WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey flight-line spacing

  1. Airborne Hyperspectral Survey of Afghanistan 2007: Flight Line Planning and HyMap Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Livo, K. Eric

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing data were acquired over Afghanistan with the HyMap imaging spectrometer (Cocks and others, 1998) operating on the WB-57 high altitude NASA research aircraft (http://jsc-aircraft-ops.jsc.nasa.gov/wb57/index.html). These data were acquired during the interval of August 22, 2007 to October 2, 2007, as part of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) project 'Oil and Gas Resources Assessment of the Katawaz and Helmand Basins'. A total of 218 flight lines of hyperspectral remote sensing data were collected over the country. This report describes the planning of the airborne survey and the flight lines that were flown. Included with this report are digital files of the nadir tracks of the flight lines, including a map of the labeled flight lines and corresponding vector shape files for geographic information systems (GIS).

  2. Antarctic Flight Line Maps = Map-Line Indexes of Antarctica Aerial Photos: Pre 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Antarctic Fight Line Maps collection is comprised of 1:250,000 scale topographic maps over Antarctica with original hand-drawn flight lines for aerial...

  3. Antarctic Flight Line Maps = Map-Line Indexes of Antarctica Aerial Photos: Pre 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Antarctic Fight Line Maps collection is comprised of 1:250,000 scale topographic maps over Antarctica with original hand-drawn flight lines for aerial...

  4. A Survey of Space Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, L.; Kortenkamp, D.; Wettergreen, D.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we summarize a survey conducted by NASA to determine the state-of-the-art in space robotics and to predict future robotic capabilities under either nominal and intensive development effort. The space robotics assessment study examined both in-space operations including assembly, inspection, and maintenance and planetary surface operations like mobility and exploration. Applications of robotic autonomy and human-robot cooperation were considered. The study group devised a decomposition of robotic capabilities and then suggested metrics to specify the technical challenges associated with each. The conclusion of this paper identifies possible areas in which investment in space robotics could lead to significant advances of important technologies.

  5. Euclid Space Mission: building the sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereno, I.; Carvalho, C. S.; Dinis, J.; Scaramella, R.; Amiaux, J.; Burigana, C.; Cuillandre, J. C.; da Silva, A.; Derosa, A.; Maiorano, E.; Maris, M.; Oliveira, D.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gomez-Alvarez, P.; Meneghetti, M.; Wachter, S.; Wachter

    2014-05-01

    The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.

  6. Euclid Space Mission: building the sky survey

    CERN Document Server

    Tereno, I; Dinis, J; Scaramella, R; Amiaux, J; Burigana, C; Cuillandre, J C; da Silva, A; Derosa, A; Maiorano, E; Maris, M; Oliveira, D; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Gomez-Alvarez, P; Meneghetti, M; Wachter, S

    2015-01-01

    The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.

  7. Space Physics & Aeronomy: Space Science Decadal Surveys Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    The final, edited texts of two recent advisory committee reports are now available upon request from the National Research Council's Space Studies Board. The reports, New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy, the report of the Solar System Exploration Survey (Michael J. S. Belton, Belton Space Exploration Initiatives, chair) and The Sun to the Earth-and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics, the report of the Solar and Space Physics Survey (Louis J. Lanzerotti, Lucent Technologies, chair) are available in a variety of media as follows: New Frontiers in the Solar System: Currently available as a book, a CD-ROM, or online at http://books.nap.edu/html/newfrontiers/0309084954.pdf. We are also taking advanced orders for copies of New Frontiers in Solar System Exploration, a 32-page, full-color booklet describing for a popular audience the principal mission recommendations of the Solar System Exploration Survey.

  8. Torsional balloon flight line oscillations: Comparison of modelling to flight data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, François; Bayman, Benjamin; Hanany, Shaul; Franco, Hugo; Marsh, Justin; Didier, Joy; Miller, Amber D.

    2017-08-01

    During the EBEX2013 long duration flight the payload was free to rotate in azimuth. The observed azimuth motion consisted of a superposition of full rotations with a period of 10-30 min and oscillatory motion with an amplitude of tens of degrees, average period of 79 s, and period dispersion of 12 s. We interpret the full rotations as induced by slow rotations of the balloon and the shorter period oscillatory motion as due to torsional oscillations of the flight line. We derive the torsional stiffness of the flight line using the bifilar pendulum model and apply it to the flight line of the EBEX2013 payload. We find a torsional spring constant of 36 kg m2/s2 corresponding to a period of 58 s. We conclude that the bifilar model, which accounts for the geometry of the flight line but neglects all material properties, predicts a stiffness and period that are 45% larger and 25% shorter than those observed. It is useful to have a simple, easy to use, coarse approximation for the torsional constant of the flight line.

  9. A SURVEY OF DEEP SPACE COMMUNICATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Gengxin; Xie Zhidong; Bian Dongming; Sun Qian

    2011-01-01

    Deep space communications has played an important role in deep space exploration.Compared with common satellite and terrestrial communications,deep space communications faces more challenging environment.The paper investigated the unique features of deep space communications in detail,discussed the key technologies and its development trends for deep space communica- tions.

  10. Survey of International Space Station Charging Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, P. D.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Parker, Linda N.

    2009-01-01

    With the negative grounding of the 160V Photovoltaic (PV) arrays, the International Space Station (ISS) can experience varied and interesting charging events. Since August 2006, there has been a multi-probe p ackage, called the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), availa ble to provide redundant measurements of the floating potential of th e ISS as well as the density and temperature of the local plasma environment. The FPMU has been operated during intermittent data campaigns since August 2006 and has collected over 160 days of information reg arding the charging of the ISS as it has progressed in configuration from one to three PV arrays and with various additional modules such as the European Space Agency?s Columbus laboratory and the Japan Aeros pace Exploration Agency's Kibo laboratory. This paper summarizes the charging of the ISS and the local environmental conditions that contr ibute to those charging events, both as measured by the FPMU.

  11. Geodetic surveying of crane trail space relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudovít Kovanič

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Geodet´s obvious task consists of surveying crane trails of different types. These transport machines must meet precise geometricparameters, considering mainly the safety of their operation. The paper describes several geodetic methods of determining deviationsin direction and height of crane trails. Measurements were realized using special set of appliances composed for this purpose, as well asusing electronic theodolite for measurements from hall floor. Results ofmeasurements were processed using calculation programe Geus, andgraphicproramme Microstation. Used methods were compared in graphic form.

  12. Quasiconformal space mappings a collection of surveys, 1960–1990

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    This volume is a collection of surveys on function theory in euclidean n-dimensional spaces centered around the theme of quasiconformal space mappings. These surveys cover or are related to several topics including inequalities for conformal invariants and extremal length, distortion theorems, L(p)-theory of quasiconformal maps, nonlinear potential theory, variational calculus, value distribution theory of quasiregular maps, topological properties of discrete open mappings, the action of quasiconformal maps in special classes of domains, and global injectivity theorems. The present volume is the first collection of surveys on Quasiconformal Space Mappings since the origin of the theory in 1960 and this collection provides in compact form access to a wide spectrum of recent results due to well-known specialists. CONTENTS: G.D. Anderson, M.K. Vamanamurthy, M. Vuorinen: Conformal invariants, quasiconformal maps and special functions.- F.W. Gehring: Topics in quasiconformal mappings.- T.Iwaniec: L(p)-theory of qu...

  13. A survey of customers of space weather information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Rabanal, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    We present an analysis of the users of space weather information based on 2783 responses to an online survey among subscribers of NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center e-mail services. The survey requested information focused on the three NOAA space weather scales: geomagnetic storms, solar radiation storms, and radio blackouts. Space weather information is most commonly obtained for reasons of human safety and continuity or reliability of operations. The information is primarily used for situational awareness, as aid to understand anomalies, to avoid impacts on current and near-future operations by implementing mitigating strategies, and to prepare for potential near-future impacts that might occur in conjunction with contingencies that include electric power outages or GPS perturbations. Interest in, anticipated impacts from, and responses to the three main categories of space weather are quite uniform across societal sectors. Approximately 40% of the respondents expect serious to very serious impacts from space weather events if no action were taken to mitigate or in the absence of adequate space weather information. The impacts of space weather are deemed to be substantially reduced because of the availability of, and their response to, space weather forecasts and alerts. Current and near-future space weather conditions are generally highly valued, considered useful, and generally, though not fully, adequate to avoid or mitigate societal impacts. We conclude that even among those receiving space weather information, there is considerable uncertainty about the possible impacts of space weather and thus about how to act on the space weather information that is provided.

  14. Surveying the Inner Solar System with an Infrared Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Marc W.; Reitsema, Harold J.; Linfield, Roger P.

    2016-11-01

    We present an analysis of surveying the inner solar system for objects that may pose some threat to Earth. Most of the analysis is based on understanding the capability provided by Sentinel, a concept for an infrared space-based telescope placed in a heliocentric orbit near the distance of Venus. From this analysis, we show that (1) the size range being targeted can affect the survey design, (2) the orbit distribution of the target sample can affect the survey design, (3) minimum observational arc length during the survey is an important metric of survey performance, and (4) surveys must consider objects as small as D=15{--}30 m to meet the goal of identifying objects that have the potential to cause damage on Earth in the next 100 yr. Sentinel will be able to find 50% of all impactors larger than 40 m in a 6.5 yr survey. The Sentinel mission concept is shown to be as effective as any survey in finding objects bigger than D = 140 m but is more effective when applied to finding smaller objects on Earth-impacting orbits. Sentinel is also more effective at finding objects of interest for human exploration that benefit from lower propulsion requirements. To explore the interaction between space and ground search programs, we also study a case where Sentinel is combined with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and show the benefit of placing a space-based observatory in an orbit that reduces the overlap in search regions with a ground-based telescope. In this case, Sentinel+LSST can find more than 70% of the impactors larger than 40 m assuming a 6.5 yr lifetime for Sentinel and 10 yr for LSST.

  15. Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palazuelos, Carlos, E-mail: cpalazue@mat.ucm.es [Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas (ICMAT), Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Vidick, Thomas, E-mail: vidick@cms.caltech.edu [Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states.

  16. Spaces of homotopy self-equivalences a survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rutter, John W

    1997-01-01

    This survey covers groups of homotopy self-equivalence classes of topological spaces, and the homotopy type of spaces of homotopy self-equivalences. For manifolds, the full group of equivalences and the mapping class group are compared, as are the corresponding spaces. Included are methods of calculation, numerous calculations, finite generation results, Whitehead torsion and other areas. Some 330 references are given. The book assumes familiarity with cell complexes, homology and homotopy. Graduate students and established researchers can use it for learning, for reference, and to determine the current state of knowledge.

  17. Automated entry technologies for confined space work activities: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Lucia; Ferrari, Emilio; Mora, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Work in confined spaces poses a significant risk to workers and rescuers involved in the emergency response when an accident occurs. Despite several standards and regulations define the safety requirements for such activities, injuries, and fatalities still occur. Furthermore, the on-site inspections after accidents often reveal that both employers and employees fail to implement safe entry procedures. Removing the risk is possible by avoiding the worker entry, but many activities require the presence of the operator inside the confined space to perform manual tasks. The following study investigates the available technologies for hazardous confined space work activities, e.g., cleaning, inspecting, and maintenance tasks. The aim is to provide a systematic review of the automated solutions for high-risk activities in confined spaces, considering the non-man entry as the most effective confined space safety strategy. Second, this survey aims to provide suggestions for future research addressing the design of new technologies. The survey consists of about 60 papers concerning innovative technologies for confined space work activities. The document review shows that several solutions have been developed and automation can replace the workers for a limited number of hazardous tasks. Several activities still require the manual intervention due to the complex characteristics of confined spaces, e.g., to remove the remains of the automatic cleaning process from the bottom of a tank. The results show that available technologies require more flexibility to adapt to such occupational environments and further research is needed.

  18. Metabolomics Characterization of U.S. and Japanese F-15 and C-130 Flight Line Crews Exposed to Jet Fuel Volatile Organic Compounds and Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2014-0140 METABOLOMICS CHARACTERIZATION OF U.S. AND JAPANESE F-15 AND C-130 FLIGHT LINE CREWS EXPOSED TO JET FUEL VOLATILE...From - To) Apr 2011 – Jul 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Metabolomics characterization of U.S. and Japanese F-15 and C-130 flight line crews exposed to... metabolomics analysis of human urine was utilized for characterization of metabolite profiles of flight line personnel for potential biomarker discovery

  19. Surveying the Inner Solar System with an Infrared Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Buie, Marc W; Linfield, Roger P

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of surveying the inner Solar System for objects that may pose some threat to the Earth. Most of the analysis is based on understanding the capability provided by Sentinel, a concept for an infrared space-based telescope placed in a heliocentric orbit near the distance of Venus. From this analysis, we show 1) the size range being targeted can affect the survey design, 2) the orbit distribution of the target sample can affect the survey design, 3) minimum observational arc length during the survey is an important metric of survey performance, and 4) surveys must consider objects as small as D=15-30 m to meet the goal of identifying objects that have the potential to cause damage on Earth in the next 100 years. Sentinel will be able to find 50% of all impactors larger than 40 meters in a 6.5 year survey. The Sentinel mission concept is shown to be as effective as any survey in finding objects bigger than D=140 m but is more effective when applied to finding smaller objects on Earth-impacti...

  20. TESTS AND METHODOLOGIES FOR THE SURVEY OF NARROW SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perfetti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The research illustrated in this article aimed at identifying a good standard methodology to survey very narrow spaces during 3D investigation of Cultural Heritage. It is an important topic in today’s era of BIM modelling applied to Cultural Heritage. Spaces like staircases, corridors and passages are very common in the architectural or archaeological fields, and obtaining a 3D-oriented survey of those areas can be a very complex task when completeness of the model and high precision are requested. Photogrammetry appears to be the most promising solution in terms of versatility and manoeuvrability also considering the quality of the required data. Fisheye lenses were studied and tested in depth because of their significant advantage in the field of view if compared with rectilinear lenses. This advantage alone can be crucial to reduce the total amount of photos and, as a consequence, to obtain manageable data, to simplify the survey phase and to significantly reduce the elaboration time. In order to overcome the main issue that arise when using fisheye lenses, which is the lack of rules that can be employed to design the survey, a general mathematical formulation to precisely estimate the GSD (Ground Sampling Distance for every optical projection is presented here. A complete survey of a real complex case study was performed in order to test and stress the proposed methodology, and to handle a fisheye-based survey from beginning to end: the photogrammetric survey of the Minguzzi Staircase. It is a complex service spiral-staircase located in the Duomo di Milano with a total height of 25 meters and characterized by a narrow walkable space about 70 centimetres wide.

  1. Weak Lensing from Space I: Instrumentation and Survey Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, Jason; Refregier, Alexandre; Massey, Richard; Albert, Justin; Bacon, David; Bernstein, Gary; Ellis, Richard; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Kim, Alex; Lampton, Mike; McKay, Tim; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.; Harvey, P.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Kreiger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.; Devin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch, A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, D.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-04-23

    A wide field space-based imaging telescope is necessary to fully exploit the technique of observing dark matter via weak gravitational lensing. This first paper in a three part series outlines the survey strategies and relevant instrumental parameters for such a mission. As a concrete example of hardware design, we consider the proposed Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP). Using SNAP engineering models, we quantify the major contributions to this telescope's Point Spread Function (PSF). These PSF contributions are relevant to any similar wide field space telescope. We further show that the PSF of SNAP or a similar telescope will be smaller than current ground-based PSFs, and more isotropic and stable over time than the PSF of the Hubble Space Telescope. We outline survey strategies for two different regimes - a ''wide'' 300 square degree survey and a ''deep'' 15 square degree survey that will accomplish various weak lensing goals including statistical studies and dark matter mapping.

  2. The Hubble Space Telescope advanced camera for surveys coma cluster survey. I. Survey objectives and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, David; Goudfrooij, Paul; Mobasher, Bahram; Ferguson, Henry C.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Balcells, Marc; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Davies, Jonathan I.; Erwin, Peter; Graham, Alister W.; Guzmán, Rafael; Hammer, Derek; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoyos, Carlos; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jogee, Shardha; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Peletier, Reynier F.; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Sharples, Ray M.; Smith, Russell J.; Trentham, Neil; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    2008-01-01

    We describe the HST ACS Coma Cluster Treasury survey, a deep two-passband imaging survey of one of the nearest rich clusters of galaxies, the Coma Cluster (Abell 1656). The survey was designed to cover an area of 740 arcmin2 in regions of different density of both galaxies and intergalactic medium w

  3. The geometry of Minkowski spaces -- a survey. Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Horst; Weiss, Gunter

    2001-01-01

    We survey elementary results in Minkowski spaces (i.e. finite dimensional Banach spaces) that deserve to be collected together, and give simple proofs for some of them. We place special emphasis on planar results. Many of these results have often been rediscovered as lemmas to other results. In Part I we cover the following topics: The triangle inequality and consequences such as the monotonicity lemma, geometric characterizations of strict convexity, normality (Birkhoff orthogonality), conjugate diameters and Radon curves, equilateral triangles and the affine regular hexagon construction, equilateral sets, circles: intersection, circumscribed, characterizations, circumference and area, inscribed equilateral polygons.

  4. Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) With the Hubble Space Telescope. I. Survey Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Sabbi, E.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L.J.; Andrews, J.E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S.N.; Thilker, D.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; da Silva, R.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Ryon, J.E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Walterbos, R.; Whitmore, B.C.; Wofford, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kiloparsec-size clustered structures.

  5. Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) With the Hubble Space Telescope. I. Survey Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Sabbi, E.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L.J.; Andrews, J.E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S.N.; Thilker, D.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; da Silva, R.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Ryon, J.E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Walterbos, R.; Whitmore, B.C.; Wofford, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kiloparsec-size clustered structures. F

  6. TESTING DIFFERENT SURVEY TECHNIQUES TO MODEL ARCHITECTONIC NARROW SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mandelli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the architectural survey field, there has been the spread of a vast number of automated techniques. However, it is important to underline the gap that exists between the technical specification sheet of a particular instrument and its usability, accuracy and level of automation reachable in real cases scenario, especially speaking about Cultural Heritage (CH field. In fact, even if the technical specifications (range, accuracy and field of view are known for each instrument, their functioning and features are influenced by the environment, shape and materials of the object. The results depend more on how techniques are employed than the nominal specifications of the instruments. The aim of this article is to evaluate the real usability, for the 1:50 architectonic restitution scale, of common and not so common survey techniques applied to the complex scenario of dark, intricate and narrow spaces such as service areas, corridors and stairs of Milan’s cathedral indoors. Tests have shown that the quality of the results is strongly affected by side-issues like the impossibility of following the theoretical ideal methodology when survey such spaces. The tested instruments are: the laser scanner Leica C10, the GeoSLAM ZEB1, the DOT DPI 8 and two photogrammetric setups, a full frame camera with a fisheye lens and the NCTech iSTAR, a panoramic camera. Each instrument presents advantages and limits concerning both the sensors themselves and the acquisition phase.

  7. Testing Different Survey Techniques to Model Architectonic Narrow Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, A.; Fassi, F.; Perfetti, L.; Polari, C.

    2017-08-01

    In the architectural survey field, there has been the spread of a vast number of automated techniques. However, it is important to underline the gap that exists between the technical specification sheet of a particular instrument and its usability, accuracy and level of automation reachable in real cases scenario, especially speaking about Cultural Heritage (CH) field. In fact, even if the technical specifications (range, accuracy and field of view) are known for each instrument, their functioning and features are influenced by the environment, shape and materials of the object. The results depend more on how techniques are employed than the nominal specifications of the instruments. The aim of this article is to evaluate the real usability, for the 1:50 architectonic restitution scale, of common and not so common survey techniques applied to the complex scenario of dark, intricate and narrow spaces such as service areas, corridors and stairs of Milan's cathedral indoors. Tests have shown that the quality of the results is strongly affected by side-issues like the impossibility of following the theoretical ideal methodology when survey such spaces. The tested instruments are: the laser scanner Leica C10, the GeoSLAM ZEB1, the DOT DPI 8 and two photogrammetric setups, a full frame camera with a fisheye lens and the NCTech iSTAR, a panoramic camera. Each instrument presents advantages and limits concerning both the sensors themselves and the acquisition phase.

  8. Survey of orbital dynamics and control of space rendezvous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Yazhong; Zhang Jin; Tang Guojin

    2014-01-01

    Rendezvous orbital dynamics and control (RODC) is a key technology for operating space rendezvous and docking missions. This paper surveys the studies on RODC. Firstly, the basic relative dynamics equation set is introduced and its improved versions are evaluated. Secondly, studies on rendezvous trajectory optimization are commented from three aspects:the linear rendez-vous, the nonlinear two-body rendezvous, and the perturbed and constrained rendezvous. Thirdly, studies on relative navigation are briefly reviewed, and then close-range control methods including automated control, manual control, and telecontrol are analyzed. Fourthly, advances in rendezvous trajectory safety and robust analysis are surveyed, and their applications in trajectory optimization are discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn and prospects of studies on RODC are presented.

  9. Dynamical Evolution of Young Embedded Clusters: A Parameter Space Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Proszkow, Eva-Marie

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamical evolution of embedded stellar clusters from the protocluster stage, through the embedded star-forming phase, and out to ages of 10 Myr -- after the gas has been removed from the cluster. The relevant dynamical properties of young stellar clusters are explored over a wide range of possible star formation environments using N-body simulations. Many realizations of equivalent initial conditions are used to produce robust statistical descriptions of cluster evolution including the cluster bound fraction, radial probability distributions, as well as the distributions of close encounter distances and velocities. These cluster properties are presented as a function of parameters describing the initial configuration of the cluster, including the initial cluster membership N, initial stellar velocities, cluster radii, star formation efficiency, embedding gas dispersal time, and the degree of primordial mass segregation. The results of this parameter space survey, which includes ab...

  10. Surveying co-located space geodesy techniques for ITRF computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, P.; Sillard, P.; Vittuari, L.

    2003-04-01

    We present a comprehensive operational methodology, based on classical geodesy triangulation and trilateration, that allows the determination of reference points of the five space geodesy techniques used in ITRF computation (i.e.: DORIS, GPS, LLR, SLR, VLBI). Most of the times, for a single technique, the reference point is not accessible and measurable directly. Likewise, no mechanically determined ex-center with respect to an external and measurable point is usually given. In these cases, it is not possible to directly measure the sought reference points and it is even less straightforward to obtain the statistical information relating these points for different techniques. We outline the most general practical surveying methodology that permits to recover the reference points of the different techniques regardless of their physical materialization. We also give a detailed analytical approach for less straightforward cases (e.g.: non geodetic VLBI antennae and SLR/LLR systems). We stress the importance of surveying instrumentation and procedure in achieving the best possible results and outline the impact of the information retrieved with our method in ITRF computation. In particular, we will give numerical examples of computation of the reference point of VLBI antennae (Ny Aalesund and Medicina) and the ex-centre vector computation linking co-located VLBI and GPS techniques in Medicina (Italy). A special attention was paid to the rigorous derivation of statistical elements. They will be presented in an other presentation.

  11. Geophysical flight line flying and flight path recovery utilizing the Litton LTN-76 inertial navigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitkus, A.F.; Cater, D.; Farmer, P.F.; Gay, S.P. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    The Litton LTN-76 Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) with Inertial Track guidance System (ITGS) software is geared toward the airborne survey industry. This report is a summary of tests performed with the LTN-76 designed to fly an airborne geophysical survey as well as to recover the subsequent flight path utilizing INS derived coordinates.

  12. Predicting future space near-IR grism surveys using the WFC3 infrared spectroscopic parallels survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbert, James W.; Atek, Hakim [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, Harry; Rafelski, Marc [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bunker, Andrew [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Ross, Nathaniel; Malkan, Matt [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dominguez, Alberto; Masters, Dan; Siana, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Henry, Alaina [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    We present near-infrared emission line counts and luminosity functions from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program for 29 fields (0.037 deg{sup 2}) observed using both the G102 and G141 grism. Altogether we identify 1048 emission line galaxies with observed equivalent widths greater than 40 Å, 467 of which have multiple detected emission lines. We use simulations to correct for significant (>20%) incompleteness introduced in part by the non-dithered, non-rotated nature of the grism parallels. The WISP survey is sensitive to fainter flux levels ((3-5) × 10{sup –17} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}) than the future space near-infrared grism missions aimed at baryonic acoustic oscillation cosmology ((1-4) × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}), allowing us to probe the fainter emission line galaxies that the shallower future surveys may miss. Cumulative number counts of 0.7 < z < 1.5 galaxies reach 10,000 deg{sup –2} above an Hα flux of 2 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Hα-emitting galaxies with comparable [O III] flux are roughly five times less common than galaxies with just Hα emission at those flux levels. Galaxies with low Hα/[O III] ratios are very rare at the brighter fluxes that future near-infrared grism surveys will probe; our survey finds no galaxies with Hα/[O III] < 0.95 that have Hα flux greater than 3 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Our Hα luminosity function contains a comparable number density of faint line emitters to that found by the Near IR Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer near-infrared grism surveys, but significantly fewer (factors of 3-4 less) high-luminosity emitters. We also find that our high-redshift (z = 0.9-1.5) counts are in agreement with the high-redshift (z = 1.47) narrowband Hα survey of HiZELS (Sobral et al.), while our lower redshift luminosity function (z = 0.3-0.9) falls slightly below their z = 0.84 result. The evolution

  13. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). I. Survey overview and first data release

    CERN Document Server

    Treu, T; Brammer, G B; Vulcani, B; Wang, X; Bradač, M; Dijkstra, M; Dressler, A; Fontana, A; Gavazzi, R; Henry, A L; Hoag, A; Huang, K H; Jones, T A; Kelly, P L; Malkan, M A; Mason, C; Pentericci, L; Poggianti, B; Stiavelli, M; Trenti, M; von der Linden, A

    2015-01-01

    We give an overview of the Grism Lens Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS), a large Hubble Space Telescope program aimed at obtaining grism spectroscopy of the fields of ten massive clusters of galaxies at redshift z=0.308-0.686, including the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF). The Wide Field Camera 3 yields near infrared spectra of the cluster cores, covering the wavelength range 0.81-1.69mum through grisms G102 and G141, while the Advanced Camera for Surveys in parallel mode provides G800L spectra of the infall regions of the clusters. The WFC3 spectra are taken at two almost orthogonal position angles in order to minimize the effects of confusion. After summarizing the scientific drivers of GLASS, we describe the sample selection as well as the observing strategy and data processing pipeline. We then utilize MACSJ0717.5+3745, a HFF cluster and the first one observed by GLASS, to illustrate the data quality and the high-level data products. Each spectrum brighter than H_AB=23 is visually inspected by at least two...

  14. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) with The Hubble Space Telescope. I. Survey Description

    CERN Document Server

    Calzetti, D; Sabbi, E; Adamo, A; Smith, L J; Andrews, J E; Ubeda, L; Bright, S N; Thilker, D; Aloisi, A; Brown, T M; Chandar, R; Christian, C; Cignoni, M; Clayton, G C; da Silva, R; de Mink, S E; Dobbs, C; Elmegreen, B G; Elmegreen, D M; Evans, A S; Fumagalli, M; Gallagher, J S; Gouliermis, D A; Grebel, E K; Herrero, A; Hunter, D A; Johnson, K E; Kennicutt, R C; Kim, H; Krumholz, M R; Lennon, D; Levay, K; Martin, C; Nair, P; Nota, A; Oestlin, G; Pellerin, A; Prieto, J; Regan, M W; Ryon, J E; Schaerer, D; Schiminovich, D; Tosi, M; Van Dyk, S D; Walterbos, R; Whitmore, B C; Wofford, A; .,

    2014-01-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope, aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ~kpc-size clustered structures. Five-band imaging, from the near-ultraviolet to the I-band, with the Wide Field Camera 3, plus parallel optical imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys, is being collected for selected pointings of 50 galaxies within the local 12 Mpc. The filters used for the observations with the Wide Field Camera 3 are: F275W(2,704 A), F336W(3,355 A), F438W(4,325 A), F555W(5,308 A), and F814W(8,024 A); the parallel observations with the Advanced Camera for Surveys use the filters: F435W(4,328 A), F606W(5,921 A), and F814W(8,057 A). The multi-band images are yielding accurate recent (<~50 Myr) star formation histories from resolved massive stars and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. The e...

  15. Lens Systems for Sky Surveys and Space Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.

    2013-09-01

    Since the early days of astrophotography, lens systems have played a key role in capturing images of the night sky. The first images were attempted with visual-refractors. These were soon followed with color-corrected refractors and finally specially designed photo-refractors. Being telescopes, these instruments were of long-focus and imaged narrow fields of view. Simple photographic lenses were soon put into service to capture wide-field images. These lenses also had the advantage of requiring shorter exposure times than possible using large refractors. Eventually, lenses were specifically designed for astrophotography. With the introduction of the Schmidt-camera and related catadioptric systems, the popularity of astrograph lenses declined, but surprisingly, a few remained in use. Over the last 30 years, as small CCDs have displaced large photographic plates, lens systems have again found favor for their ability to image great swaths of sky in a relatively small and simple package. In this paper, we follow the development of lens-based astrograph systems from their beginnings through the current use of both commercial and custom lens systems for sky surveys and space surveillance. Some of the optical milestones discussed include the early Petzval-type portrait lenses, the Ross astrographic lens and the current generation of optics such as the commercial 200mm camera lens by Canon, and the Russian VT-53e in service with ISON.

  16. Predicting Future Space Near-IR Grism Surveys using the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Colbert, James W; Atek, Hakim; Bunker, Andrew; Rafelski, Marc; Ross, Nathaniel; Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro; Dominguez, Alberto; Dressler, Alan; Henry, Alaina; Malkan, Matt; Martin, Crystal L; Masters, Dan; McCarthy, Patrick; Siana, Brian

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared emission line counts and luminosity functions from the HST WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program for 29 fields observed using both the G102 and G141 grism. Altogether we identify 1048 emission line galaxies with observed equivalent widths greater than 40 Angstroms, 467 of which have multiple detected emission lines. The WISP survey is sensitive to fainter flux levels (3-5x10^{-17} ergs/s/cm^2) than the future space near-infrared grism missions aimed at baryonic acoustic oscillation cosmology (1-4x10^{-16} ergs/s/cm^2), allowing us to probe the fainter emission line galaxies that the shallower future surveys may miss. Cumulative number counts of 0.7

  17. Survey of environmental biocontamination on board the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Natalia; De Boever, Patrick; Poddubko, Svetlana; Deshevaya, Elena; Polikarpov, Nikolai; Rakova, Natalia; Coninx, Ilse; Mergeay, Max

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an orbital living and working environment extending from the original Zarya control module built in 1998. The expected life span of the completed station is around 10 years and during this period it will be constantly manned. It is inevitable that the ISS will also be home to an unknown number of microorganisms. This survey reports on microbiological contamination in potable water, air, and on surfaces inside the ISS. The viable counts in potable water did not exceed 1.0 x 10(2) CFU/ml. Sphingomonas sp. and Methylobacterium sp. were identified as the dominant genera. Molecular analysis demonstrated the presence of nucleic acids belonging to various pathogens, but no viable pathogens were recovered. More than 500 samples were collected at different locations over a period of 6 years to characterize air and surface contamination in the ISS. Concentrations of airborne bacteria and fungi were lower than 7.1 x 10(2) and 4.4 x 10(1) CFU/m3, respectively. Staphylococcus sp. was by far the most dominant airborne bacterial genus, whereas Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. dominated the fungal population. The bacterial concentrations in surface samples fluctuated from 2.5 x 10(1) to 4.3 x 10(4) CFU/100 cm2. Staphylococcus sp. dominated in all of these samples. The number of fungi varied between 2.5 x 10(1) and 3.0 x 10(5) CFU/100 cm2, with Aspergillus sp. and Cladosporium sp. as the most dominant genera. Furthermore, the investigations identified the presence of several (opportunistic) pathogens and strains involved in the biodegradation of structural materials.

  18. Bayesian redshift-space distortions correction from galaxy redshift surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Angulo, Raul E; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Monteagudo, Carlos Hernandez; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    We present a Bayesian reconstruction method which maps a galaxy distribution from redshift-space to real-space inferring the distances of the individual galaxies. The method is based on sampling density fields assuming a lognormal prior with a likelihood given by the negative binomial distribution function modelling stochastic bias. We assume a deterministic bias given by a power law relating the dark matter density field to the expected halo or galaxy field. Coherent redshift-space distortions are corrected in a Gibbs-sampling procedure by moving the galaxies from redshift-space to real-space according to the peculiar motions derived from the recovered density field using linear theory with the option to include tidal field corrections from second order Lagrangian perturbation theory. The virialised distortions are corrected by sampling candidate real-space positions (being in the neighbourhood of the observations along the line of sight), which are compatible with the bulk flow corrected redshift-space posi...

  19. Biomimetics on seed dispersal: survey and insights for space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Izzo, Dario

    2013-06-01

    Seeds provide the vital genetic link and dispersal agent between successive generations of plants. Without seed dispersal as a means of reproduction, many plants would quickly die out. Because plants lack any sort of mobility and remain in the same spot for their entire lives, they rely on seed dispersal to transport their offspring throughout the environment. This can be accomplished either collectively or individually; in any case as seeds ultimately abdicate their movement, they are at the mercy of environmental factors. Thus, seed dispersal strategies are characterized by robustness, adaptability, intelligence (both behavioral and morphological), and mass and energy efficiency (including the ability to utilize environmental sources of energy available): all qualities that advanced engineering systems aim at in general, and in particular those that need to enable complex endeavors such as space exploration. Plants evolved and adapted their strategy according to their environment, and taken together, they enclose many desirable characteristics that a space mission needs to have. Understanding in detail how plants control the development of seeds, fabricate structural components for their dispersal, build molecular machineries to keep seeds dormant up to the right moment and monitor the environment to release them at the right time could provide several solutions impacting current space mission design practices. It can lead to miniaturization, higher integration and packing efficiency, energy efficiency and higher autonomy and robustness. Consequently, there would appear to be good reasons for considering biomimetic solutions from plant kingdom when designing space missions, especially to other celestial bodies, where solid and liquid surfaces, atmosphere, etc constitute and are obviously parallel with the terrestrial environment where plants evolved. In this paper, we review the current state of biomimetics on seed dispersal to improve space mission design.

  20. Lens and Camera Arrays for Sky Surveys and Space Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Cox, D.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, a number of sky survey projects have chosen to use arrays of commercial cameras coupled with commercial photographic lenses to enable low-cost, wide-area observation. Projects such as SuperWASP, FAVOR, RAPTOR, Lotis, PANOPTES, and DragonFly rely on multiple cameras with commercial lenses to image wide areas of the sky each night. The sensors are usually commercial astronomical charge coupled devices (CCDs) or digital single reflex (DSLR) cameras, while the lenses are large-aperture, highend consumer items intended for general photography. While much of this equipment is very capable and relatively inexpensive, this approach comes with a number of significant limitations that reduce sensitivity and overall utility of the image data. The most frequently encountered limitations include lens vignetting, narrow spectral bandpass, and a relatively large point spread function. Understanding these limits helps to assess the utility of the data, and identify areas where advanced optical designs could significantly improve survey performance.

  1. RF environment survey of Space Shuttle related EEE frequency bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J.; Prigel, B.; Postelle, J.

    1977-01-01

    Radio frequency assignments within the continental United States in frequency bands between 121 MHz abd 65 GHz were surveyed and analyzed in order to determine current utilization of anticipated frequency bands for the shuttle borne electromagnetic environment experiment. Data from both government and nongovernment files were used. Results are presented in both narrative form and in histograms which show the total number of unclassified assignments versus frequency and total assigned power versus frequency.

  2. Chinese Surveying and Control Network for Earth-Orbit Satellites and Deep Space Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the surveying and control network(CSN) for earth-orbit satellite and spatial geodesy, and the relationship between the CSN for deep space celestial bodies and detectors, and deep space detection are briefly summarized, and so are the basic technical needs of the deep space surveying and control network(DSN). Then, the techniques, the constituents and the distributing of Chinese satellite CSN (CSCSN) and other radio observing establishments in China are introduced. Lastly, with the primary CSCSN and other observing establishments, some projects for China to rebuild a more perfect CSCSN, and to establish a DSN are analyzed and stated.

  3. Human-Robot Site Survey and Sampling for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Edwards, Laurence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Kunz, Clayton; Lee, Susan Y.; Park, Eric; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Ackner, Nir

    2006-01-01

    NASA is planning to send humans and robots back to the Moon before 2020. In order for extended missions to be productive, high quality maps of lunar terrain and resources are required. Although orbital images can provide much information, many features (local topography, resources, etc) will have to be characterized directly on the surface. To address this need, we are developing a system to perform site survey and sampling. The system includes multiple robots and humans operating in a variety of team configurations, coordinated via peer-to-peer human-robot interaction. In this paper, we present our system design and describe planned field tests.

  4. Measuring redshift-space distortions with future SKA surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Raccanelli, Alvise; Camera, Stefano; Bacon, David; Blake, Chris; Dore, Olivier; Ferreira, Pedro; Maartens, Roy; Santos, Mario; Viel, Matteo; Zhao, Gong-bo

    2015-01-01

    The peculiar motion of galaxies can be a particularly sensitive probe of gravitational collapse. As such, it can be used to measure the dynamics of dark matter and dark energy as well the nature of the gravitational laws at play on cosmological scales. Peculiar motions manifest themselves as an overall anisotropy in the measured clustering signal as a function of the angle to the line-of-sight, known as redshift-space distortion (RSD). Limiting factors in this measurement include our ability to model non-linear galaxy motions on small scales and the complexities of galaxy bias. The anisotropy in the measured clustering pattern in redshift-space is also driven by the unknown distance factors at the redshift in question, the Alcock-Paczynski distortion. This weakens growth rate measurements, but permits an extra geometric probe of the Hubble expansion rate. In this chapter we will briefly describe the scientific background to the RSD technique, and forecast the potential of the SKA phase 1 and the SKA2 to measu...

  5. Transforming Image-Objects into Multiscale Fields: A GEOBIA Approach to Mitigate Urban Microclimatic Variability within H-Res Thermal Infrared Airborne Flight-Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mustafizur Rahman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to minimize complex urban microclimatic variability within high-resolution (H-Res airborne thermal infrared (TIR flight-lines, we describe the Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN algorithm, which is based on the idea of pseudo invariant features. By assuming a homogeneous road temperature within a TIR scene, we hypothesize that any variation observed in road temperature is the effect of local microclimatic variability. To model microclimatic variability, we define a road-object class (Road, compute the within-Road temperature variability, sample it at different spatial intervals (i.e., 10, 20, 50, and 100 m then interpolate samples over each flight-line to create an object-weighted variable temperature field (a TURN-surface. The optimal TURN-surface is then subtracted from the original TIR image, essentially creating a microclimate-free scene. Results at different sampling intervals are assessed based on their: (i ability to visually and statistically reduce overall scene variability and (ii computation speed. TURN is evaluated on three non-adjacent TABI-1800 flight-lines (~182 km2 that were acquired in 2012 at night over The City of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. TURN also meets a recent GEOBIA (Geospatial Object Based Image Analysis challenge by incorporating existing GIS vector objects within the GEOBIA workflow, rather than relying exclusively on segmentation methods.

  6. A Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey of Nearby Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, W; Van Dyk, S D; Hu, J; Qiu, Y; Modjaz, M; Leonard, D C; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Dyk, Schuyler D. Van; Hu, Jingyao; Qiu, Yulei; Modjaz, Maryam; Leonard, Douglas C.

    2002-01-01

    We present photometry of 12 recent supernovae (SNe) recovered in a {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} Snapshot program, and tie the measurements to earlier ground-based observations, in order to study the late-time evolution of the SNe. Many of the ground-based measurements are previously unpublished, and were made primarily with a robotic telescope, the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope. Evidence for circumstellar interaction is common among the core-collapse SNe. Late-time decline rates for Type IIn SNe are found to span a wide range, perhaps due to differences in circumstellar interaction. An extreme case, SN IIn 1995N, declined by only 1.2 mag in $V$ over about 4 years following discovery. Template images of some SNe must therefore be obtained many years after the explosion, if contamination from the SN itself is to be minimized. Evidence is found against a previous hypothesis that the Type IIn SN 1997bs was actually a superoutburst of a luminous blue variable star. The peculiar SN Ic 1997ef, a "hypernova," d...

  7. What Are They Doing and What Do They Want: The Library Spaces Customer Survey at Edmonton Public Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Wortman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of its Library Spaces Business Plan initiative, for four weeks in early 2012 Edmonton Public Library (EPL conducted a survey of its customers about how they use the library’s spaces and what they want from their library spaces. Using both print and online versions, the survey received 1517 responses which collected both quantitative and qualitative data. Findings revealed the ongoing importance of collections and quiet in library spaces, as well as the growing importance of providing social and group space in the library. Results of the survey indicate EPL’s customers do not consider the spaces a separate aspect from the collections and services the library provides. The results of the survey also emphasized the importance of regularly consulting with customers about library spaces to ensure the spaces continue to fulfill their needs as the role of the library, and the space needs associated with it, evolve.

  8. An Extrasolar Planet Census with a Space-based Microlensing Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, D P; Beaulieu, J -P; Bond, I; Cheng, E; Cook, K; Friedman, S; Gaudi, B S; Gould, A; Jenkins, J; Kimble, R; Lin, D; Rich, M; Sahu, K; Tenerelli, D; Udalski, A; Yock, P

    2007-01-01

    A space-based gravitational microlensing exoplanet survey will provide a statistical census of exoplanets with masses down to 0.1 Earth-masses and orbital separations ranging from 0.5AU to infinity. This includes analogs to all the Solar System's planets except for Mercury, as well as most types of planets predicted by planet formation theories. Such a survey will provide results on the frequency of planets around all types of stars except those with short lifetimes. Close-in planets with separations < 0.5 AU are invisible to a space-based microlensing survey, but these can be found by Kepler. Other methods, including ground-based microlensing, cannot approach the comprehensive statistics on the mass and semi-major axis distribution of extrasolar planets that a space-based microlensing survey will provide. The terrestrial planet sensitivity of a ground-based microlensing survey is limited to the vicinity of the Einstein radius at 2-3 AU, and space-based imaging is needed to identify and determine the mass ...

  9. A survey of the economics of materials processing in space. [accenting biomedical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B. P.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the economics of space materials processing has been performed with the objectives of identifying those areas of space materials processing that give preliminary indication of significant economic potential, and to identify possible approaches to quantify the economic potential. It is concluded that limited economic studies have been performed to date, primarily in the area of the processing of inorganic materials, but that the economics of space processing of biological material has not received adequate attention. Specific studies are recommended to evaluate the economic impact of human lymphocyte subgroup separation on organ transplantation, and on the separation and concentration of urokinase producing cells.

  10. Harmonic Analysis on semisimple symmetric spaces. A survey of some general results.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Flensted-Jensen, M.; Schlichtkrull, H.

    2001-01-01

    We give a survey of the status of some of the fundamental problems in harmonic analysis on semisimple symmetric spaces, including the description of the discrete series, the denition of the Fourier transform, the inversion formula, the Plancherel formula and the Paley{ Wiener theorem.

  11. Academic Libraries, Facebook and MySpace, and Student Outreach: A Survey of Student Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Ruth Sara

    2009-01-01

    This study surveyed 366 Valparaiso University freshmen to discover their feelings about librarians using Facebook and MySpace as outreach tools. The vast majority of respondents had online social network profiles. Most indicated that they would be accepting of library contact through those Web sites, but a sizable minority reacted negatively to…

  12. Plasma physics and the 2013-2022 decadal survey in solar and space physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. National Academies established in 2011 a steering committee to develop a comprehensive strategy for solar and space physics research. This updated and extended the first (2003) solar and space physics decadal survey. The latest decadal study implemented a 2008 Congressional directive to NASA for the fields of solar and space physics, but also addressed research in other federal agencies. The new survey broadly canvassed the fields of research to determine the current state of the discipline, identified the most important open scientific questions, and proposed the measurements and means to obtain them so as to advance the state of knowledge during the years 2013-2022. Research in this field has sought to understand: dynamical behaviour of the Sun and its heliosphere; properties of the space environments of the Earth and other solar system bodies; multiscale interaction between solar system plasmas and the interstellar medium; and energy transport throughout the solar system and its impact on the Earth and other solar system bodies. Research in solar and space plasma processes using observation, theory, laboratory studies, and numerical models has offered the prospect of understanding this interconnected system well enough to develop a predictive capability for operational support of civil and military space systems. We here describe the recommendations and strategic plans laid out in the 2013-2022 decadal survey as they relate to measurement capabilities and plasma physical research. We assess progress to date. We also identify further steps to achieve the Survey goals with an emphasis on plasma physical aspects of the program.

  13. Fisheye Photogrammetry: Tests and Methodologies for the Survey of Narrow Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, L.; Polari, C.; Fassi, F.

    2017-02-01

    The research illustrated in this article aimed at identifying a good standard methodology to survey very narrow spaces during 3D investigation of Cultural Heritage. It is an important topic in today's era of BIM modelling applied to Cultural Heritage. Spaces like staircases, corridors and passages are very common in the architectural or archaeological fields, and obtaining a 3D-oriented survey of those areas can be a very complex task when completeness of the model and high precision are requested. Photogrammetry appears to be the most promising solution in terms of versatility and manoeuvrability also considering the quality of the required data. Fisheye lenses were studied and tested in depth because of their significant advantage in the field of view if compared with rectilinear lenses. This advantage alone can be crucial to reduce the total amount of photos and, as a consequence, to obtain manageable data, to simplify the survey phase and to significantly reduce the elaboration time. In order to overcome the main issue that arise when using fisheye lenses, which is the lack of rules that can be employed to design the survey, a general mathematical formulation to precisely estimate the GSD (Ground Sampling Distance) for every optical projection is presented here. A complete survey of a real complex case study was performed in order to test and stress the proposed methodology, and to handle a fisheye-based survey from beginning to end: the photogrammetric survey of the Minguzzi Staircase. It is a complex service spiral-staircase located in the Duomo di Milano with a total height of 25 meters and characterized by a narrow walkable space about 70 centimetres wide.

  14. Global Survey on Future Trends in Human Spaceflight: the Implications for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtuna, O.; Garneau, S.

    2002-01-01

    With the much-publicized first ever space tourist flight, of Dennis Tito, and the announcement of the second space tourist flight to take place in April 2002, it is clear that an alternative motivation for human spaceflight has emerged. Human spaceflight is no longer only about meeting the priorities of national governments and space agencies, but is also about the tangible possibility of ordinary people seeing the Earth from a previously exclusive vantage point. It is imperative that major space players look beyond the existing human spaceflight rationale to identify some of the major driving forces behind space tourism, including the evolving market potential and developments in enabling technologies. In order to determine the influence of these forces on the future of commercial human spaceflight, the responses of a Futuraspace survey on future trends in human spaceflight are analyzed and presented. The motivation of this study is to identify sought-after space destinations, explore the expected trends in enabling technologies, and understand the future role of emerging space players. The survey will reflect the opinions of respondents from around the world including North America, Europe (including Russia) and Asia. The profiles of targeted respondents from space industry, government and academia are high-level executives/managers, senior researchers, as well as former and current astronauts. The survey instrument is a questionnaire which is validated by a pilot study. The sampling method is non-probabilistic, targeting as many space experts as possible who fit our intended respondent profile. Descriptive and comparative statistical analysis methods are implemented to investigate both global and regional perceptions of future commercial trends in human spaceflight. This study is not intended to be a formal market study of the potential viability of the space tourism market. Instead, the focus is on the future trends of human spaceflight, by drawing on the

  15. An optical survey for space debris on highly eccentric and inclined MEO orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silha, J.; Schildknecht, T.; Hinze, A.; Flohrer, T.; Vananti, A.

    2017-01-01

    Optical surveys for space debris in high-altitude orbits have been conducted since more than ten years. Originally these efforts concentrated mainly on the geostationary region (GEO). Corresponding observation strategies, processing techniques and cataloguing approaches have been developed and successfully applied. The ESA GEO surveys, e.g., resulted in the detection of a significant population of small-size debris and later in the discovery of high area-to-mass ratio objects in GEO-like orbits. Comparably less experience (both, in terms of practical observation and strategy definition) is available for eccentric orbits that (at least partly) are in the MEO region, in particular for the Molniya-type orbits. Different survey and follow-up strategies for searching space debris objects in highly-eccentric MEO orbits, and to acquire orbits which are sufficiently accurate to catalog such objects and to maintain their orbits over longer time spans were developed. Simulations were performed to compare the performance of different survey and cataloguing strategies. Eventually, optical observations were conducted in the framework of an ESA study using ESA's Space Debris Telescope (ESASDT) the 1-m Zeiss telescope located at the Optical Ground Station (OGS) at the Teide Observatory at Tenerife, Spain. Thirteen nights of surveys of Molniya-type orbits were performed between January and August 2013. Eventually 255 surveys were performed during these thirteen nights corresponding to about 47 h of observations. In total 30 uncorrelated faint objects were discovered. On average one uncorrelated object was found every 100 min of observations. Some of these objects show a considerable brightness variation and have a high area-to-mass ratio as determined in the orbit estimation process.

  16. Super-Survey Tidal Effect on Redshift-space Power Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Akitsu, Kazuyuki; Li, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Long-wavelength matter inhomogeneities contain cleaner information on the nature of primordial perturbations as well as the physics of the early universe. The large-scale coherent overdensity and tidal force, not directly observable for a finite-volume galaxy survey, are both related to the Hessian matrix of large-scale gravitational potential and therefore of equal importance. We show that the coherent tidal force causes a homogeneous anisotropic distortion of the observed distribution of galaxies in all three directions, perpendicular and parallel to the line-of-sight direction. This effect mimics the redshift-space distortion signal of galaxy peculiar velocities, as well as a distortion by the Alcock-Paczynski effect. We quantify its impact on the redshift-space power spectrum to the leading order, and discuss its importance for the ongoing and upcoming galaxy surveys.

  17. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. VIII. Preliminary Public Catalog Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Piotto, G.; Bedin, L. R.; van der Marel, R. P.; Milone, A. P.; Brown, T. M.; Cool, A. M.; King, I. R.; Sarajedini, A.; Granata, V.; Cassisi, S.; Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D.

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters (GO-13297) has been specifically designed to complement the existing F606W and F814W observations of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Globular Cluster Survey (GO-10775) by observing the most accessible 47 of the previous survey’s 65 clusters in three WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. The new survey also adds super-solar metallicity open cluster NGC 6791 to increase the metallicity diversity. The combined survey provides a homogeneous 5-band data set that can be used to pursue a broad range of scientific investigations. In particular, the chosen UV filters allow the identification of multiple stellar populations by targeting the regions of the spectrum that are sensitive to abundance variations in C, N, and O. In order to provide the community with uniform preliminary catalogs, we have devised an automated procedure that performs high-quality photometry on the new UV observations (along with similar observations of seven other programs in the archive). This procedure finds and measures the potential sources on each individual exposure using library point-spread functions and cross-correlates these observations with the original ACS-Survey catalog. The catalog of 57 clusters we publish here will be useful to identify stars in the different stellar populations, in particular for spectroscopic follow-up. Eventually, we will construct a more sophisticated catalog and artificial-star tests based on an optimal reduction of the UV survey data, but the catalogs presented here give the community the chance to make early use of this HST Treasury survey.

  18. Data collecting activities of the 'Outlook for Space' Panel. [information sources for technological forecasting survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, W. G.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the 'Outlook for Space' Panel, a NASA-wide study group concerned with the role space flight might play in American society during the years approaching 2000. The study considers the progression of projects from 'could do' (for which capability exists), to 'should do' (because of social benefits), to 'will do' (unknown at this time). Opinions as to objectives were solicited from NASA personnel, advisory committees, industrial organizations, and academic theoreticians. Poll data was examined. A large-scale survey of the attitudes of young people toward the future and space was also undertaken, and a complete matrix is presented of themes (such as production and management of food and forestry resources) and theme subcategory specific activities (for example, global crop production), versus the students' perceived areas of national interest or benefit (e.g., expansion of human knowledge).

  19. First airborne transient em survey in antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Mikucki, J. J.; Sørensen, Kurt Ingvard K.I.

    2012-01-01

    conductive targets, and the transient AEM method provides a better understanding of the saline ground water system for microbiology, paleoclimate studies, or geothermal potential. In this study we present preliminary results from our field survey which resulted in more than 1000 km of flight lines...

  20. Industry survey of space system cost benefits from New Ways Of Doing Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1992-01-01

    The cost of designing, building and operating space system hardware has always been expensive. Small quantities of specialty parts escalate engineering design, production and operations cost. Funding cutbacks and shrinking revenues dictate aggressive cost saving programs. NASA's highest priority is providing economical transportation to and from space. Over the past three decades NASA has seen technological advances that provide grater efficiencies in designing, building, and operating of space system hardware. As future programs such as NLS, LUTE and SEI begin, these greater efficiencies and cost savings should be reflected in the cost models. There are several New Ways Of Doing Business (NWODB) which, when fully implemented will reduce space system costs. These philosophies and/or culture changes are integrated in five areas: (1) More Extensive Pre-Phase C/D & E, (2) Multi Year Funding Stability, (3) Improved Quality, Management and Procurement Processes, (4) Advanced Design Methods, and (5) Advanced Production Methods. Following is an overview of NWODB and the Cost Quantification Analysis results using an industry survey, one of the four quantification techniques used in the study. The NWODB Cost Quantification Analysis is a study performed at Marshall Space Flight Center by the Engineering Cost Group, Applied Research Incorporated and Pittsburg State University. This study took place over a period of four months in mid 1992. The purpose of the study was to identify potential NWODB which could lead to improved cost effectiveness within NASA and to quantify potential cost benefits that might accrue if these NWODB were implemented.

  1. The space density of cataclysmic variables: constraints from the ROSAT North Ecliptic Pole Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Pretorius, M L; O'Donoghue, D; Henry, J P; Gioia, I M; Mullis, C R

    2007-01-01

    We use the ROSAT North Ecliptic Pole (NEP) survey to construct a small, but purely X-ray flux-limited sample of cataclysmic variable stars (CVs). The sample includes only 4 systems, 2 of which (RX J1715.6+6856 and RX J1831.7+6511) are new discoveries. We present time-resolved spectroscopy of the new CVs and measure orbital periods of 1.64 \\pm 0.02 h and 4.01\\pm 0.03 h for RX 1715.6+6856 and RX J1831.7+6511, respectively. We also estimate distances for all the CVs in our sample, based mainly on their apparent brightness in the infrared. The space density of the CV population represented by our small sample is (1.1 +2.3/-0.7) 10^-5 pc^-3. We can also place upper limits on the space density of any sub-population of CVs too faint to be included in the NEP survey. In particular, we show that if the overall space density of CVs is as high as 2 10^-4 pc^-3 (as has been predicted theoretically), the vast majority of CVs must be fainter than L_X \\simeq 2 10^29 erg/s.

  2. Summary of 1987 and 1988 manatee aerial surveys at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provancha, Jane A.; Provancha, Mark J.

    1989-01-01

    Aerial surveys of manatees conducted since 1977 at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have provided a very useful and cost effective monitoring tool in the assessment of abundance and distribution of manatees in the northern Banana River. Data collected in the mid 1980's as part of the KSC Environmental Monitoring Program indicated that the numbers of manatees utilizing the northern Banana River had increased dramatically from earlier years and that the animals appeared to have changed their distribution patterns within the area as well (Provancha and Provancha 1988). United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and Florida Department of Natural Resources (FLDNR) conducted bimonthly aerial surveys in 1986 for the entire Florida east coast. Their data clearly show that the Banana River has the highest concentration of manatees during the non-winter months when compared to all other segments of the east coast surveys (B. Wiegle/FLDNR, unpublished data). They further show that, in spring, an average of 71 percent of the manatees in Brevard county were located in the Banana River. During that period 85 percent of the animals were north of the NASA Causeway (State Road (SR) 402) in the KSC security zone. These data indicate the importance of the KSC waters to the Florida east coast manatee population. We reinitiated KSC surveys in 1987 to document distributions and numbers of manatees during the spring influx. Aerial censuses were continued throughout the year in 1988 and this report provides a summary of our findings for the two years.

  3. GLASS: The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey From Space. HST Grism Spectroscopy of the Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kasper B.; Schmidt

    The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey From Space (GLASS) is a 140 orbit spectroscopic survey of 10 massive galaxy clusters, including the six Hubble Frontier Fields. GLASS has observed the cluster cores with the HST-WFC3 G102 and G141 grisms providing a wide wavelength coverage in the near-infrared from roughly 0.8-1.7μm. The parallel fields were observed through the optical ACS G800L grism. Taking advantage of the lensing magnification of the clusters, GLASS reaches intrinsic spectroscopic 1σ flux limits of roughly 10-18erg/s/cm2 and improved spatial resolution for lensed sources behind the clusters. These features are particularly useful for the three main science drivers of GLASS which are, I) exploring the universe at the epoch of reionization, II) describe how metals cycle in and out of galaxies, and III) asses the environmental dependence of galaxy evolution. The former two benefit highly from the improved depth and increased resolution provided by the cluster lensing. Apart from the main science drivers, a slew of ancillary science has been enabled by the survey, including improving cluster lens modeling and searches for supernovae. Here we present the survey and the GLASS data releases, which are continuously being made available to the community through https://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/glass/. For further information we refer to Schmidt et al. (2014), Treu et al. (2015), and http://glass.physics.ucsb.edu.

  4. Survey of electronics capability for SP-100 space reactor power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvi, Ram; Fujita, Tosh

    1991-01-01

    Because of reports indicating improvements in the radiation tolerance of some electronic parts, a survey was recently performed by SP-100 project personnel to determine the advisability of revising SP-100 SRPS (space reactor power systems) allowable neutron and gamma dose rates in order to reduce the size and mass of the radiation shield and thereby achieve system mass reductions. The survey results indicate that recent developments to increase the radiation tolerance of a limited set of electronics parts do not justify increasing the allowable SP-100 dose rates for electronic components. Specifically, the recent improvements on a limited set of parts do not justify increasing the current SP-100 allowable specifications of 5 x 10 exp 5 rads gamma dose and 1 x 10 exp 13 neutrons/sq cm fluence. However, if the improvements of 108 rads for gammas and 10 exp 15 neutrons/sq cm can be extended to a wide range of parts, significant mass savings would result.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope: Snapshot Survey for Resolved Companions of Galactic Cepheids

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Schaefer, Gail H; Mason, Brian D; Tingle, Evan; Karovska, Margarita; Pillitteri, Ignazio

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera~3 (WFC3) of 70 Galactic Cepheids, typically within 1~kpc, with the aim of finding resolved physical companions. The WFC3 field typically covers the 0.1 pc area where companions are expected. In this paper, we identify 39 Cepheids having candidate companions, based on their positions in color--magnitude diagrams, and having separations $\\geq$5$"$ from the Cepheids. We use follow-up observations of 14 of these candidates with XMM-Newton, and of one of them with ROSAT, to separate X-ray-active young stars (probable physical companions) from field stars (chance alignments). Our preliminary estimate, based on the optical and X-ray observations, is that only 3\\% of the Cepheids in the sample have wide companions. Our survey easily detects resolved main-sequence companions as faint as spectral type K\

  6. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope A Proposed Space-Based Microlensing Survey for Terrestrial Extra-Solar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, D P; Bennett, David P.; Rhie, Sun Hong

    2000-01-01

    We present a conceptual design for a space based Galactic Exoplanet SurveyTelescope (GEST) which will use the gravitational microlensing technique todetect extra solar planets with masses as low as that of Mars at allseparations >~ 1 AU. The microlensing data would be collected by a diffractionlimited, wide field imaging telescope of ~ 1.5m aperture equipped with a largearray of red-optimized CCD detectors. Such a system would be able to monitor$\\sim 2\\times 10^8$ stars in $\\sim 6$ square degrees of the Galactic bulge atintervals of 20-30 minutes, and it would observe $\\sim 12000$ microlensingevents in three bulge seasons. If planetary systems like our own are common,GEST should be able to detect $\\sim 5000$ planets over a 2.5 year lifetime. Ifgas giants like Jupiter and Saturn are rare, then GEST would detect $\\sim 1300$planets in a 2.5 year mission if we assume that most planetary systems aredominated by planets of about Neptune's' mass. Such a mission would alsodiscover $\\sim 100$ planets of an Earth mass ...

  7. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, W J; Berry, H A; Fritzsche, A E

    1988-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites.

  8. Status of aeromagnetic survey coverage of Yucca Mountain and vicinity to a radius of about 140 kilometers, southwestern Nevada and southeastern California, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, R.F.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.

    1993-12-31

    Fifty aeromagnetic surveys in the southwestern part of Nevada and the southeastern part of California have been evaluated to assess the quality and coverage of aeromagnetic data within 140 kilometers (km) of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The compilation shows that all the study area is covered by aeromagnetic surveys, but in some areas, particularly in the Death Valley region, new surveys flown with closer flight line spacing and lower elevations than the existing coverage are needed. In addition, the California part of the study area needs to be analytically continued downward to 305 meters (m) above ground level to provide a consistent data set for interpretation of subsurface geologic structures.

  9. Radiation shielding aspects for long manned mission to space: Criteria, survey study, and preliminary model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztejnberg Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of manned space missions outside Earth's orbit is limited by the travel time and shielding against cosmic radiation. The chemical rockets currently used in the space program have no hope of propelling a manned vehicle to a far away location such as Mars due to the enormous mass of fuel that would be required. The specific energy available from nuclear fuel is a factor of 106 higher than chemical fuel; it is therefore obvious that nuclear power production in space is a must. On the other hand, recent considerations to send a man to the Moon for a long stay would require a stable, secured and safe source of energy (there is hardly anything beyond nuclear power that would provide a useful and reliably safe sustainable supply of energy. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA anticipates that the mass of a shielding material required for long travel to Mars is the next major design driver. In 2006 NASA identified a need to assess and evaluate potential gaps in existing knowledge and understanding of the level and types of radiation critical to astronauts' health during the long travel to Mars and to start a comprehensive study related to the shielding design of a spacecraft finding the conditions for the mitigation of radiation components contributing to the doses beyond accepted limits. In order to reduce the overall space craft mass, NASA is looking for the novel, multi-purpose and multi-functional materials that will provide effective shielding of the crew and electronics on board. The Laboratory for Neutronics and Geometry Computation in the School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University led by Prof. Tatjana Jevremović began in 2004 the analytical evaluations of different lightweight materials. The preliminary results of the design survey study are presented in this paper.

  10. STAGES: the Space Telescope A901/2 Galaxy Evolution Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, M E; Barden, Marco; Peng, Chien Y; Haeussler, Boris; Bell, Eric F; McIntosh, Daniel H; Guo, Yicheng; Caldwell, John A R; Bacon, David; Balogh, Michael; Barazza, Fabio D; Boehm, Asmus; Heymans, Catherine; Jahnke, Knud; Jogee, Shardha; van Kampen, Eelco; Lane, Kyle; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Sánchez, Sebastian F; Taylor, Andy; Wisotzki, Lutz; Zheng, Xianzhong; Green, David A; Beswick, R J; Saikia, D J; Gilmour, Rachel; Johnson, Benjamin D; Papovich, Casey

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of the Space Telescope A901/2 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES). STAGES is a multiwavelength project designed to probe physical drivers of galaxy evolution across a wide range of environments and luminosity. A complex multi-cluster system at z~0.165 has been the subject of an 80-orbit F606W HST/ACS mosaic covering the full 0.5x0.5 (~5x5 Mpc^2) span of the supercluster. Extensive multiwavelength observations with XMM-Newton, GALEX, Spitzer, 2dF, GMRT, and the 17-band COMBO-17 photometric redshift survey complement the HST imaging. Our survey goals include simultaneously linking galaxy morphology with other observables such as age, star-formation rate, nuclear activity, and stellar mass. In addition, with the multiwavelength dataset and new high resolution mass maps from gravitational lensing, we are able to disentangle the large-scale structure of the system. By examining all aspects of environment we will be able to evaluate the relative importance of the dark matter halos, the local gal...

  11. The Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey: VI. The Volumetric Type Ia Supernova Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Barbary, K; Amanullah, R; Brodwin, M; Connolly, N; Dawson, K S; Doi, M; Eisenhardt, P; Faccioli, L; Fadeyev, V; Fakhouri, H K; Fruchter, A S; Gilbank, D G; Gladders, M D; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Hattori, T; Hsiao, E; Huang, X; Ihara, Y; Kashikawa, N; Koester, B; Konishi, K; Kowalski, M; Lidman, C; Lubin, L; Meyers, J; Morokuma, T; Oda, T; Panagia, N; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M; Ripoche, P; Rosati, P; Rubin, D; Schlegel, D J; Spadafora, A L; Stanford, S A; Strovink, M; Suzuki, N; Takanashi, N; Tokita, K; Yasuda, N

    2011-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate out to z ~ 1.6 from the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey. In observations spanning 189 orbits with the Advanced Camera for Surveys we discovered 29 SNe, of which approximately 20 are SNe Ia. Twelve of these SNe Ia are located in the foregrounds and backgrounds of the clusters targeted in the survey. Using these new data, we derive the volumetric SN Ia rate in four broad redshift bins, finding results consistent with previous measurements at z > 1 and strengthening the case for a SN Ia rate that is equal to or greater than ~0.6 x 10^-4/yr/Mpc^3 at z ~ 1 and flattening out at higher redshift. We provide SN candidates and efficiency calculations in a form that makes it easy to rebin and combine these results with other measurements for increased statistics. Finally, we compare the assumptions about host-galaxy dust extinction used in different high-redshift rate measurements, finding that different assumptions may induce sig...

  12. Estimating $\\beta$ from redshift-space distortions in the 2dF galaxy survey

    CERN Document Server

    Hatton, S J

    1999-01-01

    Given the failure of existing models for redshift-space distortions to provide a highly accurate measure of the beta-parameter, and the ability of forthcoming surveys to obtain data with very low random errors, it becomes necessary to develop better models for these distortions. Here we review the failures of the commonly used velocity dispersion models and present an empirical method for extracting beta from the quadrupole statistic that has little systematic offset over a wide range of beta and cosmologies. This empirical model is then applied to an ensemble of mock 2dF southern strip catalogues to illustrate the technique and see how accurately we can recover the true value of beta. We compare this treatment with the error we expect to find due to the finite volume of the survey. We find that non-linear effects reduce the range of scales over which beta can be fitted, and introduce covariances between nearby modes in excess of those introduced by the convolution with the survey window function. The result ...

  13. The Space Density of High-Redshift QSOs in the GOODS Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, S; Bauer, F; Brandt, W N; Chatzichristou, E T; Fontanot, F; Grazian, A; Koekemoer, A M; Lucas, R A; Monaco, P; Nonino, M; Padovani, P; Stern, D; Tozzi, P; Treister, E; Urry, C M; Vanzella, E

    2004-01-01

    We present a sample of 17 high-redshift (3.5Survey, selected in the magnitude range 22.45Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope and the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory. On the basis of seven spectroscopic and ten photometric redshifts we estimate that the final sample will contain between two and four QSOs with 4Survey; and b) a constant universal efficiency in the formation of super-massive black holes (SMBHs) in dark-matter halos. Evidence is gathered in favor of a density evolution of the LF at high redshift and of a suppress...

  14. GLASS: The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey From Space. HST Grism Spectroscopy of the Frontier Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borello Schmidt, Kasper

    2015-08-01

    The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey From Space (GLASS) is a 140 orbit spectroscopic survey of 10 massive galaxy clusters, including the six Hubble Frontier Fields. GLASS has observed the cluster cores in the HST-WFC3 G102 and G141 grisms providing a wide wavelength coverage in the near-infrared from roughly 0.8 - 1.7 μm. The parallel fields were observed through the optical ACS G800L grism. Taking advantage of the lensing magnification of the clusters, GLASS reaches excellent spectroscopic limits of ˜10-18 erg/s/cm2 and improved spatial resolution for lensed sources behind the clusters. These features are particularly useful for the three main science drivers of GLASS, which are: I) Use the hundreds of spectra of galaxies at z>6 to shed light on the epoch of reionization, the role galaxies play in reionizing the universe, and the Lyα escape fraction at the cosmic dawn. II) Study gas accretion, star formation, and outflows by spatially mapping resolved star formation and determine metallicity gradients from emission lines at z˜2. III) Explore the environmental dependence of galaxy evolution using the first comprehensive census of spatially resolved star formation in dense environments, i.e., the cluster cores as well as the cluster infall regions. The former two benefit highly from the improved depth and increased resolution provided by the cluster lensing. Apart from the main science drivers, a slew of ancillary science has been enabled by the survey. One particularly interesting example is the search for supernovae in the more than 40 GLASS visits, which resulted in the detection of the first multiple imaged supernova, SN Refsdal. I will present the survey, give an update on the current science results, in particular on the GLASS galaxies at the epoch of reionization, and provide a status report on the GLASS data releases, which are continuously being made available to the community.

  15. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; de Groot, Rudolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed in five different green spaces. We aimed to analyze people's thermal comfort perception and preference in outdoor urban green spaces, and to specify the combined effects between the thermal environmental and personal factors. The results imply that non-physical environmental and subjective factors (e.g., natural view, quiet environment, and emotional background) were more important in perceiving comfort than the actual thermal conditions. By applying a linear regression and probit analysis, the comfort temperature was found to be 22.2 °C and the preferred temperature was at a surprisingly high 35.7 °C. This can be explained by the observation that most respondents, who live in temperate regions, have a natural tendency to describe their preferred state as "warmer" even when feeling "warm" already. Using the Kruskal-Wallis H test, the four significant factors influencing thermal comfort were people's exposure time in green spaces, previous thermal environment and activity, and their thermal history. However, the effect of thermal history needs further investigation due to the unequal sample sizes of respondents from different climate regions. By providing evidence for the role of the objective and subjective factors on human thermal comfort, the relationship between UGI, microclimate, and thermal comfort can assist urban planning to make better use of green spaces for microclimate regulation.

  16. On observation distributions for state space models of population survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knape, Jonas; Jonzén, Niclas; Sköld, Martin

    2011-11-01

    1. State space models are starting to replace more simple time series models in analyses of temporal dynamics of populations that are not perfectly censused. By simultaneously modelling both the dynamics and the observations, consistent estimates of population dynamical parameters may be obtained. For many data sets, the distribution of observation errors is unknown and error models typically chosen in an ad-hoc manner. 2. To investigate the influence of the choice of observation error on inferences, we analyse the dynamics of a replicated time series of red kangaroo surveys using a state space model with linear state dynamics. Surveys were performed through aerial counts and Poisson, overdispersed Poisson, normal and log-normal distributions may all be adequate for modelling observation errors for the data. We fit each of these to the data and compare them using AIC. 3. The state space models were fitted with maximum likelihood methods using a recent importance sampling technique that relies on the Kalman filter. The method relaxes the assumption of Gaussian observation errors required by the basic Kalman filter. Matlab code for fitting linear state space models with Poisson observations is provided. 4. The ability of AIC to identify the correct observation model was investigated in a small simulation study. For the parameter values used in the study, without replicated observations, the correct observation distribution could sometimes be identified but model selection was prone to misclassification. On the other hand, when observations were replicated, the correct distribution could typically be identified. 5. Our results illustrate that inferences may differ markedly depending on the observation distributions used, suggesting that choosing an adequate observation model can be critical. Model selection and simulations show that for the models and parameter values in this study, a suitable observation model can typically be identified if observations are

  17. White Dwarf - Red Dwarf Systems Resolved with the Hubble Space Telescope. II. Full Snapshot Survey Results

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J; Wachter, S

    2010-01-01

    {Abrigded} Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets which remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) among the spatially unresolved companions, exactly the opposite of expectations if significant mass is transferred to the companion during the common envelope phase. Using the best available distance estimates, the low mass companions to white dwarfs exhibit a bimodal distribution in projected separation. This result supports the hypothesis that during the giant phases of the white dwarf progenitor, any unevolved companions either migrate inward to short periods of hours to days, or outward to periods of hundreds to thousands of y...

  18. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of Intrinsic Absorption in Nearby AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtamirova, Dzhuliya; Dunn, Jay P.; Crenshaw, D. Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a survey of the intrinsic UV absorption lines in active galactic nuclei (AGN). We limit our study to the ultraviolet spectra of type 1 AGN with a redshift of z COS) observations. We download and co-add all of the COS spectra. We find that about 80 of these are type 1 AGN. We normalize the COS spectra and identify all of the intrinsic Lyman-alpha, N V, Si IV, and C IV intrinsic absorption features. From these data, we determine the fraction of type 1 AGN with intrinsic absorption in this redshift range and find the global covering factors of the absorbers. We also identify low ionization species as well as excited state lines. A number of objects have multiple epoch COS and/or Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations, which we use to investigate the absorption variability.

  19. Using FOSM-Based Data Worth Analyses to Design Geophysical Surveys to Reduce Uncertainty in a Regional Groundwater Model Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. D.; White, J.; Kress, W. H.; Clark, B. R.; Barlow, J.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogeophysical surveys have become an integral part of understanding hydrogeological frameworks used in groundwater models. Regional models cover a large area where water well data is, at best, scattered and irregular. Since budgets are finite, priorities must be assigned to select optimal areas for geophysical surveys. For airborne electromagnetic (AEM) geophysical surveys, optimization of mapping depth and line spacing needs to take in account the objectives of the groundwater models. The approach discussed here uses a first-order, second-moment (FOSM) uncertainty analyses which assumes an approximate linear relation between model parameters and observations. This assumption allows FOSM analyses to be applied to estimate the value of increased parameter knowledge to reduce forecast uncertainty. FOSM is used to facilitate optimization of yet-to-be-completed geophysical surveying to reduce model forecast uncertainty. The main objective of geophysical surveying is assumed to estimate values and spatial variation in hydrologic parameters (i.e. hydraulic conductivity) as well as map lower permeability layers that influence the spatial distribution of recharge flux. The proposed data worth analysis was applied to Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS) which is being updated. The objective of MERAS is to assess the ground-water availability (status and trends) of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. The study area covers portions of eight states including Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. The active model grid covers approximately 70,000 square miles, and incorporates some 6,000 miles of major rivers and over 100,000 water wells. In the FOSM analysis, a dense network of pilot points was used to capture uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity and recharge. To simulate the effect of AEM flight lines, the prior uncertainty for hydraulic conductivity and recharge pilots along potential flight lines was

  20. Geographic information technology monitoring and mapping of coal fires in Ukraine, according to the space survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivnyak, G.; Busygin, B.; Garkusha, I. [National Mining Univ., Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2010-07-01

    Coal fires are a significant problem around the world, particularly in China, India, and the United States. Coal fires burn thousands of tons of coal reserves and lead to serious problems for the environment, degradation and destruction of landscape, and harm public health. Technology, such as spectrology analysis of signatures with high temperature activity can be used to calculate vegetation algorithms and soil indexes, and multispectral survey data in the thermal channels of scanners. This paper presented the perspectives of technology development in coal fires and the approach to the detection, monitoring, and quantitative estimation of coal fires by the instruments using geographic information systems. Specifically, the paper considered the use of coal fire fragment monitoring technology from data of a diachronous survey obtained by Landsat satellites, to classify dangerous coal waste banks of the Donbass Mine located in Ukraine. The paper provided a description of the study area and discussed the detection technology of temperature-active waste banks. It was concluded that geoinformation technology provides an opportunity to effectively mark mining dumps, in particular, waste banks in multispectrum space images made by Landsat satellites. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Using the space survey data for fire objects monitoring of the Donetsk coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busygin, B.; Garkusha, I.; Sergieieva, K. [National Mining Univ., Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2010-07-01

    A fundamental factor in economic and ecological balance disturbance of industrial coal-mining regions that present danger to population health and life involve the combustion processes of carbonaceous rocks caused by endogenous and exogenous influences. High temperature leading to smoldering or combustion is a peculiarity of land surface areas. Detection and allocation of thermal anomalies caused by coal fires is a major issue for coal deposits worldwide, particularly in India, China, and the United States, where the largest deposits can be found. This paper examined the practical aspects of using the Terra and Landsat multisensor survey data for solving the tasks of fire objects allocation and monitoring of coal-industrial regions, particularly for mapping the burning waste banks of the Donetsk coal basin area located in the Ukraine. The paper presented an analysis of the results of land cover types classification. For classification quality improvement, the estimated values of surface temperature derived from the Landsat thermal band as well as information about vegetation cover based on the vegetation indexes calculation were utilized. Specifically, the paper presented and discussed the study area and data as well as fire waste banks allocation based on space survey, vegetation indices and temperature data using the morphometric analysis procedures. It was concluded that the presented process of multilevel data processing enabled the efficient use of information about mines and waste banks and helped classify them according to fire risk. 10 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  2. Surveying Space Scientists' Attitudes, Involvement, and Needs in Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, J.; Buxner, S.; Schneider, N. M.

    2014-12-01

    Empowering scientists in education and public outreach (E/PO) activities is an important component of the work of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) E/PO Forums. This work includes understanding the attitudes of scientists towards E/PO, why they do or do not engage in E/PO activities, and what resources and professional development they need to be the most efficient in their E/PO efforts. The Planetary Science E/PO Forum has conducted both surveys and interviews of space scientists regarding E/PO to ascertain how they (the Forum) and the professional societies to which those scientists belong, can help to meet their needs in E/PO. Specifically, a recent series of semi-structured interviews with members of the American Astronomical Society Division of Planetary Sciences (AAS-DPS) has helped pinpoint specific areas that can be addressed. This presentation will discuss our survey methods, responses to questions, and compare those to previous research. We will describe new products and other resources developed in response to expressed needs, as well as offer information to continue the conversation about how professional societies can better meet the needs of their members in E/PO.

  3. GESE: A Small UV Space Telescope to Conduct a Large Spectroscopic Survey of Z-1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Gong, Qian; Hull, Tony; Kruk, Jeffrey; Purves, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    One of the key goals of NASA's astrophysics program is to answer the question: How did galaxies evolve into the spirals and elliptical galaxies that we see today? We describe a space mission concept called Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) to address this question by making a large spectroscopic survey of galaxies at a redshift, z is approximately 1 (look-back time of approximately 8 billion years). GESE is a 1.5-meter space telescope with an ultraviolet (UV) multi-object slit spectrograph that can obtain spectra of hundreds of galaxies per exposure. The spectrograph covers the spectral range, 0.2-0.4 micrometers at a spectral resolving power, R approximately 500. This observed spectral range corresponds to 0.1-0.2 micrometers as emitted by a galaxy at a redshift, z=1. The mission concept takes advantage of two new technological advances: (1) light-weighted, wide-field telescope mirrors, and (2) the Next- Generation MicroShutter Array (NG-MSA) to be used as a slit generator in the multi-object slit spectrograph.

  4. Low Delta-V Near-Earth Asteroids: a survey of suitable targets for space missions

    CERN Document Server

    Ieva, S; Perna, D; Barucci, M A; Bernardi, F; Fornasier, S; De Luise, F; Perozzi, E; Rossi, A; Brucato, J R

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have become very important targets to study, since they can give us clues to the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. In addition, they may represent either a threat to humankind, or a repository of extraterrestrial resources for suitable space-borne missions. Within this framework, the choice of next-generation mission targets and the characterisation of a potential threat to our planet deserve special attention. To date, only a small part of the 11,000 discovered NEOs have been physically characterised. From ground and space-based observations one can determine some basic physical properties of these objects using visible and infrared spectroscopy. We present data for 13 objects observed with different telescopes around the world (NASA-IRTF, ESO-NTT, TNG) in the 0.4 - 2.5 um spectral range, within the NEOSURFACE survey (http://www.oa-roma.inaf.it/planet/NEOSurface.html). Objects are chosen from among the more accessible for a rendez-vous mis...

  5. 3D-HST: A wide-field grism spectroscopic survey with the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Brammer, Gabriel; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; Kriek, Mariska; Nelson, Erica; Schmidt, Kasper; Bezanson, Rachel; da Cunha, Elisabete; Erb, Dawn; Fan, Xiaohui; Schreiber, Natascha Förster; Illingworth, Garth; Labbé, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Lundgren, Britt; Magee, Dan; Marchesini, Danilo; McCarthy, Patrick; Momcheva, Ivelina; Muzzin, Adam; Quadri, Ryan; Steidel, Charles; Tal, Tomer; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine; Williams, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the processes that shape galaxies in the distant Universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of ~7000 galaxies at 1survey area with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four parallel orbits with the ACS/G800L grism. In the IR these exposure times yield a continuum signal-to-noise of ~5 per resolution element at H~23.1 and a 5sigma emission line sensitivity of 5x10-17 erg/s/cm2 for typical objects, improving by a factor of ~2 for compact sources in images with low sky background levels. The WFC3/G141 spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 1.1-1.6 um at a spatial resolution...

  6. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marsh, Kenneth A., E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys Confirmation of the Dark Substructure in A520

    CERN Document Server

    Jee, M James; Mahdavi, Andisheh; Babul, Arif

    2014-01-01

    We present the results from a weak gravitational lensing study of the merging cluster A520 based on the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data. The excellent data quality allows us to reach a mean number density of source galaxies of ~109 per sq. arcmin, which improves both resolution and significance of the mass reconstruction compared to a previous study based on Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images. We take care in removing instrumental effects such as the trailing of charge due to radiation damage of the ACS detector and the position-dependent point spread function (PSF). This new ACS analysis confirms the previous claims that a substantial amount of dark mass is present between two luminous subclusters. We examine the distribution of cluster galaxies and observe very little light at this location. We find that the centroid of the dark peak in the current ACS analysis is offset to the southwest by ~1 arcmin with respect to the centroid from the WFPC2 analysis. In...

  8. U.S. Geological Survey distribution of European Space Agency's Sentinel-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieschke, Renee L.

    2017-03-31

    A partnership established between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) allows for USGS storage and redistribution of images acquired by the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) on the European Union's Sentinel-2 satellite mission. The MSI data are acquired from a pair of satellites, Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B, which are part of a larger set of ESA missions focusing on different aspects of Earth observation. The primary purpose of the Sentinel-2 series is to collect multispectral imagery over the Earth’s land surfaces, large islands, and inland and coastal waters. Sentinel-2A was launched in 2015 and Sentinel-2B launched in 2017.The collaborative effort between ESA and USGS provides for public access and redistribution of global acquisitions of Sentinel-2 data at no cost, which allows users to download the MSI imagery from USGS access systems such as Earth- Explorer, in addition to the ESA Sentinels Scientific Data Hub. The MSI sensor acquires 13 spectral bands that are highly complementary to data acquired by the USGS Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The product options from USGS include a Full-Resolution Browse (FRB) image product generated by USGS, along with a 100-kilometer (km) by 100-km tile-based Level-1C top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance product that is very similar (but not identical) to the currently (2017) distributed ESA Level 1C product.

  9. Evaluating the effect of stellar multiplicity on the PSF of space-based weak lensing surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Kuntzer, T; Meylan, G

    2016-01-01

    The next generation of space-based telescopes used for weak lensing surveys will require exquisite point spread function (PSF) determination. Previously negligible effects may become important in the reconstruction of the PSF, in part because of the improved spatial resolution. In this paper, we show that unresolved multiple star systems can affect the ellipticity and size of the PSF and that this effect is not cancelled even when using many stars in the reconstruction process. We estimate the error in the reconstruction of the PSF due to the binaries in the star sample both analytically and with image simulations for different PSFs and stellar populations. The simulations support our analytical finding that the error on the size of the PSF is a function of the multiple stars distribution and of the intrinsic value of the size of the PSF, i.e. if all stars were single. Similarly, the modification of each of the complex ellipticity components (e1,e2) depends on the distribution of multiple stars and on the int...

  10. John F. Kennedy Space Center, Safety, Reliability, Maintainability and Quality Assurance, Survey and Audit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This document is the product of the KSC Survey and Audit Working Group composed of civil service and contractor Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) personnel. The program described herein provides standardized terminology, uniformity of survey and audit operations, and emphasizes process assessments rather than a program based solely on compliance. The program establishes minimum training requirements, adopts an auditor certification methodology, and includes survey and audit metrics for the audited organizations as well as the auditing organization.

  11. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods for select space propulsion system components (PSAM). Volume 3: Literature surveys and technical reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The technical effort and computer code developed during the first year are summarized. Several formulations for Probabilistic Finite Element Analysis (PFEA) are described with emphasis on the selected formulation. The strategies being implemented in the first-version computer code to perform linear, elastic PFEA is described. The results of a series of select Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) component surveys are presented. These results identify the critical components and provide the information necessary for probabilistic structural analysis.

  12. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Snapshot Survey of 3CR Quasars: The Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Matthew D.; Miley, George K.; Sparks, William B.; Baum, Stefi A.; Biretta, John; Golombek, Daniel; de Koff, Sigrid; Macchetto, Ferdinando D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    1999-08-01

    We present images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC-2) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of 43 quasars selected from the 3CR radio catalog. The redshift range of the targets is large--0.3Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  13. The Spitzer Space Telescope Extra-Galactic First Look Survey: 24 micron data reduction, catalog, and source identification

    CERN Document Server

    Fadda, D; Armus, L; Chapman, S C; Choi, P I; Fang, F; Frayer, D T; Heinrichsen, I; Helou, G; Im, M; Lacy, M; Makovoz, D; Marleau, F R; Shupe, D L; Soifer, B T; Squires, G K; Storrie-Lombardi, L J; Surace, J; Teplitz, H I; Wilson, G; Yan, L; Fadda, Dario

    2006-01-01

    We present the reduction of the 24 micron data obtained during the first cosmological survey performed by the Spitzer Space Telescope (First Look Survey, FLS). The survey consists of a shallow observation of 2.5x2 sq deg centered at 17h18m +59d30m (main survey) and a deeper observation of 1x0.5 sq deg centered at 17h17m +59d45m(verification survey). Issues with the reduction of the 24 micron MIPS data are discussed and solutions to attenuate instrumental effects are proposed and applied to the data. Approximately 17000 sources are extracted with a SNR greater than five. The photometry of the point sources is evaluated through PSF fitting using an empirical PSF derived from the data. Aperture corrections and the absolute calibration have been checked using stars in the field. Astrometric and photometric errors depend on the SNR of the source varying between 0.35-1 arcsec and 5-15%, respectively, for sources detected at 20-5 sigma. The flux of the 123 extended sources have been estimated through aperture photom...

  14. Previous experience in manned space flight - A survey of human factors lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandlee, George O.; Woolford, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Human factors data from Apollo, Skylab, and Space Shuttle flights are reviewed. The sources of data and collection methods are described. A classification scheme for human factors data is proposed. The implications of the results for the design of the Space Station program are considered.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey disaster response and the International Charter for space and major disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Timothy S.; Jones, Brenda K.

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, an international consortium of space agencies conceived and approved a mechanism to provide satellite information in support of worldwide disaster relief. This group came to be known as the 'International Charter?Space and Major Disasters' and has become an important resource for the use of satellite data to evaluate and provide support for response to natural and man-made disasters. From the Charter's formative days in 1999, its membership has grown to 10 space organizations managing more than 20 earth-observing satellites.

  16. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  17. Evolution of the real-space correlation function from next generation cluster surveys. Recovering the real-space correlation function from photometric redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Srivatsan; Maurogordato, Sophie; Benoist, Christophe; Cappi, Alberto; Marulli, Federico

    2017-04-01

    Context. The next generation of galaxy surveys will provide cluster catalogues probing an unprecedented range of scales, redshifts, and masses with large statistics. Their analysis should therefore enable us to probe the spatial distribution of clusters with high accuracy and derive tighter constraints on the cosmological parameters and the dark energy equation of state. However, for the majority of these surveys, redshifts of individual galaxies will be mostly estimated by multiband photometry which implies non-negligible errors in redshift resulting in potential difficulties in recovering the real-space clustering. Aims: We investigate to which accuracy it is possible to recover the real-space two-point correlation function of galaxy clusters from cluster catalogues based on photometric redshifts, and test our ability to detect and measure the redshift and mass evolution of the correlation length r0 and of the bias parameter b(M,z) as a function of the uncertainty on the cluster redshift estimate. Methods: We calculate the correlation function for cluster sub-samples covering various mass and redshift bins selected from a 500 deg2 light-cone limited to H z=0)=\\frac{σz{1+z_c} = 0.005,0.010,0.030} and 0.050, in order to cover the typical values expected in forthcoming surveys. The correlation function in real-space is then computed through estimation and deprojection of wp(rp). Four mass ranges (from Mhalo > 2 × 1013h-1M⊙ to Mhalo > 2 × 1014h-1M⊙) and six redshift slices covering the redshift range [0, 2] are investigated, first using cosmological redshifts and then for the four photometric redshift configurations. Results: From the analysis of the light-cone in cosmological redshifts we find a clear increase of the correlation amplitude as a function of redshift and mass. The evolution of the derived bias parameter b(M,z) is in fair agreement with theoretical expectations. We calculate the r0-d relation up to our highest mass, highest redshift sample

  18. Cross-Cultural Issues of Intra- and Inter-Organisational Cooperation in Space Operations: A Survey Study with Ground Personnel of the European Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Manzey, Dietrich

    Today's space operations often involve close co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organizational backgrounds. The aim of the study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. Methods: A web-based survey was answered by 905 employees at the European Astronaut Centre and at the European Space Technology Centre. An adapted version of the Flight Management Attitude Questionnaire by Helmreich and Merrit was used. Personnel were also asked about interpersonal and operational issues that interfered with efficient co-working within ESA and in relation to other space agencies. Results: Collaboration within ESA: A descriptive analysis was conducted of the rank orders of challenges perceived by members of different nationalities (the Netherlands (N=68), German (N=138), Italian (N=135), French (N=124), British (N=84) and Scandinavian (27).Rank orders show a surprisingly uniformity across nationalities. Most respondents perceived differences in the preferred leadership style as the main challenge for co-working in multi-national groups followed by differences in dealing with conflicts and misunderstandings. In contrast communication problems due different languages and differences in non-verbal behaviour, as well as differences in gender stereotypes were among the lowest rated issues. However, Scandinavian respondents showed a different pattern from other nationalities. Collaboration between agencies: The most significant issues reported to interfere with the efficiency of inter-agency collaboration varied. Most difficulties were reported in relation to clarity of communication, insufficient sharing of task related information, understanding the process of decision making in partner organization, and authoritarian leadership style in the partner organization Conclusion: Cultural differences in leadership and

  19. Fourteen Years of the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys : Calibration Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman A.; HST Advanced CameraSurveys Instrument Team

    2016-06-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) has been a workhorse HST imager for over fourteen years, subsequent to its Servicing Mission 3B installation in 2002. The once defunct ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) has now been operating considerably longer (>7yrs) since its Servicing Mission 4 repair than it had originally operated (SBC point spread function and long-term SBC flatfield stability.

  20. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yafei; Groot, de Dolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed

  1. Survey of the US materials processing and manufacturing in space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckannan, E. C.

    1981-01-01

    To promote potential commercial applications of low-g technology, the materials processing and manufacturing in space program is structured to: (1) analyze the scientific principles of gravitational effects on processes used in producing materials; (2) apply the research toward the technology used to control production process (on Earth or in space, as appropriate); and (3) establish the legal and managerial framework for commercial ventures. Presently federally funded NASA research is described as well as agreements for privately funded commercial activity, and a proposed academic participation process. The future scope of the program and related capabilities using ground based facilities, aircraft, sounding rockets, and space shuttles are discussed. Areas of interest described include crystal growth; solidification of metals and alloys; containerless processing; fluids and chemical processes (including biological separation processes); and processing extraterrestrial materials.

  2. Previous experience in manned space flight: A survey of human factors lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandlee, George O.; Woolford, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Previous experience in manned space flight programs can be used to compile a data base of human factors lessons learned for the purpose of developing aids in the future design of inhabited spacecraft. The objectives are to gather information available from relevant sources, to develop a taxonomy of human factors data, and to produce a data base that can be used in the future for those people involved in the design of manned spacecraft operations. A study is currently underway at the Johnson Space Center with the objective of compiling, classifying, and summarizing relevant human factors data bearing on the lessons learned from previous manned space flights. The research reported defines sources of data, methods for collection, and proposes a classification for human factors data that may be a model for other human factors disciplines.

  3. Phenomenology of dark energy: exploring the space of theories with future redshift surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Federico; Marinoni, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We use the effective field theory of dark energy to explore the space of modified gravitymodels which are capable of driving the present cosmic acceleration. We identify five universal functions of cosmic time, which are enough to describe a wide range of theories containing a single scalar degree of freedom in addition to the metric. The first function (the effective equation of state) uniquely controls the expansion history of the universe. The remaining four functions appear in the linear cosmological perturbation equations, but only three of them regulate the growth history of large scale structures. We propose a specific parameterization of such functions in terms of characteristic coefficients that serve as coordinates in the space of modified gravity theories and can be effectively constrained by the next generation of cosmological experiments. We address in full generality the problem of the soundness of the theory against ghost-like and gradient instabilities and show how the space of non-pathologica...

  4. Leisure time activities in space: A survey of astronauts and cosmonauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Alan D.; Kanas, Nick

    Questionnaires were returned from 54 astronauts and cosmonauts which addressed preferences for media and media-generated subjects that could be used to occupy leisure time in space. Ninety-three percent of the respondents had access to records or audio cassettes, and cosmonauts had greater access than astronauts to multiple media. Cosmonauts and long-duration space travelers reported that they missed various media more than their astronaut and short-duration counterparts. Media subjects that related to international events, national events and historical topics were rated as most preferable by all respondents and by several of the respondent groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for occupying free time during future long-duration manned space missions.

  5. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY-THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Strolger, Louis; Casertano, Stefano; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Fontana, Adriano; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; van der Wel, Arjen; Yan, Hao-Jing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter J.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; de Ravel, Loic; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Frazer, Chris; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hartley, Will G.; Haeussler, Boris; Herrington, Jessica; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Jha, Saurabh W.; Johnson, Andrew; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Khostovan, Ali A.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Lani, Caterina; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; McPartland, Conor; Mobasher, Bahram; Moreira, Heidi; Mortlock, Alice; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Sami; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Snyder, Diana; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Vargas, Carlos; Villforth, Carolin; Wagner, Cory R.; Wandro, Pat; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z approximate to 1.5-8, and to study

  6. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY-THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Strolger, Louis; Casertano, Stefano; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Fontana, Adriano; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; van der Wel, Arjen; Yan, Hao-Jing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter J.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; de Ravel, Loic; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Frazer, Chris; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hartley, Will G.; Haeussler, Boris; Herrington, Jessica; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Jha, Saurabh W.; Johnson, Andrew; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Khostovan, Ali A.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Lani, Caterina; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; McPartland, Conor; Mobasher, Bahram; Moreira, Heidi; Mortlock, Alice; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Sami; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Snyder, Diana; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Vargas, Carlos; Villforth, Carolin; Wagner, Cory R.; Wandro, Pat; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z approximate to 1.5-8, and to study

  7. Nuclei of nearby disk galaxies .1. A Hubble Space Telescope imaging survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, AC; Illingworth, GD; MacKenty, JW; Franx, M

    We present deconvolved images of the central regions of 20 nearby disk galaxies, obtained with the original Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope. The galaxies span a range in Hubble type from SO to Sm. We have measured surface brightness profiles, and inverted these to estimate

  8. Surveying User Activity as a Tool for Space Planning in an Academic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Susan L.; Nickel, Lisa T.

    University libraries, and specifically the University of South Florida (USF) Library, are used for many different purposes that go beyond traditional library services. Activities users engage in while in the library should factor into decisions regarding the allocation of library space or expenditure of resources. The results of this survey…

  9. A Large Hubble Space Telescope Survey of Low-Mass Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Knutson, Heather; Lothringer, Joshua; McCullough, Peter R.; Dragomir, Diana; Morley, Caroline; Kempton, Eliza

    2016-10-01

    The discovery of short-period planets with masses and radii between Earth and Neptune was one of the biggest surprises in the brief history of exoplanet science. From the Kepler mission, we know that these "super-Earths" or "sub-Neptunes" orbit at least 40% of stars, likely representing the most common outcome of planet formation. Despite this ubiquity, we know little about their typical compositions and formation histories. In this talk, we will shed new light on these worlds by presenting the multiple the main results from our 124-orbit HST transit spectroscopy survey to probe the chemical compositions of low-mass exoplanets. We will report on multiple molecular detections. Our unprecedented HST survey provides the first comprehensive look at this intriguing new class of planets by covering seven planets ranging from 1 Neptune mass and temperatures close to 2000K to a 1 Earth-mass planet near the habitable zone of its host star.

  10. The Gaia Era: synergy between space missions and ground based surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Vallenari, A

    2008-01-01

    The Gaia mission is expected to provide highly accurate astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic measurements for about $10^9$ objects. Automated classification of detected sources is a key part of the data processing. Here a few aspects of the Gaia classification process are presented. Information from other surveys at longer wavelengths, and from follow-up ground based observations will be complementary to Gaia data especially at faint magnitudes, and will offer a great opportunity to understand our Galaxy.

  11. A High Angular Resolution Survey of Massive Stars in Cygnus OB2: Results from the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Printed in the U.S.A. A HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION SURVEY OF MASSIVE STARS IN CYGNUS OB2: RESULTS FROM THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE FINE GUIDANCE SENSORS...angular resolution survey of massive OB stars in the Cygnus OB2 association that we conducted with the fine guidance sensor 1R (FGS1r) on the Hubble Space...al. 2009) and imaging observations (Maı́z Apellániz 2010). The fine guidance sensors (FGSs) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) provide us with

  12. The Space Density Evolution of Wet and Dry Mergers in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Richard C Y; Abraham, Roberto G

    2010-01-01

    We analyze 1298 merging galaxies with redshifts up to z=0.7 from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, taken from the catalog presented in Bridge et al. (2010). By analyzing the internal colors of these systems, we show that so-called wet and dry mergers evolve in different senses, and quantify the space densities of these systems. The local space density of wet mergers is essentially dentical to the local space density of dry mergers. The evolution in the total merger rate is modest out to z ~ 0.7, although the wet and dry populations have different evolutionary trends. At higher redshifts dry mergers make a smaller contribution to the total merging galaxy population, but this is offset by a roughly equivalent increase in the contribution from wet mergers. By comparing the mass density function of early-type galaxies to the corresponding mass density function for merging systems, we show that not all the major mergers with the highest masses (M_stellar > 10^11 M_solar) will end up with the most m...

  13. Modal Survey of ETM-3, A 5-Segment Derivative of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, D.; Townsend, J.; Kappus, K.; Driskill, T.; Torres, I.; Parks, R.

    2005-01-01

    The complex interactions between internal motor generated pressure oscillations and motor structural vibration modes associated with the static test configuration of a Reusable Solid Rocket Motor have potential to generate significant dynamic thrust loads in the 5-segment configuration (Engineering Test Motor 3). Finite element model load predictions for worst-case conditions were generated based on extrapolation of a previously correlated 4-segment motor model. A modal survey was performed on the largest rocket motor to date, Engineering Test Motor #3 (ETM-3), to provide data for finite element model correlation and validation of model generated design loads. The modal survey preparation included pretest analyses to determine an efficient analysis set selection using the Effective Independence Method and test simulations to assure critical test stand component loads did not exceed design limits. Historical Reusable Solid Rocket Motor modal testing, ETM-3 test analysis model development and pre-test loads analyses, as well as test execution, and a comparison of results to pre-test predictions are discussed.

  14. Survey of the environmental biocontamination on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, N.; de Boever, P.; Poddubko, S.; Deshevaya, E.; Polikarpov, N.; Rakova, N.; Coninx, I.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Reports on the exploitation of the orbital station Mir has indicated that microorganisms are ubiquitously present and that they should be considered as indigenous to any spacecraft environment Although most microorganisms do not affect human health it has been reported that in a confined environment such as a space cabin microorganisms may produce adverse effects on the optimal performance of the space crew and the integrity of the spacecraft or habitat Monitoring the biological contamination of the current International Space Station ISS is imperative and the results of the investigations may trigger off specific countermeasures when microbial concentrations pass defined thresholds e g disinfection and sterilization Aim More than 500 samples were collected at different locations over a period of six years to characterize air and surface biocontamination residing in the ISS Results Concentrations of airborne bacteria and fungi were lower than 7 1x102 CFU m 3 and 4 4x101 CFU m 3 respectively Staphylococcus sp was by far the most dominant airborne bacterial species whereas Aspergillus sp and Penicillium sp dominated the fungal population The bacterial concentrations in surfaces samples fluctuated from 2 5x101 to 4 3x104 CFU 100 cm2 Staphylococcus sp dominated in all of these samples The number of fungi varied between 2 5x101 CFU 100 cm2 and 3 0x105 CFU 100 cm2 with Aspergillus sp and Cladosporium sp as the most dominant genera Furthermore the investigations identified the presence of several opportunistic pathogens e g S aureus

  15. Nonlinear research of an image motion stabilization system embedded in a space land-survey telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somov, Yevgeny; Butyrin, Sergey; Siguerdidjane, Houria

    2017-01-01

    We consider an image motion stabilization system embedded into a space telescope for a scanning optoelectronic observation of terrestrial targets. Developed model of this system is presented taking into account physical hysteresis of piezo-ceramic driver and a time delay at a forming of digital control. We have presented elaborated algorithms for discrete filtering and digital control, obtained results on analysis of the image motion velocity oscillations in the telescope focal plane, and also methods for terrestrial and in-flight verification of the system.

  16. Mathematics for quantum mechanics an introductory survey of operators, eigenvalues, and linear vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, John David

    2006-01-01

    Advanced undergraduates and graduate students studying quantum mechanics will find this text a valuable guide to mathematical methods. Emphasizing the unity of a variety of different techniques, it is enduringly relevant to many physical systems outside the domain of quantum theory.Concise in its presentation, this text covers eigenvalue problems in classical physics, orthogonal functions and expansions, the Sturm-Liouville theory and linear operators on functions, and linear vector spaces. Appendixes offer useful information on Bessel functions and Legendre functions and spherical harmonics.

  17. Hubble Space Telescope Survey of Interstellar ^12CO/^13CO in the Solar Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Sheffer, Y; Federman, S R; Lambert, D L; Gredel, R

    2007-01-01

    We examine 20 diffuse and translucent Galactic sight lines and extract the column densities of the ^12CO and ^13CO isotopologues from their ultraviolet A--X absorption bands detected in archival Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph data with lambda/Deltalambda geq 46,000. Five more targets with Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph data are added to the sample that more than doubles the number of sight lines with published Hubble Space Telescope observations of ^13CO. Most sight lines have 12-to-13 isotopic ratios that are not significantly different from the local value of 70 for ^12C/^13C, which is based on mm-wave observations of rotational lines in emission from CO and H_2CO inside dense molecular clouds, as well as on results from optical measurements of CH^+. Five of the 25 sight lines are found to be fractionated toward lower 12-to-13 values, while three sight lines in the sample are fractionated toward higher ratios, signaling the predominance of either isotopic charge exchange or selective photodissoc...

  18. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. V. Constraints on Formation Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Renzini, A; Cassisi, S; King, I R; Milone, A P; Ventura, P; Anderson, J; Bedin, L R; Bellini, A; Brown, T M; Piotto, G; van der Marel, R P; Barbuy, B; Dalessandro, E; Hidalgo, S; Marino, A F; Ortolani, S; Salaris, M; Sarajedini, A

    2015-01-01

    We build on the evidence provided by our Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters (GC) to submit to a crucial test four scenarios currently entertained for the formation of multiple stellar generations in GCs. The observational constraints on multiple generations to be fulfilled are manifold, including GC specificity, ubiquity, variety, predominance, discreteness, supernova avoidance, p-capture processing, helium enrichment and mass budget. We argue that scenarios appealing to supermassive stars, fast rotating massive stars and massive interactive binaries violate in an irreparable fashion two or more among such constraints. Also the scenario appealing to AGB stars as producers of the material for next generation stars encounters severe difficulties, specifically concerning the mass budget problem and the detailed chemical composition of second generation stars. We qualitatively explore ways possibly allowing one to save the AGB scenario, specifically appealing to a possible revision of the cross section o...

  19. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  20. Dengue fever occurrence and vector detection by larval survey, ovitrap and MosquiTRAP: a space-time clusters analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Diogo Portella Ornelas; Scherrer, Luciano Rios; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The use of vector surveillance tools for preventing dengue disease requires fine assessment of risk, in order to improve vector control activities. Nevertheless, the thresholds between vector detection and dengue fever occurrence are currently not well established. In Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), dengue has been endemic for several years. From January 2007 to June 2008, the dengue vector Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was monitored by ovitrap, the sticky-trap MosquiTRAP™ and larval surveys in an study area in Belo Horizonte. Using a space-time scan for clusters detection implemented in SaTScan software, the vector presence recorded by the different monitoring methods was evaluated. Clusters of vectors and dengue fever were detected. It was verified that ovitrap and MosquiTRAP vector detection methods predicted dengue occurrence better than larval survey, both spatially and temporally. MosquiTRAP and ovitrap presented similar results of space-time intersections to dengue fever clusters. Nevertheless ovitrap clusters presented longer duration periods than MosquiTRAP ones, less acuratelly signalizing the dengue risk areas, since the detection of vector clusters during most of the study period was not necessarily correlated to dengue fever occurrence. It was verified that ovitrap clusters occurred more than 200 days (values ranged from 97.0±35.35 to 283.0±168.4 days) before dengue fever clusters, whereas MosquiTRAP clusters preceded dengue fever clusters by approximately 80 days (values ranged from 65.5±58.7 to 94.0±14. 3 days), the former showing to be more temporally precise. Thus, in the present cluster analysis study MosquiTRAP presented superior results for signaling dengue transmission risks both geographically and temporally. Since early detection is crucial for planning and deploying effective preventions, MosquiTRAP showed to be a reliable tool and this method provides groundwork for the development of even more precise tools.

  1. On the Feasibility of Characterizing Free-floating Planets with Current and Future Space-based Microlensing Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Calen B.; Shvartzvald, Yossi

    2016-10-01

    Simultaneous space- and ground-based microlensing surveys, such as K2's Campaign 9 (K2C9) and WFIRST, facilitate measuring the masses and distances of free-floating planet (FFP) candidates, which are identified as single-lens events with timescales that are of the order of 1 day. Measuring the mass and distance of an FFP lens requires determining the size of the source star ρ, measuring the microlens parallax {π }{{E}}, and using high-resolution imaging to search for the lens flux {F}{\\ell } from a possible host star. Here we investigate the accessible parameter space for each of these components considering different satellites for a range of FFP masses, Galactic distances, and source star properties. We find that at the beginning of K2C9, when its projected separation {D}\\perp from the Earth is ≲0.2 au, it will be able to measure {π }{{E}} for Jupiter-mass FFP candidates at distances larger than ∼2 kpc and to Earth-mass lenses at ∼8 kpc. At the end of K2C9, when {D}\\perp = 0.81 au, it is sensitive to planetary-mass lenses for distances ≳3.5 kpc, and even then only to those with mass ≳M Jup. From lens flux constraints we find that it will be possible to exclude hosts down to the deuterium-burning limit for events within ∼2 kpc. This indicates that the ability to characterize FFPs detected during K2C9 is optimized for events occurring toward the beginning of the campaign. WFIRST, on the other hand, will be able to detect and characterize FFP masses down to or below super-Earths throughout the Galaxy during its entire microlensing survey.

  2. Dengue Fever Occurrence and Vector Detection by Larval Survey, Ovitrap and MosquiTRAP: A Space-Time Clusters Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Diogo Portella Ornelas; Scherrer, Luciano Rios; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The use of vector surveillance tools for preventing dengue disease requires fine assessment of risk, in order to improve vector control activities. Nevertheless, the thresholds between vector detection and dengue fever occurrence are currently not well established. In Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), dengue has been endemic for several years. From January 2007 to June 2008, the dengue vector Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was monitored by ovitrap, the sticky-trap MosquiTRAP™ and larval surveys in an study area in Belo Horizonte. Using a space-time scan for clusters detection implemented in SaTScan software, the vector presence recorded by the different monitoring methods was evaluated. Clusters of vectors and dengue fever were detected. It was verified that ovitrap and MosquiTRAP vector detection methods predicted dengue occurrence better than larval survey, both spatially and temporally. MosquiTRAP and ovitrap presented similar results of space-time intersections to dengue fever clusters. Nevertheless ovitrap clusters presented longer duration periods than MosquiTRAP ones, less acuratelly signalizing the dengue risk areas, since the detection of vector clusters during most of the study period was not necessarily correlated to dengue fever occurrence. It was verified that ovitrap clusters occurred more than 200 days (values ranged from 97.0±35.35 to 283.0±168.4 days) before dengue fever clusters, whereas MosquiTRAP clusters preceded dengue fever clusters by approximately 80 days (values ranged from 65.5±58.7 to 94.0±14. 3 days), the former showing to be more temporally precise. Thus, in the present cluster analysis study MosquiTRAP presented superior results for signaling dengue transmission risks both geographically and temporally. Since early detection is crucial for planning and deploying effective preventions, MosquiTRAP showed to be a reliable tool and this method provides groundwork for the development of even more precise tools. PMID:22848729

  3. Dengue fever occurrence and vector detection by larval survey, ovitrap and MosquiTRAP: a space-time clusters analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Portella Ornelas de Melo

    Full Text Available The use of vector surveillance tools for preventing dengue disease requires fine assessment of risk, in order to improve vector control activities. Nevertheless, the thresholds between vector detection and dengue fever occurrence are currently not well established. In Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil, dengue has been endemic for several years. From January 2007 to June 2008, the dengue vector Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti was monitored by ovitrap, the sticky-trap MosquiTRAP™ and larval surveys in an study area in Belo Horizonte. Using a space-time scan for clusters detection implemented in SaTScan software, the vector presence recorded by the different monitoring methods was evaluated. Clusters of vectors and dengue fever were detected. It was verified that ovitrap and MosquiTRAP vector detection methods predicted dengue occurrence better than larval survey, both spatially and temporally. MosquiTRAP and ovitrap presented similar results of space-time intersections to dengue fever clusters. Nevertheless ovitrap clusters presented longer duration periods than MosquiTRAP ones, less acuratelly signalizing the dengue risk areas, since the detection of vector clusters during most of the study period was not necessarily correlated to dengue fever occurrence. It was verified that ovitrap clusters occurred more than 200 days (values ranged from 97.0±35.35 to 283.0±168.4 days before dengue fever clusters, whereas MosquiTRAP clusters preceded dengue fever clusters by approximately 80 days (values ranged from 65.5±58.7 to 94.0±14. 3 days, the former showing to be more temporally precise. Thus, in the present cluster analysis study MosquiTRAP presented superior results for signaling dengue transmission risks both geographically and temporally. Since early detection is crucial for planning and deploying effective preventions, MosquiTRAP showed to be a reliable tool and this method provides groundwork for the development of even more precise tools.

  4. Fifteen Years of the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys: Calibration Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman A.; Advanced CameraSurveys Instrument Team

    2017-06-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) has been a workhorse HST imager for over fifteen years, subsequent to its Servicing Mission 3B installation in 2002. The once defunct ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) has now been operating almost twice as long (>8yrs) since its Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) repair than it had originally operated prior to its 2007 failure. Despite the accumulating radiation damage to the WFC CCDs during their long stay in low Earth orbit, ACS continues to be heavily exploited by the HST community as both a prime and a parallel detector.The past year has seen several advancements in ACS data acquisition and calibration capabilities: the mostwidespread changes since shortly after SM4. We review these recent developments that enable the continued high performance of this instrument, including both the WFC and the Solar Blind Channel (SBC). Highlightsinclude: 1) implementaton of new WFC subarray modes to allow for more consistent high-fidelity calibration; 2) a thorough modernization of the original pixel-based correction of WFC charge-transfer efficiency decline; 3)"save the pixels" initiatives resulting in much less WFC bad-pixel flagging via hot-pixel stability analyses and readout-dark modeling; and 4) a new initiative to provide improved PSF estimates via empirical fitting to the full ACS archive of nearly 200,000 images.

  5. Survey of cometary CO2, CO, and particulate emissions using the Spitzer Space Telescope: Smog check for comets

    CERN Document Server

    Reach, William T; Vaubaillon, Jeremie

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed 23 comets using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope in wide filters centered at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. Emission in the 3.6 micron filter arises from sunlight scattered by dust grains; these images generally have a coma near the nucleus and a tail in the antisolar direction due to dust grains swept back by solar radiation pressure. The 4.5 micron filter contains the same dust grains, as well as strong emission lines from CO2 and CO gas; these show distinct morphologies, in which cases we infer they are dominated by gas. Based on the ratio of 4.5 to 3.6 micron brightness, we classify the survey comets as CO2+CO "rich" and "poor." This classification is correlated with previous classifications by A'Hearn based on carbon-chain molecule abundance, in the sense that comets classified as "depleted" in carbon-chain molecules are also "poor" in CO2+CO. The gas emission in the IRAC 4.5 micron images is characterized by a smooth morphology, typically a fan in the sunward hemisphere with a ...

  6. Design and Specification of Optical Bandpass Filters for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Tsevetanov, Zlatan; Woodruff, Bob; Mooney, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced optical bandpass filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) have been developed on a filter-by-filter basis through detailed studies which take into account the instrument's science goals, available optical filter fabrication technology, and developments in ACS's charge-coupled-device (CCD) detector technology. These filters include a subset of filters for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are optimized for astronomical photometry using today's charge-coupled-devices (CCD's). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements for these filters include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, a high degree of parfocality, and immunity to environmental degradation. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The highly successful paradigm in which final specifications for flight filters were derived through interaction amongst the ACS Science Team, the instrument designer, the lead optical engineer, and the filter designer and vendor is described. Examples of iterative design trade studies carried out in the context of science needs and budgetary and schedule constraints are presented. An overview of the final design specifications for the ACS bandpass and ramp filters is also presented.

  7. Aggregation and spatial analysis of walking activity in an urban area: results from the Halifax space-time activity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neatt, K.; Millward, H.; Spinney, J.

    2016-04-01

    This study examines neighborhood characteristics affecting the incidence of walking trips in urban and suburban areas of Halifax, Canada. We employ data from the Space-Time Activity Research (STAR) survey, conducted in 2007-8. Primary respondents completed a two- day time-diary survey, and their movements were tracked using a GPS data logger. Primary respondents logged a total of 5,005 walking trips, specified by 781,205 individual GPS points. Redundant and erroneous points, such as those with zero or excessive speed, were removed. Data points were then imported into ArcGIS, converted from points to linear features, visually inspected for data quality, and cleaned appropriately. From mapped walking tracks we developed hypotheses regarding variations in walking density. To test these, walking distances were aggregated by census tracts (CTs), and expressed as walking densities (per resident, per metre of road, and per developed area). We employed multivariate regression to examine which neighborhood (CT) variables are most useful as estimators of walking densities. Contrary to much of the planning literature, built-environment measures of road connectivity and dwelling density were found to have little estimating power. Office and institutional land uses are more useful estimators, as are the income and age characteristics of the resident population.

  8. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: anisotropic galaxy clustering in Fourier space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Florian; Seo, Hee-Jong; Saito, Shun; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Hand, Nick; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Modi, Chirag; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Percival, Will J.; Prada, Francisco; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the anisotropic clustering of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 12 sample, which consists of 1198 006 galaxies in the redshift range 0.2 measure redshift-space distortions simultaneously with the Alcock-Paczynski effect and the baryon acoustic oscillation scale. We include the power-spectrum monopole, quadrupole and hexadecapole in our analysis and compare our measurements with a perturbation-theory-based model, while properly accounting for the survey window function. To evaluate the reliability of our analysis pipeline, we participate in a mock challenge, which results in systematic uncertainties significantly smaller than the statistical uncertainties. While the high-redshift constraint on fσ8 at zeff = 0.61 indicates a small (∼1.4σ) deviation from the prediction of the Planck ΛCDM (Λ cold dark matter) model, the low-redshift constraint is in good agreement with Planck ΛCDM. This paper is part of a set that analyses the final galaxy clustering data set from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are combined with others in Alam et al. to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  9. The Hubble Space Telescope Survey of BL Lacertae Objects. IV. Infrared Imaging of Host Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Urry, C. Megan; Padovani, Paolo; Calzetti, Daniela; O'Dowd, Matthew

    2000-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Camera 2 was used for H-band imaging of 12 BL Lacertae objects taken from the larger sample observed with the WFPC2 in the R band by Urry and coworkers and Scarpa and coworkers. Ten of the 12 BL Lacs are clearly resolved, and the detected host galaxies are large, bright ellipticals with average absolute magnitude =-26.2+/-0.45 mag and effective radius =10+/-5 kpc. The rest-frame integrated color of the host galaxies is on average =2.3+/-0.3, consistent with the value for both radio galaxies and normal, nonactive elliptical galaxies and indicating that the dominant stellar population is old. The host galaxies tend to be bluer in their outer regions than in their cores, with average color gradient Δ(R-H)/Δlogr=-0.2 mag, again consistent with results for normal nonactive elliptical galaxies. The infrared Kormendy relation, derived for the first time for BL Lac host galaxies, is μe=3.8logre+14.8, fully in agreement with the relation for normal ellipticals. The close similarity between BL Lac host galaxies and normal ellipticals suggests that the active nucleus has surprisingly little effect on the host galaxy. This supports a picture in which all elliptical galaxies harbor black holes that can be actively accreting for some fraction of their lifetime.

  10. A Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of Extreme Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, O.C.; McDonald, I.; Rich, R.M.; Kemper, F.; Boyer, M.L.; Zijlstra, A.A.; Bendo, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the population of cool, evolved stars in the Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxy M32, using Infrared Array Camera observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We construct deep mid-infrared colour-magnitude diagrams for the resolved stellar populations within 3.5 arcminutes of M32's centre, and identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess. Our data is dominated by a population of luminous, dustproducing stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and extend to approximately 3 magnitudes below the AGB tip. We detect for the first time a sizeable population of 'extreme' AGB stars, highly enshrouded by circumstellar dust and likely completely obscured at optical wavelengths. The total dust-injection rate from the extreme AGB candidates is measured to be 7.5 x 10 (sup -7) solar masses per year, corresponding to a gas mass-loss rate of 1.5 x 10 (sup -4) solar masses per year. These extreme stars may be indicative of an extended star-formation epoch between 0.2 and 5 billion years ago.

  11. A Spitzer Space Telescope survey of extreme Asymptotic Giant Branch stars in M32

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, O C; Rich, R M; Kemper, F; Boyer, M L; Zijlstra, A A; Bendo, G J

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the population of cool, evolved stars in the Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxy M32, using Infrared Array Camera observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We construct deep mid-infrared colour-magnitude diagrams for the resolved stellar populations within 3.5 arcmin of M32's centre, and identify those stars that exhibit infrared excess. Our data is dominated by a population of luminous, dust-producing stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and extend to approximately 3 mag below the AGB tip. We detect for the first time a sizeable population of `extreme' AGB stars, highly enshrouded by circumstellar dust and likely completely obscured at optical wavelengths. The total dust-injection rate from the extreme AGB candidates is measured to be $7.5 \\times 10^{-7}$ ${\\rm M}_{\\odot} \\, {\\rm yr}^{-1}$, corresponding to a gas mass-loss rate of $1.5 \\times 10^{-4}$ ${\\rm M}_{\\odot} \\, {\\rm yr}^{-1}$. These extreme stars may be indicative of an extended star-formation epoch between 0.2 and 5 Gyr a...

  12. On the Feasibility of Characterizing Free-floating Planets with Current and Future Space-based Microlensing Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Calen B

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous space- and ground-based microlensing surveys, such as K2's Campaign 9 (K2C9) and $WFIRST$, facilitate measuring the masses and distances of free-floating planet (FFP) candidates. FFPs are identified as single-lens events with a short timescale, of-order 1 day. Measuring the mass of the lensing object requires determining the finite size of the source star $\\rho$, as well as the microlens parallax $\\pi_{\\rm E}$. A planet that is bound to but widely separated from a host star can produce a light curve similar to that of an FFP. This tension can be resolved with high-resolution imaging of the microlensing target to search for the lens flux $F_l$ from a possible host star. Here we investigate the accessible parameter space for each of these components --- $\\pi_{\\rm E}$, $\\rho$, and $F_l$ --- considering different satellites for a range of FFP masses, Galactic distances, and source star properties. We find that at the beginning of K2C9, when its projected separation from the Earth (as viewed from the ...

  13. An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm.We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ~238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000-175,000 pairs. Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ~595,000 adult birds.There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research.

  14. An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Larue, Michelle A; Morin, Paul; Kooyman, Gerald L; Wienecke, Barbara; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fox, Adrian J; Fleming, Andrew H; Porter, Claire; Trathan, Phil N

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri) using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm.We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ~238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000-175,000 pairs). Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ~595,000 adult birds.There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research.

  15. Molecular Spectroscopy in Space: Discovering New Molecules from Line Surveys and Laboratory Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernicharo, Jose

    2016-06-01

    The increasing sensitivity offered by the new generation of radio astronomical receivers and radio telescopes (single dishes and radio interferometers) has provided an enormous impact in our capacity to study the molecular content of interstellar and circumstellar clouds. Astronomers face now the challenging problem of interpreting the thousands of lines detected in hot cores which arise from isotopologues and vibrationally excited states of most known molecules. Although all strong features have been already assigned to abundant species, many of the lines still pending to be assigned could arise from very abundant molecular species having low dipole moment and/or very large partition functions. The only way to address this problem in astrophysics is through a close collaboration between astrophysicists and laboratory spectroscopists. In this talk I am going to present the results obtained over the last 10 years in interpreting the line surveys of Orion gathered with the 30m IRAM radio telescope and with ALMA. The most recent molecule found in this cloud is methyl isocyanate, CH3NCO, for which near 400 lines have been found in Oriona in the 80-280 GHz domain. This molecule has an abundance only a factor 5-20 below that of the well-known species HNCO and CH3CN. The molecule has been also found towards the giant cloud SgrB2b in the galactic center. Finally, I will present the case of the submillimeter spectrum of the carbon-rich evolved star IRC+10216 in which we have recently found Si2C with an abundance similar to SiC2. Our recent ALMA observations in a narrow band of 20 GHz around 265 GHz show near 200 features corresponding to the J=3-2 transition of hot HCN (vibrational levels up to 11000 cm-1). In addition to HCN lines, a forest of several hundreds of U lines dominates the spectrum. Most of these lines arise from molecules that condensate very quickly into dust grainsc. aJ. Cernicharo, Z.Kisiel, B.Tercero, et al., A&A 587, L4 (2016). bD.T. Halfen, V

  16. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. III. A QUINTUPLE STELLAR POPULATION IN NGC 2808

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Jerjen, H. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Piotto, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, Padova, IT-35122 (Italy); Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,” Univ. di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, Padova, IT-35122 (Italy); Anderson, J.; Bellini, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3800 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); D’Antona, F.; Ventura, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy)

    2015-07-20

    In this study we present the first results from multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 2808 as an extension of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs (GO-13297 and previous proprietary and HST archive data). Our analysis allowed us to disclose a multiple-stellar-population phenomenon in NGC 2808 even more complex than previously thought. We have separated at least five different populations along the main sequence and the red giant branch (RGB), which we name A, B, C, D, and E (though an even finer subdivision may be suggested by the data). We identified the RGB bump in four out of the five RGBs. To explore the origin of this complex color–magnitude diagram, we have combined our multi-wavelength HST photometry with synthetic spectra, generated by assuming different chemical compositions. The comparison of observed colors with synthetic spectra suggests that the five stellar populations have different contents of light elements and helium. Specifically, if we assume that NGC 2808 is homogeneous in [Fe/H] (as suggested by spectroscopy for Populations B, C, D, E, but lacking for Population A) and that population A has a primordial helium abundance, we find that populations B, C, D, E are enhanced in helium by ΔY ∼ 0.03, 0.03, 0.08, 0.13, respectively. We obtain similar results by comparing the magnitude of the RGB bumps with models. Planned spectroscopic observations will test whether Population A also has the same metallicity, or whether its photometric differences with Population B can be ascribed to small [Fe/H] and [O/H] differences rather than to helium.

  17. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kristensen, Kasper; Lewy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP) statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes...

  18. The Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys Atlas of Protoplanetary Disks in the Great Orion Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, L.; Robberto, M.; Soderblom, D. R.

    2008-11-01

    We present the atlas of protoplanetary disks in the Orion Nebula based on the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS/WFC) images obtained for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Treasury Program on the Orion Nebula Cluster. The observations have been carried out in five photometric filters nearly equivalent to the standard B, V, Hα, I, and z passbands. Our master catalog lists 178 externally ionized protoplanetary disks (proplyds), 28 disks seen only in absorption against the bright nebular background (silhouette disks), eight disks seen only as dark lanes at the midplane of extended polar emission (bipolar nebulae or reflection nebulae), and five sources showing jet emission with no evidence of either external ionized gas emission or dark silhouette disks. Many of these disks are associated with jets seen in Hα and circumstellar material detected through reflection emission in our broadband filters; approximately two-thirds have identified counterparts in X-rays. A total of 47 objects (29 proplyds, seven silhouette disks, six bipolar nebulae, five jets with no evidence of proplyd emission or silhouette disk) are new detections with HST. We include in our list four objects previously reported as circumstellar disks, which have not been detected in our HST/ACS images either because they are hidden by the bleeding trails of a nearby saturated bright star or because of their location out of the HST/ACS Treasury Program field. The other 31 sources previously reported as extended objects do not harbor a stellar source in our HST/ACS images. We also report on the detection of 16 red, elongated sources. Their location at the edges of the field, far from the Trapezium cluster core (gsim10'), suggests that these are probably background galaxies observed through low-extinction regions of the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1). Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is

  19. Optical Metrology for the Filter Set for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Boucarut, Rene A.; Content, David A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Krebs, Carolyn A.; Miner, Linda A.; Norton, Todd A.; Mehalick, Kimberly; Petrone, Peter; Bush, Frank D.; Puc, Bernard; Standley, Clive; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Kral, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) will employ a wide variety of spectral filtration components including narrow band, medium band, wide band, and far ultraviolet (FUV) long pass filters, spatially- variable filters (ramp filters), VIS/IR polarizers, NUV polarizers, FUV prisms, and a grism. These components are spread across ACS's Wide Field, High Resolution, and Solar Blind channels which provide diffraction-limited imaging of astronomical targets using aberration-correcting optics which remove most aberrations from HST's Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements which these filters must meet include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, and a high degree of parfocality. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The development of optical metrology stations used to demonstrate that each ACS filter will meet its design specifications is discussed. Of particular note are specially-designed spectral transmissometers and interferometers.

  20. Utilization of Solar Dynamics Observatory space weather digital image data for comparative analysis with application to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekoyan, V.; Dehipawala, S.; Liu, Ernest; Tulsee, Vivek; Armendariz, R.; Tremberger, G.; Holden, T.; Marchese, P.; Cheung, T.

    2012-10-01

    Digital solar image data is available to users with access to standard, mass-market software. Many scientific projects utilize the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format, which requires specialized software typically used in astrophysical research. Data in the FITS format includes photometric and spatial calibration information, which may not be useful to researchers working with self-calibrated, comparative approaches. This project examines the advantages of using mass-market software with readily downloadable image data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for comparative analysis over with the use of specialized software capable of reading data in the FITS format. Comparative analyses of brightness statistics that describe the solar disk in the study of magnetic energy using algorithms included in mass-market software have been shown to give results similar to analyses using FITS data. The entanglement of magnetic energy associated with solar eruptions, as well as the development of such eruptions, has been characterized successfully using mass-market software. The proposed algorithm would help to establish a publicly accessible, computing network that could assist in exploratory studies of all FITS data. The advances in computer, cell phone and tablet technology could incorporate such an approach readily for the enhancement of high school and first-year college space weather education on a global scale. Application to ground based data such as that contained in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey is discussed.

  1. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. IX. The Atlas of Multiple Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, A P; Renzini, A; Marino, A F; Bedin, L R; Vesperini, E; D'Antona, F; Nardiello, D; Anderson, J; King, I R; Yong, D; Bellini, A; Aparicio, A; Barbuy, B; Brown, T M; Cassisi, S; Ortolani, S; Salaris, M; Sarajedini, A; van der Marel, R P

    2016-01-01

    We use high-precision photometry of red-giant-branch (RGB) stars in 57 Galactic globular clusters (GCs), mostly from the `Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters', to identify and characterize their multiple stellar populations. For each cluster the pseudo two-color diagram (or `chromosome map') is presented, built with a suitable combination of stellar magnitudes in the F275W, F336W, F438W and F814W filters that maximizes the separation between multiple populations. In the chromosome map of most GCs (Type I clusters), stars separate in two distinct groups that we identify with the first (1G) and the second generation (2G). This identification is further supported by noticing that 1G stars have primordial (oxygen-rich, sodium-poor) chemical composition, whereas 2G stars are enhanced in sodium and depleted in oxygen. This 1G-2G separation is not possible for a few GCs where the two sequences have apparently merged into an extended, continuous sequence. In some GCs (Type II c...

  2. The Space Interferometry Mission Astrometric Grid Giant-Star Survey. I. Stellar Parameters and Radial Velocity Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Bizyaev, D; Cunha, K; Geisler, D; Gieren, W; Majewski, S R; Pardo, C D; Patterson, R J; Smith, V V; Suntzeff, N B; Arenas, Jose; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Cunha, Katia; Geisler, Doug; Gieren, Wolfgang; Majewski, Steven R.; Pardo, Cecilia Del; Patterson, Richard J.; Smith, Verne V.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2005-01-01

    We present results from a campaign of multiple epoch echelle spectroscopy of relatively faint (V = 9.5-13.5 mag) red giants observed as potential astrometric grid stars for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest). Data are analyzed for 775 stars selected from the Grid Giant Star Survey spanning a wide range of effective temperatures (Teff), gravities and metallicities. The spectra are used to determine these stellar parameters and to monitor radial velocity (RV) variability at the 100 m/s level. The degree of RV variation measured for 489 stars observed two or more times is explored as a function of the inferred stellar parameters. The percentage of radial velocity unstable stars is found to be very high -- about 2/3 of our sample. It is found that the fraction of RV-stable red giants (at the 100 m/s level) is higher among stars with Teff \\sim 4500 K, corresponding to the calibration-independent range of infrared colors 0.59 < (J-K_s)_0 < 0.73. A higher percentage of RV-stable stars is found ...

  3. A study of the performance of the transit detection tool DST in space-based surveys. Application of the CoRoT pipeline to Kepler data

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera, J; Erikson, A; Rauer, H; Kirste, S; 10.1051/0004-6361/201219337

    2012-01-01

    Context. Transit detection algorithms are mathematical tools used for detecting planets in the photometric data of transit surveys. In this work we study their application to space-based surveys. Aims: Space missions are exploring the parameter space of the transit surveys where classical algorithms do not perform optimally, either because of the challenging signal-to-noise ratio of the signal or its non-periodic characteristics. We have developed an algorithm addressing these challenges for the mission CoRoT. Here we extend the application to the data from the space mission Kepler. We aim at understanding the performances of algorithms in different data sets. Methods: We built a simple analytical model of the transit signal and developed a strategy for the search that improves the detection performance for transiting planets. We analyzed Kepler data with a set of stellar activity filtering and transit detection tools from the CoRoT community that are designed for the search of transiting planets. Results: We...

  4. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters - IX. The Atlas of multiple stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, A. P.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.; Marino, A. F.; Bedin, L. R.; Vesperini, E.; D'Antona, F.; Nardiello, D.; Anderson, J.; King, I. R.; Yong, D.; Bellini, A.; Aparicio, A.; Barbuy, B.; Brown, T. M.; Cassisi, S.; Ortolani, S.; Salaris, M.; Sarajedini, A.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2017-01-01

    We use high-precision photometry of red-giant-branch (RGB) stars in 57 Galactic globular clusters (GCs), mostly from the `Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs', to identify and characterize their multiple stellar populations. For each cluster the pseudo-two-colour diagram (or `chromosome map') is presented, built with a suitable combination of stellar magnitudes in the F275W, F336W, F438W, and F814W filters that maximizes the separation between multiple populations. In the chromosome map of most GCs (type-I clusters), stars separate in two distinct groups that we identify with the first (1G) and the second generation (2G). This identification is further supported by noticing that 1G stars have primordial (oxygen-rich, sodium-poor) chemical composition, whereas 2G stars are enhanced in sodium and depleted in oxygen. This 1G-2G separation is not possible for a few GCs where the two sequences have apparently merged into an extended, continuous sequence. In some GCs (type-II clusters) the 1G and/or the 2G sequences appear to be split, hence displaying more complex chromosome maps. These clusters exhibit multiple subgiant branches (SGBs) also in purely optical colour-magnitude diagrams, with the fainter SGB joining into a red RGB which is populated by stars with enhanced heavy-element abundance. We measure the RGB width by using appropriate colours and pseudo-colours. When the metallicity dependence is removed, the RGB width correlates with the cluster mass. The fraction of 1G stars ranges from ˜8 per cent to ˜67 per cent and anticorrelates with the cluster mass, indicating that incidence and complexity of the multiple population phenomenon both increase with cluster mass.

  5. CANDELS: The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey - The Hubble Space Telescope Observations, Imaging Data Products and Mosaics

    CERN Document Server

    Koekemoer, Anton M; Ferguson, Henry C; Grogin, Norman A; Kocevski, Dale D; Koo, David C; Lai, Kamson; Lotz, Jennifer M; Lucas, Ray A; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Riess, Adam G; Rodney, Steve A; Strolger, Louis; Casertano, Stefano; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Fontana, Adriano; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P; Huang, Kuang-Han; van der Wel, Arjen; Yan, Hao-Jing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Almaini, David M Alexander Omar; Ashby, Matthew L N; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F; Bournaud, Frédéric; Brown, Thomas M; Caputi, Karina I; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J; Daddi, Emanuele; Davé, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F; de Ravel, Loic; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L; Dunlop, James S; Dutton, Aaron A; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G; Filippenko, Alex V; Finkelstein, Steven L; Frazer, Chris; Gardner, Jonathan P; Garnavich, Peter M; Gawiser, Eric; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hartley, Will G; Häussler, Boris; Herrington, Jessica; Hopkins, Philip F; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Jha, Saurabh; Johnson, Andrew; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S; Khostovan, Ali Ahmad; Kirshner, Robert P; Lani, Caterina; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J; McIntosh, Daniel H; McLure, Ross J; McPartland, Conor; Mobasher, Bahram; Moreira, Heidi; Mortlock, Alice; Moustakas, Leonidas A; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A; Nielsen, Jennifer L; Niemi, Sami; Noeske, Kai G; Papovich, Casey J; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R; Rosario, David J; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Snyder, Diana; Somerville, Rachel S; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I; Trump, Jonathan R; Vargas, Carlos; Villforth, Carolin; Wagner, Cory R; Wandro, Pat; Wechsler, Risa H; Weiner, Benjamin J; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yun, Min S

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at $z\\sim1.5-8$, and to study Type Ia SNe beyond $z>1.5$. Five premier multi-wavelength sky regions are selected, each with extensive multiwavelength observations. The primary CANDELS data consist of imaging obtained in the Wide Field Camera 3 / infrared channel (WFC3/IR) and UVIS channel, along with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The CANDELS/Deep survey covers \\sim125 square arcminutes within GOODS-N and GOODS-S, while the remainder consists of the CANDELS/Wide survey, achieving a total of \\sim800 square arcminutes across GOODS and three additional fields (EGS, COSMOS, and UDS). We summarize the observational aspects of the survey as motivated by the scientific goals and present a detailed description of the data reduction procedures and products from...

  6. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  7. Development of Underground Space Transportable Laser Surveying System%地下空间移动激光测量系统研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永强; 郭增长; 刘会云; 牛路标; 闫阳阳

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that 3-D information of underground space was collected difficulty, underground space trans-portable laser surveying system was developed.The system included dynamic surveying part and static correction part, dynamic survey-ing part was integrated highly with many sensors, which included linear laser scanner, high precision IMU and odometer, it was in-stalled on portable movement platform, and 3-D point cloud information of underground space were collected quickly during movement process, static correction part was composed by series 3-D space collaboration targets, which distributed in underground space accord-ing some specificity principle, its action was controlling points combination , and position and attitude of data that collected by move-ment measurement system were corrected.Some key technological problems of system integrated were illustrated specially, which in-clude hardware system integrate, 3-D collaboration targets development, position attitude correction and so on, high efficiency and precision of system was illustrated by its application.%针对地下空间三维信息获取困难的问题,研发了地下空间移动激光测量系统.该系统分为动态测量部分和静态纠正部分,动态测量部分由线阵激光扫描仪、 高精度IMU和里程计等传感器高度集成,安装在轻便的移动平台上,在移动过程中快速获取地下空间三维点云信息;静态纠正部分由一系列三维空间合作标靶组成,根据一定原则分布在地下空间中,其作用相当于控制点组合,对移动测量系统获取数据进行位置和姿态纠正.论文在阐述地下移动激光测量系统工作原理的基础上,重点阐述了系统集成中的几个关键技术问题,包括硬件系统集成、 三维合作标靶研发、 位置姿态纠正等,最后以实例应用说明了该系统的高效性和精确性.

  8. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  9. Continuous Space Estimation: Increasing WiFi-Based Indoor Localization Resolution without Increasing the Site-Survey Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much research has taken place in WiFi indoor localization systems, their accuracy can still be improved. When designing this kind of system, fingerprint-based methods are a common choice. The problem with fingerprint-based methods comes with the need of site surveying the environment, which is effort consuming. In this work, we propose an approach, based on support vector regression, to estimate the received signal strength at non-site-surveyed positions of the environment. Experiments, performed in a real environment, show that the proposed method could be used to improve the resolution of fingerprint-based indoor WiFi localization systems without increasing the site survey effort.

  10. Continuous Space Estimation: Increasing WiFi-Based Indoor Localization Resolution without Increasing the Site-Survey Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Noelia; Ocaña, Manuel; Alonso, Jose M; Kim, Euntai

    2017-01-13

    Although much research has taken place in WiFi indoor localization systems, their accuracy can still be improved. When designing this kind of system, fingerprint-based methods are a common choice. The problem with fingerprint-based methods comes with the need of site surveying the environment, which is effort consuming. In this work, we propose an approach, based on support vector regression, to estimate the received signal strength at non-site-surveyed positions of the environment. Experiments, performed in a real environment, show that the proposed method could be used to improve the resolution of fingerprint-based indoor WiFi localization systems without increasing the site survey effort.

  11. Continuous Space Estimation: Increasing WiFi-Based Indoor Localization Resolution without Increasing the Site-Survey Effort †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Noelia; Ocaña, Manuel; Alonso, Jose M.; Kim, Euntai

    2017-01-01

    Although much research has taken place in WiFi indoor localization systems, their accuracy can still be improved. When designing this kind of system, fingerprint-based methods are a common choice. The problem with fingerprint-based methods comes with the need of site surveying the environment, which is effort consuming. In this work, we propose an approach, based on support vector regression, to estimate the received signal strength at non-site-surveyed positions of the environment. Experiments, performed in a real environment, show that the proposed method could be used to improve the resolution of fingerprint-based indoor WiFi localization systems without increasing the site survey effort. PMID:28098773

  12. Effects of diffuse background emission and source crowding on photometric completeness in Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC surveys: The GLIMPSE Catalogs and Archives

    CERN Document Server

    Kobulnicky, Chip; Alexander, Michael; Meade, Marilyn; Whitney, Barbara; Churchwell, Ed

    2013-01-01

    We characterize the completeness of point source lists from Spitzer Space Telescope surveys in the four Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bandpasses, emphasizing the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) programs (GLIMPSE I, II, 3D, 360; Deep GLIMPSE) and their resulting point source Catalogs and Archives. The analysis separately addresses effects of incompleteness resulting from high diffuse background emission and incompleteness resulting from point source confusion (i.e., crowding). An artificial star addition and extraction analysis demonstrates that completeness is strongly dependent on local background brightness and structure, with high-surface-brightness regions suffering up to five magnitudes of reduced sensitivity to point sources. This effect is most pronounced at the IRAC 5.8 and 8.0 microns bands where UV-excited PAH emission produces bright, complex structures (photodissociation regions; PDRs). With regard to diffuse background effects, we provide the completeness as a fu...

  13. A High Angular Resolution Survey of Massive Stars in Cygnus OB2: Results from the Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Nieves, Saida M; Gies, Douglas R; Wallace, Debra J; DeGioia-Eastwood, Katherine; Herrero, Artemio; Jao, Wei-Chun; Mason, Brian D; Massey, Philip; Moffat, Anthony F J; Walborn, Nolan R

    2013-01-01

    We present results of a high angular resolution survey of massive OB stars in the Cygnus OB2 association that we conducted with the Fine Guidance Sensor 1R (FGS1r) on the Hubble Space Telescope. FGS1r is able to resolve binary systems with a magnitude difference delta-V 60%. One of the new discoveries is a companion to the hypergiant star MT 304 = Cyg OB2-12, and future measurements of orbital motion should provide mass estimates for this very luminous star.

  14. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological implications of the Fourier space wedges of the final sample

    CERN Document Server

    Grieb, Jan Niklas; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Scoccimarro, Román; Crocce, Martín; Vecchia, Claudio Dalla; Montesano, Francesco; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ross, Ashley J; Beutler, Florian; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Prada, Francisco; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Cuesta, Antonio J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Percival, Will J; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Tinker, Jeremy L; Tojeiro, Rita; Brownstein, Joel R; Maraston, Claudia; Nichol, Robert C; Olmstead, Matthew D; Samushia, Lado; Seo, Hee-Jong; Streblyanska, Alina; Zhao, Gong-bo

    2016-01-01

    We extract cosmological information from the anisotropic power spectrum measurements from the recently completed Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), extending the concept of clustering wedges to Fourier space. Making use of new FFT-based estimators, we measure the power spectrum clustering wedges of the BOSS sample by filtering out the information of Legendre multipoles l > 4. Our modelling of these measurements is based on novel approaches to describe non-linear evolution, bias, and redshift-space distortions, which we test using synthetic catalogues based on large-volume N-body simulations. We are able to include smaller scales than in previous analyses, resulting in tighter cosmological constraints. Using three overlapping redshift bins, we measure the angular diameter distance, the Hubble parameter, and the cosmic growth rate, and explore the cosmological implications of our full shape clustering measurements in combination with CMB and SN Ia data. Assuming a {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology, we constra...

  15. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rasmus Nielsen

    Full Text Available Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes zero observations and over-dispersion. The model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correlation between size groups in a haul increases when the difference in size decreases. Here the model is extended in two ways. Instead of assuming a natural scale size correlation, the model is further developed to allow for a transformed length scale. Furthermore, in the present application, the spatial- and size-dependent correlation between species was included. For cod (Gadus morhua and whiting (Merlangius merlangus, a common structured size correlation was fitted, and a separable structure between the time and space-size correlation was found for each species, whereas more complex structures were required to describe the correlation between species (and space-size. The within-species time correlation is strong, whereas the correlations between the species are weaker over time but strong within the year.

  16. Preliminary results for an aeromagnetic survey flown over Italy using the HALO (High Altitude and LOng range) research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesur, V.; Gebler, A.; Schachtschneider, R.

    2012-12-01

    In June 2012 the GEOHALO mission was flown over Italy using the high altitude and long-range German research aircraft HALO (Gulfstream jet - G550). One goal of the mission was to demonstrate the feasibility of using geodetic and geophysical instrumentation on such fast flying aircraft. Several types of data were acquired including gravity, GNSS signals (reflectometry, spectrometry and occultation), laser altimetry and magnetic data. The magnetic data were collected through two independent acquisition chains placed inside under-wing containers. Each chain included a total intensity cesium magnetometer, a three-component fluxgate magnetometer, several temperature censors and a digitizer. Magnetic and temperature data were collected at a 10 Hz sampling rate. Seven parallel profiles, each around 1000 km long, were flown over the Apennine peninsula from north-west to south-east. The flight altitude was about 3500 m and the survey line spacing around 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles, and a repeated flight line at a higher altitude (approx. 10500 m). The ground speed during the flight was generally around 125 m/s (450 km/h). The output from the first steps of the magnetic data processing will be shown. The measured magnetic data appear to be consistent with the expected signal.

  17. The Warm Spitzer NEO Survey : Exploring The History of the Inner Solar System and Near Earth Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Trilling, D. E.; Thomas, C. A.; Stansberry, J. A.; Spahr, T. B.; Smith, H. A.; Penprase, B. E.; Mueller, M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Harris, A. W.; Fazio, G. G.; Emery, J. P.; Delbo, M.; Chesley, S. R.; Bottke, W. F.; Bhattacharya, B.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped th

  18. The Subaru FMOS galaxy redshift survey (FastSound). IV. New constraint on gravity theory from redshift space distortions at $z\\sim 1.4$

    CERN Document Server

    Okumura, Teppei; Totani, Tomonori; Tonegawa, Motonari; Okada, Hiroyuki; Glazebrook, Karl; Blake, Chris; Ferreira, Pedro G; More, Surhud; Taruya, Atsushi; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Akiyama, Masayuki; Dalton, Gavin; Goto, Tomotsugu; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Matsubara, Takahiko; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Ohta, Kouji; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yoshida, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    We measure the redshift-space correlation function from a spectroscopic sample of 2830 emission line galaxies from the FastSound survey. The survey, which uses the Subaru Telescope and covers the redshift ranges of $1.19space distortions (RSD) both in the correlation function as a function of separations parallel and perpendicular to the line of sight and its quadrupole moment. RSD has been extensively used to test general relativity on cosmological scales at $z<1$. Adopting a LCDM cosmology, and using the RSD measurements on scales above 8Mpc/h, we obtain the first constraint on the growth rate at the redshift, $f(z)\\sigma_8(z)=0.482\\pm 0.116$ at $z\\sim 1.4$. This corresponds to $4.2\\sigma$ detection of RSD, after marginalizing over the galaxy bias parameter $b(z)\\sigma_8(z)$. Our constraint is consistent with the prediction of general relativity $f\\sigma_8\\sim 0.392$ within the $1-\\sigma$ co...

  19. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Anisotropic galaxy clustering in Fourier-space

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Florian; Saito, Shun; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Cuesta, Antonio J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Hand, Nick; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Modi, Chirag; Nichol, Robert C; Olmstead, Matthew D; Percival, Will J; Prada, Francisco; Sánchez, Ariel G; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Ross, Ashley J; Ross, Nicholas P; Schneider, Donald P; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the anisotropic clustering of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 12 (DR12) sample, which consists of $1\\,198\\,006$ galaxies in the redshift range $0.2 < z < 0.75$ and a sky coverage of $10\\,252\\,$deg$^2$. We analyse this dataset in Fourier space, using the power spectrum multipoles to measure Redshift-Space Distortions (RSD) simultaneously with the Alcock-Paczynski (AP) effect and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale. We include the power spectrum monopole, quadrupole and hexadecapole in our analysis and compare our measurements with a perturbation theory based model, while properly accounting for the survey window function. To evaluate the reliability of our analysis pipeline we participate in a mock challenge, which resulted in systematic uncertainties significantly smaller than the statistical uncertainties. While the high-redshift constraint on $f\\sigma_8$ at $z_{\\rm eff}=0.61$ indicates a small ($\\sim 1.4\\sigma$) deviation from the prediction of th...

  20. The Subaru FMOS galaxy redshift survey (FastSound). IV. New constraint on gravity theory from redshift space distortions at z ˜ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Teppei; Hikage, Chiaki; Totani, Tomonori; Tonegawa, Motonari; Okada, Hiroyuki; Glazebrook, Karl; Blake, Chris; Ferreira, Pedro G.; More, Surhud; Taruya, Atsushi; Tsujikawa, Shinji; Akiyama, Masayuki; Dalton, Gavin; Goto, Tomotsugu; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Matsubara, Takahiko; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Ohta, Kouji; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yoshida, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    We measure the redshift-space correlation function from a spectroscopic sample of 2783 emission line galaxies from the FastSound survey. The survey, which uses the Subaru Telescope and covers a redshift range of 1.19 parallel and perpendicular to the line of sight and its quadrupole moment. RSD has been extensively used to test general relativity on cosmological scales at z < 1. Adopting a ΛCDM cosmology with the fixed expansion history and no velocity dispersion (σv = 0), and using the RSD measurements on scales above 8 h-1 Mpc, we obtain the first constraint on the growth rate at the redshift, f (z)σ8(z) = 0.482 ± 0.116 at z ˜ 1.4 after marginalizing over the galaxy bias parameter b(z)σ8(z). This corresponds to 4.2 σ detection of RSD. Our constraint is consistent with the prediction of general relativity fσ8 ˜ 0.392 within the 1 σ confidence level. When we allow σv to vary and marginalize over it, the growth rate constraint becomes fσ _8=0.494^{+0.126}_{-0.120}. We also demonstrate that by combining with the low-z constraints on fσ8, high-z galaxy surveys like the FastSound can be useful to distinguish modified gravity models without relying on CMB anisotropy experiments.

  1. Criteria for Sample Selection to Maximize Planet Sensitivity and Yield from Space-Based Microlens Parallax Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Yee, Jennifer C; Beichman, Charles; Novati, Sebastiano Calchi; Carey, Sean; Gaudi, B Scott; Henderson, Calen; Nataf, David; Penny, Matthew; Shvartzvald, Yossi; Zhu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Space-based microlens parallax measurements are a powerful tool for understanding planet populations, especially their distribution throughout the Galaxy. However, if space-based observations of the microlensing events must be specifically targeted, it is crucial that microlensing events enter the parallax sample without reference to the known presence or absence of planets. Hence, it is vital to define objective criteria for selecting events where possible and to carefully consider and minimize the selection biases where not possible so that the final sample represents a controlled experiment. We present objective criteria for initiating observations and determining their cadence for a subset of events, and we define procedures for isolating subjective decision making from information about detected planets for the remainder of events. We also define procedures to resolve conflicts between subjective and objective selections. These procedures maximize planet sensitivity of the sample as a whole by allowing f...

  2. Real Time Inventory Management: Visual Survey of Interior Architecture Elements and Space Making Crafts of Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, R.; Singh, N.; Shah, P.

    2013-07-01

    In India, most of the inventories and documentations conducted for built heritage have been very nominal in nature and completely overlook the rich and opulent characters of the built form. This creates an imperative need of identifying and creating a detailed inventory of Interior Architecture (I.A.) Elements together with the SMCs and SSCs. This paper presents the process and the technique developed and termed as Real Time Visual Mapping (RTVM). RTVM is a procedure that incorporates the tablet survey, developed using open source tools, and is the first of its kind visual survey technique in India. The procedure comprises of an interactive form for mapping and helps manage the inventory generated from semi-urban and urban areas. The technique allows the user to transfer the mapped data in real time from the field, which can be produced through an interactive catalogue and map application. The recorded inputs reveal data ranging from type of elements to materials used, along with the various levels of traditional building crafts and expressions involved.

  3. A Survey of Soil Enzyme Activities along Major Roads in Beijing: The Implications for Traffic Corridor Green Space Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxin; Meng, Linglong; Herman, Uwizeyimana; Lu, Zhongming; Crittenden, John

    2015-10-08

    Soil quality is critical to the management of urban green space, in particular, along traffic corridors where traffic-related air pollution is significant. Soil quality can be evaluated by soil enzyme activities, which show quick responses to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we investigated three soil enzyme activities (i.e., dehydrogenase, catalase and urease) along the major roads in urban areas of Beijing. Results show the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease in urban samples were 58.8%, 68.2% and 48.5% less than the rural sample, respectively. The content of fluorescent amino acids as indicators of microbial activities was also consistently lower in urban samples than the rural. We observed two times greater exposure of particulate material along the roadsides in urban areas than rural areas. Although traffic air pollutants provide some nutrient sources to stimulate the URE activity, the exposure to traffic-related air pollution leads to the substantial decrease in enzyme activities. There were significant negative correlations for exposure to PM10 with DHA (r = -0.8267, p = 0.0017) and CAT (r = -0.89, p = 0.0002) activities. For the urban soils URE activity increased with the increasing of PM. We conclude that the degraded soil quality can negatively affect the target of developing plants and green spaces along the traffic corridors to mitigate the traffic impact. This study suggests the investigation of integrated strategies to restore the soil quality, reinforce the ecological service functions of green spaces along the traffic corridors and reduce the traffic pollutants.

  4. Estimation of multi-state life table functions and their variability from complex survey data using the SPACE Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Cai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The multistate life table (MSLT model is an important demographic method to document life cycle processes. In this study, we present the SPACE (Stochastic Population Analysis for Complex Events program to estimate MSLT functions and their sampling variability. It has several advantages over other programs, including the use of microsimulation and the bootstrap method to estimate the sampling variability. Simulation enables researchers to analyze a broader array of statistics than the deterministic approach, and may be especially advantageous in investigating distributions of MSLT functions. The bootstrap method takes sample design into account to correct the potential bias in variance estimates.

  5. Survey report of JSUP Space Environment Utilization Research Committee in fiscal year 1992: Functional New Materials Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamakawa, Yoshihiro; Kinbara, Akira; Takimoto, Hiroshi; Takakura, Hideyuki; Hori, Takanobu; Shinohara, Joji; Ishikawa, Yoji; Sano, Kenichi; Okada, Shigenobu; Yamamoto, Yoshinobu

    1993-03-01

    Materials with super high purity can be obtained that benefit from the evolution in material refining and high-vacuum technologies for these past ten years. Taking advantages of microgravity environment, amorphous semiconductors made a remarkable improvement both in quality and quantity. Although there has not been an experiment utilizing the merit of high-vacuum environment, the environment is essential for film fabrication, from spattering to MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy) and plasma CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition). It also has a potential function as a heat sink. Space is considered to be a favorable environment for many things including the followings that were investigated: semiconductor joining by atomic adhesion, fabrication of thin films of diamond and amorphous silicon alloys, CVD processes, production of super-minute grains, light element analysis by SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry), and anti-proton generation by laser accelerators. A solar breeder allows for the amount of solar batteries transported from the earth to be minimized, cutting down transportation costs tremendously. This report reviews the potentials of material processing in space. Processing technologies of spacecraft construction materials, thin solid films, and fine alloys are reviewed. Light element analyzing method and antiproton storing technology for liquid metal MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) power generator are also reviewed.

  6. A New Determination of the High Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rates with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsova, N; Connolly, B; Kim, A G; Pain, R; Roe, N A; Aldering, G; Amanullah, R; Dawson, K; Doi, M; Fadeev, V; Fruchter, A S; Gibbons, R; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Gude, A; Knop, R A; Kowalski, M; Lidman, C; Morokuma, T; Meyers, J; Perlmutter, S; Rubin, D; Schlegel, D J; Spadafora, A L; Stanishev, V; Strovink, M; Suzuki, N; Wang, L; Yasuda, N

    2007-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the volumetric rate of Type Ia supernova up to a redshift of 1.7, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) GOODS data combined with an additional HST dataset covering the North GOODS field collected in 2004. We employ a novel technique that does not require spectroscopic data for identifying Type Ia supernovae (although spectroscopic measurements of redshifts are used for over half the sample); instead we employ a Bayesian approach using only photometric data to calculate the probability that an object is a Type Ia supernova. This Bayesian technique can easily be modified to incorporate improved priors on supernova properties, and it is well-suited for future high-statistics supernovae searches in which spectroscopic follow up of all candidates will be impractical. Here, the method is validated on both ground- and space-based supernova data having some spectroscopic follow up. We combine our volumetric rate measurements with low redshift supernova data, and fit to a number of pos...

  7. A New Determination of the High Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rateswith the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsova, N.; Barbary, K.; Connolly, B.; Kim, A.G.; Pain, R.; Roe, N.A.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Dawson, K.; Doi, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fruchter, A.S.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goober, A.; Gude, A.; Knop,R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Morokuma, T.; Meyers, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Rubin, D.; Schlegel, D.J.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev, V.; Strovink, M.; Suzuki, N.; Wang, L.; Yasuda, N.

    2007-10-01

    We present a new measurement of the volumetric rate of Type Ia supernova up to a redshift of 1.7, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) GOODS data combined with an additional HST dataset covering the North GOODS field collected in 2004. We employ a novel technique that does not require spectroscopic data for identifying Type Ia supernovae (although spectroscopic measurements of redshifts are used for over half the sample); instead we employ a Bayesian approach using only photometric data to calculate the probability that an object is a Type Ia supernova. This Bayesian technique can easily be modified to incorporate improved priors on supernova properties, and it is well-suited for future high-statistics supernovae searches in which spectroscopic follow up of all candidates will be impractical. Here, the method is validated on both ground- and space-based supernova data having some spectroscopic follow up. We combine our volumetric rate measurements with low redshift supernova data, and fit to a number of possible models for the evolution of the Type Ia supernova rate as a function of redshift. The data do not distinguish between a flat rate at redshift > 0.5 and a previously proposed model, in which the Type Ia rate peaks at redshift {approx} 1 due to a significant delay from star-formation to the supernova explosion. Except for the highest redshifts, where the signal to noise ratio is generally too low to apply this technique, this approach yields smaller or comparable uncertainties than previous work.

  8. ADDING CONTEXT TO JAMES WEBB SPACE TELESCOPE SURVEYS WITH CURRENT AND FUTURE 21 cm RADIO OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsley, A. P.; Morales, M. F. [Department of Physics, University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lidz, A.; Malloy, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Sutter, P. M., E-mail: beards@phys.washington.edu [INFN - National Institute for Nuclear Physics via Valerio 2, I-34127, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-02-20

    Infrared and radio observations of the Epoch of Reionization promise to revolutionize our understanding of the cosmic dawn, and major efforts with the JWST, MWA, and HERA are underway. While measurements of the ionizing sources with infrared telescopes and the effect of these sources on the intergalactic medium with radio telescopes should be complementary, to date the wildly disparate angular resolutions and survey speeds have made connecting proposed observations difficult. In this paper we develop a method to bridge the gap between radio and infrared studies. While the radio images may not have the sensitivity and resolution to identify individual bubbles with high fidelity, by leveraging knowledge of the measured power spectrum we are able to separate regions that are likely ionized from largely neutral, providing context for the JWST observations of galaxy counts and properties in each. By providing the ionization context for infrared galaxy observations, this method can significantly enhance the science returns of JWST and other infrared observations.

  9. A Survey of Space Objects Identification and Threat Assessment Algorithms%空间目标识别技术与威胁评估算法综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 徐志宇; 王磊; 许维胜

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the technologies of the space object detection, including the ground/space-based radars, optical telescopes and electronics, etc.It is revealed that the main difficulty of identification is the efficient,accurate and real time data fusion.Considering the complexity of space environment, the key to threat assessment of space objects is the determination of a proper weight vector.A dedicated survey of the existing algorithms is performed:analytic hierarchy process, expert system, grey clustering, Bayesian network, cloud model, artificial neural network,support vector machine, etc.The strengths and drawbacks are discussed and evaluated.Finally the generality of the algorithms is presented.%简要介绍了现有的空间目标探测技术地基/天基的雷达、光电等,指出目标识别的难点在于高效、准确、实时的数据融合.针对空间环境的复杂性,指出空间目标威胁评估的关键在于属性权值向量的确定,详细分析了现有的威胁评估算法:层次分析、专家系统、灰色聚类、Bayesian网络、云模型、神经网络、支持向量机等;通过对比研究,着重探讨其优势与不足,最后给出此类算法在空间环境下的普适性.

  10. The fundamentals of modern astrophysics a survey of the cosmos from the home planet to space frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Marov, Mikhail Ya

    2015-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Modern Astrophysics provides an overview of the modern science of astrophysics. It covers the Sun, Solar System bodies, exoplanets, stars, and star life cycle, planetary systems origin and evolution, basics of astrobiology, our galaxy the Milky Way, other galaxies and galactic clusters, a general view of the Universe, its structure, evolution and fate, modern views and advanced models of cosmology as well as the synergy of micro- and macro physics, standard model, superstring theory, multiversity and worm holes. The main concepts of modern astrophysics and prospects for future studies are accompanied by numerous illustrations and a summary of the advanced projects at various astronomical facilities and space missions. Dr. Marov guides readers through a maze of complicated topics to demystify the field and open its wonders to all.

  11. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). VI. Comparing the Mass and Light in MACSJ0416.1-2403 using Frontier Field imaging and GLASS spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoag, Austin; Treu, Tommaso; Bradač, Maruša; Schmidt, Kasper B; Wang, Xin; Brammer, Gabriel B; Broussard, Adam; Amorin, Ricardo; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano; Schrabback, Tim; Trenti, Michele; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    We present a strong and weak gravitational lens model of the galaxy cluster MACSJ0416.1-2403, constrained using spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) and Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data. We search for emission lines in known multiply imaged sources in the GLASS spectra, obtaining secure spectroscopic redshifts of 31 multiple images belonging to 16 distinct source galaxies. The GLASS spectra provide the first spectroscopic measurements for 6 of the source galaxies. The weak lensing signal is acquired from 884 galaxies in the F606W HFF image. By combining the weak lensing constraints with 15 multiple image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and 9 multiple image systems with photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster on an adaptive grid. The resulting total mass density map is compared with a stellar mass density map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields imaging data to study the relative distribution of stellar and total m...

  12. Campaign 9 of the $K2$ Mission: Observational Parameters, Scientific Drivers, and Community Involvement for a Simultaneous Space- and Ground-based Microlensing Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, Calen B; Street, Rachel A; Bennett, David P; Hogg, David W; Poleski, R; Barclay, T; Barentsen, G; Howell, S B; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Kozłowski, S; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Soszyński, I; Ulaczyk, K; Pawlak, M; Sumi, T; Abe, F; Asakura, Y; Barry, R K; Bhattacharya, A; Bond, I A; Donachie, M; Freeman, M; Fukui, A; Hirao, Y; Itow, Y; Koshimoto, N; Li, M C A; Ling, C H; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Muraki, Y; Nagakane, M; Ohnishi, K; Oyokawa, H; Rattenbury, N; Saito, To; Sharan, A; Sullivan, D J; Tristram, P J; Yonehara, A; Bachelet, E; Bramich, D A; Cassan, A; Dominik, M; Jaimes, R Figuera; Horne, K; Hundertmark, M; Mao, S; Ranc, C; Schmidt, R; Snodgrass, C; Steele, I A; Tsapras, Y; Wambsganss, J; Akeson, R; Batista, V; Beaulieu, J -P; Beichman, C A; Bozza, V; Bryden, G; Ciardi, D; Cole, A; Coutures, C; Dong, S; Foreman-Mackey, D; Fouqué, P; Gaudi, B S; Kerins, E; Korhonen, H; Jørgensen, U; Lang, D; Lineweaver, C; Marquette, J -B; Mogavero, Federico; Morales, J C; Nataf, D; Pogge, R W; Santerne, A; Shvartzvald, Y; Suzuki, D; Tamura, M; Tisserand, P; Wang, D; Zhu, W

    2016-01-01

    $K2$'s Campaign 9 ($K2$C9) will conduct a $\\sim$3.4 deg$^{2}$ survey toward the Galactic bulge from 7/April through 1/July of 2016 that will leverage the spatial separation between $K2$ and the Earth to facilitate measurement of the microlens parallax $\\pi_{\\rm E}$ for $\\gtrsim$120 microlensing events, including several planetary in nature as well as many short-timescale microlensing events, which are potentially indicative of free-floating planets (FFPs). These satellite parallax measurements will in turn allow for the direct measurement of the masses of and distances to the lensing systems. In this white paper we provide an overview of the $K2$C9 space- and ground-based microlensing survey. Specifically, we detail the demographic questions that can be addressed by this program, including the frequency of FFPs and the Galactic distribution of exoplanets, the observational parameters of $K2$C9, and the array of ground-based resources dedicated to concurrent observations. Finally, we outline the avenues throug...

  13. A High-Resolution Multiband Survey of Westerlund 2 With the Hubble Space Telescope I: Is the Massive Star Cluster Double?

    CERN Document Server

    Zeidler, Peter; Nota, Antonella; Grebel, Eva K; Tosi, Monica; Bonanos, Alceste Z; Pasquali, Anna; Christian, Carol; de Mink, Selma E; Ubeda, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    We present first results from a high resolution multi-band survey of the Westerlund 2 region with the Hubble Space Telescope. Specifically, we imaged Westerlund 2 with the Advanced Camera for Surveys through the $F555W$, $F814W$, and $F658N$ filters and with the Wide Field Camera 3 in the $F125W$, $F160W$, and $F128N$ filters. We derive the first high resolution pixel-to-pixel map of the color excess $E(B-V)_g$ of the gas associated with the cluster, combining the H$\\alpha$ ($F658N$) and Pa$\\beta$ ($F128N$) line observations. We demonstrate that, as expected, the region is affected by significant differential reddening with a median of $E(B-V)_g=1.87$~mag. After separating the populations of cluster members and foreground contaminants using a $(F814W-F160W)$ vs. $F814W$ color-magnitude diagram, we identify a pronounced pre-main-sequence population in Westerlund 2 showing a distinct turn-on. After dereddening each star of Westerlund 2 individually in the color-magnitude diagram we find via over-plotting PARSEC...

  14. The Hubble space telescope UV legacy survey of galactic globular clusters. I. Overview of the project and detection of multiple stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotto, G.; Nardiello, D.; Cunial, A., E-mail: giampaolo.piotto@unipd.it, E-mail: domenico.nardiello@studenti.unipd.it, E-mail: andrea.cunial@studenti.unipd.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,” Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we describe a new UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope project (GO-13297) that will complement the existing F606W and F814W database of the Advanced Camera for Surveys Globular Cluster (GC) Treasury by imaging most of its clusters through UV/blue WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. This “magic trio” of filters has shown an uncanny ability to disentangle and characterize multiple population (MP) patterns in GCs in a way that is exquisitely sensitive to C, N, and O abundance variations. Combination of these passbands with those in the optical also gives the best leverage for measuring helium enrichment. The dozen clusters that had previously been observed in these bands exhibit a bewildering variety of MP patterns, and the new survey will map the full variance of the phenomenon. The ubiquity of multiple stellar generations in GCs has made the formation of these cornerstone objects more intriguing than ever; GC formation and the origin of their MPs have now become one and the same problem. In this paper we will describe the database and our data reduction strategy, as well as the uses we intend to make of the final photometry, astrometry, and PMs. We will also present preliminary color–magnitude diagrams from the data so far collected. These diagrams also draw on data from GO-12605 and GO-12311, which served as a pilot project for the present GO-13297.

  15. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: tomographic BAO analysis of DR12 combined sample in Fourier space

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Gong-Bo; Saito, Shun; Wang, Dandan; Ross, Ashley J; Beutler, Florian; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Percival, Will J; Brownstein, Joel R; Cuesta, Antonio J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Robert C; Olmstead, Matthew D; Prada, Francisco; Rossi, Graziano; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Samushia, Lado; Sánchez, Ariel G; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L; Tojeiro, Rita; Weinberg, David H; Zhu, Fangzhou

    2016-01-01

    We perform a tomographic baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) analysis using the monopole, quadrupole and hexadecapole of the redshift-space galaxy power spectrum measured from the pre-reconstructed combined galaxy sample of the completed Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release (DR)12 covering the redshift range of $0.20

  16. Campaign 9 of the K2 Mission: Observational Parameters, Scientific Drivers, and Community Involvement for a Simultaneous Space- and Ground-based Microlensing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Calen B.; Poleski, Radosław; Penny, Matthew; Street, Rachel A.; Bennett, David P.; Hogg, David W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; K2 Campaign 9 Microlensing Science Team; Zhu, W.; Barclay, T.; Barentsen, G.; Howell, S. B.; Mullally, F.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; OGLE Project, The; Sumi, T.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R. K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Bond, I. A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Tristram, P. J.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Bachelet, E.; Bramich, D. M.; Cassan, A.; Dominik, M.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Horne, K.; Hundertmark, M.; Mao, S.; Ranc, C.; Schmidt, R.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Wambsganss, J.; RoboNet Project, The; Bozza, V.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Calchi Novati, S.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Evans, D. F.; Hessman, F. V.; Hinse, T. C.; Husser, T.-O.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Skottfelt, J.; Southworth, J.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; The MiNDSTEp Team; Bryson, S. T.; Caldwell, D. A.; Haas, M. R.; Larson, K.; McCalmont, K.; Packard, M.; Peterson, C.; Putnam, D.; Reedy, L.; Ross, S.; Van Cleve, J. E.; K2C9 Engineering Team; Akeson, R.; Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Beichman, C. A.; Bryden, G.; Ciardi, D.; Cole, A.; Coutures, C.; Foreman-Mackey, D.; Fouqué, P.; Friedmann, M.; Gelino, C.; Kaspi, S.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Lang, D.; Lee, C.-H.; Lineweaver, C. H.; Maoz, D.; Marquette, J.-B.; Mogavero, F.; Morales, J. C.; Nataf, D.; Pogge, R. W.; Santerne, A.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Suzuki, D.; Tamura, M.; Tisserand, P.; Wang, D.

    2016-12-01

    K2's Campaign 9 (K2C9) will conduct a ˜3.7 deg2 survey toward the Galactic bulge from 2016 April 22 through July 2 that will leverage the spatial separation between K2 and the Earth to facilitate measurement of the microlens parallax {π }{{E}} for ≳ 170 microlensing events. These will include several that are planetary in nature as well as many short-timescale microlensing events, which are potentially indicative of free-floating planets (FFPs). These satellite parallax measurements will in turn allow for the direct measurement of the masses of and distances to the lensing systems. In this article we provide an overview of the K2C9 space- and ground-based microlensing survey. Specifically, we detail the demographic questions that can be addressed by this program, including the frequency of FFPs and the Galactic distribution of exoplanets, the observational parameters of K2C9, and the array of resources dedicated to concurrent observations. Finally, we outline the avenues through which the larger community can become involved, and generally encourage participation in K2C9, which constitutes an important pathfinding mission and community exercise in anticipation of WFIRST.

  17. A High-Resolution Multiband Survey of Westerlund 2 With the Hubble Space Telescope. II. Mass accretion in the Pre-Main Sequence Population

    CERN Document Server

    Zeidler, Peter; Nota, Antonella; Sabbi, Elena; Pasquali, Anna; Tosi, Monica; Bonanos, Alceste Z; Christian, Carol

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the pre-main-sequence (PMS) population of the young star cluster Westerlund~2 (Wd2), the central ionizing cluster of the HII region RCW 49, using data from a high resolution multi-band survey with the Hubble Space Telescope. The data were acquired with the Advanced Camera for Surveys in the F555W, F814W, and F658N filters and with the Wide Field Camera 3 in the F125W, F160W, and F128N filters. We find a mean age of the region of 1.04+-0.72 Myr. The combination of dereddened F555W and F814W photometry in combination with F658N photometry allows us to study and identify stars with H_alpha excess emission. With a careful selection of 240 bona-fide PMS H_alpha excess emitters we were able to determine their H_alpha luminosity, which has a mean value L(H_alpha)=1.67 x 10^{-31} erg s^{-1}. Using the PARSEC 1.2S isochrones to obtain the stellar parameters of the PMS stars we determined a mean mass accretion rate \\dot M_acc=4.43 x 10^{-8} M_sun yr^{-1} per star. A careful analysis of...

  18. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: tomographic BAO analysis of DR12 combined sample in Fourier space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gong-Bo; Wang, Yuting; Saito, Shun; Wang, Dandan; Ross, Ashley J.; Beutler, Florian; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Percival, Will J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Prada, Francisco; Rossi, Graziano; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Samushia, Lado; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Weinberg, David H.; Zhu, Fangzhou

    2017-04-01

    We perform a tomographic baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) analysis using the monopole, quadrupole and hexadecapole of the redshift-space galaxy power spectrum measured from the pre-reconstructed combined galaxy sample of the completed Sloan Digital Sky Survey Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release12 covering the redshift range of 0.20 < z < 0.75. By allowing for overlap between neighbouring redshift slices, we successfully obtained the isotropic and anisotropic BAO distance measurements within nine redshift slices to a precision of 1.5-3.4 per cent for DV/rd, 1.8-4.2 per cent for DA/rd and 3.7-7.5 per cent for H rd, depending on effective redshifts. We provide our BAO measurement of DA/rd and H rd with the full covariance matrix, which can be used for cosmological implications. Our measurements are consistent with those presented in Alam et al., in which the BAO distances are measured at three effective redshifts. We constrain dark energy parameters using our measurements and find an improvement of the Figure-of-Merit of dark energy in general due to the temporal BAO information resolved. This paper is a part of a set that analyses the final galaxy clustering data set from BOSS.

  19. The SLUGGS Survey: stellar masses and effective radii of early-type galaxies from Spitzer Space Telescope 3.6 μm imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Sinpetru, Luciana; Savorgnan, Giulia; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Usher, Christopher; Brodie, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Galaxy starlight at 3.6 μm is an excellent tracer of stellar mass. Here we use the latest 3.6 μm imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope to measure the total stellar mass and effective radii in a homogeneous way for a sample of galaxies from the SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey. These galaxies are representative of nearby early-type galaxies in the stellar mass range of 10 samples of early-type galaxies. We model each galaxy in 2D and estimate its total asymptotic magnitude from a 1D curve-of-growth. Magnitudes are converted into stellar masses using a 3.6 μm mass-to-light ratio from the latest stellar population models of Röck et al., assuming a Kroupa initial mass function. We apply a ratio based on each galaxy's mean mass-weighted stellar age within one effective radius (the mass-to-light ratio is insensitive to galaxy metallicity for the generally old stellar ages and high metallicities found in massive early-type galaxies). Our 3.6 μm stellar masses agree well with masses derived from 2.2 μm data. From the 1D surface brightness profile, we fit a single Sérsic law, excluding the very central regions. We measure the effective radius, Sérsic n parameter and effective surface brightness for each galaxy. We find that galaxy sizes derived from shallow optical imaging and the 2MASS survey tend to underestimate the true size of the largest, most massive galaxies in our sample. We adopt the 3.6 μm stellar masses and effective radii for the SLUGGS survey galaxies.

  20. The space density of Compton-thick AGN at z~0.8 in the zCOSMOS-Bright Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Vignali, C; Gilli, R; Comastri, A; Iwasawa, K; Zamorani, G; Mainieri, V; Bongiorno, A

    2014-01-01

    The obscured accretion phase in BH growth is a key ingredient in many models linking the AGN activity with the evolution of their host galaxy. At present, a complete census of obscured AGN is still missing. The purpose of this work is to assess the reliability of the [NeV] emission line at 3426 A to pick up obscured AGN up to z~1 by assuming that [NeV] is a reliable proxy of the intrinsic AGN luminosity and using moderately deep X-ray data to characterize the amount of obscuration. A sample of 69 narrow-line (Type 2) AGN at z=0.65-1.20 were selected from the 20k-zCOSMOS Bright galaxy sample on the basis of the presence of the [NeV] emission. The X-ray properties of these galaxies were then derived using the Chandra-COSMOS coverage of the field; the X-ray-to-[NeV] flux ratio, coupled with X-ray spectral and stacking analyses, was then used to infer whether Compton-thin or Compton-thick absorption were present in these sources. Then the [NeV] luminosity function was computed to estimate the space density of Com...

  1. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: cosmological implications of the configuration-space clustering wedges

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Ariel G; Crocce, Martin; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; DallaVecchia, Claudio; Lippich, Martha; Beutler, Florian; Brownstein, Joel R; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Olmstead, Matthew D; Percival, Will J; Prada, Francisco; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Ross, Ashley J; Samushia, Lado; Seo, Hee-Jong; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magana, Mariana; Wang, Yuting; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We explore the cosmological implications of anisotropic clustering measurements in configuration space of the final galaxy samples from Data Release 12 of the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We implement a new detailed modelling of the effects of non-linearities, galaxy bias and redshift-space distortions that can be used to extract unbiased cosmological information from our measurements for scales $s \\gtrsim 20\\,h^{-1}{\\rm Mpc}$. We combined the galaxy clustering information from BOSS with the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations and Type Ia supernovae samples and found no significant evidence for a deviation from the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model. In particular, these data sets can constrain the dark energy equation of state parameter to $w_{\\rm DE}=-0.996\\pm0.042$ when assumed time-independent, the curvature of the Universe to $\\Omega_{k}=-0.0007\\pm 0.0030$ and the sum of the neutrino masses to $\\sum m_{\

  2. A SURVEY OF THE PARAMETER SPACE OF THE COMPRESSIBLE LIQUID DROP MODEL AS APPLIED TO THE NEUTRON STAR INNER CRUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, W. G.; Gearheart, M.; Li Baoan, E-mail: william.newton@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429-3011 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    We present a systematic survey of the range of predictions of the neutron star inner crust composition, crust-core transition densities and pressures, and density range of the nuclear 'pasta' phases at the bottom of the crust provided by the compressible liquid drop model in light of the current experimental and theoretical constraints on model parameters. Using a Skyrme-like model for nuclear matter, we construct baseline sequences of crust models by consistently varying the density dependence of the bulk symmetry energy at nuclear saturation density, L, under two conditions: (1) that the magnitude of the symmetry energy at saturation density J is held constant, and (2) J correlates with L under the constraint that the pure neutron matter (PNM) equation of state (EoS) satisfies the results of ab initio calculations at low densities. Such baseline crust models facilitate consistent exploration of the L dependence of crustal properties. The remaining surface energy and symmetric nuclear matter parameters are systematically varied around the baseline, and different functional forms of the PNM EoS at sub-saturation densities implemented, to estimate theoretical 'error bars' for the baseline predictions. Inner crust composition and transition densities are shown to be most sensitive to the surface energy at very low proton fractions and to the behavior of the sub-saturation PNM EoS. Recent calculations of the energies of neutron drops suggest that the low-proton-fraction surface energy might be higher than predicted in Skyrme-like models, which our study suggests may result in a greatly reduced volume of pasta in the crust than conventionally predicted.

  3. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological implications of the configuration-space clustering wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Ariel G.; Scoccimarro, Román; Crocce, Martín; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Lippich, Martha; Beutler, Florian; Brownstein, Joel R.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Percival, Will J.; Prada, Francisco; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Ross, Ashley J.; Samushia, Lado; Seo, Hee-Jong; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Wang, Yuting; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2017-01-01

    We explore the cosmological implications of anisotropic clustering measurements in configuration space of the final galaxy samples from Data Release 12 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We implement a new detailed modelling of the effects of non-linearities, bias and redshift-space distortions that can be used to extract unbiased cosmological information from our measurements for scales s ≳ 20 h-1 Mpc. We combined the information from Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) with the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations and Type Ia supernovae samples and found no significant evidence for a deviation from the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model. In particular, these data sets can constrain the dark energy equation-of-state parameter to wDE = -0.996 ± 0.042 when to be assumed time independent, the curvature of the Universe to Ωk = -0.0007 ± 0.0030 and the sum of the neutrino masses to ∑mν < 0.25 eV at 95 per cent confidence levels. We explore the constraints on the growth rate of cosmic structures assuming f(z) = Ωm(z)γ and obtain γ = 0.609 ± 0.079, in good agreement with the predictions of general relativity of γ = 0.55. We compress the information of our clustering measurements into constraints on the parameter combinations DV(z)/rd, FAP(z) and fσ8(z) at zeff = 0.38, 0.51 and 0.61 with their respective covariance matrices and find good agreement with the predictions for these parameters obtained from the best-fitting ΛCDM model to the CMB data from the Planck satellite. This paper is part of a set that analyses the final galaxy clustering data set from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are combined with others by Alam et al. to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  4. The Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey. III. Correlated Properties of Type Ia Supernovae and Their Hosts at 0.9 < Z < 1.46

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J.; Aldering, G.; Barbary, K.; Barrientos, L. F.; Brodwin, M.; Dawson, K. S.; Deustua, S.; Doi, M.; Eisenhardt, P.; Faccioli, L.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fruchter, A. S.; Gilbank, D. G.; Gladders, M. D.; Goldhaber, G.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Hattori, T.; Hsiao, E.; Ihara, Y.; Kashikawa, N.; Koester, B.; Konishi, K.; Lidman, C.; Lubin, L.; Morokuma, T.; Oda, T.; Perlmutter, S.; Postman, M.; Ripoche, P.; Rosati, P.; Rubin, D.; Rykoff, E.; Spadafora, A.; Stanford, S. A.; Suzuki, N.; Takanashi, N.; Tokita, K.; Yasuda, N.; Supernova Cosmology Project, The

    2012-05-01

    Using the sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey and augmented with HST-observed SNe Ia in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields, we search for correlations between the properties of SNe and their host galaxies at high redshift. We use galaxy color and quantitative morphology to determine the red sequence in 25 clusters and develop a model to distinguish passively evolving early-type galaxies from star-forming galaxies in both clusters and the field. With this approach, we identify 6 SN Ia hosts that are early-type cluster members and 11 SN Ia hosts that are early-type field galaxies. We confirm for the first time at z > 0.9 that SNe Ia hosted by early-type galaxies brighten and fade more quickly than SNe Ia hosted by late-type galaxies. We also show that the two samples of hosts produce SNe Ia with similar color distributions. The relatively simple spectral energy distributions expected for passive galaxies enable us to measure stellar masses of early-type SN hosts. In combination with stellar mass estimates of late-type GOODS SN hosts from Thomson & Chary, we investigate the correlation of host mass with Hubble residual observed at lower redshifts. Although the sample is small and the uncertainties are large, a hint of this relation is found at z > 0.9. By simultaneously fitting the average cluster galaxy formation history and dust content to the red-sequence scatters, we show that the reddening of early-type cluster SN hosts is likely E(B - V) candles than other SNe Ia. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555. The observations are associated with program 10496.

  5. Urban Security; Public Spaces A Review and Survey of Security Levels in Parks of Qom's Second District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Pourahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionNowadays, improvement of security levels in public spaces around the world is considered as one of the most important issues for managers, planners and urban designers. Parks can be very effective, particularly from the viewpoint of urban planners, in increasing or decreasing sense of security. They are one of the most important components of urban and natural systems and their characteristics such as location, design, accessibility, lighting, construction, population, etc. should be considered seriously in urban planning. Urban parks have scattered trees with synthetic or natural grass. They are the most popular place for human recreation and usually provide a pleasant environment for citizens to get involved in social activities, comfort, leisure, family affairs. This paper explored the security level of parks in Qom's 2nd district as one the most populated destinations of travelers in the city. As for defining the term security, different sources have different definitions. For example, Moein's dictionary defines security as something which is safe, secure and immune, without fear. Likewise, in Amid dictionary, security is defined in terms of comfort, convenience and safety, which above all, is said to have an important role in the origin of city life in modern time, especially in public places. Materials & MethodsThis research is a practical research and its method is descriptive – analytical, which is based on case study. However, a theoretical framework is used besides field method in order to collect data. Based on Cochran formula, 384 individuals were selected as sample size and a researcher-made questionnaire was distributed among them randomly during the summer of 2012. Meanwhile, few hypotheses were developed concerning the situation of security in aforementioned parks. SPSS software was used to analysis the data and measure sense of security.Discussion of Results & ConclusionsThe result of the study show that only 11

  6. BERGMAN TYPE PROJECTIONS ON Lp SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kehe Zhu

    2005-01-01

    The paper is a survey on the action of Bergman type projections on various Lp spaces. The focus is on three types of holomorphic function spaces: weighted Bergman spaces, the Bloch space, and diagonal Besov spaces.

  7. The Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera. 1: Methodology and results on the field near 3C 273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R. E.; Ratnatunga, K. U.; Neuschaefer, L. W.; Casertano, S.; Im, M.; Wyckoff, E. W.; Ellis, R. S.; Gilmore, G. F.; Elson, R. A. W.; Glazebrook, K.

    1994-01-01

    We present results from the Medium Deep Survey (MDS), a Key Project using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Wide Field Camera (WFC) images of random fields have been taken in 'parallel mode' with an effective resolution of 0.2 sec full width at half maximum (FWHM) in the V(F555W) and I(F785LP) filters. The exposures presented here were targeted on a field away from 3C 273, and resulted in approximately 5 hr integration time in each filter. Detailed morphological structure is seen in galaxy images with total integrated magnitudes down to V approximately = 22.5 and I approximately = 21.5. Parameters are estimated that best fit the observed galaxy images, and 143 objects are identified (including 23 stars) in the field to a fainter limiting magnitude of I approximately = 23.5. We outline the extragalactic goals of the HST Medium Deep Survey, summarize our basic data reduction procedures, and present number (magnitude) counts, a color-magnitude diagram for the field, surface brightness profiles for the brighter galaxies, and best-fit half-light radii for the fainter galaxies as a function of apparent magnitude. A median galaxy half-light radius of 0.4 sec is measured, and the distribution of galaxy sizes versus magnitude is presented. We observe an apparent deficit of galaxies with half-light radii between approximately 0.6 sec and 1.5 sec, with respect to standard no-evolution or mild evolution cosmological models. An apparent excess of compact objects (half-light radii approximately 0.1 sec) is also observed with respect to those models. Finally, we find a small excess in the number of faint galaxy pairs and groups with respect to a random low-redshift field sample.

  8. Helicopter electromagnetic survey of the Model Land Area, Southeastern Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Prinos, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a helicopter electromagnetic survey flown over the Model Land Area in southeastern Miami-Dade County, Florida, to map saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer. The survey, which is located south and east of Florida City, Florida, covers an area of 115 square kilometers with a flight-line spacing of 400 meters. A five-frequency, horizontal, coplanar bird with frequencies ranging from 400 to 100,000 Hertz was used. The data were interpreted using differential resistivity analysis and inversion to produce cross sections and resistivity depth-slice maps. The depth of investigation is as deep as 100 meters in freshwater-saturated portions of the Biscayne aquifer and the depth diminishes to about 50 meters in areas that are intruded by saltwater. The results compare favorably with ground-based, time-domain electromagnetic soundings and induction logs from observation wells in the area. The base of a high-resistivity, freshwater-saturated zone mapped in the northern 2 kilometers of the survey area corresponds quite well with the base of the surficial aquifer that has been determined by drilling. In general, saltwater in the survey area extends 9 to 12 kilometers inland from the coast; however, there is a long nose of saltwater centered along the Card Sound Road Canal that extends 15 kilometers inland. The cause of this preferential intrusion is likely due to uncontrolled surface flow along the canal and subsequent leakage of saltwater into the aquifer. Saltwater also extends farther inland in the area between U.S. Highway 1 and Card Sound Road than it does to the west of this area. Until 1944, a railroad grade occupied the current location of U.S. Highway 1. Borrow ditches associated with the railroad grade connected to Barnes Sound and allowed saltwater to flow during droughts and storm surges to within a few kilometers of Florida City. Relicts of this saltwater that settled to the bottom of the Biscayne aquifer can be seen in the helicopter

  9. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological implications of the Fourier space wedges of the final sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieb, Jan Niklas; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Scoccimarro, Román; Crocce, Martín; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Montesano, Francesco; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ross, Ashley J.; Beutler, Florian; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Prada, Francisco; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Percival, Will J.; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Brownstein, Joel R.; Maraston, Claudia; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Samushia, Lado; Seo, Hee-Jong; Streblyanska, Alina; Zhao, Gong-bo

    2017-05-01

    We extract cosmological information from the anisotropic power-spectrum measurements from the recently completed Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), extending the concept of clustering wedges to Fourier space. Making use of new fast-Fourier-transform-based estimators, we measure the power-spectrum clustering wedges of the BOSS sample by filtering out the information of Legendre multipoles ℓ > 4. Our modelling of these measurements is based on novel approaches to describe non-linear evolution, bias and redshift-space distortions, which we test using synthetic catalogues based on large-volume N-body simulations. We are able to include smaller scales than in previous analyses, resulting in tighter cosmological constraints. Using three overlapping redshift bins, we measure the angular-diameter distance, the Hubble parameter and the cosmic growth rate, and explore the cosmological implications of our full-shape clustering measurements in combination with cosmic microwave background and Type Ia supernova data. Assuming a Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology, we constrain the matter density to Ω M= 0.311_{-0.010}^{+0.009} and the Hubble parameter to H_0 = 67.6_{-0.6}^{+0.7} km s^{-1 Mpc^{-1}}, at a confidence level of 68 per cent. We also allow for non-standard dark energy models and modifications of the growth rate, finding good agreement with the ΛCDM paradigm. For example, we constrain the equation-of-state parameter to w = -1.019_{-0.039}^{+0.048}. This paper is part of a set that analyses the final galaxy-clustering data set from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are combined with others in Alam et al. to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  10. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Cosmological implications of the Fourier space wedges of the final sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieb, Jan Niklas; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Scoccimarro, Román; Crocce, Martín; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Montesano, Francesco; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ross, Ashley J.; Beutler, Florian; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Prada, Francisco; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Percival, Will J.; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tojeiro, Rita; Brownstein, Joel R.; Maraston, Claudia; Nichol, Robert C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Samushia, Lado; Seo, Hee-Jong; Streblyanska, Alina; Zhao, Gong-bo

    2017-01-01

    We extract cosmological information from the anisotropic power spectrum measurements from the recently completed Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), extending the concept of clustering wedges to Fourier space. Making use of new FFT-based estimators, we measure the power spectrum clustering wedges of the BOSS sample by filtering out the information of Legendre multipoles ℓ > 4. Our modelling of these measurements is based on novel approaches to describe non-linear evolution, bias, and redshift-space distortions, which we test using synthetic catalogues based on large-volume N-body simulations. We are able to include smaller scales than in previous analyses, resulting in tighter cosmological constraints. Using three overlapping redshift bins, we measure the angular diameter distance, the Hubble parameter, and the cosmic growth rate, and explore the cosmological implications of our full shape clustering measurements in combination with CMB and SN Ia data. Assuming a ΛCDM cosmology, we constrain the matter density to Ω M= 0.311_{-0.010}^{+0.009} and the Hubble parameter to H_0 = 67.6_{-0.6}^{+0.7} km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, at a confidence level (CL) of 68 per cent. We also allow for non-standard dark energy models and modifications of the growth rate, finding good agreement with the ΛCDM paradigm. For example, we constrain the equation-of-state parameter to w = -1.019_{-0.039}^{+0.048}. This paper is part of a set that analyses the final galaxy clustering dataset from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are combined with others in Alam et al. (2016) to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  11. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D. O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L. J.; Bright, S. N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Dale, D. A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Grebel, E. K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-06-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify their genuine nature, produce multiband photometry (from NUV to NIR), and derive their physical properties via spectral energy distribution fitting analyses. We use the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628 as a test case for demonstrating the impact that LEGUS will have on our understanding of the formation and evolution of YSCs and compact stellar associations within their host galaxy. Our analysis of the cluster luminosity function from the UV to the NIR finds a steepening at the bright end and at all wavelengths suggesting a dearth of luminous clusters. The cluster mass function of NGC 628 is consistent with a power-law distribution of slopes ˜ -2 and a truncation of a few times 105 {M}⊙ . After their formation, YSCs and compact associations follow different evolutionary paths. YSCs survive for a longer time frame, confirming their being potentially bound systems. Associations disappear on timescales comparable to hierarchically organized star-forming regions, suggesting that they are expanding systems. We find mass-independent cluster disruption in the inner region of NGC 628, while in the outer part of the galaxy there is little or no disruption. We observe faster disruption rates for low mass (≤104 {M}⊙ ) clusters, suggesting that a mass-dependent component is necessary to fully describe the YSC disruption process in NGC 628. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. Organic chemistry in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  13. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. VII. Implications from the Nearly Universal Nature of Horizontal Branch Discontinuities

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Thomas M; D'Antona, Francesca; Salaris, Maurizio; Milone, Antonino P; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Piotto, Giampaolo; Renzini, Alvio; Sweigart, Allen V; Bellini, Andrea; Ortolani, Sergio; Sarajedini, Ata; Aparicio, Antonio; Bedin, Luigi R; Anderson, Jay; Pietrinferni, Adriano; Nardiello, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope Treasury survey of Galactic globular clusters provides a new window into the phenomena that shape the morphological features of the horizontal branch (HB). Using this large and homogeneous catalog of UV and blue photometry, we demonstrate that the HB exhibits discontinuities that are remarkably consistent in color (effective temperature). This consistency is apparent even among some of the most massive clusters hosting multiple distinct sub-populations (such as NGC 2808, omega Cen, and NGC 6715), demonstrating that these phenomena are primarily driven by atmospheric physics that is independent of the underlying population properties. However, inconsistencies arise in the metal-rich clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441, where the discontinuity within the blue HB (BHB) distribution shifts ~1,000 K to 2,000 K hotter. We demonstrate that this shift is likely due to a large helium enhancement in the BHB stars of these clusters, which in turn affects the surface convection and evo...

  14. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: tomographic BAO analysis of DR12 combined sample in configuration space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuting; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Brownstein, Joel R.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ho, Shirley; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Prada, Francisco; Rossi, Graziano; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Zhu, Fangzhou

    2017-08-01

    We perform a tomographic baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) analysis using the two-point galaxy correlation function measured from the combined sample of Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 12 (BOSS DR12), which covers the redshift range of 0.2 clustering, we obtain a measurement of DA(z)/rd and H(z)rd at nine effective redshifts with the full covariance matrix calibrated using MultiDark-Patchy mock catalogues. Using the reconstructed galaxy catalogues, we obtain the precision of 1.3-2.2 per cent for DA(z)/rd and 2.1-6.0 per cent for H(z)rd. To quantify the gain from the tomographic information, we compare the constraints on the cosmological parameters using our nine-bin BAO measurements, the consensus three-bin BAO and redshift space distortion measurements at three effective redshifts in Alam et al., and the non-tomographic (one-bin) BAO measurement at a single effective redshift. Comparing the nine-bin with one-bin constraint result, it can improve the dark energy Figure of Merit by a factor of 1.24 for the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization for equation-of-state parameter wDE. The errors of w0 and wa from nine-bin constraints are slightly improved when compared to the three-bin constraint result.

  15. The SLUGGS Survey: stellar masses and effective radii of early-type galaxies from Spitzer Space Telescope 3.6$\\mu$m imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Duncan A; Savorgnan, Giulia; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Usher, Christopher; Brodie, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy starlight at 3.6$\\mu$m is an excellent tracer of stellar mass. Here we use the latest 3.6$\\mu$m imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope to measure the total stellar mass and effective radii in a homogeneous way for a sample of galaxies from the SLUGGS survey. These galaxies are representative of nearby early-type galaxies in the stellar mass range of 10 $<$ log M$_{\\ast}$/M$_{\\odot}$ $<$ 11.7, and our methodology can be applied to other samples of early-type galaxies. We model each galaxy in 2D and estimate its total asymptotic magnitude from a 1D curve-of-growth. Magnitudes are converted into stellar masses using a 3.6$\\mu$m mass-to-light ratio from the latest stellar population models of R\\"ock et al., assuming a Kroupa IMF. We apply a ratio based on each galaxy's mean mass-weighted stellar age within one effective radius (the mass-to-light ratio is insensitive to galaxy metallicity for the generally old stellar ages and high metallicities found in massive early-type galaxies). Our 3.6$\\mu$m s...

  16. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters -- XI. The horizontal branch in NGC\\,6388 and NGC\\,6441

    CERN Document Server

    Tailo, M; Milone, A P; Bellini, A; Ventura, P; Di Criscienzo, M; Cassisi, S; Piotto, G; Salaris, M; Brown, T M; Vesperini, E; Bedin, L R; Marino, A F; Nardiello, D; Anderson, J

    2016-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy survey of Galactic Globular Clusters (GC) is characterising many different aspects of their multiple stellar populations. The "Grundahl-jump" (G-jump) is a discontinuity in ultraviolet brightness of blue horizontal branch (HB) stars, signalling the onset of radiative metal levitation. The HB Legacy data confirmed that the G-jump is located at the same T$_{eff}$ ($\\simeq$11,500 K) in nearly all clusters. The only exceptions are the metal-rich clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441, where the G-jump occurs at T$_{eff}\\simeq$13-14,000K. We compute synthetic HB models based on new evolutionary tracks including the effect of helium diffusion, and approximately accounting for the effect of metal levitation in a stable atmosphere. Our models show that the G-jump location depends on the interplay between the timescale of diffusion and the timescale of the evolution in the T$_{eff}$ range 11,500 K$\\lessapprox$T$_{eff}\\lessapprox$14,000 K. The G-jump becomes hotter than 11,500 K only for st...

  17. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in Fourier-space

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Florian; Ross, Ashley J; McDonald, Patrick; Saito, Shun; Bolton, Adam S; Brownstein, Joel R; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Cuesta, Antonio J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Hand, Nick; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Modi, Chirag; Nichol, Robert C; Percival, Will J; Prada, Francisco; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Roe, Natalie A; Ross, Nicholas P; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Sánchez, Ariel G; Schneider, Donald P; Slosar, Anže; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signal of the final Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) data release (DR12). Our analysis is performed in Fourier-space, using the power spectrum monopole and quadrupole. The dataset includes $1\\,198\\,006$ galaxies over the redshift range $0.2 < z < 0.75$. We divide this dataset into three (overlapping) redshift bins with the effective redshifts $\\zeff = 0.38$, $0.51$ and $0.61$. We demonstrate the reliability of our analysis pipeline using N-body simulations as well as $\\sim 1000$ MultiDark-Patchy mock catalogues, which mimic the BOSS-DR12 target selection. We apply density field reconstruction to enhance the BAO signal-to-noise ratio. By including the power spectrum quadrupole we can separate the line-of-sight and angular modes, which allows us to constrain the angular diameter distance $D_A(z)$ and the Hubble parameter $H(z)$ separately. We obtain two independent $1.6\\%$ and $1.5\\%$ constraints on $D_A(z)$ and $2.9\\%$ and $2.3\\%$ constraints...

  18. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). III. A census of Ly\\alpha\\ Emission at $z\\gtrsim$7 from HST Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, K B; Bradač, M; Vulcani, B; Huang, K -H; Hoag, A; Maseda, M; Guaita, L; Pentericci, L; Brammer, G B; Dijkstra, M; Dressler, A; Fontana, A; Henry, A L; Jones, T A; Mason, C; Trenti, M; Wang, X

    2015-01-01

    [abbreviated] We present a census of Ly\\alpha\\ emission at $z\\gtrsim7$ utilizing deep near infrared HST grism spectroscopy from the first six completed clusters of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). In 24/159 photometrically selected galaxies we detect emission lines consistent with Ly\\alpha\\ in the GLASS spectra. Based on the distribution of signal-to-noise ratios and on simulations we expect the completeness and the purity of the sample to be 40-100% and 60-90%, respectively. For the objects without detected emission lines we show that the observed (not corrected for lensing magnification) 1$\\sigma$ flux limits reaches $5\\times10^{-18}$erg/s/cm$^{2}$ per position angle over the full wavelength range of GLASS (0.8-1.7$\\mu$m). Based on the conditional probability of Ly\\alpha\\ emission measured from the ground at $z\\sim7$ we would have expected 12-18 Ly\\alpha\\ emitters. This is consistent with the number of detections, within the uncertainties, confirming the drop in Ly\\alpha\\ emission with re...

  19. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). IX. The dual origin of low-mass cluster galaxies as revealed by new structural analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Morishita, Takahiro; Treu, Tommaso; Vulcani, Benedetta; Schmidt, Kasper B; Dressler, Alan; Poggianti, Bianca; Malkan, Matthew A; Wang, Xin; Huang, Kuang-Han; Trenti, Michele; Bradac, Marusa; Hoag, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Using deep Hubble Frontier Field imaging and slitless spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space, we analyze 2200 cluster and 1748 field galaxies at $0.2\\leq z\\leq0.7$ to determine the impact of environment on galaxy size and structure at $\\log M_*/M_\\odot>7.8$, an unprecedented limit at these redshifts. Based on both simple--$r_e= f(M_*)$--and more complex analyses--$r_e = f(M_*, C, n, z,\\Sigma)$--we find local density ($\\Sigma$) to induce a $7\\%\\pm3\\%$ ($95\\%$ confidence) reduction in half-light radii ($r_e$) beyond what can be accounted for by stellar mass ($M_*$), $U-V$ color ($C$), S\\'ersic index ($n$), and redshift ($z$) effects. Almost any size difference between galaxies in high- and low-density regions is thus attributable to their different distributions in properties other than environment. Yet, we do find a clear correlation between $U-V$ color and $r_{e}$ in low-mass red cluster galaxies ($\\log M_*/M_\\odot<9.8$) such that bluer systems are larger, with the bluest having sizes...

  20. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. II. The seven stellar populations of NGC7089 (M2)

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, A P; Piotto, G; Bedin, L R; Anderson, J; Renzini, A; King, I R; Bellini, A; Brown, T M; Cassisi, S; D'Antona, F; Jerjen, H; Nardiello, D; Salaris, M; van der Marel, R P; Vesperini, E; Yong, D; Aparicio, A; Sarajedini, A; Zoccali, M

    2014-01-01

    We present high-precision multi-band photometry for the globular cluster (GC) M2. We combine the analysis of the photometric data obtained from the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs GO-13297, with chemical abundances by Yong et al.(2014), and compare the photometry with models in order to analyze the multiple stellar sequences we identified in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We find three main stellar components, composed of metal-poor, metal-intermediate, and metal-rich stars (hereafter referred to as population A, B, and C, respectively). The components A and B include stars with different $s$-process element abundances. They host six sub-populations with different light-element abundances, and exhibit an internal variation in helium up to Delta Y~0.07 dex. In contrast with M22, another cluster characterized by the presence of populations with different metallicities, M2 contains a third stellar component, C, which shows neither evidence for sub-populations nor an internal spread in...

  1. The Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey: III. Correlated Properties of Type Ia Supernovae and Their Hosts at 0.9 < z < 1.46

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, J; Barbary, K; Barrientos, L F; Brodwin, M; Dawson, K S; Deustua, S; Doi, M; Eisenhardt, P; Faccioli, L; Fakhouri, H K; Fruchter, A S; Gilbank, D G; Gladders, M D; Goldhaber, G; Gonzalez, A H; Hattori, T; Hsiao, E; Ihara, Y; Kashikawa, N; Koester, B; Konishi, K; Lidman, C; Lubin, L; Morokuma, T; Oda, T; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M; Ripoche, P; Rosati, P; Rubin, D; Rykoff, E; Spadafora, A; Stanford, S A; Suzuki, N; Takanashi, N; Tokita, K; Yasuda, N

    2012-01-01

    Using the sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey and augmented with HST-observed SNe Ia in the GOODS fields, we search for correlations between the properties of SNe and their host galaxies at high redshift. We use galaxy color and quantitative morphology to determine the red sequence in 25 clusters and develop a model to distinguish passively evolving early-type galaxies from star-forming galaxies in both clusters and the field. With this approach, we identify six SN Ia hosts that are early-type cluster members and eleven SN Ia hosts that are early-type field galaxies. We confirm for the first time at z>0.9 that SNe Ia hosted by early-type galaxies brighten and fade more quickly than SNe Ia hosted by late-type galaxies. We also show that the two samples of hosts produce SNe Ia with similar color distributions. The relatively simple spectral energy distributions (SEDs) expected for passive galaxies enable us to measure stellar masses of ea...

  2. The Grism lens-amplified survey from space (GLASS). VIII. The influence of the cluster properties on Halpha emitter galaxies at 0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Nipoti, Carlo; Schmidt, Kasper B; Dressler, Alan; Morshita, Takahiro; Poggianti, Bianca M; Malkan, Matthew; Hoag, Austin; Bradač, Marusa; Abramson, Louis; Trenti, Michele; Pentericci, Laura; von der Linden, Anja; Morris, Glenn; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting the data of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS), we characterize the spatial distribution of star formation in 76 galaxies in 10 clusters at 0.3< z <0.7. In a companion paper we contrast the properties of field and cluster galaxies, whereas here we correlate the properties of Halpha emitters to a number of tracers of the cluster environment to investigate its role in driving galaxy transformations. Halpha emitters are found in the clusters out to 0.5 virial radii, the maximum radius covered by GLASS. The peak of the Halpha emission is offset with respect to the peak of the UV-continuum. We decompose this offsets into a radial and tangential component. The radial component points away from the cluster center in 60% of the cases, with 95% confidence. The decompositions agree with cosmological simulations, i.e. the Halpha emission offset correlates with galaxy velocity and ram pressure stripping signatures. Our clusters span a wide range of morphologies. Trends between Halpha emit...

  3. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters - XI. The horizontal branch in NGC 6388 and NGC 6441

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailo, M.; D'Antona, F.; Milone, A. P.; Bellini, A.; Ventura, P.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Cassisi, S.; Piotto, G.; Salaris, M.; Brown, T. M.; Vesperini, E.; Bedin, L. R.; Marino, A. F.; Nardiello, D.; Anderson, J.

    2017-02-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy survey of Galactic globular clusters (GC) is characterizing many different aspects of their multiple stellar populations. The `Grundahl-jump' (G-jump) is a discontinuity in ultraviolet brightness of blue horizontal branch (HB) stars, signalling the onset of radiative metal levitation. The HB Legacy data confirmed that the G-jump is located at the same Teff (≃11 500 K) in nearly all clusters. The only exceptions are the metal-rich clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441, where the G-jump occurs at Teff ≃ 13-14 000 K. We compute synthetic HB models based on new evolutionary tracks including the effect of helium diffusion, and approximately accounting for the effect of metal levitation in a stable atmosphere. Our models show that the G-jump location depends on the interplay between the time-scale of diffusion and the time-scale of the evolution in the Teff range 11 500 K≲Teff≲14 000 K. The G-jump becomes hotter than 11 500 K only for stars that have, in this Teff range, a helium mass fraction Y ≳ 0.35. Similarly high Y values are also consistent with the modelling of the HB in NGC 6388 and NGC 6441. In these clusters, we predict that a significant fraction of HB stars show helium in their spectra above 11 500 K, and full helium settling should only be found beyond the hotter G-jump.

  4. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE CLUSTER SUPERNOVA SURVEY. III. CORRELATED PROPERTIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR HOSTS AT 0.9 < z < 1.46

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, J.; Barbary, K.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Goldhaber, G. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Aldering, G.; Faccioli, L.; Hsiao, E. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barrientos, L. F. [Departmento de Astronomia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Brodwin, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dawson, K. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Deustua, S.; Fruchter, A. S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Doi, M.; Ihara, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Gilbank, D. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University Of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Gladders, M. D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hattori, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North Aohaku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kashikawa, N., E-mail: jmeyers314@berkeley.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Collaboration: Supernova Cosmology Project; and others

    2012-05-01

    Using the sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey and augmented with HST-observed SNe Ia in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields, we search for correlations between the properties of SNe and their host galaxies at high redshift. We use galaxy color and quantitative morphology to determine the red sequence in 25 clusters and develop a model to distinguish passively evolving early-type galaxies from star-forming galaxies in both clusters and the field. With this approach, we identify 6 SN Ia hosts that are early-type cluster members and 11 SN Ia hosts that are early-type field galaxies. We confirm for the first time at z > 0.9 that SNe Ia hosted by early-type galaxies brighten and fade more quickly than SNe Ia hosted by late-type galaxies. We also show that the two samples of hosts produce SNe Ia with similar color distributions. The relatively simple spectral energy distributions expected for passive galaxies enable us to measure stellar masses of early-type SN hosts. In combination with stellar mass estimates of late-type GOODS SN hosts from Thomson and Chary, we investigate the correlation of host mass with Hubble residual observed at lower redshifts. Although the sample is small and the uncertainties are large, a hint of this relation is found at z > 0.9. By simultaneously fitting the average cluster galaxy formation history and dust content to the red-sequence scatters, we show that the reddening of early-type cluster SN hosts is likely E(B - V) {approx}< 0.06. The similarity of the field and cluster early-type host samples suggests that field early-type galaxies that lie on the red sequence may also be minimally affected by dust. Hence, the early-type-hosted SNe Ia studied here occupy a more favorable environment to use as well-characterized high-redshift standard candles than other SNe Ia.

  5. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE CLUSTER SUPERNOVA SURVEY. V. IMPROVING THE DARK-ENERGY CONSTRAINTS ABOVE z > 1 AND BUILDING AN EARLY-TYPE-HOSTED SUPERNOVA SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, N.; Rubin, D.; Aldering, G.; Barbary, K.; Faccioli, L.; Fakhouri, H. K. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lidman, C. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Amanullah, R.; Botyanszki, J. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barrientos, L. F. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Brodwin, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Connolly, N. [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Dawson, K. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Dey, A. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Doi, M. [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Donahue, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Deustua, S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ellingson, E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Fadeyev, V., E-mail: nsuzuki@lbl.gov, E-mail: rubind@berkeley.edu, E-mail: clidman@aao.gov.au [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 94064 (United States); Collaboration: Supernova Cosmology Project; and others

    2012-02-10

    We present Advanced Camera for Surveys, NICMOS, and Keck adaptive-optics-assisted photometry of 20 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey. The SNe Ia were discovered over the redshift interval 0.623 < z < 1.415. Of these SNe Ia, 14 pass our strict selection cuts and are used in combination with the world's sample of SNe Ia to derive the best current constraints on dark energy. Of our new SNe Ia, 10 are beyond redshift z = 1, thereby nearly doubling the statistical weight of HST-discovered SNe Ia beyond this redshift. Our detailed analysis corrects for the recently identified correlation between SN Ia luminosity and host galaxy mass and corrects the NICMOS zero point at the count rates appropriate for very distant SNe Ia. Adding these SNe improves the best combined constraint on dark-energy density, {rho}{sub DE}(z), at redshifts 1.0 < z < 1.6 by 18% (including systematic errors). For a flat {Lambda}CDM universe, we find {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.729 {+-} 0.014 (68% confidence level (CL) including systematic errors). For a flat wCDM model, we measure a constant dark-energy equation-of-state parameter w = -1.013{sup +0.068}{sub -0.073} (68% CL). Curvature is constrained to {approx}0.7% in the owCDM model and to {approx}2% in a model in which dark energy is allowed to vary with parameters w{sub 0} and w{sub a} . Further tightening the constraints on the time evolution of dark energy will require several improvements, including high-quality multi-passband photometry of a sample of several dozen z > 1 SNe Ia. We describe how such a sample could be efficiently obtained by targeting cluster fields with WFC3 on board HST. The updated supernova Union2.1 compilation of 580 SNe is available at http://supernova.lbl.gov/Union.

  6. THE GRISM LENS-AMPLIFIED SURVEY FROM SPACE (GLASS). V. EXTENT AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 0.5 CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Treu, Tommaso; Malkan, Matthew; Abramson, Louis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Schmidt, Kasper B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Poggianti, Bianca M. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Dressler, Alan [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Fontana, Adriano; Pentericci, Laura [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Bradac, Marusa; Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuan-Han; He, Julie [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Trenti, Michele [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Linden, Anja von der [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Morris, Glenn [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We present the first study of the spatial distribution of star formation in z ∼ 0.5 cluster galaxies. The analysis is based on data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 as part of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). We illustrate the methodology by focusing on two clusters (MACS 0717.5+3745 and MACS 1423.8+2404) with different morphologies (one relaxed and one merging) and use foreground and background galaxies as a field control sample. The cluster+field sample consists of 42 galaxies with stellar masses in the range 10{sup 8}–10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙} and star formation rates in the range 1–20 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Both in clusters and in the field, Hα is more extended than the rest-frame UV continuum in 60% of the cases, consistent with diffuse star formation and inside-out growth. In ∼20% of the cases, the Hα emission appears more extended in cluster galaxies than in the field, pointing perhaps to ionized gas being stripped and/or star formation being enhanced at large radii. The peak of the Hα emission and that of the continuum are offset by less than 1 kpc. We investigate trends with the hot gas density as traced by the X-ray emission, and with the surface mass density as inferred from gravitational lens models, and find no conclusive results. The diversity of morphologies and sizes observed in Hα illustrates the complexity of the environmental processes that regulate star formation. Upcoming analysis of the full GLASS data set will increase our sample size by almost an order of magnitude, verifying and strengthening the inference from this initial data set.

  7. The Grism Lens-amplified Survey from Space (Glass). IX. The Dual Origin of Low-mass Cluster Galaxies as Revealed by New Structural Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Takahiro; Abramson, Louis E.; Treu, Tommaso; Vulcani, Benedetta; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Dressler, Alan; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Wang, Xin; Huang, Kuang-Han; Trenti, Michele; Bradač, Maruša; Hoag, Austin

    2017-02-01

    Using deep Hubble Frontier Fields imaging and slitless spectroscopy from the Grism Survey from Space, we study 2200 cluster and 1748 field galaxies at 0.2≤slant z≤slant 0.7 to determine the impact of environment on galaxy size and structure at stellar masses {log}{M}* /{M}ȯ > 7.8, an unprecedented limit at these redshifts. Based on simple assumptions—{r}e=f({M}* )—we find no significant differences in half-light radii (r e ) between equal-mass cluster or field systems. More complex analyses—{r}e=f({M}* ,U-V,n,z,{{Σ }})—reveal local density (Σ) to induce only a 7% ± 3% (95% confidence) reduction in r e beyond what can be accounted for by U ‑ V color, Sérsic index (n), and redshift (z) effects. Almost any size difference between galaxies in high- and low-density regions is thus attributable to their different distributions in properties other than environment. Indeed, we find a clear color–r e correlation in low-mass passive cluster galaxies ({log}{M}* /{M}ȯ star-forming galaxies. We take this as evidence that large-r e low-mass passive cluster galaxies are recently acquired systems that have been environmentally quenched without significant structural transformation (e.g., by ram pressure stripping or starvation). Conversely, ∼20% of small-r e low-mass passive cluster galaxies appear to have been in place since z≳ 3. Given the consistency of the small-r e galaxies’ stellar surface densities (and even colors) with those of systems more than ten times as massive, our findings suggest that clusters mark places where galaxy evolution is accelerated for an ancient base population spanning most masses, with late-time additions quenched by environment-specific mechanisms mainly restricted to the lowest masses.

  8. The clustering of galaxies in the completed SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: baryon acoustic oscillations in the Fourier space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Florian; Seo, Hee-Jong; Ross, Ashley J.; McDonald, Patrick; Saito, Shun; Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Grieb, Jan Niklas; Hand, Nick; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Modi, Chirag; Nichol, Robert C.; Percival, Will J.; Prada, Francisco; Rodriguez-Torres, Sergio; Roe, Natalie A.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Schneider, Donald P.; Slosar, Anže; Tinker, Jeremy; Tojeiro, Rita; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose A.

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal of the final Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) data release (DR12). Our analysis is performed in the Fourier space, using the power spectrum monopole and quadrupole. The data set includes 1198 006 galaxies over the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.75. We divide this data set into three (overlapping) redshift bins with the effective redshifts zeff = 0.38, 0.51 and 0.61. We demonstrate the reliability of our analysis pipeline using N-body simulations as well as ˜1000 MultiDark-Patchy mock catalogues that mimic the BOSS-DR12 target selection. We apply density field reconstruction to enhance the BAO signal-to-noise ratio. By including the power spectrum quadrupole we can separate the line of sight and angular modes, which allows us to constrain the angular diameter distance DA(z) and the Hubble parameter H(z) separately. We obtain two independent 1.6 and 1.5 per cent constraints on DA(z) and 2.9 and 2.3 per cent constraints on H(z) for the low (zeff = 0.38) and high (zeff = 0.61) redshift bin, respectively. We obtain two independent 1 and 0.9 per cent constraints on the angular averaged distance DV(z), when ignoring the Alcock-Paczynski effect. The detection significance of the BAO signal is of the order of 8σ (post-reconstruction) for each of the three redshift bins. Our results are in good agreement with the Planck prediction within Λ cold dark matter. This paper is part of a set that analyses the final galaxy clustering data set from BOSS. The measurements and likelihoods presented here are combined with others in Alam et al. to produce the final cosmological constraints from BOSS.

  9. A High-resolution Multiband Survey of Westerlund 2 with the Hubble Space Telescope. III. The Present-day Stellar Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Peter; Nota, Antonella; Grebel, Eva K.; Sabbi, Elena; Pasquali, Anna; Tosi, Monica; Christian, Carol

    2017-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of the stellar population and the present-day mass function (PDMF) of the Westerlund 2 (Wd2) region using the data from our high-resolution multiband survey with the Hubble Space Telescope. We used state-of-the-art artificial star tests to determine spatially resolved completeness maps for each of the broadband filters. We reach a level of completeness of 50% down to F555W=24.8 mag (0.7 {M}ȯ ) and F814W=23.3 mag (0.2 {M}ȯ ) in the optical and F125W=20.2 mag and F160W=19.4 mag (both 0.12 {M}ȯ ) in the infrared throughout the field of view. We had previously reported that the core of Wd2 consists of two clumps: namely the main cluster and the northern clump. From the spatial distribution of the completeness-corrected population, we find that their stellar surface densities are 1114 {stars} {{pc}}-2 and 555 {stars} {{pc}}-2, respectively, down to F814W=21.8 mag. We find that the PDMF of Wd2 has a slope of {{Γ }}=-1.46+/- 0.06, which translates to a total stellar cluster mass of (3.6+/- 0.3)\\cdot {10}4 {M}ȯ . The spatial analysis of the PDMF reveals that the cluster population is mass-segregated and most likely primordial. In addition, we report the detection of a stellar population of spatially uniformly distributed low-mass (< 0.15 {M}ȯ ) stars, extending into the gas ridges of the surrounding gas and dust cloud, as well as a confined region of reddened stars, likely caused by a foreground CO cloud. We find hints that a cloud–cloud collision might be the origin of the formation of Wd2.

  10. From Physical Space to Visual Image Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zetian; LIN Hui; LIU Xianlin

    2003-01-01

    The theoretical framework of visual simulation in virtual reality is discussed. The new concept of visual image space is supposed. On the basis of visual image space, in visual perceptive sense, VR is considered as a spatial simulation. The objective of the spatial simulation is to transform physical space to visual image space.Last, the prototype system, surveying & mapping virtual Reality (SMVR),is developed, and the space simulation above is realized. By use of SMVR,the real 3D representation, 3D visual analysis, virtual plan and designs can be implemented.

  11. Emission-Line Galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) Grism Survey. II: The Complete Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Pirzkal, Nor; Ly, Chun; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E; Grogin, Norman A; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R; Walsh, Jeremy R; Hathi, Nimish P; Cohen, Seth H; Bellini, Andrea; Holwerda, Benne W; Straughn, Amber N; Mechtley, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitess grism spectroscopic data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random survey of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 1e9} M_sun decreases by an order of magnitude at z<0.5 relative to the number at 0.5

  12. The Aalborg Survey / Part 1 - Web Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 1 Web Base Survey The 1st part of the research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS) has been carried out during the period from December 1st 2007 to February 1st 2008 as a Web Based Survey of the 27.040 gross...... people do in urban spaces, where they are in the urban spaces and when the young people are in the urban spaces. The answers to these questions form the framework and enable further academic discussions and conclusions in relation to the overall research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS). The primary...

  13. The Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey: V. Improving the Dark Energy Constraints Above z>1 and Building an Early-Type-Hosted Supernova Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, N; Lidman, C; Aldering, G; Amanullah, R; Barbary, K; Barrientos, L F; Botyanszki, J; Brodwin, M; Connolly, N; Dawson, K S; Dey, A; Doi, M; Donahue, M; Deustua, S; Eisenhardt, P; Ellingson, E; Faccioli, L; Fadeyev, V; Fakhouri, H K; Fruchter, A S; Gilbank, D G; Gladders, M D; Goldhaber, G; Gonzalez, A H; Goobar, A; Gude, A; Hattori, T; Hoekstra, H; Hsiao, E; Huang, X; Ihara, Y; Jee, M J; Johnston, D; Kashikawa, N; Koester, B; Konishi, K; Kowalski, M; Linder, E V; Lubin, L; Melbourne, J; Meyers, J; Morokuma, T; Munshi, F; Mullis, C; Oda, T; Panagia, N; Perlmutter, S; Postman, M; Pritchard, T; Rhodes, J; Ripoche, P; Rosati, P; Schlegel, D J; Spadafora, A; Stanford, S A; Stanishev, V; Stern, D; Strovink, M; Takanashi, N; Tokita, K; Wagner, M; Wang, L; Yasuda, N; Yee, H K C

    2011-01-01

    We present ACS, NICMOS, and Keck AO-assisted photometry of 20 Type Ia supernovae SNe Ia from the HST Cluster Supernova Survey. The SNe Ia were discovered over the redshift interval 0.623 1 SNe Ia. We describe how such a sample could be efficiently obtained by targeting cluster fields with WFC3 on HST.

  14. Inversion of Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Data, Styx River Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, A.; Minsley, B. J.; Smith, B. D.; Burns, L.; Emond, A.

    2014-12-01

    A joint effort by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS) aims to add value to public domain airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data, collected in Alaska, through the application of newly developed advanced inversion methods to produce resistivity depth sections along flight lines. Derivative products are new geophysical data maps, interpretative profiles and displays. An important task of the new processing is to facilitate calibration or leveling between adjacent surveys flown with different systems in different years. The new approach will facilitate integration of the geophysical data in the interpretation and construction of geologic framework, resource evaluations and to geotechnical studies. Four helicopter airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys have been flown in the Styx River area by the DGGS; Styx River, Middle Styx, East Styx, and Farewell. The Styx River flown in 2008 and Middle Styx in flown 2013, cover an area of 2300 square kilometers. These data consist of frequency-domain DIGHEM V surveys which have been numerically processed and interpreted to yield a three-dimensional model of electrical resistivity. We describe the numerical interpretation methodology (inversion) in detail, from quality assessment to interpretation. We show two methods of inversion used in these datasets, deterministic and stochastic, and describe how we use these results to define calibration parameters and assess the quality of the datasets. We also describe the difficulties and procedures for combining datasets acquired at different times.

  15. Operating procedures, Pilot polar bear survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Distance will be measured from the "center" of the sighting (polar bear, group of bears, group of walrus, etc.) to the flight line along a perpendicular projection...

  16. A determination of the space density and birth rate of hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs in the Galactic plane, based on the UVEX survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Kars; Groot, Paul J.; Nelemans, Gijs; Scaringi, Simone; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Drew, Janet E.; Steeghs, Danny; Casares, Jorge; Corral-Santana, Jesus M.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; González-Solares, Eduardo; Greimel, Robert; Heber, Ulrich; Irwin, Mike J.; Knigge, Christian; Wright, Nicholas J.; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2013-10-01

    We present a determination of the average space density and birth rate of hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs within a radius of 1 kpc around the Sun, based on an observational sample of 360 candidate white dwarfs with g plane, in combination with a theoretical white dwarf population that has been constructed to simulate the observations, including the effects of reddening and observational selection effects. The main uncertainty in the derivation of the white dwarf space density and current birth rate lies in the absolute photometric calibration and the photometric scatter of the observational data, which influences the classification method on colours, the completeness and the pollution. Corrections for these effects are applied. We derive an average space density of DA white dwarfs with Teff > 10 000 K (MV < 12.2) of (3.8 ± 1.1) × 10-4 pc-3, and an average DA white dwarf birth rate over the last 7×107 yr of (5.4 ± 1.5) × 10-13 pc-3 yr-1. Additionally, we show that many estimates of the white dwarf space density from different studies are consistent with each other, and with our determination here.

  17. The relationship of hip joint space to self reported hip pain. A survey of 4.151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthritis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of pelvic orientation on measurements of hip joint space widths (JSW) in cadaver pelvic radiographs, thereby validating the pelvic radiographs of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: The Osteoarthritis Substudy (CCHS III) cohort of 4.152 subjects, and (2) to inv...

  18. Space Acquired Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Interested in a photograph of the first space walk by an American astronaut, or the first photograph from space of a solar eclipse? Or maybe your interest is in a specific geologic, oceanic, or meteorological phenomenon? The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is making photographs of the Earth taken from space available for search, download, and ordering. These photographs were taken by Gemini mission astronauts with handheld cameras or by the Large Format Camera that flew on space shuttle Challenger in October 1984. Space photographs are distributed by EROS only as high-resolution scanned or medium-resolution digital products.

  19. Application of sample inventorying methodology in surveying occupant density at public spaces%抽样清点法在公共场所人员密度调查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘廷霞; 谢晓刚; 胡忠日

    2012-01-01

    Introduce the sample inventorying/counting methodology , and apply the method to survey the occupant density at the Xidan Department Store of Chengdu. By comparing the results with other methodologies, the practicability of sample inventorying approach and its applicable venues were analyzed. The method offered a guidance and reference for survey approaches for survey of basic data such as occupant density at public spaces.%介绍抽样清点方法,应用抽样清点法对成都西单商场的人员密度进行调查,将调查结果与采用其他调查方法进行人员密度调查的结果对比,分析抽样清点法在人员密度调查中的实用性和使用场所,为开展公共场所人员密度等基础数据的调查研究提供调查方法的指导和参考.

  20. A determination of the space density and birth rate of hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs in the Galactic Plane, based on the UVEX survey

    CERN Document Server

    Verbeek, Kars; Nelemans, Gijs; Scaringi, Simone; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Drew, Janet E; Steeghs, Danny; Casares, Jorge; Corral-Santana, Jesus M; Gänsicke, Boris T; González-Solares, Eduardo; Greimel, Robert; Heber, Ulrich; Irwin, Mike J; Knigge, Christian; Wright, Nicholas J; Zijlstra, Albert A

    2013-01-01

    We present a determination of the average space density and birth rate of hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs within a radius of 1 kpc around the Sun, based on an observational sample of 360 candidate white dwarfs with g 10,000K (M_V<12.2) of (3.8 +/- 1.1) x 1e-4 pc^-3, and an average DA white dwarf birth rate over the last 7e7 years of (5.4 + 1.5) x 1e-13 pc^-3 yr^-1. Additionally, we show that many estimates of the white dwarf space density from different studies are consistent with each other, and with our determination here.

  1. The Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of the Orion A and B Molecular Clouds. II. The Spatial Distribution and Demographics of Dusty Young Stellar Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.; J. Muzerolle; Kryukova, E.; Hora, J.L.; Allen, L E; Flaherty, K; Hartmann, L.; Myers, P. C.; Pipher, J. L.; Stauffer, J.; Young, E T; Fazio, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc$^{-2}$ to over 10,000 pc$^{-2}$, with protostars tending to be in higher density reg...

  2. How to Understand Cities?—Methodology of Urban Space Survey in Contemporary Urban Design Practices%当代城市设计实践中的城市空间调研方法论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘堃; 金广君

    2011-01-01

    Urban design practices increasingly require the understanding of urban spaces. Professional urban space survey needs to be dependent on clear and definite methodology. The paper introduces a new graduated approach of reading text in studing urban spaces: the description of spatial form→the evaluation of urban life impacts→the formulatin of future visions.%随着当代城市设计实践的不断发展,理解城市空间变得越来越重要.城市空间调研作为以理解城市空间为目标的专业实践,需要清晰明确的方法论指导.遵循从认识论到方法论的经典研究路线,呼应于当今城市空间研究成果,以建立城市空间的"文本观",并将"阅读文本"的思路引入,演绎形成了"描述空间形态层→评价生活效能层→阐释发展意向层"这一阅读理解城市空间的基本思路,作为指导城市空间调研的方法论基础.

  3. The Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of the Orion A and B Molecular Clouds II: the Spatial Distribution and Demographics of Dusty Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Megeath, S T; Muzerolle, J; Kryukova, E; Hora, J L; Allen, L E; Flaherty, K; Hartmann, L; Myers, P C; Pipher, J L; Stauffer, J; Young, E T; Fazio, G G

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc$^{-2}$ to over 10,000 pc$^{-2}$, with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities $\\ge10$ pc$^{-2}$, we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebular Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination ...

  4. The 3D-HST Survey: Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/G141 grism spectra, redshifts, and emission line measurements for $\\sim 100,000$ galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Momcheva, Ivelina G; van Dokkum, Pieter G; Skelton, Rosalind E; Whitaker, Katherine E; Nelson, Erica J; Fumagalli, Mattia; Maseda, Michael V; Leja, Joel; Franx, Marijn; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bezanson, Rachel; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Dickey, Claire; Schreiber, Natascha M Förster; Illingworth, Garth; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Lange, Johannes Ulf; Lundgren, Britt F; Magee, Daniel; Marchesini, Danilo; Oesch, Pascal; Pacifici, Camilla; Patel, Shannon G; Price, Sedona; Tal, Tomer; Wake, David A; van der Wel, Arjen; Wuyts, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    We present reduced data and data products from the 3D-HST survey, a 248-orbit HST Treasury program. The survey obtained WFC3 G141 grism spectroscopy in four of the five CANDELS fields: AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-S, and UDS, along with WFC3 $H_{140}$ imaging, parallel ACS G800L spectroscopy, and parallel $I_{814}$ imaging. In a previous paper (Skelton et al. 2014) we presented photometric catalogs in these four fields and in GOODS-N, the fifth CANDELS field. Here we describe and present the WFC3 G141 spectroscopic data, again augmented with data from GO-1600 in GOODS-N. The data analysis is complicated by the fact that no slits are used: all objects in the WFC3 field are dispersed, and many spectra overlap. We developed software to automatically and optimally extract interlaced 2D and 1D spectra for all objects in the Skelton et al. (2014) photometric catalogs. The 2D spectra and the multi-band photometry were fit simultaneously to determine redshifts and emission line strengths, taking the morphology of the galaxie...

  5. Space of Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Wheeler emphasized the study of Superspace - the space of 3-geometries on a spatial manifold of fixed topology. This is a configuration space for GR; knowledge of configuration spaces is useful as regards dynamics and QM.In this Article I consider furthmore generalized configuration spaces to all levels within the conventional `equipped sets' paradigm of mathematical structure used in fundamental Theoretical Physics. This covers A) the more familiar issue of topology change in the sense of topological manifolds (tied to cobordisms), including via pinched manifolds. B) The less familiar issue of not regarding as fixed the yet deeper levels of structure: topological spaces themselves (and their metric space subcase), collections of subsets and sets. Isham has previously presented quantization schemes for a number of these. I consider some classical preliminaries for this program, aside from the most obvious (classical dynamics for each). Rather, I provide I) to all levels Relational and Background Independence ...

  6. Theory of function spaces II

    CERN Document Server

    Triebel, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Theory of Function Spaces II deals with the theory of function spaces of type Bspq and Fspq as it stands at the present. These two scales of spaces cover many well-known function spaces such as Hölder-Zygmund spaces, (fractional) Sobolev spaces, Besov spaces, inhomogeneous Hardy spaces, spaces of BMO-type and local approximation spaces which are closely connected with Morrey-Campanato spaces. Theory of Function Spaces II is self-contained, although it may be considered an update of the author’s earlier book of the same title. The book’s 7 chapters start with a historical survey of the subject, and then analyze the theory of function spaces in Rn and in domains, applications to (exotic) pseudo-differential operators, and function spaces on Riemannian manifolds. ------ Reviews The first chapter deserves special attention. This chapter is both an outstanding historical survey of function spaces treated in the book and a remarkable survey of rather different techniques developed in the last 50 years. It is s...

  7. The Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of the Orion A and B Molecular Clouds. II. The Spatial Distribution and Demographics of Dusty Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.; Muzerolle, J.; Kryukova, E.; Hora, J. L.; Allen, L. E.; Flaherty, K.; Hartmann, L.; Myers, P. C.; Pipher, J. L.; Stauffer, J.; Young, E. T.; Fazio, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc-2 to over 10,000 pc-2, with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities ≥10 pc-2, we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination of the structural properties of the clusters and groups shows that the peak surface densities of the clusters increase approximately linearly with the number of members. Furthermore, all clusters with more than 70 members exhibit asymmetric and/or highly elongated structures. The ONC becomes azimuthally symmetric in the inner 0.1 pc, suggesting that the cluster is only ˜2 Myr in age. We find that the star formation efficiency (SFE) of the Orion B cloud is unusually low, and that the SFEs of individual groups and clusters are an order of magnitude higher than those of the clouds. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the young low mass stars in the Orion clouds and the Orion OB 1 association, and we determine upper limits to the fraction of disks that may be affected by UV radiation from OB stars or dynamical interactions in dense, clustered regions.

  8. THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE SURVEY OF THE ORION A AND B MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND DEMOGRAPHICS OF DUSTY YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megeath, S. T.; Kryukova, E. [Ritter Astrophsical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hora, J. L.; Myers, P. C.; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomical Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Flaherty, K. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hartmann, L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pipher, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester NY 14627 (United States); Stauffer, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Young, E. T., E-mail: megeath@physics.utoledo.edu [SOFIA-Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc{sup −2} to over 10,000 pc{sup −2}, with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities ≥10 pc{sup −2}, we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination of the structural properties of the clusters and groups shows that the peak surface densities of the clusters increase approximately linearly with the number of members. Furthermore, all clusters with more than 70 members exhibit asymmetric and/or highly elongated structures. The ONC becomes azimuthally symmetric in the inner 0.1 pc, suggesting that the cluster is only ∼2 Myr in age. We find that the star formation efficiency (SFE) of the Orion B cloud is unusually low, and that the SFEs of individual groups and clusters are an order of magnitude higher than those of the clouds. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the young low mass stars in the Orion clouds and the Orion OB 1 association, and we determine upper limits to the fraction of disks that may be affected by UV radiation from OB stars or dynamical interactions in dense, clustered regions.

  9. The relationship of hip joint space to self reported hip pain. A survey of 4.151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthritis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld;

    2004-01-01

    degrees). At each 3 degrees increment an anteroposterior radiograph was recorded. Measurements of JSW were performed. (2) Self reported recurrent pain in or around the hip joint during 12 months prior to baseline examinations, and minimum JSW in pelvic radiographs of the cohort were registered......OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of pelvic orientation on measurements of hip joint space widths (JSW) in cadaver pelvic radiographs, thereby validating the pelvic radiographs of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: The Osteoarthritis Substudy (CCHS III) cohort of 4.152 subjects, and (2......) to investigate the relationship between minimal JSW and self reported hip pain of the cohort. METHODS: (1) Cadaver pelves and proximal femora of one male and one female donor were mounted in holding devices permitting independent rotation (total arc of 42 degrees), and inclination/reclination (total arc of 24...

  10. Comparison of Precision of Biomass Estimates in Regional Field Sample Surveys and Airborne LiDAR-Assisted Surveys in Hedmark County, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naesset, Erik; Gobakken, Terje; Bollandsas, Ole Martin; Gregoire, Timothy G.; Nelson, Ross; Stahl, Goeran

    2013-01-01

    Airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has emerged as a promising tool to provide auxiliary data for sample surveys aiming at estimation of above-ground tree biomass (AGB), with potential applications in REDD forest monitoring. For larger geographical regions such as counties, states or nations, it is not feasible to collect airborne LiDAR data continuously ("wall-to-wall") over the entire area of interest. Two-stage cluster survey designs have therefore been demonstrated by which LiDAR data are collected along selected individual flight-lines treated as clusters and with ground plots sampled along these LiDAR swaths. Recently, analytical AGB estimators and associated variance estimators that quantify the sampling variability have been proposed. Empirical studies employing these estimators have shown a seemingly equal or even larger uncertainty of the AGB estimates obtained with extensive use of LiDAR data to support the estimation as compared to pure field-based estimates employing estimators appropriate under simple random sampling (SRS). However, comparison of uncertainty estimates under SRS and sophisticated two-stage designs is complicated by large differences in the designs and assumptions. In this study, probability-based principles to estimation and inference were followed. We assumed designs of a field sample and a LiDAR-assisted survey of Hedmark County (HC) (27,390 km2), Norway, considered to be more comparable than those assumed in previous studies. The field sample consisted of 659 systematically distributed National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots and the airborne scanning LiDAR data were collected along 53 parallel flight-lines flown over the NFI plots. We compared AGB estimates based on the field survey only assuming SRS against corresponding estimates assuming two-phase (double) sampling with LiDAR and employing model-assisted estimators. We also compared AGB estimates based on the field survey only assuming two-stage sampling (the NFI

  11. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. IV. Helium content and relative age of multiple stellar populations within NGC 6352

    CERN Document Server

    Nardiello, D; Milone, A P; Marino, A F; Bedin, L R; Anderson, J; Aparicio, A; Bellini, A; Cassisi, S; D'Antona, F; Hidalgo, S; Ortolani, S; Pietrinferni, A; Renzini, A; Salaris, M; van der Marel, R P; Vesperini, E

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we combine WFC3/UVIS F275W, F336W, and F438W data from the "UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters: Shedding Light on Their Populations and Formation" (GO-13297) HST Treasury program with F606W, F625W, F658N, and F814W ACS archive data for a multi-wavelength study of the globular cluster NGC 6352. In the color-magnitude and two-color diagrams obtained with appropriate combination of the photometry in the different bands we separate two distinct stellar populations and trace them from the main sequence to the subgiant, red giant, horizontal and asymptotic giant branches. We infer that the two populations differ in He by Delta Y=0.029+/-0.006. With a new method, we also estimate the age difference between the two sequences. Assuming no difference in [Fe/H] and [alpha/Fe], and the uncertainties on Delta Y, we found a difference in age between the two populations of 10+/-120 Myr. If we assume [Fe/H] and [alpha/Fe] differences of 0.02 dex (well within the uncertainties of spectroscopic measur...

  12. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. I. Overview of the Project and Detection of Multiple Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Piotto, G; Bedin, L R; Anderson, J; King, I R; Marino, A; Nardiello, D; Aparicio, A; Barbuy, B; Bellini, A; Brown, T M; Cassisi, S; Cunial, A; Dalessandro, E; D'Antona, F; Ferraro, F R; Hidalgo, S; Lanzoni, B; Monelli, M; Ortolani, S; Renzini, A; Salaris, M; Sarajedini, A; van der Marel, R P; Vesperini, E; Zoccali, M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new UV-initiative HST project (GO-13297) that will complement the existing F606W and F814W database of the ACS Globular Cluster (GC) Treasury by imaging most of its clusters through UV/blue WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W and F438W. This "magic trio" of filters has shown an uncanny ability to disentangle and characterize multiple-population (MP) patterns in GCs in a way that is exquisitely sensitive to C, N, and O abundance variations. Combination of these passbands with those in the optical also gives the best leverage for measuring helium enrichment. The dozen clusters that had previously been observed in these bands exhibit a bewildering variety of MP patterns, and the new survey will map the full variance of the phenomenon. The ubiquity of multiple stellar generations in GCs has made the formation of these cornerstone objects more intriguing than ever; GC formation and the origin of their MPs have now become one and the same problem. In the present paper we will describe the dat...

  13. A comparative evaluation of endemic and non-endemic region of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar in India with ground survey and space technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreekant Kesari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In visceral leishmaniasis, phlebotomine vectors are targets for control measures. Understanding the ecosystem of the vectors is a prerequisite for creating these control measures. This study endeavours to delineate the suitable locations of Phlebotomus argentipes with relation to environmental characteristics between endemic and non-endemic districts in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 25 villages in each district. Environmental data were obtained through remote sensing images and vector density was measured using a CDC light trap. Simple linear regression analysis was used to measure the association between climatic parameters and vector density. Using factor analysis, the relationship between land cover classes and P. argentipes density among the villages in both districts was investigated. The results of the regression analysis indicated that indoor temperature and relative humidity are the best predictors for P. argentipes distribution. Factor analysis confirmed breeding preferences for P. argentipes by landscape element. Minimum Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, marshy land and orchard/settlement produced high loading in an endemic region, whereas water bodies and dense forest were preferred in non-endemic sites. Soil properties between the two districts were studied and indicated that soil pH and moisture content is higher in endemic sites compared to non-endemic sites. The present study should be utilised to make critical decisions for vector surveillance and controlling Kala-azar disease vectors.

  14. Structural thermal model tests on exposed facility of Japanese experiment module for international space station `Alpha`. 1st Report. Static load/fluid loop performance test and modal survey; Kokusai uchu station `Alpha` JEM bakurobu no netsukozo model shiken. 1. Seikaju shiken, ryudo tokusei shiken oyoboi modal survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, M.; Nakao, K.; Ikami, T.; Arafune, K.; Nakahara, S. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Static load/fluid loop performance test and modal survey results among structural thermal model (STM) tests of an exposed facility are reported for the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) mounted on the international space station `Alpha`. In the static load test, the strength and rigidity of STM were ascertained to be reasonable against the loads applied to the facility at launch and reentry, and the structural mathematical model was also reasonable based on the comparison between test and analytical results. In the fluid performance test to verify the fundamental fluid loop performance of the thermal control system for the exposed facility, the test results on pressure losses of STM which has a strong effect on the accuracy of coolant fluid distribution at each branch point, well agreed with analytical ones. In the modal survey to verify dynamic characteristics of the structural mathematical model, some appropriate modal parameters were obtained by modal analysis of test data, and the survey results also well agreed with analytical ones on the structural mathematical model. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The Aalborg Survey / Part 2 - GPS Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Reiter, Ida Maria; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young...... people do in urban spaces, where they are in the urban spaces and when the young people are in the urban spaces. The answers to these questions form the framework and enable further academic discussions and conclusions in relation to the overall research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS). The primary...... aim of the DUS research project is to investigate why young people do what they do in the urban spaces, and how this knowledge can contribute to an increase in young people’s use of urban spaces. It is the overall aim of the DUS research project to facilitate an increased and more diverse use of urban...

  16. The Aalborg Survey / Part 3 - Interview Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm; Jensen, Maria Vestergaard

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young...... people do in urban spaces, where they are in the urban spaces and when the young people are in the urban spaces. The answers to these questions form the framework and enable further academic discussions and conclusions in relation to the overall research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS). The primary...... aim of the DUS research project is to investigate why young people do what they do in the urban spaces, and how this knowledge can contribute to an increase in young people’s use of urban spaces. It is the overall aim of the DUS research project to facilitate an increased and more diverse use of urban...

  17. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of galactic globular clusters. VI. The internal kinematics of the multiple stellar populations in NGC 2808

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, A; Piotto, G; Milone, A P; Hong, J; Anderson, J; van der Marel, R P; Bedin, L R; Cassisi, S; D'Antona, F; Marino, A F; Renzini, A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous observational studies have revealed the ubiquitous presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters and cast many hard challenges for the study of the formation and dynamical history of these stellar systems. In this Letter we present the results of a study of the kinematic properties of multiple populations in NGC 2808 based on high-precision Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion measurements. In a recent study, Milone et al. have identified five distinct populations (A, B, C, D, and E) in NGC 2808. Populations D and E coincide with the helium-enhanced populations in the middle and the blue main sequences (mMS and bMS) previously discovered by Piotto et al.; populations A, B, and C correspond to the redder main sequence (rMS) that in the Piotto et al. was associated with the primordial stellar population. Our analysis shows that, in the outermost regions probed (between about 1.5 and 2 times the cluster half-light radius), the velocity distribution of populations D and E is radially anis...

  18. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. X. The radial distribution of stellar populations in NGC 2808

    CERN Document Server

    Simioni, Matteo; Bedin, Luigi R; Aparicio, Antonio; Piotto, Giampaolo; Vesperini, Enrico; Hong, Jongsuk

    2016-01-01

    Due to their extreme helium abundance, the multiple stellar populations of the globular cluster NGC 2808 have been widely investigated from a photometric, spectroscopic, and kinematic perspective. The most striking feature of the color-magnitude diagram of NGC 2808 is the triple main sequence (MS), with the red MS corresponding to a stellar population with primordial helium, and the middle and the blue MS being enhanced in helium up to Y$\\sim$0.32 and $\\sim$0.38, respectively. A recent study has revealed that this massive cluster hosts at least five distinct stellar populations (A, B, C, D, and E). Among them populations A, B, and C correspond to the red MS, while populations C and D are connected to the middle and the blue MS. In this paper we exploit Hubble-Space-Telescope photometry to investigate the radial distribution of the red, the middle and the blue MS from the cluster center out to about 8.5 arcmin. Our analysis shows that the radial distribution of each of the three MSs is different. In particular...

  19. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters - X. The radial distribution of stellar populations in NGC 2808

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, M.; Milone, A. P.; Bedin, L. R.; Aparicio, A.; Piotto, G.; Vesperini, E.; Hong, J.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their extreme helium abundance, the multiple stellar populations of the globular cluster NGC 2808 have been widely investigated from a photometric, spectroscopic, and kinematic perspective. The most striking feature of the colour-magnitude diagram of NGC 2808 is the triple main sequence (MS), with the red MS corresponding to a stellar population with primordial helium, and the middle and the blue MS being enhanced in helium up to Y ˜ 0.32 and ˜0.38, respectively. A recent study has revealed that this massive cluster hosts at least five distinct stellar populations (A, B, C, D, and E). Among them populations A, B, and C correspond to the red MS, while populations C and D are connected to the middle and the blue MS. In this paper, we exploit Hubble Space Telescope photometry to investigate the radial distribution of the red, the middle, and the blue MS from the cluster centre out to about 8.5 arcmin. Our analysis shows that the radial distribution of each of the three MSs is different. In particular, as predicted from multiple-population formation models, both the blue MS and the middle MS appears to be more concentrated than the red MS with a significance level for this result which is above 3σ.

  20. A Hubble Space Telescope Lensing Survey of X-ray Luminous Galaxy Clusters A Multiply-imaged Extremely Red Galaxy at z=1.6

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, G P; Kneib, J P; Davis, C J; Takamiya, M; Ebeling, H; Czoske, O; Smith, Graham P.; Smail, Ian

    2002-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of EROJ003707+0909.5, the brightest of three gravitationally-lensed images of an Extremely Red Object (ERO) at z=1.6, in the field of the massive cluster A68 (z=0.255). We exploit the superlative resolution of our HST data and the enhanced spatial resolution and sensitivity afforded by the lens amplification to reconstruct the source-plane properties of this ERO. Our morphological and photometric analysis reveals that EROJ003707 is an L* early-type disk-galaxy and we estimate that ~10 per cent of EROs with (R-K)>=5.3 and K<=21 may have similar properties. The unique association of passive EROs with elliptical galaxies therefore appears to be too simplistic. We speculate on the evolution of EROJ003707: if gas continues to cool onto this galaxy in the manner predicted by hierarchical galaxy formation models, then by the present day, EROJ003707 could evolve into a very luminous spiral galaxy.

  1. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: THE INTERNAL KINEMATICS OF THE MULTIPLE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN NGC 2808

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Marel, R. P. van der [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vesperini, E.; Hong, J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Piotto, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,” Università di Padova, v.co dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, via Cotter Rd, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bedin, L. R.; Renzini, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, v.co dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Cassisi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100, Teramo (Italy); D’Antona, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy)

    2015-09-01

    Numerous observational studies have revealed the ubiquitous presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters and cast many difficult challenges for the study of the formation and dynamical history of these stellar systems. In this Letter we present the results of a study of the kinematic properties of multiple populations in NGC 2808 based on high-precision Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion measurements. In a recent study, Milone et al. identified five distinct populations (A–E) in NGC 2808. Populations D and E coincide with the helium-enhanced populations in the middle and the blue main sequences (mMS and bMS) previously discovered by Piotto et al.; populations A–C correspond to the redder main sequence that, in Piotto et al., was associated with the primordial stellar population. Our analysis shows that, in the outermost regions probed (between about 1.5 and 2 times the cluster half-light radius), the velocity distribution of populations D and E is radially anisotropic (the deviation from an isotropic distribution is significant at the ∼3.5σ level). Stars of populations D and E have a smaller tangential velocity dispersion than those of populations A–C, while no significant differences are found in the radial velocity dispersion. We present the results of a numerical simulation showing that the observed differences between the kinematics of these stellar populations are consistent with the expected kinematic fingerprint of the diffusion toward the cluster outer regions of stellar populations initially more centrally concentrated.

  2. The VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey, VIPS for short, is a combined 5 GHz and 15 GHz survey with the Very Long Baseline Array of ~1100 active galactic nuclei...

  3. Airborne geophysical surveys conducted in western Nebraska, 2010: contractor reports and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    This report contains three contractor reports and data files for an airborne electromagnetic survey flown from June 28 to July 7, 2010. The first report; “SkyTEM Survey: Nebraska, USA, Data” describes data aquisition and processing from a time-domain electromagnetic and magnetic survey performed by SkyTEM Canada, Inc. (the North American SkyTEM subsidiary), in western Nebraska, USA. Digital data for this report are given in Appendix 1. The airborne geophysical data from the SkyTEM survey subsequently were processed and inverted by Aarhus Geophysics ApS, Aarhus, Denmark, to produce resistivity depth sections along each flight line. The result of that processing is described in two reports presented in Appendix 2, “Processing and inversion of SkyTEM data from USGS Area UTM–13” and “Processing and inversion of SkyTEM data from USGS Area UTM–14.” Funding for these surveys was provided by the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the Twin Platte Natural Resources District, in Scottsbluff, Sidney, and North Platte, Nebraska, respectively. Any additional information concerning the geophysical data may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Colorado.

  4. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Millett National Topographic Map, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Millett National Topographic Map NJ11-2 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included.

  5. European Space Agency Sentinel-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sentinel-2A satellite is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinel Multispectral Instrument (MSI) acquires 13 spectral bands ranging from Visible...

  6. European Space Agency Sentinel-2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sentinel-2A satellite is operated by the European Space Agency (ESA). The Sentinel Multispectral Instrument (MSI) acquires 13 spectral bands ranging from Visible...

  7. The WEAVE disk dynamics survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famaey, B.; Antoja, T.; Romero-Gomez, M.; Siebert, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Di Matteo, P.; Figueras, F.; Fragkoudi, F.; Garzon-Lopez, F.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.; Martinez-Valpuesta, I.; Monari, G.; Mor-Crespo, R.; Hill, V.

    2016-12-01

    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field survey facility for the William Herschel Telescope. It consists of a multi-object fibre spectrograph with a 2°-diameter field of view that can obtain ˜ 1000 spectra simultaneously. The "WEAVE Galactic Archaeology survey" is the survey focused on the Milky Way, as a complement to the Gaia space mission, and will start operating in early 2018. This survey is subdivided in four sub-surveys, among which the "WEAVE disk dynamics survey". This survey plans to measure the radial velocities (and abundances as far as possible) of ˜ 10^6 stars with magnitude 15speed? -, as well as (iii) about their influence on secular processes such as stellar radial migration are essential elements for a better understanding of the chemo-dynamical evolution of our Galaxy, and of galaxies in general. This survey is designed to answer these questions.

  8. The Grism lens-amplified survey from space (GLASS). VII. The diversity of the distribution of star formation in cluster and field galaxies at 0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Schmidt, Kasper B; Morishita, Takahiro; Dressler, Alan; Poggianti, Bianca M; Abramson, Louis; Bradač, Marusa; Brammer, Gabriel B; Hoag, Austin; Malkan, Matthew; Pentericci, Laura; Trenti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting the slitless spectroscopy taken as part of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS), we present an extended analysis of the spatial distribution of star formation in 76 galaxies in 10 clusters at 0.3< z <0.7. We use 85 foreground and background galaxies in the same redshift range as a field sample. The samples are well matched in stellar mass (10^8-10^11 M_sun) and star formation rate (0.5-50 M_sun/yr). We visually classify galaxies in terms of broad-band morphology, Halpha morphology and likely physical process acting on the galaxy. Most Halpha emitters have a spiral morphology (41+/-8% in clusters, 51+/-8% in the field), followed by mergers/interactions (28+/-8%, 31+/-7%, respectively) and early-type galaxies (remarkably as high as 29+/-8% in clusters and 15+/-6% in the field). A diversity of Halpha morphologies is detected, suggesting a diversity of physical processes. In clusters, 30+/-8% of the galaxies present a regular morphology, mostly consistent with star formation diffuse...

  9. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  10. Reconstruction in Fourier space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, A.; Percival, W. J.; Howlett, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present a fast iterative fast Fourier transform (FFT) based reconstruction algorithm that allows for non-parallel redshift-space distortions (RSDs). We test our algorithm on both N-body dark matter simulations and mock distributions of galaxies designed to replicate galaxy survey conditions. We compare solenoidal and irrotational components of the redshift distortion and show that an approximation of this distortion leads to a better estimate of the real-space potential (and therefore faster convergence) than ignoring the RSD when estimating the displacement field. Our iterative reconstruction scheme converges in two iterations for the mock samples corresponding to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS Data Release 11 when we start with an approximation of the RSD. The scheme takes six iterations when the initial estimate, measured from the redshift-space overdensity, has no RSD correction. Slower convergence would be expected for surveys covering a larger angle on the sky. We show that this FFT based method provides a better estimate of the real-space displacement field than a configuration space method that uses finite difference routines to compute the potential for the same grid resolution. Finally, we show that a lognormal transform of the overdensity, used as a proxy for the linear overdensity, is beneficial in estimating the full displacement field from a dense sample of tracers. However, the lognormal transform of the overdensity does not perform well when estimating the displacements from sparser simulations with a more realistic galaxy density.

  11. Envision Downtown: Public Space Public Life Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pedestrian and Bicycle counts, Stationary Activity Counts, and Age and Gender counts for 16 locations in Downtown Pittsburgh. Data was collected over a weekday (7am...

  12. Agricultural and forest resource surveys from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    An overview is presented on the use of spaceborne remote sensors as aid to agriculture and forestry for soil mapping, crop yield predictions, acreage determinations, damage assessment, and numerous other benefits. Some results obtained by ERTS 1 are discussed in terms of the significance of information derived and the potential use of these data for better management of our natural resources.

  13. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  14. Survey Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  15. Faculty Preceptions of Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friskney, Doyle

    2014-01-01

    The project researched faculty perceptions of learning spaces and their possible impact on student persistence at two community colleges in Kentucky. The researchers found through literature review, surveys, and interviews that learning spaces that enhanced student engagement and collaboration could positively impact student persistence. The…

  16. Faculty Perceptions of Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarapata, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    This project researched faculty perceptions of learning spaces and their possible impact on student persistence at two community colleges in Kentucky. The researchers found through literature review, surveys, and interviews that learning spaces that enhanced student engagement and collaboration could positively impact student persistence. The…

  17. Pool spacing in forest channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Montgomery; John M. Buffington; Richard D. Smith; Kevin M. Schmidt; George Pess

    1995-01-01

    Field surveys of stream channels in forested mountain drainage basins in southeast Alaska and Washington reveal that pool spacing depends on large woody debris (LWD) loading and channel type, slope, and width. Mean pool spacing in pool-riffle, plane-bed, and forced pool-riffle channels systematically decreases from greater than 13 channel widths per pool to less than 1...

  18. Faculty Perceptions of Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarapata, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    This project researched faculty perceptions of learning spaces and their possible impact on student persistence at two community colleges in Kentucky. The researchers found through literature review, surveys, and interviews that learning spaces that enhanced student engagement and collaboration could positively impact student persistence. The…

  19. Faculty Preceptions of Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friskney, Doyle

    2014-01-01

    The project researched faculty perceptions of learning spaces and their possible impact on student persistence at two community colleges in Kentucky. The researchers found through literature review, surveys, and interviews that learning spaces that enhanced student engagement and collaboration could positively impact student persistence. The…

  20. Concepts of space the history of theories of space in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jammer, Max

    1994-01-01

    Historical surveys consider Judeo-Christian notions of space, Newtonian absolute space, perceptions from 18th century to the present, more. Numerous quotations and references. "Admirably compact and swiftly paced style." - Philosophy of Science.

  1. DUST EXTINCTION FROM BALMER DECREMENTS OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE-FIELD-CAMERA 3 SPECTROSCOPY FROM THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Masters, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Henry, A. L.; Martin, C. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Scarlata, C.; Bedregal, A. G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Atek, H.; Colbert, J. W. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bunker, A., E-mail: albertod@ucr.edu [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Spectroscopic observations of H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines of 128 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 are presented. These data were taken with slitless spectroscopy using the G102 and G141 grisms of the Wide-Field-Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey. Interstellar dust extinction is measured from stacked spectra that cover the Balmer decrement (H{alpha}/H{beta}). We present dust extinction as a function of H{alpha} luminosity (down to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}), galaxy stellar mass (reaching 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }), and rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are two times fainter in H{alpha} luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z {approx} 1.5. An evolution is observed where galaxies of the same H{alpha} luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas no evolution is found within our error bars with stellar mass. The lower H{alpha} luminosity galaxies in our sample are found to be consistent with no dust extinction. We find an anti-correlation of the [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} flux ratio as a function of luminosity where galaxies with L {sub H{alpha}} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} are brighter in [O III] {lambda}5007 than H{alpha}. This trend is evident even after extinction correction, suggesting that the increased [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} ratio in low-luminosity galaxies is likely due to lower metallicity and/or higher ionization parameters.

  2. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). VI. Comparing the Mass and Light in MACS J0416.1-2403 Using Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Wang, X.; Brammer, G. B.; Broussard, A.; Amorin, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Schrabback, T.; Trenti, M.; Vulcani, B.

    2016-11-01

    We present a model using both strong and weak gravitational lensing of the galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1-2403, constrained using spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) and Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data. We search for emission lines in known multiply imaged sources in the GLASS spectra, obtaining secure spectroscopic redshifts of 30 multiple images belonging to 15 distinct source galaxies. The GLASS spectra provide the first spectroscopic measurements for five of the source galaxies. The weak lensing signal is acquired from 884 galaxies in the F606W HFF image. By combining the weak lensing constraints with 15 multiple image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and nine multiple image systems with photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster on an adaptive grid. The resulting map of total mass density is compared with a map of stellar mass density obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields imaging data to study the relative distribution of stellar and total mass in the cluster. We find that the projected stellar mass to total mass ratio, f ⋆, varies considerably with the stellar surface mass density. The mean projected stellar mass to total mass ratio is =0.009+/- 0.003 (stat.), but with a systematic error as large as 0.004-0.005, dominated by the choice of the initial mass function. We find agreement with several recent measurements of f ⋆ in massive cluster environments. The lensing maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available to the broader community in the standard HFF format.

  3. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  4. Space weather & telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, John M

    2006-01-01

    This book is both a survey of practical concepts for forecasting the performance of various telecommunication systems as well as a balanced treatment of space-weather phenomena that give rise to telecommunication impairment episodes. It bridges the gap in the relationship that exists between the following two disciplines: space weather and telecommunication system performance. There are a number of books that address one of the two disciplines in some detail, but only merely mention the other as an afterthought. In this book the author has married the two disciplines so that the readership can

  5. Multipurpose Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

  6. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...

  7. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  8. Space market model development project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of the research program, Space Market Model Development Project, (Phase 1) were: (1) to study the need for business information in the commercial development of space; and (2) to propose a design for an information system to meet the identified needs. Three simultaneous research strategies were used in proceeding toward this goal: (1) to describe the space business information which currently exists; (2) to survey government and business representatives on the information they would like to have; and (3) to investigate the feasibility of generating new economical information about the space industry.

  9. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  10. 中国空间站大规模多色测光与无缝光谱巡天的设想及其在暗能量研究领域的应用%Consideration for a large-scale multi-color imaging and slitless spectroscopy survey on the Chinese space station and its application in dark energy research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹虎

    2011-01-01

    大型巡天是今后数十年内国际天文学研究的重点方向,高精度大样本的巡天观测将极大地推动暗物质、暗能量、天体起源与演化等天文学和物理学的根本问题的研究.空间站的建设为我国空间天文的发展带来了不可多得的机遇.巡天观测与空间站运行模式相当匹配,而国际上尚未有大型的高分辨率光学与近紫外深度巡天计划,中国空间站正可以在此方向上实现突破,使我国在国际天文界的下一代大规模巡天工作中处于领先地位.本文阐述在空间站上开展大天区面积、高角分辨率、覆盖近紫外-光学-近红外波段的多色测光与无缝光谱巡天的设想,并讨论这个巡天在暗能量研究领域中的应用.%Large-scale surveys will be a major effort of the international astronomical community in the next decades. These surveys will produce unprecedentedly large samples with precision measurements and will greatly advance our understanding of fundamental questions of the universe such as dark matter, dark energy, formation and evolution of various astronomical objects. The plan to construct the Chinese space station has brought a rare opportunity for space astronomy in China. Survey observations match well with the operation of the space station, and there has not been a plan for a large-scale high-resolution optical/near UV survey. This can be a unique niche for the astronomy program on board of the Chinese space station and can help China take a leading position in the enterprise of next-generation large-scale surveys. This paper reports the concept of a wide-area high-resolution multiband imaging and slitless spectroscopy survey covering wavelengths from near ultraviolet to near infrared and discusses its application in dark energy research.

  11. A Survey on Wallman Bases

    OpenAIRE

    Adalberto García-Máynez

    2007-01-01

    [EN] Wallman bases are frequently used in compactification processes of topological spaces. However, they are also related with quasi–uniform structures and they are useful to characterize some topological properties. We present a brief survey on the subject which supports these statements. García-Máynez, A. (2007). A Survey on Wallman Bases. Applied General Topology. 8(2):223-237. doi:10.4995/agt.2007.1886. 223 237 8 2

  12. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  13. Morrey spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, David R

    2015-01-01

    In this set of lecture notes, the author includes some of the latest research on the theory of Morrey Spaces associated with Harmonic Analysis. There are three main claims concerning these spaces that are covered: determining the integrability classes of the trace of Riesz potentials of an arbitrary Morrey function; determining the dimensions of singular sets of weak solutions of PDE (e.g. The Meyers-Elcart System); and determining whether there are any “full” interpolation results for linear operators between Morrey spaces. This book will serve as a useful reference to graduate students and researchers interested in Potential Theory, Harmonic Analysis, PDE, and/or Morrey Space Theory. .

  14. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state...

  15. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... be imagined as a positive end, as ‘making explicit’ (in a popular psychological perspective) is considered to be therapeutic and good in itself? We will discuss those questions from a Foucaultian and ANT perspective, where one does not accept that pre-existing subjects are exposed to survey procedures...

  16. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  17. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...

  18. Bispinor Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin ZHU; Xiu Hong FENG; Yan Lin YU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we give identifications of bispinor space with Grassmann algebra, and with Clifford algebra. The multiplication in Clifford algebra provides an action on them. Lastly we have researched on the geometry of bispinor space, and define Dirac operators to get a Pythagoras equality.

  19. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  20. Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  1. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  2. Performative Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneklink, Annette

    2009-01-01

    that can be related to traditional architectural concepts in terms of dealing with space, body, time and movement. The paper considers this performativity and dual spatiality as being a processual architecture, constantly reconfiguring new hybrids between space, image and user. This dual spatiality raises...

  3. Fractionated spacecraft: The new sprout in distributed space systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Maessen, D.C.; Gill, E.K.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of current state-of-the-art technologies of fractionated spacecraft, a new architecture for distributed space systems. The survey covers six aspects: architecture, networking, wireless communication, wireless power transfer, distributed computing, and planned missions

  4. Space polypropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  5. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  6. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  7. Airborne radar surveys of snow depth over Antarctic sea ice during Operation IceBridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, B.; Gomez-Garcia, D.; Leuschen, C.; Paden, J. D.; Gogineni, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last decade, multiple satellite-based laser and radar altimeters, optimized for polar observations, have been launched with one of the major objectives being the determination of global sea ice thickness and distribution [5, 6]. Estimation of sea-ice thickness from these altimeters relies on freeboard measurements and the presence of snow cover on sea ice affects this estimate. Current means of estimating the snow depth rely on daily precipitation products and/or data from passive microwave sensors [2, 7]. Even a small uncertainty in the snow depth leads to a large uncertainty in the sea-ice thickness estimate. To improve the accuracy of the sea-ice thickness estimates and provide validation for measurements from satellite-based sensors, the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets deploys the Snow Radar as a part of NASA Operation IceBridge. The Snow Radar is an ultra-wideband, frequency-modulated, continuous-wave radar capable of resolving snow depth on sea ice from 5 cm to more than 2 meters from long-range, airborne platforms [4]. This paper will discuss the algorithm used to directly extract snow depth estimates exclusively using the Snow Radar data set by tracking both the air-snow and snow-ice interfaces. Prior work in this regard used data from a laser altimeter for tracking the air-snow interface or worked under the assumption that the return from the snow-ice interface was greater than that from the air-snow interface due to a larger dielectric contrast, which is not true for thick or higher loss snow cover [1, 3]. This paper will also present snow depth estimates from Snow Radar data during the NASA Operation IceBridge 2010-2011 Antarctic campaigns. In 2010, three sea ice flights were flown, two in the Weddell Sea and one in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas. All three flight lines were repeated in 2011, allowing an annual comparison of snow depth. In 2011, a repeat pass of an earlier flight in the Weddell Sea was flown, allowing for a

  8. Global Land Survey; Landsat 7 ETM+ - Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (1999-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), with funding from the National...

  9. Global Land Survey; Landsat 7 ETM+ - Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (1999-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), with funding from the National...

  10. Berkovich spaces and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles; Nicaise, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We present an introduction to Berkovich’s theory of non-archimedean analytic spaces that emphasizes its applications in various fields. The first part contains surveys of a foundational nature, including an introduction to Berkovich analytic spaces by M. Temkin, and to étale cohomology by A. Ducros, as well as a short note by C. Favre on the topology of some Berkovich spaces. The second part focuses on applications to geometry. A second text by A. Ducros contains a new proof of the fact that the higher direct images of a coherent sheaf under a proper map are coherent, and B. Rémy, A. Thuillier and A. Werner provide an overview of their work on the compactification of Bruhat-Tits buildings using Berkovich analytic geometry. The third and final part explores the relationship between non-archimedean geometry and dynamics. A contribution by M. Jonsson contains a thorough discussion of non-archimedean dynamical systems in dimension 1 and 2. Finally a survey by J.-P. Otal gives an account of Morgan-Shalen's the...

  11. SpaceCube Mini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Michael; Petrick, David; Geist, Alessandro; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This version of the SpaceCube will be a full-fledged, onboard space processing system capable of 2500+ MIPS, and featuring a number of plug-andplay gigabit and standard interfaces, all in a condensed 3x3x3 form factor [less than 10 watts and less than 3 lb (approximately equal to 1.4 kg)]. The main processing engine is the Xilinx SIRF radiation- hardened-by-design Virtex-5 FX-130T field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Even as the SpaceCube 2.0 version (currently under test) is being targeted as the platform of choice for a number of the upcoming Earth Science Decadal Survey missions, GSFC has been contacted by customers who wish to see a system that incorporates key features of the version 2.0 architecture in an even smaller form factor. In order to fulfill that need, the SpaceCube Mini is being designed, and will be a very compact and low-power system. A similar flight system with this combination of small size, low power, low cost, adaptability, and extremely high processing power does not otherwise exist, and the SpaceCube Mini will be of tremendous benefit to GSFC and its partners. The SpaceCube Mini will utilize space-grade components. The primary processing engine of the Mini is the Xilinx Virtex-5 SIRF FX-130T radiation-hardened-by-design FPGA for critical flight applications in high-radiation environments. The Mini can also be equipped with a commercial Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA with integrated PowerPCs for a low-cost, high-power computing platform for use in the relatively radiation- benign LEOs (low-Earth orbits). In either case, this version of the Space-Cube will weigh less than 3 pounds (.1.4 kg), conform to the CubeSat form-factor (10x10x10 cm), and will be low power (less than 10 watts for typical applications). The SpaceCube Mini will have a radiation-hardened Aeroflex FPGA for configuring and scrubbing the Xilinx FPGA by utilizing the onboard FLASH memory to store the configuration files. The FLASH memory will also be used for storing algorithm and

  12. Space exploration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris Moore

    2012-01-01

      Here, Moore presents a year in review on space exploration programs. This 2012 NASA's strategy of stimulating the development of commercial capabilities to launch crew and cargo to the ISS began to pay off...

  13. Target Space $\

    CERN Document Server

    Huggett, Nick

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the significance of T-duality in string theory: the indistinguishability with respect to all observables, of models attributing radically different radii to space -- larger than the observable universe, or far smaller than the Planck length, say. Two interpretational branch points are identified and discussed. First, whether duals are physically equivalent or not: by considering a duality of the familiar simple harmonic oscillator, I argue that they are. Unlike the oscillator, there are no measurements 'outside' string theory that could distinguish the duals. Second, whether duals agree or disagree on the radius of 'target space', the space in which strings evolve according to string theory. I argue for the latter position, because the alternative leaves it unknown what the radius is. Since duals are physically equivalent yet disagree on the radius of target space, it follows that the radius is indeterminate between them. Using an analysis of Brandenberger and Vafa (1989), I explain wh...

  14. Riesz spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Zaanen, A C

    1983-01-01

    While Volume I (by W.A.J. Luxemburg and A.C. Zaanen, NHML Volume 1, 1971) is devoted to the algebraic aspects of the theory, this volume emphasizes the analytical theory of Riesz spaces and operators between these spaces. Though the numbering of chapters continues on from the first volume, this does not imply that everything covered in Volume I is required for this volume, however the two volumes are to some extent complementary.

  15. Output Measures and Library Space Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushington, Nolan

    1987-01-01

    Draws some initial connections between library performance measures and library space planning and collection management. Output measure surveys are suggested for establishing hierarchies of use and appropriate design of environments for housing the collection. Four references are listed. (MES)

  16. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Death Valley National Topographic Map, Nevada, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-17

    The results of analysis of the airborne gamma radiation survey flown for the region identified as the Death Valley National Topographic Map NJ11-11 is presented in the bound Volume of this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also.

  17. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Socorro National Topographic Map, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-28

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Socorro National Topographic Map NI13-4 is presented in this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included.

  18. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey, San Angelo National Topographic Map: Texas, West Texas Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Angelo National Topographic Map NH14-1 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included.

  19. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Perryton National Topographic Map, Texas/Oklahoma/Kansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Perryton National Topographic Map NJ14-10 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also.

  20. Happiness Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Are Chinese people happy in today’s fast-paced, modern society? What are the sources of their happiness? In today’s rapidly developing economy, is happiness closely related to wealth or not? A recent happiness survey conducted in China gives some answers.

  1. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. I will summarize the OST STDT, mission design and instruments, key science drivers, and the study plan over the next two years.

  2. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  3. What Are Probability Surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  4. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  5. Messengers from outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jockers, K.

    1981-12-11

    In connection with the planned ESA space probe to Halley's Comet, a survey of our current knowledge of comets, and of open questions concerning them. The coma and the plasma and dust tail arise from the nucleus of the comet. Comets contain large amounts of water ice, and are surrounded by a gigantic cloud of hydrogen that is not visible to ground observation. The plasma tail arises by interaction with the solar wind. The cometary dust probably contains the most significant information on the origins of the solar system. Comets may contain prebiotic complex molecules.

  6. Comparison of Satellite Surveying to Traditional Surveying Methods for the Resources Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, B. P.; Osborne, V. J.; Kruger, M. L.

    Modern ground-based survey methods involve detailed survey, which provides three-space co-ordinates for surveyed points, to a high level of accuracy. The instruments are operated by surveyors, who process the raw results to create survey location maps for the subject of the survey. Such surveys are conducted for a location or region and referenced to the earth global co- ordinate system with global positioning system (GPS) positioning. Due to this referencing the survey is only as accurate as the GPS reference system. Satellite survey remote sensing utilise satellite imagery which have been processed using commercial geographic information system software. Three-space co-ordinate maps are generated, with an accuracy determined by the datum position accuracy and optical resolution of the satellite platform.This paper presents a case study, which compares topographic surveying undertaken by traditional survey methods with satellite surveying, for the same location. The purpose of this study is to assess the viability of satellite remote sensing for surveying in the resources industry. The case study involves a topographic survey of a dune field for a prospective mining project area in Pakistan. This site has been surveyed using modern surveying techniques and the results are compared to a satellite survey performed on the same area.Analysis of the results from traditional survey and from the satellite survey involved a comparison of the derived spatial co- ordinates from each method. In addition, comparisons have been made of costs and turnaround time for both methods.The results of this application of remote sensing is of particular interest for survey in areas with remote and extreme environments, weather extremes, political unrest, poor travel links, which are commonly associated with mining projects. Such areas frequently suffer language barriers, poor onsite technical support and resources.

  7. The Pan-STARRS Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.; Pan-STARRS Team

    2016-01-01

    The 4 year Pan-STARRS1 Science Mission has now completed and the final data processing and database ingest is underway. We expect to have the public release of the PS1 Survey data at approximately the time of the AAS Meeting. The full data set, including catalogs (150 Terabyte database), images (2 Petabytes), and metadata, will be available from the STScI MASTarchive. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys include: (1) The 3pi Steradian Survey, (2) The Medium Deep survey of 10 PS1 footprints (7 sq deg each) spaced around the sky; (3) A solar system survey of the ecliptic optimized for the discovery of Near Earth Objects, (4) a Stellar Transit Survey in the galactic bulge; and (5) a time domain Survey of M31. The characteristics of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented, including image quality, depth, cadence, and coverage. Science results span most fields of astronomy from Near Earth Objects to cosmology. The 2nd mission, the Pan-STARRS NEO Survey, is currently underway on PS1 and it will be supplemented by PS2 observations as PS2 becomes fully operational. We will also report on the status of PS2 and the prospects for future wide field surveys in the Northern Hemisphere. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy of the University of Hawaii; the Pan-STARRS Project Office; the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes: the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching; The Johns Hopkins University; Durham University; the University of Edinburgh; Queen's University Belfast; the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated; the National Central University of Taiwan; the Space Telescope Science Institute; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate; the National

  8. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  9. 农户活动空间选择的影响因素及其收入效应--河南省农户调查与实证%Factors Influencing the Rural Households′Choice of Activity Space Strategy and the Income Effect:A Case Study on the Survey of Rural Households in Henan Province in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊新生; 李小建; 高更和; 罗庆

    2014-01-01

    在实地农户调查的基础上,通过把农户活动空间划分为局部(L)、村庄(V)、区域(R)和国家(N)4个尺度空间,分析农户活动空间策略;并构建多元逻辑回归模型,从农户特征、地理因素分析农户活动空间策略选择的影响因素。研究发现,在活动空间选择方面,农户往往以局部空间为基础,向其他活动空间拓展,采取空间组合策略。各活动空间对农户收入的贡献程度不同,国家活动空间对农户收入贡献最大。影响因素方面,农户所处的区位、拥有的劳动力数量显著的影响农户活动空间策略选择;初中教育水平对农户在区域、国家尺度上的活动影响显著;较少的耕地与农户活动空间策略选择具有相关性;通达性主要影响区域尺度活动空间选择。镇域经济发展水平对农户活动空间策略选择整体上不显著。%The activity spaces for labor forces of rural households are divided into four categories in this ar-ticle: Locality, village, region and nation. Locality activity space is confined to rural households own farm. Village activity space consists of various stakeholders located in one village including all of the ru-ral households, factories and natural resources. Region activity space is defined as the area within a 30 km radius of one village. The rest is Nation activity space. Rural households always make a living in one or more activity spaces. Activity space strategy of rural households are analyzed according to sample sur-vey from Henan Province. Tthe mechanism and degree of influence that family characteristics and geo-graphical conditions exerting on activity strategy choice of rural households are explored by using a Mul-tinomial Logistic Regression model with activity space strategy as the independent variable and location (distance from the nearest city), education level, quantity of labor force, per farmland, accessibility, eco

  10. Survey Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Weale

    2005-01-01

    This paper focusses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focusses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. ...

  11. Survey Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, M.H.; Weale, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focuses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. Te...

  12. Survey expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, Mohammad Hashem; Weale, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on survey expectations and discusses their uses for testing and modeling of expectations. Alternative models of expectations formation are reviewed and the importance of allowing for heterogeneity of expectations is emphasized. A weak form of the rational expectations hypothesis which focuses on average expectations rather than individual expectations is advanced. Other models of expectations formation, such as the adaptive expectations hypothesis, are briefly discussed. Te...

  13. The Aalborg Survey / Part 4 - Literature Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young p....... Jensen are conducting research within the field related to this research project. Furthermore, both are intended end users of the outcome of this literature study. Finally, all references have been collected in a digital database in RefWorks.......Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young...... people do in urban spaces, where they are in the urban spaces and when the young people are in the urban spaces. The answers to these questions form the framework and enable further academic discussions and conclusions in relation to the overall research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS). The primary...

  14. Einstein spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Aleksej Z

    1969-01-01

    Einstein Spaces presents the mathematical basis of the theory of gravitation and discusses the various spaces that form the basis of the theory of relativity. This book examines the contemporary development of the theory of relativity, leading to the study of such problems as gravitational radiation, the interaction of fields, and the behavior of elementary particles in a gravitational field. Organized into nine chapters, this book starts with an overview of the principles of the special theory of relativity, with emphasis on the mathematical aspects. This text then discusses the need for a ge

  15. Entering Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    The authors is giving a classification of civilisations depending on the degree of colonisation of the Earth, Solar System and Our Galaxy. The problems of: History of geographic discoveries (The great geographical discoveries during the Middle Age, the concurence of Chinnese and Europeans in this Area); The Astrophysics, such as: Asteroids, Water and Atmosphere on outer planets, Planet Mars Planet, Agriculture on outer planets, Minerals on outer planets; Cosmic flights: Fuels, Robotics, Moon (as an intermediary basis for interplanetary flights), Mars colonisation; Interstellar flights, Space research costs, strategy and tactics of the space colonisation; Policy: War and Peace, International Collaboration are discussed.

  16. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  17. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer a rele...... on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice.......In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer....... In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...

  18. Seismic processing in the inverse data space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Until now, seismic processing has been carried out by applying inverse filters in the forward data space. Because the acquired data of a seismic survey is always discrete, seismic measurements in the forward data space can be arranged conveniently in a data matrix (P). Each column in the data matrix

  19. Learning space preferences of higher education students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Ronald; Voordt, van der Theo; Dewulf, Geert

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to address higher education students’ learning space preferences. The study is based on a survey that involved 697 business management students of a Dutch University of Applied Sciences. The research focuses on preferred learning spaces for individual study activities, which require

  20. Space Conquest

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers. This is the last chapter in the big programme by the PH Department to make better use of space at CERN.

  1. Space Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  2. Holonomic Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Solórzano, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    A holonomic space $(V,H,L)$ is a normed vector space, $V$, a subgroup, $H$, of $Aut(V, \\|\\cdot\\|)$ and a group-norm, $L$, with a convexity property. We prove that with the metric $d_L(u,v)=\\inf_{a\\in H}\\{\\sqrt{L^2(a)+\\|u-av\\|^2}\\}$, $V$ is a metric space which is locally isometric to a Euclidean ball. Given a Sasaki-type metric on a vector bundle $E$ over a Riemannian manifold, we prove that the triplet $(E_p,Hol_p,L_p)$ is a holonomic space, where $Hol_p$ is the holonomy group and $L_p$ is the length norm defined within. The topology on $Hol_p$ given by the $L_p$ is finer than the subspace topology while still preserving many desirable properties. Using these notions, we introduce the notion of holonomy radius for a Riemannian manifold and prove it is positive. These results are applicable to the Gromov-Hausdorff convergence of Riemannian manifolds.

  3. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  4. Space Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ One day after NASA brougnt the shuttle Discovery back form low Earth orbit,a Private company plans to announce a more audacious(1)v__,a tourist trip around the Moon. Space Adventrues,an American company ,has already sent two (A)t__into orbit.

  5. Trace spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Goubault, Eric; Haucourt, Emmanuel;

    2012-01-01

    of concurrent languages, where programs are interpreted as directed topological spaces, and study its properties in order to devise an algorithm for computing dihomotopy classes of execution paths. In particular, our algorithm is able to compute a control-flow graph for concurrent programs, possibly containing...

  6. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  7. Hardy spaces via distribution spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liguang

    2007-01-01

    Let (y)(Rn) be the Schwartz class on Rn and (y)∞(Rn) be the collection of functions (P) (E) (Y)(Rn) with additional property that ∫Rn xγ(p)(x)dx=0for all multiindices γ.Let ((y):(Rn))' and ((y)∞(Rn))' be their dual spaces,respectively.In this paper, it is proved that atomic Hardy spaces defined via ((y)(Rn))' and ((y)∞(Rn))' coincide with each other in some sense.As an application, we show that under the condition that the Littlewood-Paley function of f belongs to LP(Rn) for some p (e) (0, 1], the condition f (e) ((Y)∞(Rn))' is equivalent to that f (e) ((y)(Rn))' and f vanishes weakly at infinity. We further discuss some new classes of distributions defined via (y)(Rn) and (y)∞(Rn), also including their corresponding Hardy spaces.

  8. Innovations in national nutrition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Alison M; Mak, Tsz Ning; Fitt, Emily; Nicholson, Sonja; Roberts, Caireen; Sommerville, Jill

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe innovations taking place in national nutrition surveys in the UK and the challenges of undertaking innovations in such settings. National nutrition surveys must be representative of the overall population in characteristics such as socio-economic circumstances, age, sex and region. High response rates are critical. Dietary assessment innovations must therefore be suitable for all types of individuals, from the very young to the very old, for variable literacy and/or technical skills, different ethnic backgrounds and life circumstances, such as multiple carers and frequent travel. At the same time, national surveys need details on foods consumed. Current advances in dietary assessment use either technological innovations or simplified methods; neither lend themselves to national surveys. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme, and the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children (DNSIYC), currently use the 4-d estimated diary, a compromise for detail and respondent burden. Collection of food packaging enables identification of specific products. Providing space for location of eating, others eating, the television being on and eating at a table, adds to eating context information. Disaggregation of mixed dishes enables determination of true intakes of meat and fruit and vegetables. Measurement of nutritional status requires blood sampling and processing in DNSIYC clinics throughout the country and mobile units were used to optimise response. Hence, innovations in national surveys can and are being made but must take into account the paramount concerns of detail and response rate.

  9. Second Symposium on Space Industrialization. [space commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, C. M. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The policy, legal, and economic aspects of space industrialization are considered along with satellite communications, material processing, remote sensing, and the role of space carriers and a space station in space industrialization.

  10. PREDUAL SPACES FOR Q SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Lizhong; Yang Qixiang

    2009-01-01

    To find the predual spaces PαRn) of QαRn) is an important motivation in the study of Q spaces. In this article, wavelet methods are used to solve this problem in a constructive way. First, an wavelet tent atomic characterization of PαRn) is given, then its usual atomic characterization and Poisson extension characterization are given. Finally, the continuity on Pαof Calderón-Zygmund operators is studied, and the result can be also applied to give the Morrey characterization of PαRn).

  11. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  12. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  13. SUSTAINABILITY OF DIGITAL PUBLIC SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Hudák

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modern digital public spaces are evolving from being mostly the provider of ICT and internet connection to institutions that provide complex range of services and support for the community. With this shift in their focus new challenges are emerging, among others their sustainability.Methodology/Approach: We build on and extend the methodology of Digital Cooperatives project. Within this project, survey on 59 digital public spaces from 12 EU countries was conducted. These digital public spaces were examined in 21 areas, some of them relating to their sustainability. We further analyse the sustainability issue of these digital public spaces.Findings: We identified three main issues affecting sustainability of digital public spaces – budgeting, services and community. Digital public spaces mostly rely on public funding and have limited diversification of their funds, which increases a risk when one source of funding drops out. They also have to build a strong community of users, supporters, which will make use of their capacities and helps co-create new services and thus strengthen and improve the community itself.Originality/Value of paper: Research in this paper is based on the collection of best practices from various EU countries in the field of digital public spaces. Recommendations based on these practices could help the creation of new, and in current digital public spaces.

  14. THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE SURVEY OF THE ORION A AND B MOLECULAR CLOUDS. I. A CENSUS OF DUSTY YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS AND A STUDY OF THEIR MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megeath, S. T.; Kryukova, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43560 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Flaherty, K. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hora, J. L.; Myers, P. C.; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomical Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hartmann, L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pipher, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Stauffer, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Young, E. T., E-mail: megeath@physics.utoledo.edu [SOFIA-Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We present a survey of the Orion A and B molecular clouds undertaken with the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board Spitzer. In total, five distinct fields were mapped, covering 9 deg{sup 2} in five mid-IR bands spanning 3-24 {mu}m. The survey includes the Orion Nebula Cluster, the Lynds 1641, 1630, and 1622 dark clouds, and the NGC 2023, 2024, 2068, and 2071 nebulae. These data are merged with the Two Micron All Sky Survey point source catalog to generate a catalog of eight-band photometry. We identify 3479 dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Orion molecular clouds by searching for point sources with mid-IR colors indicative of reprocessed light from dusty disks or infalling envelopes. The YSOs are subsequently classified on the basis of their mid-IR colors and their spatial distributions are presented. We classify 2991 of the YSOs as pre-main-sequence stars with disks and 488 as likely protostars. Most of the sources were observed with IRAC in two to three epochs over six months; we search for variability between the epochs by looking for correlated variability in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. We find that 50% of the dusty YSOs show variability. The variations are typically small ({approx}0.2 mag) with the protostars showing a higher incidence of variability and larger variations. The observed correlations between the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 {mu}m variability suggests that we are observing variations in the heating of the inner disk due to changes in the accretion luminosity or rotating accretion hot spots.

  15. The Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of the Orion A and B Molecular Clouds. I. A Census of Dusty Young Stellar Objects and a Study of Their Mid-infrared Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.; Muzerolle, J.; Kryukova, E.; Flaherty, K.; Hora, J. L.; Allen, L. E.; Hartmann, L.; Myers, P. C.; Pipher, J. L.; Stauffer, J.; Young, E. T.; Fazio, G. G.

    2012-12-01

    We present a survey of the Orion A and B molecular clouds undertaken with the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board Spitzer. In total, five distinct fields were mapped, covering 9 deg2 in five mid-IR bands spanning 3-24 μm. The survey includes the Orion Nebula Cluster, the Lynds 1641, 1630, and 1622 dark clouds, and the NGC 2023, 2024, 2068, and 2071 nebulae. These data are merged with the Two Micron All Sky Survey point source catalog to generate a catalog of eight-band photometry. We identify 3479 dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Orion molecular clouds by searching for point sources with mid-IR colors indicative of reprocessed light from dusty disks or infalling envelopes. The YSOs are subsequently classified on the basis of their mid-IR colors and their spatial distributions are presented. We classify 2991 of the YSOs as pre-main-sequence stars with disks and 488 as likely protostars. Most of the sources were observed with IRAC in two to three epochs over six months; we search for variability between the epochs by looking for correlated variability in the 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. We find that 50% of the dusty YSOs show variability. The variations are typically small (~0.2 mag) with the protostars showing a higher incidence of variability and larger variations. The observed correlations between the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 μm variability suggests that we are observing variations in the heating of the inner disk due to changes in the accretion luminosity or rotating accretion hot spots.

  16. Space Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  17. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  18. Space Handbook,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    rehydratable drinks including black coffee, tea, cocoa , cocoa -flavored instant breakfast, grape drink, limeade. lemonade, orange drink, grapefruit drink...type of beverage. These packs expanded in length with the addition of the cold or hot water to the beverage powder . The astronauts sat at the food...versatility of the shuttle provides a number of advantages in space exploration, but the primary benefit will be reduced costs of building and launching

  19. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  20. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    , called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... or she suddenly finds himself in another world, where artefacts are given new meaning and where other rules apply. This makes sense, but also demands that play and non-play can be easily separated. Even so, the concept of the magic circle has never been analysed with respect to the spatial configuration...

  1. The Second VLBA Calibrator Survey: VCS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomalont, E. B.; Petrov, L.; MacMillan, D. S.; Gordon, D.; Ma, C.

    2003-11-01

    This paper presents an extension of the Very Long Baseline Array Calibrator Survey, called VCS2, containing 276 sources. This survey fills in regions of the sky that were not completely covered by the previous VCS1 calibrator survey. The VCS2 survey includes calibrator sources near the Galactic plane, -30deganalysis of the group delays measured at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz using the Goddard Space Flight Center CALC/SOLVE package. From the VLBA snapshot observations, images of the calibrators are available, and each source is given a quality code for anticipated use. The VCS2 catalog is available from the NRAO Web site.

  2. Ultracool Dwarf Science from Widefield Multi-Epoch Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Deacon, N R; Lucas, P W; Liu, Michael C; Bessell, M S; Burningham, B; Cushing, M C; Day-Jones, A C; Dhital, S; Law, N M; Mainzer, A K; Zhang, Z H

    2010-01-01

    Widefield surveys have always provided a rich hunting ground for the coolest stars and brown dwarfs. The single epoch surveys at the beginning of this century greatly expanded the parameter space for ultracool dwarfs. Here we outline the science possible from new multi-epoch surveys which add extra depth and open the time domain to study.

  3. 48 CFR 570.402-3 - Market survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market survey. 570.402-3 Section 570.402-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL... Continued Space Requirements 570.402-3 Market survey. Conduct a market survey following 570.301....

  4. The Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of the Orion A & B Molecular Clouds - Part I: A Census of Dusty Young Stellar Objects and a Study of their Mid-IR Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Megeath, S T; Muzerolle, J; Kryukova, E; Flaherty, K; Hora, J; Allen, L E; Hartmann, L; Myers, P C; Pipher, J L; Stauffer, J; Young, E T; Fazio, G G

    2012-01-01

    We present a survey of the Orion A and B molecular clouds undertaken with the IRAC and MIPS instruments onboard Spitzer. In total, five distinct fields were mapped covering 14 sq. degrees in five mid-IR bands spanning 3-24 microns. The survey includes the Orion Nebula Cluster, the Lynds 1641, 1630 and 1622 dark clouds, and the NGC 2023, 2024, 2068 and 2071 nebulae. These data are merged with the 2MASS point source catalog to generate a catalog of eight band photometry. We identify 3479 dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Orion molecular clouds by searching for point sources with mid-IR colors indicative of reprocessed light from dusty disks or infalling envelopes. The YSOs are subsequently classified on the basis of their mid-IR colors and their spatial distributions are presented. We classify 2991 of the YSOs as pre-main sequence stars with disks and 488 as likely protostars. Most of the sources were observed with IRAC in 2-3 epochs over 6 months; we search for variability between the epochs by looking...

  5. Space Politics and Policy. An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, E.

    2003-01-01

    This book is the first comprehensive source for the Space Politics and Policies of the United States Civil, Military, Intelligence, and Commercial Space Programs. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective provides a comprehensive survey of Space Policy. This book is organized around two themes. Space Policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the space age. Space Policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. The book analyzes Space Policy at several levels including historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes and policy outcomes. It examines the symbiotic relationships between policy, technology, and science; provides a review and synthesis of the existing body of knowledge in Space Policy; and identifies Space Policy trends and developments from the beginnings of the space age through the current era of the twenty-first century. The book is intended for those interested in Space Policy, especially Space Policy decision-makers, program and project managers, as well as students and lecturers of Space Policy. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0879-1 and http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-0902-X

  6. Deciphering open space in urban contexts: Geophysical survey, soil multi-element chemical analysis, and artifact distributions at the 15th–16th-century AD Swahili settlement of Songo Mnara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleisher, Jeffrey; Sulas, Federica

    2015-01-01

    to map artifact and geochemical distributions across these areas. These data provided a means to distinguish a ‘public space’ at the site: correlations were found between anomalies, daub, certain chemical elements (Fe, P, K, Mn) while areas without anomalies—the ‘public space’—correlated with more...... fragmented ceramics and other chemical elements (Ca, Na, Mg, Sr). The integrated methodological framework developed at Songo Mnara offers a new way to define areas that may have functioned as ‘public spaces’ as well as possible activities that were carried out in them. The results suggest that open spaces...

  7. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  8. Space Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Steph; Saraiva, Jose; Doran, Rosa

    2017-04-01

    NUCLIO is a Portuguese non-profit organization with a strong record of investing in science education and outreach. We have developed and implemented many activities mostly directed to a young audience, in a bid to awaken and reinforce the interest that young people devote to Astronomy and all things spatial. In this framework, we have created a week-long program called Space Detectives, supported by the Municipality of Cascais, based on a story-line that provided a number of challenges and opportunities for learning matters as diverse as the electro-magnetic spectrum, means of communication, space travel, the martian environment, coding and robotics. We report on the first session that took place in December 2016. We had as participants several kids aged 9 to 12, with a mixed background in terms of interest in the sciences. Their response varied from enthusiastic to somewhat less interested, depending on the nature of the subject and the way it was presented - a reaction not necessarily related to its complexity. This week was taken as something of a trial run, in preparation for the European Commission- funded project "Stories of Tomorrow", to be implemented in schools. The individual activities and the way they were related to the story-line, as well as the smooth transition from one to the next, were subject to an analysis that will allow for improvements in the next installments of this program. We believe this is an excellent approach to the goals of using Space and Astronomy as an anchor for generating and keeping interest in the scientific areas, and of finding new and richer ways of learning.

  9. Space Pharmacology

    CERN Document Server

    Wotring, Virginia E

    2012-01-01

    Space Pharmacology” is a review of the current knowledge regarding the use of pharmaceuticals during spaceflights. It is a comprehensive review of the literature, addressing each area of pharmacokinetics and each major physiological system in turn. Every section begins with a topic overview, and is followed by a discussion of published data from spaceflight, and from ground experiments meant to model the spaceflight situation. Includes a discussion looking forward to the new medical challenges we are likely to face on longer duration exploration missions. This book is a snapshot of our current knowledge that also highlights areas of unknown.

  10. Space Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  11. Space Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Xontech, Inc.'s software package, XonVu, simulates the missions of Voyager 1 at Jupiter and Saturn, Voyager 2 at Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and Giotto in close encounter with Comet Halley. With the program, the user can generate scenes of the planets, moons, stars or Halley's nucleus and tail as seen by Giotto, all graphically reproduced with high accuracy in wireframe representation. Program can be used on a wide range of computers, including PCs. User friendly and interactive, with many options, XonVu can be used by a space novice or a professional astronomer. With a companion user's manual, it sells for $79.

  12. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  13. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    90, Sol

    2008-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary

  14. Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 166 9. Space telescopes Figure 9.1: Paraboloid telescope. In the following sections, NI...planets nearby a brighter star. Normal-incidence telescopes One-mirror telescope The one-mirror telescope (mostly an off-axis paraboloid ; Figure 9.1) has...rotation of the whole instrument (see SUMER/SOHO, Wilhelm et al (1995) and EIS/Hinode, Culhane et al (2007)). The paraboloid field curvature (Petzval

  15. A Survey of Transportation Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at being a guide to understand the different types of transportation problems by presenting a survey of mathematical models and algorithms used to solve different types of transportation modes (ship, plane, train, bus, truck, Motorcycle, Cars, and others) by air, water, space, cables, tubes, and road. Some problems are as follows: bus scheduling problem, delivery problem, combining truck trip problem, open vehicle routing problem, helicopter routing problem, truck loading p...

  16. A survey analysis of heavy metals bio-accumulation in internal organs of sea shell animals affected by the sustainable pollution of antifouling paints used for ships anchored at some domestic maritime spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JunLian; WANG FengQi; YU Jie; ZHUANG Yan; ZHOU XiangFeng; ZHANG XiaoBin; PENG BiXian

    2008-01-01

    Some samples of sea shell animals stuck and multiplied on the bottom (beneath the seawater) coated with antifouling paints were collected at some domestic maritime spaces,and the content of heavy metals was detected through Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy.Meanwhile,comparison with sea shell animals was made on market for edible use.It shows that the content of heavy metals in internal organs of these marine animals is very high due to the large amount of copper and zinc con-tained in the antifouling paints,and this also does severely harm to sea environment and ecology.To study and develop the novel antifouling paints without copper(I) oxide is an imperative task which brooks no delay.

  17. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, G. R.; Clampin, M.; Latham, D. W.; Seager, S.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Villasenor, J. S.; Winn, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will discover thousands of exoplanets in orbit around the brightest stars in the sky. In a two-year survey, TESS will monitor more than 500,000 stars for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. This first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey will identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, around a wide range of stellar types and orbital distances. No ground-based survey can achieve this feat. A large fraction of TESS target stars will be 30-100 times brighter than those observed by Kepler satellite, and therefore TESS . planets will be far easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS will make it possible to study the masses, sizes, densities, orbits, and atmospheres of a large cohort of small planets, including a sample of rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their host stars. TESS will provide prime targets for observation with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as well as other large ground-based and space-based telescopes of the future. TESS data will be released with minimal delay (no proprietary period), inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the very nearest and brightest main-sequence stars hosting transiting exoplanets, thus providing future observers with the most favorable targets for detailed investigations.

  18. Measuring Galaxy Environments with Deep Redshift Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, M C; Madgwick, D S; Gerke, B F; Yan, R; Davis, M; Cooper, Michael C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Madgwick, Darren S.; Gerke, Brian F.; Yan, Renbin; Davis, Marc

    2005-01-01

    We study the applicability of several galaxy environment measures (n^th-nearest-neighbor distance, counts in an aperture, and Voronoi volume) within deep redshift surveys. Mock galaxy catalogs are employed to mimic representative photometric and spectroscopic surveys at high redshift (z ~ 1). We investigate the effects of survey edges, redshift precision, redshift-space distortions, and target selection upon each environment measure. We find that even optimistic photometric redshift errors (\\sigma_z = 0.02) smear out the line-of-sight galaxy distribution irretrievably on small scales; this significantly limits the application of photometric redshift surveys to environment studies. Edges and holes in a survey field dramatically affect the estimation of environment, with the impact of edge effects depending upon the adopted environment measure. These edge effects considerably limit the usefulness of smaller survey fields (e.g. the GOODS fields) for studies of galaxy environment. In even the poorest groups and c...

  19. Hausdorff operators on Euclidean spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie-cheng; FAN Da-shan; WANG Si-lei

    2013-01-01

    Hausdorff operator is an important operator raised from the dilation on Euclidean space and rooted in the classical summability of number series and Fourier series. It is also connected to many well known operators in real and complex analysis. This article is a survey of some recent developments and extensions on the Hausdorff operator. Particularly, various boundedness properties of the Hausdorff operators, studied recently by our research group, are addressed.

  20. The collection and management of space-time data of individual behavior based on location-based technologies:A case study of activity-travel survey in Beijing%北京居民活动与出行行为时空数据采集与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴彦威; 申悦; 马修军; 赵莹

    2013-01-01

    本研究对传统活动日志调查与基于GPS、LBS的移动数据采集在居民活动—移动数据的获取和应用方面进行对比,并以2010年7月在北京进行的居民活动与移动调查为例,探讨了个体行为时空数据采集的方法、存在问题和处理方式.北京市的实验调查采取活动日志调查与基于GPS、GSM两种不同定位方式的移动数据采集相结合的方法,以定位设备为基础、以互动式调查网站为平台、以面对面和电话访谈为补充,对天通苑和亦庄两个郊区居住区的样本居民进行了为期一周的行为时空数据采集.针对时空轨迹和活动日志存在的问题分别进行处理,并对数据质量进行管理,旨在为城市活动—移动系统研究中的精细化的数据采集与管理提供理论、方法和实践经验.%The space-time data of individual behavior is one of the most important quantitative foundations of modeling and analyzing in the research of human geography, transportation and urban planning. The development of location-based technologies as well as information and communication technologies (ICT) makes accurate space-time data collection more feasible and affordable. Some unique conditions in China during the transition make it possible to obtain more detailed and reliable data. This study compares individual behavior survey methods and applications based on traditional questionnaires with those based on location-based technologies. It further explores the collection and management of individual space-time data, using the seven-day activity-travel survey in 2010 Beijing as the dataset. The survey methods contain location-aware devices which are a combination of GPS and GSM, interactive survey website including activity diary filling interface for respondents and monitor interface for administrators, and interview on telephone and face to face. Respondents' socio-economic characteristics, one-week space-time trajectories and activity

  1. COSMOS Hubble Space Telescope Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, N Z; Blain, A W; Calzetti, D; Comastri, A; Capak, P; Carilli, C; Carlstrom, J E; Carollo, C M; Colbert, J; Daddi, E; Ellis, Richard S; Elvis, M; Ewald, S P; Fall, M; Franceschini, A; Giavalisco, M; Green, W; Griffiths, R E; Guzzo, L; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Kneib, J P; Koda, J; Koekemoer, A; Lefèvre, O; Lilly, S; Liu, C T; McCracken, H J; Massey, R; Mellier, Y; Miyazaki, S; Mobasher, B; Mould, J; Norman, C; Réfrégier, A; Renzini, A; Rhodes, J; Rich, M; Sanders, D B; Schiminovich, D; Schinnerer, E; Scodeggio, M; Sheth, K; Shopbell, P L; Taniguchi, Y; Tyson, N; Urry, C M; Van Waerbeke, L; Vettolani, P; White, S D M; Yan, L

    2006-01-01

    The Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) was initiated with an extensive allocation (590 orbits in Cycles 12-13) using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for high resolution imaging. Here we review the characteristics of the HST imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and parallel observations with NICMOS and WFPC2. A square field (1.8$\\sq$\\deg) has been imaged with single-orbit ACS I-F814W exposures with 50% completeness for sources 0.5\\arcsec in diameter at I$_{AB} $ = 26.0 mag. The ACS imaging is a key part of the COSMOS survey, providing very high sensitivity and high resolution (0.09\\arcsec FWHM, 0.05\\arcsec pixels) imaging and detecting a million objects. These images yield resolved morphologies for several hundred thousand galaxies. The small HST PSF also provides greatly enhanced sensitivity for weak lensing investigations of the dark matter distribution.

  2. The Value Of Enhanced Neo Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2012-10-01

    NEO surveys have now achieved, more or less, the “Spaceguard Goal” of cataloging 90% of NEAs larger than 1 km in diameter, and thereby have reduced the short-term hazard from cosmic impacts by about an order of magnitude, from an actuarial estimate of 1,000 deaths per year (actually about a billion every million years, with very little in between), to about 100 deaths per year, with a shift toward smaller but more frequent events accounting for the remaining risk. It is fair to ask, then, what is the value of a next-generation accelerated survey to “retire” much of the remaining risk. The curve of completion of survey versus size of NEA is remarkably similar for any survey, ground or space based, visible light or thermal IR, so it is possible to integrate risk over all sizes, with a time variable curve of completion to evaluate the actuarial value of speeding up survey completion. I will present my latest estimate of NEA population and completion of surveys. From those I will estimate the “value” of accelerated surveys such as Pan-STARRS, LSST, or space-based surveys, versus continuing with current surveys. My tentative conclusion is that we may have already reached the point in terms of cost-benefit where accelerated surveys are not cost-effective in terms of reducing impact risk. If not yet, we soon will. On the other hand, the surveys, which find and catalog main-belt and other classes of small bodies as well as NEOs, have provided a gold mine of good science. The scientific value of continued or accelerated surveys needs to be emphasized as the impact risk is increasingly “retired.”

  3. Measuring Library Space Use and Preferences: Charting a Path toward Increased Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Kathleen M.; Schaller, Molly A.; Hunley, Sawyer A.

    2008-01-01

    The University of Dayton (UD) used a multi-method research approach to evaluate current space use in the library. A general campus survey on study spaces, online library surveys, a week-long video study, and data from the "National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE)" were examined to understand student choices in library usage. Results…

  4. Measuring Library Space Use and Preferences: Charting a Path toward Increased Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Kathleen M.; Schaller, Molly A.; Hunley, Sawyer A.

    2008-01-01

    The University of Dayton (UD) used a multi-method research approach to evaluate current space use in the library. A general campus survey on study spaces, online library surveys, a week-long video study, and data from the "National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE)" were examined to understand student choices in library usage. Results suggest…

  5. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  6. Space mechanisms needs for future NASA long duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    Future NASA long duration missions will require high performance, reliable, long lived mechanical moving systems. In order to develop these systems, high technology components, such as bearings, gears, seals, lubricants, etc., will need to be utilized. There has been concern in the NASA community that the current technology level in these mechanical component/tribology areas may not be adequate to meet the goals of long duration NASA mission such as Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). To resolve this concern, NASA-Lewis sent a questionnaire to government and industry workers (who have been involved in space mechanism research, design, and implementation) to ask their opinion if the current space mechanisms technology (mechanical components/tribology) is adequate to meet future NASA Mission needs and goals. In addition, a working group consisting of members from each NASA Center, DoD, and DOE was established to study the technology status. The results of the survey and conclusions of the working group are summarized.

  7. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. I. Introduction to the Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Côté, P; Ferrarese, L; Jordan, A; Mei, S; Merritt, D; Milosavljevic, M; Peng, E W; Tonry, J L; West, M J; Cote, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordan, Andres; Mei, Simona; Merritt, David; Milosavljevic, Milos; Peng, Eric W.; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The Virgo Cluster is the dominant mass concentration in the Local Supercluster and the largest collection of elliptical and lenticular galaxies in the nearby universe. In this paper, we present an introduction to the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey: a program to image, in the F475W and F850LP bandpasses (Sloan g and z), 100 early-type galaxies in the Virgo Cluster using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. We describe the selection of the program galaxies and their ensemble properties, the choice of filters, the field placement and orientation, the limiting magnitudes of the survey, coordinated parallel observations of 100 "intergalactic" fields with WFPC2, and supporting ground-based spectroscopic observations of the program galaxies. In terms of depth, spatial resolution, sample size and homogeneity, this represents the most comprehensive imaging survey to date of early-type galaxies in a cluster environment. We briefly describe the main scientific goals of the survey which include the me...

  8. Geoid of Nepal from airborne gravity survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Einarsson, Indriði

    2011-01-01

    An airborne gravity survey of Nepal was carried out December 2010 in a cooperation between DTU-Space, Nepal Survey Department, and NGA, USA. The entire country was flown with survey lines spaced 6 nm with a King Air aircraft, with a varying flight altitude from 4 to 10 km. The survey operations...... were a major challenge due to excessive jet streams at altitude as well as occasional excessive mountain waves. Despite the large 400 mGal+ range of gravity anomaly changes from the Indian plains to the Tibetan Plateau, results appear accurate to a few mGal, with proper evaluation from cross...... as well as recent GPS-heights of Mt. Everest. The new airborne data also provide an independent validation of GOCE gravity field results at the local ~100 km resolution scale....

  9. 三维激光扫描技术在地下空间设施普查测量中的方法研究%The 3D Laser Scanner Technology Research Methods in the Underground Space Facilities Surveying and Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 郭震冬; 许盛

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing the types and characteristics of underground space facilities , it introducted the 3D laser scanner surveying and mapping .It overcomes the traditional measuring technology of single point measurement ,slow speed and the measurement environment requires higher shortcomings .To meet the requirements of underground space facilities measuring precision ,it compared with other methods to determine effective method for 3D laser scanner .%本文通过分析地下空间设施的类型和特点,引进了三维激光扫描仪进行普查测绘。它克服了传统测量技术的单点测量、速度慢、对测量环境要求高等缺点。为满足地下空间设施测量精度要求,通过方法试验数据对比确定了三维激光扫描仪有效作业方法。

  10. Linear spaces with few lines

    CERN Document Server

    Metsch, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    A famous theorem in the theory of linear spaces states that every finite linear space has at least as many lines as points. This result of De Bruijn and Erd|s led to the conjecture that every linear space with "few lines" canbe obtained from a projective plane by changing only a small part of itsstructure. Many results related to this conjecture have been proved in the last twenty years. This monograph surveys the subject and presents several new results, such as the recent proof of the Dowling-Wilsonconjecture. Typical methods used in combinatorics are developed so that the text can be understood without too much background. Thus the book will be of interest to anybody doing combinatorics and can also help other readers to learn the techniques used in this particular field.

  11. Stamping the Earth from space

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2017-01-01

    This unique book presents a historical and philatelic survey of Earth exploration from space. It covers all areas of research in which artificial satellites have contributed in designing a new image of our planet and its environment: the atmosphere and ionosphere, the magnetic field, radiation belts and the magnetosphere, weather, remote sensing, mapping of the surface, observation of the oceans and marine environments, geodesy, and the study of life and ecological systems. Stamping the Earth from Space presents the results obtained with the thousands of satellites launched by the two former superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, and also those of the many missions carried out by the ESA, individual European countries, Japan, China, India, and the many emerging space nations. Beautifully illustrated, it contains almost 1100 color reproductions of philatelic items. In addition to topical stamps and thematic postal documents, the book provides an extensive review of astrophilatelic items. The most...

  12. Robotic Surveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    -actuated functions to be controlled by an onboard computer. The computer-controlled Speedrower was developed at Carnegie Mellon University to automate agricultural harvesting. Harvesting tasks require the vehicle to cover a field using minimally overlapping rows at slow speeds in a similar manner to geophysical data acquisition. The Speedrower had demonstrated its ability to perform as it had already logged hundreds of acres of autonomous harvesting. This project is the first use of autonomous robotic technology on a large-scale for geophysical surveying.

  13. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness......” in his classic work “Homo Ludens” (Huizinga 1938, translated into English 1971). This has since been developed into the concept of the “magic circle” by Salen and Zimmerman (2003), as an understanding of playing games as a kind of alternate reality. When a person cross the magic circle of a game, he...

  14. Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of the Flight Line Food Service Facility at Travis AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    Potatoes/ Mixed Vegetables TUE - Baked Ham/Home Fries/Peas & Carrots and Fried Chicken/Dotato Puffs/ Mexican Corn WED - Roast Pork...Fried Chicken/Potato Puffs/ Mexican Corn SUN - Baked Ham/Home Fries/Peas & Carrots and Spaghetti with Meat Sauce mmm^mm IWWM&JISW^.iSamS’W...Corn Chips Crackers BEVERAGES Milk Coffee Fruit Juices Carbonated B erages DESSERTS Pie Cake or Cookies >ce Cream Fresh Fruit TABLE 2

  16. The Grism Lens-amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). X. Sub-kiloparsec Resolution Gas-phase Metallicity Maps at Cosmic Noon behind the Hubble Frontier Fields Cluster MACS1149.6+2223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Jones, Tucker A.; Treu, Tommaso; Morishita, Takahiro; Abramson, Louis E.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Malkan, Matthew A.; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Fontana, Adriano; Grillo, Claudio; Henry, Alaina L.; Karman, Wouter; Kelly, Patrick L.; Mason, Charlotte A.; Mercurio, Amata; Rosati, Piero; Sharon, Keren; Trenti, Michele; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2017-03-01

    We combine deep Hubble Space Telescope grism spectroscopy with a new Bayesian method to derive maps of gas-phase metallicity for 10 star-forming galaxies at high redshift (1.2≲ z≲ 2.3). Exploiting lensing magnification by the foreground cluster MACS1149.6+2223, we reach sub-kiloparsec spatial resolution and push the limit of stellar mass associated with such high-z spatially resolved measurements below {10}8 {M}ȯ for the first time. Our maps exhibit diverse morphologies, indicative of various effects such as efficient radial mixing from tidal torques, rapid accretion of low-metallicity gas, and other physical processes that can affect the gas and metallicity distributions in individual galaxies. Based upon an exhaustive sample of all existing sub-kiloparesec resolution metallicity gradient measurements at high z, we find that predictions given by analytical chemical evolution models assuming a relatively extended star-formation profile in the early disk-formation phase can explain the majority of observed metallicity gradients, without involving galactic feedback or radial outflows. We observe a tentative correlation between stellar mass and metallicity gradients, consistent with the “downsizing” galaxy formation picture that more massive galaxies are more evolved into a later phase of disk growth, where they experience more coherent mass assembly at all radii and thus show shallower metallicity gradients. In addition to the spatially resolved analysis, we compile a sample of homogeneously cross-calibrated integrated metallicity measurements spanning three orders of magnitude in stellar mass at z ∼ 1.8. We use this sample to study the mass–metallicity relation (MZR) and find that the slope of the observed MZR can rule out the momentum-driven wind model at a 3σ confidence level.

  17. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  18. The Deep Interferometric VSOP--Arecibo Survey (DIVAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, P. G.; Hirabayashi, H.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Salter, C.; Ghosh, T.; Gurvits, L. I.; Fomalont, E. B.

    2009-08-01

    The Deep Interferometric VSOP-Arecibo Survey (DIVAS) program used space VLBI observations of a faint sample of flat-spectrum sources made with the HALCA satellite and the Arecibo telescope to provide the highest possible space VLBI sensitivity at 5 GHz. The main aim of the survey is to compare statistical results on the source structures (e.g., brightness temperatures, sizes, visibilities) with results from the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) Survey, to determine whether there are systematic differences in the compact structures of sources selected from samples with limiting flux densities differing by over an order of magnitude.

  19. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  20. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  1. Lesotho - Enterprise Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The 2011 MCA-Lesotho baseline enterprise survey is a national survey of enterprises. The main objective of the survey was to assess the current status of businesses...

  2. Natural Resources at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Informative presentation on the purpose and need for an Ecological Program at the Kennedy Space Center. Includes the federal laws mandating the program followed by a description of many of the long term monitoring projects. Projects include wildlife surveying by observation as well as interactive surveys to collect basic animal data for analysis of trends in habitat use and ecosystem health. The program is designed for a broad range in audience from elementary to college level.

  3. ISES Experience in Delivering Space Weather Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boteler, David

    The International Space Environment Service has over eighty years experience in providing space weather services to meet a wide variety of user needs. This started with broadcast on December 1, 2008 from the Eiffel Tower about radio conditions. The delivery of information about ionospheric effects on high frequency (HF) radio propagation continue to be a major concern in many parts of the world. The movement into space brought requirements for a new set of space weather services, ranging from radiation dangers to man in space, damage to satellites and effects on satellite communication and navigation systems. On the ground magnetic survey, power system and pipeline operators require information about magnetic disturbances that can affect their operations. In the past these services have been delivered by individual Regional Warning Centres. However, the needs of new trans-national users are stimulating the development of new collaborative international space weather services.

  4. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, February 6, 2012 -- Bare Earth DEMs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic Lidar survey was conducted on February 6, 2012, over the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana. The data were collected at a nominal pulse space of 0.5-meter...

  5. Topographic Lidar Survey of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, February 6, 2012 -- Bare Earth DEMs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A topographic Lidar survey was conducted on February 6, 2012, over the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana. The data were collected at a nominal pulse space of 0.5-meter...

  6. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: first 1000 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, J T

    2014-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey is an ongoing project to obtain integral field spectroscopic observations of ~3400 galaxies by mid-2016. Including the pilot survey, a total of ~1000 galaxies have been observed to date, making the SAMI Galaxy Survey the largest of its kind in existence. This unique dataset allows a wide range of investigations into different aspects of galaxy evolution. The first public data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, consisting of 107 galaxies drawn from the full sample, has now been released. By giving early access to SAMI data for the entire research community, we aim to stimulate research across a broad range of topics in galaxy evolution. As the sample continues to grow, the survey will open up a new and unique parameter space for galaxy evolution studies.

  7. Blind comparisons of shear-wave velocities at closely-spaced sites in San Jose, California: Proceedings of a Workshop held at the US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, May 3, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asten, Michael W.; Boore, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Shear-wave velocities within several hundred meters of Earth's surface are important in specifying earthquake ground motions for engineering design. Not only are the shearwave velocities used in classifying sites for use of modern building codes, but they are also used in site-specific studies of particularly significant structures. Many are the methods for estimating sub-surface shear-wave velocities, but few are the blind comparisons of a number of the methods at a single site. The word 'blind' is important here and means that the measurements and interpretations are done completely independent of one another. Stephen Hartzell of the USGS office on Golden, Colorado realized that such an experiment would be very useful for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods, and he and Jack Boatwright of the USGS office in Menlo Park, California, in cooperation with Carl Wentworth of the Menlo Park USGS office found a convenient site in the city of San Jose, California. The site had good access and space for conducting experiments, and a borehole drilled to several hundred meters by the Santa Clara Valley Water District was made available for downhole logging. Jack Boatwright asked David Boore to coordinate the experiment. In turn, David Boore persuaded several teams to make measurements, helped with the local logistics, collected the results, and organized and conducted an International Workshop in May, 2004. At this meeting the participants in the experiment gathered in Menlo Park to describe their measurements and interpretations, and to see the results of the comparisons of the various methods for the first time. This Open-File Report describes the results of that workshop. One of the participants, Michael Asten, offered to help the coordinator prepare this report. Because of his lead role in pulling the report together, Dr. Asten is the lead author of the paper to follow and is also the lead Compiler for the Open-File Report. It is important to

  8. Preventing Space Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The international community should join forces to avoid possible conflicts in space Military competition and conflict in outer space can be divided into three stages:militarization,wea- ponization and the space battle- field. Space militarization has become a thing of the past.Now,many countries are re- searching more advanced space weaponry technology,which means space weapon- ization is becoming a growing reality.The process of space competition is astonishingly

  9. Handbook of web surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlehem, J.; Biffignandi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Best practices to create and implementhighly effective web surveys Exclusively combining design and sampling issues, Handbook of Web Surveys presents a theoretical yet practical approach to creating and conducting web surveys. From the history of web surveys to various modes of data collection to ti

  10. Amazon Web Services: Landsat GLS (Global Land Survey)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the past, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA collaborated on the creation of four global land data sets from Landsat images: one from the 1970s, and one...

  11. Using Electronic Surveys: Advice from Survey Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the perceptions and recommendations of sixty-two experienced survey..researchers from the American Educational Research Association regarding the use of..electronic surveys. The most positive aspects cited for the use of electronic surveys were..reduction of costs (i.e., postage, phone charges, the use of electronic mail for pre-notification or..follow-up purposes, and the compatibility of data with existing software programs. These..professionals expressed limitations in using electronic surveys pertaining to the limited..sampling frame as well as issues of confidentiality, privacy, and the credibility of the sample...They advised that electronic surveys designed with the varied technological background and..capabilities of the respondent in mind, follow sound principles of survey construction, and be..administered to pre-notified, targeted populations with published email addresses.

  12. Space Acquired Photo = Gemini, Skylab, Shuttle Large Format Camera: 1965 - 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Space Acquired Photography includes imagery from the Shuttle Large Format Camera, Skylab, and Gemini missions. The Space Acquired archive contains...

  13. Analogy and mathematical reasoning : a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, C. D. F.

    1983-01-01

    We survey the literature of Artificial Intelligence, and other related work, pertaining to the modelling of mathematical reasoning and its relationship with the use of analogy. In particular, we discuss the contribution of Lenat's program AM to models of mathematical discovery and concept-formation. We consider the use of similarity measures to structure a knowledge space and their role in concept acquisition.

  14. Shuttle Imaging Radar Survey Mission C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Abstract: Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) was part of an imaging radar system that was flown on board two Space Shuttle flights (9 - 20 April, 1994 and 30...

  15. Shuttle Imaging Radar Survey Mission C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) was part of an imaging radar system that was flown on board two Space Shuttle flights (9 - 20 April, 1994 and 30 September - 11...

  16. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  17. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  18. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liljana Boci; Elona Berberi

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the ...

  19. Hewitt-Nachbin spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Maurice D

    2013-01-01

    North-Holland Mathematics Studies: Hewitt-Nachbin Spaces exposes the theory of Hewitt-Nachbin spaces, also called realcompact or Q-spaces, taking into account synergistic points of view from which these spaces are investigated. The publication first offers information on embedding in topological products and Hewitt-Nachbin spaces and convergence, including notation and terminology, embedding lemma, E-completely regular spaces, E-compact spaces, and characterizations and properties of Hewitt-Nachbin spaces. The text also touches on Hewitt-Nachbin spaces, uniformities, and related topological sp

  20. Applications of some block spaces to singular integrals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Shanzhen

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a survey on the theory and application of some block spaces on the unit sphere introduced by Jiang and the author of this paper inthe study of singular in tegrals and some related operators with rough kernels.

  1. Lagrangian Space Nonlinear $E$-mode clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hao-Ran; Zhu, Hong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We study the nonlinear $E$-mode clustering in Lagrangian space by using large scale structure (LSS) $N$-body simulations and use the displacement field information in Lagrangian space to recover the primordial linear density field. We find that, compared to Eulerian nonlinear density fields, the $E$-mode displacement fields in Lagrangian space improves the cross-correlation scale $k$ with initial density field by factor of 6 $\\sim$ 7, containing 2 orders of magnitude more primordial information. This illustrates ability of potential density reconstruction algorithms, to improve the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements from current and future large scale structure surveys.

  2. Conclusions from the image analysis of the VSOP Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, R.; Fomalont, E.; Wiik, K.

    2009-01-01

    In February 1997, the Japanese radio astronomy satellite HALCA was launched to provide the space-bourne element for the VLBI Space Observatory Programme (VSOP) mission. A significant fraction of the mission time was to be dedicated to the VSOP Survey of bright compact Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) at 5 GHz, which was lead by ISAS. The VSOP Survey Sources are an unbiased dataset of 294 targets, of which 82% were successfully observed. These are now undergoing statistical analysis to tease out t...

  3. Sampling survey methodology issues of SBS- survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Boci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing an insight on what is required to build an efficient and high quality business statistics from sample survey procedures, and on the effective and appropriate use of survey data in analysis. It aims at describing a general overview of what is required to have a good survey estimate. It shows in practice how to estimate characteristics of the population in SBS considering: weighting, non-response adjustments, post stratification, estimating a population totals, the identification and treatment of outliers, and analyses of coefficient of variation. It provides sources of errors and gives recommendations of how to improve them throw sample survey techniques.

  4. USING STATISTICAL SURVEY IN ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia TESELIOS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical survey is an effective method of statistical investigation that involves gathering quantitative data, which is often preferred in statistical reports due to the information which can be obtained regarding the entire population studied by observing a part of it. Therefore, because of the information provided, polls are used in many research areas. In economics, statistics are used in the decision making process in choosing competitive strategies in the analysis of certain economic phenomena, the formulation of forecasts. Economic study presented in this paper is to illustrate how a simple random sampling is used to analyze the existing parking spaces situation in a given locality.

  5. Space Station - Implications for space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, D. L.; Willenberg, H. J.; Atkins, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Space-based materials processing R&D is examined. It is proposed that the Space Station's Microgravity and Materials Processing Facility will be utilized by academic, government, and commercial customers. Users requirements for materials processing in space are discussed. Consideration is given to the time allocation of the facility, charges to users, and the property rights of the users.

  6. Space history, space policy, and executive leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Sylvia K.

    1993-01-01

    A lecture that attempts to establish the role of space historians in formulating space policy is presented. The discussion focusses on two adages and their relevance to space policy. The adages are as follows: 'write about what you know;' and 'good managers do things right; good executives do the right things.'

  7. New works in space. [Space Shuttle based manufacturing and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Goods and services that may be furnished by the Space Shuttle are described. A single multibeam antenna array capable of supplying satellite communication for 256 U.S. cities, a disaster warning network, and a TV link to remote areas is discussed. Attention is also given to such materials processing programs as crystal growth (for example, production of mercuric iodide crystals for gamma-ray detectors), eutectic growth of solid-solution crystals such as mercury-cadmium-telluride, manufacture of uniform latex spheres for medical applications, and development of small glass spheres for fusion power applications. In addition to the Space Telescope, a meter-class telescope on the Shuttle and a wide-field survey instrument are under study.

  8. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsam, G.

    operating in stations at Yarragadee, Western Australia and Mt Stromlo, Australian Capital Territory. Recently, however, Australia has also agreed to host a node of AFRL's Extended HANDS telescope network in Learmonth, Western Australia, and discussions are underway with researchers in Australian academia about also participating in this research program. In the RF regime, however, DSTO has substantial HF and microwave radar programs, elements of which could be readily adapted to surveillance of space. Proposals have already been developed internally within both programs for various forms of space surveillance systems including both broad area surveillance and imaging along with some very initial technology concept demonstrator systems. Recently proposals have also been floated to substantially increase Australia's civilian space surveillance programs including the Ionospheric Prediction Service's longstanding program to monitor the ionosphere and space weather, meteor radars and other systems. Finally Australia's bid to host the international Square Kilometre Array radio telescope has already generated concrete commitments to establish several very substantial RF arrays in Western Australia that may also provide instruments of unprecedented sensitivity and resolution for surveillance of space. The paper will survey these technology development programs and associated progress on integrating them into some sort of national program for space situational awareness.

  9. The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ashby, M L N; Brodwin, M; Griffith, R; Eisenhardt, P; Kozlowski, S; Kochanek, C S; Bock, J J; Borys, C; Brand, K; Brown, M J I; Cool, R; Cooray, A R; Croft, S; Dey, A; Eisenstein, D; González, A H; Gorjian, V; Grogin, N A; Ivison, R J; Jacob, J; Jannuzi, B T; Mainzer, A; Moustakas, L A; Röttgering, H J A; Seymour, N; Smith, H A; Stanford, S A; Stauffer, J R; Sullivan, I; Van Breugel, W; Willner, S P; Wright, E L

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of ten square degrees in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Cycle four Spitzer Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit -- for the first time -- the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z~3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS datasets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z~1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly-released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.9...

  10. Fundamentals of space medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    This book details the findings from life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. It looks at the future of human space flight and what comes next, especially in the areas of planetary exploration and space tourism.

  11. Quasi-uniform Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  12. Space Solar Power Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  13. Topological vector spaces and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bogachev, V I

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a compact exposition of the fundamentals of the theory of locally convex topological vector spaces. Furthermore it contains a survey of the most important results of a more subtle nature, which cannot be regarded as basic, but knowledge which is useful for understanding applications. Finally, the book explores some of such applications connected with differential calculus and measure theory in infinite-dimensional spaces. These applications are a central aspect of the book, which is why it is different from the wide range of existing texts on topological vector spaces. In addition, this book develops differential and integral calculus on infinite-dimensional locally convex spaces by using methods and techniques of the theory of locally convex spaces. The target readership includes mathematicians and physicists whose research is related to infinite-dimensional analysis.

  14. User participation in urban green spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fors, Hanna; Molin, Julie Frøik; Murphyc, Melissa Anna

    2015-01-01

    The provision and administration of high quality urban public green spaces intertwines issues of planning, design, management and maintenance with governance. The benefits of such spaces are often tied to social justice, public health and recreation, biodiversity and helping cities to deal...... participation affects the physical quality of green spaces. This literature review surveyed empirical scientific studies seeking to answer the following research question: How does research to date reflect over user participation's contribution to public urban green space quality? The review includes 31...... for participation are taken for granted. A particularly large disparity was found between the discussing and testing of many arguments regarding how participation may directly benefit urban green spaces. Rather than assessing the physical outputs of participation, most of the empirical studies tested process...

  15. Network Media Literacy Education for a Harmonious Network Space---Survey of network media literacy In College Students%构建和谐网络空间亟需网络媒介素养教育--大学生网络媒介素养调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小普

    2016-01-01

    网络媒介素养是公民在现代社会生存的基本技能,也是构建和谐网络空间的基本前提。调查显示大学生的网络媒介素养整体水平亟待提高,高校应积极开设网络媒介素养教育课程,家庭、政府和相关社会组织也应承担起提升大学生网络媒介素养水平的责任。%s:Network media literacy is the basic skill of citizens in modern society,it is the basic premise of building a harmonious network space.The survey shows that the overall level of College Students'network media literacy needs to be improved.The university should actively set up the net-work media literacy education curriculum,family,government and related social organizations should also assume the responsibility to enhance the level of network media literacy.

  16. Space station microscopy: Beyond the box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, N. R.; Pierson, Duane L.; Mishra, S. K.

    Microscopy aboard Space Station Freedom poses many unique challenges for in-flight investigations. Disciplines such as material processing, plant and animal research, human reseach, enviromental monitoring, health care, and biological processing have diverse microscope requirements. The typical microscope not only does not meet the comprehensive needs of these varied users, but also tends to require excessive crew time. To assess user requirements, a comprehensive survey was conducted among investigators with experiments requiring microscopy. The survey examined requirements such as light sources, objectives, stages, focusing systems, eye pieces, video accessories, etc. The results of this survey and the application of an Intelligent Microscope Imaging System (IMIS) may address these demands for efficient microscopy service in space. The proposed IMIS can accommodate multiple users with varied requirements, operate in several modes, reduce crew time needed for experiments, and take maximum advantage of the restrictive data/ instruction transmission environment on Freedom.

  17. High resolution survey for topographic surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, L. C.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A. K.; Tan, Z.

    2014-02-01

    In this decade, terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) is getting popular in many fields such as reconstruction, monitoring, surveying, as-built of facilities, archaeology, and topographic surveying. This is due the high speed in data collection which is about 50,000 to 1,000,000 three-dimensional (3D) points per second at high accuracy. The main advantage of 3D representation for the data is that it is more approximate to the real world. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show the use of High-Definition Surveying (HDS), also known as 3D laser scanning for topographic survey. This research investigates the effectiveness of using terrestrial laser scanning system for topographic survey by carrying out field test in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, Johor. The 3D laser scanner used in this study is a Leica ScanStation C10. Data acquisition was carried out by applying the traversing method. In this study, the result for the topographic survey is under 1st class survey. At the completion of this study, a standard of procedure was proposed for topographic data acquisition using laser scanning systems. This proposed procedure serves as a guideline for users who wish to utilize laser scanning system in topographic survey fully.

  18. Handbook of web surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bethlehem, Jelke

    2011-01-01

    BEST PRACTICES TO CREATE AND IMPLEMENTHIGHLY EFFECTIVE WEB SURVEYS Exclusively combining design and sampling issues, Handbook of Web Surveys presents a theoretical yet practical approach to creating and conducting web surveys. From the history of web surveys to various modes of data collection to tips for detecting error, this book thoroughly introduces readers to the this cutting-edge technique and offers tips for creating successful web surveys. The authors provide a history of web surveys and go on to explore the advantages and disadvantages of this mode of dat

  19. Fractionated spacecraft: The new sprout in distributed space systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Maessen, D.C.; Gill, E.K.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of current state-of-the-art technologies of fractionated spacecraft, a new architecture for distributed space systems. The survey covers six aspects: architecture, networking, wireless communication, wireless power transfer, distributed computing, and planned missions im

  20. Post Millennium Urban Space Design in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    and means This evaluation is partly based on analysis of documents and partly on a comprehensive questionnaire survey to all Danish Municipalities. The evaluation of the 24 projects with special qualities is partly based on qualitative data and partly on observations on site. The results from this part......Hans Kiib Post Millennium Urban Space Design in Denmark - a survey on 100 Danish projects from 2002 – 2010. This article is based on an evaluation of 100 Danish open space projects form 2000 – 2010. The projects was initially proposals from Danish municipalities for the Campaign on Better Open...... and perspectives in open space design, 24 proposals were selected for further development. These projects were developed in the period from 2003 – 2007 with support from consultants. The evaluation has been carried out in 2011. It categorizes the initial 100 projects in relation to location, goals, concepts, scale...

  1. Student Facebook groups as a third space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Janus Holst; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines educational potentials of Facebook groups that are created and managed by students without any involvement from teachers. The objective is to study student-managed Facebook groups as a ‘third space' between the institutional space of teacher-managed Facebook groups and the non......-institutional, personal space of the Facebook network. The main study of the article examines six student-managed Facebook groups and provides an analysis of a total of 2247 posts and 12,217 comments. Furthermore, the study draws on group interviews with students from 17 Danish upper secondary schools and a survey...... answered by 932 students from 25 schools. Based on the survey and interviews, the paper concludes that Facebook is an important educational tool for students in Danish upper secondary schools to receive help on homework and assignments. Furthermore, on the basis of the analysis of Facebook groups...

  2. Global Trends in Space Access and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Keim, Nicholas S.; Zeender, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    global interdependent effort with all its likely complexities is an increasingly viable and pragmatic option. The discussion includes a breakdown of space missions into those of civil (scientific), military, and strictly commercial nature. It concludes that all three are robust components of a globally diversified portfolio of activities relying, essentially, on a common space industrial base and space infrastructure. As in other industries, the distribution of space industry assets and knowledge across countries and continents enables a diverse suite of options and arrangements, particularly in the areas of civil and commercial space utilization. A survey of several ongoing bilateral and multilateral space collaboration examples are provided to augment the observations regarding multinational work in space.

  3. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  4. Survey of Current and Next Generation Space Power Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-26

    porous carbon and sulfur dioxide (or thionyl chloride ), electrolyte of acetronitrile and lithium bromide salt, the lithium sulfur dioxide chemistry...TRL 6); recent laboratory developments have yielded energy densities of 600 Wh/kg22. Lithium -Air- Lithium -air batteries consist of lithium anodes...generation, battery types are discussed below and a comparative table of traditional non- lithium , terrestrial battery types are presented in Table 11

  5. Combining survey and administrative data using state space models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Horn; Ray Czaplewski

    2013-01-01

    Even as access to transactional data has been transformed by harnessing electronic flows, use of satellite imagery, research access to linked customer level records, and harmonising collections across jurisdictions, official statisticians are under pressure to detect significant turning points within response times and resolutions that cannot be handled by present...

  6. The survey of pedestrainization feasibility in urban spaces and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case study: The city of Birjand's Hakim Nazari street. ... St. has the potential to be changed into a side walk causing a higher deal of social spirit? ... to 65 years and from different social classes and groups (residents, businessman and woman, ...

  7. MMT hypervelocity star survey. III. The complete survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We describe our completed spectroscopic survey for unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) ejected from the Milky Way. Three new discoveries bring the total number of unbound late B-type stars to 21. We place new constraints on the nature of the stars and on their distances using moderate resolution MMT spectroscopy. Half of the stars are fast rotators; they are certain 2.5-4 M {sub ☉} main sequence stars at 50-120 kpc distances. Correcting for stellar lifetime, our survey implies that unbound 2.5-4 M {sub ☉} stars are ejected from the Milky Way at a rate of 1.5 × 10{sup –6} yr{sup –1}. These unbound HVSs are likely ejected continuously over the past 200 Myr and do not share a common flight time. The anisotropic spatial distribution of HVSs on the sky remains puzzling. Southern hemisphere surveys like SkyMapper will soon allow us to map the all-sky distribution of HVSs. Future proper motion measurements with Hubble Space Telescope and Gaia will provide strong constraints on origin. Existing observations are all consistent with HVS ejections from encounters with the massive black hole in the Galactic center.

  8. Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS): Survey Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tanaka, Masaomi; Mori, Kensho; Matsumoto, Emiko; Kikuchi, Yuki; Shibata, Takumi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Naoto; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Soyano, Takao; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Sarugaku, Yuki; Richmond, Michael W; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Aldering, Greg; Arimatsu, Ko; Contreras, Carlos; Horiuchi, Takashi; Hsiao, Eric Y; Itoh, Ryosuke; Iwata, Ikuru; Koji,; Kawabata, S; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Paolo,; Mazzali,; Misawa, Toru; Moritani, Yuki; Morrell, Nidia; Okamoto, Rina; Pavlyuk, Nikolay; Phillips, Mark M; Pian, Elena; Sahu, Devendra; Saito, Yoshihiko; Sano, Kei; Stritzinger, Maximilian D; Tachibana, Yutaro; Taddia, Francesco; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Tateuchi, Ken; Tomita, Akihiko; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Ui, Takahiro; Ukita, Nobuharu; Urata, Yuji; Walker, Emma S; Yoshii, Taketoshi

    2014-01-01

    The Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) is a high-cadence optical wide-field supernova (SN) survey. The primary goal of the survey is to catch the very early light of a SN, during the shock breakout phase. Detection of SN shock breakouts combined with multi-band photometry obtained with other facilities would provide detailed physical information on the progenitor stars of SNe. The survey is performed using a 2.2x2.2 deg field-of-view instrument on the 1.05-m Kiso Schmidt telescope, the Kiso Wide Field Camera (KWFC). We take a three-minute exposure in g-band once every hour in our survey, reaching magnitude g~20-21. About 100 nights of telescope time per year have been spent on the survey since April 2012. The number of the shock breakout detections is estimated to be of order of 1 during our 3-year project. This paper summarizes the KISS project including the KWFC observing setup, the survey strategy, the data reduction system, and CBET-reported SNe discovered so far by KISS.

  9. Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS): Survey strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Mori, Kensho; Matsumoto, Emiko; Kikuchi, Yuki; Shibata, Takumi; Sako, Shigeyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Naoto; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Mito, Hiroyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakada, Yoshikazu; Soyano, Takao; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nakata, Fumiaki; Okada, Norio; Sarugaku, Yuki; Richmond, Michael W.; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Aldering, Greg; Arimatsu, Ko; Contreras, Carlos; Horiuchi, Takashi; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Itoh, Ryosuke; Iwata, Ikuru; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Mazzali, Paolo; Misawa, Toru; Moritani, Yuki; Morrell, Nidia; Okamoto, Rina; Pavlyuk, Nikolay; Phillips, Mark M.; Pian, Elena; Sahu, Devendra; Saito, Yoshihiko; Sano, Kei; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Tachibana, Yutaro; Taddia, Francesco; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Tateuchi, Ken; Tomita, Akihiko; Tsvetkov, Dmitry; Ui, Takahiro; Ukita, Nobuharu; Urata, Yuji; Walker, Emma S.; Yoshii, Taketoshi

    2014-12-01

    The Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS) is a high-cadence optical wide-field supernova (SN) survey. The primary goal of the survey is to catch the very early light of a SN, during the shock breakout phase. Detection of SN shock breakouts combined with multi-band photometry obtained with other facilities would provide detailed physical information on the progenitor stars of SNe. The survey is performed using a 2.2° × 2.2° field-of-view instrument on the 1.05-m Kiso Schmidt telescope, the Kiso Wide Field Camera (KWFC). We take a 3-min exposure in g-band once every hour in our survey, reaching magnitude g ˜ 20-21. About 100 nights of telescope time per year have been spent on the survey since 2012 April. The number of the shock breakout detections is estimated to be of the order of 1 during our three-year project. This paper summarizes the KISS project including the KWFC observing setup, the survey strategy, the data reduction system, and CBET-reported SNe discovered so far by KISS.

  10. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  11. SURVEY, MCLEOD COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  12. SURVEY, KENT COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  13. SURVEY, KENT COUNTY, DE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  14. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the state averages for the HCAHPS survey responses. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  15. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  16. SURVEY, CHARLES COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  17. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  18. SURVEY, SOLANO COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Solano County California, hydrographic survey data collected by Harned Surveying and Engineering (HSE). Data collection period January 1, 2011 through March 1, 2011.

  19. SURVEY, BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. Survey, OCONEE COUNTY, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. SURVEY, BENTON COUNTY, TENNESSEE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. SURVEY, TUSCALOSAA COUNTY, ALABAMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. SURVEY, FREMONT COUNTY, COLORADO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. SURVEY, DOUGLAS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. SURVEY, OCONTO COUNTY, WI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  6. SURVEY, OSCEOLA COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. SURVEY, SANDERS COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  8. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  9. SURVEY, CALHOUN COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. SURVEY, Mathews County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  11. SURVEY, CALVERT COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  12. SURVEY, VICTORIA COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. SURVEY, Somerset COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  14. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. 1998 Harrisburg Airport Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes data collected in 1998 to evaluate the ability of lidar to survey airport obstructions in collaboration with NOAA National Geodetic Survey....

  16. Water Use: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Rose Glee; Warden, Jessie

    1976-01-01

    A survey of Florida State University students showed that their current laundry practices generate energy and water over-consumption. The survey also resulted in some concrete suggestions to the students that would improve their conservation practices. (Author/BP)

  17. SURVEY, FAIRFIELD COUNTY, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, CITRUS County, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  19. SURVEY, BUFFALO COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. SURVEY, NANTUCKET COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. SURVEY, HONOLULU COUNTY, HI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. Surveys: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenfeld, Gordon D

    2004-10-01

    Surveys are a valuable research tool for studying the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of a study population. This article explores quantitative analyses of written questionnaires as instruments for survey research. Obtaining accurate and precise information from a survey requires minimizing the possibility of bias from inappropriate sampling or a flawed survey instrument, and this article describes strategies to minimize sampling bias by increasing response rates, comparing responders to nonresponders, and identifying the appropriate sampling population. It is crucial that the survey instrument be valid, meaning that it actually measures what the investigator intends it to measure. In developing a valid survey instrument, it can be useful to adapt survey instruments that were developed by other researchers and to conduct extensive pilot-testing of your survey instrument.

  3. SURVEY, LAKE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. SURVEY, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. SURVEY, ATTALA COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  6. SURVEY, NATCHITOCHES PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. SURVEY, CASCADE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  8. SURVEY, POTTAWATTAMIE COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. SURVEY, REFUGIO COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. Global Land Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Global Land Survey (GLS) datasets are a collection of orthorectified, cloud-minimized Landsat-type satellite images, providing near complete coverage of the...

  11. Black Rail Pilot Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aural surveys using tape recorded calls proved to be an efficient and effective way to survey large expanses of shallow marsh for black rails (Laterallus...

  12. SURVEY, Baltomore City, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  13. SURVEY, Poquoson City, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  14. SURVEY, Caroline COUNTY, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  15. SURVEY, ATTALA COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. SURVEY, GRAFTON COUNTY, NH

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  18. HCAHPS Hospital Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) Hospital Survey The intent of the HCAHPS initiative is to provide a standardized survey...

  19. National Health Care Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey encompasses a family of health care provider surveys, including information about the facilities that supply health care, the services rendered, and the characteristics of the patients served.

  20. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  1. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  2. SURVEY, Cecil County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  3. SURVEY, Lowndes County, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  5. In Outer Space without a Space Suit?

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The author proposes and investigates his old idea - a living human in space without the encumbrance of a complex space suit. Only in this condition can biological humanity seriously attempt to colonize space because all planets of Solar system (except the Earth) do not have suitable atmospheres. Aside from the issue of temperature, a suitable partial pressure of oxygen is lacking. In this case the main problem is how to satiate human blood with oxygen and delete carbonic acid gas (carbon dioxide). The proposed system would enable a person to function in outer space without a space suit and, for a long time, without food. That is useful also in the Earth for sustaining working men in an otherwise deadly atmosphere laden with lethal particulates (in case of nuclear, chemical or biological war), in underground confined spaces without fresh air, under water or a top high mountains above a height that can sustain respiration.

  6. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  7. An introduction to state space modeling (in Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Tsyplakov

    2011-01-01

    Many time series models, primarily various models with unobservable components, can be represented in a so called state space form. A state space model is a powerful tool that allows one to apply to the original model a wide range of standard procedures including estimation and forecasting. This essay provides a survey of this universal class of models and related procedures.

  8. Putting Continuous Metaheuristics to Work in Binary Search Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick Crawford

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the real world, there are a number of optimization problems whose search space is restricted to take binary values; however, there are many continuous metaheuristics with good results in continuous search spaces. These algorithms must be adapted to solve binary problems. This paper surveys articles focused on the binarization of metaheuristics designed for continuous optimization.

  9. Social Work Learning Spaces: The Social Work Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufferey, Carole; King, Sue

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the contribution of a physical learning space to student engagement in social work education. Drawing on a constructivist methodology, this paper examines the findings of a survey conducted with students and staff in a social work and human service programme about their experiences of a Social Work Studio learning space. The…

  10. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  11. Invariants of directed spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Directed spaces are the objects of study within directed algebraic topology. They are characterised by spaces of directed paths associated to a source and a target, both elements of an underlying topological space. The algebraic topology of these path spaces and their connections are studied from...

  12. GIS Readiness Survey 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2014-01-01

    The GIS Readiness Survey 2014 is a follow-up to the corresponding survey that was carried out among public institutions in Denmark in 2009. The present survey thus provides an updated image of status and challenges in relation to the use of spatial information, the construction of the com- mon...

  13. China Executive Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENWEIXIAN

    2005-01-01

    Beiiing-based CTR Market Research recently completed a survey named China Business Executive Survey in the four Chinese dries of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. The survey identified 340,000 senior executives in the four cities and found that around 20,000 ofthem have annual income of over 200,000yuan (US$24,000).

  14. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  15. Extracting science from surveys of our Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James

    2011-01-01

    Our knowledge of the Galaxy is being revolutionised by a series of photometric, spectroscopic and astrometric surveys. Already an enormous body of data is available from completed surveys, and data of ever increasing quality and richness will accrue at least until the end of this decade. To extract science from these surveys we need a class of models that can give probability density functions in the space of the observables of a survey -- we should not attempt to "invert" the data from the space of observables into the physical space of the Galaxy. Currently just one class of model has the required capability, so-called "torus models". A pilot application of torus models to understanding the structure of the Galaxy's thin and thick discs has already produced two significant results: a major revision of our best estimate of the Sun's velocity with respect to the Local Standard of Rest, and a successful prediction of the way in which the vertical velocity dispersion in the disc varies with distance from the Ga...

  16. Extracting science from surveys of our Galaxy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    James Binney

    2011-07-01

    Our knowledge of the Galaxy is being revolutionized by a series of photometric, spectroscopic and astrometric surveys. Already an enormous body of data is available from completed surveys, and data of ever-increasing quality and richness will accrue at least until the end of this decade. To extract science from these surveys, we need a class of models that can give probability density functions in the space of the observables of a survey – we should not attempt to ‘invert’ the data from the space of observables into the physical space of the Galaxy. Currently just one class of model has the required capability, the so-called ‘torus models’. A pilot application of torus models to understand the structure of the Galaxy’s thin and thick discs has already produced two significant results: a major revision of our best estimate of the Sun’s velocity with respect to the local standard of rest, and a successful prediction of the way in which the vertical velocity dispersion in the disc varies with distance from the Galactic plane.

  17. Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

  18. 拓扑空间、极限空间、及L-拓扑空间之间的关系%On the Relationship among Topological Spaces,Limit Spaces,and L-topological Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德学

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we give a brief survey to some basic results on the interrelationship between limit spaces, complete lattices, topological spaces, and L-topological spaces.%给出了极限空间、完备格、拓扑空间、以及L-拓扑空间相互关系的一简要缩述.

  19. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha R.; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  20. Space Sciences Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    To advance our understanding of the space environment (from the Sun to the Earth and beyond) and to advance our ability to operate systems in space that protect life and society. Space Science is distinct from other field, such as astrophysics or cosmology, in that Space Science utilizes in-situ measurements from high altitude rockets, balloons and spacecraft or ground-based measurements of objects and conditions in space.