WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey flight-line spacing

  1. Airborne electromagnetic data levelling using principal component analysis based on flight line difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Peng, Cong; Lu, Yiming; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Kaiguang

    2018-04-01

    A novel technique is developed to level airborne geophysical data using principal component analysis based on flight line difference. In the paper, flight line difference is introduced to enhance the features of levelling error for airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data and improve the correlation between pseudo tie lines. Thus we conduct levelling to the flight line difference data instead of to the original AEM data directly. Pseudo tie lines are selected distributively cross profile direction, avoiding the anomalous regions. Since the levelling errors of selective pseudo tie lines show high correlations, principal component analysis is applied to extract the local levelling errors by low-order principal components reconstruction. Furthermore, we can obtain the levelling errors of original AEM data through inverse difference after spatial interpolation. This levelling method does not need to fly tie lines and design the levelling fitting function. The effectiveness of this method is demonstrated by the levelling results of survey data, comparing with the results from tie-line levelling and flight-line correlation levelling.

  2. Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palazuelos, Carlos; Vidick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states

  3. Survey on nonlocal games and operator space theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palazuelos, Carlos, E-mail: cpalazue@mat.ucm.es [Instituto de Ciencias Matemáticas (ICMAT), Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Vidick, Thomas, E-mail: vidick@cms.caltech.edu [Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This review article is concerned with a recently uncovered connection between operator spaces, a noncommutative extension of Banach spaces, and quantum nonlocality, a striking phenomenon which underlies many of the applications of quantum mechanics to information theory, cryptography, and algorithms. Using the framework of nonlocal games, we relate measures of the nonlocality of quantum mechanics to certain norms in the Banach and operator space categories. We survey recent results that exploit this connection to derive large violations of Bell inequalities, study the complexity of the classical and quantum values of games and their relation to Grothendieck inequalities, and quantify the nonlocality of different classes of entangled states.

  4. Spaces of homotopy self-equivalences a survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rutter, John W

    1997-01-01

    This survey covers groups of homotopy self-equivalence classes of topological spaces, and the homotopy type of spaces of homotopy self-equivalences. For manifolds, the full group of equivalences and the mapping class group are compared, as are the corresponding spaces. Included are methods of calculation, numerous calculations, finite generation results, Whitehead torsion and other areas. Some 330 references are given. The book assumes familiarity with cell complexes, homology and homotopy. Graduate students and established researchers can use it for learning, for reference, and to determine the current state of knowledge.

  5. Automated entry technologies for confined space work activities: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Lucia; Ferrari, Emilio; Mora, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Work in confined spaces poses a significant risk to workers and rescuers involved in the emergency response when an accident occurs. Despite several standards and regulations define the safety requirements for such activities, injuries, and fatalities still occur. Furthermore, the on-site inspections after accidents often reveal that both employers and employees fail to implement safe entry procedures. Removing the risk is possible by avoiding the worker entry, but many activities require the presence of the operator inside the confined space to perform manual tasks. The following study investigates the available technologies for hazardous confined space work activities, e.g., cleaning, inspecting, and maintenance tasks. The aim is to provide a systematic review of the automated solutions for high-risk activities in confined spaces, considering the non-man entry as the most effective confined space safety strategy. Second, this survey aims to provide suggestions for future research addressing the design of new technologies. The survey consists of about 60 papers concerning innovative technologies for confined space work activities. The document review shows that several solutions have been developed and automation can replace the workers for a limited number of hazardous tasks. Several activities still require the manual intervention due to the complex characteristics of confined spaces, e.g., to remove the remains of the automatic cleaning process from the bottom of a tank. The results show that available technologies require more flexibility to adapt to such occupational environments and further research is needed.

  6. Artificial intelligence applications in space and SDI: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Harvey E.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey existing and planned Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications to show that they are sufficiently advanced for 32 percent of all space applications and SDI (Space Defense Initiative) software to be AI-based software. To best define the needs that AI can fill in space and SDI programs, this paper enumerates primary areas of research and lists generic application areas. Current and planned NASA and military space projects in AI will be reviewed. This review will be largely in the selected area of expert systems. Finally, direct applications of AI to SDI will be treated. The conclusion covers the importance of AI to space and SDI applications, and conversely, their importance to AI.

  7. A survey on Frȯlicher spaces | Batubenge | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey paper highlights a series of results in recent research on topology, geometry and categorical properties of spaces provided with a new structure in the ... More precisely, the present study will give the state of research on this topic which historically links a fundamental theorem of calculus in Rn so called Boman's ...

  8. TESTS AND METHODOLOGIES FOR THE SURVEY OF NARROW SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perfetti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The research illustrated in this article aimed at identifying a good standard methodology to survey very narrow spaces during 3D investigation of Cultural Heritage. It is an important topic in today’s era of BIM modelling applied to Cultural Heritage. Spaces like staircases, corridors and passages are very common in the architectural or archaeological fields, and obtaining a 3D-oriented survey of those areas can be a very complex task when completeness of the model and high precision are requested. Photogrammetry appears to be the most promising solution in terms of versatility and manoeuvrability also considering the quality of the required data. Fisheye lenses were studied and tested in depth because of their significant advantage in the field of view if compared with rectilinear lenses. This advantage alone can be crucial to reduce the total amount of photos and, as a consequence, to obtain manageable data, to simplify the survey phase and to significantly reduce the elaboration time. In order to overcome the main issue that arise when using fisheye lenses, which is the lack of rules that can be employed to design the survey, a general mathematical formulation to precisely estimate the GSD (Ground Sampling Distance for every optical projection is presented here. A complete survey of a real complex case study was performed in order to test and stress the proposed methodology, and to handle a fisheye-based survey from beginning to end: the photogrammetric survey of the Minguzzi Staircase. It is a complex service spiral-staircase located in the Duomo di Milano with a total height of 25 meters and characterized by a narrow walkable space about 70 centimetres wide.

  9. Measuring redshift-space distortions using photometric surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Ashley; Percival, Will; Crocce, M.; Cabre, A.; Gaztanaga, E.

    2011-01-01

    We outline how redshift-space distortions (RSD) can be measured from the angular correlation function w({\\theta}), of galaxies selected from photometric surveys. The natural degeneracy between RSD and galaxy bias can be minimized by comparing results from bins with top-hat galaxy selection in redshift, and bins based on the radial position of galaxy pair centres. This comparison can also be used to test the accuracy of the photometric redshifts. The presence of RSD will be clearly detectable ...

  10. Survey of orbital dynamics and control of space rendezvous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Yazhong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rendezvous orbital dynamics and control (RODC is a key technology for operating space rendezvous and docking missions. This paper surveys the studies on RODC. Firstly, the basic relative dynamics equation set is introduced and its improved versions are evaluated. Secondly, studies on rendezvous trajectory optimization are commented from three aspects: the linear rendezvous, the nonlinear two-body rendezvous, and the perturbed and constrained rendezvous. Thirdly, studies on relative navigation are briefly reviewed, and then close-range control methods including automated control, manual control, and telecontrol are analyzed. Fourthly, advances in rendezvous trajectory safety and robust analysis are surveyed, and their applications in trajectory optimization are discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn and prospects of studies on RODC are presented.

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and surrounding area, Batavia, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1990-11-01

    An aerial radiological gamma survey was conducted over the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory during 1 through 6 June 1989. Flight lines at 150-foot altitude and 250-foot line spacings assured nearly 100% coverage. The terrestrial exposure at about 6 μR/h was nearly the same as that measured by the previous survey of this area (May 1977). Ten anomalous areas, mostly Na-22 and Mn-54, were detected within buildings and laboratories in the area. Although these locations have changed somewhat from the 1977 survey, the aerial data shows good agreement with the ground-based ion chamber and soil sample data. 7 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  12. Modal survey testing of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) - A Space Shuttle payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. B.; Coleman, A. D.; Driskill, T. C.; Lindell, M. C.

    This paper presents the results of the modal survey test of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE), a Space Shuttle payload mounted in a Spacelab flight single pallet. The test was performed by the Dynamics Test Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center, AL and run in two phases. In the first phase, an unloaded orthogrid connected to the pallet with 52 tension struts was tested. This test included 73 measurement points in three directions. In the second phase, the pallet was integrated with mass simulators mounted on the flight support structure to represent the dynamics (weight and center of gravity) of the various components comprising the LITE experiment and instrumented at 213 points in 3 directions. The test article was suspended by an air bag system to simulate a free-free boundary condition. This paper presents the results obtained from the testing and analytical model correlation efforts. The effect of the suspension system on the test article is also discussed.

  13. THE GHOSTS SURVEY. I. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radburn-Smith, D. J.; Dalcanton, J. J.; De Jong, R. S.; Streich, D.; Vlajic, M.; Seth, A. C.; Bailin, J.; Bell, E. F.; Brown, T. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Holfeltz, S.; Bullock, J. S.; Courteau, S.; Sick, J.; Holwerda, B. W.; Purcell, C.; Zucker, D. B.

    2011-01-01

    We present an overview of the GHOSTS survey, the largest study to date of the resolved stellar populations in the outskirts of disk galaxies. The sample consists of 14 disk galaxies within 17 Mpc, whose outer disks and halos are imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). In the first paper of this series, we describe the sample, explore the benefits of using resolved stellar populations, and discuss our ACS F606W and F814W photometry. We use artificial star tests to assess completeness and use overlapping regions to estimate photometric uncertainties. The median depth of the survey at 50% completeness is 2.7 mag below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). We comprehensively explore and parameterize contamination from unresolved background galaxies and foreground stars using archival fields of high-redshift ACS observations. Left uncorrected, these would account for 10 0.65xF814W-19.0 detections per mag per arcsec 2 . We therefore identify several selection criteria that typically remove 95% of the contaminants. Even with these culls, background galaxies are a significant limitation to the surface brightness detection limit which, for this survey, is typically V ∼ 30 mag arcsec -2 . The resulting photometric catalogs are publicly available and contain some 3.1 million stars across 76 ACS fields, predominantly of low extinction. The uniform magnitudes of TRGB stars in these fields enable galaxy distance estimates with 2%-7% accuracy.

  14. Designing future dark energy space missions. II. Photometric redshift of space weak lensing optimized surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouvel, S.; Kneib, J.-P.; Bernstein, G.; Ilbert, O.; Jelinsky, P.; Milliard, B.; Ealet, A.; Schimd, C.; Dahlen, T.; Arnouts, S.

    2011-08-01

    scale of 0.15'', we found that a homogeneous survey reaching a survey population of IAB = 25.6 (10σ) with a sky coverage of ~11 000 deg2 maximizes the weak lensing FoM. The effective number density of galaxies used for WL is then ~45 gal/arcmin2, which is at least a factor of two higher than ground-based surveys. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a full account of the observational strategy is required to properly optimize the instrument parameters and maximize the FoM of the future weak-lensing space dark energy mission.

  15. Aerial radiological survey of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Diablo Canyon, California. Date of survey: September-October 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the area surrounding the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant in Diablo Canyon, California. The survey was conducted between 20 September and 3 October 1984. A series of flight lines parallel to the coastline were flown at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) and were spaced 152 meters (500 feet) apart. The survey covered an area of 250 square kilometers (100 square miles). The resulting background exposure rates over the survey area ranged from 5 to 21 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmics ray contribution of 3.6 μR/h. Soil samples were also collected at several locations within the survey areas and analyzed in the laboratory for isotopic composition. The results of the survey showed only the presence of naturally occurring background radiation. No man-made radioactivity was detected. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Metabolomics Characterization of U.S. and Japanese F-15 and C-130 Flight Line Crews Exposed to Jet Fuel Volatile Organic Compounds and Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    been recognized as the single largest source of chemical exposure for U.S. and NATO military personnel (Carlton and Smith, 2000) where inhalation and...flight line, 2) exposure to spills, 3) inhalation exposure (primarily exhaust), and 4) total measured VOCs. The total VOC value was calculated by...chemical and primary metals industries, biomass burning, gasoline and oil combustion, tobacco smoking, the use of mothballs, fumigants and deodorizers

  17. Transforming Image-Objects into Multiscale Fields: A GEOBIA Approach to Mitigate Urban Microclimatic Variability within H-Res Thermal Infrared Airborne Flight-Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mustafizur Rahman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to minimize complex urban microclimatic variability within high-resolution (H-Res airborne thermal infrared (TIR flight-lines, we describe the Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN algorithm, which is based on the idea of pseudo invariant features. By assuming a homogeneous road temperature within a TIR scene, we hypothesize that any variation observed in road temperature is the effect of local microclimatic variability. To model microclimatic variability, we define a road-object class (Road, compute the within-Road temperature variability, sample it at different spatial intervals (i.e., 10, 20, 50, and 100 m then interpolate samples over each flight-line to create an object-weighted variable temperature field (a TURN-surface. The optimal TURN-surface is then subtracted from the original TIR image, essentially creating a microclimate-free scene. Results at different sampling intervals are assessed based on their: (i ability to visually and statistically reduce overall scene variability and (ii computation speed. TURN is evaluated on three non-adjacent TABI-1800 flight-lines (~182 km2 that were acquired in 2012 at night over The City of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. TURN also meets a recent GEOBIA (Geospatial Object Based Image Analysis challenge by incorporating existing GIS vector objects within the GEOBIA workflow, rather than relying exclusively on segmentation methods.

  18. The survey of pedestrainization feasibility in urban spaces and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in 6 days (all week days) and various hours (morning, noon, night) to 320 people from both male and female genders with an age range of 15 to 65 years and from different social classes and groups (residents, businessman and woman, space users) based on a systematic randomized method on the street and finally the ...

  19. Biomimetics on seed dispersal: survey and insights for space exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Izzo, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Seeds provide the vital genetic link and dispersal agent between successive generations of plants. Without seed dispersal as a means of reproduction, many plants would quickly die out. Because plants lack any sort of mobility and remain in the same spot for their entire lives, they rely on seed dispersal to transport their offspring throughout the environment. This can be accomplished either collectively or individually; in any case as seeds ultimately abdicate their movement, they are at the mercy of environmental factors. Thus, seed dispersal strategies are characterized by robustness, adaptability, intelligence (both behavioral and morphological), and mass and energy efficiency (including the ability to utilize environmental sources of energy available): all qualities that advanced engineering systems aim at in general, and in particular those that need to enable complex endeavors such as space exploration. Plants evolved and adapted their strategy according to their environment, and taken together, they enclose many desirable characteristics that a space mission needs to have. Understanding in detail how plants control the development of seeds, fabricate structural components for their dispersal, build molecular machineries to keep seeds dormant up to the right moment and monitor the environment to release them at the right time could provide several solutions impacting current space mission design practices. It can lead to miniaturization, higher integration and packing efficiency, energy efficiency and higher autonomy and robustness. Consequently, there would appear to be good reasons for considering biomimetic solutions from plant kingdom when designing space missions, especially to other celestial bodies, where solid and liquid surfaces, atmosphere, etc constitute and are obviously parallel with the terrestrial environment where plants evolved. In this paper, we review the current state of biomimetics on seed dispersal to improve space mission design

  20. Description and preliminary map, airborne electromagnetic survey of parts of Iron, Baraga, and Dickson counties, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heran, William D.; Smith, Bruce D.

    1980-01-01

    The data presented herein is from an airborne electromagnetic INPUT* survey conducted by Geoterrex Limited of Canada for the U.S. Geological Survey. The survey area is located in the central part of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, within parts of Iron, Baraga, and Dickinson Counties. The general area covered is between 46°00' and 46°30' latitude and 88°00' and 88°30' longitude (fig. 1).The INPUT survey was flown as part of a U.S. Geological Survey CUSMAP (Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program) project focusing on the Iron River 2° quadrangle. The survey was flown in order to provide geophysical information which will aid in an integrated geological assessment of mineral potentials of this part of the Iron River 2 quadrangle. The flight-line spacing was chosen to maximize the aerial coverage without a loss of resolution of major lithologic and structural features. East-west flight lines were flown 400 feet above ground at 1/2-mile intervals. Aerial photos were used for navigation and the flight path was recorded on continuous-strip film. A continuously recording total field ground magnetic station was used to monitor variations in the Earth's magnetic field. One north-south line was flown to provide a tie for the magnetic data which was recorded simultaneously with the electromagnetic data by a sensor mounted in the tail of the aircraft. This report is one of two open-file reports. The map in the present report contains locations of the fiducial points, the flight lines, and preliminary locations of anomalies and conductive zones, all plotted on an air photomosaic. The latitude and longitude ticks marked on this map are only approximate due to distortion in air photos used to recover the flight line position. This map is preliminary and is not to be considered a final interpretation. The other report (Reran and Smith, 1980) contains a description of the instrument specifications, a copy of the ground station magnetic data, and a microfilm

  1. Human-Robot Site Survey and Sampling for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Bualat, Maria; Edwards, Laurence; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Kunz, Clayton; Lee, Susan Y.; Park, Eric; To, Vinh; Utz, Hans; Ackner, Nir

    2006-01-01

    NASA is planning to send humans and robots back to the Moon before 2020. In order for extended missions to be productive, high quality maps of lunar terrain and resources are required. Although orbital images can provide much information, many features (local topography, resources, etc) will have to be characterized directly on the surface. To address this need, we are developing a system to perform site survey and sampling. The system includes multiple robots and humans operating in a variety of team configurations, coordinated via peer-to-peer human-robot interaction. In this paper, we present our system design and describe planned field tests.

  2. Space closing versus space opening for bilateral missing upper laterals - aesthetic judgments of laypeople: a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Salim; Parkin, Nicola A; Benson, Philip E

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the opinions of laypeople regarding the aesthetic outcome of treating patients with developmental absence of both maxillary lateral incisors using either orthodontic space closure (OSC) or space opening and prosthetic replacement (PR). Cross sectional, web-based survey. A panel of five orthodontists and five restorative dentists examined post-treatment intra-oral images of 21 patients with developmental absence of both upper lateral incisors. A consensus view was obtained about the 10 most attractive images (5 OSC; 5 PR). The 10 selected images were used in a web-based survey involving staff and students at the University of Sheffield. In the first section, the participants were asked to evaluate the attractiveness of the 10 randomly arranged single images using a 5-point Likert scale. In the second section, an image of OSC was paired with an image of PR according to their attractiveness ranking by the clinician panel, and the participants were asked to indicate which of the two images they preferred. The survey received 959 completed responses with 9590 judgements. The images of OSC were perceived to be more attractive (mean rating 3·34 out of 5; SD 0·56) compared with the images of PR (mean rating 3·14 out of 5; SD 0·58) (mean diff 0·21; P Space closing was perceived to be more attractive than space opening by lay people. The findings have implications for advising patients about the best aesthetic outcome when both maxillary lateral incisors are missing.

  3. Exoplanets -New Results from Space and Ground-based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, Stephane

    The exploration of the outer solar system and in particular of the giant planets and their environments is an on-going process with the Cassini spacecraft currently around Saturn, the Juno mission to Jupiter preparing to depart and two large future space missions planned to launch in the 2020-2025 time frame for the Jupiter system and its satellites (Europa and Ganymede) on the one hand, and the Saturnian system and Titan on the other hand [1,2]. Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is the only other object in our Solar system to possess an extensive nitrogen atmosphere, host to an active organic chemistry, based on the interaction of N2 with methane (CH4). Following the Voyager flyby in 1980, Titan has been intensely studied from the ground-based large telescopes (such as the Keck or the VLT) and by artificial satellites (such as the Infrared Space Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope) for the past three decades. Prior to Cassini-Huygens, Titan's atmospheric composition was thus known to us from the Voyager missions and also through the explorations by the ISO. Our perception of Titan had thus greatly been enhanced accordingly, but many questions remained as to the nature of the haze surrounding the satellite and the composition of the surface. The recent revelations by the Cassini-Huygens mission have managed to surprise us with many discoveries [3-8] and have yet to reveal more of the interesting aspects of the satellite. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system has been an extraordinary success for the planetary community since the Saturn-Orbit-Insertion (SOI) in July 2004 and again the very successful probe descent and landing of Huygens on January 14, 2005. One of its main targets was Titan. Titan was revealed to be a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on

  4. Instrument specifications and geophysical records for airborne electromagnetic survey of parts of Iron, Baraga, and Dickson Counties, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heran, William D.; Smith, Bruce D.

    1980-01-01

    The data presented herein is from an airborne electromagnetic INPUT* survey conducted by Geoterrex Limited of Canada for the U.S. Geological Survey. The survey area is located in the central part of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, within parts of Iron, Baraga, and Dickinson Counties. The general area covered is between 46°00' and 46°30' latitude and 88°00' and 88°30' longitude (fig. 1).The INPUT survey was flown as part of a U.S. Geological Survey CUSMAP (Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program) project focusing on the Iron River 2° quadrangle. The survey was flown in order to provide geophysical information which will aid in an integrated geological assessment of mineral potentials of this part of the Iron River 2° quadrangle. The flight line spacing was chosen to maximize the areal coverage without a loss of resolution of major lithologic and structural features.East-west flight lines were flown 400 feet above ground at 1/2 mile intervals. Aerial photos were used for navigation, and the flight path was recorded on continuous-strip film. A continuously recording total field ground magnetic station was used to monitor variations in the Earth's magnetic field. One north-south line was flown to provide a tie for the magnetic data, which was recorded simultaneously with the electromagnetic data by a sensor mounted in the tail of the aircraft. This report is one of two open-file reports. The map in the other report Heran and Smith (1980) shows locations of the fiducial points, the flight lines, preliminary locations of anomalies and conductive zones; all plotted on an air photomosaic. The latitude and longitude ticks marked on this map are only approximate due to distortion in air photos used to recover the flight line position. This map is preliminary and is not to be considered a final interpretation. The present report contains a description of the instrument specifications, a copy of the ground station magnetic data, and a record of the

  5. Cross-cultural issues in space operations: A survey study among ground personnel of the European Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Manzey, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    Today's space operations involve co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organisational backgrounds. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. ESA employees from European countries ( N=576) answered to the CULT Ground Survey. The results showed that differences in relation to leadership and decision making were the most important issues thought to interfere with efficient co-working within ESA, and between ESA employees and colleagues from other agencies. Employees who collaborated with more than three nationalities within ESA indicated most challenges in co-working due to differences in compliance, behavioural norms and competitiveness. Challenges in co-working differed between agencies, and these differences were consistent with value differences in the national populations. The results may have applied value for training of European employees working in international space program teams.

  6. What Are They Doing and What Do They Want: The Library Spaces Customer Survey at Edmonton Public Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Wortman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of its Library Spaces Business Plan initiative, for four weeks in early 2012 Edmonton Public Library (EPL conducted a survey of its customers about how they use the library’s spaces and what they want from their library spaces. Using both print and online versions, the survey received 1517 responses which collected both quantitative and qualitative data. Findings revealed the ongoing importance of collections and quiet in library spaces, as well as the growing importance of providing social and group space in the library. Results of the survey indicate EPL’s customers do not consider the spaces a separate aspect from the collections and services the library provides. The results of the survey also emphasized the importance of regularly consulting with customers about library spaces to ensure the spaces continue to fulfill their needs as the role of the library, and the space needs associated with it, evolve.

  7. Fungi in space--literature survey on fungi used for space research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, V D; Hock, B

    1993-09-01

    A complete review of the scientific literature on experiments involving fungi in space is presented. This review begins with balloon experiments around 1935 which carried fungal spores, rocket experiments in the 1950's and 60's, satellite and moon expeditions, long-time orbit experiments and Spacelab missions in the 1980's and 90's. All these missions were aimed at examining the influence of cosmic radiation and weightlessness on genetic, physiological, and morphogenetic processes. During the 2nd German Spacelab mission (D-2, April/May 1993), the experiment FUNGI provided the facilities to cultivate higher basidiomycetes over a period of 10 d in orbit, document gravimorphogenesis and chemically fix fruiting bodies under weightlessness for subsequent ultrastructural analysis. This review shows the necessity of space travel for research on the graviperception of higher fungi and demonstrates the novelty of the experiment FUNGI performed within the framework of the D-2 mission.

  8. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of the Disk Cluster Population of M31. II. Advanced Camera for Surveys Pointings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienke, O. K.; Hodge, P. W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of star clusters in M31 based on archival images from the Hubble Space Telescope. Paper I reported results from images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and this paper reports results from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The ACS survey has yielded a total of 339 star clusters, 52 of which—mostly globular clusters—were found to have been cataloged previously. As for the previous survey, the luminosity function of the clusters drops steeply for absolute magnitudes fainter than MV = -3 the implied cluster mass function has a turnover for masses less than a few hundred solar masses. The color-integrated magnitude diagram of clusters shows three significant features: (1) a group of very red, luminous objects: the globular clusters, (2) a wide range in color for the fainter clusters, representing a considerable range in age and reddening, and (3) a maximum density of clusters centered approximately at V = 21, B - V = 0.30, V - I = 0.50, where there are intermediate-age, intermediate-mass clusters with ages close to 500 million years and masses of about 2000 solar masses. We give a brief qualitative interpretation of the distribution of clusters in the CMDs in terms of their formation and destruction rates. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for research in astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  9. Robotic influence in the conceptual design of mechanical systems in space and vice versa - A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, George F.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of methods using robotic devices to construct structural elements in space is presented. Two approaches to robotic construction are considered: one in which the structural elements are designed using conventional aerospace techniques which tend to constrain the function aspects of robotics and one in which the structural elements are designed from the conceptual stage with built-in robotic features. Examples are presented of structural building concepts using robotics, including the construction of the SP-100 nuclear reactor power system, a multimirror large aperture IR space telescope concept, retrieval and repair in space, and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer.

  10. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of Area 18 - Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Craig

    2009-01-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of Area 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the purpose of mapping man-made radiation deposited as a result of the Johnnie Boy and Little Feller I tests. The survey area centered over the Johnnie Boy ground zero but also included the ground zero and deposition area of the Little Feller I test, approximately 7,000 feet (2133 meters) southeast of the Johnnie Boy site. The survey was conducted in one flight. The completed survey covered a total of 4.0 square miles. The flight lines (with the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figure 1. One 2.5-hour-long flight was performed at an altitude of 100 ft above ground level (AGL) with 200 foot flight-line spacing. A test-line flight was conducted near the Desert Rock Airstrip to ensure quality control of the data. The test line is not shown in Figure 1. However, Figure 1 does include the flight lines for a ''perimeter'' flight. The path traced by the helicopter flying over distinct roads within the survey area can be used to overlay the survey data on a base map or image. The flight survey lines were flown in an east-west orientation perpendicular to the deposition patterns for both sites. This technique provides better spatial resolution when contouring the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected every second over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man

  11. Academic Libraries, Facebook and MySpace, and Student Outreach: A Survey of Student Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Ruth Sara

    2009-01-01

    This study surveyed 366 Valparaiso University freshmen to discover their feelings about librarians using Facebook and MySpace as outreach tools. The vast majority of respondents had online social network profiles. Most indicated that they would be accepting of library contact through those Web sites, but a sizable minority reacted negatively to…

  12. Relevance of the futron/zogby survey conclusions to the current space tourism industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziliotto, Véronique

    2010-06-01

    Thanks to recent technological achievements such as Burt Rutan's SpaceShipOne in 2004, Bigelow's Genesis I in July 2006 and Genesis II in July 2007 and the success of space adventures' flights to the ISS, space tourism is leaving the realm of science-fiction. It is now becoming increasingly familiar to the general public and even recognized by institutional bodies. The Futron/Zogby survey, revised in 2006 and completed with the 2006. Adventurers survey constitutes a good basis to understanding the characteristics of the nascent suborbital market and the profile of the potential customers for both suborbital and orbital travel. The previsions of these studies will be contrasted with recent market and customers' data that was not available at the time.

  13. Plasma physics and the 2013-2022 decadal survey in solar and space physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. National Academies established in 2011 a steering committee to develop a comprehensive strategy for solar and space physics research. This updated and extended the first (2003) solar and space physics decadal survey. The latest decadal study implemented a 2008 Congressional directive to NASA for the fields of solar and space physics, but also addressed research in other federal agencies. The new survey broadly canvassed the fields of research to determine the current state of the discipline, identified the most important open scientific questions, and proposed the measurements and means to obtain them so as to advance the state of knowledge during the years 2013-2022. Research in this field has sought to understand: dynamical behaviour of the Sun and its heliosphere; properties of the space environments of the Earth and other solar system bodies; multiscale interaction between solar system plasmas and the interstellar medium; and energy transport throughout the solar system and its impact on the Earth and other solar system bodies. Research in solar and space plasma processes using observation, theory, laboratory studies, and numerical models has offered the prospect of understanding this interconnected system well enough to develop a predictive capability for operational support of civil and military space systems. We here describe the recommendations and strategic plans laid out in the 2013-2022 decadal survey as they relate to measurement capabilities and plasma physical research. We assess progress to date. We also identify further steps to achieve the Survey goals with an emphasis on plasma physical aspects of the program.

  14. Global Survey on Future Trends in Human Spaceflight: the Implications for Space Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtuna, O.; Garneau, S.

    2002-01-01

    With the much-publicized first ever space tourist flight, of Dennis Tito, and the announcement of the second space tourist flight to take place in April 2002, it is clear that an alternative motivation for human spaceflight has emerged. Human spaceflight is no longer only about meeting the priorities of national governments and space agencies, but is also about the tangible possibility of ordinary people seeing the Earth from a previously exclusive vantage point. It is imperative that major space players look beyond the existing human spaceflight rationale to identify some of the major driving forces behind space tourism, including the evolving market potential and developments in enabling technologies. In order to determine the influence of these forces on the future of commercial human spaceflight, the responses of a Futuraspace survey on future trends in human spaceflight are analyzed and presented. The motivation of this study is to identify sought-after space destinations, explore the expected trends in enabling technologies, and understand the future role of emerging space players. The survey will reflect the opinions of respondents from around the world including North America, Europe (including Russia) and Asia. The profiles of targeted respondents from space industry, government and academia are high-level executives/managers, senior researchers, as well as former and current astronauts. The survey instrument is a questionnaire which is validated by a pilot study. The sampling method is non-probabilistic, targeting as many space experts as possible who fit our intended respondent profile. Descriptive and comparative statistical analysis methods are implemented to investigate both global and regional perceptions of future commercial trends in human spaceflight. This study is not intended to be a formal market study of the potential viability of the space tourism market. Instead, the focus is on the future trends of human spaceflight, by drawing on the

  15. Fisheye Photogrammetry: Tests and Methodologies for the Survey of Narrow Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, L.; Polari, C.; Fassi, F.

    2017-02-01

    The research illustrated in this article aimed at identifying a good standard methodology to survey very narrow spaces during 3D investigation of Cultural Heritage. It is an important topic in today's era of BIM modelling applied to Cultural Heritage. Spaces like staircases, corridors and passages are very common in the architectural or archaeological fields, and obtaining a 3D-oriented survey of those areas can be a very complex task when completeness of the model and high precision are requested. Photogrammetry appears to be the most promising solution in terms of versatility and manoeuvrability also considering the quality of the required data. Fisheye lenses were studied and tested in depth because of their significant advantage in the field of view if compared with rectilinear lenses. This advantage alone can be crucial to reduce the total amount of photos and, as a consequence, to obtain manageable data, to simplify the survey phase and to significantly reduce the elaboration time. In order to overcome the main issue that arise when using fisheye lenses, which is the lack of rules that can be employed to design the survey, a general mathematical formulation to precisely estimate the GSD (Ground Sampling Distance) for every optical projection is presented here. A complete survey of a real complex case study was performed in order to test and stress the proposed methodology, and to handle a fisheye-based survey from beginning to end: the photogrammetric survey of the Minguzzi Staircase. It is a complex service spiral-staircase located in the Duomo di Milano with a total height of 25 meters and characterized by a narrow walkable space about 70 centimetres wide.

  16. A nationwide Danish survey on the use of green spaces by people with mobility disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigsdotter, Ulrika K; Corazon, Sus Sola; Ekholm, Ola

    2017-12-01

    There is increasing awareness of the importance and health benefits of living near green spaces. Research usually focuses on the general population's use of green spaces and there has been little focus on the use of green spaces by specific groups, such as people with mobility disabilities. This represents a significant knowledge gap with regard to facilitating access to healthy green environments by all population groups. This study aims to provide knowledge of the use of green spaces by people with mobility disabilities. The study was based on data from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey in 2005. The study participants consisted of 11,238 adult Danes, 383 of whom reported mobility disabilities, meaning that they were dependent on assistive devices for walking or moving around. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between mobility disability and use of green spaces. The results show that respondents who reported mobility disabilities visited green spaces less often than respondents without mobility disabilities. The severity of the mobility disability was associated with the frequency of visits. Frequency of visits was also related to the respondents' health-related quality of life status. These results highlight the need for further research into the constraints faced by people with mobility disabilities with regard to visiting green spaces.

  17. Free-free and fixed base modal survey tests of the Space Station Common Module Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskill, T. C.; Anderson, J. B.; Coleman, A. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the testing aspects and the problems encountered during the free-free and fixed base modal surveys completed on the original Space Station Common Module Prototype (CMP). The CMP is a 40-ft long by 14.5-ft diameter 'waffle-grid' cylinder built by the Boeing Company and housed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) near Huntsville, AL. The CMP modal survey tests were conducted at MSFC by the Dynamics Test Branch. The free-free modal survey tests (June '90 to Sept. '90) included interface verification tests (IFVT), often referred to as impedance measurements, mass-additive testing and linearity studies. The fixed base modal survey tests (Feb. '91 to April '91), including linearity studies, were conducted in a fixture designed to constrain the CMP in 7 total degrees-of-freedom at five trunnion interfaces (two primary, two secondary, and the keel). The fixture also incorporated an airbag off-load system designed to alleviate the non-linear effects of friction in the primary and secondary trunnion interfaces. Numerous test configurations were performed with the objective of providing a modal data base for evaluating the various testing methodologies to verify dynamic finite element models used for input to coupled load analysis.

  18. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VIII. PRELIMINARY PUBLIC CATALOG RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Brown, T. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, San Martin Drive 3700, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Piotto, G.; Granata, V.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Cool, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); King, I. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cassisi, S. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S., E-mail: mario.soto@uda.cl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters (GO-13297) has been specifically designed to complement the existing F606W and F814W observations of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Globular Cluster Survey (GO-10775) by observing the most accessible 47 of the previous survey’s 65 clusters in three WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. The new survey also adds super-solar metallicity open cluster NGC 6791 to increase the metallicity diversity. The combined survey provides a homogeneous 5-band data set that can be used to pursue a broad range of scientific investigations. In particular, the chosen UV filters allow the identification of multiple stellar populations by targeting the regions of the spectrum that are sensitive to abundance variations in C, N, and O. In order to provide the community with uniform preliminary catalogs, we have devised an automated procedure that performs high-quality photometry on the new UV observations (along with similar observations of seven other programs in the archive). This procedure finds and measures the potential sources on each individual exposure using library point-spread functions and cross-correlates these observations with the original ACS-Survey catalog. The catalog of 57 clusters we publish here will be useful to identify stars in the different stellar populations, in particular for spectroscopic follow-up. Eventually, we will construct a more sophisticated catalog and artificial-star tests based on an optimal reduction of the UV survey data, but the catalogs presented here give the community the chance to make early use of this HST Treasury survey.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Survey for Resolved Companions of Galactic Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.; Tingle, Evan; Karovska, Margarita; Pillitteri, Ignazio

    2016-05-01

    We have conducted an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) of 70 Galactic Cepheids, typically within 1 kpc, with the aim of finding resolved physical companions. The WFC3 field typically covers the 0.1 pc area where companions are expected. In this paper, we identify 39 Cepheids having candidate companions, based on their positions in color-magnitude diagrams, and having separations ⩾ 5'' from the Cepheids. We use follow-up observations of 14 of these candidates with XMM-Newton, and of one of them with ROSAT, to separate X-ray-active young stars (probable physical companions) from field stars (chance alignments). Our preliminary estimate, based on the optical and X-ray observations, is that only 3% of the Cepheids in the sample have wide companions. Our survey easily detects resolved main-sequence companions as faint as spectral type K. Thus the fact that the two most probable companions (those of FF Aql and RV Sco) are earlier than type K is not simply a function of the detection limit. We find no physical companions having separations larger than 4000 au in the X-ray survey. Two Cepheids are exceptions in that they do have young companions at significantly larger separations (δ Cep and S Nor), but both belong to a cluster or a loose association, so our working model is that they are not gravitationally bound binary members, but rather cluster/association members. All of these properties provide constraints on both star formation and subsequent dynamical evolution. The low frequency of true physical companions at separations > 5'' is confirmed by examination of the subset of the nearest Cepheids and also the density of the fields. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  20. Radiation shielding aspects for long manned mission to space - Criteria, survey study and preliminary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztejnberg, M.; Xiao, S.; Satvat, N.; Limon, F.; Hopkins, J.; Jevremovic, T.; T. Jevremovic)

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of manned space missions out side Earth's or bit is limited by the travel time and shielding against cosmic radiation. The chemical rockets currently used in the space program have no hope of propelling a manned vehicle to a far away location such as Mars due to the enormous mass of fuel that would be required. The specific energy available from nuclear fuel is a factor of 106 higher than chemical fuel; it is there fore obvious that nuclear power production in space is a must. On the other hand, recent considerations to send a man to the Moon for a long stay would require a stable, secured, and safe source of energy (there is hardly anything beyond nuclear power that would provide a useful and reliably safe sustainable supply of energy). National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) anticipates that the mass of a shielding material required for long travel to Mars is the next major design driver. In 2006 NASA identified a need to assess and evaluate potential gaps in existing knowledge and understanding of the level and types of radiation critical to astronauts' health during the long travel to Mars and to start a comprehensive study related to the shielding design of a spacecraft finding the conditions for the mitigation of radiation components contributing to the doses beyond accepted limits. In order to reduce the overall space craft mass, NASA is looking for the novel, multi-purpose and multi-functional materials that will provide effective shielding of the crew and electronics on board. The Laboratory for Neutronics and Geometry Computation in the School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University led by Prof. Tatjana Jevremovic began in 2004 the analytical evaluations of different lightweight materials. The preliminary results of the design survey study are presented in this paper. (author)

  1. Radiation shielding aspects for long manned mission to space: Criteria, survey study, and preliminary model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztejnberg Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of manned space missions outside Earth's orbit is limited by the travel time and shielding against cosmic radiation. The chemical rockets currently used in the space program have no hope of propelling a manned vehicle to a far away location such as Mars due to the enormous mass of fuel that would be required. The specific energy available from nuclear fuel is a factor of 106 higher than chemical fuel; it is therefore obvious that nuclear power production in space is a must. On the other hand, recent considerations to send a man to the Moon for a long stay would require a stable, secured and safe source of energy (there is hardly anything beyond nuclear power that would provide a useful and reliably safe sustainable supply of energy. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA anticipates that the mass of a shielding material required for long travel to Mars is the next major design driver. In 2006 NASA identified a need to assess and evaluate potential gaps in existing knowledge and understanding of the level and types of radiation critical to astronauts' health during the long travel to Mars and to start a comprehensive study related to the shielding design of a spacecraft finding the conditions for the mitigation of radiation components contributing to the doses beyond accepted limits. In order to reduce the overall space craft mass, NASA is looking for the novel, multi-purpose and multi-functional materials that will provide effective shielding of the crew and electronics on board. The Laboratory for Neutronics and Geometry Computation in the School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University led by Prof. Tatjana Jevremović began in 2004 the analytical evaluations of different lightweight materials. The preliminary results of the design survey study are presented in this paper.

  2. 3D-HST: A Wide-field Grism Spectroscopic Survey with the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Kriek, Mariska; Nelson, Erica; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Bezanson, Rachel; da Cunha, Elisabete; Erb, Dawn K.; Fan, Xiaohui; Förster Schreiber, Natascha; Illingworth, Garth D.; Labbé, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Lundgren, Britt; Magee, Dan; Marchesini, Danilo; McCarthy, Patrick; Momcheva, Ivelina; Muzzin, Adam; Quadri, Ryan; Steidel, Charles C.; Tal, Tomer; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Williams, Anna

    2012-06-01

    We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the physical processes that shape galaxies in the distant universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of ~7000 galaxies at 1 < z < 3.5, the epoch when ~60% of all star formation took place, the number density of quasars peaked, the first galaxies stopped forming stars, and the structural regularity that we see in galaxies today must have emerged. 3D-HST will cover three quarters (625 arcmin2) of the CANDELS Treasury survey area with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four orbits with the ACS/G800L grism in parallel. In the IR, these exposure times yield a continuum signal-to-noise ratio of ~5 per resolution element at H 140 ~ 23.1 and a 5σ emission-line sensitivity of ~5 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 for typical objects, improving by a factor of ~2 for compact sources in images with low sky background levels. The WFC3/G141 spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 1.1 to 1.6 μm at a spatial resolution of ~0farcs13, which, combined with their depth, makes them a unique resource for studying galaxy evolution. We present an overview of the preliminary reduction and analysis of the grism observations, including emission-line and redshift measurements from combined fits to the extracted grism spectra and photometry from ancillary multi-wavelength catalogs. The present analysis yields redshift estimates with a precision of σ(z) = 0.0034(1 + z), or σ(v) ≈ 1000 km s-1. We illustrate how the generalized nature of the survey yields near-infrared spectra of remarkable quality for many different types of objects, including a quasar at z = 4.7, quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2, and the most distant T-type brown dwarf star known. The combination of the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys will provide the definitive imaging and spectroscopic data set for studies of the 1 < z < 3.5 universe until the launch of the James Webb Space

  3. Status of aeromagnetic survey coverage of Yucca Mountain and vicinity to a radius of about 140 kilometers, southwestern Nevada and southeastern California, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikora, R.F.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    Fifty aeromagnetic surveys in the southwestern part of Nevada and the southeastern part of California have been evaluated to assess the quality and coverage of aeromagnetic data within 140 kilometers (km) of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The compilation shows that all the study area is covered by aeromagnetic surveys, but in some areas, particularly in the Death Valley region, new surveys flown with closer flight line spacing and lower elevations than the existing coverage are needed. In addition, the California part of the study area needs to be analytically continued downward to 305 meters (m) above ground level to provide a consistent data set for interpretation of subsurface geologic structures

  4. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the City of North Las Vegas (Downtown) and the Motor Speedway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2007-01-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey on December 11-12, 2007, with the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. The survey covered 19.4 square miles (9.2 square miles over the downtown area of the City of North Las Vegas and 10.2 square miles over the Las Vegas Motor Speedway [LVMS]). The flight lines over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1 and 2. A total of four 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 ft of flight line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system-REDAR V using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data in the form of gamma energy spectra were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes sources. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of City of North Las Vegas and LVMS security along with the gross counts-based exposure rate and man-made counts maps

  5. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; de Groot, Rudolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed in five different green spaces. We aimed to analyze people's thermal comfort perception and preference in outdoor urban green spaces, and to specify the combined effects between the thermal environmental and personal factors. The results imply that non-physical environmental and subjective factors (e.g., natural view, quiet environment, and emotional background) were more important in perceiving comfort than the actual thermal conditions. By applying a linear regression and probit analysis, the comfort temperature was found to be 22.2 °C and the preferred temperature was at a surprisingly high 35.7 °C. This can be explained by the observation that most respondents, who live in temperate regions, have a natural tendency to describe their preferred state as "warmer" even when feeling "warm" already. Using the Kruskal-Wallis H test, the four significant factors influencing thermal comfort were people's exposure time in green spaces, previous thermal environment and activity, and their thermal history. However, the effect of thermal history needs further investigation due to the unequal sample sizes of respondents from different climate regions. By providing evidence for the role of the objective and subjective factors on human thermal comfort, the relationship between UGI, microclimate, and thermal comfort can assist urban planning to make better use of green spaces for microclimate regulation.

  6. Geographic information technology monitoring and mapping of coal fires in Ukraine, according to the space survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivnyak, G.; Busygin, B.; Garkusha, I. [National Mining Univ., Dnipropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2010-07-01

    Coal fires are a significant problem around the world, particularly in China, India, and the United States. Coal fires burn thousands of tons of coal reserves and lead to serious problems for the environment, degradation and destruction of landscape, and harm public health. Technology, such as spectrology analysis of signatures with high temperature activity can be used to calculate vegetation algorithms and soil indexes, and multispectral survey data in the thermal channels of scanners. This paper presented the perspectives of technology development in coal fires and the approach to the detection, monitoring, and quantitative estimation of coal fires by the instruments using geographic information systems. Specifically, the paper considered the use of coal fire fragment monitoring technology from data of a diachronous survey obtained by Landsat satellites, to classify dangerous coal waste banks of the Donbass Mine located in Ukraine. The paper provided a description of the study area and discussed the detection technology of temperature-active waste banks. It was concluded that geoinformation technology provides an opportunity to effectively mark mining dumps, in particular, waste banks in multispectrum space images made by Landsat satellites. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Using FOSM-Based Data Worth Analyses to Design Geophysical Surveys to Reduce Uncertainty in a Regional Groundwater Model Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. D.; White, J.; Kress, W. H.; Clark, B. R.; Barlow, J.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogeophysical surveys have become an integral part of understanding hydrogeological frameworks used in groundwater models. Regional models cover a large area where water well data is, at best, scattered and irregular. Since budgets are finite, priorities must be assigned to select optimal areas for geophysical surveys. For airborne electromagnetic (AEM) geophysical surveys, optimization of mapping depth and line spacing needs to take in account the objectives of the groundwater models. The approach discussed here uses a first-order, second-moment (FOSM) uncertainty analyses which assumes an approximate linear relation between model parameters and observations. This assumption allows FOSM analyses to be applied to estimate the value of increased parameter knowledge to reduce forecast uncertainty. FOSM is used to facilitate optimization of yet-to-be-completed geophysical surveying to reduce model forecast uncertainty. The main objective of geophysical surveying is assumed to estimate values and spatial variation in hydrologic parameters (i.e. hydraulic conductivity) as well as map lower permeability layers that influence the spatial distribution of recharge flux. The proposed data worth analysis was applied to Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS) which is being updated. The objective of MERAS is to assess the ground-water availability (status and trends) of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. The study area covers portions of eight states including Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. The active model grid covers approximately 70,000 square miles, and incorporates some 6,000 miles of major rivers and over 100,000 water wells. In the FOSM analysis, a dense network of pilot points was used to capture uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity and recharge. To simulate the effect of AEM flight lines, the prior uncertainty for hydraulic conductivity and recharge pilots along potential flight lines was

  8. GESE: A Small UV Space Telescope to Conduct a Large Spectroscopic Survey of Z-1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Gong, Qian; Hull, Tony; Kruk, Jeffrey; Purves, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    One of the key goals of NASA's astrophysics program is to answer the question: How did galaxies evolve into the spirals and elliptical galaxies that we see today? We describe a space mission concept called Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) to address this question by making a large spectroscopic survey of galaxies at a redshift, z is approximately 1 (look-back time of approximately 8 billion years). GESE is a 1.5-meter space telescope with an ultraviolet (UV) multi-object slit spectrograph that can obtain spectra of hundreds of galaxies per exposure. The spectrograph covers the spectral range, 0.2-0.4 micrometers at a spectral resolving power, R approximately 500. This observed spectral range corresponds to 0.1-0.2 micrometers as emitted by a galaxy at a redshift, z=1. The mission concept takes advantage of two new technological advances: (1) light-weighted, wide-field telescope mirrors, and (2) the Next- Generation MicroShutter Array (NG-MSA) to be used as a slit generator in the multi-object slit spectrograph.

  9. Survey of Beamed Energy Propulsion Concepts by the MSFC Space Environmental Effects Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P. A.; Nehls, M. K.; Edwards, D. L.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This will be a survey paper of work that was performed by the Space Environmental Effects Team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in the area of laser energy propulsion concepts. Two types of laser energy propulsion techniques were investigated. The first was ablative propulsion, which used a pulsed ruby laser impacting on single layer coatings and films. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the laser power density that produced an optimum coupling coefficient for each type of material tested. A commercial off-the-shelf multi-layer film was also investigated for possible applications in ablative micro-thrusters, and its optimum coupling coefficient was determined. The second type of study measured the purely photonic force provided by a 300W CW YAG laser. In initial studies, the photon force resulting from the momentum of incident photons was measured directly using a vacuum compatible microbalance and these results were compared to theory. Follow-on work used the same CW laser to excite a stable optical cavity for the purpose of amplifying the available force from incident photons.

  10. 3D-HST: A WIDE-FIELD GRISM SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, Gabriel B.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Nelson, Erica; Bezanson, Rachel; Leja, Joel; Lundgren, Britt; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Labbé, Ivo; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Kriek, Mariska; Erb, Dawn K.; Fan, Xiaohui; Förster Schreiber, Natascha; Illingworth, Garth D.; Magee, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We present 3D-HST, a near-infrared spectroscopic Treasury program with the Hubble Space Telescope for studying the physical processes that shape galaxies in the distant universe. 3D-HST provides rest-frame optical spectra for a sample of ∼7000 galaxies at 1 2 ) of the CANDELS Treasury survey area with two orbits of primary WFC3/G141 grism coverage and two to four orbits with the ACS/G800L grism in parallel. In the IR, these exposure times yield a continuum signal-to-noise ratio of ∼5 per resolution element at H 140 ∼ 23.1 and a 5σ emission-line sensitivity of ∼5 × 10 –17 erg s –1 cm –2 for typical objects, improving by a factor of ∼2 for compact sources in images with low sky background levels. The WFC3/G141 spectra provide continuous wavelength coverage from 1.1 to 1.6 μm at a spatial resolution of ∼0.''13, which, combined with their depth, makes them a unique resource for studying galaxy evolution. We present an overview of the preliminary reduction and analysis of the grism observations, including emission-line and redshift measurements from combined fits to the extracted grism spectra and photometry from ancillary multi-wavelength catalogs. The present analysis yields redshift estimates with a precision of σ(z) = 0.0034(1 + z), or σ(v) ≈ 1000 km s –1 . We illustrate how the generalized nature of the survey yields near-infrared spectra of remarkable quality for many different types of objects, including a quasar at z = 4.7, quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2, and the most distant T-type brown dwarf star known. The combination of the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys will provide the definitive imaging and spectroscopic data set for studies of the 1 < z < 3.5 universe until the launch of the James Webb Space Telescope.

  11. Contouring algorithm for two dimensional data- an application to airborne surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryakumar, N.V.; Rohatgi, Savita; Raghuwanshi, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes in general the contouring algorithm for two dimensional projection of aeroradiometric data and considers not only irregularly spaced flight lines but also solves the other problems related to voluminous data acquired during the airborne surveys. Several simple logics have been described for drawing the contours using scan method and taking care of annotations, identification marking, geographical locations, map size, contour density for visual distinctness and many such problems which may arise during contouring. The present paper also discusses various possibilities of contour line segments in the mini-grid and the criterion for selection of suitable segments has been described in detail. A novel approach to avoid the crossing of contours or missing data is also briefly discussed. The simplicity of the algorithm is mentioned for its ready implementation or any computer/plotter. (author). 8 refs., 8 figs

  12. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ( 137 Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated 137 Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the surface

  13. Performance Improvement of Near Earth Space Survey (NESS Wide-Field Telescope (NESS-2 Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yeol Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We modified the optical system of 500 mm wide-field telescope of which point spread function showed an irregularity. The telescope has been operated for Near Earth Space Survey (NESS located at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO in Australia, and the optical system was brought back to Korea in January 2008. After performing a numerical simulation with the tested value of surface figure error of the primary mirror using optical design program, we found that the surface figure error of the mirror should be fabricated less than root mean square (RMS λ/10 in order to obtain a stellar full width at half maximum (FWHM below 28 μm. However, we started to figure the mirror for the target value of RMS λ/20, because system surface figure error would be increased by the error induced by the optical axis adjustment, mirror cell installation, and others. The radius of curvature of the primary mirror was 1,946 mm after the correction. Its measured surface figure error was less than RMS λ/20 on the table of polishing machine, and RMS λ/15 after installation in the primary mirror cell. A test observation performed at Daeduk Observatory at Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute by utilizing the exiting mount, and resulted in 39.8 μm of stellar FWHM. It was larger than the value from numerical simulation, and showed wing-shaped stellar image. It turned out that the measured-curvature of the secondary mirror, 1,820 mm, was not the same as the designed one, 1,795.977 mm. We fabricated the secondary mirror to the designed value, and finally obtained a stellar FWHM of 27 μm after re-installation of the optical system into SSO NESS Observatory in Australia.

  14. Helicopter-borne magnetic, electromagnetic and radiometric geophysical survey in Kviteseid area, Lenvik, Troms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, Vikas C.; Rodionov, Alexei; Ofstad, Frode

    2012-01-01

    In cooperation with the geologist for Buskerud, Telemark and Vestfold, the NGU conducted an airborne geophysical survey in Kviteseid area in May 2012. This report describes and documents the acquisition, processing and visualization of recorded datasets. The geophysical survey results reported herein are 3514 line km. The optically pumped cesium magnetometer and 1024 channels RSX-5 spectrometer was used for data acquisition. The survey was flown with 100 m line spacing, line direction of 130 degrees - 210 degrees and average speed of 98 km/h. A smaller area was also flown at 100 m line spacing 50 m away from larger flight lines so that smaller area could be covered with 50 m line spacing. The average terrain clearance of the helicopter was 65 m. Collected data were processed in NGU using Geosoft Oasis Montaj software. Raw total magnetic field data were corrected for diurnal variation and also for International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). Finally, some along-line noises were removed using standard micro-leveling algorithm. Radiometric data were processed using standard procedures recommended by International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA). Final processed data were gridded with the cell size of 25 m and 12 m for 100 m and 50 m line spacing, respectively. They are presented as a shaded relief maps at the scale of 1:20 000 and 1:10 000, respectively.(Author)

  15. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods for select space propulsion system components (PSAM). Volume 2: Literature surveys of critical Space Shuttle main engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, K. R.

    1992-01-01

    The technical effort and computer code development is summarized. Several formulations for Probabilistic Finite Element Analysis (PFEA) are described with emphasis on the selected formulation. The strategies being implemented in the first-version computer code to perform linear, elastic PFEA is described. The results of a series of select Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) component surveys are presented. These results identify the critical components and provide the information necessary for probabilistic structural analysis. Volume 2 is a summary of critical SSME components.

  16. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments

  17. U.S. Geological Survey distribution of European Space Agency's Sentinel-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieschke, Renee L.

    2017-03-31

    A partnership established between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) allows for USGS storage and redistribution of images acquired by the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) on the European Union's Sentinel-2 satellite mission. The MSI data are acquired from a pair of satellites, Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B, which are part of a larger set of ESA missions focusing on different aspects of Earth observation. The primary purpose of the Sentinel-2 series is to collect multispectral imagery over the Earth’s land surfaces, large islands, and inland and coastal waters. Sentinel-2A was launched in 2015 and Sentinel-2B launched in 2017.The collaborative effort between ESA and USGS provides for public access and redistribution of global acquisitions of Sentinel-2 data at no cost, which allows users to download the MSI imagery from USGS access systems such as Earth- Explorer, in addition to the ESA Sentinels Scientific Data Hub. The MSI sensor acquires 13 spectral bands that are highly complementary to data acquired by the USGS Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). The product options from USGS include a Full-Resolution Browse (FRB) image product generated by USGS, along with a 100-kilometer (km) by 100-km tile-based Level-1C top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance product that is very similar (but not identical) to the currently (2017) distributed ESA Level 1C product.

  18. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTROSCOPY OF BROWN DWARFS DISCOVERED WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Skrutskie, M. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Griffith, Roger L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Marsh, Kenneth A., E-mail: Adam.Schneider@Utoledo.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-10

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for which we have obtained Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (22 in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10–1.70 μm, while 15 were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90–1.10 μm. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to (1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.,ammonia bands) and (2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35+280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38+840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77+024015.0 (Y1), are the 19th, 20th, and 21st spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present HST grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.

  19. FORECASTING COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER CONSTRAINTS FROM NEAR-FUTURE SPACE-BASED GALAXY SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, Anatoly; Ratra, Bharat; Samushia, Lado

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of space-based galaxy surveys is expected to measure the growth rate of structure to a level of about one percent over a range of redshifts. The rate of growth of structure as a function of redshift depends on the behavior of dark energy and so can be used to constrain parameters of dark energy models. In this work, we investigate how well these future data will be able to constrain the time dependence of the dark energy density. We consider parameterizations of the dark energy equation of state, such as XCDM and ωCDM, as well as a consistent physical model of time-evolving scalar field dark energy, φCDM. We show that if the standard, specially flat cosmological model is taken as a fiducial model of the universe, these near-future measurements of structure growth will be able to constrain the time dependence of scalar field dark energy density to a precision of about 10%, which is almost an order of magnitude better than what can be achieved from a compilation of currently available data sets.

  20. Aeromagnetic survey of the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rapolla

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present and discuss the results of a geophysical airborne survey carried out in the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic area, Southern Italy, in 1999. The helicopter-borne survey was aimed at giving new detailed insights into the distribution of the magnetization of the area and, therefore, into the volcanological characteristics of the region, enhancing the knowledge given by a previous low resolution survey carried out at a regional scale by Agip. The new survey was carried out by flying on a surface parallel to the topography of the area, along flight lines spaced 600 m apart. The obtained total field map is dominated by a large anomaly related to the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius complex itself and characterized by a roughly elliptical shape. High-frequency anomalies occur in the edifice and in the area east of it, partly produced by cultural noise due to the densely inhabited area. The compilation of the maps of the analytic signal and of the horizontal derivative of the field allowed the location of the lateral boundaries of the magnetic sources of the area and represents a first step toward the interpretation of the maps in terms of geological structures.

  1. Exposure to Neighborhood Green Space and Mental Health: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M. M. Beyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Green space is now widely viewed as a health-promoting characteristic of residential environments, and has been linked to mental health benefits such as recovery from mental fatigue and reduced stress, particularly through experimental work in environmental psychology. Few population level studies have examined the relationships between green space and mental health. Further, few studies have considered the role of green space in non-urban settings. This study contributes a population-level perspective from the United States to examine the relationship between environmental green space and mental health outcomes in a study area that includes a spectrum of urban to rural environments. Multivariate survey regression analyses examine the association between green space and mental health using the unique, population-based Survey of the Health of Wisconsin database. Analyses were adjusted for length of residence in the neighborhood to reduce the impact of neighborhood selection bias. Higher levels of neighborhood green space were associated with significantly lower levels of symptomology for depression, anxiety and stress, after controlling for a wide range of confounding factors. Results suggest that “greening” could be a potential population mental health improvement strategy in the United States.

  2. The Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey Cluster Sample: Methodology and Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, E. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Ratnatunga, K. U.; Griffiths, R. E.

    1998-12-01

    We present a new, objectively selected, sample of galaxy overdensities detected in the Hubble Space Telescope Medium Deep Survey (MDS). These clusters/groups were found using an automated procedure that involved searching for statistically significant galaxy overdensities. The contrast of the clusters against the field galaxy population is increased when morphological data are used to search around bulge-dominated galaxies. In total, we present 92 overdensities above a probability threshold of 99.5%. We show, via extensive Monte Carlo simulations, that at least 60% of these overdensities are likely to be real clusters and groups and not random line-of-sight superpositions of galaxies. For each overdensity in the MDS cluster sample, we provide a richness and the average of the bulge-to-total ratio of galaxies within each system. This MDS cluster sample potentially contains some of the most distant clusters/groups ever detected, with about 25% of the overdensities having estimated redshifts z > ~0.9. We have made this sample publicly available to facilitate spectroscopic confirmation of these clusters and help more detailed studies of cluster and galaxy evolution. We also report the serendipitous discovery of a new cluster close on the sky to the rich optical cluster Cl l0016+16 at z = 0.546. This new overdensity, HST 001831+16208, may be coincident with both an X-ray source and a radio source. HST 001831+16208 is the third cluster/group discovered near to Cl 0016+16 and appears to strengthen the claims of Connolly et al. of superclustering at high redshift.

  3. Distance to green space and physical activity: a danish national representative survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftager, Mette; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between distance to green space and the level of physical activity among the population of Denmark. In addition, the relationship between distance to green space and obesity is investigated.......This study examines the relationship between distance to green space and the level of physical activity among the population of Denmark. In addition, the relationship between distance to green space and obesity is investigated....

  4. Origins Space Telescope: 3D infrared surveys of star formation and black hole growth in galaxies over cosmic time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alexandra; Armus, Lee; bradford, charles; Origins Space Telescope STDT

    2018-01-01

    In the coming decade, new telescope facilities and surveys aim to provide a 3D map of the unobscured Universe over cosmic time. However, much of galaxy formation and evolution occurs behind dust, and is only observable through infrared observations. Previous extragalactic infrared surveys were fundamentally limited to a 2D mapping of the most extreme populations of galaxies due to spatial resolution and sensitivity. The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies sponsored by NASA to provide input to the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. OST is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum, which will achieve spectral line sensitivities up to 1000 times deeper than previous infrared facilities. With powerful instruments such as the Medium Resolution Survey Spectrometer (MRSS), capable of simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy, the extragalactic infrared sky can finally be surveyed in 3D. In addition to spectroscopic redshifts, the rich suite of lines in the infrared provides unique diagnostics of the ongoing star formation (both obscured and unobscured) and the central supermassive black hole growth. In this poster, we present a simulated extragalactic survey with OST/MRSS which will detect millions of galaxies down to well below the knee of the infrared luminosity function. We demonstrate how this survey can map the coeval star formation and black hole growth in galaxies over cosmic time.

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the White Oak Creek Floodplain, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Date of survey: September-October 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1987-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the White Oak Creek Floodplain of the Oak Ridge Reservation during the period 30 September through 3 October 1986. The survey was performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge Operations Office, by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM), a contractor of the DOE. The survey results will be utilized in support of the Remedial Action Program being conducted at the site by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., operator of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A flight line spacing of 37 meters (120 feet) and a survey altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) yielded the maximum data density and sensitivity achievable by the aerial system, which was greater than that achieved from prior surveys of the entire Oak Ridge Reservation. Isopleth maps of Cs-137, Co-60, Ti-208 implied concentrations, and exposure rates provided an estimate of the location and magnitude of the man-made activity. These maps, overlaid on a current photograph of the area, combine to yield a view of the radiological condition of the White Oak Creek Floodplain. 5 refs., 40 figs., 3 tabs

  6. A Survey of the Homotopy Properties of Inclusion of Certain Types of Configuration Spaces into the Cartesian Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daciberg Lima GON(C)ALVES; John GUASCHI

    2017-01-01

    Let X be a topological space.In this survey the authors consider severaltypes of configuration spaces,namely,the classical (usual) configuration spaces Fn(X)and Dn(X),the orbit configuration spaces FGn(X) and FGn(X)/Sn with respect to a freeaction of a group G on X,and the graph configuration spaces FΓn(X) and FΓn(X)/H,where F is a graph and H is a suitable subgroup of the symmetric group Sn.The orderedconfiguration spaces Fn (X),FGn (X),FΓn(X) are all subsets of the n-fold Cartesian productnП1 X of X with itself,and satisfy FGn(X) (C) Fn(X) (C) Frn(X) (C) nП1 X.If A denotes one of these configuration spaces,the authors analyse the difference between A and nП1 X from a topological and homotopical point of view.The principal results known in the literature concern the usual configuration spaces.The authors are particularly interested in the homomorphism on the level of the homotopy groups of the spaces induced by the inclusion (ι):A → nП1 X,the homotopy type of the homotopy fibre I(ι) of the map (ι) via certain constructions on various spaces that depend on X,and the long exact sequence in homotopy of the fibration involving I(ι) and arising from the inclusion (ι).In this respect,if X is either a surface without boundary,in particular if X is the 2-sphere or the real projective plane,or a space whose universal covering is contractible,or an orbit space Sk/G of the k-dimensional sphere by a free action of a Lie group G,the authors present recent results obtained by themselves for the first case,and in collaboration with Golasi(n)ski for the second and third cases.The authors also briefly indicate some older results relative to the homotopy of these spaces that are related to the problems of interest.In order to motivate various questions,for the remaining types of configuration spaces,a few of their basic properties are described and proved.A list of open questions and problems is given at the end of the paper.

  7. John F. Kennedy Space Center, Safety, Reliability, Maintainability and Quality Assurance, Survey and Audit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This document is the product of the KSC Survey and Audit Working Group composed of civil service and contractor Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) personnel. The program described herein provides standardized terminology, uniformity of survey and audit operations, and emphasizes process assessments rather than a program based solely on compliance. The program establishes minimum training requirements, adopts an auditor certification methodology, and includes survey and audit metrics for the audited organizations as well as the auditing organization.

  8. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods for select space propulsion system components (PSAM). Volume 3: Literature surveys and technical reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The technical effort and computer code developed during the first year are summarized. Several formulations for Probabilistic Finite Element Analysis (PFEA) are described with emphasis on the selected formulation. The strategies being implemented in the first-version computer code to perform linear, elastic PFEA is described. The results of a series of select Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) component surveys are presented. These results identify the critical components and provide the information necessary for probabilistic structural analysis.

  9. Radiation shielding aspects for long manned mission to space: Criteria, survey study, and preliminary model

    OpenAIRE

    Sztejnberg Manuel; Xiao Shanjie; Satvat Nader; Limón Felisa; Hopkins John; Jevremović Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of manned space missions outside Earth's orbit is limited by the travel time and shielding against cosmic radiation. The chemical rockets currently used in the space program have no hope of propelling a manned vehicle to a far away location such as Mars due to the enormous mass of fuel that would be required. The specific energy available from nuclear fuel is a factor of 106 higher than chemical fuel; it is therefore obvious that nuclear power production in space is a must. On th...

  10. Space-Time Smoothing of Complex Survey Data: Small Area Estimation for Child Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Laina D; Wakefield, Jon; Pantazis, Athena; Lutambi, Angelina M; Masanja, Honorati; Clark, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    Many people living in low and middle-income countries are not covered by civil registration and vital statistics systems. Consequently, a wide variety of other types of data including many household sample surveys are used to estimate health and population indicators. In this paper we combine data from sample surveys and demographic surveillance systems to produce small area estimates of child mortality through time. Small area estimates are necessary to understand geographical heterogeneity in health indicators when full-coverage vital statistics are not available. For this endeavor spatio-temporal smoothing is beneficial to alleviate problems of data sparsity. The use of conventional hierarchical models requires careful thought since the survey weights may need to be considered to alleviate bias due to non-random sampling and non-response. The application that motivated this work is estimation of child mortality rates in five-year time intervals in regions of Tanzania. Data come from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted over the period 1991-2010 and two demographic surveillance system sites. We derive a variance estimator of under five years child mortality that accounts for the complex survey weighting. For our application, the hierarchical models we consider include random effects for area, time and survey and we compare models using a variety of measures including the conditional predictive ordinate (CPO). The method we propose is implemented via the fast and accurate integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA).

  11. Sutter: Breakthrough Telescope Innovation for Asteroid Survey Missions To Start a Gold Rush In Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PROBLEM: These are three primary reasons why it is important for NASA to develop better ways to locate and characterize Near Earth Objects (NEOs). First, NEOs are an...

  12. S-COSMOS: The Spitzer Legacy Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope ACS 2 deg2 COSMOS Field I: Survey Strategy and First Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D. B.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; Ilbert, O.; Scoville, N.; Surace, J. A.; Frayer, D. T.; Sheth, K.; Helou, G.; Brooke, T.; Bhattacharya, B.; Yan, L.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Barnes, J. E.; Blain, A. W.; Calzetti, D.; Capak, P.; Carilli, C.; Carollo, C. M.; Comastri, A.; Daddi, E.; Ellis, R. S.; Elvis, M.; Fall, S. M.; Franceschini, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hasinger, G.; Impey, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Liu, M. C.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Renzini, A.; Rich, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Shopbell, P. L.; Taniguchi, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; Urry, C. M.; Williams, J. P.

    2007-09-01

    The COSMOS Spitzer survey (S-COSMOS) is a Legacy program (Cycles 2+3) designed to carry out a uniform deep survey of the full 2 deg2 COSMOS field in all seven Spitzer bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.6, 8.0, 24.0, 70.0, and 160.0 μm). This paper describes the survey parameters, mapping strategy, data reduction procedures, achieved sensitivities to date, and the complete data set for future reference. We show that the observed infrared backgrounds in the S-COSMOS field are within 10% of the predicted background levels. The fluctuations in the background at 24 μm have been measured and do not show any significant contribution from cirrus, as expected. In addition, we report on the number of asteroid detections in the low Galactic latitude COSMOS field. We use the Cycle 2 S-COSMOS data to determine preliminary number counts, and compare our results with those from previous Spitzer Legacy surveys (e.g., SWIRE, GOODS). The results from this ``first analysis'' confirm that the S-COSMOS survey will have sufficient sensitivity with IRAC to detect ~L* disks and spheroids out to z>~3, and with MIPS to detect ultraluminous starbursts and AGNs out to z~3 at 24 μm and out to z~1.5-2 at 70 and 160 μm. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 also based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan; the XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA; the European Southern Observatory under Large Program 175.A-0839, Chile; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which are operated by AURA under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the National Radio Astronomy

  13. Cross-Cultural Issues of Intra- and Inter-Organisational Cooperation in Space Operations: A Survey Study with Ground Personnel of the European Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Manzey, Dietrich

    Today's space operations often involve close co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organizational backgrounds. The aim of the study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. Methods: A web-based survey was answered by 905 employees at the European Astronaut Centre and at the European Space Technology Centre. An adapted version of the Flight Management Attitude Questionnaire by Helmreich and Merrit was used. Personnel were also asked about interpersonal and operational issues that interfered with efficient co-working within ESA and in relation to other space agencies. Results: Collaboration within ESA: A descriptive analysis was conducted of the rank orders of challenges perceived by members of different nationalities (the Netherlands (N=68), German (N=138), Italian (N=135), French (N=124), British (N=84) and Scandinavian (27).Rank orders show a surprisingly uniformity across nationalities. Most respondents perceived differences in the preferred leadership style as the main challenge for co-working in multi-national groups followed by differences in dealing with conflicts and misunderstandings. In contrast communication problems due different languages and differences in non-verbal behaviour, as well as differences in gender stereotypes were among the lowest rated issues. However, Scandinavian respondents showed a different pattern from other nationalities. Collaboration between agencies: The most significant issues reported to interfere with the efficiency of inter-agency collaboration varied. Most difficulties were reported in relation to clarity of communication, insufficient sharing of task related information, understanding the process of decision making in partner organization, and authoritarian leadership style in the partner organization Conclusion: Cultural differences in leadership and

  14. Airborne VLF survey of Izu-Oshima volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Yutaka; Yukutake, Takeshi

    1988-05-17

    Resistivity distribution in underground indicates anomaly in some cases due to volcanic activity, airborne VLF survey of Izu-Oshima volcano in whole area was carried out by measurement of the anomalous vertical magnetic field. The flight direction was determined with reference to both of the transmitter direction of the VLF waves and the running direction of the geologic formation. The flight altitude and the flight lines spacing were 100 m and 200 m respectively. Typical profiles of four lines of measurement were investigated. The resistivity anomalies were indicated corresponding to the position of known geologic fissure line, the lip of the caldera, the line of the craters and side volcanos. Several anomalous trends were detected by the contour drawing of the Fraser filter output. The detected results were as follow: new volcanos with the resistivity anomaly, the resistivity anomalies spread to the north-northwest from Goshinka jaya, the anomalies due to flowed lava, the anomalies by encroached water from the caldera wall, the effects from side volcanoes and so on. The resistivity anomalies by airborne VLF survey correspond to the known volcanic activities, and they are useful for elucidation of the underground volcanism. (6 figs, 4 refs)

  15. Survey of the US materials processing and manufacturing in space program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckannan, E. C.

    1981-01-01

    To promote potential commercial applications of low-g technology, the materials processing and manufacturing in space program is structured to: (1) analyze the scientific principles of gravitational effects on processes used in producing materials; (2) apply the research toward the technology used to control production process (on Earth or in space, as appropriate); and (3) establish the legal and managerial framework for commercial ventures. Presently federally funded NASA research is described as well as agreements for privately funded commercial activity, and a proposed academic participation process. The future scope of the program and related capabilities using ground based facilities, aircraft, sounding rockets, and space shuttles are discussed. Areas of interest described include crystal growth; solidification of metals and alloys; containerless processing; fluids and chemical processes (including biological separation processes); and processing extraterrestrial materials.

  16. Leisure time activities in space: A survey of astronauts and cosmonauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Alan D.; Kanas, Nick

    Questionnaires were returned from 54 astronauts and cosmonauts which addressed preferences for media and media-generated subjects that could be used to occupy leisure time in space. Ninety-three percent of the respondents had access to records or audio cassettes, and cosmonauts had greater access than astronauts to multiple media. Cosmonauts and long-duration space travelers reported that they missed various media more than their astronaut and short-duration counterparts. Media subjects that related to international events, national events and historical topics were rated as most preferable by all respondents and by several of the respondent groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for occupying free time during future long-duration manned space missions.

  17. Previous experience in manned space flight: A survey of human factors lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandlee, George O.; Woolford, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Previous experience in manned space flight programs can be used to compile a data base of human factors lessons learned for the purpose of developing aids in the future design of inhabited spacecraft. The objectives are to gather information available from relevant sources, to develop a taxonomy of human factors data, and to produce a data base that can be used in the future for those people involved in the design of manned spacecraft operations. A study is currently underway at the Johnson Space Center with the objective of compiling, classifying, and summarizing relevant human factors data bearing on the lessons learned from previous manned space flights. The research reported defines sources of data, methods for collection, and proposes a classification for human factors data that may be a model for other human factors disciplines.

  18. Portable Diagnostics Technology Assessment for Space Missions. Part 2; Market Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Chait, Arnon

    2010-01-01

    A mission to Mars of several years duration requires more demanding standards for all onboard instruments than a 6-month mission to the Moon or the International Space Station. In Part 1, we evaluated generic technologies and suitability to NASA needs. This prior work considered crew safety, device maturity and flightworthiness, resource consumption, and medical value. In Part 2, we continue the study by assessing the current marketplace for reliable Point-of-Care diagnostics. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide a set of objective analytical tools to suggest efficient strategies for reaching specific medical targets for any given space mission as program needs, technological development, and scientific understanding evolve.

  19. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Yafei; Groot, de Dolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed

  20. A nationwide Danish survey on the use of green spaces by people with mobility disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stigsdotter, Ulrika K; Corazon, Sus Sola; Ekholm, Ola

    2017-01-01

    and Morbidity Survey in 2005. The study participants consisted of 11,238 adult Danes, 383 of whom reported mobility disabilities, meaning that they were dependent on assistive devices for walking or moving around. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between mobility...

  1. CANDELS : THE COSMIC ASSEMBLY NEAR-INFRARED DEEP EXTRAGALACTIC LEGACY SURVEY-THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS, IMAGING DATA PRODUCTS, AND MOSAICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koo, David C.; Lai, Kamson; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Ogaz, Sara; Rajan, Abhijith; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steve A.; Strolger, Louis; Casertano, Stefano; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Dickinson, Mark; Dolch, Timothy; Fontana, Adriano; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grazian, Andrea; Guo, Yicheng; Hathi, Nimish P.; Huang, Kuang-Han; van der Wel, Arjen; Yan, Hao-Jing; Acquaviva, Viviana; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Barden, Marco; Bell, Eric F.; Bournaud, Frederic; Brown, Thomas M.; Caputi, Karina I.; Cassata, Paolo; Challis, Peter J.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Cheung, Edmond; Cirasuolo, Michele; Conselice, Christopher J.; Cooray, Asantha Roshan; Croton, Darren J.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dave, Romeel; de Mello, Duilia F.; de Ravel, Loic; Dekel, Avishai; Donley, Jennifer L.; Dunlop, James S.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Elbaz, David; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Frazer, Chris; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Gawiser, Eric; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Hartley, Will G.; Haeussler, Boris; Herrington, Jessica; Hopkins, Philip F.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Jha, Saurabh W.; Johnson, Andrew; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Khostovan, Ali A.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Lani, Caterina; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Li, Weidong; Madau, Piero; McCarthy, Patrick J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; McLure, Ross J.; McPartland, Conor; Mobasher, Bahram; Moreira, Heidi; Mortlock, Alice; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Mozena, Mark; Nandra, Kirpal; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Niemi, Sami; Noeske, Kai G.; Papovich, Casey J.; Pentericci, Laura; Pope, Alexandra; Primack, Joel R.; Ravindranath, Swara; Reddy, Naveen A.; Renzini, Alvio; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robaina, Aday R.; Rosario, David J.; Rosati, Piero; Salimbeni, Sara; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian; Simard, Luc; Smidt, Joseph; Snyder, Diana; Somerville, Rachel S.; Spinrad, Hyron; Straughn, Amber N.; Telford, Olivia; Teplitz, Harry I.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Vargas, Carlos; Villforth, Carolin; Wagner, Cory R.; Wandro, Pat; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wiklind, Tommy; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, Grant; Wuyts, Stijn; Yun, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Hubble Space Telescope imaging data products and data reduction procedures for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). This survey is designed to document the evolution of galaxies and black holes at z approximate to 1.5-8, and to study

  2. Survey of the environmental biocontamination on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, N.; de Boever, P.; Poddubko, S.; Deshevaya, E.; Polikarpov, N.; Rakova, N.; Coninx, I.; Mergeay, M.

    Background Reports on the exploitation of the orbital station Mir has indicated that microorganisms are ubiquitously present and that they should be considered as indigenous to any spacecraft environment Although most microorganisms do not affect human health it has been reported that in a confined environment such as a space cabin microorganisms may produce adverse effects on the optimal performance of the space crew and the integrity of the spacecraft or habitat Monitoring the biological contamination of the current International Space Station ISS is imperative and the results of the investigations may trigger off specific countermeasures when microbial concentrations pass defined thresholds e g disinfection and sterilization Aim More than 500 samples were collected at different locations over a period of six years to characterize air and surface biocontamination residing in the ISS Results Concentrations of airborne bacteria and fungi were lower than 7 1x102 CFU m 3 and 4 4x101 CFU m 3 respectively Staphylococcus sp was by far the most dominant airborne bacterial species whereas Aspergillus sp and Penicillium sp dominated the fungal population The bacterial concentrations in surfaces samples fluctuated from 2 5x101 to 4 3x104 CFU 100 cm2 Staphylococcus sp dominated in all of these samples The number of fungi varied between 2 5x101 CFU 100 cm2 and 3 0x105 CFU 100 cm2 with Aspergillus sp and Cladosporium sp as the most dominant genera Furthermore the investigations identified the presence of several opportunistic pathogens e g S aureus

  3. Phenomenology of dark energy: exploring the space of theories with future redshift surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, Federico; Steigerwald, Heinrich; Marinoni, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We use the effective field theory of dark energy to explore the space of modified gravity models which are capable of driving the present cosmic acceleration. We identify five universal functions of cosmic time that are enough to describe a wide range of theories containing a single scalar degree of freedom in addition to the metric. The first function (the effective equation of state) uniquely controls the expansion history of the universe. The remaining four functions appear in the linear cosmological perturbation equations, but only three of them regulate the growth history of large scale structures. We propose a specific parameterization of such functions in terms of characteristic coefficients that serve as coordinates in the space of modified gravity theories and can be effectively constrained by the next generation of cosmological experiments. We address in full generality the problem of the soundness of the theory against ghost-like and gradient instabilities and show how the space of non-pathological models shrinks when a more negative equation of state parameter is considered. This analysis allows us to locate a large class of stable theories that violate the null energy condition (i.e. super-acceleration models) and to recover, as particular subsets, various models considered so far. Finally, under the assumption that the true underlying cosmological model is the Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) scenario, and relying on the figure of merit of EUCLID-like observations, we demonstrate that the theoretical requirement of stability significantly narrows the empirical likelihood, increasing the discriminatory power of data. We also find that the vast majority of these non-pathological theories generating the same expansion history as the ΛCDM model predict a different, lower, growth rate of cosmic structures

  4. PLANETARY NEBULAE DETECTED IN THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE GLIMPSE II LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Sun Kwok

    2009-01-01

    We report the result of a search for the infrared counterparts of 37 planetary nebulae (PNs) and PN candidates in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire II (GLIMPSE II) survey. The photometry and images of these PNs at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 μm, taken through the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS), are presented. Most of these nebulae are very red and compact in the IRAC bands, and are found to be bright and extended in the 24 μm band. The infrared morphology of these objects are compared with Hα images of the Macquarie-AAO-Strasbourg (MASH) and MASH II PNs. The implications for morphological difference in different wavelengths are discussed. The IRAC data allow us to differentiate between PNs and H II regions and be able to reject non-PNs from the optical catalog (e.g., PNG 352.1 - 00.0). Spectral energy distributions are constructed by combing the IRAC and MIPS data with existing near-, mid-, and far-IR photometry measurements. The anomalous colors of some objects allow us to infer the presence of aromatic emission bands. These multi-wavelength data provide useful insights into the nature of different nebular components contributing to the infrared emission of PNs.

  5. Modal Survey of ETM-3, A 5-Segment Derivative of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, D.; Townsend, J.; Kappus, K.; Driskill, T.; Torres, I.; Parks, R.

    2005-01-01

    The complex interactions between internal motor generated pressure oscillations and motor structural vibration modes associated with the static test configuration of a Reusable Solid Rocket Motor have potential to generate significant dynamic thrust loads in the 5-segment configuration (Engineering Test Motor 3). Finite element model load predictions for worst-case conditions were generated based on extrapolation of a previously correlated 4-segment motor model. A modal survey was performed on the largest rocket motor to date, Engineering Test Motor #3 (ETM-3), to provide data for finite element model correlation and validation of model generated design loads. The modal survey preparation included pretest analyses to determine an efficient analysis set selection using the Effective Independence Method and test simulations to assure critical test stand component loads did not exceed design limits. Historical Reusable Solid Rocket Motor modal testing, ETM-3 test analysis model development and pre-test loads analyses, as well as test execution, and a comparison of results to pre-test predictions are discussed.

  6. Report on the survey for electrostatic discharges on Mars using NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabshahi, S.; Majid, W.; Geldzahler, B.; Kocz, J.; Schulter, T.; White, L.

    2017-12-01

    Mars atmosphere has strong dust activity. It is suggested that the larger regional storms are capable of producing electric fields large enough to initiate electrostatic discharges. The storms have charging process similar to terrestrial dust devils and have hot cores and complicated vortex winds similar to terrestrial thunderstorms. However, due to uncertainties in our understanding of the electrical environment of the storms and absence of related in-situ measurements, the existence (or non-existence) of such electrostatic discharges on the planet is yet to be confirmed. Knowing about the electrical activity on Mars is essential for future human explorations of the planet. We have recently launched a long-term monitoring campaign at NASA's Madrid Deep Space Communication Complex (MDSCC) to search for powerful discharges on Mars. The search occurs during routine tracking of Mars orbiting spacecraft by Deep Space Network (DSN) radio telescope. In this presentation, we will report on the result of processing and analysis of the data from the first six months of our campaign.

  7. Environmental airborn radioactivity survey around Burg El Arab Area, Western desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, K.M.; Ammar, A.A.; Meleik, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    An environmental airborne radioactivity survey of approximately 250 square kilometres of Burg El Arab area was conducted by the Airborne Geophysical survey Division of the Geology and Raw Materials Department. The environmental levels of gamma radiation are measured so as to determine quickly the amount and extent of any possible future increase in radioactivity levels of the area by the proposed nuclear facility through normal operations or any accident that may occur. The aerial radiometric measurements were obtained by a continuously recording airborne scintillometer type RVS-1. installed in an Antonoff-2 aircraft, flying at an average speed of 170 Km/h, at a nominal ground clearance of 50 m. The survey was carried out along 84 parallel flight lines directed N-S, and spaced 250 m apart. The area is shown on the geological map as composed of four lithological units. The analysis of the data has proved that these units correspond to six distinct levels of characteristic radioactivity, as two of the lithological units could each be separated into two radioactivity levels on the basis of the radioactivity pattern. The six radiometric levels are, from north to south, beach limy sediments (15 to 101. and 97 to 191 cps), detrital limestone (201 to 354 cpt), saline lakes and salt deposits (262 to 444 cps), and alluvial deposits (307 to 308 and 412 to 742 cps)

  8. Sixteen Years of the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys: Calibration Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman A.; ACS Instrument Team

    2018-06-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) has been a workhorse HST imager for over sixteen years, subsequent to its Servicing Mission 3B installation in 2002. The once defunct ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) has now been operating nearly twice as long (>9yrs) since its Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) repair than it had originally operated prior to its 2007 failure. Despite the accumulating radiation damage to the WFC CCDs during their long stay in low Earth orbit, ACS continues to be heavily exploited by the HST community as both a prime and a parallel detector.During past year, there have been two new releases of the CALACS image reduction pipeline that have incorporated several recent advancements in ACS calibration capabilities. We review these updates, along with the enhanced calibration reference files (superbiases, superdarks, etc.) associated with these CALACS releases. We also present results from long-term monitoring of WFC dark current and readout noise, and from new studies of detector performance from both WFC and the ACS Solar Blind Channel (SBC). Highlights include: 1) improved characterization of WFC post-flash LED illumination, including a low-level annual modulation of LED intensity; 2) comprehensive assessment of SBC dark current as a function of detector operating temperature, and of SBC operating temperature versus duration of use; and 3) an update to the WFC bad-pixel table resulting from a minor particulate-contamination event in May 2017.

  9. An emperor penguin population estimate: the first global, synoptic survey of a species from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Larue, Michelle A; Morin, Paul; Kooyman, Gerald L; Wienecke, Barbara; Ratcliffe, Norman; Fox, Adrian J; Fleming, Andrew H; Porter, Claire; Trathan, Phil N

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to estimate the population of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes fosteri) using a single synoptic survey. We examined the whole continental coastline of Antarctica using a combination of medium resolution and Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery to identify emperor penguin colony locations. Where colonies were identified, VHR imagery was obtained in the 2009 breeding season. The remotely-sensed images were then analysed using a supervised classification method to separate penguins from snow, shadow and guano. Actual counts of penguins from eleven ground truthing sites were used to convert these classified areas into numbers of penguins using a robust regression algorithm.We found four new colonies and confirmed the location of three previously suspected sites giving a total number of emperor penguin breeding colonies of 46. We estimated the breeding population of emperor penguins at each colony during 2009 and provide a population estimate of ~238,000 breeding pairs (compared with the last previously published count of 135,000-175,000 pairs). Based on published values of the relationship between breeders and non-breeders, this translates to a total population of ~595,000 adult birds.There is a growing consensus in the literature that global and regional emperor penguin populations will be affected by changing climate, a driver thought to be critical to their future survival. However, a complete understanding is severely limited by the lack of detailed knowledge about much of their ecology, and importantly a poor understanding of their total breeding population. To address the second of these issues, our work now provides a comprehensive estimate of the total breeding population that can be used in future population models and will provide a baseline for long-term research.

  10. Hubble space telescope/advanced camera for surveys confirmation of the dark substructure in A520

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, M. J.; Hoekstra, H.; Mahdavi, A.; Babul, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a weak-lensing study of the cluster A520 based on Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) data. The excellent data quality provides a mean source density of ∼109 arcmin –2 , which improves both resolution and significance of the mass reconstruction compared to a previous study based on Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images. We take care in removing instrumental effects such as the charge trailing due to radiation damage of the detector and the position-dependent point-spread function. This new ACS analysis confirms the previous claims that a substantial amount of dark mass is present between two luminous subclusters where we observe very little light. The centroid of the dark peak in the current ACS analysis is offset to the southwest by ∼1' with respect to the centroid from the WFPC2 analysis. Interestingly, this new centroid is in better agreement with the location where the X-ray emission is strongest, and the mass-to-light ratio estimated with this centroid is much higher (813 ± 78 M ☉ /L R☉ ) than the previous value; the aperture mass with the WFPC2 centroid provides a consistent mass. Although we cannot provide a definite explanation for the dark peak, we discuss a revised scenario, wherein dark matter with a more conventional range (σ DM /m DM < 1 cm 2 g –1 ) of self-interacting cross-section can lead to the detection of this dark substructure. If supported by detailed numerical simulations, this hypothesis opens up the possibility that the A520 system can be used to establish a lower limit of the self-interacting cross-section of dark matter.

  11. GESE: a small UV space telescope to conduct a large spectroscopic survey of z˜1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Gong, Qian; Hull, Tony; Kruk, Jeffrey; Purves, Lloyd

    2014-11-01

    One of the key goals of NASA's astrophysics program is to answer the question: How did galaxies evolve into the spirals and elliptical galaxies that we see today? We describe a space mission concept called Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) to address this question by making a large spectroscopic survey of galaxies at a redshift, z˜1 (look-back time of ˜8 billion years). GESE is a 1.5-m space telescope with an ultraviolet (UV) multi-object slit spectrograph that can obtain spectra of hundreds of galaxies per exposure. The spectrograph covers the spectral range, 0.2-0.4 μm at a spectral resolving power, R˜500. This observed spectral range corresponds to 0.1-0.2 μm as emitted by a galaxy at a redshift, z=1. The mission concept takes advantage of two new technological advances: (1) light-weighted, wide-field telescope mirrors, and (2) the Next-Generation MicroShutter Array (NG-MSA) to be used as a slit generator in the multi-object slit spectrograph.

  12. THE SPACE DENSITY EVOLUTION OF WET AND DRY MERGERS IN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Richard C. Y.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Bridge, Carrie R.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze 1298 merging galaxies with redshifts up to z = 0.7 from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, taken from the catalog presented in the work of Bridge et al. By analyzing the internal colors of these systems, we show that the so-called wet and dry mergers evolve in different senses, and quantify the space densities of these systems. The local space density of wet mergers is essentially identical to the local space density of dry mergers. The evolution in the total merger rate is modest out to z ∼ 0.7, although the wet and dry populations have different evolutionary trends. At higher redshifts, dry mergers make a smaller contribution to the total merging galaxy population, but this is offset by a roughly equivalent increase in the contribution from wet mergers. By comparing the mass density function of early-type galaxies to the corresponding mass density function for merging systems, we show that not all the major mergers with the highest masses (M stellar >10 11 M sun ) will end up with the most massive early-type galaxies, unless the merging timescale is dramatically longer than that usually assumed. On the other hand, the usually assumed merging timescale of ∼0.5-1 Gyr is quite consistent with the data if we suppose that only less massive early-type galaxies form via mergers. Since low-intermediate-mass ellipticals are 10-100 times more common than their most massive counterparts, the hierarchical explanation for the origin of early-type galaxies may be correct for the vast majority of early types, even if incorrect for the most massive ones.

  13. Inventory of glaciers in the Eastern Sayan on the basis of space surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Osipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Small glaciers (areas smaller 1 km2 are the most numerous in most mountainous and glacial regions of the Earth, but their responses to the present‑day climate change are still to be investigated. The paper presents results of the new inventory of small inter‑continental glaciers located in the Eastern Sayan (South of Eastern Siberia. The previous (1950 glacier inventory was made from data of aerial photography carried out in the middle of the 20th century (USSR Glacier Inventory, КЛ 1950. A more complete inventory of the East Sayan glaciers for the state of 2000 (КЛ 2000 had been performed using the multichannel space images (Landsat Enhanced The‑ matic Mapper (ETM+ of 2000 and 2001, and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM. In addition, some glaciers from the Inventory KL 1950 were re‑mapped on the basis of the Land‑ sat images (TM, ETM+, 1986‑2011 for years 1950, 1990 and 2010. The glacier outlines, determined on the test site from images of medium (Landsat and high (World View‑1 satellite resolution, were compared that con‑ firmed that errors of mapping of small glaciers did not exceed 15%. The KL 2000 contains data on 172 glaciers with a total area of 16.6±1.9 km2. Glacier sizes are from 0.02 to 1.37 km2. For 1950–2000, the total area of the East Sayan glaciers had decreased by 59% (0.40% per a year. In 1990–2000, the glaciers decreased the most rapidly (by an order of magnitude faster as compared to the period of 1950–1990.. In 2000–2010, the area of glaciation slightly increased (by 4% owing to formation of very small glaciers (area smaller 0.5 km2. On the whole, changes in glacier areas in the years 1950–2010 are in the good agreement with changes in amounts of winter precipita‑ tion and summer temperatures. In addition to regional climatic factors, there are also some local factors related to the topography and microclimate of individual glaciers which do also influence

  14. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. III. A QUINTUPLE STELLAR POPULATION IN NGC 2808

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Jerjen, H.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Anderson, J.; Bellini, A.; Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; D’Antona, F.; Ventura, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we present the first results from multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 2808 as an extension of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs (GO-13297 and previous proprietary and HST archive data). Our analysis allowed us to disclose a multiple-stellar-population phenomenon in NGC 2808 even more complex than previously thought. We have separated at least five different populations along the main sequence and the red giant branch (RGB), which we name A, B, C, D, and E (though an even finer subdivision may be suggested by the data). We identified the RGB bump in four out of the five RGBs. To explore the origin of this complex color–magnitude diagram, we have combined our multi-wavelength HST photometry with synthetic spectra, generated by assuming different chemical compositions. The comparison of observed colors with synthetic spectra suggests that the five stellar populations have different contents of light elements and helium. Specifically, if we assume that NGC 2808 is homogeneous in [Fe/H] (as suggested by spectroscopy for Populations B, C, D, E, but lacking for Population A) and that population A has a primordial helium abundance, we find that populations B, C, D, E are enhanced in helium by ΔY ∼ 0.03, 0.03, 0.08, 0.13, respectively. We obtain similar results by comparing the magnitude of the RGB bumps with models. Planned spectroscopic observations will test whether Population A also has the same metallicity, or whether its photometric differences with Population B can be ascribed to small [Fe/H] and [O/H] differences rather than to helium

  15. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kristensen, Kasper; Lewy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP) statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes...

  16. Utilization of Solar Dynamics Observatory space weather digital image data for comparative analysis with application to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekoyan, V.; Dehipawala, S.; Liu, Ernest; Tulsee, Vivek; Armendariz, R.; Tremberger, G.; Holden, T.; Marchese, P.; Cheung, T.

    2012-10-01

    Digital solar image data is available to users with access to standard, mass-market software. Many scientific projects utilize the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format, which requires specialized software typically used in astrophysical research. Data in the FITS format includes photometric and spatial calibration information, which may not be useful to researchers working with self-calibrated, comparative approaches. This project examines the advantages of using mass-market software with readily downloadable image data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for comparative analysis over with the use of specialized software capable of reading data in the FITS format. Comparative analyses of brightness statistics that describe the solar disk in the study of magnetic energy using algorithms included in mass-market software have been shown to give results similar to analyses using FITS data. The entanglement of magnetic energy associated with solar eruptions, as well as the development of such eruptions, has been characterized successfully using mass-market software. The proposed algorithm would help to establish a publicly accessible, computing network that could assist in exploratory studies of all FITS data. The advances in computer, cell phone and tablet technology could incorporate such an approach readily for the enhancement of high school and first-year college space weather education on a global scale. Application to ground based data such as that contained in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey is discussed.

  17. Water equivalent of snow survey of the Red River Basin and Heart/Cannonball River Basin, March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1979-10-01

    The water equivalent of accumulated snow was estimated in the Red River and Heart/Cannonball River basins and surrounding areas in North Dakota during the period 8 to 17 March 1978. A total of 570 km were flown, covering a 274 km section of the Red River Basin watershed. These lines had been surveyed in March 1974. Twelve flight lines were flown over the North Dakota side of the Red River from a point 23 km south of the Canadian border southward to the city of Fargo, North Dakota. The eight flight lines flown over the Minnesota side of the Red River extended from 23 km south of the Canadian border southward to Breckenridge, Minnesota. Using six flight lines, a total of 120 km were flown in the Heart/Cannonball River Basin, an area southwest of the city of Bismark, North Dakota. This was the first such flight in the Heart/Cannonball River Basin area. Computed weighted average water equivalents on each flight line in the Red River Basin ranged from 4.8 cm to 12.7 cm of water, averaging 7.6 cm for all lines. In the Heart/Cannonball River Basin, the weighted water equivalent ranged from 8.9 cm to 19.1 cm of water, averaging 12.7 cm for all lines. The method used employs the measurement of the natural gamma rays both before and after snow covers the ground

  18. WHITE DWARF-RED DWARF SYSTEMS RESOLVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. II. FULL SNAPSHOT SURVEY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farihi, J.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low-mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets that remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. For 68 systems where a comparison is possible, 50% have significant photometric distance mismatches between their white dwarf and M dwarf components, suggesting that white dwarf parameters derived spectroscopically are often biased due to the cool companion. Interestingly, 9 of the 30 binaries known to have emission lines are found to be visual pairs and hence widely separated, indicating an intrinsically active cool star and not irradiation from the white dwarf. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) among the spatially unresolved companions, exactly the opposite of expectations if significant mass is transferred to the companion during the common envelope phase. Using the best available distance estimates, the low-mass companions to white dwarfs exhibit a bimodal distribution in projected separation. This result supports the hypothesis that during the giant phases of the white dwarf progenitor, any unevolved companions either migrate inward to short periods of hours to days, or outward to periods of hundreds to thousands of years. No intermediate projected separations of a few to several AU are found among these pairs. However, a few double M dwarfs (within triples) are spatially resolved in this range, empirically demonstrating that such separations were readily detectable among the binaries with white dwarfs. A straightforward and testable prediction emerges: all spatially unresolved, low-mass stellar and substellar companions to white dwarfs should be in short-period orbits. This result has implications for substellar companion and

  19. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters - XII. The RGB bumps of multiple stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagioia, E. P.; Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Cassisi, S.; Aparicio, A. J.; Piotto, G.; Anderson, J.; Barbuy, B.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T.; D'Antona, F.; Nardiello, D.; Ortolani, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Renzini, A.; Salaris, M.; Sarajedini, A.; van der Marel, R.; Vesperini, E.

    2018-04-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters is providing a major breakthrough in our knowledge of globular clusters (GCs) and their stellar populations. Among the main results, we discovered that all the studied GCs host two main discrete groups consisting of first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) stars. We exploit the multiwavelength photometry from this project to investigate, for the first time, the Red Giant Branch Bump (RGBB) of the two generations in a large sample of GCs. We identified, with high statistical significance, the RGBB of 1G and 2G stars in 26 GCs and found that their magnitude separation as a function of the filter wavelength follows comparable trends. The comparison of observations to synthetic spectra reveals that the RGBB luminosity depends on the stellar chemical composition and that the 2G RGBB is consistent with stars enhanced in He and N and depleted in C and O with respect to 1G stars. For metal-poor GCs the 1G and 2G RGBB relative luminosity in optical bands mostly depends on helium content, Y. We used the RGBB observations in F606W and F814W bands to infer the relative helium abundance of 1G and 2G stars in 18 GCs, finding an average helium enhancement ΔY = 0.011 ± 0.002 of 2G stars with respect to 1G stars. This is the first determination of the average difference in helium abundance of multiple populations in a large number of clusters and provides a lower limit to the maximum internal variation of helium in GCs.

  20. THE EXTENDED HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SUPERNOVA SURVEY: THE RATE OF CORE COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE TO z {approx} 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlen, Tomas; Riess, Adam G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strolger, Louis-Gregory [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Mattila, Seppo; Kankare, Erkki [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Mobasher, Bahram, E-mail: dahlen@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We use a sample of 45 core collapse supernovae detected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope to derive the core collapse supernova rate in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.3. In redshift bins centered on (z) = 0.39, (z) = 0.73, and (z) = 1.11, we find rates of 3.00{sup +1.28}{sub -0.94} {sup +1.04}{sub -0.57}, 7.39{sup +1.86}{sub -1.52} {sup +3.20}{sub -1.60}, and 9.57{sup +3.76}{sub -2.80} {sup +4.96}{sub -2.80}, respectively, given in units of yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} 10{sup -4} h {sup 3}{sub 70}. The rates have been corrected for host galaxy extinction, including supernovae missed in highly dust-enshrouded environments in infrared bright galaxies. The first errors are statistical while the second ones are the estimated systematic errors. We perform a detailed discussion of possible sources of systematic errors and note that these start to dominate over statistical errors at z > 0.5, emphasizing the need to better control the systematic effects. For example, a better understanding of the amount of dust extinction in the host galaxies and knowledge of the supernova luminosity function, in particular the fraction of faint M {approx}> -15 supernovae, is needed to better constrain the rates. When comparing our results with the core collapse supernova rate based on the star formation rate, we find a good agreement, consistent with the supernova rate following the star formation rate, as expected.

  1. The ultracool-field dwarf luminosity-function and space density from the Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reylé, C.; Delorme, P.; Willott, C. J.; Albert, L.; Delfosse, X.; Forveille, T.; Artigau, E.; Malo, L.; Hill, G. J.; Doyon, R.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Thanks to recent and ongoing large scale surveys, hundreds of brown dwarfs have been discovered in the last decade. The Canada-France Brown Dwarf Survey is a wide-field survey for cool brown dwarfs conducted with the MegaCam camera on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Aims: Our objectives are to find ultracool brown dwarfs and to constrain the field brown-dwarf luminosity function and the mass function from a large and homogeneous sample of L and T dwarfs. Methods: We identify candidates in CFHT/MegaCam i' and z' images and follow them up with pointed near infrared (NIR) imaging on several telescopes. Halfway through our survey we found ~50 T dwarfs and ~170 L or ultra cool M dwarfs drawn from a larger sample of 1400 candidates with typical ultracool dwarfs i'-z' colours, found in 780 square degrees. Results: We have currently completed the NIR follow-up on a large part of the survey for all candidates from mid-L dwarfs down to the latest T dwarfs known with utracool dwarfs' colours. This allows us to draw on a complete and well defined sample of 102 ultracool dwarfs to investigate the luminosity function and space density of field dwarfs. Conclusions: We found the density of late L5 to T0 dwarfs to be 2.0+0.8-0.7 × 10-3 objects pc-3, the density of T0.5 to T5.5 dwarfs to be 1.4+0.3-0.2 × 10-3 objects pc-3, and the density of T6 to T8 dwarfs to be 5.3+3.1-2.2 × 10-3 objects pc-3. We found that these results agree better with a flat substellar mass function. Three latest dwarfs at the boundary between T and Y dwarfs give the high density 8.3+9.0-5.1 × 10-3 objects pc-3. Although the uncertainties are very large this suggests that many brown dwarfs should be found in this late spectral type range, as expected from the cooling of brown dwarfs, whatever their mass, down to very low temperature. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by

  2. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, portions of the North Platte and South Platte Natural Resources Districts, western Nebraska, May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Minsley, B.J.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Ball, L.B.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey that was conducted during June 2009 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a joint hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District (NRD), South Platte NRD, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Flight lines for the survey totaled 937 line kilometers (582 line miles). The objective of the contracted survey, conducted by Fugro Airborne, Ltd., is to improve the understanding of the relation between surface-water and groundwater systems critical to developing groundwater models used in management programs for water resources. A unique aspect of the survey is the flight line layout. One set of flight lines was flown in a zig-zag pattern extending along the length of the previously collected airborne data. The success of this survey design depended on a well-understood regional hydrogeologic framework and model developed by the Cooperative Hydrologic Study of the Platte River Basin and the airborne geophysical data collected in 2008. Resistivity variations along lines could be related to this framework. In addition to these lines, more traditional surveys consisting of parallel flight lines, separated by about 400 meters were carried out for three blocks in the North Platte NRD, the South Platte NRD and in the area of Crescent Lakes. These surveys helped to establish the spatial variations of the resistivity of hydrostratigraphic units. An additional survey was flown over the Crescent Lake area. The objective of this survey, funded by the USGS Office of Groundwater, was to map shallow hydrogeologic features of the southwestern part of the Sand Hills that contain a mix of fresh to saline lakes.

  3. Characterization of leveling problems of Patagonia gamma-ray spectrometry survey, Chubut province (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Kenneth L.; Lopez, Luis E.

    1998-01-01

    Measuring the radioelement concentrations of the soils along traverses perpendicular to the flight line direction was performed in order to gather useful information in support of the leveling of the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer survey of Patagonia. Two sites were selected as test areas which ground and airborne spectrometric data were systematically compared to asses the nature of the leveling problems. It is suspected that variations in soil moisture may play a significant roll in the leveling variations. (author)

  4. Helicopter Electromagnetic and Magnetic Geophysical Survey Data for Portions of the North Platte River and Lodgepole Creek, Nebraska, June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D.; Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Hill, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey that was conducted during June 2008 in areas of western Nebraska as part of a joint hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District, South Platte Natural Resource District, and U.S. Geological Survey. The objective of the contracted survey, conducted by Fugro Airborne, Ltd., was to improve the understanding of the relationship between surface water and groundwater systems critical to developing groundwater models used in management programs for water resources. The survey covered 1,375 line km (854 line mi). A unique aspect of this survey is the flight line layout. One set of flight lines were flown paralleling each side of the east-west trending North Platte River and Lodgepole Creek. The survey also included widely separated (10 km) perpendicular north-south lines. The success of this survey design depended on a well understood regional hydrogeologic framework and model developed by the Cooperative Hydrologic Study of the Platte River Basin. Resistivity variations along lines could be related to this framework. In addition to these lines, more traditional surveys consisting of parallel flight lines separated by about 270 m were carried out for one block in each of the drainages. These surveys helped to establish the spatial variations of the resistivity of hydrostratigraphic units. The electromagnetic equipment consisted of six different coil-pair orientations that measured resistivity at separated frequencies from about 400 Hz to about 140,000 Hz. The electromagnetic data along flight lines were converted to electrical resistivity. The resulting line data were converted to geo-referenced grids and maps which are included with this report. In addition to the electromagnetic data, total field magnetic data and digital elevation data were collected. Data released in this report consist of data along flight lines, digital grids, and digital maps of the

  5. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  6. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA, HANFORD, WASHINGTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM(reg s ign) system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m (328 ft) and 200 m (656 ft)) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  7. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  8. Assessing the Associations Between Types of Green Space, Physical Activity, and Health Indicators Using GIS and Participatory Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, A.

    2017-11-01

    This study explores whether specific types of green spaces (i.e. urban green spaces, forests, agricultural lands, rangelands, and wetlands) are associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. A sample of 8,976 respondents from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, conducted in 2006 in Washington State across 291 zip-codes, was analyzed. Measures included physical activity status, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence (i.e. heart attack, angina, and stroke). Percentage of green spaces was derived from the National Land Cover Dataset and measured with Geographical Information System. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data while controlling for age, sex, race, weight, marital status, occupation, income, education level, and zip-code population and socio-economic situation. Regression results reveal that no green space types were associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. On the other hand, the analysis shows that physical activity was associated with general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. The findings suggest that other factors such as size, structure and distribution (sprawled or concentrated, large or small), quality, and characteristics of green space might be important in general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence rather than green space types. Therefore, further investigations are needed.

  9. ASSESSING THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN TYPES OF GREEN SPACE, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AND HEALTH INDICATORS USING GIS AND PARTICIPATORY SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akpinar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores whether specific types of green spaces (i.e. urban green spaces, forests, agricultural lands, rangelands, and wetlands are associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. A sample of 8,976 respondents from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, conducted in 2006 in Washington State across 291 zip-codes, was analyzed. Measures included physical activity status, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence (i.e. heart attack, angina, and stroke. Percentage of green spaces was derived from the National Land Cover Dataset and measured with Geographical Information System. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data while controlling for age, sex, race, weight, marital status, occupation, income, education level, and zip-code population and socio-economic situation. Regression results reveal that no green space types were associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. On the other hand, the analysis shows that physical activity was associated with general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. The findings suggest that other factors such as size, structure and distribution (sprawled or concentrated, large or small, quality, and characteristics of green space might be important in general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence rather than green space types. Therefore, further investigations are needed.

  10. SIMULATIONS OF WIDE-FIELD WEAK-LENSING SURVEYS. II. COVARIANCE MATRIX OF REAL-SPACE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masanori; Matsubara, Takahiko; Takada, Masahiro; Hamana, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Using 1000 ray-tracing simulations for a Λ-dominated cold dark model in Sato et al., we study the covariance matrix of cosmic shear correlation functions, which is the standard statistics used in previous measurements. The shear correlation function of a particular separation angle is affected by Fourier modes over a wide range of multipoles, even beyond a survey area, which complicates the analysis of the covariance matrix. To overcome such obstacles we first construct Gaussian shear simulations from the 1000 realizations and then use the Gaussian simulations to disentangle the Gaussian covariance contribution to the covariance matrix we measured from the original simulations. We found that an analytical formula of Gaussian covariance overestimates the covariance amplitudes due to an effect of the finite survey area. Furthermore, the clean separation of the Gaussian covariance allows us to examine the non-Gaussian covariance contributions as a function of separation angles and source redshifts. For upcoming surveys with typical source redshifts of z s = 0.6 and 1.0, the non-Gaussian contribution to the diagonal covariance components at 1 arcmin scales is greater than the Gaussian contribution by a factor of 20 and 10, respectively. Predictions based on the halo model qualitatively well reproduce the simulation results, however show a sizable disagreement in the covariance amplitudes. By combining these simulation results we develop a fitting formula to the covariance matrix for a survey with arbitrary area coverage, taking into account effects of the finiteness of survey area on the Gaussian covariance.

  11. Measuring Social Relations in New Classroom Spaces: Development and Validation of the Social Context and Learning Environments (SCALE) Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. D.; Baepler, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the need for reliable and valid information concerning how innovative classrooms on college and university campuses affect teaching and learning. The Social Context and Learning Environments (SCALE) survey was developed though a three-stage process involving approximately 1300 college students. Exploratory and confirmatory…

  12. A statistical model for estimation of fish density including correlation in size, space, time and between species from research survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rasmus Nielsen

    Full Text Available Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes zero observations and over-dispersion. The model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correlation between size groups in a haul increases when the difference in size decreases. Here the model is extended in two ways. Instead of assuming a natural scale size correlation, the model is further developed to allow for a transformed length scale. Furthermore, in the present application, the spatial- and size-dependent correlation between species was included. For cod (Gadus morhua and whiting (Merlangius merlangus, a common structured size correlation was fitted, and a separable structure between the time and space-size correlation was found for each species, whereas more complex structures were required to describe the correlation between species (and space-size. The within-species time correlation is strong, whereas the correlations between the species are weaker over time but strong within the year.

  13. A Survey of Soil Enzyme Activities along Major Roads in Beijing: The Implications for Traffic Corridor Green Space Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxin Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil quality is critical to the management of urban green space, in particular, along traffic corridors where traffic-related air pollution is significant. Soil quality can be evaluated by soil enzyme activities, which show quick responses to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we investigated three soil enzyme activities (i.e., dehydrogenase, catalase and urease along the major roads in urban areas of Beijing. Results show the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease in urban samples were 58.8%, 68.2% and 48.5% less than the rural sample, respectively. The content of fluorescent amino acids as indicators of microbial activities was also consistently lower in urban samples than the rural. We observed two times greater exposure of particulate material along the roadsides in urban areas than rural areas. Although traffic air pollutants provide some nutrient sources to stimulate the URE activity, the exposure to traffic-related air pollution leads to the substantial decrease in enzyme activities. There were significant negative correlations for exposure to PM10 with DHA (r = −0.8267, p = 0.0017 and CAT (r = −0.89, p = 0.0002 activities. For the urban soils URE activity increased with the increasing of PM. We conclude that the degraded soil quality can negatively affect the target of developing plants and green spaces along the traffic corridors to mitigate the traffic impact. This study suggests the investigation of integrated strategies to restore the soil quality, reinforce the ecological service functions of green spaces along the traffic corridors and reduce the traffic pollutants.

  14. High-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. A.; Mangan, M.; McPhee, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Mono Basin-Long Valley Caldera region greatly enhances previous magnetic interpretations that were based on older, low-resolution, and regional aeromagnetic data sets and provides new insights into volcano-tectonic processes. The surveyed area covers a 8,750 km2 NNW-trending swath situated between the Sierra Nevada to the west and the Basin and Range Province to the east. The surveyed area includes the volcanic centers of Mono Lake, Mono-Inyo Craters, Mammoth Mountain, Devils Postpile, and Long Valley Caldera. The NW-trending eastern Sierra frontal fault zone crosses through the study area, including the active Mono Lake, Silver Lake, Hartley Springs, Laurel Creek, and Hilton Creek faults. Over 6,000 line-kilometers of aeromagnetic data were collected at a constant terrain clearance of 150 m, a flight-line spacing of 400 m, and a tie-line spacing of 4 km. Data were collected via helicopter with an attached stinger housing a magnetic sensor using a Scintrex CS-3 cesium magnetometer. In the northern part of the survey area, data improve the magnetic resolution of the individual domes and coulees along Mono Craters and a circular shaped magnetic anomaly that coincides with a poorly defined ring fracture mapped by Kistler (1966). Here, aeromagnetic data combined with other geophysical data suggests that Mono Craters may have preferentially followed a pre-existing plutonic basement feature that may have controlled the sickle shape of the volcanic chain. In the northeastern part of the survey, aeromagnetic data reveal a linear magnetic anomaly that correlates with and extends a mapped fault. In the southern part of the survey, in the Sierra Nevada block just south of Long Valley Caldera, aeromagnetic anomalies correlate with NNW-trending Sierran frontal faults rather than to linear NNE-trends observed in recent seismicity over the last 30 years. These data provide an important framework for the further analysis of the

  15. The fundamentals of modern astrophysics a survey of the cosmos from the home planet to space frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Marov, Mikhail Ya

    2015-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Modern Astrophysics provides an overview of the modern science of astrophysics. It covers the Sun, Solar System bodies, exoplanets, stars, and star life cycle, planetary systems origin and evolution, basics of astrobiology, our galaxy the Milky Way, other galaxies and galactic clusters, a general view of the Universe, its structure, evolution and fate, modern views and advanced models of cosmology as well as the synergy of micro- and macro physics, standard model, superstring theory, multiversity and worm holes. The main concepts of modern astrophysics and prospects for future studies are accompanied by numerous illustrations and a summary of the advanced projects at various astronomical facilities and space missions. Dr. Marov guides readers through a maze of complicated topics to demystify the field and open its wonders to all.

  16. Topographic profile of a target with use of laser pulses. A survey directed to the Brazilian deep space mission ASTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Brum, A G V; Rodrigues, A P

    2013-01-01

    This work is directly related to the development of the laser altimeter for the ASTER mission, named ALR. The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled to occur in 2017 and the ALR is now under development in partnership with UNICAMP, UFABC and aerospace companies. In this work, the environment and the operation of the instrument were modeled and simulations were carried out in order to better understand and define the instrument parameters. The creation of the simulation software to control the operation of the instrument was the main purpose of this work, and the software so far created is the main result of it. The software was successfully tested with respect to some common expected situations

  17. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    An airborne radiological survey was conducted in July 1976. It was centered on the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Two areas were surveyed: one 35 km 2 and the other 16 km 2 . Using Nal(Tl) scintillation detectors, measurements were made of the terrestrial gamma radiation over the areas with a series of north-south flight lines. The processed data indicated that on-site radioactivity was due to nuclear matterials currently or previously handled, processed, or stored. Off-site activities were found to be due wholly to the naturally occurring 40 K, the 238 U chain, and thorium chain gamma emitters

  18. A SURVEY OF THE PARAMETER SPACE OF THE COMPRESSIBLE LIQUID DROP MODEL AS APPLIED TO THE NEUTRON STAR INNER CRUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, W. G.; Gearheart, M.; Li Baoan

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic survey of the range of predictions of the neutron star inner crust composition, crust-core transition densities and pressures, and density range of the nuclear 'pasta' phases at the bottom of the crust provided by the compressible liquid drop model in light of the current experimental and theoretical constraints on model parameters. Using a Skyrme-like model for nuclear matter, we construct baseline sequences of crust models by consistently varying the density dependence of the bulk symmetry energy at nuclear saturation density, L, under two conditions: (1) that the magnitude of the symmetry energy at saturation density J is held constant, and (2) J correlates with L under the constraint that the pure neutron matter (PNM) equation of state (EoS) satisfies the results of ab initio calculations at low densities. Such baseline crust models facilitate consistent exploration of the L dependence of crustal properties. The remaining surface energy and symmetric nuclear matter parameters are systematically varied around the baseline, and different functional forms of the PNM EoS at sub-saturation densities implemented, to estimate theoretical 'error bars' for the baseline predictions. Inner crust composition and transition densities are shown to be most sensitive to the surface energy at very low proton fractions and to the behavior of the sub-saturation PNM EoS. Recent calculations of the energies of neutron drops suggest that the low-proton-fraction surface energy might be higher than predicted in Skyrme-like models, which our study suggests may result in a greatly reduced volume of pasta in the crust than conventionally predicted.

  19. A SURVEY OF THE PARAMETER SPACE OF THE COMPRESSIBLE LIQUID DROP MODEL AS APPLIED TO THE NEUTRON STAR INNER CRUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, W. G.; Gearheart, M.; Li Baoan, E-mail: william.newton@tamuc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX 75429-3011 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    We present a systematic survey of the range of predictions of the neutron star inner crust composition, crust-core transition densities and pressures, and density range of the nuclear 'pasta' phases at the bottom of the crust provided by the compressible liquid drop model in light of the current experimental and theoretical constraints on model parameters. Using a Skyrme-like model for nuclear matter, we construct baseline sequences of crust models by consistently varying the density dependence of the bulk symmetry energy at nuclear saturation density, L, under two conditions: (1) that the magnitude of the symmetry energy at saturation density J is held constant, and (2) J correlates with L under the constraint that the pure neutron matter (PNM) equation of state (EoS) satisfies the results of ab initio calculations at low densities. Such baseline crust models facilitate consistent exploration of the L dependence of crustal properties. The remaining surface energy and symmetric nuclear matter parameters are systematically varied around the baseline, and different functional forms of the PNM EoS at sub-saturation densities implemented, to estimate theoretical 'error bars' for the baseline predictions. Inner crust composition and transition densities are shown to be most sensitive to the surface energy at very low proton fractions and to the behavior of the sub-saturation PNM EoS. Recent calculations of the energies of neutron drops suggest that the low-proton-fraction surface energy might be higher than predicted in Skyrme-like models, which our study suggests may result in a greatly reduced volume of pasta in the crust than conventionally predicted.

  20. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VII. IMPLICATIONS FROM THE NEARLY UNIVERSAL NATURE OF HORIZONTAL BRANCH DISCONTINUITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T. M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); D’Antona, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Salaris, M. [Astrophysics Research Institute,Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, IC2 Building, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Dalessandro, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Piotto, G.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,”Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sweigart, A. V. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Aparicio, A., E-mail: tbrown@stsci.edu, E-mail: jayander@stsci, E-mail: bellini@stsci.edu, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: pietrinferni@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: dantona@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: M.Salaris@ljmu.ac.uk, E-mail: milone@mso.anu.edu.au [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Calle Vía Láctea s/n. E38200 — La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    The UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope Treasury survey of Galactic globular clusters provides a new window into the phenomena that shape the morphological features of the horizontal branch (HB). Using this large and homogeneous catalog of UV and blue photometry, we demonstrate that the HB exhibits discontinuities that are remarkably consistent in color (effective temperature). This consistency is apparent even among some of the most massive clusters hosting multiple distinct sub-populations (such as NGC 2808, ω Cen, and NGC 6715), demonstrating that these phenomena are primarily driven by atmospheric physics that is independent of the underlying population properties. However, inconsistencies arise in the metal-rich clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441, where the discontinuity within the blue HB (BHB) distribution shifts ∼1000–2000 K hotter. We demonstrate that this shift is likely due to a large helium enhancement in the BHB stars of these clusters, which in turn affects the surface convection and evolution of such stars. Our survey also increases the number of Galactic globular clusters known to host blue-hook stars (also known as late hot flashers) from 6 to 23 clusters. These clusters are biased toward the bright end of the globular cluster luminosity function, confirming that blue-hook stars tend to form in the most massive clusters with significant self-enrichment.

  1. Campaign 9 of the K2 Mission: Observational Parameters, Scientific Drivers, and Community Involvement for a Simultaneous Space- and Ground-based Microlensing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Calen B.; Poleski, Radoslaw; Penny, Matthew; Street, Rachel A.; Bennett, David P.; Hogg, David W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Zhu, W.; Barclay, T.; Barentsen, G.; hide

    2016-01-01

    K2's Campaign 9 (K2C9) will conduct a approximately 3.7 sq. deg survey toward the Galactic bulge from 2016 April 22 through July 2 that will leverage the spatial separation between K2 and the Earth to facilitate measurement of the microlens parallax Pi(sub E) for approximately greater than 170 microlensing events. These will include several that are planetary in nature as well as many short-timescale microlensing events, which are potentially indicative of free-floating planets (FFPs). These satellite parallax measurements will in turn allow for the direct measurement of the masses of and distances to the lensing systems. In this article we provide an overview of the K2C9 space- and ground-based microlensing survey. Specifically, we detail the demographic questions that can be addressed by this program, including the frequency of FFPs and the Galactic distribution of exoplanets, the observational parameters of K2C9, and the array of resources dedicated to concurrent observations. Finally, we outline the avenues through which the larger community can become involved, and generally encourage participation in K2C9, which constitutes an important pathfinding mission and community exercise in anticipation of WFIRST.

  2. Brown dwarf photospheres are patchy: A Hubble space telescope near-infrared spectroscopic survey finds frequent low-level variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenzli, Esther; Apai, Dániel; Radigan, Jacqueline; Reid, I. Neill; Flateau, Davin

    2014-01-01

    Condensate clouds strongly impact the spectra of brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Recent discoveries of variable L/T transition dwarfs argued for patchy clouds in at least some ultracool atmospheres. This study aims to measure the frequency and level of spectral variability in brown dwarfs and to search for correlations with spectral type. We used Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 to obtain spectroscopic time series for 22 brown dwarfs of spectral types ranging from L5 to T6 at 1.1-1.7 μm for ≈40 minutes per object. Using Bayesian analysis, we find six brown dwarfs with confident (p > 95%) variability in the relative flux in at least one wavelength region at sub-percent precision, and five brown dwarfs with tentative (p > 68%) variability. We derive a minimum variability fraction f min =27 −7 +11 % over all covered spectral types. The fraction of variables is equal within errors for mid-L, late-L, and mid-T spectral types; for early-T dwarfs we do not find any confident variable but the sample is too small to derive meaningful limits. For some objects, the variability occurs primarily in the flux peak in the J or H band, others are variable throughout the spectrum or only in specific absorption regions. Four sources may have broadband peak-to-peak amplitudes exceeding 1%. Our measurements are not sensitive to very long periods, inclinations near pole-on and rotationally symmetric heterogeneity. The detection statistics are consistent with most brown dwarf photospheres being patchy. While multiple-percent near-infrared variability may be rare and confined to the L/T transition, low-level heterogeneities are a frequent characteristic of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  3. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio. Dates of surveys, August 1976/May-June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1979-06-01

    Two aerial radiological surveys to measure terrestrial gamma radiation were made over an area centered on the United States Department of Energy's Feed Materials Production Center in the city of Fernald, Ohio. The Center is operated by the National Lead Company of Ohio. Gamma ray data were collected from east-west flight lines at 90 m intervals over an area 25 km 2 centered on the plant site. The small Ohio towns of Shandon, Ross, and New Baltimore were surveyed from north-south flight lines at 300 m intervals. Processed data indicated that on-site radioactivity was due primarily to radionuclides currently being handled or processed at the Center. Off-site data showed the radioactivity to be due to naturally occurring radionuclides northeast and south of the site. If the northwest corner of the survey area an unusually high count rate region of airborne radon daughter activity was encountered. This was equivalent to approximately four times the normal background. However, the follow-up survey of 1977 showed this area to be within the background count rate level

  4. Simulated JWST/NIRISS Transit Spectroscopy of Anticipated TESS Planets Compared to Select Discoveries from Space-Based and Ground-Based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Dana; Deming, Drake; Albert, Loic; Bouma, Luke; Bean, Jacob; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

    2018-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will embark in 2018 on a 2-year wide-field survey mission of most of the celestial sky, discovering over a thousand super-Earth and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets potentially suitable for follow-up observations using the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Bouma et al. (2017) and Sullivan et al. (2015) used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the properties of the planetary systems that TESS is likely to detect, basing their simulations upon Kepler-derived planet occurrence rates and photometric performance models for the TESS cameras. We employed a JWST Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) simulation tool to estimate the signal-to-noise (S/N) that JWST/NIRISS will attain in transmission spectroscopy of these anticipated TESS discoveries, and we then compared the S/N for anticipated TESS discoveries to our estimates of S/N for 18 known exoplanets. We analyzed the sensitivity of our results to planetary composition, cloud cover, and presence of an observational noise floor. We find that only a few anticipated TESS discoveries in the terrestrial planet regime will result in better JWST/NIRISS S/N than currently known exoplanets, such as the TRAPPIST-1 planets, GJ1132b, or LHS1140b. However, we emphasize that this outcome is based upon Kepler-derived occurrence rates, and that co-planar compact systems (e.g. TRAPPIST-1) were not included in predicting the anticipated TESS planet yield. Furthermore, our results show that several hundred anticipated TESS discoveries in the super-Earth and sub-Neptune regime will produce S/N higher than currently known exoplanets such as K2-3b or K2-3c. We apply our results to estimate the scope of a JWST follow-up observation program devoted to mapping the transition region between high molecular weight and primordial planetary atmospheres.

  5. Organic chemistry in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  6. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D. O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L. J.; Bright, S. N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Dale, D. A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Grebel, E. K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-06-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify their genuine nature, produce multiband photometry (from NUV to NIR), and derive their physical properties via spectral energy distribution fitting analyses. We use the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628 as a test case for demonstrating the impact that LEGUS will have on our understanding of the formation and evolution of YSCs and compact stellar associations within their host galaxy. Our analysis of the cluster luminosity function from the UV to the NIR finds a steepening at the bright end and at all wavelengths suggesting a dearth of luminous clusters. The cluster mass function of NGC 628 is consistent with a power-law distribution of slopes ˜ -2 and a truncation of a few times 105 {M}⊙ . After their formation, YSCs and compact associations follow different evolutionary paths. YSCs survive for a longer time frame, confirming their being potentially bound systems. Associations disappear on timescales comparable to hierarchically organized star-forming regions, suggesting that they are expanding systems. We find mass-independent cluster disruption in the inner region of NGC 628, while in the outer part of the galaxy there is little or no disruption. We observe faster disruption rates for low mass (≤104 {M}⊙ ) clusters, suggesting that a mass-dependent component is necessary to fully describe the YSC disruption process in NGC 628. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  7. Rationale and operational plan for a U.S. high-altitude magnetic survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Acuna, Mario; Bracken, Robert E.; Hardwick, Doug; Hinze, William J.; Keller, Gordon R.; Phillips, Jeff; Roest, Walter

    2002-01-01

    On August 8, 2002, twenty-one scientists from the federal, private and academic sectors met at a workshop in Denver, Co., to discuss the feasibility of collecting magnetic anomaly data on a Canberra aircraft (Figure 1). The need for this 1-day workshop arose because of an exciting and cost-effective opportunity to collect invaluable magnetic anomaly data during a Canberra mission over the U.S. in 2003 and 2004. High Altitude Mapping Missions (HAMM) is currently planning a mission to collect Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) imagery at an altitude of about 15 km and with a flight-line spacing of about 18 km over the conterminous U.S. and Alaska. The additional collection of total and vector magnetic field data would represent a secondary mission objective (i.e., a "piggy-back" magnetometer system). Because HAMM would fund the main flight costs of the mission, the geomagnetic community would obtain invaluable magnetic data at a nominal cost. These unique data would provide new insights on fundamental tectonic and thermal processes and give a new view of the structural and lithologic framework of the crust and possibly the upper mantle. This document highlights: (1) the reasons to conduct this national survey and (2) a preliminary operational plan to collect high-altitude magnetic data of a desired quality and for the expected resources. Although some operational plan issues remain to be resolved, the important conclusions of the workshop are that the Canberra is a very suitable platform to measure the magnetic field and that the planned mission will result in quality high-altitude magnetic data to greatly expand the utility of our national magnetic database.

  8. Discovery of a z = 7.452 High Equivalent Width Lyα Emitter from the Hubble Space Telescope  Faint Infrared Grism Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Rebecca L.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Ryan, Russell; Tilvi, Vithal; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Finkelstein, Keely; Jung, Intae; Christensen, Lise; Cimatti, Andrea; Ferreras, Ignacio; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Hathi, Nimish; O’Connell, Robert; Östlin, Göran; Pasquali, Anna; Pharo, John; Rothberg, Barry; Windhorst, Rogier A.; The FIGS Team

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of an unbiased search for Lyα emission from continuum-selected 5.6 data set consists of 160 orbits of G102 slitless grism spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope(HST)/WFC3 as part of the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS; PI: Malhotra), which obtains deep slitless spectra of all sources in four fields, and was designed to minimize contamination in observations of previously identified high-redshift galaxy candidates. The FIGS data can potentially spectroscopically confirm the redshifts of galaxies, and as Lyα emission is resonantly scattered by neutral gas, FIGS can also constrain the ionization state of the intergalactic medium during the epoch of reionization. These data have sufficient depth to detect Lyα emission in this epoch, as Tilvi et al. have published the FIGS detection of previously known Lyα emission at z = 7.51. The FIGS data use five separate roll angles of HST to mitigate the contamination by nearby galaxies. We created a method that accounts for and removes the contamination from surrounding galaxies and also removes any dispersed continuum light from each individual spectrum. We searched for significant (>4σ) emission lines using two different automated detection methods, free of any visual inspection biases. Applying these methods on photometrically selected high-redshift candidates between 5.6 7 (140.3 ± 19.0 Å).

  9. Helicopter electromagnetic survey of the Model Land Area, Southeastern Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Prinos, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a helicopter electromagnetic survey flown over the Model Land Area in southeastern Miami-Dade County, Florida, to map saltwater intrusion in the Biscayne aquifer. The survey, which is located south and east of Florida City, Florida, covers an area of 115 square kilometers with a flight-line spacing of 400 meters. A five-frequency, horizontal, coplanar bird with frequencies ranging from 400 to 100,000 Hertz was used. The data were interpreted using differential resistivity analysis and inversion to produce cross sections and resistivity depth-slice maps. The depth of investigation is as deep as 100 meters in freshwater-saturated portions of the Biscayne aquifer and the depth diminishes to about 50 meters in areas that are intruded by saltwater. The results compare favorably with ground-based, time-domain electromagnetic soundings and induction logs from observation wells in the area. The base of a high-resistivity, freshwater-saturated zone mapped in the northern 2 kilometers of the survey area corresponds quite well with the base of the surficial aquifer that has been determined by drilling. In general, saltwater in the survey area extends 9 to 12 kilometers inland from the coast; however, there is a long nose of saltwater centered along the Card Sound Road Canal that extends 15 kilometers inland. The cause of this preferential intrusion is likely due to uncontrolled surface flow along the canal and subsequent leakage of saltwater into the aquifer. Saltwater also extends farther inland in the area between U.S. Highway 1 and Card Sound Road than it does to the west of this area. Until 1944, a railroad grade occupied the current location of U.S. Highway 1. Borrow ditches associated with the railroad grade connected to Barnes Sound and allowed saltwater to flow during droughts and storm surges to within a few kilometers of Florida City. Relicts of this saltwater that settled to the bottom of the Biscayne aquifer can be seen in the helicopter

  10. Survey < > Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The project, Survey Creation suggests that point cloud models from 3D scans of an existing space can be the source for explorative drawings. By probing into the procedure of 3D laser scanning, it became possible to make use of the available point clouds to both access geometric representation......) and the creation drawing (of the anticipated)....

  11. Simulated JWST/NIRISS Transit Spectroscopy of Anticipated Tess Planets Compared to Select Discoveries from Space-based and Ground-based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Dana R.; Deming, Drake; Albert, Loic; Bouma, L. G.; Bean, Jacob; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

    2018-04-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will embark in 2018 on a 2 year wide-field survey mission, discovering over a thousand terrestrial, super-Earth and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets ({R}pl}≤slant 4 {R}\\oplus ) potentially suitable for follow-up observations using the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This work aims to understand the suitability of anticipated TESS planet discoveries for atmospheric characterization by JWST’s Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) by employing a simulation tool to estimate the signal-to-noise (S/N) achievable in transmission spectroscopy. We applied this tool to Monte Carlo predictions of the TESS expected planet yield and then compared the S/N for anticipated TESS discoveries to our estimates of S/N for 18 known exoplanets. We analyzed the sensitivity of our results to planetary composition, cloud cover, and presence of an observational noise floor. We find that several hundred anticipated TESS discoveries with radii 1.5 {R}\\oplus R}pl}≤slant 2.5 {R}\\oplus will produce S/N higher than currently known exoplanets in this radius regime, such as K2-3b or K2-3c. In the terrestrial planet regime, we find that only a few anticipated TESS discoveries will result in higher S/N than currently known exoplanets, such as the TRAPPIST-1 planets, GJ1132b, and LHS1140b. However, we emphasize that this outcome is based upon Kepler-derived occurrence rates, and that co-planar compact multi-planet systems (e.g., TRAPPIST-1) may be under-represented in the predicted TESS planet yield. Finally, we apply our calculations to estimate the required magnitude of a JWST follow-up program devoted to mapping the transition region between hydrogen-dominated and high molecular weight atmospheres. We find that a modest observing program of between 60 and 100 hr of charged JWST time can define the nature of that transition (e.g., step function versus a power law).

  12. The Grism Lens-amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). IV. Mass Reconstruction of the Lensing Cluster Abell 2744 from Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B.; Jones, T. A.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Trenti, M.

    2015-09-01

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  13. THE GRISM LENS-AMPLIFIED SURVEY FROM SPACE (GLASS). V. EXTENT AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 0.5 CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulcani, Benedetta; Treu, Tommaso; Malkan, Matthew; Abramson, Louis; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Dressler, Alan; Fontana, Adriano; Pentericci, Laura; Bradac, Marusa; Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuan-Han; He, Julie; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Trenti, Michele; Linden, Anja von der; Morris, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    We present the first study of the spatial distribution of star formation in z ∼ 0.5 cluster galaxies. The analysis is based on data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 as part of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). We illustrate the methodology by focusing on two clusters (MACS 0717.5+3745 and MACS 1423.8+2404) with different morphologies (one relaxed and one merging) and use foreground and background galaxies as a field control sample. The cluster+field sample consists of 42 galaxies with stellar masses in the range 10 8 –10 11 M ⊙  and star formation rates in the range 1–20 M ⊙ yr −1 . Both in clusters and in the field, Hα is more extended than the rest-frame UV continuum in 60% of the cases, consistent with diffuse star formation and inside-out growth. In ∼20% of the cases, the Hα emission appears more extended in cluster galaxies than in the field, pointing perhaps to ionized gas being stripped and/or star formation being enhanced at large radii. The peak of the Hα emission and that of the continuum are offset by less than 1 kpc. We investigate trends with the hot gas density as traced by the X-ray emission, and with the surface mass density as inferred from gravitational lens models, and find no conclusive results. The diversity of morphologies and sizes observed in Hα illustrates the complexity of the environmental processes that regulate star formation. Upcoming analysis of the full GLASS data set will increase our sample size by almost an order of magnitude, verifying and strengthening the inference from this initial data set

  14. THE GRISM LENS-AMPLIFIED SURVEY FROM SPACE (GLASS). IV. MASS RECONSTRUCTION OF THE LENSING CLUSTER ABELL 2744 FROM FRONTIER FIELD IMAGING AND GLASS SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Schmidt, K. B.; Jones, T. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Bradac, M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Treu, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Brammer, G. B.; Ryan, R. E. Jr. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Vulcani, B. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Trenti, M., E-mail: xinwang@physics.ucsb.edu [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2015-09-20

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  15. THE GRISM LENS-AMPLIFIED SURVEY FROM SPACE (GLASS). V. EXTENT AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF STAR FORMATION IN z ∼ 0.5 CLUSTER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Treu, Tommaso; Malkan, Matthew; Abramson, Louis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Schmidt, Kasper B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Poggianti, Bianca M. [INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Padova (Italy); Dressler, Alan [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Fontana, Adriano; Pentericci, Laura [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Bradac, Marusa; Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuan-Han; He, Julie [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Trenti, Michele [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia); Linden, Anja von der [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Morris, Glenn [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We present the first study of the spatial distribution of star formation in z ∼ 0.5 cluster galaxies. The analysis is based on data taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 as part of the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). We illustrate the methodology by focusing on two clusters (MACS 0717.5+3745 and MACS 1423.8+2404) with different morphologies (one relaxed and one merging) and use foreground and background galaxies as a field control sample. The cluster+field sample consists of 42 galaxies with stellar masses in the range 10{sup 8}–10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙} and star formation rates in the range 1–20 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Both in clusters and in the field, Hα is more extended than the rest-frame UV continuum in 60% of the cases, consistent with diffuse star formation and inside-out growth. In ∼20% of the cases, the Hα emission appears more extended in cluster galaxies than in the field, pointing perhaps to ionized gas being stripped and/or star formation being enhanced at large radii. The peak of the Hα emission and that of the continuum are offset by less than 1 kpc. We investigate trends with the hot gas density as traced by the X-ray emission, and with the surface mass density as inferred from gravitational lens models, and find no conclusive results. The diversity of morphologies and sizes observed in Hα illustrates the complexity of the environmental processes that regulate star formation. Upcoming analysis of the full GLASS data set will increase our sample size by almost an order of magnitude, verifying and strengthening the inference from this initial data set.

  16. A NEW CEPHEID DISTANCE TO THE GIANT SPIRAL M101 BASED ON IMAGE SUBTRACTION OF HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappee, Benjamin J.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2011-01-01

    We accurately determine a new Cepheid distance to M101 (NGC 5457) using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys V and I time series photometry of two fields within the galaxy. We make a slight modification to the ISIS image subtraction package to obtain optimal differential light curves from HST data. We discovered 827 Cepheids with periods between 3 and 80 days, the largest extragalactic sample of Cepheids observed with HST by a factor of two. With this large Cepheid sample, we find that the relative distance of M101 from the Large Magellanic Cloud is Δμ LMC = 10.63 ± 0.04 (random) ± 0.06 (systematic) mag. If we use the geometrically determined maser distance to NGC 4258 as our distance anchor, the distance modulus of M101 is μ 0 = 29.04 ± 0.05 (random) ± 0.18 (systematic) mag or D = 6.4 ± 0.2 (random) ± 0.5 (systematic) Mpc. The uncertainty is dominated by the maser distance estimate (±0.15 mag), which should improve over the next few years. We determine a steep metallicity dependence, γ, for our Cepheid sample through two methods, yielding γ = -0.80 ± 0.21 (random) ± 0.06 (systematic) mag dex -1 and γ = -0.72 +0.22 -0.25 (random) ± 0.06 (systematic) mag dex -1 . We see marginal evidence for variations in the Wesenheit period-luminosity relation slope as a function of deprojected galactocentric radius. We also use the tip of the red giant branch method to independently determine the distance modulus to M101 of μ 0 = 29.05 ± 0.06 (random) ± 0.12 (systematic) mag.

  17. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic globular clusters - XIV. Multiple stellar populations within M 15 and their radial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardiello, D.; Milone, A. P.; Piotto, G.; Anderson, J.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Cassisi, S.; Libralato, M.; Marino, A. F.

    2018-06-01

    In the context of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Survey of Galactic globular clusters (GCs), we derived high-precision, multi-band photometry to investigate the multiple stellar populations in the massive and metal-poor GC M 15. By creating for red-giant branch (RGB) stars of the cluster a `chromosome map', which is a pseudo two-colour diagram made with appropriate combination of F275W, F336W, F438W, and F814W magnitudes, we revealed colour spreads around two of the three already known stellar populations. These spreads cannot be produced by photometric errors alone and could hide the existence of (two) additional populations. This discovery increases the complexity of the multiple-population phenomenon in M 15. Our analysis shows that M 15 exhibits a faint sub-giant branch (SGB), which is also detected in colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) made with optical magnitudes only. This poorly populated SGB includes about 5 per cent of the total number of SGB stars and evolves into a red RGB in the mF336W versus mF336W - mF814W CMD, suggesting that M 15 belongs to the class of Type II GCs. We measured the relative number of stars in each population at various radial distances from the cluster centre, showing that all of these populations share the same radial distribution within statistic uncertainties. These new findings are discussed in the context of the formation and evolution scenarios of the multiple populations.

  18. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, Swedeburg and Sprague study areas, eastern Nebraska, May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Minsley, B.J.; Ball, L.B.; Steele, G.V.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey conducted by Fugro Airborne Surveys in areas of eastern Nebraska as part of a joint hydrologic study by the Lower Platte North and Lower Platte South Natural Resources Districts, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The survey flight lines covered 1,418.6 line km (882 line mile). The survey was flown from April 22 to May 2, 2009. The objective of the contracted survey was to improve the understanding of the relation between surface water and groundwater systems critical to developing groundwater models used in management programs for water resources. The electromagnetic equipment consisted of six different coil-pair orientations that measured resistivity at separate frequencies from about 400 hertz to about 140,000 hertz. The electromagnetic data were converted to georeferenced electrical resistivity grids and maps for each frequency that represent different approximate depths of investigation for each survey area. The electrical resistivity data were input into a numerical inversion to estimate resistivity variations with depth. In addition to the electromagnetic data, total field magnetic data and digital elevation data were collected. Data released in this report consist of flight line data, digital grids, digital databases of the inverted electrical resistivity with depth, and digital maps of the apparent resistivity and total magnetic field. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow aquifers. The survey areas, Swedeburg and Sprague, were chosen based on results from test flights in 2007 in eastern Nebraska and needs of local water managers. The geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies are being used by resource managers to develop groundwater resource plans for the area.

  19. Tsirelson's space

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Peter G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph provides a structure theory for the increasingly important Banach space discovered by B.S. Tsirelson. The basic construction should be accessible to graduate students of functional analysis with a knowledge of the theory of Schauder bases, while topics of a more advanced nature are presented for the specialist. Bounded linear operators are studied through the use of finite-dimensional decompositions, and complemented subspaces are studied at length. A myriad of variant constructions are presented and explored, while open questions are broached in almost every chapter. Two appendices are attached: one dealing with a computer program which computes norms of finitely-supported vectors, while the other surveys recent work on weak Hilbert spaces (where a Tsirelson-type space provides an example).

  20. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Indian Wells, Texas. Final report. Detail area, Volume IIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume IIB contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; geochemical factor analysis maps

  1. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley B, Utah, detail area. Volume II B. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II B contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; and geochemical factor analysis maps

  2. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Monument Valley A, Utah, detail area. Volume II B. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Volume II B contains appendices for: flight line maps; geology maps; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology maps; radiometric contour maps; magnetic contour maps; multi-variant analysis maps; and geochemical factor analysis maps

  3. Aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River floodplain. Date of survey: July-October 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.

    1984-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River floodplain was conducted from late July through early October 1983 by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Safety, and E.I. Du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc., Savannah River Plant. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the floodplain area. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on maps and aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. The survey was designed to cover all the Savannah River floodplain (over 8000 flight line miles) from Augusta to Savannah, Georgia. Several areas of man-made activity were detected in the vicinity of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The presence of 60 Co was not detected below the Lower Three Runs Creek area. The 137 Cs activity decreased rapidly below Lower Three Runs Creek; at a distance of 15 kilometers (9 miles) the annual dose due to 137 Cs was less than 10 millirem (mrem). Typical backgrounds in the survey areas were between 65 and 125 mrem per year. 4 references, 51 figures, 8 tables

  4. Cognitive Systems Engineering Tool Survey - A Subtask in Support of Commander's Decision Aids for Predictive Battle-Space Awareness (CDA4PBA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, Mary; Fitzhugh, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    ...) DO 6, Commander's Decision Aids for Predictive Battle-Space Awareness, (CDA4PBA) is to identify system requirements necessary to capture the entire software and systems engineering process from concept...

  5. Weakly infinite-dimensional spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchuk, Vitalii V

    2007-01-01

    In this survey article two new classes of spaces are considered: m-C-spaces and w-m-C-spaces, m=2,3,...,∞. They are intermediate between the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces in the Alexandroff sense and the class of C-spaces. The classes of 2-C-spaces and w-2-C-spaces coincide with the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, while the compact ∞-C-spaces are exactly the C-compact spaces of Haver. The main results of the theory of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, including classification via transfinite Lebesgue dimensions and Luzin-Sierpinsky indices, extend to these new classes of spaces. Weak m-C-spaces are characterised by means of essential maps to Henderson's m-compacta. The existence of hereditarily m-strongly infinite-dimensional spaces is proved.

  6. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J.E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D.O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J.C.; Whitmore, B.C.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L.J.; Bright, S.N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J.E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T.M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G.C.; Dale, D.A.; de Mink, S.E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Grebel, E.K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D.A.; Johnson, K.E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; Krumholz, M.R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M.W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S.D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-01-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify

  7. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  8. The relationship of hip joint space to self reported hip pain. A survey of 4.151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthritis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the effect of pelvic orientation on measurements of hip joint space widths (JSW) in cadaver pelvic radiographs, thereby validating the pelvic radiographs of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: The Osteoarthritis Substudy (CCHS III) cohort of 4.152 subjects, and (2...... was significantly associated to self reported pain in or around the hip joint in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Measurements of minimum hip JSW did not seem to be significantly influenced by varying spatial orientation of the pelvis during X-ray recordings. An inclusion criteria of minimum JSW

  9. THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE SURVEY OF THE ORION A AND B MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND DEMOGRAPHICS OF DUSTY YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megeath, S. T.; Kryukova, E.; Gutermuth, R.; Muzerolle, J.; Hora, J. L.; Myers, P. C.; Fazio, G. G.; Allen, L. E.; Flaherty, K.; Hartmann, L.; Pipher, J. L.; Stauffer, J.; Young, E. T.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc −2 to over 10,000 pc −2 , with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities ≥10 pc −2 , we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination of the structural properties of the clusters and groups shows that the peak surface densities of the clusters increase approximately linearly with the number of members. Furthermore, all clusters with more than 70 members exhibit asymmetric and/or highly elongated structures. The ONC becomes azimuthally symmetric in the inner 0.1 pc, suggesting that the cluster is only ∼2 Myr in age. We find that the star formation efficiency (SFE) of the Orion B cloud is unusually low, and that the SFEs of individual groups and clusters are an order of magnitude higher than those of the clouds. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the young low mass stars in the Orion clouds and the Orion OB 1 association, and we determine upper limits to the fraction of disks that may be affected by UV radiation from OB stars or dynamical interactions in dense, clustered regions

  10. The 3D-HST Survey: Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/G141 Grism Spectra, Redshifts, and Emission Line Measurements for ~ 100,000 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Nelson, Erica J.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Maseda, Michael V.; Leja, Joel; Franx, Marijn; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bezanson, Rachel; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Dickey, Claire; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Illingworth, Garth; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Ulf Lange, Johannes; Lundgren, Britt F.; Magee, Daniel; Marchesini, Danilo; Oesch, Pascal; Pacifici, Camilla; Patel, Shannon G.; Price, Sedona; Tal, Tomer; Wake, David A.; van der Wel, Arjen; Wuyts, Stijn

    2016-08-01

    We present reduced data and data products from the 3D-HST survey, a 248-orbit HST Treasury program. The survey obtained WFC3 G141 grism spectroscopy in four of the five CANDELS fields: AEGIS, COSMOS, GOODS-S, and UDS, along with WFC3 H 140 imaging, parallel ACS G800L spectroscopy, and parallel I 814 imaging. In a previous paper, we presented photometric catalogs in these four fields and in GOODS-N, the fifth CANDELS field. Here we describe and present the WFC3 G141 spectroscopic data, again augmented with data from GO-1600 in GOODS-N (PI: B. Weiner). We developed software to automatically and optimally extract interlaced two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) spectra for all objects in the Skelton et al. (2014) photometric catalogs. The 2D spectra and the multi-band photometry were fit simultaneously to determine redshifts and emission line strengths, taking the morphology of the galaxies explicitly into account. The resulting catalog has redshifts and line strengths (where available) for 22,548 unique objects down to {{JH}}{IR}≤slant 24 (79,609 unique objects down to {{JH}}{IR}≤slant 26). Of these, 5459 galaxies are at z\\gt 1.5 and 9621 are at 0.7\\lt z\\lt 1.5, where Hα falls in the G141 wavelength coverage. The typical redshift error for {{JH}}{IR}≤slant 24 galaxies is {σ }z≈ 0.003× (1+z), I.e., one native WFC3 pixel. The 3σ limit for emission line fluxes of point sources is 2.1× {10}-17 erg s-1 cm-2. All 2D and 1D spectra, as well as redshifts, line fluxes, and other derived parameters, are publicly available.18

  11. The Aalborg Survey / Part 3 - Interview Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm; Jensen, Maria Vestergaard

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young...... people do in urban spaces, where they are in the urban spaces and when the young people are in the urban spaces. The answers to these questions form the framework and enable further academic discussions and conclusions in relation to the overall research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS). The primary......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 3 - Interview Based Survey The 3rd part of the DUS research project has been carried out during the fall of 2009 and the summer and fall of 2010 as an interview based survey of 18 selected participants (nine...

  12. A Fractal Interpretation of Controlled-Source Helicopter Electromagnetic Survey Data: Seco Creek, Edwards Aquifer, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, K. T.; Everett, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Edwards aquifer lies in the structurally complex Balcones fault zone and supplies water to the growing city of San Antonio. To ensure that future demands for water are met, the hydrological and geophysical properties of the aquifer must be well-understood. In most settings, fracture lengths and displacements occur in power-law distributions. Fracture distribution plays an important role in determining electrical and hydraulic current flowpaths. 1-D synthetic models of the controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) response for layered models with a fractured layer at depth described by the roughness parameter βV, such that 0≤βVlaw length-scale dependence of electrical conductivity are developed. A value of βV = 0 represents homogeneous, continuous media, while a value of 0<βV<1 shows that roughness exists. The Seco Creek frequency-domain helicopter electromagnetic survey data set is analyzed by introducing the similarly defined roughness parameter βH to detect lateral roughness along survey lines. Fourier transforming the apparent resistivity as a function of position along flight line into wavenumber domain using a 256-point sliding window gives the power spectral density (PSD) plot for each line. The value of βH is the slope of the least squares regression for the PSD in each 256-point window. Changes in βH with distance along the flight line are plotted. Large values of βH are found near well-known large fractures and maps of βH produced by interpolating values of βH along survey lines suggest previously undetected structure at depth.

  13. A Hubble Space Telescope survey for novae in M87 - III. Are novae good standard candles 15 d after maximum brightness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shara, Michael M.; Doyle, Trisha F.; Pagnotta, Ashley; Garland, James T.; Lauer, Tod R.; Zurek, David; Baltz, Edward A.; Goerl, Ariel; Kovetz, Attay; Machac, Tamara; Madrid, Juan P.; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Neill, J. D.; Prialnik, Dina; Welch, D. L.; Yaron, Ofer

    2018-02-01

    Ten weeks of daily imaging of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has yielded 41 nova light curves of unprecedented quality for extragalactic cataclysmic variables. We have recently used these light curves to demonstrate that the observational scatter in the so-called maximum-magnitude rate of decline (MMRD) relation for classical novae is so large as to render the nova-MMRD useless as a standard candle. Here, we demonstrate that a modified Buscombe-de Vaucouleurs hypothesis, namely that novae with decline times t2 > 10 d converge to nearly the same absolute magnitude about two weeks after maximum light in a giant elliptical galaxy, is supported by our M87 nova data. For 13 novae with daily sampled light curves, well determined times of maximum light in both the F606W and F814W filters, and decline times t2 > 10 d we find that M87 novae display M606W,15 = -6.37 ± 0.46 and M814W,15 = -6.11 ± 0.43. If very fast novae with decline times t2 < 10 d are excluded, the distances to novae in elliptical galaxies with stellar binary populations similar to those of M87 should be determinable with 1σ accuracies of ± 20 per cent with the above calibrations.

  14. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: THE INTERNAL KINEMATICS OF THE MULTIPLE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN NGC 2808

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Marel, R. P. van der; Vesperini, E.; Hong, J.; Piotto, G.; Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Bedin, L. R.; Renzini, A.; Cassisi, S.; D’Antona, F.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous observational studies have revealed the ubiquitous presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters and cast many difficult challenges for the study of the formation and dynamical history of these stellar systems. In this Letter we present the results of a study of the kinematic properties of multiple populations in NGC 2808 based on high-precision Hubble Space Telescope proper-motion measurements. In a recent study, Milone et al. identified five distinct populations (A–E) in NGC 2808. Populations D and E coincide with the helium-enhanced populations in the middle and the blue main sequences (mMS and bMS) previously discovered by Piotto et al.; populations A–C correspond to the redder main sequence that, in Piotto et al., was associated with the primordial stellar population. Our analysis shows that, in the outermost regions probed (between about 1.5 and 2 times the cluster half-light radius), the velocity distribution of populations D and E is radially anisotropic (the deviation from an isotropic distribution is significant at the ∼3.5σ level). Stars of populations D and E have a smaller tangential velocity dispersion than those of populations A–C, while no significant differences are found in the radial velocity dispersion. We present the results of a numerical simulation showing that the observed differences between the kinematics of these stellar populations are consistent with the expected kinematic fingerprint of the diffusion toward the cluster outer regions of stellar populations initially more centrally concentrated

  15. Feasibility study for an airborne high-sensitivity gamma-ray survey of Alaska. Phase II (final) report: 1976--1979 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This study constitutes a determination of the extent to which it is feasible to use airborne, high-sensitivity gamma spectrometer systems for uranium reconnaissance in the State of Alaska, and specification of a preliminary plan for surveying the entire state of the 1975--1979 time frame. Phase I included the design of a program to survey the highest priority areas in 1975 using available aircraft and spectrometer equipment. This has now resulted in a contract for 10,305 flight line miles to cover about 11 of the 1:250,000 scale quadrangles using a DC-3 aircraft with an average 6.25 x 25 mile grid of flight line. Phase II includes the design of alternative programs to cover the remaining 128 quadrangles using either a DC-3 and a Bell 205A helicopter or a Helio Stallion STOL aircraft and a Bell 205A helicopter during 1976-1979. The 1976-1979 time frame allows some time for possible new system developments in both airborne gamma-ray spectrometers and in ancillary equipment, and these are outlined. (auth)

  16. Isometries on Banach spaces function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Richard J

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental to the study of any mathematical structure is an understanding of its symmetries. In the class of Banach spaces, this leads naturally to a study of isometries-the linear transformations that preserve distances. In his foundational treatise, Banach showed that every linear isometry on the space of continuous functions on a compact metric space must transform a continuous function x into a continuous function y satisfying y(t) = h(t)x(p(t)), where p is a homeomorphism and |h| is identically one.Isometries on Banach Spaces: Function Spaces is the first of two planned volumes that survey investigations of Banach-space isometries. This volume emphasizes the characterization of isometries and focuses on establishing the type of explicit, canonical form given above in a variety of settings. After an introductory discussion of isometries in general, four chapters are devoted to describing the isometries on classical function spaces. The final chapter explores isometries on Banach algebras.This treatment p...

  17. Green space as classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Peter; Schipperijn, Jasper; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    More and more Danish teachers have started introducing curriculum-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly ‘outdoor school’ day for school children. This move towards schooling in non-classroom spaces presents a challenge for green space managers. Basic managerial knowledge related to what......, who, when and where has thus far only been supported by anecdotal evidence, but seems fundamental to the decision-making of a range of green space providers. The present study aims to describe, characterise and discuss outdoor teachers’ use, preferences and ecostrategies in relation to green space....... A nationwide survey was conducted among Danish teachers practising outdoor teaching (107 respondents), and it showed that a majority used and preferred forest areas. The outdoor teachers used mainly school grounds and local green space for their outdoor teaching with a majority using the same place or mostly...

  18. Aerial in situ survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespirova, I.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 a detailed exploration of soil contamination took place in the mountainous region Hruby Jesenik located in northeastern part of the Czech Republic. This region was selected for the higher contamination of 137 Cs after Chernobyl accident. For monitoring of an area about 100km 2 aerial monitoring system IRIS (located on board of helicopter MI-17) was used. The parameters of measurement were: flight height above ground 80 m, speed 100 km/h, distance of flight lines 250 m, intervals of spectra recording 1s. For more detailed exploration of ground contamination in this area complementary ground-based mobile group measurements were performed. (author)

  19. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). The growth of structure at 0.5 < z < 1.2 from redshift-space distortions in the clustering of the PDR-2 final sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotta, A.; de la Torre, S.; Bel, J.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Koda, J.; Ilbert, O.; Mohammad, F.; Moutard, T.; Moscardini, L.

    2017-07-01

    We present measurements of the growth rate of cosmological structure from the modelling of the anisotropic galaxy clustering measured in the final data release of the VIPERS survey. The analysis is carried out in configuration space and based on measurements of the first two even multipole moments of the anisotropic galaxy auto-correlation function, in two redshift bins spanning the range 0.5 rate with negligible bias down to separations of 5 h-1 Mpc. Interestingly, the application to real data shows a weaker sensitivity to the details of non-linear RSD corrections compared to mock results. We obtain consistent values for the growth rate times the matter power spectrum normalisation parameter of fσ8 = 0.55 ± 0.12 and 0.40 ± 0.11 at effective redshifts of z = 0.6 and z = 0.86 respectively. These results are in agreement with standard cosmology predictions assuming Einstein gravity in a ΛCDM background. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programs 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. The VIPERS web site is http://www.vipers.inaf.it/

  20. Airborne geophysical surveys conducted in western Nebraska, 2010: contractor reports and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    This report contains three contractor reports and data files for an airborne electromagnetic survey flown from June 28 to July 7, 2010. The first report; “SkyTEM Survey: Nebraska, USA, Data” describes data aquisition and processing from a time-domain electromagnetic and magnetic survey performed by SkyTEM Canada, Inc. (the North American SkyTEM subsidiary), in western Nebraska, USA. Digital data for this report are given in Appendix 1. The airborne geophysical data from the SkyTEM survey subsequently were processed and inverted by Aarhus Geophysics ApS, Aarhus, Denmark, to produce resistivity depth sections along each flight line. The result of that processing is described in two reports presented in Appendix 2, “Processing and inversion of SkyTEM data from USGS Area UTM–13” and “Processing and inversion of SkyTEM data from USGS Area UTM–14.” Funding for these surveys was provided by the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the Twin Platte Natural Resources District, in Scottsbluff, Sidney, and North Platte, Nebraska, respectively. Any additional information concerning the geophysical data may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Colorado.

  1. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  2. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Bozeman National Topographic Map, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Bozeman National Topographic Map NL12-8 are presented in Volume I and II of this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  3. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Lander National Topographic Map, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Lander National Topographic Map NK12-6 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  4. Helicopter Electromagnetic and Magnetic Surveys of the Upper and Middle Zones of the Trinity Aquifer, Uvalde and Bexar Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. V.; Blome, C. D.; Smith, B. D.; Clark, A. C.

    2009-12-01

    Detailed helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys (HEM) were conducted in northern Uvalde and Bexar Counties, Texas, as part of a geologic mapping and hydrologic study being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The aquifers of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity Group (collectively termed the Trinity aquifer) are an important regional water source in the Hill Country of south-central Texas. Rock units comprising the middle aquifer segment are represented by the lower member of the Glen Rose Formation and the Cow Creek Limestone and Hensel Sandstone members of the Pearsall Formation. The lower Trinity hydrologic segment is composed of the Hosston and Sligo Limestones and is confined by the overlying Hammet Shale. Karst features commonly occur in the Trinity Group because of the dissolution of gypsum- and anhydrite-rich beds. Faults and fractures have not been sufficiently analyzed to evaluate the effects these structures have on inter- and intra-formational groundwater flow. The survey in the north Seco Creek area covers the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer and part of the catchment zone composed of the upper Trinity segment. These data augment the scant geologic mapping in the area by delineating faults, collapse features, and hydrostratigraphic units. The HEM survey in northern Bexar County covered the Camp Stanley Storage Activity, the Camp Bullis Training Site, parts of the recharge zone of the Edwards aquifer south of the military bases, and part of Cibolo Creek to the north. Basic line spacing was 200 meters using six frequencies. In-fill lines were flown with a spacing of 100 meters in the central part of the study area to better resolve geologic structures and karst features. The data processing took into account high EM interference and cultural noise. Apparent resistivity (ρa) maps are used in interpretation of geologic structures, trends, and in the identification of electrical properties of lithologic units. The ρa maps show the

  5. Envision Downtown: Public Space Public Life Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pedestrian and Bicycle counts, Stationary Activity Counts, and Age and Gender counts for 16 locations in Downtown Pittsburgh. Data was collected over a weekday (7am...

  6. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Gravity test from the combination of redshift-space distortions and galaxy-galaxy lensing at 0.5 < z < 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, S.; Jullo, E.; Giocoli, C.; Pezzotta, A.; Bel, J.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; Moutard, T.; Moscardini, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Metcalf, R. B.; Prada, F.; Yepes, G.

    2017-12-01

    We carry out a joint analysis of redshift-space distortions and galaxy-galaxy lensing, with the aim of measuring the growth rate of structure; this is a key quantity for understanding the nature of gravity on cosmological scales and late-time cosmic acceleration. We make use of the final VIPERS redshift survey dataset, which maps a portion of the Universe at a redshift of z ≃ 0.8, and the lensing data from the CFHTLenS survey over the same area of the sky. We build a consistent theoretical model that combines non-linear galaxy biasing and redshift-space distortion models, and confront it with observations. The two probes are combined in a Bayesian maximum likelihood analysis to determine the growth rate of structure at two redshifts z = 0.6 and z = 0.86. We obtain measurements of fσ8(0.6) = 0.48 ± 0.12 and fσ8(0.86) = 0.48 ± 0.10. The additional galaxy-galaxy lensing constraint alleviates galaxy bias and σ8 degeneracies, providing direct measurements of f and σ8: [f(0.6),σ8(0.6)] = [0.93 ± 0.22,0.52 ± 0.06] and [f(0.86),σ8(0.86)] = [0.99 ± 0.19,0.48 ± 0.04]. These measurements are statistically consistent with a Universe where the gravitational interactions can be described by General Relativity, although they are not yet accurate enough to rule out some commonly considered alternatives. Finally, as a complementary test we measure the gravitational slip parameter, EG, for the first time at z > 0.6. We find values of E̅G(0.6) = 0.16±0.09 and E̅G(0.86) = 0.09±0.07, when EG is averaged over scales above 3 h-1 Mpc. We find that our EG measurements exhibit slightly lower values than expected for standard relativistic gravity in a ΛCDM background, although the results are consistent within 1-2σ. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programmes 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT

  7. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  8. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  9. Concepts of space the history of theories of space in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jammer, Max

    1993-01-01

    Historical surveys consider Judeo-Christian notions of space, Newtonian absolute space, perceptions from 18th century to the present, more. Numerous quotations and references. "Admirably compact and swiftly paced style." - Philosophy of Science.

  10. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  11. Compliance evaluation of removable space maintainer or space regainer usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revanti Ramadhani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature loss could cause a problem with the tooth arrangement or the dental arch size. A space left by the primary tooth loss could cause migration of the adjacent teeth. As a result, space will be narrowed and undermined the eruption of the permanent teeth. The success of the space maintainer or space regainer usage due to the premature loss marked by space for the replacement of the permanent teeth. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the compliance of children in wearing a space maintainer or space regainer after insertion at Pedodontics Installation of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. The research method was descriptive survey technique. The sample consisted of 30 patients selected using the total sampling technique. Data were obtained with a questionnaire and statistically analyzed. The results showed that majority of the children uses the removable space maintainer or the space regainer daily was only about 23,3% overall. Most of the children only use the removable space maintainer or the space regainer for sometimes. The research concluded that the low rate of pedodontic patients compliance at Pedodontics Installation of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran Dental Hospital in the usage of the removable space maintainer or the space regainer was usually caused by pain or discomfort. This fact was evidence of a low awareness of parents in preventing malocclusion to their children.

  12. DUST EXTINCTION FROM BALMER DECREMENTS OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 WITH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/WIDE-FIELD-CAMERA 3 SPECTROSCOPY FROM THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLEL SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, A.; Siana, B.; Masters, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Henry, A. L.; Martin, C. L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Scarlata, C.; Bedregal, A. G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Atek, H.; Colbert, J. W. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bunker, A., E-mail: albertod@ucr.edu [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    Spectroscopic observations of H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines of 128 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 0.75 {<=} z {<=} 1.5 are presented. These data were taken with slitless spectroscopy using the G102 and G141 grisms of the Wide-Field-Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey. Interstellar dust extinction is measured from stacked spectra that cover the Balmer decrement (H{alpha}/H{beta}). We present dust extinction as a function of H{alpha} luminosity (down to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}), galaxy stellar mass (reaching 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }), and rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width. The faintest galaxies are two times fainter in H{alpha} luminosity than galaxies previously studied at z {approx} 1.5. An evolution is observed where galaxies of the same H{alpha} luminosity have lower extinction at higher redshifts, whereas no evolution is found within our error bars with stellar mass. The lower H{alpha} luminosity galaxies in our sample are found to be consistent with no dust extinction. We find an anti-correlation of the [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} flux ratio as a function of luminosity where galaxies with L {sub H{alpha}} < 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} are brighter in [O III] {lambda}5007 than H{alpha}. This trend is evident even after extinction correction, suggesting that the increased [O III] {lambda}5007/H{alpha} ratio in low-luminosity galaxies is likely due to lower metallicity and/or higher ionization parameters.

  13. The Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). VI. Comparing the Mass and Light in MACS J0416.1-2403 Using Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Wang, X.; Brammer, G. B.; Broussard, A.; Amorin, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Schrabback, T.; Trenti, M.; Vulcani, B.

    2016-11-01

    We present a model using both strong and weak gravitational lensing of the galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1-2403, constrained using spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) and Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) imaging data. We search for emission lines in known multiply imaged sources in the GLASS spectra, obtaining secure spectroscopic redshifts of 30 multiple images belonging to 15 distinct source galaxies. The GLASS spectra provide the first spectroscopic measurements for five of the source galaxies. The weak lensing signal is acquired from 884 galaxies in the F606W HFF image. By combining the weak lensing constraints with 15 multiple image systems with spectroscopic redshifts and nine multiple image systems with photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster on an adaptive grid. The resulting map of total mass density is compared with a map of stellar mass density obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields imaging data to study the relative distribution of stellar and total mass in the cluster. We find that the projected stellar mass to total mass ratio, f ⋆, varies considerably with the stellar surface mass density. The mean projected stellar mass to total mass ratio is =0.009+/- 0.003 (stat.), but with a systematic error as large as 0.004-0.005, dominated by the choice of the initial mass function. We find agreement with several recent measurements of f ⋆ in massive cluster environments. The lensing maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available to the broader community in the standard HFF format.

  14. EarthFinder: A Precise Radial Velocity Survey Probe Mission of our Nearest Stellar Neighbors for Earth-Mass Habitable Zone Analogs Using High-Resolution UV-Vis-NIR Echelle Spectroscopy on a Space Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavchan, Peter; EarthFinder Team

    2018-01-01

    We are investigating the science case for a 1.0-1.4 meter space telescope to survey the closest, brightest FGKM main sequence stars to search for Habitable Zone (HZ) Earth analogs using the precise radial velocity (PRV) technique at a precision of 1-10 cm/s. Our baseline instrument concept uses two diffraction-limited spectrographs operating in the 0.4-1.0 microns and 1.0-2.4 microns spectral regions each with a spectral resolution of R=150,000~200,000, with the possibility of a third UV arm. Because the instrument utilizes a diffraction-limited input beam, the spectrograph would be extremely compact, less than 50 cm on a side, and illumination can be stabilized with the coupling of starlight into single mode fibers. With two octaves of wavelength coverage and a cadence unimpeded by any diurnal, seasonal, and atmospheric effects, EarthFinder will offer a unique platform for recovering stellar activity signals from starspots, plages, granulation, etc. to detect exoplanets at velocity semi-amplitudes currently not obtainable from the ground. Variable telluric absorption and emission lines may potentially preclude achieving PRV measurements at or below 10 cm/s in the visible and advantage compared to an annual ~3-6 month observing season from the ground for mitigating stellar activity and detecting the orbital periods of HZ Earth-mass analogs (e.g. ~6-months to ~2 years). Finally, we are compiling a list of ancillary science cases for the observatory, ranging from asteroseismology to the direct measurement of the expansion of the Universe.

  15. Space Discovery: Teaching with Space. Evaluation: Summer, Fall 1998 Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewell, Bob

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of the 1998 NASA-sponsored evaluation of the effectiveness of the United States Space Foundation's five-day Space Discovery Standard Graduate Course (Living and Working in Space), the five-day Space Discovery Advanced Graduate Course (Advanced Technology and Biomedical Research), the five-day introductory course Aviation and Space Basics all conducted during the summer of 1998, and the Teaching with Space two-day Inservice program. The purpose of the program is to motivate and equip K- 12 teachers to use proven student-attracting space and technology concepts to support standard curriculum. These programs support the America 2000 National Educational Goals, encouraging more students to stay in school, increase in competence, and have a better opportunity to be attracted to math and science. The 1998 research program continues the comprehensive evaluation begun in 1992, this year studying five summer five-day sessions and five Inservice programs offered during the Fall of 1998 in California, Colorado, New York, and Virginia. A comprehensive research design by Dr. Robert Ewell of Creative Solutions and Dr. Darwyn Linder of Arizona State University evaluated the effectiveness of various areas of the program and its applicability on diverse groups. Preliminary research methodology was a set of survey instruments administered after the courses, and another to be sent in April-4-5 months following the last inservice involved in this study. This year, we have departed from this evaluation design in two ways. First, the five-day programs used NASA's new EDCATS on-line system and associated survey rather than the Linder/Ewell instruments. The Inservice programs were evaluated using the previously developed survey adapted for Inservice programs. Second, we did not do a follow-on survey of the teachers after they had been in the field as we have done in the past. Therefore, this evaluation captures only the reactions of the teachers to the programs

  16. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  17. Infrared Sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2009-02-01

    A retrospective is given on infrared sky surveys from Thomas Edison’s proposal in the late 1870s to IRAS, the first sensitive mid- to far-infrared all-sky survey, and the mid-1990s experiments that filled in the IRAS deficiencies. The emerging technology for space-based surveys is highlighted, as is the prominent role the US Defense Department, particularly the Air Force, played in developing and applying detector and cryogenic sensor advances to early mid-infrared probe-rocket and satellite-based surveys. This technology was transitioned to the infrared astronomical community in relatively short order and was essential to the success of IRAS, COBE and ISO. Mention is made of several of the little known early observational programs that were superseded by more successful efforts.

  18. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  19. The GALAH survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kos, Janez; Bland-Hawthor, Joss; Freeman, Ken

    2018-01-01

    -SNE) - which identifies an optimal mapping of a high-dimensional space into fewer dimensions - whilst conserving the original clustering information. Typically, the projection is made to a 2D space to aid recognition of clusters by eye. We show that this method is a reliable tool for chemical tagging because......The technique of chemical tagging uses the elemental abundances of stellar atmospheres to 'reconstruct' chemically homogeneous star clusters that have long since dispersed. The GALAH spectroscopic survey - which aims to observe one million stars using the Anglo-Australian Telescope - allows us...... to measure up to 30 elements or dimensions in the stellar chemical abundance space, many of which are not independent. How to find clustering reliably in a noisy high-dimensional space is a difficult problem that remains largely unsolved. Here, we explore t-distributed stochastic neighbour embedding (t...

  20. Aerial radiological survey of the William H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Moscow, Ohio. Date of survey: July 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1982-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey was performed during the period 29 June through 12 July 1981 over a 250-square-kilometer area centered on the William H. Zimmer Nuclear Power Station near Moscow, Ohio. All gamma ray data were collected along flight lines oriented east to west. The lines were 200 meters apart and flown at an altitude of 122 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring terrestrial background emitters. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an exposure rate contour map. The resulting exposure rates were between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), with most of the area ranging from 6 to 9 μR/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4 μR/h. The exposure rate obtained from soil samples taken from within the survey site displayed positive agreement with the aerial data

  1. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  2. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  3. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  4. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  5. Space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  6. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Durango D, Colorado. Final report Volume II B. Detail area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This volume comprises eight appendices containing the following information for the Durango D detail area: flight line maps, geology maps, explanation of geologic legend, flight line/geology maps, radiometric contour maps, magnetic contour maps, multi-variant analysis maps, and geochemical factor analysis maps

  7. Space polypropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  8. Survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Amy K; Salem, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Survey research is a unique methodology that can provide insight into individuals' perspectives and experiences and can be collected on a large population-based sample. Specifically, in plastic surgery, survey research can provide patients and providers with accurate and reproducible information to assist with medical decision-making. When using survey methods in research, researchers should develop a conceptual model that explains the relationships of the independent and dependent variables. The items of the survey are of primary importance. Collected data are only useful if they accurately measure the concepts of interest. In addition, administration of the survey must follow basic principles to ensure an adequate response rate and representation of the intended target sample. In this article, the authors review some general concepts important for successful survey research and discuss the many advantages this methodology has for obtaining limitless amounts of valuable information.

  9. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  10. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  11. Space dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical methods for Space Dynamics of fission reactors, are presented. It is shown how a few sample problems in space dynamics can be solved, within the one and two group diffusion model, by purely analytical tools, essentially based on Laplace transform and complex Green function techniques. A quite suggestive generalization of this approach, applicable to the fluid core reactors, whose fuel is undergoing a violent mixing, is reported and briefly discussed. (author)

  12. The BUFFALO HST Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles; Jauzac, Mathilde; Capak, Peter; Koekemoer, Anton; Oesch, Pascal; Richard, Johan; Sharon, Keren q.; BUFFALO

    2018-01-01

    Beyond Ultra-deep Frontier Fields And Legacy Observations (BUFFALO) is an astronomical survey built around the six Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Fields clusters designed to learn about early galactic assembly and clustering and prepare targets for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. BUFFALO will place significant new constraints on how and when the most massive and luminous galaxies in the universe formed and how early galaxy formation is linked to dark matter assembly. The same data will also probe the temperature and cross section of dark matter in the massive Frontier Fields galaxy clusters, and tell us how the dark matter, cluster gas, and dynamics of the clusters influence the galaxies in and around them. These studies are possible because the Spitzer Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and ground based telescopes have already invested heavily in deep observations around the Frontier Fields, so that the addition of HST observations can yield significant new results.

  13. Surveys & Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My residential construction. Business Dynamics Statistics (BDS) Provides measures of openings and closings, job

  14. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  15. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered

  16. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  17. Space Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  18. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  19. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  20. Space doubt

    OpenAIRE

    Rega, Joseph Mark

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês e Literatura Correspondente. The recent surge in cyberspace science fiction follows previous trends within the genre, i.e. those connected with future city-space and outer space, and is an inevitable result of economic forces. There has always been a close relationship between capitalism and spatial expansion, compelled by technological innovations that ha...

  1. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  2. Sharing Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liversage, Anika; Jakobsen, Vibeke

    2010-01-01

    While considerable research exists on U.S. immigrant groups living in extended households, little is available on such households in Europe. This article therefore analyzes extended household living among Turkish immigrants in Denmark. From register and survey data, the article finds that 77 perc...

  3. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  4. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state......Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...

  5. Redshift Survey Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. W.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Kaiser, N.

    1994-12-01

    In the first half of 1995, the Anglo-Australian Observatory is due to commission a wide field (2.1(deg) ), 400-fiber, double spectrograph system (2dF) at the f/3.3 prime focus of the AAT 3.9m bi-national facility. The instrument should be able to measure ~ 4000 galaxy redshifts (assuming a magnitude limit of b_J ~\\ 20) in a single dark night and is therefore ideally suited to studies of large-scale structure. We have carried out simple 3D numerical simulations to judge the relative merits of sparse surveys and contiguous surveys. We generate a survey volume and fill it randomly with particles according to a selection function which mimics a magnitude-limited survey at b_J = 19.7. Each of the particles is perturbed by a gaussian random field according to the dimensionless power spectrum k(3) P(k) / 2pi (2) determined by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (1994) from the IRAS QDOT survey. We introduce some redshift-space distortion as described by Kaiser (1987), a `thermal' component measured from pairwise velocities (Davis & Peebles 1983), and `fingers of god' due to rich clusters at random density enhancements. Our particular concern is to understand how the window function W(2(k)) of the survey geometry compromises the accuracy of statistical measures [e.g., P(k), xi (r), xi (r_sigma ,r_pi )] commonly used in the study of large-scale structure. We also examine the reliability of various tools (e.g. genus) for describing the topological structure within a contiguous region of the survey.

  6. Messengers from outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jockers, K.

    1981-01-01

    In connection with the planned ESA space probe to Halley's Comet, a survey of our current knowledge of comets, and of open questions concerning them. The coma and the plasma and dust tail arise from the nucleus of the comet. Comets contain large amounts of water ice, and are surrounded by a gigantic cloud of hydrogen that is not visible to ground observation. The plasma tail arises by interaction with the solar wind. The cometary dust probably contains the most significant information on the origins of the solar system. Comets may contain prebiotic complex molecules. (orig.)

  7. Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China plans to launch an unmanned space module,Tiangong 1,in 2011,said Qi Faren,the chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft,at the sidelines of the annual plenary session of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC),the country's top political advisory body,on March 3.

  8. Training Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  9. Space Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  10. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  11. Space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelmayer, A.

    2000-01-01

    Space research in Austria began since 1969 and has its roots in Graz. An overview of the projects performed by Austrian organizations such as local network interconnection via satellites systems, MIGMAS (Microanalysis station), ALP-SAT (Autonomous Libration Point-Satellite), MIDAS (Micro-imaging dust analysis system), among others are described. (nevyjel)

  12. Space Conquest

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers. This is the last chapter in the big programme by the PH Department to make better use of space at CERN.

  13. Geoid of Nepal from airborne gravity survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Einarsson, Indriði

    2011-01-01

    An airborne gravity survey of Nepal was carried out December 2010 in a cooperation between DTU-Space, Nepal Survey Department, and NGA, USA. The entire country was flown with survey lines spaced 6 nm with a King Air aircraft, with a varying flight altitude from 4 to 10 km. The survey operations...... as well as recent GPS-heights of Mt. Everest. The new airborne data also provide an independent validation of GOCE gravity field results at the local ~100 km resolution scale....

  14. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  15. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  16. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Perryton National Topographic Map, Texas/Oklahoma/Kansas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Perryton National Topographic Map NJ14-10 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  17. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Elko National Topographic Map, Nevada, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Elko national Topographic Map NK11-12 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included

  18. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey, San Angelo National Topographic Map: Texas, West Texas Project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Angelo National Topographic Map NH14-1 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included

  19. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: St. Louis national topographic map, Illinois/Missouri. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the St. Louis National Topographic Map NJ15-6 is presented in this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveying map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  20. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Evansville National Topographic Map, Indiana and Kentucky, southeast US Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Evansville National Topographic Map NJ16-8 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  1. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Winchester National topographic map, Kentucky. Southeast US project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Winchester National Topographic Map NJ16-9 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  2. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Woodward National Topographic Map, Oklahoma, West Texas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Woodward National Topographic Map NJ14-11 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  3. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: San Antonio National Topographic Map, Texas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Antonio National Topographic Map NH14-8 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  4. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Quincy National Topographic map, Illinois/Missouri. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Quincy National Topographic Map NJ15-3 is presented in this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnet field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  5. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey national topographic map: Sonora, Texas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Sonora National Topographic Map NH14-4 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  6. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Burlington National Topographic Map, Illinois/Iowa/Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Burlington National Topographic Map NK15-12 is presented in this report. The airborne data gathered is reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  7. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Death Valley National Topographic Map, Nevada, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of analysis of the airborne gamma radiation survey flown for the region identified as the Death Valley National Topographic Map NJ11-11 is presented in the bound Volume of this report. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  8. Space Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  9. Spacing Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne; Georg, Susse

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how architectural design, and the spatial and material changes this involves, contributes to the continuous shaping of identities in an organization. Based upon a case study of organizational and architectural change in a municipal administration at a time of major public...... sector reforms, we examine how design interventions were used to (re)form work and professional relationships. The paper examines how engagements with spatial arrangements and material artifacts affected people’s sense of both occupational and organizational identity. Taking a relational approach...... to sociomateriality, the paper contributes to the further theorizing of space in organization studies by proposing the concept of spacing identity to capture the fluidity of identity performance....

  10. Communication spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  11. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  12. Space Handbook,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    thle early life * of" the system. Figure 4-2 shows the variation in power output for polonium - 210 (Po- 210 ) with a 138-day half-life, curium-242 (Cm...miles above the earth’s surface. Above this altitude they must take everything they need with them. The environment will supply them with neither food ...can move large payloads through space. The radioisotope heat cycle engines use high-energy particle sources such as plutonium and polonium . The walls

  13. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  14. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    , called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness...

  15. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  16. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Ely quadrangle, Nevada. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Five uranium anomalies meet the minimum statistical requirements as defined in Volume I. These anomalies are tabulated and are shown on the Uranium Anomaly Interpretation Map, together with the interpretation of the magnetic data. This volume contains 12 appendices: flight line map; geology map; explanation of geologic legend; flight line/geology map; pseudo-contour maps; stacked profiles; anomaly maps; geologic histograms; speed and altitude histograms; statistical tables; magnetic and ancillary profile; and test line data

  17. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer....... In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...... on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice....

  18. Learning space preferences of higher education students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, R.; van der Voordt, Theo; Dewulf, G

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to address higher education students' learning space preferences. The study is based on a survey that involved 697 business management students of a Dutch University of Applied Sciences. The research focuses on preferred learning spaces for individual study activities, which

  19. Learning space preferences of higher education students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Ronald; van der Voordt, Theo; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to address higher education students’ learning space preferences. The study is based on a survey that involved 697 business management students of a Dutch University of Applied Sciences. The research focuses on preferred learning spaces for individual study activities, which require

  20. Pump Component Model in SPACE Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byoung Jae; Kim, Kyoung Doo

    2010-08-01

    This technical report describes the pump component model in SPACE code. A literature survey was made on pump models in existing system codes. The models embedded in SPACE code were examined to check the confliction with intellectual proprietary rights. Design specifications, computer coding implementation, and test results are included in this report

  1. Harmonic analysis on reductive symmetric spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.

    2000-01-01

    We give a relatively non-technical survey of some recent advances in the Fourier theory for semisimple symmetric spaces. There are three major results: An inversion formula for the Fourier transform, a Palley-Wiener theorem, which describes the Fourier image of the space of completely supported

  2. SUSTAINABILITY OF DIGITAL PUBLIC SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Hudák

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modern digital public spaces are evolving from being mostly the provider of ICT and internet connection to institutions that provide complex range of services and support for the community. With this shift in their focus new challenges are emerging, among others their sustainability.Methodology/Approach: We build on and extend the methodology of Digital Cooperatives project. Within this project, survey on 59 digital public spaces from 12 EU countries was conducted. These digital public spaces were examined in 21 areas, some of them relating to their sustainability. We further analyse the sustainability issue of these digital public spaces.Findings: We identified three main issues affecting sustainability of digital public spaces – budgeting, services and community. Digital public spaces mostly rely on public funding and have limited diversification of their funds, which increases a risk when one source of funding drops out. They also have to build a strong community of users, supporters, which will make use of their capacities and helps co-create new services and thus strengthen and improve the community itself.Originality/Value of paper: Research in this paper is based on the collection of best practices from various EU countries in the field of digital public spaces. Recommendations based on these practices could help the creation of new, and in current digital public spaces.

  3. Environmental surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Ribeiro, C.

    1977-01-01

    An environmental survey conducted in high natural radioactivity areas and methods used to evaluated radiation doses received by the population are presented. It is shown doses absorved due to ingestion of radioactively contaminated food and water. Exposure to external gamma radiation fields or inhalation of abnormal quantities of natural airborne radioactivity are discussed [pt

  4. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  5. Space Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Steph; Saraiva, Jose; Doran, Rosa

    2017-04-01

    NUCLIO is a Portuguese non-profit organization with a strong record of investing in science education and outreach. We have developed and implemented many activities mostly directed to a young audience, in a bid to awaken and reinforce the interest that young people devote to Astronomy and all things spatial. In this framework, we have created a week-long program called Space Detectives, supported by the Municipality of Cascais, based on a story-line that provided a number of challenges and opportunities for learning matters as diverse as the electro-magnetic spectrum, means of communication, space travel, the martian environment, coding and robotics. We report on the first session that took place in December 2016. We had as participants several kids aged 9 to 12, with a mixed background in terms of interest in the sciences. Their response varied from enthusiastic to somewhat less interested, depending on the nature of the subject and the way it was presented - a reaction not necessarily related to its complexity. This week was taken as something of a trial run, in preparation for the European Commission- funded project "Stories of Tomorrow", to be implemented in schools. The individual activities and the way they were related to the story-line, as well as the smooth transition from one to the next, were subject to an analysis that will allow for improvements in the next installments of this program. We believe this is an excellent approach to the goals of using Space and Astronomy as an anchor for generating and keeping interest in the scientific areas, and of finding new and richer ways of learning.

  6. Space polypropulsion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kellett, BJ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available understandably, fallen by the wayside. NASAs putative atom bomb propelled mission, coincidently also baptized ORION, was also curtailed. And last of all, the use of lasers for propulsion remains firmly “stuck in the doldrums.” This mode of access to space...) Except for LOX, very polluting. V. high ζ Launch costs: $20,000/kg. Gas guns. 1 1-4 km/s Most of the system mass stays on the ground. Recoil problems. Large NASA gas gun project abandoned. (too many “g’s”) E-M guns: rail/coil. 1.5 1-10 km...

  7. Space Technospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Primak, N. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two main tendencies of making the Solar System habitable are regarding nowadays: (1) making objects of the Solar System habitable; and (2) making the space of the Solar System habitable. We think that it's better to combine them. We should dezine and build settlements ('technospheres') on such objects as asteroids and comets, using their resources. That is, it is necessary to create 'space technospheres' - a long-termed human settlements in the space. To save energy resources it is necessary to use Near-Earth asteroids enriched with water ice (i. e. extinguished comets) with Near-Earth orbits. To realize listed conceptions it is necessary to decrease (up to 100 times) the cost price of the long-termed settlements. That's why even average UN country will be able to create it's own space house - artificial planet ('technosphere') and maintain life activities there. About 50-100 such artificial planets will represent the future civilization of our Solar System. At the same time Earth will stay basic, maternal planet. There is an interesting problem of correcting orbits of that objects. Orbits can be changed into circular or elongated to make them comfortable for living activities of 5000-10000 settlers, and to maintain connection with maternal planet. Technospheres with the elongated orbits are more advantageous to assimilate the Solar System. While technospheres with circular orbits suit to the industrial cycle with certain specialization. The specialization of the technosphere will depend on mine-workings and/or chosen high-technology industrial process. Because it is profitable to convert raw materials at the technosphere and then to transport finished products to the maternal planet. It worth to be mentioned that because of the low gravitation and changed life cycle technosphere settlers, new 'Columb' of the Solar System will transform into new mankind. It will happen though it is difficult to imaging this. Because long ago, when fish left the ocean, they didn

  8. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  9. Space Pharmacology

    CERN Document Server

    Wotring, Virginia E

    2012-01-01

    Space Pharmacology” is a review of the current knowledge regarding the use of pharmaceuticals during spaceflights. It is a comprehensive review of the literature, addressing each area of pharmacokinetics and each major physiological system in turn. Every section begins with a topic overview, and is followed by a discussion of published data from spaceflight, and from ground experiments meant to model the spaceflight situation. Includes a discussion looking forward to the new medical challenges we are likely to face on longer duration exploration missions. This book is a snapshot of our current knowledge that also highlights areas of unknown.

  10. International Conference on Function Spaces and Inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Schmeisser, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This book features original research and survey articles on the topics of function spaces and inequalities. It focuses on (variable/grand/small) Lebesgue spaces, Orlicz spaces, Lorentz spaces, and Morrey spaces and deals with mapping properties of operators, (weighted) inequalities, pointwise multipliers and interpolation. Moreover, it considers Sobolev–Besov and Triebel–Lizorkin type smoothness spaces. The book includes papers by leading international researchers, presented at the International Conference on Function Spaces and Inequalities, held at the South Asian University, New Delhi, India, on 11–15 December 2015, which focused on recent developments in the theory of spaces with variable exponents. It also offers further investigations concerning Sobolev-type embeddings, discrete inequalities and harmonic analysis. Each chapter is dedicated to a specific topic and written by leading experts, providing an overview of the subject and stimulating future research.

  11. IASM: Individualized activity space modeler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Kamyar

    2018-01-01

    Researchers from various disciplines have long been interested in analyzing and describing human mobility patterns. Activity space (AS), defined as an area encapsulating daily human mobility and activities, has been at the center of this interest. However, given the applied nature of research in this field and the complexity that advanced geographical modeling can pose to its users, the proposed models remain simplistic and inaccurate in many cases. Individualized Activity Space Modeler (IASM) is a geographic information system (GIS) toolbox, written in Python programming language using ESRI's Arcpy module, comprising four tools aiming to facilitate the use of advanced activity space models in empirical research. IASM provides individual-based and context-sensitive tools to estimate home range distances, delineate activity spaces, and model place exposures using individualized geographical data. In this paper, we describe the design and functionality of IASM, and provide an example of how it performs on a spatial dataset collected through an online map-based survey.

  12. Solid state semiconductor detectorized survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Eisuke; Nagase, Yoshiyuki; Furuhashi, Masato

    1987-01-01

    Survey meters are used for measurement of gamma ray dose rate of the space and the surface contamination dencity that the atomic energy plant and the radiation facility etc. We have recently developed semiconductor type survey meter (Commercial name: Compact Survey Meter). This survey meter is a small-sized dose rate meter with excellent function. The special features are using semiconductor type detector which we have developed by our own technique, stablar wide range than the old type, long life, and easy to carry. Now we introduce the efficiency and the function of the survey meter. (author)

  13. Aerogeophysical survey in Olkiluoto 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurimo, M.

    2009-08-01

    This report describes the survey operation, survey and processing methods and the deliverables of an aerogeophysical survey in Olkiluoto area in May 2009. The survey was conducted by Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). The survey aircraft was a twin-engine Twin Otter operated by Finnish Aviation Academy (SIO) and owned by Natural Environment Research Council / British Geological Survey (NERC / BGS), with whom GTK has established a joint venture called Joint Airborne-geoscience Capability (JAC). The survey was conducted in May 2009 between May 5th and May 18th. The survey consists of ten separate survey flights and two magnetic calibration flights. The survey was based in Pori airport. Survey line spacing was 50 meters and nominal survey altitude was 30 meters. Measurements were completed in May 2009, and data processing and reporting was done in June 2009. Two cesium magnetometers installed onboard the aircraft (at the left wingtip and in a nose cone) were measuring the magnetic total field intensity during the survey flights. An automatic compensation unit corrected the aircraft attitude errors in the magnetic data in real time. The four-frequency electromagnetic (EM) unit included four transmitter coils with amplifiers in right wingtip and four receiver coils in left wingtip. Frequencies were 900 Hz, 3 kHz, 14 kHz and 24.5 kHz. The gamma spectrometer with two crystal packages (total volume 42 litres) measured the 256 channel energy spectra. In addition, auxiliary parameters such as flight altitude and aircraft attitude were also recorded simultaneously. Reference ground base station was used for recording the temporal variations in the magnetic field and also reference data for post-positioning of coordinate information. In the post-processing phase, heading correction, base station correction and microlevelling procedures were applied to the magnetic data. The EM data and radiometric data were corrected with calibration coefficients and levelled. The data was

  14. The clustering of the SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey DR14 quasar sample: anisotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillations measurements in Fourier-space with optimal redshift weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Wang, Yuting; Percival, Will J.; Ruggeri, Rossana; Zhu, Fangzhou; Tojeiro, Rita; Myers, Adam D.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Baumgarten, Falk; Zhao, Cheng; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ross, Ashley J.; Burtin, Etienne; Zarrouk, Pauline; Bautista, Julian; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Dawson, Kyle; Brownstein, Joel R.; de la Macorra, Axel; Schneider, Donald P.; Shafieloo, Arman

    2018-06-01

    We present a measurement of the anisotropic and isotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 14 quasar sample with optimal redshift weights. Applying the redshift weights improves the constraint on the BAO dilation parameter α(zeff) by 17 per cent. We reconstruct the evolution history of the BAO distance indicators in the redshift range of 0.8 < z < 2.2. This paper is part of a set that analyses the eBOSS DR14 quasar sample.

  15. Readership survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article reviews the last readership survey, which helped to check readers' reactions and the level and style of the journal. The majority of readers (32 per cent), not surprisingly, work in high energy physics. In fact, if the estimate of the world high energy physics population as some 5000 people is correct, CERN Courier reaches every one of them. The next large category of readers is the teaching profession (21 percent), with industrialists (12 per cent) in third place

  16. Trace spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Goubault, Eric; Haucourt, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    in the interleaving semantics of a concurrent program, but rather some equivalence classes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new algorithm to compute such equivalence classes, and a representative per class, which is based on ideas originating in algebraic topology. We introduce a geometric semantics...... of concurrent languages, where programs are interpreted as directed topological spaces, and study its properties in order to devise an algorithm for computing dihomotopy classes of execution paths. In particular, our algorithm is able to compute a control-flow graph for concurrent programs, possibly containing...... loops, which is “as reduced as possible” in the sense that it generates traces modulo equivalence. A preliminary implementation was achieved, showing promising results towards efficient methods to analyze concurrent programs, with very promising results compared to partial-order reduction techniques....

  17. The Aalborg Survey / Part 1 - Web Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 1 Web Base Survey The 1st part of the research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS) has been carried out during the period from December 1st 2007 to February 1st 2008 as a Web Based Survey of the 27.040 gross...... [statistikbanken.dk, a] young people aged 14-23 living in Aalborg Municipality in 2008. The web based questionnaire has been distributed among the group of young people studying at upper secondary schools in Aalborg, i.e. 7.680 young people [statistikbanken.dk, b]. The resulting data from those respondents who...

  18. Potentials of surfaces in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of a body in space is determined by a balance between various charging currents such as the transfer of charge from plasma particles, photoemission, and secondary electron emission. These processes are evaluated for bodies in the solar system and in interstellar space under the headings; an overview of charging, survey of early work on charging, charging processes, effects of non-isotropic plasmas and magnetic and electric fields, calculation of surface potentials, differential charging, potential barriers and discharge processes, measurements of potential, potential modification and control on spacecraft, and astrophysical applications. (U.K.)

  19. Space Interferometry Science Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.

    1992-12-01

    Decisions taken by the astronomy and astrophysics survey committee and the interferometry panel which lead to the formation of the Space Interferometry Science Working Group (SISWG) are outlined. The SISWG was formed by the NASA astrophysics division to provide scientific and technical input from the community in planning for space interferometry and in support of an Astrometric Interferometry Mission (AIM). The AIM program hopes to measure the positions of astronomical objects with a precision of a few millionths of an arcsecond. The SISWG science and technical teams are described and the outcomes of its first meeting are given.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of the Flight Line Food Service Facility at Travis AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    Potatoes/ Mixed Vegetables TUE - Baked Ham/Home Fries/Peas & Carrots and Fried Chicken /Dotato Puffs/ Mexican Corn WED - Roast Pork...8217emm^^mmi - TABLE 1 DINNER MENU SOUPS DAILY Chili Con Came, Chicken Noodle Soup, Vegetable Soup, Cream of Tomato Soup MON - Vegetable-Beef...Soup TUE - Cream of Chicken Soup WED - Minestrone Soup THU - Beef Noodle Soup FRI - Clam Chowder SAT - Chicken Rice Soup SUN

  1. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  2. Comparison of Satellite Surveying to Traditional Surveying Methods for the Resources Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, B. P.; Osborne, V. J.; Kruger, M. L.

    Modern ground-based survey methods involve detailed survey, which provides three-space co-ordinates for surveyed points, to a high level of accuracy. The instruments are operated by surveyors, who process the raw results to create survey location maps for the subject of the survey. Such surveys are conducted for a location or region and referenced to the earth global co- ordinate system with global positioning system (GPS) positioning. Due to this referencing the survey is only as accurate as the GPS reference system. Satellite survey remote sensing utilise satellite imagery which have been processed using commercial geographic information system software. Three-space co-ordinate maps are generated, with an accuracy determined by the datum position accuracy and optical resolution of the satellite platform.This paper presents a case study, which compares topographic surveying undertaken by traditional survey methods with satellite surveying, for the same location. The purpose of this study is to assess the viability of satellite remote sensing for surveying in the resources industry. The case study involves a topographic survey of a dune field for a prospective mining project area in Pakistan. This site has been surveyed using modern surveying techniques and the results are compared to a satellite survey performed on the same area.Analysis of the results from traditional survey and from the satellite survey involved a comparison of the derived spatial co- ordinates from each method. In addition, comparisons have been made of costs and turnaround time for both methods.The results of this application of remote sensing is of particular interest for survey in areas with remote and extreme environments, weather extremes, political unrest, poor travel links, which are commonly associated with mining projects. Such areas frequently suffer language barriers, poor onsite technical support and resources.

  3. Total Survey Error for Longitudinal Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynn, Peter; Lugtig, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the application of the total survey error paradigm to longitudinal surveys. Several aspects of survey error, and of the interactions between different types of error, are distinct in the longitudinal survey context. Furthermore, error trade-off decisions in survey design and

  4. Archaeology of Void Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, Cory

    The overall goal of this research is to evaluate the efficacy of pXRF for the identification of ancient activity areas at Pre-Columbian sites in Antigua that range across time periods, geographic regions, site types with a variety of features, and various states of preservation. These findings have important implications for identifying and reconstructing places full of human activity but void of material remains. A synthesis for an archaeology of void spaces requires the construction of new ways of testing anthrosols, and identifying elemental patterns that can be used to connect people with their places and objects. This research begins with an exploration of rich middens in order to study void spaces. Midden archaeology has been a central focus in Caribbean research, and consists of an accumulation of discarded remnants from past human activities that can be tested against anthrosols. The archaeological collections visited for this research project involved creating new databases to generate a comprehensive inventory of sites, materials excavated, and assemblages available for study. Of the more than 129 Pre-Columbian sites documented in Antigua, few sites have been thoroughly surveyed or excavated. Twelve Pre-Columbian sites, consisting of thirty-six excavated units were selected for study; all of which contained complete assemblages for comparison and soil samples for testing. These excavations consisted almost entirely of midden excavations, requiring new archaeological investigations to be carried out in spaces primarily void of material remains but within the village context. Over the course of three seasons excavations, shovel test pits, and soil augers were used to obtain a variety of anthrosols and archaeological assemblages in order to generate new datasets to study Pre-Columbian activity areas. The selection of two primary case study sites were used for comparison: Indian Creek and Doigs. Findings from this research indicate that accounting for the

  5. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Beeville/Bay City National Topographic Map, Texas Gulf Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    As part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program Geodata International, Inc. of Dallas, Texas, conducted an airborne gamma ray and total magnetic field survey of Beeville/Bay City Quadrangle of the Texas Gulf Coast area. Volume 1 gives the description of the program and results, and volume 2 gives the flight line profile data and statistical analysis results. The Beeville/Bay City Map Sheet shows Tertiary and Quaternary-aged strata which are part of the coastal plain of the Gulf Coast Geosyncline. The Cenozoic sediments overlie Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian rocks, and have a relatively gentle homoclinal dip toward the gulf. The Quaternary and Tertiary sediments of the map sheet overlie the western flank of the Houston-East Texas Embayment, the northeastern side of the Rio Grande Embayment, and the San Marcos Arch. Recent and Pleistocene sediments crop-out in the south and east, and are more extensive in the vicinity of the structural embayments. The Pliocene-aged Goliad Formation crops-out extensively to the northwest. Miocene and Eocene strata occur in the northwestern corner of the map sheet. The uranium deposits occur in the Tertiary strata, but are most intensely mined in the Eocene strata immediately to the west of the map sheet area

  6. Low Frequency Space Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.; Weiler, K.W.; Johnston, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Frequency Space Array (LFSA) is a conceptual mission to survey the entire sky and to image individual sources at frequencies between 1.5 and 26 MHz, a frequency range over which the earth's ionosphere transmits poorly or not at all. With high resolution, high sensitivity observations, a new window will be opened in the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomical investigation. Also, extending observations down to such low frequencies will bring astronomy to the fundamental limit below which the galaxy becomes optically thick due to free-free absorption. A number of major scientific goals can be pursued with such a mission, including mapping galactic emission and absorption, studies of individual source spectra in a frequency range where a number of important processes may play a role, high resolution imaging of extended sources, localization of the impulsive emission from Jupiter, and a search for coherent emission processes. 19 references

  7. Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  8. Rethinking the Space for Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What happens to people’s sense of belonging when globalization meets with proclaimed regional identities resting heavily on conceptions of religion and ethnicity? Who are the actors stressing cultural heritage and authenticity as tools for self-understanding? In Rethinking the Space for Religion...... as a political and cultural argument. The approach makes a nuanced and fresh survey for researchers and other initiated readers to engage in....

  9. Weaving Hilbert space fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Neyshaburi, Fahimeh Arabyani; Arefijamaal, Ali Akbar

    2018-01-01

    A new notion in frame theory, so called weaving frames has been recently introduced to deal with some problems in signal processing and wireless sensor networks. Also, fusion frames are an important extension of frames, used in many areas especially for wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we survey the notion of weaving Hilbert space fusion frames. This concept can be had potential applications in wireless sensor networks which require distributed processing using different fusion frames...

  10. Wide Field Radio Transient Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Geoffrey

    2011-04-01

    The time domain of the radio wavelength sky has been only sparsely explored. Nevertheless, serendipitous discovery and results from limited surveys indicate that there is much to be found on timescales from nanoseconds to years and at wavelengths from meters to millimeters. These observations have revealed unexpected phenomena such as rotating radio transients and coherent pulses from brown dwarfs. Additionally, archival studies have revealed an unknown class of radio transients without radio, optical, or high-energy hosts. The new generation of centimeter-wave radio telescopes such as the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) will exploit wide fields of view and flexible digital signal processing to systematically explore radio transient parameter space, as well as lay the scientific and technical foundation for the Square Kilometer Array. Known unknowns that will be the target of future transient surveys include orphan gamma-ray burst afterglows, radio supernovae, tidally-disrupted stars, flare stars, and magnetars. While probing the variable sky, these surveys will also provide unprecedented information on the static radio sky. I will present results from three large ATA surveys (the Fly's Eye survey, the ATA Twenty CM Survey (ATATS), and the Pi GHz Survey (PiGSS)) and several small ATA transient searches. Finally, I will discuss the landscape and opportunities for future instruments at centimeter wavelengths.

  11. Kuranishi spaces as a 2-category

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey of the author's in-progress book arXiv:1409.6908. 'Kuranishi spaces' were introduced in the work of Fukaya, Oh, Ohta and Ono in symplectic geometry (see e.g. arXiv:1503.07631), as the geometric structure on moduli spaces of $J$-holomorphic curves. We propose a new definition of Kuranishi space, which has the nice property that they form a 2-category $\\bf Kur$. Thus the homotopy category Ho$({\\bf Kur})$ is an ordinary category of Kuranishi spaces. Any Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono (FOOO)...

  12. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  13. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  14. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  15. Realizing spaces as path-component spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Banakh, Taras; Brazas, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    The path component space of a topological space $X$ is the quotient space $\\pi_0(X)$ whose points are the path components of $X$. We show that every Tychonoff space $X$ is the path-component space of a Tychonoff space $Y$ of weight $w(Y)=w(X)$ such that the natural quotient map $Y\\to \\pi_0(Y)=X$ is a perfect map. Hence, many topological properties of $X$ transfer to $Y$. We apply this result to construct a compact space $X\\subset \\mathbb{R}^3$ for which the fundamental group $\\pi_1(X,x_0)$ is...

  16. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: McIntosh National Topographic Map, North Dakota/South Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the McIntosh National Topographic Map NL14-7 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  17. Assessment of study space usage in the Kenneth Dike Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explored the actual use of the physical space in Kenneth Dike Library by the students' population, the role these spaces are playing for learning and for related services in the university of Ibadan academic environment. It looked at the suitability of available spaces and suggestions for improvement. Survey ...

  18. Robotic Fish Technology and Its Applications to Space Mechatronics

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Ikuo; Shin, Nobuhiro; Oka, Taishi; Matsui, Miki

    2014-01-01

    The authors have developed a shark ray robotic fish based on biomimetic approaches. The paper describes the newly developed robotic fish technology and its application to mechatronics in the space. It is found that robotic fish technology creates not only new underwater robotics, but also the next generation space mechatronics for geological survey of lunar/planets and dust cleaning in the space station.

  19. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, our completed first mission concept and an introduction to the second concept that will be studied at the study center in 2018. This presentation will also summarize key science drivers and the key study milestones between 2018 and 2020.

  20. Curved twistor spaces and H-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.

    1980-01-01

    The curved twistor space construction of Penrose for anti-self-dual solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations is described. Curved twistor spaces are defined and it is shown with the aid of an example how to obtain them by deforming the complex structure of regions of flat twistor space. The connection of this procedure with Newman's H-space construction via asymptotic twistor space is outlined. (Auth.)

  1. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  2. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic detail survey: Midnite-Sherwood mines, Washington area. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    Volume II contains the following: flight line base map; magnetic contour map; maps for uranium, thorium, potassium, uranium/thorium, thorium/potassium, uranium/potassium; multi-variate analysis map; and geochemical analysis map

  3. Stamping the Earth from space

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2017-01-01

    This unique book presents a historical and philatelic survey of Earth exploration from space. It covers all areas of research in which artificial satellites have contributed in designing a new image of our planet and its environment: the atmosphere and ionosphere, the magnetic field, radiation belts and the magnetosphere, weather, remote sensing, mapping of the surface, observation of the oceans and marine environments, geodesy, and the study of life and ecological systems. Stamping the Earth from Space presents the results obtained with the thousands of satellites launched by the two former superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, and also those of the many missions carried out by the ESA, individual European countries, Japan, China, India, and the many emerging space nations. Beautifully illustrated, it contains almost 1100 color reproductions of philatelic items. In addition to topical stamps and thematic postal documents, the book provides an extensive review of astrophilatelic items. The most...

  4. Reader survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-10-15

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big.

  5. Reader survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big

  6. Aeromagnetic survey in Eurajoensalmi, Olkiluoto 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levaeniemi, H.

    2008-08-01

    This report describes the survey operation, survey and processing methods and the deliverables of an aerogeophysical survey in Olkiluoto area in April 2008. The survey was conducted by Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). The survey aircraft was a twin-engine Twin Otter operated by Finnish Aviation Academy (SIO) and owned by Natural Environment Research Council / British Geological Survey (NERC / BGS), with whom GTK has established a joint venture called Joint Airborne-geoscience Capability (JAC). The survey was conducted in April 2008 during six days. The survey consists of six separate survey flights, one of which was a magnetic calibration flight. The survey was based in Pori airport. Survey line spacing was 50 meters and nominal survey altitude was 30 meters. Measurements were completed in April 2008, and data processing and reporting was done in June 2008. Two cesium magnetometers installed onboard the aircraft (at the left wingtip and in a nose cone) were measuring the magnetic total field intensity during the survey flights. An automatic compensation unit corrected the aircraft attitude errors in the magnetic data in real time. In addition to magnetic measurement, auxiliary parameters such as flight altitude and aircraft attitude were also recorded simultaneously. Reference ground base station was used for recording the temporal variations in the magnetic field and also reference data for post-positioning of coordinate information. In the post-processing phase, heading correction, base station correction and microlevelling procedures were applied to the magnetic data. The data was exported to numeric XYZ files and interpolated into grid data file. A noteworthy local detail present in the survey and in the processing was the massive power line. For safety reasons, flight altitude had to be increased and survey lines had to be cut short in the vicinity of the powerline. However, due to reasonable planning of the survey area boundaries, this caused no great

  7. On RC-spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bielas, Wojciech; Plewik, Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Following Frink's characterization of completely regular spaces, we say that a regular T_1-space is an RC-space whenever the family of all regular open sets constitutes a regular normal base. Normal spaces are RC-spaces and there exist completely regular spaces which are not RC-spaces. So the question arises, which of the known examples of completely regular and not normal spaces are RC-spaces. We show that the Niemytzki plane and the Sorgenfrey plane are RC-spaces.

  8. The legal regime for private space tourism activities—An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobe, Stephan

    2010-06-01

    "Space tourism" denotes any commercial activity that offers customers direct or indirect experience with space travel. Various models for space tourism activities exist including the use of an aircraft and/or spacecraft. The paper surveys some of the most important legal aspects relevant to space tourism activities, such as, the delimitation of airspace and outer space, the applicable legal regime and the definition of aircraft and space object, authorization, registration, liability, as well as the legal status of space tourists.

  9. Probabilistic systems coalgebraically: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Ana

    2011-01-01

    We survey the work on both discrete and continuous-space probabilistic systems as coalgebras, starting with how probabilistic systems are modeled as coalgebras and followed by a discussion of their bisimilarity and behavioral equivalence, mentioning results that follow from the coalgebraic treatment of probabilistic systems. It is interesting to note that, for different reasons, for both discrete and continuous probabilistic systems it may be more convenient to work with behavioral equivalence than with bisimilarity. PMID:21998490

  10. Survey of thermal insulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Izumi

    1983-01-01

    Better thermal insulations have been developed to meet the growing demands of industry, and studies on thermal insulation at both high temperature and low temperature have been widely performed. The purpose of this survey is to summarize data on the performances and characteristics of thermal insulation materials and thermal insulation structures (for instance, gas cooled reactors, space vehicles and LNG storage tanks), and to discuss ravious problems regarding the design of thermal insulation structures of pool-type LMFBRs. (author)

  11. A Survey of Metal Lines at High Redshift. II. SDSS Absorption Line Studies—O VI Line Density, Space Density, and Gas Metallicity at z abs ~ 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S.; Mathur, S.; Pieri, M.; York, D. G.

    2010-09-01

    We have analyzed a large data set of O VI absorber candidates found in the spectra of 3702 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars, focusing on a subsample of 387 active galactic nuclei sight lines with an average S/N >=5.0, allowing for the detection of absorbers above a rest-frame equivalent width limit of W r >= 0.19 Å for the O VI 1032 Å component. Accounting for random interlopers mimicking an O VI doublet, we derive for the first time a secure lower limit for the redshift number density ΔN/Δz for redshifts z abs >= 2.8. With extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the losses of absorbers due to blending with the ubiquitous Lyα forest lines and estimate the success rate of retrieving each individual candidate as a function of its redshift, the emission redshift of the quasar, the strength of the absorber, and the measured signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the spectrum by modeling typical Lyman forest spectra. These correction factors allow us to derive the "incompleteness and S/N-corrected" redshift number densities of O VI absorbers: ΔN O VI,c /Δzc (2.8 secure lower limit for the contribution of O VI to the closure mass density at the redshifts probed here: ΩO VI (2.8 = 1.9 × 10-8 h -1. We show that the strong lines we probe account for over 65% of the mass in the O VI absorbers; the weak absorbers, while dominant in line number density, do not contribute significantly to the mass density. Making a conservative assumption about the ionization fraction, {O VI}/{O}, and adopting the Anders & Grevesse solar abundance values, we derive the mean metallicity of the gas probed in our search: ζ(2.8 = 3.6 × 10-4 h, in good agreement with other studies. These results demonstrate that large spectroscopic data sets such as SDSS can play an important role in QSO absorption line studies, in spite of the relatively low resolution.

  12. A SURVEY OF METAL LINES AT HIGH REDSHIFT. II. SDSS ABSORPTION LINE STUDIES-O VI LINE DENSITY, SPACE DENSITY, AND GAS METALLICITY AT zabs ∼ 3.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.; Mathur, S.; Pieri, M.; York, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed a large data set of O VI absorber candidates found in the spectra of 3702 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars, focusing on a subsample of 387 active galactic nuclei sight lines with an average S/N ≥5.0, allowing for the detection of absorbers above a rest-frame equivalent width limit of W r ≥ 0.19 A for the O VI 1032 A component. Accounting for random interlopers mimicking an O VI doublet, we derive for the first time a secure lower limit for the redshift number density ΔN/Δz for redshifts z abs ≥ 2.8. With extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we quantify the losses of absorbers due to blending with the ubiquitous Lyα forest lines and estimate the success rate of retrieving each individual candidate as a function of its redshift, the emission redshift of the quasar, the strength of the absorber, and the measured signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the spectrum by modeling typical Lyman forest spectra. These correction factors allow us to derive the 'incompleteness and S/N-corrected' redshift number densities of O VI absorbers: ΔN O V I,c /Δz c (2.8 O V I,c /Δz c (3.2 O V I,c /Δz c (3.6 O V I (2.8 -8 h -1 . We show that the strong lines we probe account for over 65% of the mass in the O VI absorbers; the weak absorbers, while dominant in line number density, do not contribute significantly to the mass density. Making a conservative assumption about the ionization fraction, O VI /O, and adopting the Anders and Grevesse solar abundance values, we derive the mean metallicity of the gas probed in our search: ζ(2.8 -4 h, in good agreement with other studies. These results demonstrate that large spectroscopic data sets such as SDSS can play an important role in QSO absorption line studies, in spite of the relatively low resolution.

  13. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Michelson, D.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Literature was searched for methods of removing uranium from drinking water. No relevant papers were found, but approximately 1000 publications were identified in a less specific search for methods of removing uranium from water. Most of the latter publications dealt with the recovery of uranium from ores, industrial and analytical chemistry solutions, or seawater. The conditions under which these studies were performed were usually quite different from those normally occurring in municipal water treatment practice, but some potentially interesting systems of recovery were identified. A few papers addressed the problem of removing uranium from natural fresh waters and established the effectiveness of using adsorbents or coprecipitants, such as aluminum hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, activated carbon, and ion exchangers, under certain conditions. Also, many US manufacturers and users of water treatment equipment and products were contacted regarding recommended methods of removing uranium from potable water. Based on the results of these surveys, it is recommended that untreated, partially treated, and finished water samples from municipal water treatment facilities be analyzed to determine their extent of removal of uranium by presently used procedures. In addition, laboratory studies are suggested to determine what changes, if any, are needed to maximize the effectiveness of treatments that are already in use in existing water treatment plants

  14. Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, G. R.; Clampin, M.; Latham, D. W.; Seager, S.; Vanderspek, R. K.; Villasenor, J. S.; Winn, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will discover thousands of exoplanets in orbit around the brightest stars in the sky. In a two-year survey, TESS will monitor more than 500,000 stars for temporary drops in brightness caused by planetary transits. This first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey will identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants, around a wide range of stellar types and orbital distances. No ground-based survey can achieve this feat. A large fraction of TESS target stars will be 30-100 times brighter than those observed by Kepler satellite, and therefore TESS . planets will be far easier to characterize with follow-up observations. TESS will make it possible to study the masses, sizes, densities, orbits, and atmospheres of a large cohort of small planets, including a sample of rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their host stars. TESS will provide prime targets for observation with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), as well as other large ground-based and space-based telescopes of the future. TESS data will be released with minimal delay (no proprietary period), inviting immediate community-wide efforts to study the new planets. The TESS legacy will be a catalog of the very nearest and brightest main-sequence stars hosting transiting exoplanets, thus providing future observers with the most favorable targets for detailed investigations.

  15. Atmosphere and Ambient Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    Atmosphere and Ambient Space This paper explores the relation between atmosphere and ambient space. Atmosphere and ambient space share many salient properties. They are both ontologically indeterminate, constantly varying and formally diffuse and they are both experienced as a subtle, non......-signifying property of a given space. But from a certain point of view, the two concepts also designate quite dissimilar experiences of space. To be ’ambient’ means to surround. Accordingly, ambient space is that space, which surrounds something or somebody. (Gibson 1987: 65) Since space is essentially...... of a surrounding character, all space can thus be described as having a fundamentally ambient character. So what precisely is an ambient space, then? As I will argue in my presentation, ambient space is a sensory effect of spatiality when a space is experienced as being particularly surrounding: a ‘space effect...

  16. Technology evaluation for space station atmospheric leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemon, D.K.; Friesel, M.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Skorpik, J.R.; Shepard, C.L.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1990-02-01

    A concern in operation of a space station is leakage of atmosphere through seal points and through the walls as a result of damage from particle (space debris and micrometeoroid) impacts. This report describes a concept for a monitoring system to detect atmosphere leakage and locate the leak point. The concept is based on analysis and testing of two basic methods selected from an initial technology survey of potential approaches. 18 refs., 58 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Spaces on sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triebel, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with spaces B s pq and F s pq of positive smoothness s>0, based on L p -spaces with 0< p≤∞ and reproducing formulae for smooth functions. These spaces are compared with other B-spaces and F-spaces obtained by different means

  18. Blind comparisons of shear-wave velocities at closely-spaced sites in San Jose, California: Proceedings of a Workshop held at the US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, May 3, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asten, Michael W.; Boore, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Shear-wave velocities within several hundred meters of Earth's surface are important in specifying earthquake ground motions for engineering design. Not only are the shearwave velocities used in classifying sites for use of modern building codes, but they are also used in site-specific studies of particularly significant structures. Many are the methods for estimating sub-surface shear-wave velocities, but few are the blind comparisons of a number of the methods at a single site. The word "blind" is important here and means that the measurements and interpretations are done completely independent of one another. Stephen Hartzell of the USGS office on Golden, Colorado realized that such an experiment would be very useful for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods, and he and Jack Boatwright of the USGS office in Menlo Park, California, in cooperation with Carl Wentworth of the Menlo Park USGS office found a convenient site in the city of San Jose, California. The site had good access and space for conducting experiments, and a borehole drilled to several hundred meters by the Santa Clara Valley Water District was made available for downhole logging. Jack Boatwright asked David Boore to coordinate the experiment. In turn, David Boore persuaded several teams to make measurements, helped with the local logistics, collected the results, and organized and conducted an International Workshop in May, 2004. At this meeting the participants in the experiment gathered in Menlo Park to describe their measurements and interpretations, and to see the results of the comparisons of the various methods for the first time. This Open-File Report describes the results of that workshop. One of the participants, Michael Asten, offered to help the coordinator prepare this report. Because of his lead role in pulling the report together, Dr. Asten is the lead author of the paper to follow and is also the lead Compiler for the Open-File Report.It is important to

  19. The Second Space Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  20. Space radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiqing; Yan Heping

    1995-01-01

    The authors briefly discusses the radiation environment in near-earth space and it's influences on material, and electronic devices using in space airship, also, the research developments in space radiation effects are introduced

  1. Quasi-uniform Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  2. Quasi-uniform Space

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-01-01

    In this article, using mostly Pervin [9], Kunzi [6], [8], [7], Williams [11] and Bourbaki [3] works, we formalize in Mizar [2] the notions of quasiuniform space, semi-uniform space and locally uniform space.

  3. Space Weather in Operation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The “Space Weather in Operations” effort will provide on-demand and near-real time space weather event information to the Data Access Toolkit (DAT), which is the...

  4. On birecurrent spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    A birecurrent space is defined with its classification and studied with involvement of Einstein, conformally flat, conformally symmetric and conformally recurrent spaces. A necessary and sufficient condition that a birecurrent space be recurrent is found. (author). 6 refs

  5. The Value Of Enhanced Neo Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2012-10-01

    NEO surveys have now achieved, more or less, the “Spaceguard Goal” of cataloging 90% of NEAs larger than 1 km in diameter, and thereby have reduced the short-term hazard from cosmic impacts by about an order of magnitude, from an actuarial estimate of 1,000 deaths per year (actually about a billion every million years, with very little in between), to about 100 deaths per year, with a shift toward smaller but more frequent events accounting for the remaining risk. It is fair to ask, then, what is the value of a next-generation accelerated survey to “retire” much of the remaining risk. The curve of completion of survey versus size of NEA is remarkably similar for any survey, ground or space based, visible light or thermal IR, so it is possible to integrate risk over all sizes, with a time variable curve of completion to evaluate the actuarial value of speeding up survey completion. I will present my latest estimate of NEA population and completion of surveys. From those I will estimate the “value” of accelerated surveys such as Pan-STARRS, LSST, or space-based surveys, versus continuing with current surveys. My tentative conclusion is that we may have already reached the point in terms of cost-benefit where accelerated surveys are not cost-effective in terms of reducing impact risk. If not yet, we soon will. On the other hand, the surveys, which find and catalog main-belt and other classes of small bodies as well as NEOs, have provided a gold mine of good science. The scientific value of continued or accelerated surveys needs to be emphasized as the impact risk is increasingly “retired.”

  6. Conformal Einstein spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    Conformal transformations in four-dimensional. In particular, a new set of two necessary and sufficient conditions for a space to be conformal to an Einstein space is presented. The first condition defines the class of spaces conformal to C spaces, whereas the last one (the vanishing of the Bach tensor) gives the particular subclass of C spaces which are conformally related to Einstein spaces. (author)

  7. Aerial Transient Electromagnetic Surveys of Alluvial Aquifers in Rural Watersheds of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D. R.; Callegary, J. B.; Groom, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    Development in rural areas of Arizona has led the State of Arizona (Arizona Department of Water Resources), in cooperation with the Arizona Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, to sponsor investigations of the hydrogeologic framework of several alluvial-basin aquifers. An efficient method for mapping the aquifer extent and lithology was needed due to sparse subsurface information. Aerial Transient Electro-Magnetic (ATEM) methods were selected because they can be used to quickly survey large areas and with a great depth of investigation. Both helicopter and fixed-wing ATEM methods are available. A fixed-wing method (GEOTEM) was selected because of the potential for a depth of investigation of 300 m or more and because previous surveys indicated the method is useful in alluvial basins in southeastern Arizona. About 2,900 km of data along flight lines were surveyed across five alluvial basins, including the Middle San Pedro and Willcox Basins in southeastern Arizona, and Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Basins in northwestern Arizona. Data initially were analyzed by the contractor (FUGRO Airborne Surveys) to produce conductivity-depth-transforms, which approximate the general subsurface electrical-property distribution along profiles. Physically based two-dimensional physical models of the profile data were then developed by PetRos- Eikon by using EMIGMA software. Hydrologically important lithologies can have different electrical properties. Several types of crystalline and sedimentary rocks generally are poor aquifers that have low porosity and high electrical resistivity. Good alluvial aquifers of sand and gravel generally have an intermediate electrical resistivity. Poor aquifer materials, such as silt and clay, and areas of poor quality water have low electrical resistivity values. Several types of control data were available to constrain the models including drill logs, electrical logs, water levels , and water quality information from wells; and

  8. Compliant Space Mechanisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OBJECTIVES The proposed research will combine the areas of compliant mechanisms and space technology. Compliant mechanisms perform their function through the elastic...

  9. Sacred space and the healing journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Paul L

    2017-07-01

    Sacred space and spirituality have long been used to heal the mind, body, and spirit. This article illuminates the origins of sacred space and its role as a healing environment from the first human construct, the burial mound, to the 5th Century BCE Greek healing city of Epidaurus. It then examines the role of spirituality as one of the necessary human institutions for a healthy society, according to the Italian philosopher Giambattista Vico. The conclusion then surveys three contemporary healing environments' architecture, the Department of Veteran Affairs Healing Environment Design Guideline (VAHEDG), and how these sacred spaces mend individual and community ailments.

  10. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  11. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  12. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2010. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2010-01-01

    During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey of management students nearing graduation. A total of 3,708 alumni responded to the April 2009 survey,…

  13. Topological vector spaces and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bogachev, V I

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a compact exposition of the fundamentals of the theory of locally convex topological vector spaces. Furthermore it contains a survey of the most important results of a more subtle nature, which cannot be regarded as basic, but knowledge which is useful for understanding applications. Finally, the book explores some of such applications connected with differential calculus and measure theory in infinite-dimensional spaces. These applications are a central aspect of the book, which is why it is different from the wide range of existing texts on topological vector spaces. In addition, this book develops differential and integral calculus on infinite-dimensional locally convex spaces by using methods and techniques of the theory of locally convex spaces. The target readership includes mathematicians and physicists whose research is related to infinite-dimensional analysis.

  14. User participation in urban green spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fors, Hanna; Molin, Julie Frøik; Murphyc, Melissa Anna

    2015-01-01

    The provision and administration of high quality urban public green spaces intertwines issues of planning, design, management and maintenance with governance. The benefits of such spaces are often tied to social justice, public health and recreation, biodiversity and helping cities to deal...... with climate change. International policies and changes in public administration have encouraged user participation across multiple phases of green space development. Although sceptics towards participation are easily found supporting arguments sometimes stand without critique, not questioning how...... participation affects the physical quality of green spaces. This literature review surveyed empirical scientific studies seeking to answer the following research question: How does research to date reflect over user participation's contribution to public urban green space quality? The review includes 31...

  15. Galaxy redshift surveys with sparse sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Chi-Ting; Wullstein, Philipp; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Jee, Inh; Jeong, Donghui; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hagen, Alex; Schneider, Donald P.; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian; Landriau, Martin; Finkelstein, Steven; Jogee, Shardha; Cooper, Erin Mentuch; Tuttle, Sarah; Gebhardt, Karl; Hill, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Survey observations of the three-dimensional locations of galaxies are a powerful approach to measure the distribution of matter in the universe, which can be used to learn about the nature of dark energy, physics of inflation, neutrino masses, etc. A competitive survey, however, requires a large volume (e.g., V survey ∼ 10Gpc 3 ) to be covered, and thus tends to be expensive. A ''sparse sampling'' method offers a more affordable solution to this problem: within a survey footprint covering a given survey volume, V survey , we observe only a fraction of the volume. The distribution of observed regions should be chosen such that their separation is smaller than the length scale corresponding to the wavenumber of interest. Then one can recover the power spectrum of galaxies with precision expected for a survey covering a volume of V survey (rather than the volume of the sum of observed regions) with the number density of galaxies given by the total number of observed galaxies divided by V survey (rather than the number density of galaxies within an observed region). We find that regularly-spaced sampling yields an unbiased power spectrum with no window function effect, and deviations from regularly-spaced sampling, which are unavoidable in realistic surveys, introduce calculable window function effects and increase the uncertainties of the recovered power spectrum. On the other hand, we show that the two-point correlation function (pair counting) is not affected by sparse sampling. While we discuss the sparse sampling method within the context of the forthcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, the method is general and can be applied to other galaxy surveys

  16. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  17. Flying Fast and High: Operational Flight Planning for Maximum Data Return for Airborne Snow Observatory Mountain Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, D. F.; Painter, T. H.; Richardson, M.; Wallach, A.; Deems, J. S.; Bormann, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO - http://aso.jpl.nasa.gov) uses an airborne laser scanner to map snow depth, and imaging spectroscopy to map snow albedo in order to estimate snow water equivalent and melt rate over mountainous, hydrologic basin-scale areas. Optimization of planned flight lines requires the balancing of many competing factors, including flying altitude and speed, bank angle limitation, laser pulse rate and power level, flightline orientation relative to terrain, surface optical properties, and data output requirements. These variables generally distill down to cost vs. higher resolution data. The large terrain elevation variation encountered in mountainous terrain introduces the challenge of narrow swath widths over the ridgetops, which drive tight flightline spacing and possible dropouts over the valleys due to maximum laser range. Many of the basins flown by ASO exceed 3,000m of elevation relief, exacerbating this problem. Additionally, sun angle may drive flightline orientations for higher-quality spectrometer data, which may change depending on time of day. Here we present data from several ASO missions, both operational and experimental, showing the lidar performance and accuracy limitations for a variety of operating parameters. We also discuss flightline planning strategies to maximize data density return per dollar, and a brief analysis on the effect of short turn times/steep bank angles on GPS position accuracy.

  18. Lesotho - Enterprise Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The 2011 MCA-Lesotho baseline enterprise survey is a national survey of enterprises. The main objective of the survey was to assess the current status of businesses...

  19. 2015 Community Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — These are the answers to the 2015 Community Survey.A comprehensive summary of the survey results can be found here.The survey asked town members to address their...

  20. Global Trends in Space Access and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Keim, Nicholas S.; Zeender, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    global interdependent effort with all its likely complexities is an increasingly viable and pragmatic option. The discussion includes a breakdown of space missions into those of civil (scientific), military, and strictly commercial nature. It concludes that all three are robust components of a globally diversified portfolio of activities relying, essentially, on a common space industrial base and space infrastructure. As in other industries, the distribution of space industry assets and knowledge across countries and continents enables a diverse suite of options and arrangements, particularly in the areas of civil and commercial space utilization. A survey of several ongoing bilateral and multilateral space collaboration examples are provided to augment the observations regarding multinational work in space.

  1. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  2. Space Guidelines for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Coordinating Committee for Higher Education, Madison.

    The following guidelines are recommended: stack space--for each 10 volumes, one square foot of space; reading room--25 square feet per station x 20% of the total undergraduate population; carrel space--25% of the graduate enrollment x 45 square feet; office and auxilliary space--135 square feet x full time equivalent staff. (NI)

  3. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  4. Accelerator and transport line survey and alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    This paper summarizes the survey and alignment processes of accelerators and transport lines and discusses the propagation of errors associated with these processes. The major geodetic principles governing the survey and alignment measurement space are introduced and their relationship to a lattice coordinate system shown. The paper continues with a broad overview about the activities involved in the step sequence from initial absolute alignment to final smoothing. Emphasis is given to the relative alignment of components, in particular to the importance of incorporating methods to remove residual systematic effects in surveying and alignment operations. Various approaches to smoothing used at major laboratories are discussed. 47 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  5. Theory of function spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Triebel, Hans

    1983-01-01

    The book deals with the two scales Bsp,q and Fsp,q of spaces of distributions, where -8spaces, such as Hölder spaces, Zygmund classes, Sobolev spaces, Besov spaces, Bessel-potential spaces, Hardy spaces and spaces of BMO-type. It is the main aim of this book to give a unified treatment of the corresponding spaces on the Euclidean n-space Rn in the framework of Fourier analysis, which is based on the technique of maximal functions, Fourier multipliers and interpolation assertions. These topics are treated in Chapter 2, which is the heart

  6. National Space Agencies vs. Commercial Space: Towards Improved Space Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, J.

    2013-09-01

    Traditional space policies as developed at the national level includes many elements but they are most typically driven by economic and political objectives. Legislatively administered programs apportion limited public funds to achieve "gains" that can involve employment, stimulus to the economy, national defense or other advancements. Yet political advantage is seldom far from the picture.Within the context of traditional space policies, safety issues cannot truly be described as "afterthoughts", but they are usually, at best, a secondary or even tertiary consideration. "Space safety" is often simply assumed to be "in there" somewhere. The current key question is can "safety and risk minimization", within new commercial space programs actually be elevated in importance and effectively be "designed in" at the outset. This has long been the case with commercial aviation and there is at least reasonable hope that this could also be the case for the commercial space industry in coming years. The cooperative role that the insurance industry has now played for centuries in the shipping industry and for decades in aviation can perhaps now play a constructive role in risk minimization in the commercial space domain as well. This paper begins by examining two historical case studies in the context of traditional national space policy development to see how major space policy decisions involving "manned space programs" have given undue primacy to "political considerations" over "safety" and other factors. The specific case histories examined here include first the decision to undertake the Space Shuttle Program (i.e. 1970-1972) and the second is the International Space Station. In both cases the key and overarching decisions were driven by political, schedule and cost considerations, and safety seems absence as a prime consideration. In publicly funded space programs—whether in the United States, Europe, Russia, Japan, China, India or elsewhere—it seems realistic to

  7. Redshift-space distortions from vector perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Camille; Durrer, Ruth; Khosravi, Nima; Kunz, Martin; Sawicki, Ignacy

    2018-02-01

    We compute a general expression for the contribution of vector perturbations to the redshift space distortion of galaxy surveys. We show that they contribute to the same multipoles of the correlation function as scalar perturbations and should thus in principle be taken into account in data analysis. We derive constraints for next-generation surveys on the amplitude of two sources of vector perturbations, namely non-linear clustering and topological defects. While topological defects leave a very small imprint on redshift space distortions, we show that the multipoles of the correlation function are sensitive to vorticity induced by non-linear clustering. Therefore future redshift surveys such as DESI or the SKA should be capable of measuring such vector modes, especially with the hexadecapole which appears to be the most sensitive to the presence of vorticity.

  8. Space Sciences Focus Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    To advance our understanding of the space environment (from the Sun to the Earth and beyond) and to advance our ability to operate systems in space that protect life and society. Space Science is distinct from other field, such as astrophysics or cosmology, in that Space Science utilizes in-situ measurements from high altitude rockets, balloons and spacecraft or ground-based measurements of objects and conditions in space.

  9. The Austrian Space Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  10. Student Facebook groups as a third space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Janus Holst; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    -institutional, personal space of the Facebook network. The main study of the article examines six student-managed Facebook groups and provides an analysis of a total of 2247 posts and 12,217 comments. Furthermore, the study draws on group interviews with students from 17 Danish upper secondary schools and a survey......The paper examines educational potentials of Facebook groups that are created and managed by students without any involvement from teachers. The objective is to study student-managed Facebook groups as a ‘third space' between the institutional space of teacher-managed Facebook groups and the non...... answered by 932 students from 25 schools. Based on the survey and interviews, the paper concludes that Facebook is an important educational tool for students in Danish upper secondary schools to receive help on homework and assignments. Furthermore, on the basis of the analysis of Facebook groups...

  11. Esrange Space Center, a Gate to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widell, Ola

    Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) is operating the Esrange Space Center in northern Sweden. Space operations have been performed for more than 40 years. We have a unique combination of maintaining balloon and rocket launch operations, and building payloads, providing space vehicles and service systems. Sub-orbital rocket flights with land recovery and short to long duration balloon flights up to weeks are offered. The geographical location, land recovery area and the long term experience makes Swedish Space Corporation and Esrange to an ideal gate for space activities. Stratospheric balloons are primarily used in supporting atmospheric research, validation of satellites and testing of space systems. Balloon operations have been carried out at Esrange since 1974. A large number of balloon flights are yearly launched in cooperation with CNES, France. Since 2005 NASA/CSBF and Esrange provide long duration balloon flights to North America. Flight durations up to 5 days with giant balloons (1.2 Million cubic metres) carrying heavy payload (up to 2500kg) with astronomical instruments has been performed. Balloons are also used as a crane for lifting space vehicles or parachute systems to be dropped and tested from high altitude. Many scientific groups both in US, Europe and Japan have indicated a great need of long duration balloon flights. Esrange will perform a technical polar circum balloon flight during the summer 2008 testing balloon systems and flight technique. We are also working on a permission giving us the opportunity on a circular stratospheric balloon flight around the North Pole.

  12. Combining survey and administrative data using state space models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Horn; Ray Czaplewski

    2013-01-01

    Even as access to transactional data has been transformed by harnessing electronic flows, use of satellite imagery, research access to linked customer level records, and harmonising collections across jurisdictions, official statisticians are under pressure to detect significant turning points within response times and resolutions that cannot be handled by present...

  13. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-07-01

    SpaceTech is a postgraduate program geared primarily for mid-career space professionals seeking to gain or improve their expertise in space systems engineering and in business engineering. SpaceTech provides a lifelong impact on its participants by broadening their capabilities, encouraging systematic "end-to-end" thinking and preparing them for any technical or business-related engineering challenges they may encounter. This flexible 1-year program offers high competency gain and increased business skills. It is held in attractive locations in a flexible, multi-cultural environment. SpaceTech is a highly effective master's program certified by the esteemed Technical University of Delft (TUD), Netherlands. SpaceTech provides expert instructors who place no barriers between themselves and participants. The program combines innovative and flexible new approaches with time-tested methods to give participants the skills required for future missions and new business, while allowing participants to meet their work commitments at the same time as they study for their master's degree. The SpaceTech program is conducted in separate sessions, generally each of 2-week duration, separated by periods of some 6-8 weeks, during which time participants may return to their normal jobs. It also includes introductory online course material that the participants can study at their leisure. The first session is held at the TUD, with subsequent sessions held at strategic space agency locations. By participating at two or more of these sessions, attendees can earn certificates of satisfactory completion from TU Delft. By participating in all of the sessions, as well as taking part in the companion Central Case Project (CCP), participants earn an accredited and highly respected master's degree in Space Systems Engineering from the TUD. Seven distinct SpaceTech modules are provided during these sessions: Space Mission Analysis and Design, Systems Engineering, Business Engineering

  14. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  15. Using Electronic Surveys: Advice from Survey Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the perceptions and recommendations of sixty-two experienced survey..researchers from the American Educational Research Association regarding the use of..electronic surveys. The most positive aspects cited for the use of electronic surveys were..reduction of costs (i.e., postage, phone charges, the use of electronic mail for pre-notification or..follow-up purposes, and the compatibility of data with existing software programs. These..professionals expressed limitations in using electronic surveys pertaining to the limited..sampling frame as well as issues of confidentiality, privacy, and the credibility of the sample...They advised that electronic surveys designed with the varied technological background and..capabilities of the respondent in mind, follow sound principles of survey construction, and be..administered to pre-notified, targeted populations with published email addresses.

  16. USING STATISTICAL SURVEY IN ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia TESELIOS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical survey is an effective method of statistical investigation that involves gathering quantitative data, which is often preferred in statistical reports due to the information which can be obtained regarding the entire population studied by observing a part of it. Therefore, because of the information provided, polls are used in many research areas. In economics, statistics are used in the decision making process in choosing competitive strategies in the analysis of certain economic phenomena, the formulation of forecasts. Economic study presented in this paper is to illustrate how a simple random sampling is used to analyze the existing parking spaces situation in a given locality.

  17. A Foothold in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    With the successful launch of Tiangong-I (Heavenly Palace -I)unmanned module on September 29,China took a significant step forward in realizing its ambitions in space.China's manned space program consists of three steps.The first step,to send an astronaut into space,was achieved in 2003.The second step,to realize multi-person space flight for extended periods of time,has been fulfilled twice.During China's third manned space flight in 2008,Chinese astronauts walked in space.

  18. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  19. Free topological vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.

    2016-01-01

    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  20. Rising above Decline: Some Uses of Surplus Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Dale E.

    In many communities new arrangements of surplus school space have been made that facilitate use of the space by the people of the districts, encourage government agencies to anticipate and support social transitions where they are necessary, and allow school districts to improve the quality of their programs. This paper is a survey of some of…

  1. Putting Continuous Metaheuristics to Work in Binary Search Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick Crawford

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the real world, there are a number of optimization problems whose search space is restricted to take binary values; however, there are many continuous metaheuristics with good results in continuous search spaces. These algorithms must be adapted to solve binary problems. This paper surveys articles focused on the binarization of metaheuristics designed for continuous optimization.

  2. Automation and robotics for the Space Station - An ATAC perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    The study of automation and robotics for the Space Station by the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee is surveyed. The formation of the committee and the methodology for the Space Station automation study are discussed. The committee's recommendations for automation and robotics research and development are listed.

  3. Space Industry Commercialization: A Systems Engineering Evaluation of Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinally, Jihan

    The Constellation Program cancellation reversed the government and commercial space industry's roles and relationships by dedicating the majority of the federal funding and opportunities to the commercial space industry and left the government space industry in search of an approach to collaborate with the dominant organization, the commercial space industry service providers. The space industry government agencies, Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had realized that to gain resources in the new commercially oriented economic environment, they had to work together and possess the capabilities aligned with the National Space Policy's documented goals. Multi-organizational collaboration in space industry programs is challenging, as NASA, AFSPC, and commercial providers, follow different [1] enterprise architecture guidance such as the NASA systems engineering Handbook, MIL-STD-499 and "A Guide to the systems engineering Body of Knowledge" by the International Council on systems engineering [2] [3]. A solution to streamline their enterprise architecture documentation and meet National Space Policy goals is the Multi-User Architecture Maturity Model Methodology (MAM3), which offers a tailored systems engineering technique the government agencies and private companies can implement for the program's maturity level. In order to demonstrate the MAM3, a CubeSat motivated study was conducted partnering a commercial provider with a government agency. A survey of the commercial space industry service providers' capabilities was performed to select the private companies for the study. Using the survey results, the commercial space industry service providers were ranked using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) [4]. The AHP is a structured technique for making complex decisions for representing and quantifying its weights, relating those weights to overall goals, and evaluating alternative solutions [5] - [8]. The weights

  4. AI in space: Past, present, and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Donald D.; Post, Jonathan V.

    1992-01-01

    While artificial intelligence (AI) has become increasingly present in recent space applications, new missions being planned will require even more incorporation of AI techniques. In this paper, we survey some of the progress made to date in implementing such programs, some current directions and issues, and speculate about the future of AI in space scenarios. We also provide examples of how thinkers from the realm of science fiction have envisioned AI's role in various aspects of space exploration.

  5. Centrioles in Symmetric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Quast, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We describe all centrioles in irreducible simply connected pointed symmetric spaces of compact type in terms of the root system of the ambient space, and we study some geometric properties of centrioles.

  6. Causal symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Olafsson, Gestur; Helgason, Sigurdur

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce researchers and graduate students to the concepts of causal symmetric spaces. To date, results of recent studies considered standard by specialists have not been widely published. This book seeks to bring this information to students and researchers in geometry and analysis on causal symmetric spaces.Includes the newest results in harmonic analysis including Spherical functions on ordered symmetric space and the holmorphic discrete series and Hardy spaces on compactly casual symmetric spacesDeals with the infinitesimal situation, coverings of symmetric spaces, classification of causal symmetric pairs and invariant cone fieldsPresents basic geometric properties of semi-simple symmetric spacesIncludes appendices on Lie algebras and Lie groups, Bounded symmetric domains (Cayley transforms), Antiholomorphic Involutions on Bounded Domains and Para-Hermitian Symmetric Spaces

  7. Deep Space Habitat Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deep Space Habitat was closed out at the end of Fiscal Year 2013 (September 30, 2013). Results and select content have been incorporated into the new Exploration...

  8. Probabilistic metric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, B

    2005-01-01

    Topics include special classes of probabilistic metric spaces, topologies, and several related structures, such as probabilistic normed and inner-product spaces. 1983 edition, updated with 3 new appendixes. Includes 17 illustrations.

  9. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  10. Space Robotics Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  11. Occupational Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  12. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-01-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis

  13. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-08-31

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  14. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  15. Flexible Composites for Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload mass reduction and packaging efficiency in launch vehicles are essential for deep space exploration.  Inflatable softgoods have been identified as attractive...

  16. Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Project A: Integration and Review: A review of current knowledge from space radiation physics was accepted for publication in Reviews of Modern Physics (Durante and...

  17. Space Power Facility (SPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Power Facility (SPF) houses the world's largest space environment simulation chamber, measuring 100 ft. in diameter by 122 ft. high. In this chamber, large...

  18. Space, time, matter

    CERN Document Server

    Weyl, Hermann

    1922-01-01

    Excellent introduction probes deeply into Euclidean space, Riemann's space, Einstein's general relativity, gravitational waves and energy, and laws of conservation. "A classic of physics." - British Journal for Philosophy and Science.

  19. Space Environment Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes presentation materials and outputs from operational space environment models produced by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and...

  20. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  1. Post Millennium Urban Space Design in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    Hans Kiib Post Millennium Urban Space Design in Denmark - a survey on 100 Danish projects from 2002 – 2010. This article is based on an evaluation of 100 Danish open space projects form 2000 – 2010. The projects was initially proposals from Danish municipalities for the Campaign on Better Open...... Spaces (Bedre Byrums Kampagne) run by Realdania stating in 2002. These projects are all proposed just after 2002. Based on the quality of the projects including the goals for the proposal, the quality of the proposed design, and finally to what extent the projects contributed to new concepts...... and perspectives in open space design, 24 proposals were selected for further development. These projects were developed in the period from 2003 – 2007 with support from consultants. The evaluation has been carried out in 2011. It categorizes the initial 100 projects in relation to location, goals, concepts, scale...

  2. Space research in the Netherlands 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    In 1960, the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences established a committee with the task of coordinating space research in the Netherlands and maintaining the necessary international contacts. This committe, usually called GROC, has instituted four working groups, in which most of the Netherlands space research is concentrated. These groups are: Working Group for Solar and Stellar Space Research, Working Group for Cosmic Rays, Working Group for Photometry and the Working Group for Satellite Geodesy. General information on space research in the Netherlands Anno 1980 is given. Detailed data about the working groups, their work during 1980 and their programmes are presented, together with a survey of their scientific publications. A financial summary is also included. (Auth.)

  3. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM, Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  4. A Conceptual Space Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    1999-01-01

    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  5. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  6. On Space Warfare: A Space Power Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lupton, David

    1998-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, the speech was promptly dubbed "Star Wars" because the space environment seems to be the most likely place to deploy a ballistic missile defense system, and several administration...

  7. Space tourism risks: A space insurance perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensoussan, Denis

    2010-06-01

    Space transportation is inherently risky to humans, whether they are trained astronauts or paying tourists, given that spaceflight is still in its relative infancy. However, this is easy to forget when subjected to the hype often associated with space tourism and the ventures seeking to enter that market. The development of commercial spaceflight constitutes a challenge as much as a great opportunity to the insurance industry as new risks emerge and standards, policies and procedures to minimise/mitigate and cover them still to be engineered. Therefore the creation of a viable and affordable insurance regime for future space tourists is a critical step in the development of a real space tourism market to address burning risk management issues that may otherwise ultimately hamper this nascent industry before it has a chance to prove itself.

  8. Space based microlensing planet searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tisserand Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of extra-solar planets is arguably the most exciting development in astrophysics during the past 15 years, rivalled only by the detection of dark energy. Two projects unite the communities of exoplanet scientists and cosmologists: the proposed ESA M class mission EUCLID and the large space mission WFIRST, top ranked by the Astronomy 2010 Decadal Survey report. The later states that: “Space-based microlensing is the optimal approach to providing a true statistical census of planetary systems in the Galaxy, over a range of likely semi-major axes”. They also add: “This census, combined with that made by the Kepler mission, will determine how common Earth-like planets are over a wide range of orbital parameters”. We will present a status report of the results obtained by microlensing on exoplanets and the new objectives of the next generation of ground based wide field imager networks. We will finally discuss the fantastic prospect offered by space based microlensing at the horizon 2020–2025.

  9. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kenneth; Pan-STARRS Team

    2018-01-01

    The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys are complete and the first data release, DR1, is available from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) at the Space Telescope Science Institute. The data include a database of measured attributes of 3 billion objects, stacked images, and metadata of the 3pi Steradian Survey. The DR1 contains all stationary objects with mean and stack photometry registered on the GAIA astrometric frame. DR2 is in preparation and will be released this winter with all the individual epoch images and time domain photometry and forced photometry on the individual epoch images. The characteristics of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys will be presented, including image quality, depth, cadence, and coverage. Measured attributes include PSF model magnitudes, aperture magnitudes, Kron Magnitudes, radial moments, Petrosian magnitudes, DeVaucoulers, Exponential, and Sersic magnitudes for extended objects. Images include total intensity, variance, and masks.An overview of the Pan-STARRS1 Surveys and data releases will be presented together with a brief description of the data collected since the end of the PS1 Science Consortium surveys, and the plans for the upcoming survey with PS1 and PS2 begining in February 2018.

  10. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzio, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a probability distribution for flowing interval spacing. A flowing interval is defined as a fractured zone that transmits flow in the Saturated Zone (SZ), as identified through borehole flow meter surveys (Figure 1). This analysis uses the term ''flowing interval spacing'' as opposed to fractured spacing, which is typically used in the literature. The term fracture spacing was not used in this analysis because the data used identify a zone (or a flowing interval) that contains fluid-conducting fractures but does not distinguish how many or which fractures comprise the flowing interval. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. Fracture spacing within the SZ is defined as the spacing between fractures, with no regard to which fractures are carrying flow. The Development Plan associated with this analysis is entitled, ''Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing'', (CRWMS M and O 2000a). The parameter from this analysis may be used in the TSPA SR/LA Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Work Direction and Planning Documents: (1) ''Abstraction of Matrix Diffusion for SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a) and (2) ''Incorporation of Heterogeneity in SZ Flow and Transport Analyses'', (CRWMS M and O 1999b). A limitation of this analysis is that the probability distribution of flowing interval spacing may underestimate the effect of incorporating matrix diffusion processes in the SZ transport model because of the possible overestimation of the flowing interval spacing. Larger flowing interval spacing results in a decrease in the matrix diffusion processes. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be determined from the data. Because each flowing interval probably has more than one fracture contributing to a flowing interval, the true flowing interval spacing could be

  11. Function spaces, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Pick, Luboš; John, Oldrich; Fucík, Svatopluk

    2012-01-01

    This is the first part of the second revised and extended edition of a well established monograph. It is an introduction to function spaces defined in terms of differentiability and integrability classes. It provides a catalogue of various spaces and benefits as a handbook for those who use function spaces to study other topics such as partial differential equations. Volum

  12. A Foothold in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the successful launch of Tiangong-1 (Heavenly Palace-1) unmanned module on September 29,China took a significant step forward in realizing its ambitions in space.China’s manned space program consists of three steps.The first step,to send an astronaut into space,was achieved in 2003.The

  13. Venturing Further Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China launches a prototype space module as a precursor to a manned space station China’s first unmanned space module Tiangong-1,or Heavenly Palace-1,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China’s Gansu Province on September 29. "The successful launch of the 8.5-ton

  14. Beyond spaces of counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Mads; Nissen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    The article articulates experiments with spatial constructions in two Danish social work agencies, basing on (a) a sketchy genealogical reconstruction of conceptualisations and uses of space in social work and counselling, (b) a search for theoretical resources to articulate new spaces, and (c...... spaces are forms of spatialisations which might be taken as prototypical in attempts to develop social work and counselling...

  15. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  16. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  17. Pappus in optical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.; van Doorn, Andrea J.; Kappers, Astrid M L; Todd, James T.

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generally been assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction, we do not assume any metric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two

  18. Pappus in optical space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.J.; Doorn, A.J. van; Kappers, A.M.L.; Todd, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generallybeen assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction,we do not assume anymetric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two

  19. Radiation effects in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Learning Space Service Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same…

  1. An advanced complex analysis problem book topological vector spaces, functional analysis, and Hilbert spaces of analytic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This is an exercises book at the beginning graduate level, whose aim is to illustrate some of the connections between functional analysis and the theory of functions of one variable. A key role is played by the notions of positive definite kernel and of reproducing kernel Hilbert space. A number of facts from functional analysis and topological vector spaces are surveyed. Then, various Hilbert spaces of analytic functions are studied.

  2. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  3. Technical Report: Unmanned Helicopter Solution for Survey-Grade Lidar and Hyperspectral Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaňuk, Ján; Gallay, Michal; Eck, Christoph; Zgraggen, Carlo; Dvorný, Eduard

    2018-05-01

    Recent development of light-weight unmanned airborne vehicles (UAV) and miniaturization of sensors provide new possibilities for remote sensing and high-resolution mapping. Mini-UAV platforms are emerging, but powerful UAV platforms of higher payload capacity are required to carry the sensors for survey-grade mapping. In this paper, we demonstrate a technological solution and application of two different payloads for highly accurate and detailed mapping. The unmanned airborne system (UAS) comprises a Scout B1-100 autonomously operating UAV helicopter powered by a gasoline two-stroke engine with maximum take-off weight of 75 kg. The UAV allows for integrating of up to 18 kg of a customized payload. Our technological solution comprises two types of payload completely independent of the platform. The first payload contains a VUX-1 laser scanner (Riegl, Austria) and a Sony A6000 E-Mount photo camera. The second payload integrates a hyperspectral push-broom scanner AISA Kestrel 10 (Specim, Finland). The two payloads need to be alternated if mapping with both is required. Both payloads include an inertial navigation system xNAV550 (Oxford Technical Solutions Ltd., United Kingdom), a separate data link, and a power supply unit. Such a constellation allowed for achieving high accuracy of the flight line post-processing in two test missions. The standard deviation was 0.02 m (XY) and 0.025 m (Z), respectively. The intended application of the UAS was for high-resolution mapping and monitoring of landscape dynamics (landslides, erosion, flooding, or crops growth). The legal regulations for such UAV applications in Switzerland and Slovakia are also discussed.

  4. From Discrete Space-Time to Minkowski Space: Basic Mechanisms, Methods and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix

    This survey article reviews recent results on fermion systems in discrete space-time and corresponding systems in Minkowski space. After a basic introduction to the discrete setting, we explain a mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking which leads to the emergence of a discrete causal structure. As methods to study the transition between discrete space-time and Minkowski space, we describe a lattice model for a static and isotropic space-time, outline the analysis of regularization tails of vacuum Dirac sea configurations, and introduce a Lorentz invariant action for the masses of the Dirac seas. We mention the method of the continuum limit, which allows to analyze interacting systems. Open problems are discussed.

  5. Aerial radiation surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist

  6. Venturing Further Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2011-01-01

    China's first unmanNed space module Tiangong-Ⅰ,or Heavenly Palace-Ⅰ,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China's Gansu Province on September 29."The successful launch of the 8.5-ton prototype space laboratory has opened the gates for China's deep space exploration program," said Qi Faren,former chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft.“It is a decisive leap forward for the Chinese space industry and will bring about the rapid development of space science and related techologies."

  7. At Home in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Pumin

    2011-01-01

    CHINA'S first unmanned space module Tiangong-1,or Heavenly Palace-1,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China's Gansu Province on September 29."The successfullaunch of the 8.5-ton prototype space laboratory has opened the gates for China's deep space exploration program," said Qi Faren,former chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft."It is a decisive leap forward for the Chinese space industry and will bring about the rapid development of space science and related technologies."

  8. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  9. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  10. Space vehicle chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle

    2017-07-18

    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  11. κ-Rindler space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we construct, and investigate some thermal properties of, the noncommutative counterpart of Rindler space, which we call κ-Rindler space. This space is obtained by changing variables in the defining commutators of κ-Minkowski space. We then rederive the commutator structure of κ-Rindler space with the help of an appropriate star product, obtained from the κ-Minkowski one. Using this star product, following the idea of Padmanabhan, we find the leading order, 1/κ correction to the Hawking thermal spectrum.

  12. Art and Architectural Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    art and architectural space museums and other exhibition spaces or how artists learn to love architects Over the last two decades, innumerable new museums, art galleries and other exhibition spaces have been built and opened all over the globe. The most extreme growth happened in China, where...... purpose of ´uniqueness´ often fail to be a ´home´, a large scale ´picture frame´ or a productive space for communicating art and even do not fulfil basic technical aspects in terms of a consistent indoor climate, optimized lighting or safety. The lecture will focus on inspiring examples of spaces for art...

  13. Space weather effects on ground based technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T.

    Space weather can affect a variety of forms of ground-based technology, usually as a result of either the direct effects of the varying geomagnetic field, or as a result of the induced electric field that accompanies such variations. Technologies affected directly by geomagnetic variations include magnetic measurements made d ringu geophysical surveys, and navigation relying on the geomagnetic field as a direction reference, a method that is particularly common in the surveying of well-bores in the oil industry. The most obvious technology affected by induced electric fields during magnetic storms is electric power transmission, where the example of the blackout in Quebec during the March 1989 magnetic storm is widely known. Additionally, space weather effects must be taken into account in the design of active cathodic protection systems on pipelines to protect them against corrosion. Long-distance telecommunication cables may also have to be designed to cope with space weather related effects. This paper reviews the effects of space weather in these different areas of ground-based technology, and provides examples of how mitigation against hazards may be achieved. (The paper does not include the effects of space weather on radio communication or satellite navigation systems).

  14. MMT hypervelocity star survey. III. The complete survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We describe our completed spectroscopic survey for unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) ejected from the Milky Way. Three new discoveries bring the total number of unbound late B-type stars to 21. We place new constraints on the nature of the stars and on their distances using moderate resolution MMT spectroscopy. Half of the stars are fast rotators; they are certain 2.5-4 M {sub ☉} main sequence stars at 50-120 kpc distances. Correcting for stellar lifetime, our survey implies that unbound 2.5-4 M {sub ☉} stars are ejected from the Milky Way at a rate of 1.5 × 10{sup –6} yr{sup –1}. These unbound HVSs are likely ejected continuously over the past 200 Myr and do not share a common flight time. The anisotropic spatial distribution of HVSs on the sky remains puzzling. Southern hemisphere surveys like SkyMapper will soon allow us to map the all-sky distribution of HVSs. Future proper motion measurements with Hubble Space Telescope and Gaia will provide strong constraints on origin. Existing observations are all consistent with HVS ejections from encounters with the massive black hole in the Galactic center.

  15. MMT hypervelocity star survey. III. The complete survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe our completed spectroscopic survey for unbound hypervelocity stars (HVSs) ejected from the Milky Way. Three new discoveries bring the total number of unbound late B-type stars to 21. We place new constraints on the nature of the stars and on their distances using moderate resolution MMT spectroscopy. Half of the stars are fast rotators; they are certain 2.5-4 M ☉ main sequence stars at 50-120 kpc distances. Correcting for stellar lifetime, our survey implies that unbound 2.5-4 M ☉ stars are ejected from the Milky Way at a rate of 1.5 × 10 –6 yr –1 . These unbound HVSs are likely ejected continuously over the past 200 Myr and do not share a common flight time. The anisotropic spatial distribution of HVSs on the sky remains puzzling. Southern hemisphere surveys like SkyMapper will soon allow us to map the all-sky distribution of HVSs. Future proper motion measurements with Hubble Space Telescope and Gaia will provide strong constraints on origin. Existing observations are all consistent with HVS ejections from encounters with the massive black hole in the Galactic center.

  16. Surface gamma-ray survey of the Barre West quadrangle, Washington and Orange Counties, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gregory J.; Satkoski, Aaron M.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the levels of naturally occurring radioactivity in bedrock from surface measurements at outcrops during the course of 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping and to determine which rock types were potential sources of radionuclides. Elevated levels of total alpha particle radiation (gross alpha) occur in a public water system in Montpelier, Vermont. Measured gross alpha levels in the Murray Hill water system (Vermont Dept. of Environmental Conservation, unpub. data, 2005) have exceeded the maximum contaminant level of 15 picocuries per liter (pCi/l) set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (EPA, 2000). The Murray Hill system began treatment for radium in 1999. Although this treatment was successful, annual monitoring for gross alpha, radium, and uranium continues as required (Jon Kim, written communication, 2005). The water system utilizes a drilled bedrock well located in the Silurian-Devonian Waits River Formation. Kim (2002) summarized radioactivity data for Vermont, and aside from a statewide assessment of radon in public water systems (Manning and Ladue, 1986) and a single flight line from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) (Texas Instruments, 1976) (fig. 1), no data are available to identify the potential sources of naturally occurring radioactivity in the local bedrock. Airborne gamma-ray surveys are typically used for large areas (Duval, 2001, 2002), and ground-based surveys are more commonly used for local site assessments. For example, ground-based surveys have been used for fault mapping (Iwata and others, 2001), soil mapping (Roberts and others, 2003), environmental assessments (Stromswold and Arthur, 1996), and mineral exploration (Jubeli and others, 1998). Duval (1980) summarized the methods and applications of gamma- ray spectrometry. In this study, we present the results from a ground-based gamma-ray survey of bedrock outcrops in the 7.5-minute Barre West quadrangle, Vermont. Other related and

  17. LOBSTER: new space x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Sveda, L.; Pína, L.; Inneman, A.; Semencova, V.; Skulinova, M.

    2017-11-01

    The LOBSTER telescopes are based on the optical arrangement of the lobster eye. The main difference from classical X-ray space telescopes in wide use is the very large field of view while the use of optics results in higher efficiency if compared with detectors without optics. Recent innovative technologies have enabled to design, to develop and to test first prototypes. They will provide deep sensitive survey of the sky in X-rays for the first time which is essential for both long-term monitoring of celestial high-energy sources as well as in understanding transient phenomena. The technology is now ready for applications in space.

  18. DESTINY, The Dark Energy Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquale, Bert A.; Woodruff, Robert A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed the development of a low-cost space telescope, Destiny, as a concept for the NASA/DOE Joint Dark Energy Mission. Destiny is a 1.65m space telescope, featuring a near-infrared (0.85-1.7m) survey camera/spectrometer with a moderate flat-field field of view (FOV). Destiny will probe the properties of dark energy by obtaining a Hubble diagram based on Type Ia supernovae and a large-scale mass power spectrum derived from weak lensing distortions of field galaxies as a function of redshift.

  19. SURVEY, BUFFALO COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  1. Survey, OCONEE COUNTY, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. SURVEY, DOUGLAS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. GDOT employee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    The research team worked in collaboration with GDOT to conduct the 2016 GDOT Employee Survey. This research study aimed to increase the response rate and the usefulness of the feedback from the GDOT employee survey to support organizational decisions...

  4. SURVEY, KENAI PENINSULSA, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  6. SURVEY, OSCEOLA COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  7. SURVEY, POTTAWATTAMIE COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  8. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  9. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  10. SURVEY, LAKE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  12. SURVEY, Lowndes County, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  13. SURVEY, REFUGIO COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. SURVEY, FAIRFIELD COUNTY, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  15. Designing an Effective Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasunic, Mark

    2005-01-01

    ... of them. However, to protect the validity of conclusions drawn from a survey, certain procedures must be followed throughout the process of designing, developing, and distributing the survey questionnaire...

  16. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  17. SURVEY, MISSOULA COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. SURVEY, Northumberland County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  19. SURVEY, BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  20. SURVEY, CASCADE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. SURVEY, NATCHITOCHES PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  2. SURVEY, HOLMES COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  4. SURVEY, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. Primer on Health Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    David L Nordstrom; David L Nordstrom

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce novice researchers to surveys as a method of data collection. It starts with the definition of a survey, its major purposes and types as well as changes in the goals surveys have helped to achieve over time. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys over population censuses and medical examinations are discussed. Approaches to questionnaire construction are introduced along with properties that questionnaires are evaluated for. Modes of administration, sam...

  6. INFORMATION SPACE– EDUCATIONAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica LIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper has set the objective of researching how education is influenced by the information society. The first step was to define more precisely the information space. The second step was to identify how information space intersects with the family space and institutional space educational levels represented by pre-school / school and pre-university (kindergarten, at elementary / middle school / high school. Interrelationship between the above mentioned areas was another objective of the research. All these elements have been investigated through the original intention to identify how the information space can become an educational tool to support the family space, education and institutional space. Also, the aim of this research is to offer some solutions in this regard. Often the educational efforts appear to be blocked by the existence of this space. But this paper demonstrates that Informational space can be an enemy of the educational system or can support systems if we knew the internal structure and mechanisms. We can make the Informational Space to work in order to accomplish the educational scope.

  7. Kinematic space and wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian-dong [TianQin Research Center for Gravitational Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, Guangdong (China); Chen, Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Rd, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-01-23

    The kinematic space could play a key role in constructing the bulk geometry from dual CFT. In this paper, we study the kinematic space from geometric points of view, without resorting to differential entropy. We find that the kinematic space could be intrinsically defined in the embedding space. For each oriented geodesic in the Poincaré disk, there is a corresponding point in the kinematic space. This point is the tip of the causal diamond of the disk whose intersection with the Poincaré disk determines the geodesic. In this geometric construction, the causal structure in the kinematic space can be seen clearly. Moreover, we find that every transformation in the SL(2,ℝ) leads to a geodesic in the kinematic space. In particular, for a hyperbolic transformation defining a BTZ black hole, it is a timelike geodesic in the kinematic space. We show that the horizon length of the static BTZ black hole could be computed by the geodesic length of corresponding points in the kinematic space. Furthermore, we discuss the fundamental regions in the kinematic space for the BTZ blackhole and multi-boundary wormholes.

  8. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  9. GIS Readiness Survey 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2014-01-01

    The GIS Readiness Survey 2014 is a follow-up to the corresponding survey that was carried out among public institutions in Denmark in 2009. The present survey thus provides an updated image of status and challenges in relation to the use of spatial information, the construction of the com- mon...

  10. Conducting online surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selm, M. van; Jankowski, N.W.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is increasingly being used as a tool and platform for survey research. Two types of electronic or online surveys available for data collection are the email and Web based survey, and they constitute the focus of this paper. We address a multitude of issues researchers should

  11. The Status of Development of Electromagnetic Pumps for Space Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, J. S.; Kim, K. H.; Jeong, J. S.; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2013-01-01

    Korea lunched this research as a part of the small nuclear power generation technology development for space. In this study, investigated are the basic principle and types of electromagnetic pump and the trend of electromagnetic pump technology development in foreign nations. The survey and analysis give the understanding of the suitability and prospect of electromagnetic pumps as space application technology in Korea. The analysis on the status of the development of electromagnetic pumps was carried out for the application to space environment. It was found that USA was approaching the research and development of electromagnetic pumps for space application. Most electromagnetic pumps surveyed have the efficiency between 35% and 50% where that of AC conduction pump is less than 6%. Further study was thought to have to be given for the mechanical and material characteristics, and the applicability of electromagnetic pumps for space nuclear reactor

  12. A Subaru galaxy redshift survey: WFMOS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, M

    2008-01-01

    A planned galaxy redshift survey with the Subaru 8.2m telescope, the WFMOS survey, offers a unique opportunity for probing detailed properties of large-scale structure formation in the expanding universe by measuring clustering strength of galaxy distribution as a function of distance scale and redshift. In particular, the precise measurement of the galaxy power spectrum, combined with the cosmic microwave background experiments, allows us to obtain stringent constraints on or even determine absolute mass scales of the Big-Bang relic neutrinos as the neutrinos imprint characteristic scale- and redshift-dependent modifications onto the galaxy power spectrum shape. Here we describe the basic concept of how the galaxy clustering measurement can be used to explore the neutrino masses, with particular emphasis on advantages of the WFMOS survey over the existing low-redshift surveys such as SDSS

  13. Dual spaces of local Morrey-type spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gogatishvili, A. (Amiran); Mustafayev, R. (Rza)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that associated spaces and dual spaces of the local Morrey-type spaces are so called complementary local Morrey-type spaces. Our method is based on an application of multidimensional reverse Hardy inequalities.

  14. Space Power Theory: Controlling the Medium Without Weapons in Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Don L

    2008-01-01

    .... strategic space assets and the ability to negate enemy space systems is essential to U.S. space strategy in controlling the geographical environment of space, predominately in the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO...

  15. The Outer Space Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Negotiated at the United Nations and in force since 1967, the Outer Space Treaty has been ratified by over 100 countries and is the most important and foundational source of space law. The treaty, whose full title is "Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies," governs all of humankind's activities in outer space, including activities on other celestial bodies and many activities on Earth related to outer space. All space exploration and human spaceflight, planetary sciences, and commercial uses of space—such as the global telecommunications industry and the use of space technologies such as position, navigation, and timing (PNT), take place against the backdrop of the general regulatory framework established in the Outer Space Treaty. A treaty is an international legal instrument which balances rights and obligations between states, and exists as a kind of mutual contract of shared understandings, rights, and responsibilities between them. Negotiated and drafted during the Cold War era of heightened political tensions, the Outer Space Treaty is largely the product of efforts by the United States and the USSR to agree on certain minimum standards and obligations to govern their competition in "conquering" space. Additionally, the Outer Space Treaty is similar to other treaties, including treaties governing the high seas, international airspace, and the Antarctic, all of which govern the behavior of states outside of their national borders. The treaty is brief in nature and only contains 17 articles, and is not comprehensive in addressing and regulating every possible scenario. The negotiating states knew that the Outer Space Treaty could only establish certain foundational concepts such as freedom of access, state responsibility and liability, non-weaponization of space, the treatment of astronauts in distress, and the prohibition of non-appropriation of

  16. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  17. Real-variable theory of Musielak-Orlicz Hardy spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Dachun; Ky, Luong Dang

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to give a detailed and complete survey of recent progress related to the real-variable theory of Musielak–Orlicz Hardy-type function spaces, and to lay the foundations for further applications. The real-variable theory of function spaces has always been at the core of harmonic analysis. Recently, motivated by certain questions in analysis, some more general Musielak–Orlicz Hardy-type function spaces were introduced. These spaces are defined via growth functions which may vary in both the spatial variable and the growth variable. By selecting special growth functions, the resulting spaces may have subtler and finer structures, which are necessary in order to solve various endpoint or sharp problems. This book is written for graduate students and researchers interested in function spaces and, in particular, Hardy-type spaces.

  18. A Space Apart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Lynch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the preschool child is enabled to withdraw from the peer group and create a private, individual space within the institutional collective. The question under consideration is, “What factors are necessary to enable a child to create and maintain a withdrawal space in the preschool?” Data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork at two Montessori schools in the south of Sweden. Analysis of the results reveals that a child is enabled through a combination of two elements: a level of opportunity to create a space and a level of defense of a created space. These two factors are dependent on the teachers’ ability to correctly identify space creation, alongside their desire for the child’s space creation effort to be successful.

  19. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  20. The International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  1. Art and Architectural Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    and its content. The urban and spatial question goes far beyond museums and other buildings for art: how in democratic societies should public spaces be supported by art and how can public art support ´cityness´ and meaning versus spaces of consumerism. Famous but egocentric buildings with the main......art and architectural space museums and other exhibition spaces or how artists learn to love architects Over the last two decades, innumerable new museums, art galleries and other exhibition spaces have been built and opened all over the globe. The most extreme growth happened in China, where...... historically considered even the mother of all arts) - but more relevant: what are appropriate architectural spaces for presenting, exhibiting, contemplating, reflecting, meditating, discussing, enjoying, dissenting, debating creations of art. Simplified, this is a question about the relation between package...

  2. Space biology research development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  3. Wastes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As human space activities have created more wastes on low and high Earth orbits over the past 50 years than the solar system injected meteorites over billions of years, this report gives an overview of this problem. It identifies the origins of these space debris and wastes (launchers, combustion residues, exploitation wastes, out-of-use satellites, accidental explosions, accidental collisions, voluntary destructions, space erosion), and proposes a stock list of space wastes. Then, it distinguishes the situation for the different orbits: low Earth orbit or LEO (traffic, presence of the International Space Station), medium Earth orbits or MEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes), geostationary Earth orbit or GEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes). It also discusses wastes and bacteria present on the moon (due to Apollo missions or to crash tests). It evokes how space and nuclear industry is concerned, and discusses the re-entry issue (radioactive boomerang, metallic boomerang). It also indicates elements of international law

  4. Cyber space bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Ćitić Branislava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyber space bullying is a relatively new phenomenon that has received increased attention by scientists, researchers and practitioners in recent years. It is usually defined as an intentionally and repeatedly expression of aggression towards other people through information and communication technologies. Cyber space bullying is characterized by all the primary characteristics of traditional bullying and some specifics ones that clearly differ it from other forms of bullying. In addition to the analysis of characteristics and specifics of cyber space bullying, the paper describes the basic forms of cyber space bullying (flaming, harassment, denigration, impersonation, outing, trickery, exclusion, stalking and happy slapping, as well as, the types of cyber space bullies (vengeful angel, power-hungry, revenge of the nerd, mean girls and inadvertent. The main goal of this paper is to provide initial theoretical guidelines for designing future empirical research on the complex phenomenon of cyber space bullying.

  5. Flat-space singletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronsdal, C.

    1987-01-01

    Singletons exist, as particles and as local fields, only in 3+2 de Sitter space. Their kinematical properties make them natural candidates for constituents of massless fields, and perhaps for quarks. It is interesting to find out how to describe this type of compositeness in flat space. A theory of interacting singleton fields in de Sitter space is now available, and in this paper we study the flat-space limit of the Green's functions of that theory. The flat-space limit is an autonomous theory of Green's functions, but is not an operator field theory. The three-point function is calculated and its flat-space limit is found to reveal glimpses of a physical interpretation. Causal and spectral properties are in accord with the tenets of axiomatic field theory. The theory is a generalization of local field theory, in which photons appear as composite objects although the physical S matrix is the same as in conventional QED

  6. Observing Geohazards from Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cigna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With a wide spectrum of imaging capabilities—from optical to radar sensors, low to very high resolution, continental to local scale, single-image to multi-temporal approaches, yearly to sub-daily acquisition repeat cycles—Earth Observation (EO offers several opportunities for the geoscience community to map and monitor natural and human-induced Earth hazards from space. The Special Issue “Observing Geohazards from Space” of Geosciences gathers 12 research articles on the development, validation, and implementation of satellite EO data, processing methods, and applications for mapping and monitoring of geohazards such as slow moving landslides, ground subsidence and uplift, and active and abandoned mining-induced ground movements. Papers published in this Special Issue provide novel case studies demonstrating how EO and remote sensing data can be used to detect and delineate land instability and geological hazards in different environmental contexts and using a range of spatial resolutions and image processing methods. Remote sensing datasets used in the Special Issue papers encompass satellite imagery from the ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, RADARSAT-1/2, and Sentinel-1 C-band, TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed X-band, and ALOS L-band SAR missions; Landsat 7, SPOT-5, WorldView-2/3, and Sentinel-2 multi-spectral data; UAV-derived RGB and near infrared aerial photographs; LiDAR surveying; and GNSS positioning data. Techniques that are showcased include, but are not limited to, differential Interferometric SAR (InSAR and its advanced approaches such as Persistent Scatterers (PS and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS methods to estimate ground deformation, Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA to identify landslides in high resolution multi-spectral data, UAV and airborne photogrammetry, Structure-from-Motion (SfM for digital elevation model generation, aerial photo-interpretation, feature extraction, and time series analysis. Case studies presented in the papers focus on

  7. Space assets for demining assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijff, Michiel; Eriksson, Daniel; Bouvet, Thomas; Griffiths, Alexander; Craig, Matthew; Sahli, Hichem; González-Rosón, Fernando Valcarce; Willekens, Philippe; Ginati, Amnon

    2013-02-01

    Populations emerging from armed conflicts often remain threatened by landmines and explosive remnants of war. The international mine action community is concerned with the relief of this threat. The Space Assets for Demining Assistance (SADA) undertaking is a set of activities that aim at developing new services to improve the socio-economic impact of mine action activities, primarily focused on the release of land thought to be contaminated, a process described as land release. SADA was originally initiated by the International Astronautical Federation (IAF). It has been implemented under the Integrated Applications Promotion (IAP) program of the European Space Agency (ESA). Land release in mine action is the process whereby the demining community identifies, surveys and prioritizes suspected hazardous areas for more detailed investigation, which eventually results in the clearance of landmines and other explosives, thereby releasing land to the local population. SADA has a broad scope, covering activities, such as planning (risk and impact analysis, prioritization, and resource management), field operations and reporting. SADA services are developed in two phases: feasibility studies followed by demonstration projects. Three parallel feasibility studies have been performed. They aimed at defining an integrated set of space enabled services to support the land release process in mine action, and at analyzing their added value, viability and sustainability. The needs of the mine action sector have been assessed and the potential contribution of space assets has been identified. Support services have been formulated. To test their fieldability, proofs of concept involving mine action end users in various operational field settings have been performed by each of the study teams. The economic viability has also been assessed. Whenever relevant and cost-effective, SADA aims at integrating Earth observation data, GNSS navigation and SatCom technologies with existing

  8. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic detail survey: Spirit Pluton, Washington area. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    Volume II contains the following: flight line base map; magnetic contour map; maps for uranium, thorium, potassium, uranium/thorium, thorium/potassium, uranium/potassium; multi-variate analysis map; geochemical analysis map; radiometric multiple parameter stacked profiles; magnetic and concillary stacked profile data; statistical summary and histograms for uranium, thorium, potassium, uranium/potassium, uranium/thorium, and thorium/potassium

  9. NURE aerial gamma-ray and magnetic detail survey: Chelan, Washington area. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    Volume II contains the flight line base map, magnetic contour map, maps for uranium, thorium, potassium, uranium/thorium, thorium/potassium, uranium/potassium, multi-variate analysis map, geochemical analysis map, radiometric multiple parameter stacked profiles, magnetic and ancillary stacked profile data, multi-variate histograms and statistical summaries for potassium, uranium, thorium, uranium/potassium, uranium/thorium, thorium/potassium

  10. Interacting Conceptual Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Josef; Coecke, Bob; Genovese, Fabrizio; Lewis, Martha; Marsden, Daniel; Piedeleu, Robin

    2016-01-01

    We propose applying the categorical compositional scheme of [6] to conceptual space models of cognition. In order to do this we introduce the category of convex relations as a new setting for categorical compositional semantics, emphasizing the convex structure important to conceptual space applications. We show how conceptual spaces for composite types such as adjectives and verbs can be constructed. We illustrate this new model on detailed examples.

  11. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  12. On discourse space modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Казыдуб, Надежда

    2013-01-01

    Discourse space is a complex structure that incorporates different levels and dimensions. The paper focuses on developing a multidisciplinary approach that is congruent to the complex character of the modern discourse. Two models of discourse space are proposed here. The Integrated Model reveals the interaction of different categorical mechanisms in the construction of the discourse space. The Evolutionary Model describes the historical roots of the modern discourse. It also reveals historica...

  13. Discourses of space

    CERN Document Server

    Ajtony, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the emergence of the spatial turn in several scientific discourses, special attention has been paid to the surrounding space conceived as a construct created by the dynamics of human activity. The notion of space assists us in describing the most varied spheres of human existence. We can speak of various physical, metaphysical, social and cultural, and communicative spaces, as structuring components providing access to various literary, linguistic, social and cultural phenomena, th...

  14. Nuclear power in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftergood, S.; Hafemeister, D.W.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Rodionov, S.N.; Primack, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear reactors have provided energy for satellites-with nearly disastrous results. Now the US government is proposing to build nuclear-powered boosters to launch Star Wars defenses. These authors represent scientific groups that are opposed to the use of nuclear power in near space. The authors feel that the best course for space-borne reactors is to ban them from Earth orbit and use them in deep space

  15. Space Odyssey Gift Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Odyssey Gift Shop located in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., offers every visitor the opportunity to go home with 'the right stuff' from his or her StenniSphere visit. The gift shop is located just inside the front doors to StenniSphere and offers a wide range of space-related apparel, memorabilia, toys, books, mission patches and more.

  16. The past and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2013-01-01

    of legitimate forms of land control, complex combinations of claims emerge. The ubiquity of ‘the past’ in African politics and the increasing competition over space suggest that the naturalness with which some refer to the past and others conceive of space should be under constant scrutiny. Based on work...... that competing social elite groups instrumentalize. Each group sees its interests best served by a particular reading of the past and a particular conception of space....

  17. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  18. Space astronomy and astrophysics program by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Paul L.

    2014-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration recently released the NASA Strategic Plan 20141, and the NASA Science Mission Directorate released the NASA 2014 Science Plan3. These strategic documents establish NASA's astrophysics strategic objectives to be (i) to discover how the universe works, (ii) to explore how it began and evolved, and (iii) to search for life on planets around other stars. The multidisciplinary nature of astrophysics makes it imperative to strive for a balanced science and technology portfolio, both in terms of science goals addressed and in missions to address these goals. NASA uses the prioritized recommendations and decision rules of the National Research Council's 2010 decadal survey in astronomy and astrophysics2 to set the priorities for its investments. The NASA Astrophysics Division has laid out its strategy for advancing the priorities of the decadal survey in its Astrophysics 2012 Implementation Plan4. With substantial input from the astrophysics community, the NASA Advisory Council's Astrophysics Subcommittee has developed an astrophysics visionary roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions5, to examine possible longer-term futures. The successful development of the James Webb Space Telescope leading to a 2018 launch is an Agency priority. One important goal of the Astrophysics Division is to begin a strategic mission, subject to the availability of funds, which follows from the 2010 decadal survey and is launched after the James Webb Space Telescope. NASA is studying a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope as its next large astrophysics mission. NASA is also planning to partner with other space agencies on their missions as well as increase the cadence of smaller Principal Investigator led, competitively selected Astrophysics Explorers missions.

  19. Lattice QED in the loop space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, H.

    1994-01-01

    We present a survey on the state of the art in the formulation of lattice compact QED in the space of loops. In a first part we review our most recent Hamiltonian results which signal a second order transition for (3+1) compact QED. We devote the second part to the Lagrangian loop formalism, showing the equivalence of the recently proposed loop action with the Villain form. (orig.)

  20. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  1. Primer on Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Nordstrom

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce novice researchers to surveys as a method of data collection. It starts with the definition of a survey, its major purposes and types as well as changes in the goals surveys have helped to achieve over time. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys over population censuses and medical examinations are discussed. Approaches to questionnaire construction are introduced along with properties that questionnaires are evaluated for. Modes of administration, sample size issues, and data analysis approaches are also introduced. The primer is illustrated with examples of surveys conducted in different countries with various public health purposes.

  2. Space and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Some daring explorers like to study distant frontiers by venturing out into them, but others prefer to study them by bringing them, or representative samples, a little closer to the lab. Both options are pursued in the fields of space and astronomy. Space exploration and astronomy are intricately linked and are examined in-depth in this guide. Dedicated to the scientists who explore the frontiers of space and astronomy-and the results of their unfamiliar findings-each chapter in Space and Astronomy explores one of the frontiers of this science. The development of technology, such as rocket pro

  3. Our Future in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Chris David

    2017-06-01

    The Space Age is half a century old. Its early successes were driven by a fierce superpower rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States, which tended to obscure the fact that exploration and risk-taking is built into human DNA. Decades after we last set foot on the Moon, and years after the Space Shuttle was retired, the space activity is finally leaving the doldrums. A vibrant private sector led by SpaceX, Blue Origins, and Virgin Galactic plans to launch supplies cheaply into Earth orbit and give anyone the chance of a sub-orbital joy ride. New materials are being developed that could lead to space elevators and transform the economics of space travel. Fighting gravity will always be difficult but engineers are rethinking rockets and developing new propulsion technologies. Permanent bases on the Moon and Mars are now within reach, and a new Space Race is brewing, with China ascendant. Medical advances might even allow us to reach for the stars. The talk will review the history and landmarks of the international space program, give a snapshot of the current dynamic situation, and plot the trajectory of the future of space travel. The time has come to envision our future off-Earth.

  4. Space Law and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronchetti, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few years, China has made remarkable achievements in the space sector and become one of the most relevant players in the outer space domain. Highlights of this process have been the deployment in orbit of the first Chinese space station, Tiangong-1, on September 29, 2011; and the landing of the Yutu rover on the lunar surface on December 14, 2013. While technological developments have occurred at such a rapid pace, the same cannot be said of the regulatory framework governing Chinese space activities, which still lays at its infant stage. Indeed, unlike other major space-faring countries, China lacks comprehensive and uniform national space legislation; as of now, China has enacted two low-level administrative regulations addressing the issues of launching and registration of space objects. With the growth of the Chinese space program, such a lack of a structured national space law is beginning to show its limits and to create concerns about its negative impact on business opportunities and the ability of China to fully comply with international obligations. One should keep in mind that the international space treaties (China is part to four international space law treaties) are not self-executing, thus requiring States to adopt domestic measures to ensure their effective implementation. Importantly, Chinese authorities appear to be aware of these issues; as stated by the secretary-general of the Chinese National Space Administration (CNSA) in 2014, national space law has been listed in the national legislation plan and the CNSA is directly engaged in such a process. However, questions remain as to how this drafting process will be conducted and what legal form and content the law will have. For example, China could either decide to proceed with a gradual approach, consisting in the adoption of laws addressing selected issues to be eventually assembled into one single law; or to directly move to the adoption of one comprehensive law. In any case, if

  5. $L$-Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bajravani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ‎By substituting the usual notion of open sets in a topological space $X$ with a suitable collection of maps from $X$ to a frame $L$, we introduce the notion of L-topological spaces. Then, we proceed to study the classical notions and properties of usual topological spaces to the newly defined mathematical notion. Our emphasis would be concentrated on the well understood classical connectedness, quotient and compactness notions, where we prove the Thychonoff's theorem and connectedness property for ultra product of $L$-compact and $L$-connected topological spaces, respectively.

  6. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  7. Learning Space Service Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Felix

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same level of sophistication or integration. Nor do they adequately assess their services. This paper calls for a focus on designing services to facilitate better learning experiences. It describes the fundamentals of service design practice, a selection of exemplary spaces, and the implications for design, budgeting, and staffing.

  8. Space Synthetic Biology (SSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project focused on employing advanced biological engineering and bioelectrochemical reactor systems to increase life support loop closure and in situ resource...

  9. Sweeping the State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    The thesis describes the sweep-line method, a newly developed reduction method for alleviating the state explosion problem inherent in explicit-state state space exploration. The basic idea underlying the sweep-line method is, when calculating the state space, to recognise and delete states...... that are not reachable from the currently unprocessed states. Intuitively we drag a sweep-line through the state space with the invariant that all states behind the sweep-line have been processed and are unreachable from the states in front of the sweep-line. When calculating the state space of a system we iteratively...

  10. Registration of Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Tedd, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Space objects are subject to registration in order to allocate "jurisdiction and control" over those objects in the sovereign-free environment of outer space. This approach is similar to the registration of ships in view of the high sea and for aircrafts with respect to the international airspace. Registration is one of the basic principles of space law, starting with UN General Assembly Resolution 1721 B (XVI) of December 20, 1961, followed by Resolution 1962 (XVIII) of December 13, 1963, then formulated in Article VIII of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 and as specified in the Registration Convention of 1975. Registration of space objects can be seen today as a principle of customary international law, relevant for each spacefaring state. Registration is divided into a national and an international level. The State Party establishes a national registry for its space objects, and those registrations have to be communicated via diplomatic channel to the UN Register of space objects. This UN Register is handled by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and is an open source of information for space objects worldwide. Registration is linked to the so-called launching state of the relevant space object. There might be more than one launching state for the specific launch event, but only one state actor can register a specific space object. The state of registry gains "jurisdiction and control" over the space object and therefore no double registration is permissible. Based on the established UN Space Law, registration practice was subject to some adaptions due to technical developments and legal challenges. After the privatization of the major international satellite organizations, a number of non-registrations had to be faced. The state actors reacted with the UN Registration Practice Resolution of 2007 as elaborated in the Legal Subcommittee of UNCOPUOS, the Committee for the Peaceful Use of Outer Space. In this context an UNOOSA Registration Information

  11. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  12. Management of outer space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perek, Lubos

    1993-10-01

    Various aspects of space-environment management are discussed. Attention is called to the fact that, while space radio communications are already under an adequate management by the International Communications Union, the use of nuclear power sources is regulated by the recently adopted set of principles, and space debris will be discussed in the near future at the UN COPUOS, other aspects of management of outer space received little or no attention of the international community. These include the competency of crews and technical equipment of spacecraft launched by newcomers to space exploration; monitoring of locations and motions of space objects (now in national hands), with relevant data made accessible through a computer network; and the requirement to use space only for beneficial purposes and not for promoting narrow and debatable interests damaging the outer space environment and impeding on astronomical observations. It is suggested that some of these tasks would be best performed by an international space agency within the UN system of organizations.

  13. Radiation environment in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goka, Tateo; Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Komiyama, Tatsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) had been build into the International Space Station (ISS), which is a multipurpose manned facility and laboratory and is operated in orbit at about 400 km in altitude. Two Japanese astronauts stayed in the ISS for long time (4.5 and 5.5 months) for the first time. Space radiation exposure is one of the biggest safety issues for astronauts to stay for such a long duration in space. This special paper is presenting commentary on space radiation environment in ISS, neutrons measurements and light particles (protons and electrons) measurements, the instruments, radiation exposure management for Japanese astronauts and some comments in view of health physics. (author)

  14. Finding industrial space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riesto, Svava

    2011-01-01

    Spaces marked by industrial rationalities are easily overseen or rejected without further consideration during urban redevelopment processes. This is striking in an era where urban space is often seen as a cornerstone for the future city. This article investigates different concepts of open space...... that have been operative in the redevelopment of the so-called Carlsberg Square in Copenhagen between 2006-2009. It concludes with general remarcs on dealing with the complex matter open space in the practices of design and heritage management in urban redevelopment processes....

  15. Developing the online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffry S; McNew, Ryan

    2008-12-01

    Institutions of higher education are now using Internet-based technology tools to conduct surveys for data collection. Research shows that the type and quality of responses one receives with online surveys are comparable with what one receives in paper-based surveys. Data collection can take place on Web-based surveys, e-mail-based surveys, and personal digital assistants/Smartphone devices. Web surveys can be subscription templates, software packages installed on one's own server, or created from scratch using Web programming development tools. All of these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. The survey owner must make informed decisions as to the right technology to implement. The correct choice can save hours of work in sorting, organizing, and analyzing data.

  16. A primer on Hilbert space theory linear spaces, topological spaces, metric spaces, normed spaces, and topological groups

    CERN Document Server

    Alabiso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of Hilbert space, a fundamental tool for non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Linear, topological, metric, and normed spaces are all addressed in detail, in a rigorous but reader-friendly fashion. The rationale for an introduction to the theory of Hilbert space, rather than a detailed study of Hilbert space theory itself, resides in the very high mathematical difficulty of even the simplest physical case. Within an ordinary graduate course in physics there is insufficient time to cover the theory of Hilbert spaces and operators, as well as distribution theory, with sufficient mathematical rigor. Compromises must be found between full rigor and practical use of the instruments. The book is based on the author's lessons on functional analysis for graduate students in physics. It will equip the reader to approach Hilbert space and, subsequently, rigged Hilbert space, with a more practical attitude. With respect to the original lectures, the mathematical flavor in all sub...

  17. Intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, We introduce an intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure space and investigate the relationship between intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological spaces and intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure spaces. Moreover, we can obtain intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological space induced by an intuitionistic fuzzy bitopological space. We study the relationship between intuitionistic supra fuzzy closure space and the intuitionistic supra fuzzy topological space induced by an intuitionistic fuzzy bitopological space

  18. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. De la Torre

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  19. Parametric Cost Models for Space Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  20. Parametric cost models for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Henrichs, Todd; Dollinger, Courtnay

    2017-11-01

    Multivariable parametric cost models for space telescopes provide several benefits to designers and space system project managers. They identify major architectural cost drivers and allow high-level design trades. They enable cost-benefit analysis for technology development investment. And, they provide a basis for estimating total project cost. A survey of historical models found that there is no definitive space telescope cost model. In fact, published models vary greatly [1]. Thus, there is a need for parametric space telescopes cost models. An effort is underway to develop single variable [2] and multi-variable [3] parametric space telescope cost models based on the latest available data and applying rigorous analytical techniques. Specific cost estimating relationships (CERs) have been developed which show that aperture diameter is the primary cost driver for large space telescopes; technology development as a function of time reduces cost at the rate of 50% per 17 years; it costs less per square meter of collecting aperture to build a large telescope than a small telescope; and increasing mass reduces cost.

  1. Communal space design as student interaction in polnep campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasriyanti, N.; Zulestari, A.; Judhi, J.; Ikayanti, P.

    2018-03-01

    Communal space is a means to do for social interaction, from private to the public. The purpose of this study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of communal space setting of Pontianak State Polytechnic students from 8 departments of study both indoor and outdoor spaces. The research method used is a rationalistic study. The planned activities to be undertaken include the determination of communal places (indoor and outdoor), sample determination, data collection with surveys and interviews, presenting data and analysis and drawing conclusions as a basis for designing communal space for Polnep students. The research were analyzed of building and space character, analysis of space organization and circulation, space requirement analysis, material and color analysis, site analysis, and analysis of inner space elements and outer space elements. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that Polnep campus environment requires the addition of public space for students in conducting formal activities outside lectures. Some activity which to do some student such as activity to waiting lecturer, do some coursework, discussion, relaxation, extracurricular activities, and other informal activities still require adequate space infrastructure and are equipped with street furnitures such as garden lights, benches, outer space markers and shade vegetation.

  2. THE SPITZER DEEP, WIDE-FIELD SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, M. L. N.; Brodwin, M.; Stern, D.; Griffith, R.; Eisenhardt, P.; Gorjian, V.; Kozlowski, S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Bock, J. J.; Borys, C.; Brand, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cool, R.; Cooray, A.; Croft, S.; Dey, A.; Eisenstein, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Ivison, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    The Spitzer Deep, Wide-Field Survey (SDWFS) is a four-epoch infrared survey of 10 deg. 2 in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey using the IRAC instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope. SDWFS, a Spitzer Cycle 4 Legacy project, occupies a unique position in the area-depth survey space defined by other Spitzer surveys. The four epochs that make up SDWFS permit-for the first time-the selection of infrared-variable and high proper motion objects over a wide field on timescales of years. Because of its large survey volume, SDWFS is sensitive to galaxies out to z ∼ 3 with relatively little impact from cosmic variance for all but the richest systems. The SDWFS data sets will thus be especially useful for characterizing galaxy evolution beyond z ∼ 1.5. This paper explains the SDWFS observing strategy and data processing, presents the SDWFS mosaics and source catalogs, and discusses some early scientific findings. The publicly released, full-depth catalogs contain 6.78, 5.23, 1.20, and 0.96 x 10 5 distinct sources detected to the average 5σ, 4''-diameter, aperture-corrected limits of 19.77, 18.83, 16.50, and 15.82 Vega mag at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm, respectively. The SDWFS number counts and color-color distribution are consistent with other, earlier Spitzer surveys. At the 6 minute integration time of the SDWFS IRAC imaging, >50% of isolated Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm radio sources and >80% of on-axis XBooetes sources are detected out to 8.0 μm. Finally, we present the four highest proper motion IRAC-selected sources identified from the multi-epoch imaging, two of which are likely field brown dwarfs of mid-T spectral class.

  3. Tourists in space a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Recent surveys have provided new and updated information into public insights of the nascent space tourism industry. Erik Seedhouse uniquely explores in detail the cutting-edge technologies, spacecraft capabilities, launch vehicles and the training that will define this commercial enterprise and also provides a manual for future suborbital and orbital private space explorers. This overview of the space tourism market is based upon choices the spaceflight participant must make, such as choice of agency, mode and spaceport. A detailed explanation is given of the medical requirements for spaceflight participants, with special reference to potential waiver criteria. Over half of the book is a comprehensive astronaut training/instructional manual that addresses each of the 15 subjects required for suborbital and orbital flight.

  4. Balancing Modularity and Solution Space Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vos, Maren A.; Raassens, Néomie; Van der Borgh, Michel

    2018-01-01

    that modularity reflects knowledge specialisation and solution space freedom reflects knowledge variety. Both of these dimensions affect organisational learning and, in turn, sustainable innovation. Second, we argue that the relationship between customisation and organisational learning is affected by supplier...... theory to provide insights into how TI firms can achieve ‘win-win’ situations where sustainable innovation is increased through customisation. First, we argue that customisation should be viewed two-dimensionally and identify both modularity and solution space freedom as important dimensions. We argue...... characteristics, specifically supplier sophistication. Survey data from 166 managers were used to empirically test the conceptual model and hypotheses. Polynomial response surface analysis confirms that customising by balancing high degrees of both modularity and solution space freedom results in superior...

  5. Logic for physical space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiello, Marco; Bezhanishvili, Guram; Bloch, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Since the early days of physics, space has called for means to represent, experiment, and reason about it. Apart from physicists, the concept of space has intrigued also philosophers, mathematicians and, more recently, computer scientists. This longstanding interest has left us with a plethora...

  6. Space and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Jeroen; Heijman, Wim J.M.; Peerlings, Jack H.M.; Rouwendal, Jan; Schipper, Rob A.

    2017-01-01

    The subject area Regional Economics has become topical. This means that in economic analyses the production factor 'space' is of increasing importance. This study book aims to integrate space in the area of General Economics in an analytical way. Models and their applications play a major role in

  7. Space Focus Lead Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Geoffrey D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The Space Focus team is tasked with the definition of the Space Focused Science Topics, and with the review and ranking of the CSES proposals received in all the program areas. This is achieved by dedicated meetings or a series of informal discussions and/or e-mail reviews.

  8. AU-18 Space Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    CONOPS concept of operations CONUS continental United States COTS commercial off-the-shelf CPB charged particle beam CRT cathode ray tube CSA...Naval Space Surveillance NAVSPOC Naval Space Operations Center NAVWAR navigation warfare NCA National Command Authorities 311 ACRONYMS AND

  9. Reframing Children's Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Like professional photographers, early childhood teachers can reframe their perspectives to create innovative and inspiring spaces for young children by concentrating on reframing two design elements: color and texture. When thinking about designing spaces for young children, one of the first considerations is the equipment and its arrangement.…

  10. Energy scripts and spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoor, Tineke

    2016-01-01

    Demand Conference Lancaster 2016 Workshop 9. Space, site and scale in the making of energy demand Abstract: Energy scripts and spaces Tineke van der Schoor, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen Technology is infused with scripts that indicate how we as users should behave around, live in

  11. Supersymmetry in singular spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric

    2002-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetry in spaces with a boundary, i.e. singular spaces. In particular, we discuss the situation in ten and five dimensions. In both these cases we review the construction of supersymmetric domain wall actions situated at the boundary. These domain walls act as sources inducing a

  12. Dedicated Space | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three-story, 330,000-square-foot Advanced Technology Research Facility has nearly 40,000 square feet designated as partnership space (shown in blue) for co-location of collaborators from industry, academia, nonprofit sectors, and other government agencies. The partnership space, combined with multiple conference rooms and meeting areas, encourages both internal and

  13. Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of national and international space debris mitigation guides is to promote the preservation of near-Earth space for applications and exploration missions far into the future. To accomplish this objective, the accumulation of objects, particularly in long-lived orbits, must be eliminated or curtailed.

  14. Changing spaces for sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kural, René

    2010-01-01

    The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...

  15. Space for Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mariane Ellen; Folmer, Mette Blicher; Mullins, Michael

    SPACE FOR INTERACTION QUALIFYING GROUP TREATMENT FOR PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PAIN THROUGH OPTIMIZATION(?) OF SPACE. A RANDOMIZED PILOT STUDY. In a Ph-D. Mariane Ellen Jørgensen / Nurse + psykoterapist / maej@rn.dk / Pain Center / Aalborg University Hospital / Denmark / Mette Blicher Folmer / Archit...

  16. Space Van system update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Len

    1992-07-01

    The Space Van is a proposed commercial launch vehicle that is designed to carry 1150 kg to a space-station orbit for a price of $1,900,000 per flight in 1992 dollars. This price includes return on preoperational investment. Recurring costs are expected to be about $840,000 per flight. The Space Van is a fully reusable, assisted-single-stage-to orbit system. The most innovative new feature of the Space Van system is the assist-stage concept. The assist stage uses only airbreathing engines for vertical takeoff and vertical landing in the horizontal attitude and for launching the rocket-powered orbiter stage at mach 0.8 and an altitude of about 12 km. The primary version of the orbiter is designed for cargo-only without a crew. However, a passenger version of the Space Van should be able to carry a crew of two plus six passengers to a space-station orbit. Since the Space Van is nearly single-stage, performance to polar orbit drops off significantly. The cargo version should be capable of carrying 350 kg to a 400-km polar orbit. In the passenger version, the Space Van should be able to carry two crew members - or one crew member plus a passenger.

  17. Constructing Healthcare Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Tryggestad, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    into the project organisation. The theoretical contribution concerns the ways in which project visualisations plays an active role in developing novel conceptions of space and how these are mobilized in the process of on-boarding, in terms of 1. Design space (especially the engagement of users in the design...

  18. Responsive Space Program Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dors, Eric E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-11

    The goal of the Responsive Space program is to make significant, integrated science and technology contributions to the end-to-end missions of the U.S. Government that protect against global emerging and nuclear threats, from the earliest adversary planning through resilient event response report describes the LANL space program, mission, and other activities. The report describes some of their activities.

  19. Atoms for space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1990-10-01

    Nuclear technology offers many advantages in an expanded solar system space exploration program. These cover a range of possible applications such as power for spacecraft, lunar and planetary surfaces, and electric propulsion; rocket propulsion for lunar and Mars vehicles; space radiation protection; water and sewage treatment; space mining; process heat; medical isotopes; and self-luminous systems. In addition, space offers opportunities to perform scientific research and develop systems that can solve problems here on Earth. These might include fusion and antimatter research, using the Moon as a source of helium-3 fusion fuel, and manufacturing perfect fusion targets. In addition, nuclear technologies can be used to reduce risk and costs of the Space Exploration Initiative. 1 fig.

  20. Space for personal hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on spaces used for personal hygiene in housing over the last hundred years. The paper begins with a description of the hygienic movement in the late 19th century. At that time urinating took place in semi-public spaces outside the dwelling. Today, the WC has moved well...... into the dwelling, and in many dwellings the bathroom has developed into being the most private space. Thus, the bathroom can be regarded as the last domain of privacy in today's housing, and in a number of new dwellings this quality is exploited in new ways. The development of ‘space for hygiene’ in the 20th...... century will be studied by analysing the spatial organisation of dwellings: Where and how has the space for hygiene been situated and designed in housing in different periods over the last hundred years?...