal-line transitions for 157 LLSs at z=1.76-4.39 restricted to 10^17.3 < NHI < 10^20.3. An empirical analysis of ionic ratios indicates an increasing ionization state of the gas with decreasing NHI and that the majority of LLSs are highly ionized, confirming previous expectations. The Si^+/H^0 ratio spans nearly four orders-of-magnitude, implying a large dispersion in the gas metallicity. Fewer than 5% of these LLSs have no positive detection of a metal transition; by z~3, nearly all gas that is dense enough to exhibit a very high Lyman limit opacity has previously been polluted by heavy elements. We add new measurements to the small subset of LLS (~5-10) that may have super-solar abundances. High Si^+/Fe^+ ratios suggest an alpha-enhanced medium whereas ...

  11. A MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES FROM THE 2500 SQUARE-DEGREE SPT-SZ SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, E. M.; Reichardt, C. L.; Harrington, N. L.; Holzapfel, W. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA 94720 (United States); Aird, K. A.; Hrubes, J. D. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bleem, L. E.; Chang, C. L.; Keisler, R. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cho, H-M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J.; Holder, G. P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Halverson, N. W. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Hou, Z., E-mail: lizinvt@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); and others

    2015-02-01

    We present measurements of secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) covering the complete 2540 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey area. Data in the three SPT-SZ frequency bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, are used to produce six angular power spectra (three single-frequency auto-spectra and three cross-spectra) covering the multipole range 2000 < ℓ < 11, 000 (angular scales 5' ≳ θ ≳ 1'). These are the most precise measurements of the angular power spectra at ℓ > 2500 at these frequencies. The main contributors to the power spectra at these angular scales and frequencies are the primary CMB, CIB, thermal and kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (tSZ and kSZ), and radio galaxies. We include a constraint on the tSZ power from a measurement of the tSZ bispectrum from 800 deg{sup 2} of the SPT-SZ survey. We measure the tSZ power at 143  GHz to be D{sub 3000}{sup tSZ}=4.08{sub −0.67}{sup +0.58} μK{sup 2} and the kSZ power to be D{sub 3000}{sup kSZ}=2.9±1.3 μK{sup 2}. The data prefer positive kSZ power at 98.1% CL. We measure a correlation coefficient of ξ=0.113{sub −0.054}{sup +0.057} between sources of tSZ and CIB power, with ξ < 0 disfavored at a confidence level of 99.0%. The constraint on kSZ power can be interpreted as an upper limit on the duration of reionization. When the post-reionization homogeneous kSZ signal is accounted for, we find an upper limit on the duration Δz < 5.4  at 95% CL.

  12. Measurements of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift z < ~0.3 from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Dilday, Benjamin; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Filippenko, Alexei V; Frieman, Joshua A; Galbany, Lluis; Garnavich, Peter M; Goobar, Ariel; Hopp, Ulrich; Ihara, Yutaka; Jha, Saurabh W; Kessler, Richard; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Molla, Mercedes; Nichol, Robert C; Nordin, Jakob; Riess, Adam G; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J Craig; Ostman, Linda; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The adopted sample of supernovae (SNe) includes 516 SNe Ia at redshift z \\lesssim 0.3, of which 270 (52%) are spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The remaining 246 SNe Ia were identified through their light curves; 113 of these objects have spectroscopic redshifts from spectra of their host galaxy, and 133 have photometric redshifts estimated from the SN light curves. Based on consideration of 87 spectroscopically confirmed non-Ia SNe discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey, we estimate that 2.04+1.61-0.95 % of the photometric SNe Ia may be misidentified. The sample of SNe Ia used in this measurement represents an order of magnitude increase in the statistics for SN Ia rate measurements in the redshift range covered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. If we assume a SN Ia rate that is constant at low redshift (z < 0.15), then the SN observations can be used t...

  13. Survey of Macrofungi (including Truffles in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roda F Al-Thani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen macrofungal genera belonging to 11 families and 7 orders were identified. These were isolated from different habitats (semi- desert, gardens, park, decayed roots of dead trees and under trees in Qatar. Macrofungi are defined here as ascomycetes and basidiomycetes with large, conspicuous spore-bearing structures that form above or beneath ground. This study indicated that the distribution of macrofungi is dependent on the plant community and the environmental conditions.

  14. The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: measuring the cosmic growth rate with the two-point galaxy correlation function

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, Carlos; Poole, Gregory B; Marin, Felipe; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick; Croom, Scott; Croton, Darren; Davis, Tamara M; Drinkwater, Michael J; Forster, Karl; Gilbank, David; Gladders, Mike; Glazebrook, Karl; Jelliffe, Ben; Jurek, Russell J; Li, I-hui; Madore, Barry; Martin, D Christopher; Pimbblet, Kevin; Pracy, Michael; Sharp, Rob; Wisnioski, Emily; Woods, David; Wyder, Ted K; Yee, H K C; 10.1093/mnras/sts608

    2013-01-01

    The growth history of large-scale structure in the Universe is a powerful probe of the cosmological model, including the nature of dark energy. We study the growth rate of cosmic structure to redshift $z = 0.9$ using more than $162{,}000$ galaxy redshifts from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We divide the data into four redshift slices with effective redshifts $z = [0.2,0.4,0.6,0.76]$ and in each of the samples measure and model the 2-point galaxy correlation function in parallel and transverse directions to the line-of-sight. After simultaneously fitting for the galaxy bias factor we recover values for the cosmic growth rate which are consistent with our assumed $\\Lambda$CDM input cosmological model, with an accuracy of around 20% in each redshift slice. We investigate the sensitivity of our results to the details of the assumed model and the range of physical scales fitted, making close comparison with a set of N-body simulations for calibration. Our measurements are consistent with an independent power-spe...

  15. Association between Measures of Women's Empowerment and Use of Modern Contraceptives: An Analysis of Nigeria's Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaolu, Ibitola O; Okafor, Chioma T; Ehiri, Jennifer C; Dreifuss, Heather M; Ehiri, John E

    2016-01-01

    Women's empowerment is hypothesized as a predictor of reproductive health outcomes. It is believed that empowered girls and women are more likely to delay marriage, plan their pregnancies, receive prenatal care, and have their childbirth attended by a skilled health provider. The objective of this study was to assess the association between women's empowerment and use of modern contraception among a representative sample of Nigerian women. This study used the 2003, 2008, and 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data. The analytic sample was restricted to 35,633 women who expressed no desire to have children within 2 years following each survey, were undecided about timing for children, and who reported no desire for more children. Measures of women's empowerment included their ability to partake in decisions pertaining to their healthcare, large household purchases, and visit to their family or relatives. Multivariable regression models adjusting for respondent's age at first birth, religion, education, wealth status, number of children, and geopolitical region were used to measure the association between empowerment and use of modern contraceptives. The proportion of women who participated in decisions to visit their relatives increased from 42.5% in 2003 to 50.6% in 2013. The prevalence of women involved in decision-making related to large household purchases increased from 24.3% in 2003 to 41.1% in 2013, while the proportion of those who partook in decision related to their health care increased from 28.4% in 2003 to 41.9% in 2013. Use of modern contraception was positively associated with women's participation in decisions related to large household purchases [2008: adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.01-1.31] and (2013; aOR = 1.60; 1.40-1.83), health care [2008: (aOR = 1.20; 1.04-1.39) and (2013; aOR = 1.39; 1.22-1.59)], and visiting family or relatives [2013; aOR = 1.58; 1.36-1.83]. The prevalence of modern contraceptive use

  16. Using patient reported outcome measures in health services: A qualitative study on including people with low literacy skills and learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahagirdar Deepa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs are self-report measures of health status increasingly promoted for use in healthcare quality improvement. However people with low literacy skills or learning disabilities may find PROMs hard to complete. Our study investigated stakeholder views on the accessibility and use of PROMs to develop suggestions for more inclusive practice. Methods Taking PROMs recommended for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as an example, we conducted 8 interviews with people with low literacy skills and/or learning disabilities, and 4 focus groups with 20 health professionals and people with COPD. Discussions covered the format and delivery of PROMs using the EQ-5D and St George Respiratory Questionnaire as prompts. Thematic framework analysis focused on three main themes: Accessibility, Ease of Use, and Contextual factors. Results Accessibility included issues concerning the questionnaire format, and suggestions for improvement included larger font sizes and more white space. Ease of Use included discussion about PROMs’ administration. While health professionals suggested PROMs could be completed in waiting rooms, patients preferred settings with more privacy and where they could access help from people they know. Contextual Factors included other challenges and wider issues associated with completing PROMs. While health professionals highlighted difficulties created by the system in managing patients with low literacy/learning disabilities, patient participants stressed that understanding the purpose of PROMs was important to reduce intimidation. Conclusions Adjusting PROMs’ format, giving an explicit choice of where patients can complete them, and clearly conveying PROMs’ purpose and benefit to patients may help to prevent inequality when using PROMs in health services.

  17. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Born Rita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were living in private households. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic, socioeconomic, healthcare-related and osteoporosis risk factors associated with BDM and OM utilisation. Results The lifetime prevalence of BDM was 25.6% (95% CI: 24.3-26.9% for women aged 40 years and older. BDM utilisation was associated with most sociodemographic factors, all the socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors, and with major osteoporosis risk factors analysed. The prevalence of current OM was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.0-8.6% and it was associated with some sociodemographic and most healthcare-related factors but only with one socioeconomic factor. Conclusions In Swiss women, ever having had a BDM and current OM were low and utilisation disparities exist according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors. This might foster further health inequalities. The reasons for these findings should be addressed in further studies of the elderly women, including those living in institutions.

  18. The impact of camera optical alignments on weak lensing measures for the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonik, M. L.; Bacon, D. J.; Bridle, S.; Doel, P.; Brooks, D.; Worswick, S.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, R.; DePoy, D.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gladders, M.; Gutierrez, G.; Jain, B.; Jarvis, M.; Kent, S. M.; Lahav, O.; Parker, S. -. J.; Roodman, A.; Walker, A. R.

    2013-04-10

    Telescope point spread function (PSF) quality is critical for realizing the potential of cosmic weak lensing observations to constrain dark energy and test general relativity. In this paper, we use quantitative weak gravitational lensing measures to inform the precision of lens optical alignment, with specific reference to the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We compute optics spot diagrams and calculate the shear and flexion of the PSF as a function of position on the focal plane. For perfect optical alignment, we verify the high quality of the DES optical design, finding a maximum PSF contribution to the weak lensing shear of 0.04 near the edge of the focal plane. However, this can be increased by a factor of approximately 3 if the lenses are only just aligned within their maximum specified tolerances. We calculate the E- and B-mode shear and flexion variance as a function of the decentre or tilt of each lens in turn. We find tilt accuracy to be a few times more important than decentre, depending on the lens considered. Finally, we consider the compound effect of decentre and tilt of multiple lenses simultaneously, by sampling from a plausible range of values of each parameter. We find that the compound effect can be around twice as detrimental as when considering any one lens alone. Furthermore, this combined effect changes the conclusions about which lens is most important to align accurately. For DES, the tilt of the first two lenses is the most important.

  19. The impact of camera optical alignments on weak lensing measures for the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Antonik, Michelle L; Bridle, Sarah; Doel, Peter; Brooks, David; Worswick, Sue; Bernstein, Gary; Bernstein, Rebecca; DePoy, Darren; Flaugher, Brenna; Frieman, Joshua A; Gladders, Michael; Gutierrez, Gaston; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Jarvis, Michael; Kent, Stephen M; Lahav, Ofer; Roodman, Aaron; Walker, Alistair R

    2012-01-01

    Telescope Point Spread Function (PSF) quality is critical for realising the potential of cosmic weak lensing observations to constrain dark energy and test General Relativity. In this paper we use quantitative weak gravitational lensing measures to inform the precision of lens optical alignment, with specific reference to the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We compute optics spot diagrams and calculate the shear and flexion of the PSF as a function of position on the focal plane. For perfect optical alignment we verify the high quality of the DES optical design, finding a maximum PSF contribution to the weak lensing shear of 0.04 near the edge of the focal plane. However this can be increased by a factor of approximately three if the lenses are only just aligned within their maximum specified tolerances. We calculate the E and B-mode shear and flexion variance as a function of de-centre or tilt of each lens in turn. We find tilt accuracy to be a few times more important than de-centre, depending on the lens conside...

  20. Measuring and testing the interview mode effect in mixed mode surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furio Camillo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies are showing an increased tendency to use more than one data collection mode for a particular survey. However, mixed data collection modes may influence responses given by interviewees and require researchers to verify if differences in responses, when present, are ascribable to the type of data collection mode. Often, random assignment is not feasible and requires researchers to solve an additional and not negligible problem, namely to verify if differences in responses are ascribable to the self selection or to the type of data collection mode being used. The aim of the present paper is to measure the mode effect on the answers using a new data driven multivariate approach, that allows to disentangle the interview mode effect on answers from the effect of self selection. We will work through the use of the new multivariate method with AlmaLaurea case concerning the evaluation of two different data collection methods: the CAWI (Computer Assisted Web Interviewing and the CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. As with any new statistical method, the success of this method depends on its efficacy in relation to that of the existing methods. Therefore, results of the multivariate approach will be compared to the Propensity Score method that AlmaLaurea usually applies to identify the presence of an interview mode effect. Both methods produce similar results.

  1. Determining the Measurement Quality of a Montessori High School Teacher Evaluation Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Philip Setari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct a psychometric validation of a course evaluation instrument, known as a student evaluation of teaching (SET, implemented in a Montessori high school. The authors demonstrate to the Montessori community how to rigorously examine the measurement and assessment quality of instruments used within Montessori schools. The Montessori high school community needs an SET that has been rigorously examined for measurement issues. The examined SET was developed by a Montessori high school, and the sample data were collected from Montessori high school students. Using a Rasch partial credit model, the results of the analysis identified several measurement issues, including multidimensionality, misfit items, and inappropriate item difficulty levels. A revised version of the SET underwent the same analysis procedure, and the results indicated that measurement issues persisted. The authors suggest several ways to improve the overall measurement quality of the instrument while keeping the Montessori foundation. Additional validation studies with a revised version of the SET will be needed before the instrument can be endorsed for full implementation in a Montessori setting.

  2. Measuring professionalism in medicine and nursing: results of a European survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombarts, Kiki M J M H; Plochg, Thomas; Thompson, Caroline A; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2014-01-01

    Leveraging professionalism has been put forward as a strategy to drive improvement of patient care. We investigate professionalism as a factor influencing the uptake of quality improvement activities by physicians and nurses working in European hospitals. To (i) investigate the reliability and validity of data yielded by using the self-developed professionalism measurement tool for physicians and nurses, (ii) describe their levels of professionalism displayed, and (iii) quantify the extent to which professional attitudes would predict professional behaviors. We designed and deployed survey instruments amongst 5920 physicians and nurses working in European hospitals. This was conducted under the cross-sectional multilevel study "Deepening Our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe" (DUQuE). We used psychometric and generalized linear mixed modelling techniques to address the aforementioned objectives. In all, 2067 (response rate 69.8%) physicians and 2805 nurses (94.8%) representing 74 hospitals in 7 European countries participated. The professionalism instrument revealed five subscales of professional attitude and one scale for professional behaviour with moderate to high internal consistency and reliability. Physicians and nurses display equally high professional attitude sum scores (11.8 and 11.9 respectively out of 16) but seem to have different perceptions towards separate professionalism aspects. Lastly, professionals displaying higher levels of professional attitudes were more involved in quality improvement actions (physicians: b = 0.019, Pnurses: b = 0.016, Pnurses - OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.23) or medical errors (physicians--OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.23; nurses - OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.22-1.67). Involvement in QI actions was found to increase the odds of reporting incompetence or medical errors. A tool that reliably and validly measures European physicians' and nurses' commitment to professionalism is now available. Collectively leveraging

  3. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Ωm0 from the galaxy clustering ratio measured at z ~ 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel, J.; Marinoni, C.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Branchini, E.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Iovino, A.; Percival, W. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Schlagenhaufer, H.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Di Porto, C.; Marchetti, A.; Mellier, Y.; Moscardini, L.; Nichol, R. C.; Phleps, S.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2014-03-01

    We use a sample of about 22 000 galaxies at 0.65 Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) Public Data Release 1 (PDR-1) catalogue, to constrain the cosmological model through a measurement of the galaxy clustering ratio ηg,R. This statistic has favourable properties, which is defined as the ratio of two quantities characterizing the smoothed density field in spheres of a given radius R: the value of its correlation function on a multiple of this scale, ξ(nR), and its variance σ2(R). For sufficiently large values of R, this is a universal number, which captures 2-point clustering information independently of the linear bias and linear redshift-space distortions of the specific galaxy tracers. In this paper, we discuss how to extend the application of ηg,R to quasi-linear scales and how to control and remove observational selection effects, which are typical of redshift surveys as VIPERS, in detail. We verify the accuracy and efficiency of these procedures using mock catalogues that match the survey selection process. These results show the robustness of ηg,R to non-linearities and observational effects, which is related to its very definition as a ratio of quantities that are similarly affected. At an effective redshift z = 0.93, we measured the value ηg,R(15) = 0.141 ± 0.013 at R = 5h-1 Mpc. Within a flat ΛCDM cosmology and by including the best available priors on H0, ns and baryon density, we obtain a matter density parameter at the current epoch Ωm,0 = 0.270-0.025+0.029. In addition to the great precision achieved on our estimation of Ωm using VIPERS PDR-1, this result is remarkable because it appears to be in good agreement with a recent estimate at z ≃ 0.3, which was obtained by applying the same technique to the SDSS-LRG catalogue. It, therefore, supports the robustness of the present analysis. Moreover, the combination of these two measurements at z ~ 0.3 and z ~ 0.9 provides us with a very precise estimate of Ωm,0 = 0.274 ± 0.017, which

  4. Preliminary Survey of Icing Conditions Measured During Routine Transcontinental Airline Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Porter J.

    1952-01-01

    Icing data collected on routine operations by four DC-4-type aircraft equipped with NACA pressure-type icing-rate meters are presented as preliminary information obtained from a statistical icing data program sponsored by the NACA with the cooperation of many airline companies and the United States Air Force. The program is continuing on a much greater scale to provide large quantities of data from many air routes in the United States and overseas. Areas not covered by established air routes are also being included in the survey. The four aircraft which collected the data presented in this report were operated by United Air Lines over a transcontinental route from January through May, 1951. An analysis of the pressure-type icing-rate meter was satisfactory for collecting statistical data during routine operations. Data obtained on routine flight icing encounters from.these four instrumented aircraft, although insufficient for a conclusive statistical analysis, provide a greater quantity and considerably more realistic information than that obtained from random research flights. A summary of statistical data will be published when the information obtained daring the 1951-52 icing season and that to be obtained during the 1952-53 season can be analyzed and assembled. The 1951-52 data already analyzed indicate that the quantity, quality, and range of icing information being provided by this expanded program should afford a sound basis for ice-protection-system design by defining the important meteorological parameters of the icing cloud.

  5. Measurer’s Handbook: US Army and Marine Corps Anthropometric Surveys, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    the final production, and assured the quality of its final appearance. The authors gratefully acknowledge all these individuals. viii...conducted in 1966. The USMC has most recently been using statistically matched Army anthropometric data for design, sizing and tariffing . However...of these surveys depends , another critical component in the effort is the anthropometric survey participant. Cooperation from the participant will

  6. Measuring Altruistic Behavior in Surveys: The All-or-Nothing Dictator Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Bekkers

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A field study of altruistic behaviour is presented using a modification of the dictator game in a large random sample survey in the netherlands (n=1,964. In line with laboratory experiments, only 5.7% donated money. In line with other survey research on giving, generosity increased with age, education, income, trust, and prosocial value orientation.

  7. Measuring Altruistic Behavior in Surveys : The All-or-Nothing Dictator Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2007-01-01

    A field study of altruistic behaviour is presented using a modification of the dictator game in a large random sample survey in the Netherlands (n=1,964). In line with laboratory experiments, only 5.7% donated money. In line with other survey research on giving, generosity increased with age, educat

  8. Measuring Risk Aversion for Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Results of Contingent Valuation Survey in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Within the evaluation of the external cost of nuclear energy, the estimation of the external cost of nuclear power plant (NPP) severe accident is one of the major topics to be addressed. For the evaluation of the external cost of NPP severe accident, the effect of public risk averse behavior against the group accidents, such as NPP accident, dam failure, must be addressed. Although the equivalent fatalities from a single group accident are not common and its risk is very small compared to other accidents, people perceive the group accident more seriously. In other words, people are more concerned about low probability/high consequence events than about high probability/low consequence events having the same mean damage. One of the representative method to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of severe nuclear reactor accidents was developed by Eeckoudt et al., and he used the risk aversion coefficient, mainly based on the analysis of financial risks in the stock markets to evaluate the external cost of nuclear severe accident. However, the use of financial risk aversion coefficient to nuclear severe accidents is not appropriate, because financial risk and nuclear severe accident risk are entirely different. In this paper, the individual-level survey was conducted to measure the risk aversion coefficient and estimate the multiplication factor to integrate the risk aversion in the external costs of NPP severe accident. This study propose an integrated framework on estimation of the external cost associated with severe accidents of NPP considering public risk aversion behavior. The theoretical framework to estimate the risk aversion coefficient/multiplication factor and to assess economic damages from a hypothetical NPP accident was constructed. Based on the theoretical framework, the risk aversion coefficient can be analyzed by conducting public survey with a carefully designed lottery questions. Compared to the previous studies on estimation of the

  9. Diagnosis, prevalence estimation and burden measurement in population surveys of headache: presenting the HARDSHIP questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Timothy J; Gururaj, Gopalakrishna; Andrée, Colette; Katsarava, Zaza; Ayzenberg, Ilya; Yu, Sheng-Yuan; Al Jumah, Mohammed; Tekle-Haimanot, Redda; Birbeck, Gretchen L; Herekar, Arif; Linde, Mattias; Mbewe, Edouard; Manandhar, Kedar; Risal, Ajay; Jensen, Rigmor; Queiroz, Luiz Paulo; Scher, Ann I; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Stovner, Lars Jacob

    2014-01-08

    The global burden of headache is very large, but knowledge of it is far from complete and needs still to be gathered. Published population-based studies have used variable methodology, which has influenced findings and made comparisons difficult. The Global Campaign against Headache is undertaking initiatives to improve and standardize methods in use for cross-sectional studies. One requirement is for a survey instrument with proven cross-cultural validity. This report describes the development of such an instrument. Two of the authors developed the initial version, which was used with adaptations in population-based studies in China, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Zambia and 10 countries in the European Union. The resultant evolution of this instrument was reviewed by an expert consensus group drawn from all world regions. The final output was the Headache-Attributed Restriction, Disability, Social Handicap and Impaired Participation (HARDSHIP) questionnaire, designed for application by trained lay interviewers. HARDSHIP is a modular instrument incorporating demographic enquiry, diagnostic questions based on ICHD-3 beta criteria, and enquiries into each of the following as components of headache-attributed burden: symptom burden; health-care utilization; disability and productive time losses; impact on education, career and earnings; perception of control; interictal burden; overall individual burden; effects on relationships and family dynamics; effects on others, including household partner and children; quality of life; wellbeing; obesity as a comorbidity. HARDSHIP already has demonstrated validity and acceptability in multiple languages and cultures. Modules may be included or not, and others (e.g., on additional comorbidities) added, according to the purpose of the study and resources (especially time) available.

  10. An outdoor radon survey and minimizing the uncertainties in low level measurements using CR-39 detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, G A; Pollard, D; Finch, E C

    2014-06-01

    Long term outdoor radon measurements were recorded in Ireland using CR-39 track etch detectors. A measurement protocol was designed for this study, which was optimized for the relatively low radon concentrations expected outdoors. This protocol included pre-etching the detectors before exposure to allow radon tracks to be more easily distinguished from background. The average outdoor radon concentration for the Republic of Ireland was found to be 5.6 ± 0.7 Bq m(-3). A statistically significant difference between inland and coastal radon concentrations was evident but no difference between mean radon concentrations on the east coast and those on the west coast was observed.

  11. Sources of measurement variation in blood pressure in large-scale epidemiological surveys with follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm

    2002-01-01

    The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) is a longitudinal epidemiological study of 19698 subjects followed up since 1976. Variation in blood pressure (BP) measurement in the first three CCHS surveys is evaluated by assessing two components, systematic variation and random variation [daytime...

  12. Perceived problems with computer gaming and internet use among adolescents: measurement tool for non-clinical survey studies

    OpenAIRE

    Holstein, Bjørn E.; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Bendtsen, Pernille; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Meilstrup, Charlotte Riebeling; Nielsen, Line; Rasmussen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing instruments for measuring problematic computer and console gaming and internet use are often lengthy and often based on a pathological perspective. The objective was to develop and present a new and short non-clinical measurement tool for perceived problems related to computer use and gaming among adolescents and to study the association between screen time and perceived problems. Methods Cross-sectional school-survey of 11-, 13-, and 15-year old students in thirteen schoo...

  13. Measurements of gear and environmental parameters during surveys with the GOV trawl

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, P.A.M; Rivoirard, J

    1997-01-01

    .... To investigate the catching performance of the GOV trawl, data were collected on 11 surveys. It was thought that catch would depend mainly on fishing ground, depth, year, swept volume, towing speed, water temperature and light intensity...

  14. Measuring patient experiences with diabetes care in The Netherlands: the validity of a new survey instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbroek, G. ten; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Arah, O.A.; Sixma, H.; Koning, J.S. de; Rupp, I.; Poll, A.; Stam, P.J.A.; Schmidt, P.; Vriens, B.; Klazinga, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The introduction of market mechanisms in Dutch healthcare engages insurance companies in competition. Patient experience surveys are increasingly applied to generate performance information guiding consumers and insurers to choose and contract high performers, as well as holding them acc

  15. Measuring professionalism in medicine and nursing: results of a European survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiki M J M H Lombarts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leveraging professionalism has been put forward as a strategy to drive improvement of patient care. We investigate professionalism as a factor influencing the uptake of quality improvement activities by physicians and nurses working in European hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To (i investigate the reliability and validity of data yielded by using the self-developed professionalism measurement tool for physicians and nurses, (ii describe their levels of professionalism displayed, and (iii quantify the extent to which professional attitudes would predict professional behaviors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We designed and deployed survey instruments amongst 5920 physicians and nurses working in European hospitals. This was conducted under the cross-sectional multilevel study "Deepening Our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe" (DUQuE. We used psychometric and generalized linear mixed modelling techniques to address the aforementioned objectives. RESULTS: In all, 2067 (response rate 69.8% physicians and 2805 nurses (94.8% representing 74 hospitals in 7 European countries participated. The professionalism instrument revealed five subscales of professional attitude and one scale for professional behaviour with moderate to high internal consistency and reliability. Physicians and nurses display equally high professional attitude sum scores (11.8 and 11.9 respectively out of 16 but seem to have different perceptions towards separate professionalism aspects. Lastly, professionals displaying higher levels of professional attitudes were more involved in quality improvement actions (physicians: b = 0.019, P<0.0001; nurses: b = 0.016, P<0.0001 and more inclined to report colleagues' underperformance (physicians--odds ratio (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24; nurses - OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.23 or medical errors (physicians--OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.23; nurses - OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.22-1.67. Involvement in QI actions was found to increase the odds of

  16. Doctoral training in statistics, measurement, and methodology in psychology: replication and extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) survey of PhD programs in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Leona S; West, Stephen G; Millsap, Roger E

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD programs (86%) participated. This survey replicated and extended a previous survey (L. S. Aiken, S. G. West, L. B. Sechrest, & R. R. Reno, 1990), permitting examination of curriculum development. Most training supported laboratory and not field research. The median of 1.6 years of training in statistics and measurement was mainly devoted to the modally 1-year introductory statistics course, leaving little room for advanced study. Curricular enhancements were noted in statistics and to a minor degree in measurement. Additional coverage of both fundamental and innovative quantitative methodology is needed. The research design curriculum has largely stagnated, a cause for great concern. Elite programs showed no overall advantage in quantitative training. Forces that support curricular innovation are characterized. Human capital challenges to quantitative training, including recruiting and supporting young quantitative faculty, are discussed. Steps must be taken to bring innovations in quantitative methodology into the curriculum of PhD programs in psychology.

  17. Investigation on Indoor Air Pollution and Childhood Allergies in Households in Six Chinese Cities by Subjective Survey and Field Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinhua; Li, Nianping; Lv, Yang; Liu, Jing; Xie, Jingchao; Zhang, Huibo

    2017-08-29

    Greater attention is currently being paid to the relationship between indoor environment and childhood allergies, however, the lack of reliable data and the disparity among different areas hinders reliable assessment of the relationship. This study focuses on the effect of indoor pollution on Chinese schoolchildren and the relationship between specific household and health problems suffered. The epidemiological questionnaire survey and the field measurement of the indoor thermal environment and primary air pollutants including CO₂, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), chemical pollutants and fungi were performed in six Chinese cities. A total of 912 questionnaires were eligible for statistical analyses and sixty houses with schoolchildren aged 9-12 were selected for field investigation. Compared with Chinese national standards, inappropriate indoor relative humidity (70%), CO₂ concentration exceeding 1000 ppm and high PM2.5 levels were found in some monitored houses. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the most frequently detected semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in house dust. Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were detected in both indoor air and house dust. This study indicates that a thermal environment with CO₂ exceeding 1000 ppm, DEHP and DBP exceeding 1000 μg/g, and high level of PM2.5, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium increases the risk of children's allergies.

  18. Cardiovascular health metrics and accelerometer-measured physical activity levels: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Tiago V; Harrington, Deirdre M; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether relationships exist between accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and other cardiovascular (CV) health metrics in a large sample. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006, were used. Overall, 3454 nonpregnant adults 20 years or older who fasted for 6 hours or longer, with valid accelerometer data and with CV health metrics, were included in the study. Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), smoking status, diet, fasting plasma glucose level, and total cholesterol level were defined as ideal, intermediate, and poor on the basis of American Heart Association criteria. Results were weighted to account for sampling design, oversampling, and nonresponse. Significant increasing linear trends in mean daily MVPA were observed across CV health levels for BMI, BP, and fasting plasma glucose (Pfasting plasma glucose level had significantly lower mean daily MVPA than individuals at the ideal levels (Pphysical activity in the overall definition of ideal CV health. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation on Indoor Air Pollution and Childhood Allergies in Households in Six Chinese Cities by Subjective Survey and Field Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Greater attention is currently being paid to the relationship between indoor environment and childhood allergies, however, the lack of reliable data and the disparity among different areas hinders reliable assessment of the relationship. This study focuses on the effect of indoor pollution on Chinese schoolchildren and the relationship between specific household and health problems suffered. The epidemiological questionnaire survey and the field measurement of the indoor thermal environment and primary air pollutants including CO2, fine particulate matter (PM2.5, chemical pollutants and fungi were performed in six Chinese cities. A total of 912 questionnaires were eligible for statistical analyses and sixty houses with schoolchildren aged 9–12 were selected for field investigation. Compared with Chinese national standards, inappropriate indoor relative humidity (<30% or >70%, CO2 concentration exceeding 1000 ppm and high PM2.5 levels were found in some monitored houses. Di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP were the most frequently detected semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs in house dust. Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium were detected in both indoor air and house dust. This study indicates that a thermal environment with CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm, DEHP and DBP exceeding 1000 μg/g, and high level of PM2.5, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Penicillium increases the risk of children’s allergies.

  20. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion Observation Activities of The MarDiM (SATREPS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Aksahin, Bengi; Arslan, Safa; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2015-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul and Tekirdag province at about 81 sites on October 2013 and September 2014. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A2) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374A2) consist of three servo

  1. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion observation activities of The SATREPS, MarDiM project -Part 2-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Seckin; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Arslan, Safa; Aksahin, Bengi; Hatayama, Ken; Ohori, Michihiro; Hori, Muneo

    2016-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Tekirdag, Canakkale and Edirne provinces at about 109 sites on October 2013, September 2014 and 2015. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor (CV-374

  2. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion observation activities of The SATREPS, MarDiM project -Part 3-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Seckin; Safa Arslan, Mehmet; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Behiye Aksahin, Bengi; Hatayama, Ken; Sahin, Abdurrahman; Ohori, Michihiro; Safak, Erdal; Hori, Muneo

    2017-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Tekirdag, Canakkale and Edirne provinces at about 140 sites on October 2013, September 2014, 2015 and 2016. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor

  3. Uncertainty in measurement: a review of monte carlo simulation using microsoft excel for the calculation of uncertainties through functional relationships, including uncertainties in empirically derived constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrance, Ian; Frenkel, Robert

    2014-02-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (usually referred to as the GUM) provides the basic framework for evaluating uncertainty in measurement. The GUM however does not always provide clearly identifiable procedures suitable for medical laboratory applications, particularly when internal quality control (IQC) is used to derive most of the uncertainty estimates. The GUM modelling approach requires advanced mathematical skills for many of its procedures, but Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) can be used as an alternative for many medical laboratory applications. In particular, calculations for determining how uncertainties in the input quantities to a functional relationship propagate through to the output can be accomplished using a readily available spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. The MCS procedure uses algorithmically generated pseudo-random numbers which are then forced to follow a prescribed probability distribution. When IQC data provide the uncertainty estimates the normal (Gaussian) distribution is generally considered appropriate, but MCS is by no means restricted to this particular case. With input variations simulated by random numbers, the functional relationship then provides the corresponding variations in the output in a manner which also provides its probability distribution. The MCS procedure thus provides output uncertainty estimates without the need for the differential equations associated with GUM modelling. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the ease with which Microsoft Excel (or a similar spreadsheet) can be used to provide an uncertainty estimate for measurands derived through a functional relationship. In addition, we also consider the relatively common situation where an empirically derived formula includes one or more 'constants', each of which has an empirically derived numerical value. Such empirically derived 'constants' must also have associated uncertainties which propagate through the functional relationship

  4. Simulation and measurement of complete dye sensitised solar cells: including the influence of trapping, electrolyte, oxidised dyes and light intensity on steady state and transient device behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Piers R F; Anderson, Assaf Y; Durrant, James R; O'Regan, Brian C

    2011-04-07

    A numerical model of the dye sensitised solar cell (DSSC) is used to assess the importance of different loss pathways under various operational conditions. Based on our current understanding, the simulation describes the processes of injection, regeneration, recombination and transport of electrons, oxidised dye molecules and electrolyte within complete devices to give both time dependent and independent descriptions of performance. The results indicate that the flux of electrons lost from the nanocrystalline TiO(2) film is typically at least twice as large under conditions equivalent to 1 sun relative to dark conditions at matched TiO(2) charge concentration. This is in agreement with experimental observations (Barnes et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. [DOI: 10.1039/c0cp01855d]). The simulated difference in recombination flux is shown to be due to variation in the concentration profile of electron accepting species in the TiO(2) pores between light and dark conditions and to recombination to oxidised dyes in the light. The model is able to easily incorporate non-ideal behaviour of a cell such as the variation of open circuit potential with light intensity and non-first order recombination of conduction band electrons. The time dependent simulations, described by the multiple trapping model of electron transport and recombination, show good agreement with both small and large transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements at open circuit, including photovoltage rise measurements. The simulation of photovoltage rise also suggests the possibility of assessing the interfacial resistance between the TiO(2) and substrate. When cells with a short diffusion length relative to film thickness were modelled, the simulated small perturbation photocurrent transients at short circuit (but not open circuit) yielded significantly higher effective diffusion coefficients than expected from the mean concentration of electrons and the electrolyte in the cell. This implies that

  5. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  6. Approximations to the Truth: Comparing Survey and Microsimulation Approaches to Measuring Income for Social Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figari, Francesco; Iacovou, Maria; Skew, Alexandra J.; Sutherland, Holly

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate income distributions in four European countries (Austria, Italy, Spain and Hungary) using two complementary approaches: a standard approach based on reported incomes in survey data, and a microsimulation approach, where taxes and benefits are simulated. These two approaches may be expected to generate slightly different…

  7. Beyond Logs and Surveys: In-Depth Measures of People's Web Use Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargittai, Eszter

    2002-01-01

    Examines how people find information online in the context of their other media use and general Internet use patterns, and uses information about demographic background and social support networks. Describes the methodology, and suggests a mix of survey instruments and in-person observations can yield the type of data necessary to understand the…

  8. Assessment of the Measurement Properties of the NHCAHPS Family Survey: A Rasch Scaling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS), a family of survey instruments designed to capture and report people's experiences obtaining health care could soon add satisfaction as a consistent dimension of quality that skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) are required to assess and report. The SNF setting…

  9. Measuring subjective response to aircraft noise: The effects of survey context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    In applied research, noise annoyance is often used as indicator of subjective reaction to aircraft noise in residential areas. The present study aims to show that the meaning which respondents attach to the concept of aircraft noise annoyance is partly a function of survey context. To this purpose a

  10. Differentiation of three common deep-water hermit crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura, Parapaguridae from the South African demersal abundance surveys, including the description of a new species of Paragiopagurus Lemaitre, 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannes Landschoff

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep-water hermit crabs of the family Parapaguridae can be abundant (up to 20 kg or 1000 hermit crab individuals per haul in the trawl bycatch collected during South African demersal abundance research surveys. Until recently, only two parapagurid species had been recognized in the bycatch; Parapagurus bouvieri Stebbing, 1910, and Sympagurus dimorphus (Studer, 1883. Detailed examination of numerous samples of parapagurid specimens from research surveys revealed the existence of a third, undescribed species previously confounded with S. dimorphus, but in fact belonging to a different genus. This new species, Paragiopagurus atkinsonae sp. n. is the 25th in the genus Paragiopagurus Lemaitre, 1996, and has been found only in a small region on the West Coast shelf of South Africa, at depths of 199–277 m. The species is herein fully described and illustrated, including colour images, µCT scans of selected body parts, and CO1 barcode data. The new species is morphologically most similar to P. ventilatus Lemaitre, 2004, a species associated with hydrothermal vents, but differs in armature of the fourth antennal segment (armed with a spine on the dorsolateral distal angle vs. unarmed in P. ventilatus; setation of the antennal flagella (nearly naked vs. with dense setae in P. ventilatus; plumose setation on the third maxillipeds and basal segments of chelipeds (absent vs. present in P. ventilatus; number of rows of scales on the propodal rasp of pereopod 4 (two or three rows vs. one row in P. ventilatus; and degree of telson asymmetry (weakly asymmetrical vs. strongly asymmetrical in P. ventilatus. Paragiopagurus atkinsonae sp. n. is superficially similar to S. dimorphus, with males of the two species showing the same extreme degree of sexual dimorphism on the right cheliped, general light orange colouration, and frequent use of colonial zoanthid carcinoecia for pleonal protection. To aid in future identifications and to facilitate data gathering

  11. Measuring personal beliefs and perceived norms about intimate partner violence: Population-based survey experiment in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Kakuhikire, Bernard; Perkins, Jessica M; Vořechovská, Dagmar; McDonough, Amy Q; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; Downey, Jordan M; Bangsberg, David R

    2017-05-01

    Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue. We embedded a randomized survey experiment in a population-based survey of 1,334 adult men and women living in Nyakabare Parish, Mbarara, Uganda. The primary outcomes were participants' personal beliefs about the acceptability of intimate partner violence and perceived norms about intimate partner violence in the community. To elicit participants' personal beliefs and perceived norms, we asked about the acceptability of intimate partner violence in five different vignettes. Study participants were randomly assigned to one of three survey instruments, each of which contained varying levels of detail about the extent to which the wife depicted in the vignette intentionally or unintentionally violated gendered standards of behavior. For the questions about personal beliefs, the mean (standard deviation) number of items where intimate partner violence was endorsed as acceptable was 1.26 (1.58) among participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant (which contained little contextual detail about the wife's intentions), 2.74 (1.81) among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as intentionally violating gendered standards of behavior, and 0.77 (1.19) among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as unintentionally violating these standards. In a partial proportional odds regression model adjusting for sex and village of residence, with participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant as the referent group, participants assigned the survey variant

  12. Measuring the prevalence and impact of poor menstrual hygiene management: a quantitative survey of schoolgirls in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie; Dolan, Catherine; Wu, Maryalice; Scott, Linda; Montgomery, Paul

    2016-12-30

    The primary objective was to describe Ugandan schoolgirls' menstrual hygiene management (MHM) practices and estimate the prevalence of inadequate MHM. Second, to assess the relative contribution of aspects of MHM to health, education and psychosocial outcomes. Secondary analysis of survey data collected as part of the final follow-up from a controlled trial of reusable sanitary pad and puberty education provision was used to provide a cross-sectional description of girls' MHM practices and assess relationships with outcomes. Rural primary schools in the Kamuli district, Uganda. Participants were 205 menstruating schoolgirls (10-19 years) from the eight study sites. The prevalence of adequate MHM, consistent with the concept definition, was estimated using dimensions of absorbent used, frequency of absorbent change, washing and drying procedures and privacy. Self-reported health, education (school attendance and engagement) and psychosocial (shame, insecurity, embarrassment) outcomes hypothesised to result from poor MHM were assessed as primary outcomes. Outcomes were measured through English surveys loaded on iPads and administered verbally in the local language. 90.5% (95% CI 85.6% to 93.9%) of girls failed to meet available criteria for adequate MHM, with no significant difference between those using reusable sanitary pads (88.9%, 95% CI 79.0% to 94.4%) and those using existing methods, predominantly cloth (91.5%, 95% CI 85.1% to 95.3%; χ(2) (1)=0.12, p=0.729). Aspects of MHM predicted some consequences including shame, not standing in class to answer questions and concerns about odour. This study was the first to assess the prevalence of MHM consistent with the concept definition. Results suggest that when all aspects of menstrual hygiene are considered together, the prevalence is much higher than has previously been reported based on absorbents alone. The work demonstrates an urgent need for improved assessment and reporting of MHM, and for primary research

  13. Measuring Nurses' Value, Implementation, and Knowledge of Evidence-Based Practice: Further Psychometric Testing of the Quick-EBP-VIK Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Linda; Paul, Fiona; McCabe, Margaret; Ziniel, Sonja

    2017-02-01

    The Quick-EBP-VIK is a new instrument for measuring nurses' value, implementation, and knowledge of EBP. Psychometric testing was conducted in two parts. Part 1 describes the tool development and validity testing which resulted in the development of a 25-item survey after receiving ≥0.80 Item-Level Content Validity Index for both clarity and relevance. Part 2 describes psychometric testing was necessary to assess additional types of validity and reliability. The purpose of this paper is to further describe the psychometric testing of the Quick-EBP-VIK survey instrument. This descriptive study was designed to assess test-retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity via a web-based survey. The survey instrument was e-mailed to all nurses at the study hospital. Nurses who responded to the first survey (Wave 1) received another e-mail invitation to complete the survey instrument again (Wave 2) for the purpose of assessing the test-retest reliability of the instrument. A total of 1,177 deliverable e-mails were sent to all nursing staff at one free standing pediatric hospital with Magnet(®) designation in the northeast. A total of 382 nurses returned completed surveys, indicating a 32.5% response rate for Wave 1. A total of 131 nurses responded to Wave 2 indicating a response rate of 34.3%. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the items included in the final instrument ranged from 0.43 to 0.80 and were deemed sufficient. These represent a sufficient intraclass correlation coefficient. The Cronbach's Alpha values for each of the three domains are all higher than 0.7 indicating that the items of each of the measurement dimension are internally consistent. However, the composite reliability of the third domain was slightly lower than 0.7 when using Raykov's Rho. The Quick-EBP-VIK instrument has gone through rigorous comprehensive testing and has demonstrated good psychometric properties. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z Q J; Lowhorn, N D; Wong-Ng, W; Zhang, W; Thomas, E L; Otani, M; Green, M L; Tran, T N; Caylor, C; Dilley, N R; Downey, A; Edwards, B; Elsner, N; Ghamaty, S; Hogan, T; Jie, Q; Li, Q; Martin, J; Nolas, G; Obara, H; Sharp, J; Venkatasubramanian, R; Willigan, R; Yang, J; Tritt, T

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™) for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials-undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy). Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  15. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu, Z. Q. J.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™ for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials—undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy. Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  16. Measuring children's self-reported sport participation, risk perception and injury history: development and validation of a survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F

    2011-01-01

    Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed.

  17. Construct and predictive validity of three measures of intention to quit smoking: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Karin; Candel, Math J J M; Nagelhout, Gera E; Brown, Jamie; van den Putte, Bas; Kotz, Daniel; Willemsen, Marc C; Fong, Geoffrey T; West, Robert; de Vries, Hein

    2017-05-03

    The aim of the study was to compare the construct validity and the predictive validity of three instruments to measure intention to quit smoking: a Stages of Change measure, the Motivation To Stop Scale (MTSS) and a Likert scale. We used the Theory of Planned Behaviour as theoretical framework. We used data from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. We included smokers who participated in three consecutive survey waves (n=980). We measured attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control in 2012, intention to quit with three instruments in 2013, and having made a quit attempt in the last year in 2014. We conducted Structural Equation Modelling with three models for the instruments of intention separately, and with one model that included the three instruments simultaneously. All three instruments of intention were significantly and positively related to attitude and perceived behavioural control but none was related to subjective norm. All three instruments were significantly and positively related to making a quit attempt. The relation of the Likert scale with making a quit attempt (β=0.38) was somewhat stronger than that of the Stages of Change measure (β=0.35) and the MTSS (β=0.22). When entering the three instruments together into one model, only the Likert scale was significantly related to making a quit attempt. All three instruments showed reasonable construct validity and comparable predictive validity. Under the studied conditions, the Likert scale performed slightly better than the Stages of Change measure and the MTSS. An assessment of the Stages of Change, the Motivation To Stop Scale (MTSS) and a Likert scale showed comparable predictive and construct validity as measures for intention to quit smoking. All three instruments can be used in future research; however, under the studied theoretical framework, i.e. the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the Likert scale performed slightly better than the other two instruments.

  18. The impact of frequency rating scale formats on the measurement of latent variables in web surveys - an experimental investigation using a measure of affectivity as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menold Natalja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of verbal and/or numerical labeling and number of categories on the measurement of latent variables in web surveys are addressed. Data were collected online in a quota sample of the German adult population (N = 741. A randomized 2x2x2 experimental design was applied, with variation of the number of categories, as well as of verbal and numerical labeling, using an abbreviated version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS. Experimental manipulation of the rating scale formats resulted in an effect on measurement model testing and reliability, as well as on factorial and convergent validity. In addition, measurement invariance between several rating scale formats was limited. With the five category end verbalized and fully labeled seven category formats, acceptable results for all measurement quality metrics could be obtained.

  19. Consistency and validity of self-reporting scores in stress measurement surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Khalid; Ahmed, Beena; Choi, Jongyong; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Stress has been attributed to physiological and psychological demands that exceed the natural regulatory capacity of a person. Chronic stress is not only a catalyst for diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, insomnia but may also lead to social problems such as marriage breakups, suicide and violence. Objective assessment of stress is difficult so self-reports are commonly used to indicate the severity of stress. However, empirical information on the validity of self-reports is limited. The present study investigated the authenticity and validity of different self-report surveys. An analysis, based on a three-pronged strategy, was performed on these surveys. It was concluded that although subjects are prone to systematic error in reporting, self-reports can provide a useful substitute for data modeling specifically in stress evaluation where other objective assessments such as determination of stress using only physiological response are difficult.

  20. Measuring Large-Scale Structure at z ~ 1 with the VIPERS galaxy survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) is the largest redshift survey ever conducted with the ESO telescopes. It has used the Very Large Telescope to collect nearly 100,000 redshifts from the general galaxy population at 0.5 properties and the relation of the latter to large-scale structure. This paper presents an overview of the galaxy clustering results obtained so far, together with their cosmological implications. Most of these are based on the ~ 55,000 galaxies forming the first public data release (PDR-1). As of January 2015, observations and data reduction are complete and the final data set of more than 90,000 redshifts is being validated and made ready for the final investigations.

  1. Measurements of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift z < ~0.3 from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Smith, Mathew; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /Portsmouth U.; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; /UC, Berkeley; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The adopted sample of supernovae (SNe) includes 516 SNe Ia at redshift z {approx}< 0.3, of which 270 (52%) are spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The remaining 246 SNe Ia were identified through their light curves; 113 of these objects have spectroscopic redshifts from spectra of their host galaxy, and 133 have photometric redshifts estimated from the SN light curves. Based on consideration of 87 spectroscopically confirmed non-Ia SNe discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey, we estimate that 2.04{sub -0.95}{sup +1.61}% of the photometric SNe Ia may be misidentified. The sample of SNe Ia used in this measurement represents an order of magnitude increase in the statistics for SN Ia rate measurements in the redshift range covered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. If we assume a SN Ia rate that is constant at low redshift (z < 0.15), then the SN observations can be used to infer a value of the SN rate of r{sub V} = (2.69{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.34+0.21}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} at a mean redshift of {approx} 0.12, based on 79 SNe Ia of which 72 are spectroscopically confirmed. However, the large sample of SNe Ia included in this study allows us to place constraints on the redshift dependence of the SN Ia rate based on the SDSS-II Supernova Survey data alone. Fitting a power-law model of the SN rate evolution, r{sub V} (z) = A{sub p} x ((1+z)/(1+z{sub 0})){sup {nu}}, over the redshift range 0.0 < z < 0.3 with z{sub 0} = 0.21, results in A{sub p} = (3.43{sub -0.15}{sup +0.15}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} and {nu} = 2.04{sub -0.89}{sup +0.90}.

  2. Do 360-degree Feedback Survey Results Relate to Patient Satisfaction Measures?

    OpenAIRE

    Hageman, Michiel G. J. S.; Ring, David C.; Gregory, Paul J.; Rubash, Harry E.; Harmon, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Background There is evidence that feedback from 360-degree surveys—combined with coaching—can improve physician team performance and quality of patient care. The Physicians Universal Leadership-Teamwork Skills Education (PULSE) 360 is one such survey tool that is used to assess work colleagues’ and coworkers’ perceptions of a physician’s leadership, teamwork, and clinical practice style. The Clinician & Group-Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System (CG-CAHPS), developed by the ...

  3. Discharge measurement in tidally affected channels during a hydrographic estuarine survey of Sabine Lake, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, David D.; Solis, R.S.; Ockerman, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    A hydrographic survey of Sabine Lake, a broad, shallow estuary lying on the Texas-Louisiana border, was conducted in June 1996 to help address questions relating to potential environmental effects of future water demands in Texas. The use of a variety of new instruments in this study is one means by which automation is improving efficiency and effectiveness of these efforts by increasing the quality and quantity of data collected.

  4. Measuring child mortality from maternity histories collected at time of childbirth. Case of the EMIS surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbacke, C S

    1991-01-01

    A researcher has developed a new research methodology to indirectly estimate infant mortality using data from conditional samples which usually are from hospitals or health centers. This methodology is different from other similar methodologies in that it groups mothers by parity instead of age or marital duration. Parity is used since it is more likely to be accurately mortality levels by the mean length of the birth interval. Mortality patterns are not sensitive to the length of the birth interval. He uses data from the 1983 EMIS follow up survey conducted in Bobodioulasso, Burkina Faso and 1919, 1924, and 1933 data from birth registration areas in the United States to demonstrate the new methodology. The methodology shows that the estimated infant mortality rate (IMR) remained basically the same between 1968-1974 in Bobodioulasso (199-122) and began to fall in 1975. By 1983, it had fallen to 88. These results reflect the estimate from the EMIS survey. The methodology demonstrates that, in the US, estimated trends in IMR agreed with observed IMRs. The new methodology derived IMRs fell in the US between 1919-1932 from 92.8-65.5. Since maternity clinics and hospitals in many Sub-Saharan African countries maintain records with answers to routine questions, the new methodology can analyze these data to determine infant mortality trends. Yet conditional samples are not necessarily representative of the whole population. Thus researchers could apply data from unconditional samples such as those from the World Fertility Survey and the Demographic and Health Surveys to a variety of indirect estimation methods discussed in this report to complement the estimated trends of the conditional samples.

  5. Measuring stigma among abortion providers: assessing the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Debbink, Michelle; Hassinger, Jane; Youatt, Emily; Eagen-Torkko, Meghan; Harris, Lisa H

    2014-01-01

    We explored the psychometric properties of 15 survey questions that assessed abortion providers' perceptions of stigma and its impact on providers' professional and personal lives referred to as the Abortion Provider Stigma Survey (APSS). We administered the survey to a sample of abortion providers recruited for the Providers' Share Workshop (N = 55). We then completed analyses using Stata SE/12.0. Exploratory factor analysis, which resulted in 13 retained items and identified three subscales: disclosure management, resistance and resilience, and discrimination. Stigma was salient in abortion provider's lives: they identified difficulties surrounding disclosure (66%) and felt unappreciated by society (89%). Simultaneously, workers felt they made a positive contribution to society (92%) and took pride in their work (98%). Paired t-test analyses of the pre- and post-Workshop APSS scores showed no changes in the total score. However, the Disclosure Management subscale scores were significantly lower (indicating decreased stigma) for two subgroups of participants: those over the age of 30 and those with children. This analysis is a promising first step in the development of a quantitative tool for capturing abortion providers' experiences of and responses to pervasive abortion stigma.

  6. The Supernova Legacy Survey: Measurement of Omega_M, Omega_Lambda,and w from the First Year Data Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astier, P.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Pain, R.; Aubourg, E.; Balam,D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R.G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J.D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Courtois, H.; Ellis, R.S.; Filiol, M.; Goncalves, A.C.; Goobar, A.; Guide, D.; Hardin, D.; Lusset, V.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Tao, C.; Walton, N.

    2005-10-14

    We present distance measurements to 71 high redshift type Ia supernovae discovered during the first year of the 5-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-color light-curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshift. With this data set, we have built a Hubble diagram extending to z = 1, with all distance measurements involving at least two bands. Systematic uncertainties are evaluated making use of the multiband photometry obtained at CFHT. Cosmological fits to this first year SNLS Hubble diagram give the following results: {Omega}{sub M} = 0.263 {+-} 0.042 (stat) {+-} 0.032 (sys) for a flat {Lambda}CDM model; and w = -1.023 {+-} 0.090 (stat) {+-} 0.054 (sys) for a flat cosmology with constant equation of state w when combined with the constraint from the recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations.

  7. The Supernova Legacy Survey: Measurement of Omega_M, Omega_Lambda, and w from the First Year Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astier, P.; Guy, J.; Regnault, N.; Pain, R.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Courtois, H.; Ellis, R. S.; Filiol, M.; Goncalves, A. C.; Goobar, A.; Guide, D.; Hardin, D.; Lusset, V.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Tao, C.; Walton, N.

    2005-10-14

    We present distance measurements to 71 high redshift type Ia supernovae discovered during the first year of the 5-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-color light-curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshift. With this data set, we have built a Hubble diagram extending to z = 1, with all distance measurements involving at least two bands. Systematic uncertainties are evaluated making use of the multiband photometry obtained at CFHT. Cosmological fits to this first year SNLS Hubble diagram give the following results: {Omega}{sub M} = 0.263 {+-} 0.042 (stat) {+-} 0.032 (sys) for a flat {Lambda}CDM model; and w = -1.023 {+-} 0.090 (stat) {+-} 0.054 (sys) for a flat cosmology with constant equation of state w when combined with the constraint from the recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations.

  8. Systematic errors in the measurement of neutrino masses due to baryonic feedback processes: Prospects for stage IV lensing surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Aravind; Battaglia, Nicholas; Trac, Hy

    2014-01-01

    We examine the importance of baryonic feedback effects on the matter power spectrum on small scales, and the implications for the precise measurement of neutrino masses through gravitational weak lensing. Planned large galaxy surveys such as the Large Synoptic Sky Telescope (LSST) and Euclid are expected to measure the sum of neutrino masses to extremely high precision, sufficient to detect non-zero neutrino masses even in the minimal mass normal hierarchy. We show that weak lensing of galaxies while being a very good probe of neutrino masses, is extremely sensitive to baryonic feedback processes. We use publicly available results from the Overwhelmingly Large Simulations (OWLS) project to investigate the effects of active galactic nuclei feedback, the nature of the stellar initial mass function, and gas cooling rates, on the measured weak lensing shear power spectrum. Using the Fisher matrix formalism and priors from CMB+BAO data, we show that when one does not account for feedback, the measured neutrino mas...

  9. Measuring Social Cohesion: An Experiment Using the Canadian National Survey of Giving, Volunteering, and Participating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajulton, Fernando; Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Beaujot, Roderic

    2007-01-01

    Social cohesion is a concept difficult to define and to measure. As there can be many definitions, so there can be many measurements. The main problem, either in defining or measuring the concept, is its multilevel and multidimensional nature. At one extreme, "country" is the most commonly used level to view social cohesion but…

  10. Astronomical site survey report on dust measurement, wind profile, optical turbulence, and their correlation with seeing over IAO-Hanle - Astronomical site survey report over IAO-Hanle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningombam, Shantikumar S.; Kathiravan, S.; Parihar, P. S.; Larson, E. J. L.; Mohanan, Sharika; Angchuk, Dorje; Jorphel, Sonam; Rangarajan, K. E.; Prabhu, K.

    2017-02-01

    The present work discusses astronomical site survey reports on dust content, vertical distribution of atmospheric turbulence, precipitable water vapor (PWV), surface and upper-air data, and their effects on seeing over the Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO) Hanle. Using Laser Particulate Counter, ambient dust measurements at various sizes (0.3 μm to 25 μm) were performed at various locations at the site during November 2015. Estimated volume concentration for the particle size at 0.5 μm was around 10,000 per cubic foot, which is equivalent to ten thousand class of clean room standard protocol. During the measurement, surface wind speed varied from 0-20 m s -1, while estimated aerosol optical depth (AOD) using Sky radiometer (Prede) varied from 0.02-0.04 at 500 nm, which indicates the site is fairly clean. The two independent measurements of dust content and aerosol concentrations at the site agreed well. The turbulence or wind gust at the site was studied with wind profiles at three different heights above the ground. The strength of the wind gust varies with time and altitude. Nocturnal temperature across seasons varied with a moderate at summer (6-8 ∘C) and lower in winter (4-5 ∘C). However, the contrast between the two is significantly small due to cold and extremely dry typical climatic conditions of the site. The present study also examined the effects of surface and upper-air data along with Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) dynamics with seeing measurement over the site. Further, a comparative study of such observed parameters was conducted with other high altitude astronomical observatories across the globe.

  11. Astronomical site survey report on dust measurement, wind profile, optical turbulence, and their correlation with seeing over IAO-Hanle. Astronomical site survey report over IAO-Hanle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningombam, Shantikumar S.; Kathiravan, S.; Parihar, P. S.; L. Larson, E. J.; Mohanan, Sharika; Angchuk, Dorje; Jorphel, Sonam; Rangarajan, K. E.; Prabhu, K.

    2017-04-01

    The present work discusses astronomical site survey reports on dust content, vertical distribution of atmospheric turbulence, precipitable water vapor (PWV), surface and upper-air data, and their effects on seeing over the Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO) Hanle. Using Laser Particulate Counter, ambient dust measurements at various sizes (0.3 μm to 25 μm) were performed at various locations at the site during November 2015. Estimated volume concentration for the particle size at 0.5 μm was around 10,000 per cubic foot, which is equivalent to ten thousand class of clean room standard protocol. During the measurement, surface wind speed varied from 0-20 m s -1, while estimated aerosol optical depth (AOD) using Sky radiometer (Prede) varied from 0.02-0.04 at 500 nm, which indicates the site is fairly clean. The two independent measurements of dust content and aerosol concentrations at the site agreed well. The turbulence or wind gust at the site was studied with wind profiles at three different heights above the ground. The strength of the wind gust varies with time and altitude. Nocturnal temperature across seasons varied with a moderate at summer (6-8 ∘C) and lower in winter (4-5 ∘C). However, the contrast between the two is significantly small due to cold and extremely dry typical climatic conditions of the site. The present study also examined the effects of surface and upper-air data along with Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) dynamics with seeing measurement over the site. Further, a comparative study of such observed parameters was conducted with other high altitude astronomical observatories across the globe.

  12. Do 360-degree feedback survey results relate to patient satisfaction measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Michiel G J S; Ring, David C; Gregory, Paul J; Rubash, Harry E; Harmon, Larry

    2015-05-01

    There is evidence that feedback from 360-degree surveys-combined with coaching-can improve physician team performance and quality of patient care. The Physicians Universal Leadership-Teamwork Skills Education (PULSE) 360 is one such survey tool that is used to assess work colleagues' and coworkers' perceptions of a physician's leadership, teamwork, and clinical practice style. The Clinician & Group-Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and System (CG-CAHPS), developed by the US Department of Health and Human Services to serve as the benchmark for quality health care, is a survey tool for patients to provide feedback that is based on their recent experiences with staff and clinicians and soon will be tied to Medicare-based compensation of participating physicians. Prior research has indicated that patients and coworkers often agree in their assessment of physicians' behavioral patterns. The goal of the current study was to determine whether 360-degree, also called multisource, feedback provided by coworkers could predict patient satisfaction/experience ratings. A significant relationship between these two forms of feedback could enable physicians to take a more proactive approach to reinforce their strengths and identify any improvement opportunities in their patient interactions by reviewing feedback from team members. An automated 360-degree software process may be a faster, simpler, and less resource-intensive approach than telephoning and interviewing patients for survey responses, and it potentially could facilitate a more rapid credentialing or quality improvement process leading to greater fiscal and professional development gains for physicians. Our primary research question was to determine if PULSE 360 coworkers' ratings correlate with CG-CAHPS patients' ratings of overall satisfaction, recommendation of the physician, surgeon respect, and clarity of the surgeon's explanation. Our secondary research questions were to determine whether CG-CAHPS scores

  13. Health and human rights: a statistical measurement framework using household survey data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesonga, Ronald; Owino, Abraham; Ssekiboobo, Agnes; Atuhaire, Leonard; Jehopio, Peter

    2015-05-03

    Health is intertwined with human rights as is clearly reflected in the right to life. Promotion of health practices in the context of human rights can be accomplished if there is a better understanding of the level of human rights observance. In this paper, we evaluate and present an appraisal for a possibility of applying household survey to study the determinants of health and human rights and also derive the probability that human rights are observed; an important ingredient into the national planning framework. Data from the Uganda National Governance Baseline Survey were used. A conceptual framework for predictors of a hybrid dependent variable was developed and both bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques employed. Multivariate post estimation computations were derived after evaluations of the significance of coefficients of health and human rights predictors. Findings, show that household characteristics of respondents considered in this study were statistically significant (p human rights observance. For example, a unit increase of respondents' schooling levels results in an increase of about 34% level of positively assessing human rights observance. Additionally, the study establishes, through the three models presented, that household assessment of health and human rights observance was 20% which also represents how much of the entire continuum of human rights is demanded. Findings propose important evidence for monitoring and evaluation of health in the context human rights using household survey data. They provide a benchmark for health and human rights assessments with a focus on international and national development plans to achieve socio-economic transformation and health in society.

  14. Improved WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey Distance Measurements to z = 1 with Reconstruction of the Baryonic Acoustic Feature

    CERN Document Server

    Kazin, Eyal A; Blake, Chris; Padmanabhan, Nikhil

    2014-01-01

    We present significant improvements in cosmic distance measurements from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, achieved by applying the reconstruction of the baryonic acoustic feature technique. We show using both data and simulations that the reconstruction technique can often be effective despite patchiness of the survey, significant edge effects and shot-noise. We investigate three redshift bins in the redshift range 0.2<$z$<1, and in all three find improvement after reconstruction in the detection of the baryonic acoustic feature and its usage as a standard ruler. We measure model independent distance measures $D_{\\mathrm V}(r_{\\mathrm s}^\\mathrm{fid}/r_{\\mathrm s})$ of 1716 $\\pm$ 83 Mpc, 2221 $\\pm$ 101 Mpc, 2516 $\\pm$ 86 Mpc (68% CL) at effective redshifts z = 0.44, 0.6, 0.73, respectively, where $D_{\\mathrm V}$ is the volume-average-distance, and $r_{\\mathrm s}$ is the sound horizon at the end of the baryon drag epoch. These significantly improved 4.8, 4.5 and 3.4 percent accuracy measurements are equiv...

  15. Measurement of the Radiation Dose Rates of Patients Receiving Treatment with I-131 Using Telescopic Radiation Survey Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Lahfi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to discharge the patients receiving treatment with large radiation doses of 131I for thyroid cancer, it is necessary to measure and evaluate the external dose rates of these patients. The aim of the study was to assess a new method of external dose rate measurement, and to analyze the obtained results as a function of time. Materials and Methods In this study, a telescopic radiation survey meter was utilized to measure the external dose rates of a sample population of 192 patients receiving treatment with high-dose 131I at one, 24, and 48 hours after dose administration. Results The proposed technique could reduce the occupational radiation exposure of the physicist by a factor of 1/16. Moreover, the external dose rates of both genders rapidly decreased with time according to bi-exponential equations, which could be attributed to the additional factors associated with iodine excretion, as well as the physiology of the body in terms of 131I uptake. Conclusion According to the results of this study, telescopic radiation survey meter could be used to measure the external dose rates of patients receiving treatment with 131I. Furthermore, the average difference in the radiation exposure between female and male patients was calculated to be less than 17%.

  16. Scrutinizing a Survey-Based Measure of Science and Mathematics Teacher Knowledge: Relationship to Observations of Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Robert M.

    2016-12-01

    There is a clear need for valid and reliable instrumentation that measures teacher knowledge. However, the process of investigating and making a case for instrument validity is not a simple undertaking; rather, it is a complex endeavor. This paper presents the empirical case of one aspect of such an instrument validation effort. The particular instrument under scrutiny was developed in order to determine the effect of a teacher education program on novice science and mathematics teachers' strategic knowledge (SK). The relationship between novice science and mathematics teachers' SK as measured by a survey and their SK as inferred from observations of practice using a widely used observation protocol is the subject of this paper. Moderate correlations between parts of the observation-based construct and the SK construct were observed. However, the main finding of this work is that the context in which the measurement is made (in situ observations vs. ex situ survey) is an essential factor in establishing the validity of the measurement itself.

  17. MORBIDITY PROFILE, HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOUR AND HOME ENVIRONMENT SURVEY FOR ADAPTIVE MEASURES IN GERIATRIC POPULATION – URBAN COMMUNITY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warbhe Priya A, Warbhe Rupesh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population ageing is a significant product of demographic transition. Declining fertility and improved health and longevity have generated rising proportions of the older population. Double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases affects the geriatric segment of the population with variable health seeking behaviour. Objectives: To assess morbidity profile, health seeking behaviour and home environmental survey for adaptive measures in geriatric population from an urban community. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study stratified systematic random sampling was applied. Research tool was interviewer based closed ended questionnaire. Adaptive measures as part of environment survey were assessed. Proportions and Pearson’s chi-square test were calculated. Results: 64.1% participants were from 60-69 years age category, 9.1% current smokers. 94.1% had 1-3 morbidities, 4.1% had 4-6 morbidities .37.3% gave a history of fall and 31.4% history of fracture. 13.6% cataract operation, 16.8% procedure for fracture.10% had dental procedure. 54.2% went to UHC and GOVT/BMC hospitals for treatment and 78.6% received both allopathic and ayurvedic treatment. History of fall was not associated with adaptive measures in the house (p=0.952. Conclusions: Majority of the participants suffered from old age related morbidities, hypertension emerged as a major morbidity. Most of the participants relied on government hospitals for treatment. Adaptive measures were lacking in most of the houses.

  18. A new measure of patient satisfaction with ocular hypotensive medications: The Treatment Satisfaction Survey for Intraocular Pressure (TSS-IOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Jeanette A

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To validate the treatment-specific Treatment Satisfaction Survey for Intraocular Pressure (TSS-IOP. Methods Item content was developed by 4 heterogeneous patient focus groups (n = 32. Instrument validation involved 250 patients on ocular hypotensive medications recruited from ophthalmology practices in the Southern USA. Participants responded to demographic and test questions during a clinic visit. Standard psychometric analyses were performed on the resulting data. Sample Of the 412 patients screened, 253 consented to participate, and 250 provided complete datasets. The sample included 44% male (n = 109, 44% Black (n = 109 and 57% brown eyed (n = 142 participants, with a mean age of 64.6 years (SD 13.1 and a history of elevated IOP for an average of 8.4 yrs (SD 7.8. A majority was receiving monotherapy (60%, n = 151. Results A PC Factor analysis (w/ varimax rotation of the 31 items yielded 5 factors (Eigenvalues > 1.0 explaining 70% of the total variance. Weaker and conceptually redundant items were removed and the remaining 15 items reanalyzed. The satisfaction factors were; Eye Irritation (EI; 4 items, Convenience of Use (CofU; 3 items, Ease of Use (EofU; 3 items, Hyperemia (HYP; 3 items, and Medication Effectiveness (EFF; 2 items. Chronbach's Alphas ranged from .80 to .86. Greater distributional skew was found for less common experiences (i.e., HYP & EI with 65% & 48.4% ceilings than for more common experiences (i.e., EofU, CofU, EFF with 10.8%, 20.8% & 15.9% ceilings. TSS-IOP scales converged with conceptually related scales on a previously validated measure of treatment satisfaction, the TSQM (r = .36 to .77. Evidence of concurrent criterion-related validity was found. Patients' symptomatic ratings of eye irritation, hyperemia and difficulties using the medication correlated with satisfaction on these dimensions (r = .30-.56, all p Conclusions This study provides initial evidence that the TSS-IOP is a reliable and valid

  19. Validity of anthropometric measurements to assess body composition, including muscle mass, in 3-year-old children from the SKOT cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    expressed as percentage of total body mass, this proportion was 51% and 66%, respectively; and for muscle mass as percentage of lean mass it was 34%. All the best reduced multivariate models included weight, skinfold and gender except the model estimating the proportion of muscle mass in lean body mass......, which included only mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold. The power of height in the weight-to-height ratio to determine fat mass proportion was 1.71 with a 95% confidence interval (0.83-2.60) including the value of 2 used in body mass index (BMI). Limitations of anthropometry to assess...

  20. Building damage survey and microtremor measurements for the source region of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masumi; Hayashida, Takumi; Mori, Jim; Mooney, Walter D.

    2016-07-01

    We performed a damage survey of buildings and carried out microtremor observations in the source region of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake. Our survey area spans the Kathmandu valley and areas to the east and north of the valley. Damage of buildings in the Kathmandu valley was localized, and the percentage of the totally collapsed buildings was less than 5 %. East of the Kathmandu valley, especially in Sindhupalchok district, damage of buildings was more severe. In the center of Chautara and Bahrabise, towns in Sindhupalchok district, the percentage of the totally collapsed houses exceeded 40 %. North of the Kathmandu valley, the damage was moderate, and 20-30 % of the buildings were totally collapsed in Dhunche. Based on the past studies and our microtremor observations near the strong motion station, the H/V spectrum in Kathmandu has a peak at around 0.3 Hz, which reflects the velocity contrast of the deep sedimentary basin. The H/V spectra in Bahrabise, Chautara, and Dhunche do not show clear peaks, which suggests that the sites have stiff soil conditions. Therefore, the more severe damage outside the Kathmandu valley compared with the relatively light damage levels in the valley is probably due to the source characteristics of the earthquake and/or the seismic performance of buildings, rather than the local site conditions.

  1. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  2. Signatures of First Stars in Galaxy Surveys: Multi-Tracer Analysis of the Supersonic Relative Velocity Effect and the Constraints from the BOSS Power Spectrum Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Jaiyul

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of the supersonic relative velocity between dark matter and baryons on large-scale galaxy clustering and derive the constraint on the relative velocity bias parameter from the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) power spectrum measurements. Recent work has shown that the relative velocity effect may have a dramatic impact on the star formation at high redshifts, if first stars are formed in minihalos around z~20, or if the effect propagates through secondary effects to stars formed at later redshifts. The relative velocity effect has particularly strong signatures in the large scale clustering of these sources, including the BAO position. Assuming that a small fraction of stars in low-redshift massive galaxies retain the memory of the primordial relative velocity effect, galaxy clustering measurements can be used to constrain the signatures of the first stars. Luminous red galaxies contain some of the oldest stars in the Universe and are ideally suited to search for this effec...

  3. Agreement in Measurement of Optic Cup-to-Disc Ratio with Stereo Biomicroscope Funduscopy and Digital Image Analysis: Results from the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyari, Fatima; Gilbert, Clare

    2017-02-01

    To determine agreement in estimations of vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) between clinical stereo-biomicroscopic funduscopy and digital fundus image analysis. Systematic sampling of 1-in-7 from a sample of 13,591 participants aged ≥40 years gave a subsample who were examined in detail. VCDR was estimated clinically by 60 diopter aspheric lens biomicroscopic funduscopy (c-VCDR) and by digital fundus images (i-VCDR) graded at the Moorfields Eye Hospital Reading Centre. Spearman's correlation coefficient, paired t-test and the Bland-Altman method to assess limits of agreement (LOA) between the two methods were applied. Of 1759 participants in the subsample, 848 participants (48%) with normal frequency doubling technology (FDT) visual fields and data for i-VCDR and c-VCDR in both eyes (n = 1696 eyes) were included in the analysis. By absolute difference of VCDR values for each eye between the two methods, 1585 eyes (94%) differed by ≤0.2. Mean i-VCDR was 0.381 (standard deviation, SD 0.156), and mean c-VCDR 0.321 (SD 0.145). i-VCDRs were significantly larger by a mean difference of 0.061 (SD 0.121; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.055-0.066; p Digital image analysis and clinical assessment are two distinct methods to measure VCDR; with larger i-VCDRs in this survey. Applying i-VCDR cut-off values to c-VCDR measurements in the Nigeria Blindness Survey might have underestimated glaucoma prevalence. It is recommended that all participants in glaucoma surveys have VCDR by digital image measurement.

  4. Routing Corners of Building Structures - by the Method of Vector Addition - Measured with RTN GNSS Surveying Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżek, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The paper deals with the problem of surveying buildings in the RTN GNSS mode using modernized indirect methods of measurement. As a result of the classical realtime measurements using indirect methods (intersection of straight lines or a point on a straight line), we obtain a building structure (a building) which is largely deformed. This distortion is due to the inconsistency of the actual dimensions of the building (tie distances) relative to the obtained measurement results. In order to eliminate these discrepancies, and thus to ensure full consistency of the building geometric structure, an innovative solution was applied - the method of vector addition - to modify the linear values (tie distances) of the external face of the building walls. A separate research problem tackled in the article, although not yet fully solved, is the issue of coordinates of corners of a building obtained after the application of the method of vector addition.

  5. Measurement of [Formula: see text] production with additional jet activity, including [Formula: see text] quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

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Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Sharma, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N; Collaboration, Authorinst The Cms

    2016-01-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for [Formula: see text] production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional [Formula: see text] jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  6. Lessons learnt on biases and uncertainties in personal exposure measurement surveys of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields with exposimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, John F B

    2016-09-01

    Personal exposure measurements of radio frequency electromagnetic fields are important for epidemiological studies and developing prediction models. Minimizing biases and uncertainties and handling spatial and temporal variability are important aspects of these measurements. This paper reviews the lessons learnt from testing the different types of exposimeters and from personal exposure measurement surveys performed between 2005 and 2015. Applying them will improve the comparability and ranking of exposure levels for different microenvironments, activities or (groups of) people, such that epidemiological studies are better capable of finding potential weak correlations with health effects. Over 20 papers have been published on how to prevent biases and minimize uncertainties due to: mechanical errors; design of hardware and software filters; anisotropy; and influence of the body. A number of biases can be corrected for by determining multiplicative correction factors. In addition a good protocol on how to wear the exposimeter, a sufficiently small sampling interval and sufficiently long measurement duration will minimize biases. Corrections to biases are possible for: non-detects through detection limit, erroneous manufacturer calibration and temporal drift. Corrections not deemed necessary, because no significant biases have been observed, are: linearity in response and resolution. Corrections difficult to perform after measurements are for: modulation/duty cycle sensitivity; out of band response aka cross talk; temperature and humidity sensitivity. Corrections not possible to perform after measurements are for: multiple signals detection in one band; flatness of response within a frequency band; anisotropy to waves of different elevation angle. An analysis of 20 microenvironmental surveys showed that early studies using exposimeters with logarithmic detectors, overestimated exposure to signals with bursts, such as in uplink signals from mobile phones and Wi

  7. The cosmological analysis of X-ray cluster surveys; III. Bypassing cluster mass measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pierre, M; Faccioli, L; Clerc, N; Gastaud, R; Koulouridis, E; Pacaud, F

    2016-01-01

    Despite strong theoretical arguments, the use of clusters as cosmological probes is, in practice, frequently questioned because of the many uncertainties impinging on cluster mass estimates. Our aim is to develop a fully self-consistent cosmological approach of X-ray cluster surveys, exclusively based on observable quantities, rather than masses. This procedure is justified given the possibility to directly derive the cluster properties via ab initio modelling, either analytically or by using hydrodynamical simulations. In this third paper, we evaluate the method on cluster toy-catalogues. We model the population of detected clusters in the count-rate -- hardness-ratio -- angular size -- redshift space and compare the corresponding 4-dimensional diagram with theoretical predictions. The best cosmology+physics parameter configuration is determined using a simple minimisation procedure; errors on the parameters are derived by scanning the likelihood hyper-surfaces with a wide range of starting values. The metho...

  8. A preference-based measure of health: the VR-6D derived from the veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Alfredo J; Rogers, William; Qian, Shirley X; Brazier, John; Kazis, Lewis E

    2011-10-01

    The Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12) is currently the major endpoint used in the Medicare managed care outcomes measure in the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS(®)), referred to as the Health Outcomes Survey (HOS). The purpose of this study is to adapt the Brazier SF-6D utility measure to the VR-12 to generate a single utility index. We used the HOS cohorts 2 and 3 for SF-36 data and 9 for VR-12 data. We calculated SF-6D scores from the SF-36 using the algorithms developed by Brazier and colleagues. The values of the Brazier SF-6D were used to estimate utility scores from the VR-12 using a mapping approach based on a 2-stage mapping procedure, named as VR-6D. The VR-6D derived from the VR-12 has similar distributional properties as the SF-6D. The change in VR-6D showed significant variations across disease groups with different levels of morbidity and mortality. This study produced a utility measure for the VR-12 that is comparable to the SF-6D and responsive to change. The VR-6D can be used in evaluations of health care plans and cost-effectiveness analysis to compare the health gains that health care interventions can achieve.

  9. Lumbar spine and pelvic posture between standing and sitting: a radiologic investigation including reliability and repeatability of the lumbar lordosis measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Diana E; Soave, David; Ross, Kim; Callaghan, Jack P

    2010-01-01

    Sitting has been identified as a cause of mechanical low back pain. The purpose of this study was to use plain film x-rays to measure lumbar spine and pelvic posture differences between standing and sitting. Eight male subjects were radiographed standing and sitting in an automobile seat. Measures of lumbar lordosis, intervertebral disk angles, lumbosacral angle, lumbosacral lordosis, and sacral tilt were completed. One-way analysis of variance (alpha = .05) was conducted on the variables stated above. A Bland-Altman analysis was conducted to assess agreement and repeatability of the lumbar lordosis angle using 2 raters. Lumbar lordosis values in standing (average, 63 degrees +/- 15 degrees ) and sacral inclination (average, 43 degrees +/- 10 degrees ) decreased by 43 degrees and 44 degrees , respectively, in sitting. Intervertebral joint angles in sitting underwent substantial flexion (L1/L2-5 degrees [+/-3 degrees ], L2/L3-7 degrees [+/-3 degrees ], L3/L4-8 degrees [+/-3 degrees ], L4/L5-13 degrees [+/-3 degrees ], and L5/S1-4 degrees [+/-10 degrees ]). Measures of lumbar lordosis; intervertebral disk angles between L2/L3, L3/L4, and L4/L5; lumbosacral lordosis; lumbosacral angle; and sacral tilt were significantly decreased between standing and sitting (P posture should be investigated because they may play a role in preventing injury and low back pain. Copyright 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Survey of radiofrequency radiation levels around GSM base stations and evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulević Branislav D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a summary of broadband measurement values of radiofrequency radiation around GSM base stations in the vicinity of residential areas in Belgrade and 12 other cities in Serbia. It will be useful for determining non-ionizing radiation exposure levels of the general public in the future. The purpose of this paper is also an appropriate representation of basic information on the evaluation of measurement uncertainty.

  11. Comparative analysis of two methods for measuring sales volumes during malaria medicine outlet surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Patouillard, Edith; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Hanson, Kara; Pok, Sochea; Palafox, Benjamin; Tougher, Sarah; O’Connell, Kate; Goodman, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increased interest in using commercial providers for improving access to quality malaria treatment. Understanding their current role is an essential first step, notably in terms of the volume of diagnostics and anti-malarials they sell. Sales volume data can be used to measure the importance of different provider and product types, frequency of parasitological diagnosis and impact of interventions. Several methods for measuring sales volumes are available, yet all have met...

  12. Comparative analysis of two methods for measuring sales volumes during malaria medicine outlet surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    Patouillard, E; Kleinschmidt, I.; Hanson, K.; Pok, S; Palafox, B; Tougher, S; O Connell, K.; Goodman, C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is increased interest in using commercial providers for improving access to quality malaria treatment. Understanding their current role is an essential first step, notably in terms of the volume of diagnostics and anti-malarials they sell. Sales volume data can be used to measure the importance of different provider and product types, frequency of parasitological diagnosis and impact of interventions. Several methods for measuring sales volumes are available, yet all have met...

  13. Application of in situ measurement for site remediation and final status survey of decommissioning KRR site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Nam, Jong Soo; Choi, Yong Suk; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In situ gamma spectrometry has been used to measure environmental radiation, assumptions are usually made about the depth distribution of the radionuclides of interest in the soil. The main limitation of in situ gamma spectrometry lies in determining the depth distribution of radionuclides. The objective of this study is to develop a method for subsurface characterization by in situ measurement. The peak to valley method based on the ratio of counting rate between the photoelectric peak and Compton region was applied to identify the depth distribution. The peak to valley method could be applied to establish the relation between the spectrally derived coefficients (Q) with relaxation mass per unit area (β) for various depth distribution in soil. The in situ measurement results were verified by MCNP simulation and calculated correlation equation. In order to compare the depth distributions and contamination levels in decommissioning KRR site, in situ measurement and sampling results were compared. The in situ measurement results and MCNP simulation results show a good correlation for laboratory measurement. The simulation relationship between Q and source burial for the source layers have exponential relationship for a variety depth distributions. We applied the peak to valley method to contaminated decommissioning KRR site to determine a depth distribution and initial activity without sampling. The observed results has a good correlation, relative error between in situ measurement with sampling result is around 7% for depth distribution and 4% for initial activity. In this study, the vertical activity distribution and initial activity of {sup 137}Cs could be identifying directly through in situ measurement. Therefore, the peak to valley method demonstrated good potential for assessment of the residual radioactivity for site remediation in decommissioning and contaminated site.

  14. Under-estimation of obesity, hypertension and high cholesterol by self-reported data: comparison of self-reported information and objective measures from health examination surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Koponen, Päivikki; Mindell, Jennifer S; Männistö, Satu; Giampaoli, Simona; Dias, Carlos Matias; Tuovinen, Tarja; Göβwald, Antje; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2014-12-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause 63% of deaths worldwide. The leading NCD risk factor is raised blood pressure, contributing to 13% of deaths. A large proportion of NCDs are preventable by modifying risk factor levels. Effective prevention programmes and health policy decisions need to be evidence based. Currently, self-reported information in general populations or data from patients receiving healthcare provides the best available information on the prevalence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, etc. in most countries. In the European Health Examination Survey Pilot Project, 12 countries conducted a pilot survey among the working-age population. Information was collected using standardized questionnaires, physical measurement and blood sampling protocols. This allowed comparison of self-reported and measured data on prevalence of overweight, obesity, hypertension, high blood cholesterol and diabetes. Self-reported data under-estimated population means and prevalence for health indicators assessed. The self-reported data provided prevalence of obesity four percentage points lower for both men and women. For hypertension, the self-reported prevalence was 10 percentage points lower, only in men. For elevated total cholesterol, the difference was 50 percentage point among men and 44 percentage points among women. For diabetes, again only in men, the self-reported prevalence was 1 percentage point lower than measured. With self-reported data only, almost 70% of population at risk of elevated total cholesterol is missed compared with data from objective measurements. Health indicators based on measurements in the general population include undiagnosed cases, therefore providing more accurate surveillance data than reliance on self-reported or healthcare-based information only. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Precision surveying the principles and geomatics practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ogundare, John Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of high precision surveying, including recent developments in geomatics and their applications This book covers advanced precision surveying techniques, their proper use in engineering and geoscience projects, and their importance in the detailed analysis and evaluation of surveying projects. The early chapters review the fundamentals of precision surveying: the types of surveys; survey observations; standards and specifications; and accuracy assessments for angle, distance and position difference measurement systems. The book also covers network design and 3-D coordinating systems before discussing specialized topics such as structural and ground deformation monitoring techniques and analysis, mining surveys, tunneling surveys, and alignment surveys. Precision Surveying: The Principles and Geomatics Practice: * Covers structural and ground deformation monitoring analysis, advanced techniques in mining and tunneling surveys, and high precision alignment of engineering structures *...

  16. Survey and online discussion groups to develop a patient-rated outcome measure on acceptability of treatment response in vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, Selina K; Thomas, Kim S; Walker, Dawn-Marie; Leighton, Paul; Yong, Adrian Sw; Batchelor, Jonathan M

    2014-06-14

    Vitiligo is a chronic depigmenting skin disorder which affects around 0.5-1% of the world's population. The outcome measures used most commonly in trials to judge treatment success focus on repigmentation. Patient-reported outcome measures of treatment success are rarely used, although recommendations have been made for their inclusion in vitiligo trials. This study aimed to evaluate the face validity of a new patient-reported outcome measure of treatment response, for use in future trials and clinical practice. An online survey to gather initial views on what constitutes treatment success for people with vitiligo or their parents/carers, followed by online discussion groups with patients to reach consensus on what constitutes treatment success for individuals with vitiligo, and how this can be assessed in the context of trials. Participants were recruited from an existing database of vitiligo patients and through posts on the social network sites Facebook and Twitter. A total of 202 survey responses were received, of which 37 were excluded and 165 analysed. Three main themes emerged as important in assessing treatment response: a) the match between vitiligo and normal skin (how well it blends in); b) how noticeable the vitiligo is and c) a reduction in the size of the white patches. The majority of respondents said they would consider 80% or more repigmentation to be a worthwhile treatment response after 9 months of treatment. Three online discussion groups involving 12 participants led to consensus that treatment success is best measured by asking patients how noticeable their vitiligo is after treatment. This was judged to be best answered using a 5-point Likert scale, on which a score of 4 or 5 represents treatment success. This study represents the first step in developing a patient reported measure of treatment success in vitiligo trials. Further work is now needed to assess its construct validity and responsiveness to change.

  17. Determination of potassium in several plants and study of potassium transfer to different beverages, including tequila, by measurement of 40K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, J. M.; Muller, G.; Cabrera, L.; Martinez, T.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of 40K was used for determination of potassium concentrations in leaves of agave and maguey cactus leaves, and coffee beans of various origins. The procedure was also used to study potassium transfer to tequila (alcoholic drink made of agave cactus), and the cactus and coffee infusions using 40K as a natural radioactive tracer. Counting of 40K in Marinelli containers with the aid of a low background NaI(Ti) scintillation detection system for 12 24 hours was employed. The method appeared to be simple and suitable for determination of potassium concentrations in large samples, which eliminates homogeneity problems.

  18. What factors influence the health status of patients with rheumatoid arthritis measured by the SF-12v2 Health Survey and the Health Assessment Questionnaire?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Louise; Sørensen, Jan; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) is a widely used outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas the SF-12v2 Health Survey (SF-12) was introduced recently. We investigated how the HAQ and SF-12 were associated with socio-demographic, lifestyle, and dise......OBJECTIVE: The Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) is a widely used outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), whereas the SF-12v2 Health Survey (SF-12) was introduced recently. We investigated how the HAQ and SF-12 were associated with socio-demographic, lifestyle......, and disease- and treatment-related factors in patients with RA. METHODS: In RA patients from 11 Danish centers, clinical and patient-reported data, including the HAQ and SF-12, were collected. Three multiple linear regression models were estimated, with the HAQ, SF-12 physical component score (PCS), and SF-12...... mental component score (MCS) as outcome and sociodemographic, lifestyle, and RA-related treatment and comorbidity characteristics as explanatory variables. RESULTS: In total, 3156 (85%) of 3704 invited patients participated--75% women, 76% rheumatoid factor-positive, median age 61 years (range 15-93 yrs...

  19. Measuring genetic knowledge: a brief survey instrument for adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald-Butt, S M; Bodine, A; Fry, K M; Ash, J; Zaidi, A N; Garg, V; Gerhardt, C A; McBride, K L

    2016-02-01

    Basic knowledge of genetics is essential for understanding genetic testing and counseling. The lack of a written, English language, validated, published measure has limited our ability to evaluate genetic knowledge of patients and families. Here, we begin the psychometric analysis of a true/false genetic knowledge measure. The 18-item measure was completed by parents of children with congenital heart defects (CHD) (n = 465) and adolescents and young adults with CHD (age: 15-25, n = 196) with a mean total correct score of 12.6 [standard deviation (SD) = 3.5, range: 0-18]. Utilizing exploratory factor analysis, we determined that one to three correlated factors, or abilities, were captured by our measure. Through confirmatory factor analysis, we determined that the two factor model was the best fit. Although it was necessary to remove two items, the remaining items exhibited adequate psychometric properties in a multidimensional item response theory analysis. Scores for each factor were computed, and a sum-score conversion table was derived. We conclude that this genetic knowledge measure discriminates best at low knowledge levels and is therefore well suited to determine a minimum adequate amount of genetic knowledge. However, further reliability testing and validation in diverse research and clinical settings is needed.

  20. Measurements and profiles of body weight misperceptions among Taiwanese teenagers: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study between December 1, 2006 and February 15, 2007. A total of 29,313 children and adolescents studying in grades 4-12 were enrolled in this nationwide, cross-sectional survey, and they were asked to complete questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression using maximum likelihood estimates was used. The prevalence of body weight misperception was 43.2% (26.4% overestimation and 16.8% underestimation). Factors associated with the underestimated perception of weight among overweight children were parental obesity, dietary control for weight loss, breakfast consumption, self-induced vomiting as a weight control strategy, fried food consumption, engaging in vigorous physical activities, and sleeping for >8 hours per day (odds ratios=0.86, 0.42, 0.88, 1.37, 1.13, 1.11, and 1.17, respectively). In conclusion, the early establishment of an accurate perception of body weight may mitigate unhealthy behaviors.

  1. [A survey of preventive measures against infection risk in dental surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Tatò, Daniela; De Benedittis, Michele; Pastore, Luca; Serpico, Rosario; Quarto, Michele; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2005-01-01

    In dental healthcare surgeries, both workers and patients are regularly exposed to various infectious agents. It is essential therefore that dental healthcare workers have a good knowledge of disinfection systems and that dentists' surgeries be effectively managed so as to reduce or even eliminate the risk of cross infections. In order to evaluate infectious risk prevention methods and describe the procedures used by dental healthcare workers on a daily basis, a sample of dentists who work in public surgeries were asked to anonymously fill up a questionnaire. The results of this survey show that dental healthcare workers are sufficiently well-informed about the infectious hazards present in the workplace and are aware of the high risk of exposure to infections but seem to be especially concerned about blood-borne infections (hepatitis, AIDS). Only 67.5%, however, are immunised against HBV. Individual safety devices are used correctly while there seems to be a lack of knowledge about the proper use of disinfection and sterilization systems. In addition, some dental healthcare workers still today refuse to treat HIV-positive patients.

  2. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  3. MegaMorph - multi-wavelength measurement of galaxy structure: complete S\\'ersic profile information from modern surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Häußler, Boris; Vika, Marina; Rojas, Alex L; Barden, Marco; Kelvin, Lee S; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Robotham, Aaron S G; Driver, Simon P; Baldry, I K; Brough, Sarah; Hopkins, Andrew M; Liske, Jochen; Nichol, Robert C; Popescu, Cristina C; Tuffs, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for fitting galaxy profiles which makes use of the full multi-wavelength data provided by modern large optical-near-infrared imaging surveys. We present a new version of GALAPAGOS, which utilises a recently-developed multi-wavelength version of GALFIT, and enables the automated measurement of wavelength dependent S\\'ersic profile parameters for very large samples of galaxies. Our new technique is extensively tested to assess the reliability of both pieces of software, GALFIT and GALAPAGOS on both real ugrizY JHK imaging data from the GAMA survey and simulated data made to the same specifications. We find that fitting galaxy light profiles with multi-wavelength data increases the stability and accuracy of the measured parameters, and hence produces more complete and meaningful multi-wavelength photometry than has been available previously. The improvement is particularly significant for magnitudes in low S/N bands and for structural parameters like half-light radius r...

  4. Potential for optimizing the Higgs boson C P measurement in H →τ τ decays at the LHC including machine learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowicz, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Was, Z.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the potential for measuring the C P state of the Higgs boson in H →τ τ decays with consecutive τ -lepton decays in the channels: τ±→ρ±ντ and τ±→a1±ντ combined. Subsequent decays ρ±→π±π0, a1±→ρ0π± and ρ0→π+π- are taken into account. We will explore extensions of the method, where the acoplanarity angle for the planes build on the visible decay products, π±π0 of τ±→π±π0ντ, was used. The angle is sensitive to transverse spin correlations, thus to parity. We show that in the case of the cascade decays of τ →a1ν , information on the C P state of Higgs can be extracted from the acoplanarity angles as well. Because in the cascade decay a1±→ρ0π± , ρ0→π+π- up to four planes can be defined, up to 16 distinct acoplanarity angles are available for H →τ τ →a1+a1-ν ν decays. These acoplanarities carry in part supplementary but also correlated information. It is thus cumbersome to evaluate an overall sensitivity. We investigate the sensitivity potential of such analysis, by developing and applying machine learning techniques. We quantify possible improvements when multidimensional phase space of outgoing decay products directions is used, instead of one-dimensional projections i.e. the acoplanarity angles. We do not take into account ambiguities resulting from detector uncertainties or background contamination; we concentrate on the usefulness of machine learning methods and τ →3 π ν decays for Higgs boson parity measurement.

  5. Measurement and Socio-Demographic Variation of Social Capital in a Large Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tarja; Martelin, Tuija; Koskinen, Seppo; Simpura, Jussi; Alanen, Erkki; Harkanen, Tommi; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to describe the variation of individual social capital according to socio-demographic factors, and to develop a suitable way to measure social capital for this purpose. The similarity of socio-demographic variation between the genders was also assessed. Data and methods: The study applied…

  6. Measurer’s Handbook: U.S. Army Anthropometric Survey, 1987-1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-04

    are measured subjects are required to place their heels on a line on the floor and lean back so that their shoulders are agains t a wall. A nonslip ...bone where it forms the upper margin of the bony eye socke t. 63 Frontot~mporale lnfraorbitale Zygion Ectoorbitale--i~~..., Posterior ’· Pro

  7. A survey on existing challenges of BSC implementation for performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdad Gitinejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The balanced scorecard (BSC is a strategic oriented tool used comprehensively in profit and nonprofit organizations all over the world to synchronize routine processes of organizations to the mission and strategy, improve inner and outter communications, control organization performance toward strategic targets. BSC has emerged from a simple performance measurement framework to a comprehensive strategic management system. It changes an organization’s strategic plan from a passive document to an active guideline for the organization on a daily basis and provides a helpful assistance that not only enables performance measurements, but also helps planners identify what should be accomplished and measured. This study focuses on how BSC is adopted as a tool for measuring effectiveness of strategy implementation in these organizations. This study adapts the BSC as a powerful tool for reaching an organization’s performance in four significant areas: Financial perspective, Customer-Market perspective, Internal Processes perspective and Learning & Growth perspective. The results suggest that governmental organizations are somehow successful in achieving their objectives in various degrees.

  8. The Servant Leadership Survey: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Dierendonck (Dirk); I.A.P.M. Nuijten (Inge)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and validation of a multi-dimensional instrument to measure servant leadership. Design/Methodology/Approach Based on an extensive literature review and expert judgment, 99 items were formulated. In three steps, using ei

  9. Petroleum substitution energy measuring analysis survey; Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For analytical evaluation of effects of environmental protection measures, energy conservation measures, new energy promotion measures, etc., a very-long term energy supply/demand model was developed and used for a simulational study. The model is composed of the models of macro economics, secondary energy prices, new energy introduction, and energy supply/demand. The feature is that the amount of new energy introduction is measuringly analyzed based on the cost and market scale, and integratedly estimated in a frame of energy supply/demand of the whole Japan. As a result of the simulation, energy source as of 2030 is composed of coal (17%), oil (44%) and nuclear power (15%) in the case of the economic growth as viewed optimistically. Contrarily, in the case of it as viewed pesimistically, energy source is composed of coal (11%), oil (40%) and nuclear power (22%). CO2 emission is -12.4% in the case of the new energy promotion than in the standard case. 7 refs., 79 figs., 107 tabs.

  10. The School Science Attitude Survey: A New Instrument for Measuring Attitudes towards School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, JohnPaul; Quinn, Frances; Taylor, Neil

    2016-01-01

    There have been many attempts over the last five decades to measure students' attitudes towards school science. Many of these studies investigated attitudes towards limited aspects of science and utilized large numbers of items to draw snapshot summaries of the educational landscape. An understanding of attitudes towards science, and how these…

  11. Proportion and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home: Nationwide survey in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petek-Šter Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Home blood pressure monitoring has several advantages over blood pressure monitoring at a physician's office, and has become a useful instrument in the management of hypertension. Objective. To explore the rate and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home. Methods. A sample of 2,752 patients with diagnosis of essential arterial hypertension was selected from 12596 consecutive office visitors. Data of 2,639 patients was appropriate for analysis. The data concerning home blood pressure measurement and patients' characteristics were obtained from the patients' case histories. Results 1,835 (69.5% out of 2,639 patients measured their blood pressure at home. 1,284 (70.0% of home blood pressure patients had their own blood pressure measurement device. There were some important differences between these two groups: home blood pressure patients were more frequently male, of younger age, better educated, from urban area, mostly non-smokers, more likely to have diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease and had higher number of co-morbidities and were on other drugs beside antihypertensive medication. Using the logistic regression analysis we found that the most powerful predictors of home blood pressure monitoring had higher education level than primary school OR=1.80 (95% CI 1.37-2.37, non-smoking OR=2.16 (95% CI 1.40-3.33 and having a physician in urban area OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.02-1.71. Conclusion. Home blood pressure monitoring is popular in Slovenia. Patients who measured blood pressure at home were different from patients who did not. Younger age, higher education, non-smoking, having a physician in urban area and longer duration of hypertension were predictors of home blood pressure monitoring.

  12. Measurement properties of a novel survey to assess stages of organizational readiness for evidence-based interventions in community chronic disease prevention settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatakis Katherine A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a great deal of variation in the existing capacity of primary prevention programs and policies addressing chronic disease to deliver evidence-based interventions (EBIs. In order to develop and evaluate implementation strategies that are tailored to the appropriate level of capacity, there is a need for an easy-to-administer tool to stage organizational readiness for EBIs. Methods Based on theoretical frameworks, including Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations, we developed a survey instrument to measure four domains representing stages of readiness for EBI: awareness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. A separate scale representing organizational climate as a potential mediator of readiness for EBIs was also included in the survey. Twenty-three questions comprised the four domains, with four to nine items each, using a seven-point response scale. Representatives from obesity, asthma, diabetes, and tobacco prevention programs serving diverse populations in the United States were surveyed (N = 243; test-retest reliability was assessed with 92 respondents. Results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to test and refine readiness scales. Test-retest reliability of the readiness scales, as measured by intraclass correlation, ranged from 0.47–0.71. CFA found good fit for the five-item adoption and implementation scales and resulted in revisions of the awareness and maintenance scales. The awareness scale was split into two two-item scales, representing community and agency awareness. The maintenance scale was split into five- and four-item scales, representing infrastructural maintenance and evaluation maintenance, respectively. Internal reliability of scales (Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.66–0.78. The model for the final revised scales approached good fit, with most factor loadings >0.6 and all >0.4. Conclusions The lack of adequate measurement tools hinders progress in dissemination and implementation

  13. Duskside relativistic electron precipitation as measured by SAMPEX: A statistical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comess, Max D.; Smith, David M.; Selesnick, Richard S.; Millan, Robyn M.; Sample, John G.

    2013-08-01

    Evidence for duskside relativistic electron precipitation (DREP) within the Earth's outer radiation belt has historically been seen in a few sets of high altitude balloon data (MAXIS, MINIS, INTERBOA), and in satellite data. We present statistical evidence that the relativistic electron precipitation events from the outer radiation belt with e-folding energies > 0.5 MeV are concentrated in the dusk-to-midnight sector, based on a survey of data collected by the SAMPEX satellite from 1992 to 2004. A correlation between spectral hardness and duskside MLT is observed in our sample, the largest studied to date. Out of 9380 precipitation events within the bounce loss cone, 1048 are observed to have exponentially falling spectra with e-folding energies above 0.5 MeV ("hard events") and 1648 events below 0.2 MeV. Of the hard events, 81% occur within 12 h to 24 h MLT, compared to only 37% of events having e-folding energies below 0.2 MeV. With microbursts removed from this softer population the percentage of duskside events rises to 46%. The hard events occur at slightly elevated levels of geomagnetic activity (Ap and Dst) relative to softer nonmicroburst events, but these correlations are much weaker than for microbursts. The hard events are observed to peak in occurrence at L ~ 5.5, significantly higher than nonmicroburst softer events, even though the opposite might be expected from compression of the magnetosphere due to the more negative average Dst of the hard events. The hard events are most prevalent during the declining phase of the 11 year solar cycle.

  14. The angular power spectrum measurement of the Galactic synchrotron emission in two fields of the TGSS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Samir; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Ali, Sk. Saiyad; Roy, Nirupam; Intema, Huib. T.; Ghosh, Abhik

    2017-09-01

    Characterizing the diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission at arcminute angular scales is needed to reliably remove foregrounds in cosmological 21-cm measurements. The study of this emission is also interesting in its own right. Here, we quantify the fluctuations of the diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission using visibility data for two of the fields observed by the TIFR GMRT Sky Survey. We have used the 2D Tapered Gridded Estimator to estimate the angular power spectrum (Cℓ) from the visibilities. We find that the sky signal, after subtracting the point sources, is likely dominated by the diffuse Galactic synchrotron radiation across the angular multipole range 240 ≤ ℓ ≲ 500. We present a power-law fit, C_{ℓ}=A× \\big (1000/l\\big )^{β }, to the measured Cℓ over this ℓ range. We find that (A, β) have values (356 ± 109 mK2, 2.8 ± 0.3) and (54 ± 26 mK2, 2.2 ± 0.4) in the two fields. For the second field, however, there is indication of a significant residual point source contribution and for this field we interpret the measured Cℓ as an upper limit for the diffuse Galactic synchrotron emission. While in both fields the slopes are consistent with earlier measurements, the second field appears to have an amplitude that is considerably smaller compared to similar measurements in other parts of the sky.

  15. The measurement of magnetic properties of electrical sheet steel - survey on methods and situation of standards

    CERN Document Server

    Sievert, J

    2000-01-01

    A brief review of the different requirements for magnetic measurement techniques for material research, modelling of material properties and grading of the electrical sheet steel for trade purposes is presented. In relation to the main application of laminated electrical steel, this paper deals with AC measurement techniques. Two standard methods, Epstein frame and Single Sheet Tester (SST), producing different results, are used in parallel. This dilemma was analysed in detail. The study leads to a possible solution of the problem, i.e. the possibility of converting the results of one of the two methods into the results of the other in order to satisfy the users of the Epstein method and, at the same time, to improve the acceptance of the more economical SST method.

  16. Effectiveness of interventions on physical activity in overweight or obese children: a systematic review and meta-analysis including studies with objectively measured outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijen, C F J; Galanti, M R; Engström, K; Möller, J; Forsell, Y

    2017-02-01

    There is no consensus on interventions to be recommended in order to promote physical activity among overweight or obese children. The objective of this review was to assess the effects on objectively measured physical activity, of interventions promoting physical activity among overweight or obese children or adolescents, compared to no intervention or to interventions without a physical activity component. Publications up to December 2015 were located through electronic searches for randomized controlled trials resulting in inclusion of 33 studies. Standardized mean differences from baseline to post-intervention and to long-term follow-up were determined for intervention and control groups and meta-analysed using random effects models. The meta-analysis showed that interventions had no effect on total physical activity of overweight and obese children, neither directly post-intervention (-0.02 [-0.15, 0.11]) nor at long-term follow-up (0.07 [-0.27, 0.40]). Separate analyses by typology of intervention (with or without physical fitness, behavioural or environmental components) showed similar results (no effect). In conclusion, there is no evidence that currently available interventions are able to increase physical activity among overweight or obese children. This questions the contribution of physical activity to the treatment of overweight and obesity in children in the studied interventions and calls for other treatment strategies. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  17. LHCb: Measurements of the relative branching fractions of the decay channel $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ including charmonium contributions at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Cardinale, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The study of the $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ decay channel at LHCb is of great interest since it gives the possibility to study different aspects of the Standard Model and possibly Beyond Standard Model physics. A measurement of the direct CP asymmetry can be performed. Moreover intermediate states such as charmonium and "charmonium-like" resonances in the $p \\bar{p}$ final state can be observed and studied along with their characteristics. A multivariate selection has been implemented to select the interesting events using kinematic and topological variables and the particle identification information using the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The selection has a high signal efficiency and high background rejection capability. The ratios of the branching fractions of the $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ decay channel, of the charmless component with $M_{p \\bar{p}} < 2.85 \\,{\\rm GeV/}c^{2}$ and of the charmonium contribution $\\eta_{c}$, ${\\mathcal B} (B^{\\pm}\\to \\eta_{c} K^{\\pm})\\times {\\mathcal B} (\\eta...

  18. Background Measurements Made Above Five Kilometers: A Survey of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-06-01

    Vestine, E. H. Viezee, W. Von Thuna, P. C. Wark, D. Q. Weickman, H. K Weinstein, M. Wessely, H. W. Wexler , R. White, F. E. White, R. C...September 1962, R. Wexler , "Infrared and Visual Radiation Measurements from Tiros III," Appl. Opt., Vol. 3, No. 2, February 1964, R. Wexler ...22314 ATTN: Dr. Charles Johnson NIKE -X F roject Development Office P. O. Box 1500 West Station Huntsville, Alabama 35809 ATTN: Mr. Boyd C

  19. 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Component Members: Report on Scales and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    scale (FS; Swan, 1997).28 Originally a 15-item scale, the FS was adapted from an emotions scale by Folkman and Lazarus (1985) and measures the extent...Members: Statistical methodology report (Report No. 2004-019). Arlington, VA: DMDC. Folkman , S., & Lazarus , R.S. (1985). If it changes it must be a process...sexual harassment research: Historical perspectives and new initiatives. Military Psychology, 11, 219-231. Lazarus , R. S., & Folkman , S. (1984

  20. Survey of use of malaria prevention measures by Canadians visiting India

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, C C; Anvar, A; Keystone, J S; Kain, K C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imported malaria is an increasing problem, particularly among new immigrant populations. The objective of this study was to determine the malaria prevention measures used by Canadians originating from a malaria-endemic area when returning to visit their country of origin. METHODS: A 35-item English-language questionnaire was administered by interview to travellers at a departure lounge at Pearson International Airport, Toronto, between January and June 1995. Information was collected on subject characteristics, travel itinerary, perceptions about malaria, and pretravel health advice and malaria chemoprophylaxis and barriers to their use. RESULTS: A total of 324 travellers departing on flights to India were approached, of whom 307 (95%) agreed to participate in the study. Participants were Canadian residents of south Asian origin with a mean duration of residence in Canada of 12.8 years. Most of the respondents were returning to visit relatives for a mean visit duration of 6.8 weeks. Although 69% of the respondents thought malaria was a moderate to severe illness and 54% had sought advice before travelling, only 31% intended to use any chemoprophylaxis, and less than 10% were using measures to prevent mosquito bites. Only 7% had been prescribed a recommended drug regimen. Family practitioners were the primary source of information for travellers and were more likely to prescribe an inappropriate chemoprophylactic regimen than were travel clinics or public health centres (76% v. 36%) (p = 0.003). Respondents who had lived in Canada longest and those with a family history of malaria were more likely to use chemoprophylaxis (p < 0.01). INTERPRETATION: Few travellers were using appropriate chemoprophylaxis and mosquito prevention measures. Misconceptions about malaria risk and appropriate prevention measures were the main barriers identified. PMID:9951440

  1. Comparative analysis of two methods for measuring sales volumes during malaria medicine outlet surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patouillard, Edith; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Hanson, Kara; Pok, Sochea; Palafox, Benjamin; Tougher, Sarah; O'Connell, Kate; Goodman, Catherine

    2013-09-05

    There is increased interest in using commercial providers for improving access to quality malaria treatment. Understanding their current role is an essential first step, notably in terms of the volume of diagnostics and anti-malarials they sell. Sales volume data can be used to measure the importance of different provider and product types, frequency of parasitological diagnosis and impact of interventions. Several methods for measuring sales volumes are available, yet all have methodological challenges and evidence is lacking on the comparability of different methods. Using sales volume data on anti-malarials and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria collected through provider recall (RC) and retail audits (RA), this study measures the degree of agreement between the two methods at wholesale and retail commercial providers in Cambodia following the Bland-Altman approach. Relative strengths and weaknesses of the methods were also investigated through qualitative research with fieldworkers. A total of 67 wholesalers and 107 retailers were sampled. Wholesale sales volumes were estimated through both methods for 62 anti-malarials and 23 RDTs and retail volumes for 113 anti-malarials and 33 RDTs. At wholesale outlets, RA estimates for anti-malarial sales were on average higher than RC estimates (mean difference of four adult equivalent treatment doses (95% CI 0.6-7.2)), equivalent to 30% of mean sales volumes. For RDTs at wholesalers, the between-method mean difference was not statistically significant (one test, 95% CI -6.0-4.0). At retail outlets, between-method differences for both anti-malarials and RDTs increased with larger volumes being measured, so mean differences were not a meaningful measure of agreement between the methods. Qualitative research revealed that in Cambodia where sales volumes are small, RC had key advantages: providers were perceived to remember more easily their sales volumes and find RC less invasive; fieldworkers found it more

  2. Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances, including ethanol or toxins, in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

  3. Pain in patients with multiple sclerosis: a complex assessment including quantitative and qualitative measurements provides for a disease-related biopsychosocial pain model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dominik Michalski1,*, Stefanie Liebig1,*, Eva Thomae1,2, Andreas Hinz3, Florian Then Bergh1,21Department of Neurology, 2Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine (TRM, 3Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany *These authors contributed equallyBackground: Pain of various causes is a common phenomenon in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS. A biopsychosocial perspective has proven a useful theoretical construct in other chronic pain conditions and was also started in MS. To support such an approach, we aimed to investigate pain in MS with special emphasis on separating quantitative and qualitative aspects, and its interrelation to behavioral and physical aspects.Materials and methods: Pain intensity (NRS and quality (SES were measured in 38 consecutive outpatients with MS (mean age, 42.0 ± 11.5 years, 82% women. Pain-related behavior (FSR, health care utilization, bodily complaints (GBB-24 and fatigue (WEIMuS were assessed by questionnaires, and MS-related neurological impairment by a standardized neurological examination (EDSS.Results: Mean pain intensity was 4.0 (range, 0–10 and mean EDSS 3.7 (range, 0–8 in the overall sample. Currently present pain was reported by 81.6% of all patients. Disease duration and EDSS did not differ between patients with and without pain and were not correlated to quality or intensity of pain. Patients with pain had significantly higher scores of musculoskeletal complaints, but equal scores of exhaustion, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular complaints. Pain intensity correlated only with physical aspects, whereas quality of pain was additionally associated with increased avoidance, resignation and cognitive fatigue.Conclusion: As in other conditions, pain in MS must be assessed in a multidimensional way. Further research should be devoted to adapt existing models to a MS-specific model of pain.Keywords: pain intensity, quality of pain, pain

  4. [Initial Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Tablets Containing Trifluridine and Tipiracil Hydrochloride--Safety Measures Devised by a Multidisciplinary Team Including a Pharmaceutical Outpatient Clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimono, Yuka; Kamoshida, Toshiro; Sakamoto, Risa; Nemoto, Masahiko; Saito, Yoshiko; Aoyama, Yoshifumi; Maruyama, Tsunehiko

    2015-07-01

    In May 2014, tablets containing both trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride (Lonsurf® tablets) were launched in Japan ahead of other countries, for the treatment of advanced/relapsed unresectable colorectal cancer. The benefits of these tablets in terms of a new therapeutic option have been demonstrated. However, the manufacturer has requested healthcare professionals to help develop safety measures for the appropriate and safe use of the tablets. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the tablets in 16 patients who received the tablets at our hospital. Among the 4 evaluable patients, none achieved a complete or partial response. One patient (25.0%) had stable disease according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) Guidelines outlined in the General Rules of the Study of Colorectal Cancer (The 8th Edition). Lonsurf® is considered to be a third-line (or later) treatment. Among the 16 cases studied, Lonsurf® was used as a third-, fourth-, and fifth-line treatment in 9, 6, and 1 cases, respectively. Therefore, Grade 3 or worse toxicities were a potential concern. Despite a high incidence of Grade 3 or worse neutropenia (7 of the 16 patients [43.8%]), none of the patients were hospitalized due to neutropenia or other treatment-related adverse events. Pharmacists have made 126 proposals to physicians regarding the use of Lonsurf®, 121 (96.0%) of which have been adopted. All of the adverse reactions experienced by our patients were resolved after supportive therapy.

  5. Measuring the Scatter of the Mass-Richness Relation in Galaxy Clusters in Photometric Imaging Surveys by Means of Their Correlation Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campa, Julia [Barcelona, Autonoma U.; Flaugher, Brenna [Fermilab; Estrada, Juan [Fermilab

    2015-12-04

    The knowledge of the scatter in the mass-observable relation is a key ingredient for a cosmological analysis based on galaxy clusters in a photometric survey. We demonstrate here how the linear bias measured in the correlation function for clusters can be used to determine the value of the scatter. The new method is tested in simulations of a 5.000 square degrees optical survey up to z~1, similar to the ongoing Dark Energy Survey. The results indicate that the scatter can be measured with a precision of 5% using this technique.

  6. Development of a brief survey to measure nursing home residents' perceptions of pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teno, Joan M; Dosa, David; Rochon, Therese; Casey, Virginia; Mor, Vincent

    2008-12-01

    Persistent severe pain in nursing home residents remains an important public health problem. One major key to quality improvement efforts is the development of tools to assist in auditing and monitoring the quality of health care delivery to these patients. A qualitative synthesis of existing pain guidelines, and input from focus groups and an expert panel, were used to develop a 10-item instrument, the Resident Assessment of Pain Management (RAPM). The psychometric properties of the RAPM were examined in a sample of 107 (82% female, average age 85) cognitively intact nursing home residents living in six Rhode Island nursing homes. Reliability and internal consistency were evaluated with test-retest and Cronbach's alpha, respectively, and validity was examined against independent assessment of pain management by research nurses. After comparing the results of RAPM with the independent pain assessment and examining a frequency distribution and factor analysis, five of the 10 items were retained. Internal reliability of the final instrument was 0.55. The rate of reported concerns ranged from 8% stating that they were not receiving enough pain medication to 43% stating that pain interfered with their sleep. The median pain problem score (i.e., the count of the number of opportunities to improve) was 1, with 23% of residents reporting three or more concerns. Overall, RAPM was moderately correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient r=0.43) with an independent expert nurse assessment of the quality of pain management. Evidence of construct validity for RAPM is based on the correlation of the pain problem score with nursing home resident satisfaction with pain management (r=0.26), reported average pain intensity (r=0.41), research nurse completion of the Minimum Data Set pain items (r=0.52), and the quality of pain documentation in the medical record (r=0.28). In conclusion, RAPM is a brief survey tool easily administered to nursing home residents that identifies

  7. Seismic survey in southeastern Socorro Island: Background noise measurements, seismic events, and T phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, Raul W [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galindo, Marta [Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, IMS, Vienna (Austria); Pacheco, Javier F; Iglesias, Arturo; Teran, Luis F [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Barreda, Jose L; Coba, Carlos [Facultad de Ingenieria, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2005-01-15

    We carried out a seismic survey and installed five portable, broadband seismometers in the southeastern corner of Socorro Island during June 1999. Power spectral densities for all five sites were relatively noisy when compared to reference curves around the world. Power spectral densities remain constant regardless of the time of day, or the day of the week. Cultural noise at the island is very small. Quiet and noisy sites were identified to determine the best location of the T phase station to be installed jointly by the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. During the survey six earthquakes were recorded at epicentral distances between 42 km and 2202 km, with magnitudes between 2.8 and 7.0. Two small earthquakes (M{sub c} = 2.8 and 3.3) occurred on the Clarion Fracture Zone. The four largest and more distant earthquakes produced T waves. One T wave from an epicenter near the coast of Guatemala had a duration of about 100 s and a frequency content between 2 and 8 Hz, with maximum amplitude at about 4.75 Hz. The Tehuacan earthquake of June 15, 1999 (M{sub w} = 7.0) produced arrivals of P {yields} T and S {yields} T waves, with energy between 2 Hz and 3.75 Hz. The earthquake occurred inland within the subducted Cocos plate at a depth of 60 km; a significant portion of the path was continental. Seismic P and S waves probably propagated upward in the subducted slab, and were converted to acoustic energy at the continental slope. Total duration of the T phase is close to 500 s and reaches its maximum amplitude about 200 s after the P {yields} T arrival. The T wave contains energy at frequencies between 2 and 10 Hz and reaches its maximum amplitude at about 2.5 Hz. T phases were also recorded from two earthquakes in Guerrero, Mexico and in the Rivera Fracture Zone. [Spanish] En junio de 1999 instalamos cinco sismometros portatiles de banda ancha en el sureste de la Isla Socorro. Se encontro que las densidades

  8. Measuring Self-perceived Social Health of Iranians; Finding from Iran Social Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kambiz Abachizadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The novelty of the study is to measure self-perceived social health of Iranians as one of the main dimensions of health.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in all provinces of Iran in September 2014 with 10500 participants to measure self-perceived social health on a scale from 33 to 165 arranged in three areas; family, friends and relatives, and community. Area of "family" was measure in a range from 6 to 30; area of "friends and relatives" was from 9 to 45; and area of "community" was from 19 to 95. The psychometrics of scale was examined in separate previous study.Results: From a total of 10500 participants, 10244 fulfilled questionnaire (Response rate= 97.6%. 49.2% of participants were male. Mean of the total social health score was 99.91; area of "family" was 22; area of "friends and relatives" was 27.6; and area of "community" was 51.2. The main factors negatively influences on social health were low house size, unemployment, being divorced or widow and being at the age of 18-30. There was no significant relationship between social health score and educational level.Conclusion: It is magnificently attained that standardized social health rate in the present study was 3.9% lower than the rate has been estimated in comparison to similar previously conducted study in three big cities of Iran, two years earlier. Area of "community" is also the main accountant for this drop. To continue monitoring the social health of Iranians, we recommend conducting the next rounds every 3-5 years.

  9. Development and testing of a survey instrument to measure benefits of a nursing information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrbo, Amany A; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Hudak, Christine A; Anthony, Mary K

    2011-01-01

    Information systems (IS) benefits for nurses are outcomes related to the tangible products or improvements that nurses realize from using IS. This study examined the development and psychometric testing of a measure of nurses' benefits from IS. A random sample of 570 nurses working in hospitals, providing direct patient care, and using IS completed the study questionnaire. The internal consistency reliability of the results was .97. Exploratory factor analysis, using principal components extraction and varimax rotation, revealed items loaded on four factors (saving time and efficiency, quality of care, charting, and professional practice) that were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Continued refinement of the instrument is needed with more diverse samples of nurses.

  10. Survey of horizontal stresses in coal mines from available measurements and mapping.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frith, R

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available OF HORIZONTAL STRESS IN THE WITBANK AND HIGHVELD COALFIELDS 21 4.1 Is Horizontal Stress at Work in Roadway Roof Behaviour? 21 4.2 Summary of Measured Horizontal Stresses 24 4.3 Proposed Model for the Origin of Horizontal Stress Within the Coalfields 27 4... effects of horizontal stress could be further mitigated within the practicalities of the mining methods in use. Based on the work undertaken, the following project findings have been arrived at: (a) Horizontal stresses are clearly evident within both...

  11. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghizadeh Atefeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food insecurity in Isfahan, Iran, using statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model. Methods The U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module was translated into Farsi and after adaptation, administered to a representative sample. Data were provided by 2,004 randomly selected households from all sectors of the population of Isfahan, Iran, during 2005. Results 53.1 percent reported that their food had run out at some time during the previous 12 months and they did not have money to buy more, while 26.7 percent reported that an adult had cut the size of a meal or skipped a meal because there was not enough money for food, and 7.2 percent reported that an adult did not eat for a whole day because there was not enough money for food. The severity of the items in the adult scale, estimated under Rasch-model assumptions, covered a range of 6.65 logistic units, and those in the child scale 11.68 logistic units. Most Item-infit statistics were near unity, and none exceeded 1.20. Conclusion The range of severity of items provides measurement coverage across a wide range of severity of food insecurity for both adults and children. Both scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal validity, although several items should be improved. The similarity of the response patterns in the Isfahan and the U.S. suggests that food insecurity is experienced, managed, and described similarly in the two countries.

  12. An exploratory survey of methods used to develop measures of performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Kenneth L.; Lafleur, Charles A.

    1993-09-01

    Nonmanufacturing organizations are being challenged to provide high-quality products and services to their customers, with an emphasis on continuous process improvement. Measures of performance, referred to as metrics, can be used to foster process improvement. The application of performance measurement to nonmanufacturing processes can be very difficult. This research explored methods used to develop metrics in nonmanufacturing organizations. Several methods were formally defined in the literature, and the researchers used a two-step screening process to determine the OMB Generic Method was most likely to produce high-quality metrics. The OMB Generic Method was then used to develop metrics. A few other metric development methods were found in use at nonmanufacturing organizations. The researchers interviewed participants in metric development efforts to determine their satisfaction and to have them identify the strengths and weaknesses of, and recommended improvements to, the metric development methods used. Analysis of participants' responses allowed the researchers to identify the key components of a sound metrics development method. Those components were incorporated into a proposed metric development method that was based on the OMB Generic Method, and should be more likely to produce high-quality metrics that will result in continuous process improvement.

  13. Quantum efficiency measurement of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) CCD detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, A.; Villasenor, J.; Thayer, C.; Kissel, S.; Ricker, G.; Seager, S.; Lyle, R.; Deline, A.; Morgan, E.; Sauerwein, T.; Vanderspek, R.

    2016-07-01

    Very precise on-ground characterization and calibration of TESS CCD detectors will significantly assist in the analysis of the science data from the mission. An accurate optical test bench with very high photometric stability has been developed to perform precise measurements of the absolute quantum efficiency. The setup consists of a vacuum dewar with a single MIT Lincoln Lab CCID-80 device mounted on a cold plate with the calibrated reference photodiode mounted next to the CCD. A very stable laser-driven light source is integrated with a closed-loop intensity stabilization unit to control variations of the light source down to a few parts-per-million when averaged over 60 s. Light from the stabilization unit enters a 20 inch integrating sphere. The output light from the sphere produces near-uniform illumination on the cold CCD and on the calibrated reference photodiode inside the dewar. The ratio of the CCD and photodiode signals provides the absolute quantum efficiency measurement. The design, key features, error analysis, and results from the test campaign are presented.

  14. The WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey: Joint measurements of the expansion and growth history at z < 1

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Chris; Colless, Matthew; Contreras, Carlos; Couch, Warrick; Croom, Scott; Croton, Darren; Davis, Tamara; Drinkwater, Michael J; Forster, Karl; Gilbank, David; Gladders, Mike; Glazebrook, Karl; Jelliffe, Ben; Jurek, Russell J; Li, I-hui; Madore, Barry; Martin, Chris; Pimbblet, Kevin; Poole, Gregory B; Pracy, Michael; Sharp, Rob; Wisnioski, Emily; Woods, David; Wyder, Ted; Yee, Howard

    2012-01-01

    We perform a joint determination of the distance-redshift relation and cosmic expansion rate at redshifts z = 0.44, 0.6 and 0.73 by combining measurements of the baryon acoustic peak and Alcock-Paczynski distortion from galaxy clustering in the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey, using a large ensemble of mock catalogues to calculate the covariance between the measurements. Further combining our results with other baryon acoustic oscillation and distant supernovae datasets, we use a Monte Carlo Markov Chain technique to determine the evolution of the Hubble parameter H(z) as a stepwise function in 9 redshift bins of width dz = 0.1, also marginalizing over the spatial curvature. Our measurements of H(z), which have precision better than 7% in most redshift bins, are consistent with the expansion history predicted by a cosmological-constant dark-energy model, in which the expansion accelerates at redshift z < 0.7. We also measure the normalized cosmic growth rate at z = 0.44, 0.6 and 0.73, together with its covarian...

  15. The Supernova Legacy Survey: Measurement of Omega_M, Omega_Lambda and w from the First Year Data Set

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, Pierre; Regnault, N; Pain, R; Aubourg, E; Balam, D; Basa, S; Carlberg, R G; Fabbro, S; Fouchez, D; Hook, I M; Howell, D A; Lafoux, H; Neill, J D; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C J; Rich, J; Sullivan, M; Taillet, R; Aldering, G; Antilogus, P; Arsenijevic, V; Balland, C; Baumont, S; Bronder, J; Courtois, H; Ellis, Richard S; Filiol, M; Gonçalves, A C; Goobar, A; Guide, D; Hardin, D; Lusset, V; Lidman, C; McMahon, R; Mouchet, M; Mourao, A; Perlmutter, S; Ripoche, P; Tao, C; Walton, N

    2006-01-01

    We present distance measurements to 71 high redshift type Ia supernovae discovered during the first year of the 5-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-color light-curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshift. With this data set, we have built a Hubble diagram extending to z=1, with all distance measurements involving at least two bands. Systematic uncertainties are evaluated making use of the multi-band photometry obtained at CFHT. Cosmological fits to this first year SNLS Hubble diagram give the following results : Omega_M = 0.263 +/- 0.042(stat) +/- 0.032(sys) for a flat LambdaCDM model; and w = -1.023 +/- 0.090(stat) +/- 0.054(sys) for a flat cosmology with constant equation of state w when combined ...

  16. How do family physicians measure blood pressure in routine clinical practice? National survey of Canadian family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorowski, Janusz; Myers, Martin G; Gelfer, Mark; Dawes, Martin; Mang, Eric J; Berg, Angelique; Grande, Claudio Del; Kljujic, Dragan

    2017-03-01

    To describe the techniques currently used by family physicians in Canada to measure blood pressure (BP) for screening for, diagnosing, and treating hypertension. A Web-based cross-sectional survey distributed by e-mail. Stratified random sample of family physicians in Canada. Family physician members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada with valid e-mail addresses. Physicians' self-reported routine methods for recording BP in their practices to screen for, diagnose, and manage hypertension. A total of 774 valid responses were received, for a response rate of 16.2%. Respondents were similar to nonrespondents except for underrepresentation of male physicians. Of 769 respondents, 417 (54.2%) indicated that they used manual office BP measurement with a mercury or aneroid device and stethoscope as the routine method to screen patients for high BP, while 42.9% (330 of 769) reported using automated office BP (AOBP) measurement. The method most frequently used to make a diagnosis of hypertension was AOBP measurement (31.1%, 240 of 771), followed by home BP measurement (22.4%, 173 of 771) and manual office BP measurement (21.4%, 165 of 771). Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) was used for diagnosis by 14.4% (111 of 771) of respondents. The most frequently reported method for ongoing management was home BP monitoring (68.7%, 528 of 769), followed by manual office BP measurement (63.6%, 489 of 769) and AOBP measurement (59.2%, 455 of 769). More than three-quarters (77.8%, 598 of 769) of respondents indicated that ABPM was readily available for their patients. Canadian family physicians exhibit overall high use of electronic devices for BP measurement, However, more efforts are needed to encourage practitioners to follow current Canadian guidelines, which advocate the use of AOBP measurement for hypertension screening, ABPM and home BP measurement for making a diagnosis, and both AOBP and home BP monitoring for ongoing management. Copyright© the College of Family

  17. Treatment effect expressed as the novel Delay of Event measure is associated with high willingness to initiate preventive treatment - A randomized survey experiment comparing effect measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Erik; Westerling, Ragnar; Sundström, Johan; Lytsy, Per

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate patients' willingness to initiate a preventive treatment and compared two established effect measures to the newly developed Delay of Events (DoE) measure that expresses treatment effect as a gain in event-free time. In this cross-sectional, randomized survey experiment in the general Swedish population,1079 respondents (response rate 60.9%) were asked to consider a preventive cardiovascular treatment. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of three effect descriptions: DoE, relative risk reduction (RRR), or absolute risk reduction (ARR). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed investigating willingness to initiate treatment, views on treatment benefit, motivation and importance to adhere and willingness to pay for treatment. Eighty-one percent were willing to take the medication when the effect was described as DoE, 83.0% when it was described as RRR and 62.8% when it was described as ARR. DoE and RRR was further associated with positive views on treatment benefit, motivation, importance to adhere and WTP. Presenting treatment effect as DoE or RRR was associated with a high willingness to initiate treatment. An approach based on the novel time-based measure DoE may be of value in clinical communication and shared decision making. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Design, validation, and reliability of survey to measure female athlete triad knowledge among coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian E. Frideres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and to test the validity and reliability of an instrument to evaluate coaches' knowledge about the female athlete triad syndrome and their confidence in this knowledge. The instrument collects information regarding: knowledge of the syndrome, components, prevention and intervention; confidence of the coaches in their answers; and coach's characteristics (gender, degree held, years of experience in coaching females, continuing education participation specific to the syndrome and its components, and sport coached. The process of designing the questionnaire and testing the validity and reliability of it was done in four phases: a design and development of the instrument, b content validity, c instrument reliability, and d concurrent validity. The results show that the instrument is suitable for measuring coaches' female athlete triad knowledge. The instrument can contribute to assessing the coaches' knowledge level in relation to this topic.

  19. Measuring access to medicines: a review of quantitative methods used in household surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues Marlos R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicine access is an important goal of medicine policy; however the evaluation of medicine access is a subject under conceptual and methodological development. The aim of this study was to describe quantitative methodologies to measure medicine access on household level, access expressed as paid or unpaid medicine acquisition. Methods Searches were carried out in electronic databases and health institutional sites; within references from retrieved papers and by contacting authors. Results Nine papers were located. The methodologies of the studies presented differences in the recall period, recruitment of subjects and medicine access characterization. Conclusions The standardization of medicine access indicators and the definition of appropriate recall periods are required to evaluate different medicines and access dimensions, improving studies comparison. Besides, specific keywords must be established to allow future literature reviews about this topic.

  20. The development of a measure of correlates of child sexual abuse: the Traumatic Sexualization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matorin, A I; Lynn, S J

    1998-04-01

    The present research developed an instrument which assesses cognitive and behavioral factors purportedly associated with child sexual abuse histories. Finkelhor and Browne's construct of traumatic sexualization served as a guide for item selection. The study resulted in a 38-item reliable measure consisting of four subscales: Avoidance and Fear of Sexual and Physical Intimacy, Thoughts About Sex, Role of Sex in Relationships, and Attraction/Interest and Sexuality. Construct validity was established using a variety of self-report instruments associated with the dimensions of traumatic sexualization. Sexually abused women scored higher than nonabused women on three TSS factors. Physically abused women differed from nonabused women on only one factor. Sexually abused women did not score significantly higher than physically abused women on any factors.

  1. French airborne lidar measurements for Eyjafjallajökull ash plume survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chazette

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An Ultra-Violet Rayleigh-Mie lidar has been integrated aboard the French research aircraft Falcon 20 in order to monitor the ash plume emitted by the Eyjafjallajökul volcano in April–May 2010. Three operational flights were carried out on 21 April, 12 and 16 May 2010 inside French, Spanish and British air spaces, respectively. The original purpose of the flights was to provide the French civil aviation authorities with objective information on the presence and location of the ash plume. The present paper presents the results of detailed analyses elaborated after the volcano crisis. They bear on the structure of the ash clouds and their optical properties such as ash extinction coefficient and lidar ratio. Lidar ratios were measured in the range of 33 to 48 sr, in good agreement with the ratios derived from ground-based lidar measurements performed near Paris (France in April 2010 (∼47 sr. The ash signature in terms of particulate depolarization was consistent around 45 ± 7% during all flights. Such a value seems to be a good identification parameter for ash. Using specific cross-sections between 0.29 and 1.1 m2 g−1, the minimum (maximal mass concentrations in the ash plumes are derived for the flights on 12 and 16 May. They were 190 (2300 and 270 (1600 μg m−3, respectively. It may be rather less than, or of the order of the critical level of damage (2 mg m−3 for the aircraft engines, but well above the 200 μg m−3 warning level.

  2. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Dilday, Benjamin; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Frieman, Joshua A; Galbany, Lluís; Garnavich, Peter; Goobar, Ariel; Hopp, Ulrich; Ihara, Yutaka; Jha, Saurabh W; Kessler, Richard; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Mollá, Mercedes; Nichol, Robert C; Nordin, Jakob; Riess, Adam G; Sako, Masao; Schneider, Donald P; Smith, Mathew; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J Craig; Östman, Linda; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    ABRIDGED We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z <0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3$. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of $({0.37}^{+0.17+0.01}_{-0.12-0.01}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ and $({0.55}^{+0.13+0.02}_{-0.11-0.01}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ ($\\mathrm{SNu}x = 10^{-12} L_{x\\sun}^{-1} \\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be $({0.31}^{+0.18+0.01}_{-0.12-0.01}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ and $({0.49}^{+0.15+0.02}_{-0.11-0.01})$ $\\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be $({2.04}^{+1.99+0.07}_{-1.11-0.04}) \\mathrm{SNu}r h^{2}$ and $({0.36}^{+0.84+0.01}_...

  3. Consequences of CCD imperfections for cosmology determined by weak lensing surveys: From laboratory measurements to cosmological parameter bias

    CERN Document Server

    Okura, Yuki; May, Morgan; Plazas, Andrés A; Tamagawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing causes subtle changes in the apparent shapes of galaxies due to the bending of light by the gravity of foreground masses. By measuring the shapes of large numbers of galaxies (millions in recent surveys, up to tens of billions in future surveys) we can infer the parameters that determine cosmology. Imperfections in the detectors used to record images of the sky can introduce changes in the apparent shape of galaxies, which in turn can bias the inferred cosmological parameters. In this paper we consider the effect of two widely discussed sensor imperfections: tree-rings, due to impurity gradients which cause transverse electric fields in the Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD), and pixel-size variation, due to periodic CCD fabrication errors. These imperfections can be observed when the detectors are subject to uniform illumination (flat field images). We develop methods to determine the spurious shear and convergence (due to the imperfections) from the flat-field images. We calculate how t...

  4. The use of parental occupation in adolescent health surveys. An application of ISCO-based measures of occupational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Günther, Sebastian; Levin, Kate A; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Richter, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has emphasised that the challenge in researching socioeconomic differences in adolescent health cross-nationally lies in providing valid and comparable measures of socioeconomic position (SEP) across regions. This study aims to examine measures of occupational status derived from the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO), alongside commonly used affluence measures in association with adolescent self-rated health (SRH). Data were from the 2005/2006 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study' (HBSC); 27 649 individuals aged 11, 13 and 15 years from Germany, Macedonia, Norway, Turkey, Wales and Scotland. Three occupational scales were compared: the International Socioeconomic Index of Occupational Status (ISEI), the Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (SIOPS) and the Erikson-Goldthorpe-Portocarero class categories (EGP). Correlation analyses compared these occupational scales with the family affluence scale (FAS) and a family well-off measure, while logistic regression assessed the association between occupational scales and poor SRH. Multiple imputation techniques investigated possible bias arising from parental occupation missingness. Moderate correlations existed between occupational scales and FAS and family well-off. Socioeconomic inequalities in poor SRH were found for ISEI, SIOPS and EGP in all regions, independent of FAS and family well-off. Models of imputed data sets did not alter the results. The relationship between SEP and SRH was therefore not biased by high levels of missing values for ISCO. ISCO-based indicators of occupational status in cross-national self-administered adolescent health surveys were found to be robust measures of SEP in adolescence. These measure different aspects of SEP independent of FAS and family well-off. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Measuring the context of care in an Australian acute care hospital: a nurse survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Timothy J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study set out to achieve three objectives: to test the application of a context assessment tool in an acute hospital in South Australia; to use the tool to compare context in wards that had undergone an evidence implementation process with control wards; and finally to test for relationships between demographic variables (in particular experience of nurses being studied (n = 422 with the dimensions of context. Methods The Alberta Context Tool (ACT was administered to all nursing staff on six control and six intervention wards. A total of 217 (62% were returned (67% from the intervention wards and 56% from control wards. Data were analysed using Stata (v9. The effect of the intervention was analysed using nested (hierarchical analysis of variance; relationships between nurses' experience and context was examined using canonical correlation analysis. Results Results confirmed the adaptation and fit of the ACT to one acute care setting in South Australia. There was no difference in context scores between control and intervention wards. However, the tool identified significant variation between wards in many of the dimensions of context. Though significant, the relationship between nurses' experience and context was weak, suggesting that at the level of the individual nurse, few factors are related to context. Conclusions Variables operating at the level of the individual showed little relationship with context. However, the study indicated that some dimensions of context (e.g., leadership, culture vary at the ward level, whereas others (e.g., structural and electronic resources do not. The ACT also raised a number of interesting speculative hypotheses around the relationship between a measure of context and the capability and capacity of staff to influence it. We propose that context be considered to be dependent on ward- and hospital-level factors. Additionally, questions need to be considered about the unit of measurement

  6. Trends in Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Enterobacteriaceae and ESBL Genes in a Dutch Teaching Hospital, Measured in 5 Yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (2010-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Ina; Oome, Stijn; Verhulst, Carlo; Pettersson, Annika; Verduin, Kees; Kluytmans, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the trends in prevalence of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and ESBL genes, measured in five consecutive yearly Point Prevalence Surveys (PPS). All patients present in the hospital and in a day-care clinic (including patients on dialysis) on the day of the survey, were screened for perianal ESBL-E carriage. Perianal swabs were taken and cultured using an enrichment broth and a selective agar plate. Both phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to detect the production of ESBL, presence of ESBL-genes and clonal relatedness. Out of 2,695 patients, 135 (5.0%) were tested ESBL-E positive. The overall ESBL-E prevalence was stable over the years. Overall 5.2% of all ESBL-E were acquired by nosocomial transmission. A relative decrease of CTX-M-1-1-like ESBL genes (from 44 to 25%, p = 0.026) was observed, possibly related to the strong (>60%) decrease in antibiotic use in livestock in our country during the same period.

  7. Creati ng Customer - Based Brand Equity and Measuring Brand Perception of Tourists who Travel for Thermal Tourism: Balcova Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Gül

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Creating customer-based brand equity is one of the most effective tools for achieving competitive advantage in term of thermal tourism businesses that operating under fierce competition in the last years. The aim of the study is to measure customer-based brand equity perception of customers who accommodate in thermal tourism facilities and identify relationship between brand equity dimensions and size with the other dimensions of each. The survey was conducted on 216 domestic and 184 foreign tourists staying at Balcova Thermal Resort which is located in the Balcova Thermal Destination. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Path Analysis was applied the data. Findings show that there are significant and positive relationship between the size of each customer-based brand equity dimensions. In additions, in order to create ustomer-based brand equity for thermal resorts, some recommendations developed on micro, macro and academic level

  8. Compliance with anti-infective preventive measures: A multicentre survey among paediatric oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Laws, Hans-Jürgen; Boehm, Alexandra; Dworzak, Michael; Janssen, Gisela; Simon, Arne; Groll, Andreas H

    2008-09-01

    Infections are significant causes of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients, but little is known about the adherence by the paediatric cancer patients to preventive anti-infective interventions. A voluntary and anonymised questionnaire was distributed to all patients, completing intensive anticancer therapy. Compliance was analysed by using a panel of eight commonly recommended preventive interventions and semi-quantitative scoring of adherence by the patient and/or its caretaker. Satisfaction with information and belief in the efficacy of the interventions were similarly assessed. Relationships of these factors to compliance were explored by using an overall compliance score and non-parametric correlation and/or ANOVA and logistic regression, respectively. In 216 children and adolescents (mean age: 8 years; 94 girls) included in the study, compliance rates were the highest for food restriction (89.3%), the use of topic antimycotics (88.2%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (86.6%), and the lowest for the use of face masks (68.8%), antiseptic mouth rinses (67.1%), non-absorbable antibiotic agents (66.5%) and restrictions in social contacts (65.5%). The most frequent reasons for drug non-compliance were forgetfulness and patient refusal. Compliance correlated with haematological malignancy, younger age and belief in its efficacy, but not with the perceived degree of information, burden of interventions and overall satisfaction with quality of information and medical care. Compliance to recommended anti-infective prophylactic interventions was variable and correlated with haematological malignancy, younger age and belief in efficacy.

  9. Relationship between lower urinary tract symptoms and objective measures of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a Chinese survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ye; PANG Jian; LIU Ming; ZHANG Yao-guang; ZENG Ping; DING Qiang; HUANG Jian; HE Da-lin; SONG Bo; KONG Chui-ze

    2008-01-01

    Background The enlarged prostate leads to obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which comprise frequency, urgency, weak stream, straining and nocturia. This study was conducted in a large series of patients to evaluate the relationship between LUTS as stipulated in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the objective parameters related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).Methods We enrolled 1295 BPH patients from seven centers. The patients were either at first diagnosis of BPH or had discontinued medical treatment for at least 3 months. Those with several other diseases that may be potential risk factors affecting urinary symptoms were excluded from the study. Age, IPSS, prostate volume, peak flow rate, urine volume and post-voiding residual urine volume were measured. The relationship between IPSS and objective parameters were quantified by means of Spearman correlation coefficients. The differences in these parameters between the groups with mild, moderate or severe symptoms were also evaluated.Results Statistically significant correlations were found between IPSS and objective parameters by means of Spearman correlation coefficients. When the patients were divided into three groups with different severities of symptoms,there were significant differences in peak flow rate, urine volume, prostate volume, residue urine volume and quality of life, whereas average age and prostate-specific antigen levels were similar. However, there was evident overlap of these parameters between the groups. The same results were found when the irritative or obstructive subscore of IPSS was considered.Conclusions The correlation between objective parameters of BPH and LUTS is significant. However, it is hard to predict the severity of symptoms by these parameters.

  10. French airborne lidar measurements for Eyjafjallajökull ash plume survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chazette

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An Ultra-Violet Rayleigh-Mie lidar has been integrated aboard the French research aircraft Falcon20 in order to monitor the ash plume emitted by the Eyjafjallajökul volcano in April–May 2010. Three operational flights were carried out on 21 April, 12 and 16 May 2010 inside French, Spanish and British air spaces, respectively. The original purpose of the flights was to provide the French civil aviation authorities with objective information on the presence and location of the ash plume. The present paper presents the results of detailed analyses elaborated after the volcano crisis. They bear on the structure of the ash clouds and their optical properties such as the extinction coefficient and the lidar ratio. Lidar ratios were measured in the range of 43 to 50 sr, in good agreement with the ratios derived from ground-based lidar near Paris (France in April 2010 (~48 sr. The ash signature in terms of particulate depolarization was consistent during all flights (between 34 ± 3 % and 38 ± 3%. Such a value seems to be a good identification parameter for volcanic ash. Using specific cross-sections between 0.19 and 1.1 m2 g−1, the minimum (maximal mass concentrations in the ash plumes derived for the flights on 12 and 16 May were 140 (2300 and 250 (1500 μg m−3, respectively. It may be rather less than, or of the order of the critical level of damage (2 mg m−3 for the aircraft engines, but well above the 200 μg m−3 warning level.

  11. Measuring cohabitation and family structure in the United States: assessing the impact of new data from the Current Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sheela; Fitch, Catherine A

    2012-11-01

    In 2007, the Current Population Survey (CPS) introduced a measure that identifies all cohabiting partners in a household, regardless of whether they describe themselves as "unmarried partners" in the relationship to householder question. The CPS now also links children to their biological, step-, and adoptive parents. Using these new variables, we analyze the prevalence of cohabitation as well as the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of different-sex cohabiting couples during the years 2007-2009. Estimates of cohabitation produced using only unmarried partnerships miss 18 % of all cohabiting unions and 12 % of children residing with cohabiting parents. Although differences between unmarried partners and most newly identified cohabitors are small, newly identified cohabitors are older, on average, and are less likely to be raising shared biological or adopted children. These new measures also allow us to identify a small number of young, disadvantaged couples who primarily reside in households of other family members, most commonly with parents. We conclude with an examination of the complex living arrangements and poverty status of American children, demonstrating the broader value of these new measures for research on American family and household structure.

  12. A Comparative Survey on Parameters Influencing on Hexavalent Chromium Measurement as an Occupational Carcinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tirgar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hexavalent chromium, Cr+6, is a very harmful pollutant and a relatively unstable compound that is present in many industries. It is a known human respiratory carcinogen and occupational exposure to this chemical is associated with different health hazards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four parameters including: type of sampling head, sampling height from the surface of electroplating solution, sampling duration, and sample storage duration on Cr+6 mist monitoring.Materials & Methods: To evaluate the influence of the main parameters as an experimental study, the 24 factorial design was applied at constant electroplating condition. A chromium electroplating bath with the ability to produce homogenous mist was used to create Cr+6 mist in laboratory setting. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH method 7600 was used to determine the Cr+6 concentration. Results: The results of 48 Cr+6 mist samples showed that Cr+6 concentration was higher: (1 for sampling by closed-face filter cassettes than for sampling by open-face filter cassettes (P<0.001; (2 for samples collected at 35 cm above the electroplating solution surface than for samples collected at 50 cm (P <0.001; (3 for sampling duration of 30 minutes than for sampling duration of 180 minutes (P <0.001; and, (4 for samples extracted immediately after sampling than for samples with delayed extraction (24 hours after sampling (P <0.001. Conclusion: It is concluded that the accuracy of Cr+6 mist sampling in electroplating shops will be enhanced when: (1 a closed-face filter cassette is used to prevent liquid splash contamination; (2 the sampling height is suitable as determined by further research; (3 the sampling duration is short (approximately 30 minutes; and, (4 the extraction of the Cr+6 sample is performed as soon as the sampling is completed.

  13. Radiological Scoping Survey of the Scotia Depot Scotia, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. N. Bailey

    2005-02-05

    At the request of the Defense Logistics Agency, the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education conducted radiological scoping surveys of the Scotia Depot during the period of September 24 through 27, 2007. The scoping survey included visual inspections and limited radiological surveys performed in accordance with area classification that included surface scans, total and removable activity measurements, and soil sampling.

  14. New York City School Survey 2008-2010: Assessing the Reliability and Validity of a Progress Report Measure. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Lori; Cole, Rachel; Kemple, James J.; Lent, Jessica; McCormick, Meghan; Segeritz, Micha

    2013-01-01

    The Research Alliance for New York City Schools examined Department of Education (DOE) School Survey data from 2008-2010 to better understand the richness and complexities of the information elicited by the Survey from parents, students, and teachers. This report provides background information on the development of the NYC School Surveys during…

  15. Development of a Survey to Measure Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Web-Based Professional Development among Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Pin; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Shih, Meilun

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to develop a survey to measure elementary school teachers' self-efficacy for web-based professional development. Based on interviews with eight elementary school teachers, three scales of web-based professional development self-efficacy (WPDSE) were formed, namely, general self-efficacy (measuring teachers'…

  16. Measuring User-Created Content: Implications for the ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals Surveys. OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 139

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beuzekom, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent measurement work on User-Created Content (UCC) undertaken in OECD countries. It shows that UCC is emerging as a significant area of economic and social activity worthy of consideration for official measurement and discusses the implications for the OECD Model Survey on ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals.…

  17. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Young, Margaret B.; Katherine A Perham-Hester; de Schweinitz, Peter; Bradford D Gessner

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic ...

  18. Measuring human rights violations in a conflict-affected country: results from a nationwide cluster survey in Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Les

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring human rights violations is particularly challenging during or after armed conflict. A recent nationwide survey in the Central African Republic produced estimates of rates of grave violations against children and adults affected by armed conflict, using an approach known as the "Neighborhood Method". Methods In June and July, 2009, a random household survey was conducted based on population estimates from the 2003 national census. Clusters were assigned systematically proportional to population size. Respondents in randomly selected households were interviewed regarding incidents of killing, intentional injury, recruitment into armed groups, abduction, sexual abuse and rape between January 1, 2008 and the date of interview, occurring in their homes' and those of their three closest neighbors. Results Sixty of the selected 69 clusters were surveyed. In total, 599 women were interviewed about events in 2,370 households representing 13,669 persons. Estimates of annual rates of each violation occurring per 1000 people in each of two strata are provided for children between the ages of five and 17, adults 18 years of age and older and the entire population five years and older, along with a combined and weighted national rate. The national rates for children age five to 17 were estimated to be 0.98/1000/year (95% CI: 0.18 - 1.78 for recruitment, 2.56/1000/year (95% CI: 1.50 - 3.62 for abduction, 1.13/1000/year (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.93 for intentional injury, 10.72/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 7.40 - 14.04 for rape, and 4.80/1000 girls/year (95% CI: 2.61 - 6.00 for sexual abuse. No reports of any violation against a person under the age of five were recorded and there were no reports of rape or sexual abuse of males. No children were reported to have been killed during the recall period. Rape and abduction were the most frequently reported events. Conclusions The population-based figures greatly augment existing information on

  19. Measuring the Willingness to Pay for Tap Water Quality Improvements: Results of a Contingent Valuation Survey in Pusan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Seob Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern regarding health, people have developed an interest in the safety of drinking water. In this study, we attempt to measure the economic benefits of tap water quality improvement through a case study on Pusan, the second largest city in Korea. To this end, we use a scenario that the government plans to implement a new project of improving water quality and apply the contingent valuation (CV method. A one-and-one-half bounded dichotomous choice question (OOHBDC format is employed to reduce the potential for response bias in multiple-bound formats such as the double-bound model, while maintaining much of the efficiency. Moreover, we employ the spike model to deal with zero willingness to pay (WTP responses from the OOHBDC CV survey. The CV survey of 400 randomly selected households was rigorously designed to comply with the guidelines for best-practice CV studies using person-to-person interviews. From the spike OOHBDC CV model, the mean WTP for the improvement was estimated to be KRW 2,124 (USD 2.2, on average, per household, per month. The value amounts to 36.6% of monthly water bill and 20.2% of production costs of water. The conventional OOHBDC model produces statistically insignificant mean WTP estimate and even negative value, but the OOHBDC spike model gives us statistically significant mean WTP estimate and fitted our data well. The WTP value to Pusan residents can be computed to be KRW 31.2 billion (USD 32.1 million per year.

  20. Is the Job Satisfaction Survey a good tool to measure job satisfaction amongst health workers in Nepal? Results of a validation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batura, Neha; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Thapa, Rita; Basnyat, Regina; Morrison, Joanna

    2016-07-27

    Job satisfaction is an important predictor of an individual's intention to leave the workplace. It is increasingly being used to consider the retention of health workers in low-income countries. However, the determinants of job satisfaction vary in different contexts, and it is important to use measurement methods that are contextually appropriate. We identified a measurement tool developed by Paul Spector, and used mixed methods to assess its validity and reliability in measuring job satisfaction among maternal and newborn health workers (MNHWs) in government facilities in rural Nepal. We administered the tool to 137 MNHWs and collected qualitative data from 78 MNHWs, and district and central level stakeholders to explore definitions of job satisfaction and factors that affected it. We calculated a job satisfaction index for all MNHWs using quantitative data and tested for validity, reliability and sensitivity. We conducted qualitative content analysis and compared the job satisfaction indices with qualitative data. Results from the internal consistency tests offer encouraging evidence of the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the tool. Overall, the job satisfaction indices reflected the qualitative data. The tool was able to distinguish levels of job satisfaction among MNHWs. However, the work environment and promotion dimensions of the tool did not adequately reflect local conditions. Further, community fit was found to impact job satisfaction but was not captured by the tool. The relatively high incidence of missing responses may suggest that responding to some statements was perceived as risky. Our findings indicate that the adapted job satisfaction survey was able to measure job satisfaction in Nepal. However, it did not include key contextual factors affecting job satisfaction of MNHWs, and as such may have been less sensitive than a more inclusive measure. The findings suggest that this tool can be used in similar settings and populations, with the

  1. Deprived or not deprived? Comparing the measured extent of material deprivation using the UK government's and the Poverty and Social Exclusion surveys' method of calculating material deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Treanor, Morag C

    2014-01-01

    Poverty can either be measured directly, through standards of living such as material deprivation, or indirectly through resources available, usually income. Research shows that the optimum measure of poverty combines these methods, a fact that the UK government took cognisance of in its tripartite measure of child poverty. For use in a birth cohort study, two methods of calculating material deprivation were tested: the method used by the UK government taken from the Family Resources Survey (...

  2. Handwashing in 51 Countries: Analysis of Proxy Measures of Handwashing Behavior in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Loughnan, Libbet; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hernandez, Orlando; Weinger, Merri; Arnold, Fred; Ram, Pavani K

    2017-08-01

    In 2009, a common set of questions addressing handwashing behavior was introduced into nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), providing large amounts of comparable data from numerous countries worldwide. The objective of this analysis is to describe global handwashing patterns using two proxy indicators for handwashing behavior from 51 DHS and MICS surveys conducted in 2010-2013: availability of soap anywhere in the dwelling and access to a handwashing place with soap and water. Data were also examined across geographic regions, wealth quintiles, and rural versus urban settings. We found large disparities for both indicators across regions, and even among countries within the same World Health Organization region. Within countries, households in lower wealth quintiles and in rural areas were less likely to have soap anywhere in the dwelling and at designated handwashing locations than households in higher wealth quintiles and urban areas. In addition, disparities existed among various geographic regions within countries. This analysis demonstrates the need to promote access to handwashing materials and placement at handwashing locations in the dwelling, particularly in poorer, rural areas where children are more vulnerable to handwashing-preventable syndromes such as pneumonia and diarrhea.

  3. Survey of The Temperature Measurement Technology for Aluminum%铝的温度测量技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 戴景民

    2011-01-01

    温度是铝加工过程中一个非常重要的参数.文章分析了影响铝的温度测量因素,介绍了常用的铝温度测量方法,重点阐述了辐射测温法,分析了各种方法存在的问题,展望了铝温度测量技术的发展趋势.%Temperature is an important factor in aluminum processing. Several factors in temperature measurement are analyzed. Several methods including radiation thermometry and their disadvantages have been introduced to measuring aluminum temperature. The development trend of aluminum temperature measurement techniques is described.

  4. On the Cluster Physics of Sunyaev-Zel'dovich and X-ray Surveys III: Measurement Biases and Cosmological Evolution of Gas and Stellar Mass Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, N; Pfrommer, C; Sievers, J L

    2012-01-01

    Gas masses tightly correlate with the virial masses of galaxy clusters, allowing for a precise determination of cosmological parameters by means of large-scale X-ray surveys. However, according to recent Suzaku X-ray measurements, gas mass fractions, f_gas, appear to be considerably larger than the cosmic mean at the virial radius, R_200, questioning the accuracy of the cosmological parameter estimations. Here, we use a large suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to study measurement biases of f_gas. We employ different variants of simulated physics, including radiative gas physics, star formation, and thermal feedback by active galactic nuclei. Computing the mass profiles in 48 angular cones, whose footprints partition the sphere, we find anisotropic gas and total mass distributions that imply an angular variance of f_gas at the level of 30%. This anisotropic distribution originates from the recent formation epoch of clusters and from the strong internal baryon-to-dark-matter density bias. In the ...

  5. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  6. Development and pilot testing of an Internet-based survey instrument to measure the alcohol brand preferences of U.S. youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; DiLoreto, Joanna; Johnson, Andrea; Fortunato, Erin K; DeJong, William

    2011-04-01

    Although we know a great deal about the percentage of youth who drink alcohol, we know very little about the specific brands they choose to drink. This information gap needs to be addressed if public health officials are to develop more effective interventions. Unfortunately, there are no national youth surveys that collect data on alcohol brand consumption. In this paper, we describe the development and pilot testing of what we believe to be the first comprehensive, Internet-based youth survey of brand-specific alcohol use. We used online advertising in 3 U.S. cities to recruit a convenience sample of 241 respondents, ages 16 to 18 years. We used Craigslist, a network of online communities that features local classified advertisements, to recruit the sample. We used SurveyGizmo, an online software program for designing Internet surveys, collecting data, and performing basic analysis, to survey these respondents about their brand-specific alcohol consumption patterns. The survey instrument assessed each respondent's 30-day drinking history, including the frequency of consumption for each alcohol brand. Using Internet survey technology, we were able to collect information on 366 brands and still have respondents complete the instrument quickly and easily. The total number of brands consumed in the past 30 days ranged from 1 to 18, with a median of 4 brands. The top 5 brands consumed were beer brands, as were eleven of the top 15 brands. The remaining 4 brands in the top 15 included 3 brands of flavored alcoholic beverages and 1 brand of mixed drink. Among the top 15 alcohol brands consumed during heavy drinking episodes were 8 brands of beer, 4 brands of flavored alcoholic beverages, 2 brands of wine, and 1 brand of mixed drink. This pilot study helps establish the feasibility of including brand-specific questions on federal or other national youth alcohol surveys. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Results of ground level radiation measurements in support of the 1978 aerial survey of the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works, Lewiston, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berven, B A; Doane, R W; Haywood, F F; Shinpaugh, W H

    1979-09-01

    This report contains the results of a limited series of measurements at the Lake Ontario Ordnance Works site, three miles northeast of Lewiston, New York. The scope of this survey was not extensive, and the survey was conducted to support a concurrent aerial survey conducted by EG and G, Inc. Results of this survey indicate two souces of significant external gamma exposure on the site as well as several locations that retain low to intermediate levels of radioactivity in soil. Off-site soil radionuclide concentrations were well within background levels with one exception. Water radionuclide concentrations on the site in the Central Drainage Ditch are significantly above background levels but decrease with distance from the spoil pile, and are within restrictive concentration guides for off-site locations.

  8. A questionnaire survey of perceptions and preventive measures related to animal health amongst cattle owners of rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.W. Hesterberg

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey of 315 cattle owners from the rural districts of KwaZulu-Natal was carried out. The aim of the survey was to improve our understanding of local farmers' perceptions and practices of animal disease prevention and control and to establish the extent of their relationship with veterinary services. The survey showed that many owners practice preventive measures such as deworming, tick control and vaccination. Traditional medicines were in use by over half the respondents (58.9 %. Diseases are regarded as an important management problem (56.1 %; ticks, worms and diarrhoea dominated the mentioned health problems in cattle. Veterinary services still play an important role and are a frequent source of advice to owners. The findings of the survey and their context are discussed.

  9. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems - The development of a domestic model of portable radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Koo; Choi, Kang; Kim, Jong Nam; Son, Keum Jong; Kim, Ji Kwang [Radiation Technology Research Lab., Seoul (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The internal circuit board and operating program were developed for the portable radiation survey meter with a small GM tube, and then tested for the performance verification. The signal of GM tube in the detection unit is taken form the cathode and pulsed out to be a standard digital pulse by a signal processor. The control and operation unit counts the signals and also calculates the counting errors. The data of signal counts and errors are transferred to the display unit. The LCD panel of the display unit is manufactured as the design resulted from this work. The panel attached with EL back-light displays in multiplex mode. The whole circuit is designed to have a small power consumption sufficiently for the portable instrument. The operating program is coded by C language. The program is on-power performs a self-test on counting circuit and then operates the main functions of the pulse counting, switch scanning, LCD panel controlling and the battery voltage measuring of the detector system with the time-interrupter. The prototype board of the internal circuit is tested with respect to the functional operation, counting performance, signal response characteristics and battery life-time. It was founded that the circuit is operated as the design functions. Also, these test result shows that those performances of the prototype board are better than those of the existing foreign products. 23 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  10. The KMOS Deep Survey (KDS) - I. Dynamical measurements of typical star-forming galaxies at z ≃ 3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, O. J.; Cirasuolo, M.; Harrison, C. M.; McLure, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Swinbank, A. M.; Johnson, H. L.; Sobral, D.; Matthee, J.; Sharples, R. M.

    2017-10-01

    We present dynamical measurements from the KMOS (K-band multi-object spectrograph) Deep Survey (KDS), which comprises 77 typical star-forming galaxies at z ≃ 3.5 in the mass range 9.0 mean velocity dispersion of the galaxies in our sample is σ _int = 70.8^{+3.3}_{-3.1} km s^{-1}, revealing that the increasing average σint with increasing redshift, reported for z ≲ 2, continues out to z ≃ 3.5. Only 36 ± 8 per cent of our galaxies are rotation-dominated (VC/σint > 1), with the sample average VC/σint value much smaller than at lower redshift. After carefully selecting comparable star-forming samples at multiple epochs, we find that the rotation-dominated fraction evolves with redshift with a z-0.2 dependence. The rotation-dominated KDS galaxies show no clear offset from the local rotation velocity-stellar mass (i.e. VC-M⋆) relation, although a smaller fraction of the galaxies are on the relation due to the increase in the dispersion-dominated fraction. These observations are consistent with a simple equilibrium model picture, in which random motions are boosted in high-redshift galaxies by a combination of the increasing gas fractions, accretion efficiency, specific star formation rate and stellar feedback and which may provide significant pressure support against gravity on the galactic disc scale.

  11. Development and measurement properties of the Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey (OPUS): a comprehensive set of clinical outcome instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, A W; Bode, R K; O'Reilly, C

    2003-12-01

    The need to measure and evaluate orthotics and prosthetics (O&P) practice has received growing recognition in the past several years. Reliable and valid self-report instruments are needed that can help facilities evaluate patient outcomes. The objective of this project was to develop a set of self-report instruments that assess functional status, quality of life, and satisfaction with devices and services that can be used in an orthotics and prosthetics clinic. Selecting items from a variety of existing instruments, the authors developed and revised four instruments that differentiate patients with varying levels of lower limb function, quality of life, and satisfaction with devices and services. Evidence of construct validity is provided by hierarchies of item difficulty that are consistent with clinical experience. For example, with the lower limb function instrument, running one block was much more difficult than walking indoors. The instruments demonstrate adequate internal consistency (0.88 for lower limb function, 0.88 for quality of life, 0.74 for service satisfaction, 0.78 for device satisfaction). The next steps in their research programme are to evaluate sensitivity and construct validity. The Orthotics and Prosthetics Users' Survey (OPUS) is a promising self-report instrument which may, with further development, allow orthotic and prosthetic practitioners to evaluate the quality and effectiveness of their services as required by accreditation standards such as those of the American Board for Certification in Orthotics and Prosthetics that mandate quality assessment.

  12. The Many Facets of Genetic Literacy: Assessing the Scalability of Multiple Measures for Broad Use in Survey Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah R Abrams

    Full Text Available To determine how three dimensions of genetic literacy (familiarity, skills, and factual knowledge fit the hierarchy of knowledge outlined in E.M. Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations to better conceptualize lay understandings of genomics.A consumer panel representing the US adult population (N = 1016 completed an electronic survey in November 2013. Adjusting for education, we used correlations, principle components analysis, Mokken Scale tests, and linear regressions to assess how scores on the three genetic literacy sub-dimensions fit an ordered scale.The three scores significantly loaded onto one factor, even when adjusting for education. Analyses revealed moderate strength in scaling (0.416, p<0.001 and a difficulty ordering that matched Rogers' hierarchy (knowledge more difficult than skills, followed by familiarity. Skills scores partially mediated the association between familiarity and knowledge with a significant indirect effect (0.241, p<0.001.We established an ordering in genetic literacy sub-dimensions such that familiarity with terminology precedes skills using information, which in turn precedes factual knowledge. This ordering is important to contextualizing previous findings, guiding measurement in future research, and identifying gaps in the understanding of genomics relevant to the demands of differing applications.

  13. MEASUREMENTS OF CO REDSHIFTS WITH Z-SPEC FOR LENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES DISCOVERED IN THE H-ATLAS SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupu, R. E.; Scott, K. S.; Aguirre, J. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aretxaga, I. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Auld, R.; Dariush, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Barton, E.; Cooke, J.; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Beelen, A. [Institut d' Astrophysique spatiale bat 121-Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Bertoldi, F. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, Bonn University, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bonfield, D. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Centre, University of Hertfordshire, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Buttiglione, S.; De Zotti, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Cava, A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Physics Department, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, DAPNIA/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dunne, L., E-mail: Roxana.E.Lupu@nasa.gov [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-10-01

    We present new observations from Z-Spec, a broadband 185-305 GHz spectrometer, of five submillimeter bright lensed sources selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey science demonstration phase catalog. We construct a redshift-finding algorithm using combinations of the signal to noise of all the lines falling in the Z-Spec bandpass to determine redshifts with high confidence, even in cases where the signal to noise in individual lines is low. We measure the dust continuum in all sources and secure CO redshifts for four out of five (z {approx} 1.5-3). In one source, SDP.17, we tentatively identify two independent redshifts and a water line, confirmed at z = 2.308. Our sources have properties characteristic of dusty starburst galaxies, with magnification-corrected star formation rates of 10{sup 2-3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Lower limits for the dust masses ({approx} a few 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }) and spatial extents ({approx}1 kpc equivalent radius) are derived from the continuum spectral energy distributions, corresponding to dust temperatures between 54 and 69 K. In the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) approximation, we derive relatively low CO excitation temperatures ({approx}< 100 K) and optical depths ({tau} {approx}< 1). Performing a non-LTE excitation analysis using RADEX, we find that the CO lines measured by Z-Spec (from J = 4 {yields} 3 to 10 {yields} 9, depending on the galaxy) localize the best solutions to either a high-temperature/low-density region or a low/temperature/high-density region near the LTE solution, with the optical depth varying accordingly. Observations of additional CO lines, CO(1-0) in particular, are needed to constrain the non-LTE models.

  14. Patient experience and satisfaction with inpatient service: development of short form survey instrument measuring the core aspect of inpatient experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza L Y Wong

    Full Text Available Patient experience reflects quality of care from the patients' perspective; therefore, patients' experiences are important data in the evaluation of the quality of health services. The development of an abbreviated, reliable and valid instrument for measuring inpatients' experience would reflect the key aspect of inpatient care from patients' perspective as well as facilitate quality improvement by cultivating patient engagement and allow the trends in patient satisfaction and experience to be measured regularly. The study developed a short-form inpatient instrument and tested its ability to capture a core set of inpatients' experiences. The Hong Kong Inpatient Experience Questionnaire (HKIEQ was established in 2010; it is an adaptation of the General Inpatient Questionnaire of the Care Quality Commission created by the Picker Institute in United Kingdom. This study used a consensus conference and a cross-sectional validation survey to create and validate a short-form of the Hong Kong Inpatient Experience Questionnaire (SF-HKIEQ. The short-form, the SF-HKIEQ, consisted of 18 items derived from the HKIEQ. The 18 items mainly covered relational aspects of care under four dimensions of the patient's journey: hospital staff, patient care and treatment, information on leaving the hospital, and overall impression. The SF-HKIEQ had a high degree of face validity, construct validity and internal reliability. The validated SF-HKIEQ reflects the relevant core aspects of inpatients' experience in a hospital setting. It provides a quick reference tool for quality improvement purposes and a platform that allows both healthcare staff and patients to monitor the quality of hospital care over time.

  15. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of the total phosphorus by a Kjeldahl digestion method and an automated colorimetric finish that includes dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Charles J.; Truitt, Earl P.

    1992-01-01

    A method to determine total phosphorus (TP) in the same digests prepared for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) determinations is desribed. The batch, high-temperature (block digester), HG(II)-catalyzed digestion step is similar to U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2552-85/I-4552-85 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 365.4 except that sample and reagent volumes are halved. Prepared digests are desolvated at 220 degrees Celsius and digested at 370 degrees Celsius in separate block digesters set at these temperatures, rather than in a single, temperature-programmed block digester. This approach is used in the method escribed here, which permits 40 calibrants, reference waters, and smaples to be digested and resolvated in about an hour. Orthophosphate ions originally present in samples, along with those released during the digestion step, are determined colorimetrically at a rate of 90 tests per hour by an automated version of the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue procedure. About 100 microliters of digest are required per determination. The upper concentration limit is 2 milligrams per liter (mg/L) with a method detection limt of 0.01 mg/L. Repeatability for a sample containing approximately 1.6 mg/L of TP in a high suspended-solids matrix is 0.7 percent. Between-day precision for the same sample is 5.0 percent. A dialyzer in the air-segmented continuous flow analyzer provides on-line digest cleanup, eliminated particulates that otherwise would interfere in the colorimetric finish. An single-channel analyzer can process the resolvated digests from two pairs of block digesters each hour. Paired t-test analysis of TP concentrations for approximately 1,600 samples determined by the new method (U.S. Geologial Survey methods I-2610-91 and I-4610-91) and the old method (U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2600-85 and I-4600-85) revealed positive bias in the former of 0.02 to 0.04 mg/L for surface-water samples in agreement with previous studies. Concentrations of total

  16. Predicting Student Performance in Web-Based Distance Education Courses Based on Survey Instruments Measuring Personality Traits and Technical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Two common web-based surveys, "Is Online Learning Right for Me?' and "What Technical Skills Do I Need?", were combined into a single survey instrument and given to 228 on-campus and 83 distance education students. The students were enrolled in four different classes (business, computer information services, criminal justice, and…

  17. New York City School Survey 2008-2010: Assessing the Reliability and Validity of a Progress Report Measure. Technical Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Lori; Cole, Rachel; Kemple, James J.; Lent, Jessica; McCormick, Meghan; Segeritz, Micha

    2013-01-01

    The Research Alliance for New York City Schools examined Department of Education (DOE) School Survey data from 2008-2010 to better understand the richness and complexities of the information elicited by the Survey from parents, students, and teachers. This document provides the appendices to the technical report "New York City School Survey…

  18. A Measurement of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Bender, Ralf; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ.; Castander, Francisco; /Barcelona, IEEC; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Galbany, Lluis; /Barcelona, IFAE; Garnavich, Peter; /Notre Dame U.; Goobar, Ariel; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Hopp, Ulrich; /Munich, Tech. U. /Munich U. Observ. /Tokyo U.

    2010-03-01

    We present measurements of the Type Ia supernova (SN) rate in galaxy clusters based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The cluster SN Ia rate is determined from 9 SN events in a set of 71 C4 clusters at z {le} 0.17 and 27 SN events in 492 maxBCG clusters at 0.1 {le} z {le} 0.3. We find values for the cluster SN Ia rate of (0.37{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.17+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.55{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.13+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} (SNux = 10{sup -12}L{sub x{circle_dot}}{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively, where the quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The SN rate for early-type galaxies is found to be (0.31{sub -0.12-0.01}{sup +0.18+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.49{sub -0.11-0.01}{sup +0.15+0.02}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate for the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) is found to be (2.04{sub -1.11-0.04}{sup +1.99+0.07}) SNur h{sup 2} and (0.36{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.84+0.01}) SNur h{sup 2} in C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The ratio of the SN Ia rate in cluster early-type galaxies to that of the SN Ia rate in field early-type galaxies is 1.94{sub -0.91-0.015}{sup +1.31+0.043} and 3.02{sub -1.03-0.048}{sup +1.31+0.062}, for C4 and maxBCG clusters, respectively. The SN rate in galaxy clusters as a function of redshift, which probes the late time SN Ia delay distribution, shows only weak dependence on redshift. Combining our current measurements with previous measurements, we fit the cluster SN Ia rate data to a linear function of redshift, and find r{sub L} = [(0.49{sub -0.14}{sup +0.15}) + (0.91{sub -0.81}{sup +0.85}) x z] SNuB h{sup 2}. A comparison of the radial distribution of SNe in cluster to field early-type galaxies shows possible evidence for an enhancement of the SN rate in the cores of cluster early-type galaxies. With an observation of at most 3 hostless, intra-cluster SNe Ia, we estimate the fraction of cluster SNe that are

  19. Can the impact of gender equality on health be measured? A cross-sectional study comparing measures based on register data with individual survey-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörlin, Ann; Öhman, Ann; Ng, Nawi; Lindholm, Lars

    2012-09-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between gender equality at work and self-rated health. 2861 employees in 21 companies were invited to participate in a survey. The mean response rate was 49.2%. The questionnaire contained 65 questions, mainly on gender equality and health. Two logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between (i) self-rated health and a register-based company gender equality index (OGGI), and (ii) self-rated health and self-rated gender equality at work. Even though no association was found between the OGGI and health, women who rated their company as "completely equal" or "quite equal" had higher odds of reporting "good health" compared to women who perceived their company as "not equal" (OR = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.4 - 5.5 and OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.6-4.6). Although not statistically significant, we observed the same trends in men. The results were adjusted for age, highest education level, income, full or part-time employment, and type of company based on the OGGI. No association was found between gender equality in companies, measured by register-based index (OGGI), and health. However, perceived gender equality at work positively affected women's self-rated health but not men's. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether the results are fully credible given the contemporary health patterns and positions in the labour market of women and men or whether the results are driven by selection patterns.

  20. Can the impact of gender equality on health be measured? a cross-sectional study comparing measures based on register data with individual survey-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sörlin Ann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between gender equality at work and self-rated health. Methods 2861 employees in 21 companies were invited to participate in a survey. The mean response rate was 49.2%. The questionnaire contained 65 questions, mainly on gender equality and health. Two logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between (i self-rated health and a register-based company gender equality index (OGGI, and (ii self-rated health and self-rated gender equality at work. Results Even though no association was found between the OGGI and health, women who rated their company as “completely equal” or “quite equal” had higher odds of reporting “good health” compared to women who perceived their company as “not equal” (OR = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.4 – 5.5 and OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.6-4.6. Although not statistically significant, we observed the same trends in men. The results were adjusted for age, highest education level, income, full or part-time employment, and type of company based on the OGGI. Conclusions No association was found between gender equality in companies, measured by register-based index (OGGI, and health. However, perceived gender equality at work positively affected women’s self-rated health but not men’s. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether the results are fully credible given the contemporary health patterns and positions in the labour market of women and men or whether the results are driven by selection patterns.

  1. The clustering of galaxies in the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: single-probe measurements from CMASS anisotropic galaxy clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Prada, Francisco; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Beutler, Florian; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Escoffier, Stephanie; Ho, Shirley; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Manera, Marc; Nuza, Sebastián E.; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Ross, Ashley; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Samushia, Lado; Schlegel, David J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wang, Yuting; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Gongbo; Brownstein, Joel R.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Maraston, Claudia; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Thomas, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    With the largest spectroscopic galaxy survey volume drawn from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), we can extract cosmological constraints from the measurements of redshift and geometric distortions at quasi-linear scales (e.g. above 50 h-1 Mpc). We analyse the broad-range shape of the monopole and quadrupole correlation functions of the BOSS Data Release 12 (DR12) CMASS galaxy sample, at the effective redshift z = 0.59, to obtain constraints on the Hubble expansion rate H(z), the angular- diameter distance DA(z), the normalized growth rate f(z)σ8(z), and the physical matter density Ωm h2. We obtain robust measurements by including a polynomial as the model for the systematic errors, and find it works very well against the systematic effects, e.g. ones induced by stars and seeing. We provide accurate measurements {DA(0.59)rs,fid/rs, H(0.59)rs/rs,fid, f(0.59)σ8(0.59), Ωm h2} = {1427 ± 26 Mpc, 97.3 ± 3.3 km s-1 Mpc-1, 0.488 ± 0.060, 0.135 ± 0.016}, where rs is the comoving sound horizon at the drag epoch and rs,fid = 147.66 Mpc is the sound scale of the fiducial cosmology used in this study. The parameters which are not well constrained by our galaxy clustering analysis are marginalized over with wide flat priors. Since no priors from other data sets, e.g. cosmic microwave background (CMB), are adopted and no dark energy models are assumed, our results from BOSS CMASS galaxy clustering alone may be combined with other data sets, i.e. CMB, SNe, lensing or other galaxy clustering data to constrain the parameters of a given cosmological model. The uncertainty on the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, from CMB+CMASS is about 8 per cent. The uncertainty on the curvature fraction, Ωk, is 0.3 per cent. We do not find deviation from flat ΛCDM.

  2. Assessment of long-term radon concentration measurement precision in field conditions (Serbian Schools) for a survey carried out by an international collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, C; Zunic, Z S; Carelli, V; Cordedda, C; Ferrigno, G; Veselinovic, N; Bossew, P; Tollefsen, T; Cuknic, O; Vojinovic, Z; Bochicchio, F

    2011-05-01

    In an international collaboration, a long-term radon concentration survey was carried out in schools of Southern Serbia with radon detectors prepared, etched and read-out in Italy. In such surveys it is necessary to evaluate measurement precision in field conditions, and to check whether quality assurance protocols were effective in keeping uncertainties under control, despite the complex organisation of measurements. In the first stage of the survey, which involves only some of the total number of municipalities, paired detectors were exposed in each monitored room in order to experimentally assess measurement precision. Paired passive devices (containing CR-39 detectors) were exposed for two consecutive 6-month periods. Two different measurement systems were used to read out CR-39s of the first and second period, respectively. The median of the coefficient of variation (CV) of the measured exposures was 8 % for 232 paired devices of the first 6-month period and 4 % for 242 paired devices of the second 6-month period, respectively. This difference was mainly due to a different track count repeatability of the two read-out systems, which was 4 and 1 %, respectively, as the median value of CV of repeated countings. The in-field measured precision results are very similar to the precision assessed in calibration conditions and are much lower than the room-to-room variation of radon concentration in the monitored schools. Moreover, a quality assurance protocol was followed to reduce extra-exposures during detector transport from Rome to schools measured and back.

  3. Cosmic infrared background fluctuations of the COSMOS field in the SPLASH survey: new measurements and the cosmological explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    The cosmic infrared background (CIB) is the integrated emission of all sources through cosmic time and carries an abundance of information about the star formation and galaxy growth in the Universe. Due to significant and complex foregrounds from our Galaxy, the optimal way to study the unresolved background is to actually study its fluctuations, especially at large angular scales where they reflect the clustering of unresolved galaxies. Our new measurements of the CIB fluctuations reach the largest angular scale to date for such a study, thanks to new observations of the COSMOS field from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH). We analyzed Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 um data of the whole field, with an average depth of 1.33 hour/pixel over 4 epochs spanning 2 years. We found that the auto-power spectra are consistent among various epochs and are correlated at the two channels. We confirmed the previously detected excess flux at large scales of the power spectra.The cross-correlation of the CIB fluctuations with backgrounds at other wavelengths is an extremely useful technique to understand the excess flux. The previously seen CIB and X-ray background (CXB) cross-correlation suggests significant contribution to the CIB fluctuations from accreting black holes that is much higher than among any known populations, and such a cross-correlation is also used as an evidence for the existence of direct collapse black holes in the early Universe.In this talk, we will present the first CIB fluctuation measurements of the COSMOS field using the new SPLASH data and we will also revisit the CIB and CXB cross-correlation in this field, which is about 20 times larger than the previous study and therefore with much improved significance levels. Measuring CIB fluctuations is a powerful tool to study the large-scale structure of the Universe. The CIB and CXB cross-correlation can not only provide observational constrains on the theoretical modeling of the CIB

  4. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  5. A New Measure for Assessing the Physical Activity Behaviors of Persons with Disabilities and Chronic Health Conditions: The Physical Activity and Disability Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, James H.; Riley, Barth B.; Rubin, Stephen S.

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the psychometric properties of the Physical Activity and Disability Survey (PADS), which measures physical activity for people with disabilities and chronic health conditions. Cross-sectional and pre-post designs were employed with 103 people who had disabilities and chronic health conditions. Results supported the PADS' reliability and…

  6. Measuring Ocean Literacy in Pre-Service Teachers: Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version of the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Experience (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, Angelos; Boubonari, Theodora; Mogias, Athanasios; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to respond to the increasing demand for comprehensive tools for the measurement of ocean literacy, by investigating the psychometric characteristics of a Greek version of the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Experience (SOLE), an instrument that assesses conceptual understanding of general ocean sciences content,…

  7. Doctoral Training in Statistics, Measurement, and Methodology in Psychology: Replication and Extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) Survey of PhD Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD…

  8. Measuring Ocean Literacy in Pre-Service Teachers: Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version of the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Experience (SOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markos, Angelos; Boubonari, Theodora; Mogias, Athanasios; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to respond to the increasing demand for comprehensive tools for the measurement of ocean literacy, by investigating the psychometric characteristics of a Greek version of the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Experience (SOLE), an instrument that assesses conceptual understanding of general ocean sciences content,…

  9. Doctoral Training in Statistics, Measurement, and Methodology in Psychology: Replication and Extension of Aiken, West, Sechrest, and Reno's (1990) Survey of PhD Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2008-01-01

    In a survey of all PhD programs in psychology in the United States and Canada, the authors documented the quantitative methodology curriculum (statistics, measurement, and research design) to examine the extent to which innovations in quantitative methodology have diffused into the training of PhDs in psychology. In all, 201 psychology PhD…

  10. Evaluation of the association between Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) measures and catheter-associated infections: results of two national collaboratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddings, Jennifer; Reichert, Heidi; Greene, M Todd; Safdar, Nasia; Krein, Sarah L; Olmsted, Russell N; Watson, Sam R; Edson, Barbara; Albert Lesher, Mariana; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Background The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has funded national collaboratives using the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program to reduce rates of two catheter-associated infections—central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), using evidence-based intervention bundles to improve technical aspects of care and socioadaptive approaches to foster a culture of safety. Objective Examine the association between hospital units' results for the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) and catheter-associated infection rates. Methods We analysed data from two prospective cohort studies from acute-care intensive care units (ICUs) and non-ICUs participating in the AHRQ CLABSI and CAUTI collaboratives. National Healthcare Safety Network catheter-associated infections per 1000 catheter-days were collected at baseline and quarterly postimplementation. The HSOPS was collected at baseline and again 1 year later. Infection rates were modelled using multilevel negative binomial models as a function of HSOPS components over time, adjusted for hospital-level characteristics. Results 1821 units from 1079 hospitals (CLABSI) and 1576 units from 949 hospitals (CAUTI) were included. Among responding units, infection rates declined over the project periods (by 47% for CLABSI, by 23% for CAUTI, unadjusted). No significant associations were found between CLABSI or CAUTI rates and HSOPS measures at baseline or over time. Conclusions We found no association between results of the HSOPS and catheter-associated infection rates when measured at baseline and postintervention in two successful large national collaboratives focused on prevention of CLABSI and CAUTI. These results suggest that it may be possible to improve CLABSI and CAUTI rates without making significant changes in safety culture, particularly as measured by instruments like HSOPS. PMID:27222593

  11. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Measuring non-linear galaxy bias at z ~ 0.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Porto, C.; Branchini, E.; Bel, J.; Marulli, F.; Bolzonella, M.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Marinoni, C.; Moscardini, L.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Coupon, J.; Davidzon, I.; De Lucia, G.; Fritz, A.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Ilbert, O.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; McCracken, H. J.; Paioro, L.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Burden, A.; Marchetti, A.; Martizzi, D.; Mellier, Y.; Nichol, R. C.; Peacock, J. A.; Percival, W. J.; Viel, M.; Wolk, M.; Zamorani, G.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We use the first release of the VImos Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey of galaxies (VIPERS) of ~50 000 objects to measure the biasing relation between galaxies and mass in the redshift range z = [ 0.5,1.1 ]. Methods: We estimate the 1-point distribution function [PDF] of VIPERS galaxies from counts in cells and, assuming a model for the mass PDF, we infer their mean bias relation. The reconstruction of the bias relation is performed through a novel method that accounts for Poisson noise, redshift distortions, inhomogeneous sky coverage. and other selection effects. With this procedure we constrain galaxy bias and its deviations from linearity down to scales as small as 4 h-1 Mpc and out to z = 1.1. Results: We detect small (up to 2%) but statistically significant (up to 3σ) deviations from linear bias. The mean biasing function is close to linear in regions above the mean density. The mean slope of the biasing relation is a proxy to the linear bias parameter. This slope increases with luminosity, which is in agreement with results of previous analyses. We detect a strong bias evolution only for z> 0.9, which is in agreement with some, but not all, previous studies. We also detect a significant increase of the bias with the scale, from 4 to 8 h-1 Mpc , now seen for the first time out to z = 1. The amplitude of non-linearity depends on redshift, luminosity, and scale, but no clear trend is detected. Owing to the large cosmic volume probed by VIPERS, we find that the mismatch between the previous estimates of bias at z ~ 1 from zCOSMOS and VVDS-Deep galaxy samples is fully accounted for by cosmic variance. Conclusions: The results of our work confirm the importance of going beyond the over-simplistic linear bias hypothesis showing that non-linearities can be accurately measured through the applications of the appropriate statistical tools to existing datasets like VIPERS. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile

  12. NEW MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND FLUCTUATIONS IN DEEP SPITZER/IRAC SURVEY DATA AND THEIR COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashlinsky, A. [SSAI, Lanham MD 20706 (United States); Arendt, R. G.; Mather, J.; Moseley, S. H. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G., E-mail: alexander.kashlinsky@nasa.gov [Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We extend previous measurements of cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations to {approx}< 1 Degree-Sign using new data from the Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. Two fields with depths of {approx_equal} 12 hr pixel{sup -1} over three epochs are analyzed at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. Maps of the fields were assembled using a self-calibration method uniquely suitable for probing faint diffuse backgrounds. Resolved sources were removed from the maps to a magnitude limit of mag{sub AB} {approx_equal} 25, as indicated by the level of the remaining shot noise. The maps were then Fourier transformed and their power spectra were evaluated. Instrumental noise was estimated from the time-differenced data, and subtracting this isolates the spatial fluctuations of the actual sky. The power spectra of the source-subtracted fields remain identical (within the observational uncertainties) for the three epochs indicating that zodiacal light contributes negligibly to the fluctuations. Comparing to 8 {mu}m power spectra shows that Galactic cirrus cannot account for the fluctuations. The signal appears isotropically distributed on the sky as required for an extragalactic origin. The CIB fluctuations continue to diverge to >10 times those of known galaxy populations on angular scales out to {approx}< 1 Degree-Sign . The low shot-noise levels remaining in the diffuse maps indicate that the large-scale fluctuations arise from the spatial clustering of faint sources well below the confusion noise. The spatial spectrum of these fluctuations is in reasonable agreement with an origin in populations clustered according to the standard cosmological model ({Lambda}CDM) at epochs coinciding with the first stars era.

  13. Measuring and explaining the willingness to pay for forest conservation: evidence from a survey experiment in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaki, Zorzeta; Bernauer, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Recent research suggests that there is substantial public support (including willingness to pay) for forest conservation. Based on a nationwide survey experiment in Brazil (N = 2500) the largest and richest of the world’s tropical developing countries, we shed new light on this issue. To what extent does the public in fact support forest conservation and what factors are influencing support levels? Unlike previous studies, our results show that the willingness to pay for tropical forest conservation in Brazil is rather low. Moreover, framing forest conservation in terms of biodiversity protection, which tends to create more local benefits, does not induce more support than framing conservation in terms of mitigating global climate change. The results also show that low levels of trust in public institutions have a strong negative impact on the public’s willingness to pay for forest conservation, individually and/or via government spending. What could other (richer) countries do, in this context, to encourage forest conservation in Brazil and other tropical developing countries? One key issue is whether prospects of foreign funding for forest conservation are likely to crowd out or, conversely, enhance the motivation for domestic level conservation efforts. We find that prospects of foreign funding have no significant effect on willingness to pay for forest conservation. These findings have at least three policy implications, namely, that the Brazilian public’s willingness to pay for forest conservation is very limited, that large-scale international funding is probably needed, and that such funding is unlikely to encourage more domestic effort, but is also unlikely to crowd out domestic efforts. Restoring public trust in the Brazilian government is key to increasing public support for forest conservation in Brazil.

  14. Risk factors for obesity at age 3 in Alaskan children, including the role of beverage consumption: results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and its three-year follow-up survey, CUBS, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Young, Margaret B; Perham-Hester, Katherine A; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages.

  15. Risk Factors for Obesity at Age 3 in Alaskan Children, Including the Role of Beverage Consumption: Results from Alaska PRAMS 2005-2006 and Its Three-Year Follow-Up Survey, CUBS, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M.; Young, Margaret B.; Perham-Hester, Katherine A.; de Schweinitz, Peter; Gessner, Bradford D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal and early life risk factors are associated with childhood obesity. Alaska Native children have one of the highest prevalences of childhood obesity of all US racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) and the follow-up survey at 3 years of age (CUBS), we evaluated health, behavioral, lifestyle and nutritional variables in relation to obesity (95th percentile for body mass index (BMI)) at 3 years of age. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted using Stata 12.0 to evaluate independent risk factors for obesity in non-Native and Alaska Native children. Results We found an obesity prevalence of 24.9% in all Alaskan and 42.2% in Alaska Native 3 year olds. Among Alaska Native children, obesity prevalence was highest in the Northern/Southwest part of the state (51.6%, 95%CI (42.6-60.5)). Independent predictive factors for obesity at age 3 years in Alaska non-Native children were low income (obesity (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.01-4.01) and longer duration of breastfeeding was protective (OR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91-0.995). Among Alaska Native children, predictive factors were witnessing domestic violence/abuse as a 3 year-old (OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.17-7.60). Among obese Alaska Native children, there was an increased daily consumption of energy dense beverages in the Northern/Southwest region of the state, which may explain higher rates of obesity in this part of the state. Conclusions The high prevalence of obesity in Alaska Native children may be explained by differences in lifestyle patterns and food consumption in certain parts of the state, specifically the Northern/Southwest region, which have higher consumption of energy dense beverages. PMID:25793411

  16. Mathematical modeling of a survey-meter used to measure radioactivity in human thyroids: Monte Carlo calculations of the device response and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrutchinsky, Arkady; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Kutsen, Semion; Minenko, Victor; Khrouch, Valeri; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Voillequé, Paul; Bouville, André

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents results of Monte Carlo modeling of the SRP-68-01 survey meter used to measure exposure rates near the thyroid glands of persons exposed to radioactivity following the Chernobyl accident. This device was not designed to measure radioactivity in humans. To estimate the uncertainty associated with the measurement results, a mathematical model of the SRP-68-01 survey meter was developed and verified. A Monte Carlo method of numerical simulation of radiation transport has been used to calculate the calibration factor for the device and evaluate its uncertainty. The SRP-68-01 survey meter scale coefficient, an important characteristic of the device, was also estimated in this study. The calibration factors of the survey meter were calculated for (131)I, (132)I, (133)I, and (135)I content in the thyroid gland for six age groups of population: newborns; children aged 1 yr, 5 yr, 10 yr, 15 yr; and adults. A realistic scenario of direct thyroid measurements with an "extended" neck was used to calculate the calibration factors for newborns and one-year-olds. Uncertainties in the device calibration factors due to variability of the device scale coefficient, variability in thyroid mass and statistical uncertainty of Monte Carlo method were evaluated. Relative uncertainties in the calibration factor estimates were found to be from 0.06 for children aged 1 yr to 0.1 for 10-yr and 15-yr children. The positioning errors of the detector during measurements deviate mainly in one direction from the estimated calibration factors. Deviations of the device position from the proper geometry of measurements were found to lead to overestimation of the calibration factor by up to 24 percent for adults and up to 60 percent for 1-yr children. The results of this study improve the estimates of (131)I thyroidal content and, consequently, thyroid dose estimates that are derived from direct thyroid measurements performed in Belarus shortly after the Chernobyl accident.

  17. Field methods and quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities and water-level measurements, U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Maimer, Neil V.; Wehnke, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Water-quality activities and water-level measurements by the personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office coincide with the USGS mission of appraising the quantity and quality of the Nation’s water resources. The activities are carried out in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office. Results of the water-quality and hydraulic head investigations are presented in various USGS publications or in refereed scientific journals and the data are stored in the National Water Information System (NWIS) database. The results of the studies are used by researchers, regulatory and managerial agencies, and interested civic groups. In the broadest sense, quality assurance refers to doing the job right the first time. It includes the functions of planning for products, review and acceptance of the products, and an audit designed to evaluate the system that produces the products. Quality control and quality assurance differ in that quality control ensures that things are done correctly given the “state-of-the-art” technology, and quality assurance ensures that quality control is maintained within specified limits.

  18. 42 CFR 137.335 - What costs may be included in the budget for a construction agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... lease or acquisition; (5) Development of project surveys including topographical surveys, site boundary descriptions, geotechnical surveys, archeological surveys, and NEPA compliance; (6) Project...

  19. 25 CFR 900.127 - What can be included in the Indian tribe or tribal organization's contract budget?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... construction process; (3) The fees to be paid to develop project surveys including topographical surveys, site boundary descriptions, geotechnical surveys, archeological surveys, and NEPA compliance, and; (4) In...

  20. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.