WorldWideScience

Sample records for survey energy resource

  1. 2007 Survey of Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC study is a unique comprehensive compilation of global energy resources. Complementing the BP Statistical Review and the World Energy Outlook, it details 16 key energy resources with the latest data provided by 96 WEC Member Committees worldwide. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, NGOs, industry, academia and the finance community. This 21st edition is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy.

  2. The U.S.Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources are an essential component of modern society. Adequate, reliable, and affordable energy supplies obtained using environmentally sustainable practices underpin economic prosperity, environmental quality and human health, and political stability. National and global demands for all forms of energy are forecast to increase significantly over the next several decades. Throughout its history, our Nation has faced important, often controversial, decisions regarding the competing uses of public lands, the supply of energy to sustain development and enable growth, and environmental stewardship. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) provides information to address these challenges by supporting scientific investigations of energy resources, such as research on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oil, gas, coal, heavy oil and natural bitumen, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal resources, emerging resources such as gas hydrates, and research on the effects associated with energy resource occurrence, production, and (or) utilization. The results from these investigations provide impartial, robust scientific information about energy resources and support the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI's) mission of protecting and responsibly managing the Nation's natural resources. Primary consumers of ERP information and products include the DOI land- and resource-management Bureaus; other Federal, State, and local agencies; the U.S. Congress and the Administration; nongovernmental organizations; the energy industry; academia; international organizations; and the general public.

  3. 2010 survey of energy resources. 22nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    This, the 22nd edition of the World Energy Council's Survey of Energy Resources (SER), is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy. The Survey is a flagship publication of the World Energy Council (WEC), prepared triennially and timed for release at each World Energy Congress. It is a unique document in that no entity other than the WEC compiles such wideranging information on a regular and consistent basis. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, industry, investors, NGOs and academia.

  4. Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedman, Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Our Nation faces the simultaneous challenges of increasing demand for energy, declining domestic production from existing oil and gas fields, and increasing expectations for environmental protection. The Energy Information Administration (2000) forecasts that worldwide energy consumption will increase 32 percent between 1999 and 2020 because of growth of the world economy. Forecasts indicate that in the same time period, U.S. natural gas consumption will increase 62 percent, petroleum consumption will increase 33 percent, and coal consumption will increase 22 percent. The U.S. Geological Survey provides the objective scientific information our society needs for sound decisions regarding land management, environmental quality, and economic, energy, and strategic policy.

  5. Survey of energy resources: focus on shale gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The energy sector around the world is undergoing major changes resulting from increasing competitive pressures and concerns about costs, security of supply and the environment. At the same time, 1.6 billion people, almost a quarter of the world population, do not have access to commercial energy and the need for energy infrastructure investment is huge. The energy challenges are not the same in all regions. While rapidly burgeoning economies in the developing world are focusing on expanding energy access to support their economic growth and provide basic energy services to their citizens, industrialised countries are focusing on securing energy supplies in a competitive environment and in a publicly and environmentally acceptable way. In recent years, shale gas has been making headlines as a potential solution for many of the energy-related challenges, in particular in the United States. A number of studies on shale gas have been conducted, the majority focusing on the assessment of the resource base and the role of emerging technologies, which can significantly increase the current reserve estimates.

  6. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Energy and Minerals science strategy: a resource lifecycle approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth places further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting- edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The long and continuing history of U.S. Geological Survey contributions to energy and mineral resources science provide a solid foundation of core capabilities upon which new research directions can grow. This science strategy provides a framework for the coming decade that capitalizes on the growth of core capabilities and leverages their application toward new or emerging challenges in energy and mineral resources research, as reflected in five interrelated goals.

  8. World energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  9. World energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy is the main “fuel” for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Studies of Energy Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Government and the American public need access to information on energy resources in sub-Saharan Africa.Sub-Saharan Africa (mostly Nigeria) produces 5 percent of the world's oil, while supplying the United States with 15 percent of our imports (Energy Information Administration). In the next 10 years, sub-Saharan oil and gas will become increasingly more important to the export market. New discoveries in offshore provinces of West Africa ensure a bright future for the region. Projections indicate that increased oil production in sub-Saharan Africa will far outpace the growth of intraregional consumption, providing greater quantities of oil for export (Forman, 1996). Also, West Africa, although a marginal supplier of liquefied natural gas (LNG) today, will become an important LNG source to the international market by the year 2000 (Oil & Gas Journal, 1996). The United States needs up-to-date information about petroleum resources and the energy balance within the region to predict the future role of sub-Saharan Africa as a major oil and gas exporter. The data required to generate the needed information are often disseminated in archives of oil companies and African geologic surveys, or in obscure publications. For these reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting data on sub-Saharan energy and constructing a regional energy bibliography. The team of geoscientists will assure that this information is available quickly and from a scientifically based, objective view point.

  11. Information Resources in High-Energy Physics Surveying the Present Landscape and Charting the Future Course

    CERN Document Server

    Gentil-Beccot, Anne; Holtkamp, Annette; O'Connell, Heath B; Brooks, Travis C

    2009-01-01

    Access to previous results is of paramount importance in the scientific process. Recent progress in information management focuses on building e-infrastructures for the optimization of the research workflow, through both policy-driven and user-pulled dynamics. For decades, High-Energy Physics (HEP) has pioneered innovative solutions in the field of information management and dissemination. In light of a transforming information environment, it is important to assess the current usage of information resources by researchers and HEP provides a unique test-bed for this assessment. A survey of about 10% of practitioners in the field reveals usage trends and information needs. Community-based services, such as the pioneering arXiv and SPIRES systems, largely answer the need of the scientists, with a limited but increasing fraction of younger users relying on Google. Commercial services offered by publishers or database vendors are essentially unused in the field. The survey offers an insight into the most importan...

  12. Information resources in high-energy physics. Surveying the present landscape and charting the future course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentil-Beccot, A.; Mele, S. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Holtkamp, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); O' Connell, H.B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Brooks, T.C. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Access to previous results is of paramount importance in the scientific process. Recent progress in information management focuses on building e-infrastructures for the optimization of the research workflow, through both policy-driven and user-pulled dynamics. For decades, High-Energy Physics (HEP) has pioneered innovative solutions in the eld of infor- mation management and dissemination. In light of a transforming information environment, it is important to assess the current usage of information resources by researchers and HEP provides a unique test-bed for this assessment. A survey of about 10% of practitioners in the eld reveals usage trends and information needs. Community-based services, such as the pioneering arXiv and SPIRES systems, largely answer the need of the scientists, with a limited but increasing fraction of younger users relying on Google. Commercial services offered by publishers or database vendors are essentially unused in the eld. The survey o ers an in- sight into the most important features that users require to optimize their research workflow. These results inform the future evolution of information management in HEP and, as these researchers are traditionally 'early adopters' of innovation in scholarly communication, can inspire developments of disciplinary repositories serving other communities. (orig.)

  13. Information Resources in High-Energy Physics: Surveying the Present Landscape and Charting the Future Course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentil-Beccot, Anne; Mele, Salvatore; Holtkamp, Annette; O' Connell, Heath B.; Brooks, Travis C.

    2008-04-22

    Access to previous results is of paramount importance in the scientific process. Recent progress in information management focuses on building e-infrastructures for the optimization of the research workflow, through both policy-driven and user-pulled dynamics. For decades, High-Energy Physics (HEP) has pioneered innovative solutions in the field of information management and dissemination. In light of a transforming information environment, it is important to assess the current usage of information resources by researchers and HEP provides a unique test-bed for this assessment. A survey of about 10% of practitioners in the field reveals usage trends and information needs. Community-based services, such as the pioneering arXiv and SPIRES systems, largely answer the need of the scientists, with a limited but increasing fraction of younger users relying on Google. Commercial services offered by publishers or database vendors are essentially unused in the field. The survey offers an insight into the most important features that users require to optimize their research workflow. These results inform the future evolution of information management in HEP and, as these researchers are traditionally 'early adopters' of innovation in scholarly communication, can inspire developments of disciplinary repositories serving other communities.

  14. Wind energy resource survey of New Zealand. Phase 1: National survey using existing data, detailed technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, V.

    1987-01-01

    The New Zealand Wind Energy Resource Survey provides an overview of wind energy in New Zealand in terms of supply and demand. Supply is related to the meteorology and geography of the country. The general problems of extrapolation and interpolation of wind data both in space and time are discussed and current knowledge reviewed. The indications using available wind data are that there is an abundance of wind turbine sites with mean wind speeds high enough to drive conventional large-scale turbines economically. The limitation on wind power usage would be the ability of the electricity grid to accept the fluctuating supply rather than the magnitude of the supply. A complete assessment of the economics of wind power requires simulation of the grid operation. However, there are several points favorable to wind power which are elucidated. New Zealand has a hydro-based electricity system and this is particularly suitable for the incorporation of wind power. The geographical extent of the country permits the output from windpower to be steadied considerably by dispersing the turbine network widely. The supply of wind at times of high demand and high hydro storage water value is generally average to high. However, on an inter-annual scale, dry years may be accompanied by lighter winds.

  15. Performance Audit of the U.S. Geological Survey, Energy Resource Program Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Janke, Louis G.; McCord, Jamey D.; Bullock, John H.; Brazeau, Lisa; Affronter, Ronald H.

    2007-01-01

    A performance audit of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Energy Resource Program (ERP) Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory (IGL) was conducted between August, 2003 and October, 2005. The goals were to ensure that a high level of analytical performance was maintained and identify any areas that could be enhanced. The audit was subdivided into three phases. Phase 1 was a preliminary assessment of current performance based on recent performance on CANSPEX samples. IGL performance was also compared to laboratories world-wide with similar scope. Phase 2 consisted of the implementation of the recommended changes made in Phase 1. Phase 3 of the audit consisted of a reassessment effort to evaluate the effectiveness of the recommendations made in the Phase 1 and an on-site audit of the laboratory facilities. Phases 1 and 3 required summary reports that are included in Appendices A and B of this report. The audit found that the IGL was one of the top two laboratories compared for trace element analyses. Several recommendations to enhance performance on major and minor elemental parameters were made and implemented. Demonstrated performance improvements as a result of the recommended changes were documented. Several initiatives to sustain the performance improvements gained from the audit have been implemented.

  16. A survey and taxonomy on energy efficient resource allocation techniques for cloud computing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, Abdul; Khoshkbarforoushha, Alireza; Ranjan, Rajiv; Jayaraman, Prem Prakash; Kolodziej, Joanna; Balaji, Pavan; Zeadally, Sherali; Malluhi, Qutaibah Marwan; Tziritas, Nikos; Vishnu, Abhinav; Khan, Samee U.; Zomaya, Albert

    2014-06-06

    In a cloud computing paradigm, energy efficient allocation of different virtualized ICT resources (servers, storage disks, and networks, and the like) is a complex problem due to the presence of heterogeneous application (e.g., content delivery networks, MapReduce, web applications, and the like) workloads having contentious allocation requirements in terms of ICT resource capacities (e.g., network bandwidth, processing speed, response time, etc.). Several recent papers have tried to address the issue of improving energy efficiency in allocating cloud resources to applications with varying degree of success. However, to the best of our knowledge there is no published literature on this subject that clearly articulates the research problem and provides research taxonomy for succinct classification of existing techniques. Hence, the main aim of this paper is to identify open challenges associated with energy efficient resource allocation. In this regard, the study, first, outlines the problem and existing hardware and software-based techniques available for this purpose. Furthermore, available techniques already presented in the literature are summarized based on the energy-efficient research dimension taxonomy. The advantages and disadvantages of the existing techniques are comprehensively analyzed against the proposed research dimension taxonomy namely: resource adaption policy, objective function, allocation method, allocation operation, and interoperability.

  17. Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, C.; Beckert, H.; Abrams, C. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE`s need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  19. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  20. Energy and resource consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The present and projected energy requirements for the United States are discussed. The energy consumption and demand sectors are divided into the categories: residential and commercial, transportation, and industrial and electrical generation (utilities). All sectors except electrical generation use varying amounts of fossile fuel resources for non-energy purposes. The highest percentage of non-energy use by sector is industrial with 71.3 percent. The household and commercial sector uses 28.4 percent, and transportation about 0.3 percent. Graphs are developed to project fossil fuel demands for non-energy purposes and the perdentage of the total fossil fuel used for non-energy needs.

  1. Energy Resources in the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tomabechi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent statistics indicate that in 2005 the world consumed about 0.5 ZJ (ZJ = 1021 Joules of energy. If one assumes that the future world population stabilizes at 10 billions, and the people consume a similar amount of energy per capita to that of the people in the presently developed countries, the world will need about 2 ZJ a year. A recent survey of the available future energy resources indicates that the energies recoverable from coal, oil and gas are only 23 ZJ, 6.7 ZJ and 6.4 ZJ, respectively. Other energy resources such as solar and wind have problems of fluctuation due to the weather conditions. However, the energy expected from known Uranium resources by breeder reactors is 227 ZJ and that from Lithium by fusion reactors is more than 175 ZJ. Therefore, it is important to make efforts to develop and use breeder reactors and fusion reactors to supply a major part of the energy need in the future.

  2. Development direction of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, A. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Architecture and Civil Engineering

    2002-01-01

    According to the prediction of the developmental trend of the economy and population of the world, the mineral energy resource is faced with exhaustion. Exploitation and combustion of minerals are seriously polluting the environment. In addition, the production areas of mineral resources are not the energy consumption areas. Therefore, the energy resource of the world is at the stage of structural reorganisation. The exploitation and utilisation of green energy resources such as solar energy, wind energy, oceanic energy, geothermic energy, biologic energy and hydrogen in China are introduced briefly. The green energy resources have abundant reserves. Their utilisation is propitious to environment protection, and the relevant technique has come to a generalised stage. It is believed that green energy should be the developmental direction of energy resource and that the speciality of green energy ought to be set up in energy resources colleges to train the required personnel. 10 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Basic survey for coal resources development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    Aiming at stable coal supply which occupies an important role as energy substitute for petroleum, as a link in surveys necessary to promote development of coal resources abroad, out of those areas with high reliability as coal resources inside and outside of Japan, by carrying out geophysical exploration and drilling in unexplored districts, a general outline of the overall geological construction and coal bed distribution, etc., can be grasped. This survey has been carried out in FY 1982-1984 in the 2 districts in Kyushu, ARIAKE SEA and OFF NISHI SONOGI and 5 districts in Hokkaido, OFF KUSHIRO, SHINJO,KITA ASHIBETSU, HOKUYO and RUSHIN to verify the coal bed and ascertain distribution conditions. Countinued surveys in these districts so as to grasp the geological construction of the district. Through these surveys, Japanese techniques in coal drilling prospecting, geophysical exploration and data processing have been found useful.

  4. 2007 Global Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauzon, Jean-Claude; Preng, Richard; Sutton, Bob; Pavlovic, Bojan

    2007-06-15

    The World Energy Council (WEC), in partnership with Korn/Ferry International undertook a survey focussing on the topic ''Tackling the Three S's: Sustainability, Security and Strategy.'' More than 50 senior executives from the world's leading energy companies and their strategic suppliers were interviewed by Korn/Ferry International.

  5. The Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, T; Annis, J; Barlow, M; Bebek, C; Bigelow, B; Beldica, C; Bernstein, R; Bridle, S; Brunner, R; Carlstrom, J; Campbell, M; Castander, F; Cunha, C; Diehl, H T; Dodelson, S; Doel, P; Efstathiou, G P; Estrada, J; Evrard, A; Fernndez, E; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J A; Gaztaaga, E; Gerdes, D; Gladders, M; Hu, W; Huterer, D; Jain, B; Karliner, I; Kent, S; Lahav, O; Levi, M; Lima, M; Lin, H; Limon, P; Martínez, M; McKay, T; McMahon, R; Merritt, W K; Miller, C; Miralda-Escudé, J; Mohr, J; Nichol, R; Oyaizu, H; Peacock, J; Peoples, John; Perlmutter, S; Plante, R; Ricker, P; Roe, N; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Selen, M; Sheldon, E S; Smith, C; Stebbins, A; Stoughton, C; Suntzeff, N; Sutherland, W; Takada, M; Tarle, G; Tecchio, M; Thaler, J; Tucker, D; Viti, S; Walker, A; Wechsler, R; Weller, J; Wester, W

    2006-01-01

    We describe the Dark Energy Survey (DES), a proposed optical-near infrared survey of 5000 sq. deg of the South Galactic Cap to ~24th magnitude in SDSS griz, that would use a new 3 sq. deg CCD camera to be mounted on the Blanco 4-m telescope at Cerro Telolo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The survey data will allow us to measure the dark energy and dark matter densities and the dark energy equation of state through four independent methods: galaxy clusters, weak gravitational lensing tomography, galaxy angular clustering, and supernova distances. These methods are doubly complementary: they constrain different combinations of cosmological model parameters and are subject to different systematic errors. By deriving the four sets of measurements from the same data set with a common analysis framework, we will obtain important cross checks of the systematic errors and thereby make a substantial and robust advance in the precision of dark energy measurements.

  6. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2015 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2015-12-15

    This paper includes 10 summaries for energy resource commodities including coal and unconventional resources, and an analysis of energy economics and technology prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. Such resources include coalbed methane, oil shale, U and Th deposits and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest, geothermal, gas shale and liquids, tight gas sands, gas hydrates, and bitumen and heavy oil. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy resource commodity in the topical sections of this report, followed by analysis of unconventional energy economics and technology.

  7. RESOURCE SCHEDULING IN CLOUD ENVIRONMET: A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Mangla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing offers the avant-garde services at a stretch that are too attractive for any cloud user to ignore. With its growing application and popularization, IT companies are rapidly deploying distributed data centers globally, posing numerous challenges in terms of scheduling of resources under different administrative domains. This perspective brings out certain vital factors for efficient scheduling of resources providing a wide genre of characteristics, diversity in context of level of service agreements and that too with user-contingent elasticity. In this paper, a comprehensive survey of research related to various aspects of cloud resource scheduling is provided. A comparative analysis of various resource scheduling techniques focusing on key performance parameters like Energy efficiency, Virtual Machine allocation and migration, Cost-effectiveness and Service-Level Agreement is also presented.

  8. Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NREL's Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF) is a working laboratory for interconnection and systems integration testing. This state-of-the-art facility...

  9. Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NREL's Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF) is a working laboratory for interconnection and systems integration testing. This state-of-the-art facility...

  10. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  11. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  12. Energy Resources - A Comprehensive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhour Z Alqahtani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have presented the evolution of energy and how it influenced and impacted the human civilization. Alternative energy was the focus of this study where significant importance was given to renewable energy resources. We have also included, as part of our study, the functionality of most of the processes that extract energy from the energy reservoirs along with many references. A comparison is given between the renewable and non-renewable energy resources and various important factors on a particular power generating unit were critically analyzed. Coal, thermal, uranium as energy resources are discussed and a significant importance was given to the fact that these resources are vanishing on a daily basis. New means of providing energy that are enough to meet the demands of the word are pointed out and sunlight energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and tidal energy are discussed. Comparison is done along with the operating cost, maintenance cost and efficiency of the unit and finally suggestions are given for the use of proper planning and installation of the systems.

  13. NSTA Conducts Nuclear Energy Survey for AIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A survey conducted to determine teacher's instructional resources, methods, materials, and attitudes toward various uses of nuclear energy resulted in nearly one thousand science teachers throughout the nation responding. Results of survey are presented and five recommendations for action are made. (DF)

  14. NSTA Conducts Nuclear Energy Survey for AIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A survey conducted to determine teacher's instructional resources, methods, materials, and attitudes toward various uses of nuclear energy resulted in nearly one thousand science teachers throughout the nation responding. Results of survey are presented and five recommendations for action are made. (DF)

  15. Research on the Application of the Light-Energy Spectrum Fusion Technique to Land and Resources Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces how to use remote sensing images including Landsat (MSS and TM) and airborne radioactivity images to identify the type of rocks in the areas covered by vegetation. The relationship between light spectrum (Landsat MSS and TM) and energy spectrum (U, Th and K) is discussed on the basis of correlation analysis, and it is proven that there are correlations between the Landsat MSS or TM data and the U, Th and K data. By using the fusion technique, new images were generated, which contain both the light spectrum and the energy spectrum information.Taking the Lucong basin as the study area, the present paper demonstrates the successful identification of various types of rocks using the fusion technique. Different types of rocks are represented by different colours on the new light-energy spectrum images, so that volcanic rocks of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods can be discriminated. Another example, in the Lingquan basin in Northeast China, not only the different types of rocks are successfully distinguished, but corrections and modifications are also made on the original geological map after some field investigation. Practice has proven that the light-energy spectrum fusion technique is a good way in lithologic identification.

  16. Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    This is a presentation on interconnection of distributed energy resources, including the relationships between different aspects of interconnection, best practices and lessons learned from different areas of the U.S., and an update on technical advances and standards for interconnection.

  17. Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This Study proposes the feasibility of proposed restructured power system for the integration of distributed energy resources. Once the proposed power system network takes place, it will be able to provide opportunities for sustained economic growth. Main objectives of the proposed network are maximization of Distributed Generation (DGs penetration and decarbonization of electric utility. IEEE-14 bus test system with proposed configuration has been undertaken for MATLAB® Simulations, results shows that proposed power system configuration allows the operation of conventional energy generation and green energy generation efficiently. The results obtained from MATLAB ® simulations are compared with genetic algorithm based optimization approach.

  18. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    PDF format to display the location, type, and where applicable, a risk-weighted quantity estimate of energy resources available in a given area or site. The project will be managed and directed by the DNR Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys DGGS over the next five years with a team composed of the Alaska Energy Authority, DNR Division of Forestry, and DNR LRIS.

  19. A nationwide survey starts on lacustrine resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a key component of the national initiative for basic S&T data and infrastructure development, a nationwide survey on the lake water quality, volume and bio-resources has recently been kicked off. The move marks the systematic implementation of the second-round investigation of the country's lacustrine resources.

  20. 1982 Oregon energy resource manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, R.; Ebert, J. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This manual is divided into three distinct sections. Part one contains 40 passive solar home plans designed for the Pacific Northwest by Oregon architects and designers. Floor plans and exterior renderings of multi-family and single-family dwellings, earth sheltered and bermed designs, and light commercial structures are included. The degree of solar contribution each residence achieves is graphically presented for ease of understanding. Part two, renewable-energy-resource guide, is primarily designed as a locator to indepth publications that explain specific energy resources in detail. It contains illustrated book reviews of pertinent private and government publications available. Various tables, forms, diagrams, energy system evaluation criteria, an illustrated glossary, BPA energy programs, utility programs, financial outlooks and non-profit organizations are included. The product locator index makes up part three. This indexed directory contains the listings of businesses, including the address, phone number, contact person and a 30 to 50 word description of the product or services currently offered. These renewable energy companies range from architectural and engineering services to research and development firms.

  1. Energy resources in the CDCC member countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This is a background document describing the energy resources of the Caribbean nations. Under the heading of conventional-energy resources, petroleum, natural gas, coal, hydropower, thermal electricity, and fuel-wood and charcoal resources are considered. Non-conventional energy resources of 5 tyupes are examined: solar, geothermal, nuclear, wind, and biological.

  2. Auctions for coastal energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert M.

    It is becoming increasingly common to allocate public resources to the private sector for the purpose of developing these resources. One of the earliest uses of auctions in the U.S. for allocating rights to public resources was in the offshore oil and gas industry. The U.S. Federal government, through the Department of Interior (DOI), has used auctions to allocate development rights to offshore oil and gas resources to the private sector since the 1950's. Since then many things have changed. Oil and gas markets have gone through boom and bust cycles, giant technological advances in extraction and assessment have taken place, and alternative energy based in the coastal zone is now in demand in markets as well. There has been an enormous amount of research into the drivers of bidder behavior in auctions and optimal auction design in the last 60 years as well. Throughout all of this, the DOI has continued to use basically the same exact auction design to allocate oil and gas leases. The U.S. offshore oil and gas resources sold by the Department of Interior have accounted for more than $65 billion in revenue since the program started. These offshore resources are an important source of government revenue and national wealth. Additionally, the expansion of the energy sector offshore has enormous potential for electricity generation in the U.S., estimated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as approaching 54 gigawatts by 2030 (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). Taken together, the DOI controls access to a large part of the future of energy in the U.S. The research herein assesses the auction formats used to allocate both fossil fuels and renewable resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The first manuscript looks at the current method used by the DOI to allocate oil and gas leases on the OCS, and is primarily interested in how bidders behave in this environment. Using latent class estimation techniques to separate distinct bidding behavior in a laboratory

  3. Cultural resources survey and assessment of the proposed Department of Energy Freeport to Texas City pipeline, Brazoria and Galveston Counties, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castille, G.J.; Whelan, J.P. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An intensive survey and testing program of selected segments of a proposed Department of Energy pipeline were conducted by Coastal Environments, Inc., Baton Rouge, Louisiana, during December 1985 and January 1986. The proposed pipeline runs from Texas City, Galveston County to Bryan Mound, Brazoria County. The pedestrian survey was preceded by historical records survey to locate possible historic sites within the DOE righ-of-way. Four prehistoric sites within the ROW (41BO159, 160, 161, 162) and one outside the ROW (41BO163) were located. All are Rangia cuneata middens. The survey results are discussed with particular reference to the environmental settings of the sites and the effectiveness of the survey procedure. Two of the sites located within the ROW were subjected to additional testing. The results of the backhoe testing program are included in the site descriptions, and the scientific value of the sites are presented. 52 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  5. A Survey on Resource Provisioning in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Uthaya Banu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing allow the users to efficiently and dynamically provision computing resource to meet their IT needs. Companies are able to rent resources from cloud for storage and other computational purposes so that their infrastructure cost can be reduced. Further they can make use of company-wide access to applications based on pay-as-you-go model. Hence there is no need for getting licenses for individual products. However one of the major pitfalls in cloud computing is related to optimizing the resources being allocated. Resource allocation is performed with the objective of minimizing the costs associated with it. The other challenges in resource allocation are meeting customer demands and application requirements. In this paper we have presented a widespread survey on various resource allocation strategies and their challenges are discussed in detail.

  6. Wind energy: An engineering survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahas, M.N.; Mohamad, A.S.; Akyurt, M.; El-Kalay, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive survey of literature about wind energy and wind machines, their design and their applications. The paper intends to provide those who plan for energy policy with thorough information about this renewable type of energy and the available machines that convert wind energy into useful mechanical or electrical work. The machines which are available at present range from the simple Savonius rotor to the powerful multi-blade windmills. The advantages and shortcomings of all types are discussed here.

  7. Geographical information modelling for land resource survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing popularity of geographical information systems (GIS) has at least three major implications for land resources survey. Firstly, GIS allows alternative and richer representation of spatial phenomena than is possible with the traditional paper map. Secondly, digital technology has improv

  8. Unconventional energy resources: 2007-2008 review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes five 2007-2008 resource commodity committee reports prepared by the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Current United States and global research and development activities related to gas hydrates, gas shales, geothermal resources, oil sands, and uranium resources are included in this review. These commodity reports were written to advise EMD leadership and membership of the current status of research and development of unconventional energy resources. Unconventional energy resources are defined as those resources other than conventional oil and natural gas that typically occur in sandstone and carbonate rocks. Gas hydrate resources are potentially enormous; however, production technologies are still under development. Gas shale, geothermal, oil sand, and uranium resources are now increasing targets of exploration and development, and are rapidly becoming important energy resources that will continue to be developed in the future. ?? 2009 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  9. Energy Efficient Resource Management in Mobile Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient computing has recently become hot research area. Many works have been carried out on conserving energy, but considering energy efficiency in grid computing is few. This paper proposes energy efficient resource management in mobile grid. The objective of energy efficient resource management in mobile grid is to maximize the utility of the mobile grid which is denoted as the sum of grid application utility. The utility function models benefits of application and system. By using nonlinear optimization theory, energy efficient resource management in mobile grid can be formulated as multi objective optimization problem. In order to derive a distributed algorithm to solve global optimization problem in mobile grid, we decompose the problem into the sub problems. The proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm decomposes the optimization problem via iterative method. To test the performance of the proposed algorithm, the simulations are conducted to compare proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm with other energy aware scheduling algorithm.

  10. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  11. Energy Criteria for Resource Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Resource optimization in building design is based on the total system over its expected useful life. Alternative environmental systems can be evaluated in terms of resource costs and goal effectiveness. (Author/MF)

  12. University Student Conceptual Resources for Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-01-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy…

  13. Hyperspectral surveying for mineral resources in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; Graham, Garth E.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kelley, Karen D.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2016-07-07

    Alaska is a major producer of base and precious metals and has a high potential for additional undiscovered mineral resources. However, discovery is hindered by Alaska’s vast size, remoteness, and rugged terrain. New methods are needed to overcome these obstacles in order to fully evaluate Alaska’s geology and mineral resource potential. Hyperspectral surveying is one method that can be used to rapidly acquire data about the distributions of surficial materials, including different types of bedrock and ground cover. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began the Alaska Hyperspectral Project to assess the applicability of this method in Alaska. The primary study area is a remote part of the eastern Alaska Range where porphyry deposits are exposed. In collaboration with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting and analyzing hyperspectral data with the goals of enhancing geologic mapping and developing methods to identify and characterize mineral deposits elsewhere in Alaska.

  14. University student conceptual resources for understanding energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Hannah C.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2016-06-01

    We report some of the common, prevalent conceptual resources that students used to reason about energy, based on our analysis of written responses to questions given to 807 introductory physics students. These resources include, for example, associating forms of energy with indicators, relating forces and energy, and representing energy quantitatively. This research responds to a need for large-scale, resources-oriented research on students' conceptual understanding and has the potential to support the development of an underexplored dimension of pedagogical content knowledge-knowledge of student resources for understanding energy. Our aim is to promote instructor take-up of the resources theory of knowledge, and we suggest a number of ways in which instructors might capitalize on the resources we report.

  15. Energy Education: A Catalog of Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Atmospheric Science Research Center.

    This list of energy resource materials is broken down into five categories: (1) general resources; (2) electricity; (3) nuclear and fossil fuels; (4) conservation; and (5) future fuels. (An added feature for New York residents is a concluding list of resources available gratis from New York electric companies). Materials cited include audiovisual…

  16. Modeling renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D.; Neil, C.; Taylor, A. [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Including renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning (IRP) requires that utility planning models properly consider the relevant attributes of the different renewable resources in addition to conventional supply-side and demand-side options. Otherwise, a utility`s resource plan is unlikely to have an appropriate balance of the various resource options. The current trend toward regulatory set-asides for renewable resources is motivated in part by the perception that the capabilities of current utility planning models are inadequate with regard to renewable resources. Adequate modeling capabilities and utility planning practices are a necessary prerequisite to the long-term penetration of renewable resources into the electric utility industry`s resource mix. This report presents a review of utility planning models conducted for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The review examines the capabilities of utility planning models to address key issues in the choice between renewable resources and other options. The purpose of this review is to provide a basis for identifying high priority areas for advancing the state of the art.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey energy and minerals science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2012-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend heavily on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on current population and consumption trends, the Nation's use of energy and minerals can be expected to grow, driving the demand for ever broader scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. In addition, the increasing importance of environmental stewardship, human health, and sustainable growth place further emphasis on energy and mineral resources research and understanding. Collectively, these trends in resource demand and the interconnectedness among resources will lead to new challenges and, in turn, require cutting-edge science for the next generation of societal decisions. The contributions of the U.S. Geological Survey to energy and minerals research are well established. Based on five interrelated goals, this plan establishes a comprehensive science strategy. It provides a structure that identifies the most critical aspects of energy and mineral resources for the coming decade. * Goal 1. - Understand fundamental Earth processes that form energy and mineral resources. * Goal 2. - Understand the environmental behavior of energy and mineral resources and their waste products. * Goal 3. - Provide inventories and assessments of energy and mineral resources. * Goal 4. - Understand the effects of energy and mineral development on natural resources. * Goal 5. - Understand the availability and reliability of energy and mineral resource supplies. Within each goal, multiple, scalable actions are identified. The level of specificity and complexity of these actions varies, consistent with the reality that even a modest refocus can yield large payoffs in the near term whereas more ambitious plans may take years to reach fruition. As such, prioritization of actions is largely dependent on policy direction, available resources, and the sequencing of prerequisite steps that will

  18. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  19. Asteroids prospective energy and material resources

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power.   Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth.   Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space.   This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions t...

  20. Modelling distributed energy resources in energy service networks

    CERN Document Server

    Acha, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Focuses on modelling two key infrastructures (natural gas and electrical) in urban energy systems with embedded technologies (cogeneration and electric vehicles) to optimise the operation of natural gas and electrical infrastructures under the presence of distributed energy resources

  1. Geothermal energy: an important resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dowling, Carolyn B; Neumann, Klaus; Florea, Lee J

    2016-01-01

    .... Contributions include studies on the feasibility of integrating geological modeling with system design, extraction of low-temperature geothermal energy in underground coal mines, ground-source heat...

  2. Dynamic cache resources allocation for energy efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li-ming; ZOU Xue-cheng; LEI Jian-ming; LIU Zheng-lin

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a mechanism of low overhead and less runtime, termed dynamic cache resources allocation (DCRA), which allocates each application with required cache resources. The mechanism collects cache hit-miss information at runtime and then analyzes the information and decides how many cache resources should be allocated to the current executing application. The amount of cache resources varies dynamically to reduce the total number of misses and energy consumption. The study of several applications from SPEC2000 shows that significant energy saving is achieved for the application based on the DCRA with an average of 39% savings.

  3. Asteroids. Prospective energy and material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, Viorel (ed.) [Bucharest Polytechnic Univ. (Romania). Candida Oancea Institute

    2013-11-01

    Recent research on Prospective Energy and Material Resources on Asteroids. Carefully edited book dedicated to Asteroids prospective energy and material resources. Written by leading experts in the field. The Earth has limited material and energy resources while these resources in space are virtually unlimited. Further development of humanity will require going beyond our planet and exploring of extraterrestrial resources and sources of unlimited power. Thus far, all missions to asteroids have been motivated by scientific exploration. However, given recent advancements in various space technologies, mining asteroids for resources is becoming ever more feasible. A significant portion of asteroids value is derived from their location; the required resources do not need to be lifted at a great expense from the surface of the Earth. Resources derived from Asteroid not only can be brought back to Earth but could also be used to sustain human exploration of space and permanent settlements in space. This book investigates asteroids' prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to asteroid exploration, and utilization. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists involved in current and impending asteroid-related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors. Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in asteroids' exploration and exploitation.

  4. Renewable energy resources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker; Naumann, Karin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin; Janczik, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2015-07-01

    Although the need to decarbonise our global economy and thus in particular the supply of energy to limit the global temperature increase is internationally undisputed the German politics in 2014 has significantly contributed less compared to previous years in order to attain this objective. The expansion of renewable energies in the electricity sector has decelerated significantly; and in the heating and mobility area no new impulses were set in relation to renewable energies. In addition, a dramatic fallen oil price makes it difficult to increase the use of renewable energy supply. Based on these deteriorated framework conditions compared to conditions of the previous years, the developments in Germany of 2014 are shown in the electricity, heat and transport sector in the field of renewable energy. For this purpose - in addition to a discussion of the current energy economic framework - for each option to use renewable energies the state and looming trends are analyzed. [German] Obwohl die Notwendigkeit zur Dekarbonisierung unserer globalen Wirtschaft und damit insbesondere der Energiebereitstellung zur Begrenzung des globalen Temperaturanstiegs international unstrittig ist, hat die deutsche Politik im Jahr 2014 im Vergleich zu den Vorjahren deutlich weniger zur Erreichung dieses Zieles beigetragen. Der Ausbau der Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien im Stromsektor wurde deutlich verlangsamt; und im Waerme- und Mobilitaetsbereich wurden keine neuen Impulse in Bezug auf regenerative Energien gesetzt. Zusaetzlich erschwert ein drastisch gefallener Rohoelpreis die verstaerkte Nutzung des erneuerbaren Energieangebots. Ausgehend von diesen im Vergleich zu den Vorjahren verschlechterten Rahmenbedingungen werden nachfolgend die Entwicklungen in Deutschland des Jahres 2014 im Strom-, Waerme- und Transportsektor fuer den Bereich der erneuerbaren Energien aufgezeigt. Dazu werden - neben einer Diskussion des derzeitigen energiewirtschaftlichen Rahmens - fuer die

  5. Western Energy Resources and the Environment: Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    This document on geothermal energy is the first in a series of summary reports prepared by the Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry of the Environmental Protection Agency. The series describes what environmental effects are known or expected from new energy resource development in the western third of the United States. The series indicates some of the research and development activities under way and reviews the non-environmental constraints to resource development. It also serves as a reference for planners and policymakers on the entire range of problems and prospects associated with the development of new energy resources. [DJE-2005

  6. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley; Clark, Nancy H.; Boyes, John D.; Ranade, Satishkumar J.

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  7. Distributed energy resources scheduling considering real-time resources forecast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.; Sousa, T.; Ramos, S.

    2014-01-01

    grids and considering day-ahead, hour-ahead and realtime time horizons. This method considers that energy resources are managed by a VPP which establishes contracts with their owners. The full AC power flow calculation included in the model takes into account network constraints. In this paper...

  8. Valuation Model for Adding Energy Resource into Autonomous Energy Cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, E.; Negeri, E.O.; Van Wijk, A.; Baken, N.

    2013-01-01

    With the availability of distributed generation (DG), clusters that can autonomously manage their energy profile are emerging in the power grid. These autonomous clusters manage their load profiles by orchestrating their energy resources, such as DG, storage, flexible energy consuming appliances, et

  9. Valuation Model for Adding Energy Resource into Autonomous Energy Cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, E.; Negeri, E.O.; Van Wijk, A.; Baken, N.

    2013-01-01

    With the availability of distributed generation (DG), clusters that can autonomously manage their energy profile are emerging in the power grid. These autonomous clusters manage their load profiles by orchestrating their energy resources, such as DG, storage, flexible energy consuming appliances,

  10. Exploration policy on primary energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consejo Superior de Colegios de Ingenieros de Minas

    1978-02-01

    This paper comprises a study of Spain's energy prospects or to be more exact, hydrocarbons, uranium and coal. It gives details of the most important deposits of these fuels, the estimated reserves and the State policy directed towards the exploration of new primary energy resources. (In Spanish)

  11. Energy and other non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Anticipated U.S. demands for non-renewable energy and mineral resources exceed domestic supplies essential for economic growth. For the long term changes necessary in the energy supply and demand gap, new technologies and substitute materials as well as legislation and socio-economic strategies are elaborated.

  12. Energy and other non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Anticipated U.S. demands for non-renewable energy and mineral resources exceed domestic supplies essential for economic growth. For the long term changes necessary in the energy supply and demand gap, new technologies and substitute materials as well as legislation and socio-economic strategies are elaborated.

  13. Survey Relationship between Human Resources Roles and Human Resources Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Darvish

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates relationship between Human resources roles and Human resources competencies in Iranian Petroleum Company. For this study, we were looking for answers to these questions: What are the new required Human Resources competencies For Contemporary organizations? And For Gain these competencies what roles should be played by Human Resources? The study had one main hypothesis and four minor hypotheses. Research method was descriptive, and regression and correlation tests were used to determine the relationship between variables. The populations of this study were managers of Iranian Petroleum Company. This Research showed that Human resources roles have significant effect on Human resources competencies; Strategic partner, Employee champion, and Change agent had significant relationship with all of Human resource competencies; Administrative expert had not significant relationship with none of the Human resource competencies.

  14. Utilization of wind-energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, V.I.; Sidorov, V.V.; Kuznetsov, V.M.

    A review of developments in wind-energy in the Soviet Union, U.S., and West Europe is presented. The resources of the USSR are evaluated in three zones with the highest wind-energy potential, and designs of a 5 MW wind generator are analyzed along with a multirotor unit of 40 MW which will serve as the basis of an experimental 1000 MW system. The latter will be used as the first stage of utilization of wind-energy resources for electrical power generation. The wind-energy programs in the U.S., West Germany, Denmark, and Sweden are described which plan to produce 2 to 10% of electrical energy from wind energy by the year 2000.

  15. The utilization of wind-energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, V. I.; Sidorov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, V. M.

    1980-06-01

    A review of developments in wind-energy in the Soviet Union, U.S., and West Europe is presented. The resources of the USSR are evaluated in three zones with the highest wind-energy potential, and designs of a 5 MW wind generator are analyzed along with a multirotor unit of 40 MW which will serve as the basis of an experimental 1000 MW system. The latter will be used as the first stage of utilization of wind-energy resources for electrical power generation. The wind-energy programs in the U.S., West Germany, Denmark, and Sweden are described which plan to produce 2 to 10% of electrical energy from wind energy by the year 2000.

  16. Resources of Renewable Energy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surmadhur Pant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources sector growth in India has been significant, even for electricity generation from renewable sources. Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished. Even for the decentralized systems, the growth for solar home lighting systems has been 300%, solar lanterns 99% and solar photovoltaic water pumps 196%. This is a phenomenal growth in the renewable energy sector mainly for applications that were considered to be supplied only through major electricity utilities. Some large projects have been proposed, and a 35,000 km2 area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700 to 2,100 giga watts. Renewable energy systems are also being looked upon as a major application for electrification of 20,000 remote and unelectrified villages and hamlets by 2007 and all households in such villages and hamlets by 2018.

  17. Technology assessment of geothermal energy resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Geothermal state-of-the-art is described including geothermal resources, technology, and institutional, legal, and environmental considerations. The way geothermal energy may evolve in the United States is described; a series of plausible scenarios and the factors and policies which control the rate of growth of the resource are presented. The potential primary and higher order impacts of geothermal energy are explored, including effects on the economy and society, cities and dwellings, environmental, and on institutions affected by it. Numerical and methodological detail is included in appendices. (MHR)

  18. Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

    1981-10-01

    A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

  19. Hawai‘i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-09-30

    HNEI has conducted research to address a number of issues important to move Hawai‘i to greater use of intermittent renewable and distributed energy resource (DER) technologies in order to facilitate greater use of Hawai‘i's indigenous renewable energy resources. Efforts have been concentrated on the Islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, and O‘ahu, focusing in three areas of endeavor: 1) Energy Modeling and Scenario Analysis (previously called Energy Road mapping); 2) Research, Development, and Validation of Renewable DER and Microgrid Technologies; and 3) Analysis and Policy. These efforts focused on analysis of the island energy systems and development of specific candidate technologies for future insertion into an integrated energy system, which would lead to a more robust transmission and distribution system in the state of Hawai‘i and eventually elsewhere in the nation.

  20. Survey of rural household energy-consumption in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xh; Fend Zm [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., JS (China)

    1996-07-01

    Based on comprehensive energy surveys of 3240 households in six different regions, we present the level and structure of rural household energy consumption. There are large differences among regions which depend on locality and available fuels. Energy consumption per household accounts for 700-1200 kgce (we use 7000 kcal/kgce), 40-60% of which is used for cooking; 60-90% of total household energy consumption is in the form of biomass. The average energy-conversion efficiency using biomass fuels is in the range 10-20%. Where the strain of traditional patterns of biomass use on the resource base became too severe, the balance between local agricultural and hillside ecosystems has unraveled and caused accelerating destruction of limited land resources. Higher income households need more commercial energy, especially in the form of electricity. Rural household energy will continue to depend mainly on biomass. (UK)

  1. Wind energy literature survey no. 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian

    2015-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawnfrom recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering andIndustrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy...... Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of SolarEnergy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systemsalong with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list...

  2. Wind energy literature survey no. 34

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawnfrom recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering andIndustrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of SolarEnergy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systemsalong with a number of per...

  3. System Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben

    Besides their primary product – electricity – large central power stations supply socalled ancillary services that are necessary to maintain a secure and stable operation state of the electric power system. As the need for electricity from these units is being displaced by renewable energy sources...... units, including the ICT solutions that can facilitate the integration. Specifically, the international standard "IEC 61850-7-420 Communications systems for Distributed Energy Resources" is considered as a possible brick in the solution. This standard has undergone continuous development...... have been established. These models can be used for future investigations as well. A mixture of empirical and analytical methods have been used when defining the models and their parameters. The project concludes that distributed energy resources, including flexible demand, can contribute significantly...

  4. Coordinated Collaboration between Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Abdollahy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A power distribution feeder, where a heterogeneous set of distributed energy resources is deployed, is examined by simulation. The energy resources include PV, battery storage, natural gas GenSet, fuel cells, and active thermal storage for commercial buildings. The resource scenario considered is one that may exist in a not too distant future. Two cases of interaction between different resources are examined. One interaction involves a GenSet used to partially offset the duty cycle of a smoothing battery connected to a large PV system. The other example involves the coordination of twenty thermal storage devices, each associated with a commercial building. Storage devices are intended to provide maximum benefit to the building, but it is shown that this can have a deleterious effect on the overall system, unless the action of the individual storage devices is coordinated. A network based approach is also introduced to calculate some type of effectiveness metric to all available resources which take part in coordinated operation. The main finding is that it is possible to achieve synergy between DERs on a system; however this required a unified strategy to coordinate the action of all devices in a decentralized way.

  5. Assessment of wave energy resources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopa, Justin E.; Cheung, Kwok Fai [Department of Ocean and Resources Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chen, Yi-Leng [Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Hawaii is subject to direct approach of swells from distant storms as well as seas generated by trade winds passing through the islands. The archipelago creates a localized weather system that modifies the wave energy resources from the far field. We implement a nested computational grid along the major Hawaiian Islands in the global WaveWatch3 (WW3) model and utilize the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to provide high-resolution mesoscale wind forcing over the Hawaii region. Two hindcast case studies representative of the year-round conditions provide a quantitative assessment of the regional wind and wave patterns as well as the wave energy resources along the Hawaiian Island chain. These events of approximately two weeks each have a range of wind speeds, ground swells, and wind waves for validation of the model system with satellite and buoy measurements. The results demonstrate the wave energy potential in Hawaii waters. While the episodic swell events have enormous power reaching 60 kW/m, the wind waves, augmented by the local weather, provide a consistent energy resource of 15-25 kW/m throughout the year. (author)

  6. America's Changing Energy Landscape - USGS National Coal Resources Data System Changes to National Energy Resources Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, J. A., II

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Eastern Energy Resources Science Center (EERSC) has an ongoing project which has mapped coal chemistry and stratigraphy since 1977. Over the years, the USGS has collected various forms of coal data and archived that data into the National Coal Resources Data System (NCRDS) database. NCRDS is a repository that houses data from the major coal basins in the United States and includes information on location, seam thickness, coal rank, geologic age, geographic region, geologic province, coalfield, and characteristics of the coal or lithology for that data point. These data points can be linked to the US Coal Quality Database (COALQUAL) to include ultimate, proximate, major, minor and trace-element data. Although coal is an inexpensive energy provider, the United States has shifted away from coal usage recently and branched out into other forms of non-renewable and renewable energy because of environmental concerns. NCRDS's primary method of data capture has been USGS field work coupled with cooperative agreements with state geological agencies and universities doing coal-related research. These agreements are on competitive five-year cycles that have evolved into larger scope research efforts including solid fuel resources such as coal-bed methane, shale gas and oil. Recently these efforts have expanded to include environmental impacts of the use of fossil fuels, which has allowed the USGS to enter into agreements with states for the Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Assessment as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act. In 2016 they expanded into research areas to include geothermal, conventional and unconventional oil and gas. The NCRDS and COALQUAL databases are now online for the public to use, and are in the process of being updated to include new data for other energy resources. Along with this expansion of scope, the database name will change to the National Energy Resources Data System (NERDS) in FY 2017.

  7. Archeological Survey and Cultural Resources Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Archaeological field survey within the Santee National Wildlife Refuge, Clarendon County, South Carolinais summarized. Five archaeological sites were discovered, and...

  8. Energy resource management in smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kartheepan; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    2012-01-01

    behavior. This paper1 addresses communication and control challenges to achieve a plug'n'play type of DER management. A use case with Electric Vehicles is considered because of its high dynamic behavior in smart grid. In particular, the problem of making correct decisions on which controller out of many......Smart grids are characterized by a dynamic nature in which distributed energy resources (DER's) changes internal states and availability over time. Distributed Energy Resources (DER's) and the distributed control system will thus be required to automatically configure itself to this dynamic......, an EV shall be operated by will be addressed. This is not an isolated control problem, but for reliable decisions also requires to take into account characteristics of the involved networks in combination with the dynamics of the decision information at the controllers. In the paper we propose...

  9. Waste and biomass as energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, Donald L.

    1978-11-01

    Organic fuels can be manufactured by converting major sources of continuously renewable nonfossil carbon to synfuels that are interchangeable with, or can be substituted for, natural gas and petroleum-derived fuels. Promising sources of this carbon are waste materials, such as urban refuse, and biomass produced from solar energy by photosynthesis. The development of this concept is presented in this paper. The broad scope of the technology and its potential impact on energy supplies are reviewed. The renewable feature of both wastes and biomass makes them valuable natural resources that inevitably will be fully developed and commercialized as sources of energy-intensive products and synfuels. The perpetual availability of organic fuels will permit the conservation of valuable fossil fuel reserves, and, as time passes, offer a long-term solution to independence from foreign energy supplies and fossil fuel depletion.

  10. Yemen Arab Republic - energy survey 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    With the help of numerous data a short survey of the energy situation in Yemen is given. After some remarks on the energy policy the developments of the individual energy carriers and power generation are described. Furthermore, some remarks on foreign trade are made.

  11. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  12. Bulgarian geothermal energy resources - state and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramatikov, P.S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dept. of Physical Engineering, South West Univ. `Neofit Rilsky`, Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-01

    As special attention is paid to geothermal energy because the geothermal sources are distributed all over the territory of Bulgaria. Governmental incentives for initiating national action programs for energy efficiency, new renewable sources and the environment as well as educational activities are particularly important. The energy sector, as any other sector of the national economy, is currently undergoing considerable changes on its way to market relations, primarily connected to determining the role of the state as well as the form of ownership. The state energy policy is based on a long - term energy strategy complying with the natural conditions of the country, the expected macro - economic development, the geopolitical situation and regional development of energy cooperation with neighboring and closely situated countries. Limited reserves of fossil fuels, increased local and global environmental risks and recent technological achievements have straightened the global importance of renewable sources of thermal and electric energy. This is even more relevant for Bulgaria with small fossil fuel reserves (lignite) to be nearly exhausted and the environment notably polluted. Concerning local renewable sources of thermal energy and electricity, it is necessary to re-estimate their strategic role, to complete the input data for the resources, also to establish national programs supported by research and educational activities and international cooperation. (orig./AKF)

  13. Colorado cultural resource survey: Management data form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Lewis children graves (site # 5JA1478) on...

  14. Colorado cultural resource survey: Management data form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Allard Ranch (site # 5JA784, temporary #...

  15. Journal Articles Applying National Aquatic Resource Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) data are being used and applied above and beyond the regional and national assessments. This page includes a list of recent journal articles that reference NARS data.

  16. Preliminary natural resource survey : Carson River Mercury Site, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The survey in this report was conducted to determine if natural resources under the trusteeship of Interior have been affected by the release of hazardous substances...

  17. World Energy Resources and New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of civilisation is linked inextricably with growing demand for electricity. Thus, the still-rapid increase in the level of utilisation of natural resources, including fossil fuels, leaves it more and more urgent that conventional energy technologies and the potential of the renewable energy sources be made subject to re-evaluation. It is estimated that last 200 years have seen use made of more than 50% of the available natural resources. Equally, if economic forecasts prove accurate, for at least several more decades, oil, natural gas and coal will go on being the basic primary energy sources. The alternative solution represented by nuclear energy remains a cause of considerable public concern, while the potential for use to be made of renewable energy sources is seen to be very much dependent on local environmental conditions. For this reason, it is necessary to emphasise the impact of research that focuses on the further sharpening-up of energy efficiency, as well as actions aimed at increasing society's awareness of the relevant issues. The history of recent centuries has shown that rapid economic and social transformation followed on from the industrial and technological revolutions, which is to say revolutions made possible by the development of power-supply technologies. While the 19th century was "the age of steam" or of coal, and the 20th century the era of oil and gas, the question now concerns the name that will at some point come to be associated with the 21st century. In this paper, the subjects of discussion are primary energy consumption and energy resources, though three international projects on the global scale are also presented, i.e. ITER, Hydrates and DESERTEC. These projects demonstrate new scientific and technical possibilities, though it is unlikely that commercialisation would prove feasible before 2050. Research should thus be focused on raising energy efficiency. The development of high-efficiency technologies that

  18. Energy Policy Case Study - California: Renewables and Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    The purpose of this document is to present a case study of energy policies in California related to power system transformation and renewable and distributed energy resources (DERs). Distributed energy resources represent a broad range of technologies that can significantly impact how much, and when, electricity is demanded from the grid. Key policies and proceedings related to power system transformation and DERs are grouped into the following categories: 1.Policies that support achieving environmental and climate goals 2.Policies that promote deployment of DERs 3.Policies that support reliability and integration of DERs 4.Policies that promote market animation and support customer choice. Major challenges going forward are forecasting and modeling DERs, regulatory and utility business model issues, reliability, valuation and pricing, and data management and sharing.

  19. Agricultural and forest resource surveys from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    An overview is presented on the use of spaceborne remote sensors as aid to agriculture and forestry for soil mapping, crop yield predictions, acreage determinations, damage assessment, and numerous other benefits. Some results obtained by ERTS 1 are discussed in terms of the significance of information derived and the potential use of these data for better management of our natural resources.

  20. Uranium resource assessment by the Geological Survey; methodology and plan to update the national resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Warren Irvin; McCammon, Richard B.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the Memorandum of Understanding {MOU) of September 20, 1984, between the U.S. Geological Survey of the U.S. Department of Interior and the Energy Information Administration {EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy {DOE), the U.S. Geological Survey began to make estimates of the undiscovered uranium endowment of selected areas of the United States in 1985. A modified NURE {National Uranium Resource Evaluation) method will be used in place of the standard NURE method of the DOE that was used for the national assessment reported in October 1980. The modified method, here named the 'deposit-size-frequency' {DSF) method, is presented for the first time, and calculations by the two methods are compared using an illustrative example based on preliminary estimates for the first area to be evaluated under the MOU. The results demonstrate that the estimate of the endowment using the DSF method is significantly larger and more uncertain than the estimate obtained by the NURE method. We believe that the DSF method produces a more realistic estimate because the principal factor estimated in the endowment equation is disaggregated into more parts and is more closely tied to specific geologic knowledge than by the NURE method. The DSF method consists of modifying the standard NURE estimation equation, U=AxFxTxG, by replacing the factors FxT by a single factor that represents the tonnage for the total number of deposits in all size classes. Use of the DSF method requires that the size frequency of deposits in a known or control area has been established and that the relation of the size-frequency distribution of deposits to probable controlling geologic factors has been determined. Using these relations, the principal scientist {PS) first estimates the number and range of size classes and then, for each size class, estimates the lower limit, most likely value, and upper limit of the numbers of deposits in the favorable area. Once these probable estimates have been refined

  1. 77 FR 43592 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ..., 2012, System Energy Resources, Inc. (System Energy Resources), submitted a supplement to its petition... supplement, System Energy Resources supplements its March 28 petition to provide additional information and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  2. Energy Resources and the Next Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, S. M.

    2002-05-01

    At this time, approximately 85 percent of the energy needs of the United States are supplied by fossil fuels. Crude oil currently supports transportation, generally as gasoline or jet fuel. The United States is importing roughly 60 percent of the crude oil we are now using and our domestic refining capacity is declining. Coal is providing more than 56 percent of the nation's electricity, although the use of natural gas as a fuel for electricity generation has been increasing. Natural gas, with today's technology, is considered a cleaner fuel as we continue to move toward decarbonization. The next logical phase in this historical progress will probably be the transition to pure hydrogen as an energy source, chiefly as a fuel for fuel cells. The initial source of hydrogen will probably be natural gas, given the existing infrastructure for natural gas, its cost, and its availability. Demand for natural gas is expected to peak in approximately 2050. But in the transition to an affordable, efficient, reliable, market-driven, carbon-free energy economy, substantial demand will still exist for coal and crude oil, even as these energy fuels are phased out. A massive requirement will exist for natural gas as the transition fuel since renewables will probably continue to supply only about 10 percent of our nation's electricity demand. The implied demand for coal and oil in the U. S. and the World can readily be met with existing known or probable resources; the challenge will be in assuring supplies that are secure, priced reasonably, and made ever cleaner. The implied demand for natural gas, however, exceeds the currently estimated resource base both in the U. S. and globally. For example, the currently estimated remaining resource of natural gas in the U. S. is about 2,000 TCF. The implied demand for natural gas in a methane economy, during the transition to a non-fossil source of hydrogen, is on the order of 3,000 to 4,000 TCF, half again to twice currently estimated

  3. Wind energy resource assessment in Madrid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migoya, Emilio; Crespo, Antonio; Jimenez, Angel; Garcia, Javier; Manuel, Fernando [Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior Ingenieros Industriales (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid (Autonomous Community of Madrid, in the following Madrid Region), is a region located at the geographical centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Its area is 8.028 km{sup 2}, and its population about five million people. The Department of Economy and Technological Innovation of the Madrid Region, together with some organizations dealing on energy saving and other research institutions have elaborated an Energy Plan for the 2004-12 period. As a part of this work, the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of the Polytechnic University of Madrid has carried out the assessment of the wind energy resources [Crespo A, Migoya E, Gomez Elvira R. La energia eolica en Madrid. Potencialidad y prospectiva. Plan energetico de la Comunidad de Madrid, 2004-2012. Madrid: Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid; 2004]; using for this task the WAsP program (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program), and the own codes, UPMORO (code to study orography effects) and UPMPARK (code to study wake effects in wind parks). Different kinds of data have been collected about climate, topography, roughness of the land, environmentally protected areas, town and village distribution, population density, main facilities and electric power supply. The Spanish National Meteorological Institute has nine wind measurement stations in the region, but only four of them have good and reliable temporary wind data, with time measurement periods that are long enough to provide representative correlations among stations. The Observed Wind Climates of the valid meteorological stations have been made. The Wind Atlas and the resource grid have been calculated, especially in the high wind resource areas, selecting appropriate measurements stations and using criteria based on proximity, similarity and ruggedness index. Some areas cannot be used as a wind energy resource mainly because they have environmental regulation or, in some cases, are very close

  4. The U.S. Geological Survey National Helium Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, S. T.; East, J. A., II

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Congress passed legislation directing the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to complete a national assessment of subsurface helium gas resources. As part of this assessment, the USGS has constructed a database of helium concentration from compositional analyses of produced gas. Though most data of this data is non-proprietary, helium data have been taken from both public and proprietary sources, with a majority taken from the USGS geochemical database (http://energy.usgs.gov/GeochemistryGeophysics/GeochemistryLaboratories/GeochemistryLaboratories-GeochemistryDatabase.aspx#4413382-introduction) and from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) natural gas database. Altogether, there are over 16,000 analyses of natural gas composition compiled. In order to complete the assessment, it was necessary to correlate the well data with geologic reservoir data so that the helium concentrations could be compared with the reservoir and field-level gas production, in place gas volumes, and gas recovery factors. The well data from the compiled database were initially cross-referenced with the proprietary IHS Inc. well database, where possible. The results of that effort were then cross-referenced with three additional databases: the proprietary NRG Associates database of significant oil and gas fields of the United States, the non-proprietary U.S. Department of Energy's gas information system (GASIS), and an internal BLM reservoir and field database. These field and reservoir databases provide the data needed to estimate the in-place helium resources for fields with economic concentrations of helium. In order for helium production to be economic, the gas produced from geologic reservoirs must be greater than 0.3 mole percent (mol%), or in the case of liquefied natural gas processing, greater than 0.04 mol%. The field and reservoir specific estimates of total gas in place volumes, gas recovery factors, and helium concentrations, can be used as inputs for a

  5. Energy efficiency and energy savings in Japanese residential buildings - research methodology and surveyed results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, L.; Hokoi, S.; Miura, H. [Kyoto University (Japan). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Architecture and Environmental Design; Shuhei, K. [Kansai Electric Power Company Inc., Amagasaki (Japan). Energy Use R and D Center

    2005-07-01

    Worldwide energy consumption has risen 30% in the last 25 years. Fossil fuels exploitation is causing depletion of resources and serious environmental problems. Energy efficiency improvement and energy savings are important targets to be achieved on every society as a whole and in residential buildings in particular. In this article, results of a survey and questionnaire on energy consumption and thermal environment held in Kansai area, Japan are reported. Energy savings potential was analyzed for the surveyed 13 houses focusing on certain electrical appliances e.g. TV, rice cooker and refrigerator. Residents' environmental awareness towards energy consumption was clarified through questionnaire. An energy information session towards residents was held, and the resulting changes in lifestyle and their implications on energy consumption were evaluated. (author)

  6. Proceedings. Future Energy - Resources, Distribution and Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    the environment, energy and the use of resources will be an important foundation for bringing about changes in the future. The environmental effects caused by the Energy System are local as well as global. Regarding the global challenges, it is important to find solutions and incentives that are financially, politically and administratively sound, that will work across borders and give a fair distribution of burdens between rich and poor countries, at the same time giving poor countries good opportunities for development. The Proceedings from the seminar should be a useful contribution to the debate on the Energy System for both specialists and the general public. It will also be a useful background document for setting priorities for energy policies and energy research in the future. Furthermore, it should provide a useful summary of the current scientific debate for both the laymen and specialized experts in the field of energy research. This will also provide guidance for the task of setting national research priorities in the future. The seminar describes status and future prospects within different resource-, technology- and application areas globally as well as from a Norwegian perspective. International trends in the energy markets are described, and an ambitious Swiss plan to halve the consumption of fossil fuels in the future will be presented.

  7. Distribution System Pricing with Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hledik, Ryan [The Brattle Group, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lazar, Jim [The Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-16

    Technological changes in the electric utility industry bring tremendous opportunities and significant challenges. Customers are installing clean sources of on-site generation such as rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. At the same time, smart appliances and control systems that can communicate with the grid are entering the retail market. Among the opportunities these changes create are a cleaner and more diverse power system, the ability to improve system reliability and system resilience, and the potential for lower total costs. Challenges include integrating these new resources in a way that maintains system reliability, provides an equitable sharing of system costs, and avoids unbalanced impacts on different groups of customers, including those who install distributed energy resources (DERs) and low-income households who may be the least able to afford the transition.

  8. Review of geothermal energy resources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam Zaigham, Nayyer [Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Alam Nayyar, Zeeshan [Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Hisamuddin, Noushaba [422 Wycliffe, Irvine, CA 92602 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy deficient and has to rely heavily on imports of hydrocarbon products to satisfy hardly its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional and as well non-conventional. Many of them have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. Geothermal energy is one of them. Pakistan can be benefited by harnessing the geothermal option of energy generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. Most of the high enthalpy geothermal resources of the world are within the seismic belts associated with zones of crustal weakness like the seismo-tectonic belt that passes through Pakistan having inherited a long geological history of geotectonic events. The present study of the geotectonic framework suggests that Pakistan should not be lacking in commercially exploitable sources of geothermal energy. This view is further strengthened by (a) the fairly extensive development of alteration zones and fumeroles in many regions of Pakistan, (b) the presence of a fairly large number of hot springs in different parts of the country, and (c) the indications of Quaternary volcanism associated with the Chagai arc extending into Iran and Afghanistan border areas. These manifestations of geothermal energy are found within three geotectonic or geothermal environments, i.e., (1) geo-pressurized systems related to basin subsidence, (2) seismo-tectonic or suture-related systems, and (3) systems related to Neogene-Quaternary volcanism. A few localities, scattered sporadically all over the country, have been studied to evaluate only some of the basic characteristic parameters of the geothermal prospects. The present review study the geothermal activities of varying intensity and

  9. Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mark N.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary program at the University of California (Berkeley) that addresses the multifaceted problems of energy and resources through a teaching and resource program. Discusses the program's structure, curriculum, research activities, students, resources, and problems and possibilities. (TW)

  10. Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mark N.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary program at the University of California (Berkeley) that addresses the multifaceted problems of energy and resources through a teaching and resource program. Discusses the program's structure, curriculum, research activities, students, resources, and problems and possibilities. (TW)

  11. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  12. Colorado cultural resource survey: cultural resource re-evaluation form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Allard ranch (5JA784) on Arapaho National...

  13. Colorado cultural resource survey: cultural resource re-evaluation form [5JA783

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Case ranch (5JA783) on Arapaho National...

  14. Geothermal energy, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    A survey is presented in order to determine the technology status, gaps, and needs for research and development programs in the environment and safety areas of this resource. The information gathered from a survey of geothermal energy development undertaken to provide background for an environment and safety overview program is summarized. A technology assessment for resource development is presented. The three specific environmental problems identified as most potentially limiting to geothermal development; hydrogen sulfide control, brine disposal, and subsidence, are discussed. Current laws, regulations, and standards applying to geothermal systems are summarized. The elements of the environment, health, and safety program considered to be intrinsically related to the development of geothermal energy systems are discussed. Interagency interfaces are touched on briefly. (MHR)

  15. Investigating Urban Eighth-Grade Students' Knowledge of Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated urban eighth-grade students' knowledge of energy resources and associated issues including energy acquisition, energy generation, storage and transport, and energy consumption and conservation. A 39 multiple-choice-item energy resources knowledge assessment was completed by 1043 eighth-grade students in urban schools in two…

  16. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  17. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 10. Alaska region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.L.; Wentink, T. Jr.; Becker, R. Jr.; Comiskey, A.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-12-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each subregion of Alaska. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a state scale is given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each subregion are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the Alaska wind energy resource. An outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each subregion is included. Assessments for individual subregions are presented as separate chapters. The subregion wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the Alaska wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the subregion chapters.

  18. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 4. The Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, K.E.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled in this chapter into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline are provided for in the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state. Assessments for individual states are presented. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters.

  19. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 9. The Southwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R.L.; Norman, G.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in Nevada and California. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted is presented. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state are given. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed.

  20. Weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    I will present the current status of weak lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES will survey 5000 square degrees in five photometric bands (grizY), and has already provided a competitive weak lensing catalog from Science Verification data covering just 3% of the final survey footprint. I will summarize the status of shear catalog production using observations from the first year of the survey and discuss recent weak lensing science results from DES. Finally, I will report on the outlook for future cosmological analyses in DES including the two-point cosmic shear correlation function and discuss challenges that DES and future surveys will face in achieving a control of systematics that allows us to take full advantage of the available statistical power of our shear catalogs.

  1. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  2. Wind energy literature survey no. 33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian

    2014-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals, including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International...... Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so...... on. The list is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate...

  3. Wind Energy literature survey no. 32

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International...... Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so...... on. The list is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate...

  4. Wind energy literature survey no. 34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian

    2015-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawnfrom recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering andIndustrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy...... Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of SolarEnergy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systemsalong with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list...... is limitedexclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separatedinto broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the categorythought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  5. Wind Energy literature survey no. 31

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of Wind Energy itself and a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy...... Research, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list...... is limited exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  6. Comparison of Satellite Surveying to Traditional Surveying Methods for the Resources Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, B. P.; Osborne, V. J.; Kruger, M. L.

    Modern ground-based survey methods involve detailed survey, which provides three-space co-ordinates for surveyed points, to a high level of accuracy. The instruments are operated by surveyors, who process the raw results to create survey location maps for the subject of the survey. Such surveys are conducted for a location or region and referenced to the earth global co- ordinate system with global positioning system (GPS) positioning. Due to this referencing the survey is only as accurate as the GPS reference system. Satellite survey remote sensing utilise satellite imagery which have been processed using commercial geographic information system software. Three-space co-ordinate maps are generated, with an accuracy determined by the datum position accuracy and optical resolution of the satellite platform.This paper presents a case study, which compares topographic surveying undertaken by traditional survey methods with satellite surveying, for the same location. The purpose of this study is to assess the viability of satellite remote sensing for surveying in the resources industry. The case study involves a topographic survey of a dune field for a prospective mining project area in Pakistan. This site has been surveyed using modern surveying techniques and the results are compared to a satellite survey performed on the same area.Analysis of the results from traditional survey and from the satellite survey involved a comparison of the derived spatial co- ordinates from each method. In addition, comparisons have been made of costs and turnaround time for both methods.The results of this application of remote sensing is of particular interest for survey in areas with remote and extreme environments, weather extremes, political unrest, poor travel links, which are commonly associated with mining projects. Such areas frequently suffer language barriers, poor onsite technical support and resources.

  7. Resources and energy: an economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Two long core chapters on oil and on nonfuel minerals, along with an exposition of the econometrics of primary commodities, give the reader a basic insight into the economic techniques and their uses. There are also chapters on coal, gas, and uranium, which include an overview of the Soviet energy sector and the Australian coal industry. The book introduces oil refining, petrochemicals, futures markets, inventories, capital costs, tin, stock-flow models, and other topics not usually handled in most economics text and reference books. There is also a short survey of iron and steel. The book concludes with the note that attempts to check inflation by monetary means in the presence of the kind of consumer and corporate debt that exists today is begging for catastrophe. Monetarism, like champagne, is good for pleasure, but very bad for business. 210 references, 47 figures, 41 tables.

  8. [Wild resources survey of Marsdenia tenacissima in Honghe, Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhen-Gui; Yang, Sheng-Chao; Chen, Jun-Wen; Wang, Jian-Jun; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Long, Guang-Qiang

    2014-07-01

    To ascertain current situation of wild Marsdenia tenacissima resources in Honghe, Yunnan province, the distribution, habitat characteristic and resources reserves of M. tenacissima were surveyed based on interviews and investigation. The results showed that M. tenacissima was found in 7 counties such as Jinping, Mengzi etc, and distributed mainly on the mountainsides from 800 m to 1 200 m. And distribution was affected by many factors, such as light, heat, topography, soil, and vegetation. M. tenacissima grew well in distribution areas. M. tenacissima had averagely a weight of 2.8 kg per plant. Resources reserve of M. tenacissima in Honghe was estimated to 1 300 tons by now but it reduced rapidly in resent years, the wild resources reserve may not meet demand of market. Resources protection and wildlife tending would be conducted to deal with increasing medication requirements.

  9. Hydrokinetic energy resource estimates of River ERO at Lafiagi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrokinetic energy resource estimates of River ERO at Lafiagi, Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria. ... Exploiting the kinetic energy of water currents is considered a smart and cost-effective renewable energy solution without ... Article Metrics.

  10. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  11. Wind Energy literature survey no. 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  12. Wind Energy literature survey no. 27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  13. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  14. Wind energy literature survey no. 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  15. Wind energy literature survey no. 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2008-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  16. Wind Energy literature survey no. 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. For the reader to be assisted, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  17. Wind Energy literature survey no. 12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  18. Wind Energy literature survey no. 25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and so on. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  19. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  20. Wind energy literature survey no. 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  1. Wind Energy literature survey no. 22

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  2. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2009-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems, along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  3. Wind Energy literature survey no. 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  4. Wind energy literature survey no. 18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  5. Wind Energy literature survey no. 29

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2013-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  6. Wind Energy literature survey no. 26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant papers drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list is not an endorsement...

  7. Wind Energy Literature Survey No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2010-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  8. Wind Energy literature survey no. 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and so on. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. For the reader to be assisted, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note...

  9. Wind Energy literature survey no. 21

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2012-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and others. The list is limited...... exclusively to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion...

  10. Wind Energy literature survey no. 20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    to journals not specifi cally devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fi t several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list......As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including the following: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research......, Renewable Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal and Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The list is limited exclusively...

  11. Wind Energy literature survey no. 19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    As a service to readers, Wind Energy regularly conducts literature surveys and publishes lists of relevant articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable Energy......, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively to journals...... not specifi cally devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fi t several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Please note that the inclusion in the list...

  12. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  13. Energy Efficient Materials Manufacturing from Secondary Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelian, Diran; Mishra, Brajendra

    Rare earths metals, including yttrium and scandium, are being increasingly used in clean energy technologies, colored phosphors, lasers and high intensity magnets. There are important defense applications such as fighter jet engines, missile guidance systems and space based satellite and communication systems, based on these metals. The commitment to clean energy technologies by various governments, as well as the projected growth in power and transportation sectors across the globe will certainly escalate the demand for rare earth metals and compounds. This demand implies that to ensure unhindered technological innovation, it is essential to possess secure supply chains for rare earth elements. The United States continues to be one of the largest consumers and importer of rare earths and the trend is expected to continue as the demand increases. In order to ensure secure rare earth supply and attenuate supply-demand imbalances post 2014, it is not only necessary to encourage and support exploration of newer reserves, build a rare earth stockpile, but it is also of utmost importance to look at opportunities to recycle and reuse Rare Earth Elements (REE) from secondary sources, such as post-consumer and manufacturing process wastes. This research describes the technological developments made to convert these valuable resources into functional manufactured materials for lighting industry, automotive and petroleum refining catalysts, and high density permanent magnets. In addition, production of rhenium from advanced aerospace alloys is also discussed from the perspective that it can be recovered for introduction in turbine alloys.

  14. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J F

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary mate...

  15. Human resources challenges for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottingham, C. [Electricity Sector Council, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The potential role of the Electricity Sector Council in wind power workforce development was reviewed. Canada is a major exporter of electricity, and production of electricity in the country has grown by 10 per cent in the last 10 years. The electric industry has become increasingly interested in the development of renewable and sustainable energy sources in order to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity production and use, as well to address potential supply shortages. However, total labour force growth in Canada is expected to drop to 0.5 per cent by 2010, and is expected to keep falling. Engineering and science enrolments in post-secondary institutions are declining. Many immigrants to Canada choose to settle in metropolitan areas, and only 4 in 10 immigrants are able to achieve validation of their credentials in the Canadian education system. One-third of Canadian employees are expected to retire in the next 8 years. The wind energy sector is the fastest growing energy source sector in Canada, and there are limited training facilities available. Competency profiles for roles in the industry are not clearly defined. Many provinces have very little development to support or sustain educational services for wind power training. This presentation suggested that the wind energy sector should prepare for the anticipated workforce shortage by planning training programs and building partnerships in workforce development. Investments in wind power research and development should have contract provisions regarding labour and skills development. Retiring electricity workers may provide a source of labour support. Sector councils provide a neutral forum for employers, educators, and employees, with a focus on human resource development for specific industry sectors. The councils represent an estimated 45 to 50 per cent of the labour market, and have significant federal funding. The Electricity Sector Council offers advanced career and workforce training; youth

  16. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN): Customer satisfaction survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.V. [Information International Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, D.P. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    1996-04-22

    The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN) Customer Satisfaction Survey was developed and executed in support of EREN`s continuous quality improvement (CQI) plan. The study was designed to provide information about the demographic make up of EREN users, the value or benefits they derive from EREN, the kinds and quality of services they want, their levels of satisfaction with existing services, their preferences in both the sources of service and the means of delivery, and to provide benchmark data for the establishment of continuous quality improvement measures. The survey was performed by soliciting voluntary participation from members of the EREN Users Group. It was executed in two phases; the first being conducted by phone using a randomly selected group; and the second being conducted electronically and which was open to all of the remaining members of the Users Group. The survey results are described.

  17. Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)

  18. UK energy policy: findings from two surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G.; Fouquet, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Technology

    1996-08-01

    The paper summarises the results of two surveys, carried out in November 1992 and December 1994, of the opinions of UK energy professionals on the effectiveness of UK energy policy, what objectives energy policy should seek to achieve and how they should be achieved. Most respondents said that there should be a long term energy policy, at the level of both the UK and Europe. Such a policy should create a regulatory framework that complements market forces to improve the efficiency of energy use and environmental quality, to enhance security of supplies and to reduce the costs of energy supplies. Around two-thirds, however, said that existing UK energy policies were inappropriate and ineffective. There were serious doubts about the effectiveness of the regulation of gas and electricity, particularly the latter. Opinions tended to be somewhat more favourable in 1994 than in 1992. Just under half the respondents wanted nuclear power to occupy a special place in policy, while two-fifths wanted a special place for electricity from renewable sources. While the experts` desired energy policy objectives were broadly similar to those listed by the Government in 1994, the rankings were in many cases different. The energy professionals were not fully convinced that the objectives had been satisfactorily achieved. The paper also draws some wider lessons from the UK`s recent policy experience. 18 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs., 3 apps.

  19. Resource Letter PSEn-1: Physics and society: Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Art

    2007-04-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the physics-related literature about energy-and-society. Journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: general references, textbooks, other pedagogical resources, population growth, fossil fuels, global warming, nuclear power, side effects of nuclear power, fusion power, renewable resources (including hydroelectric, biofuels, wind, photovoltaics, direct solar, geothermal, hydrogen, and energy storage), energy efficiency, and transportation efficiency.

  20. PARITY PRICE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS, ENERGY AND MATERIAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alpatov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main approaches to parity of agricultural products to energy and material resources, are the price indices for certain types of energy resources, and presents data on the availability of agricultural machinery in agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of growth in energy prices in relation to the specific energy consumption per 1 ha of sown area in the agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation, the consumption of resources such as petroleum products, electricity and fuel. In addition, the article shows the average sales price for agricultural products and logistical resources. Shown the equivalence of the exchange of products between agriculture and industry.

  1. Water resources activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Afghanistan from 2004 through 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Vining, Kevin C.; Amer, Saud A.; Zaheer, Mohammad F.; Medlin, Jack H.

    2014-01-01

    Safe and reliable supply of water, for irrigation and domestic consumption, is one of Afghanistan’s critical needs for the country’s growing population. Water is also needed for mining and mineral processing and the associated business and community development, all of which contribute to the country’s economic growth and stability. Beginning in 2004, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have aided efforts to rebuild Afghanistan’s capacity to monitor water resources, working largely with scientists in the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum as well as with scientists in the Afghanistan Ministry of Energy and Water, the Afghanistan Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation, and Livestock, and nongovernmental organizations in Afghanistan. Considerable efforts were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey to compile or recover hydrologic data on Afghanistan’s water resources. These collaborative efforts have assisted Afghan scientists in developing the data collection networks necessary for improved understanding, managing these resources, and monitoring critical changes that may affect future water supplies and conditions. The U.S. Geological Survey, together with Afghan scientists, developed a regional groundwater flow model to assist with water resource planning in the Kabul Basin. Afghan scientists are now independently developing the datasets and conducting studies needed to assess water resources in other population centers of Afghanistan.

  2. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  3. The US Geological Survey's national coal resource assessment: The results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Kirschbaum, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Flores, R.M.; Affolter, R.H.; Hatch, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the State geological surveys of many coal-bearing States recently completed a new assessment of the top producing coal beds and coal zones in five major producing coal regions the Appalachian Basin, Gulf Coast, Illinois Basin, Colorado Plateau, and Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. The assessments, which focused on both coal quality and quantity, utilized geographic information system technology and large databases. Over 1,600,000 million short tons of coal remain in over 60 coal beds and coal zones that were assessed. Given current economic, environmental, and technological restrictions, the majority of US coal production will occur in that portion of the assessed coal resource that is lowest in sulfur content. These resources are concentrated in parts of the central Appalachian Basin, Colorado Plateau, and the Northern Rocky Mountains. ?? Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Distributed energy resources in grid interactive AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Guerrero, Josep; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Increased penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) and large-scale deployment of renewable energy sources are challenging the entire architecture of traditional power system. Microgrid, featuring higher flexibility and reliability, becomes an attractive candidate for the configuration of...

  5. Survey reveals the situation of Chinese caterpillar fungus resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Following its investigation of aweto (or Chinese caterpillar fungus) resources carried out from May to July 2007 on the Tibetan(or Qinghai-Tibet) Plateau,the central producing area of this precious ingredient for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG)under CAS conducted a further survey from May to July 2008 in the marginal habitats of this fungus.

  6. Interactive energy atlas for Colorado and New Mexico: an online resource for decisionmakers and the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, N.B.; Babel, N.; Diffendorfer, J.; Ignizio, D.; Hawkins, S.; Latysh, N.; Leib, K.; Linard, J.; Matherne, A.

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the western United States, increased demand for energy is driving the rapid development of oil, gas (including shale gas and coal-bed methane), and uranium, as well as renewable energy resources such as geothermal, solar, and wind. Much of the development in the West is occurring on public lands, including those under Federal and State jurisdictions. In Colorado and New Mexico, these public lands make up about 40 percent of the land area. Both states benefit from the revenue generated by energy production, but resource managers and other decisionmakers must balance the benefits of energy development with the potential consequences for ecosystems, recreation, and other resources. Although a substantial amount of geospatial data on existing energy development and energy potential is available, much of this information is not readily accessible to natural resource decisionmakers, policymakers, or the public. Furthermore, the data often exist in varied formats, requiring considerable processing before these datasets can be used to evaluate tradeoffs among resources, compare development alternatives, or quantify cumulative impacts. To allow for a comprehensive evaluation among different energy types, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists has developed an online Interactive Energy Atlas for Colorado and New Mexico. The Energy and Environment in the Rocky Mountain Area (EERMA) interdisciplinary team includes investigators from several USGS science centers1. The purpose of the EERMA Interactive Energy Atlas is to facilitate access to geospatial data related to energy resources, energy infrastructure, and natural resources that may be affected by energy development. The Atlas is designed to meet the needs of various users, including GIS analysts, resource managers, policymakers, and the public, who seek information about energy in the western United States. Currently, the Atlas has two primary capabilities, a GIS data viewer and an

  7. Wind Power: An Emerging Energy Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    One may ask the question, What is energy? Typically the first answers that come to mind are oil, coal, and natural gas or nuclear energy. Most human activities require some form of energy consumption. This may be the energy produced by the food that one eats or the gasoline that is used in cars, trucks, buses, and other vehicles. One cannot ignore…

  8. Wind Power: An Emerging Energy Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F.

    2010-01-01

    One may ask the question, What is energy? Typically the first answers that come to mind are oil, coal, and natural gas or nuclear energy. Most human activities require some form of energy consumption. This may be the energy produced by the food that one eats or the gasoline that is used in cars, trucks, buses, and other vehicles. One cannot ignore…

  9. Women: Tapping a New Resource for Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Action Now, New York, NY.

    In 1973 the Arab oil embargo triggered what has come to be known as the "energy crisis." In 1974, Consumer Action Now (CAN) decided to devote its full efforts to the grave issues of energy and to look for options that would preserve our choices as a new energy era is entered. Any transition to a more energy-efficient society depends on a…

  10. Procedures, Resources and Selected Results of the Deep Ecliptic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, M. W.; Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Elliot, J. L.; Kern, S. D.; Clancy, K. B.; Chiang, E. I.; Jordan, A. B.; Meech, K. J.; Wagner, R. M.; Trilling, D. E.

    2003-06-01

    The Deep Ecliptic Survey is a project whose goal is to survey a large area of the near-ecliptic region to a faint limiting magnitude (R ~ 24) in search of objects in the outer solar system. We are collecting a large homogeneous data sample from the Kitt Peak Mayall 4-m and Cerro Tololo Blanco 4-m telescopes with the Mosaic prime-focus CCD cameras. Our goal is to collect a sample of 500 objects with good orbits to further our understanding of the dynamical structure of the outer solar system. This survey has been in progress since 1998 and is responsible for 272 designated discoveries as of March 2003. We summarize our techniques, highlight recent results, and describe publically available resources.

  11. Energy resources availability, management, and environmental impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Skipka, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Section I Basic PrinciplesIntroduction to the IssuesIntroductionEnergy TermsConservation Law for EnergyEnthalpyHeat TransferNet Energy AnalysisDeveloping a National Energy PolicyShort TermLong TermReferencesThermodynamic Principles: Entropy AnalysisIntroductionQualitative Review of the Second LawDescribing EquationsThe Heat Exchanger DilemmaApplicationsConcluding CommentsReferencesEnergy Demand

  12. The Dark Energy Survey: more than dark energy - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikram, Vinu; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Aleksic, J.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Balbinot, E.; Banerji, M.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.

    2016-08-01

    This overview paper describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4 m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion, the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterize dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large-scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper, we focus on additional science with DES, emphasizing areas where the survey makes a difference with respect to other current surveys. The paper illustrates, using early data (from ‘Science Verification’, and from the first, second and third seasons of observations), what DES can tell us about the Solar system, the Milky Way, galaxy evolution, quasars and other topics. In addition, we show that if the cosmological model is assumed to be Λ+cold dark matter, then important astrophysics can be deduced from the primary DES probes. Highlights from DES early data include the discovery of 34 trans-Neptunian objects, 17 dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, one published z > 6 quasar (and more confirmed) and two published superluminous supernovae (and more confirmed).

  13. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Resource Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Schneider Electric Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  14. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  15. Report on preliminary survey of biomass resources. Baiomasu no shigen yobi chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-03-01

    Biomass resources come to public notice as a part of the development of alternative energy. The special features of distribution of resources by the metropolis and districts were grasped and the biomass resources in Hokkaido as the model district were surveyed in detail. The amount of existing biomass resources in Japan is approximately one and a half billion tons and the forest land accounts for 94% of it. The amount of production of biomass and amount of available energy are approximately 160 million tons and approximately 100 million tons, respectively. Since the amount of production of biomass in Hokkaido is only 14% of that in Japan though the amount of existing biomass resources is 22%, the production capacity per unit area of land must be increased. The productions of alcohol from glucide and starch and the recovery of silicon for semiconductor (seven times the nationwide production) from rice hulls are promising. The productions of methane and compost from the other resources are expected. The promising areas of biomass resources in Hokkaido are Obihiro, Asahikawa and three regions along the shore of the Sea of Okhotsk. (21 figs, 29 tabs)

  16. Energy. The concept - the resources - the demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawe, Joachim

    2007-04-15

    After giving a short historical review of how mankind has been using natural forces throughout its evolution, Energy elaborates on the physical attributes of energy. The rise in use of fossil and regenerative fuels is the third main subject. A detailed discussion about the interactions between energy requirements and standards of living completes the booklet. [German] Energy arbeitet nach einem kurzen historischen Exkurs, wie Menschen Naturkraefte in ihrer Entstehungsgeschichte nutzten und nutzen, die physi-kalischen Kennzeichen der Energie heraus. Die Entstehung fossiler und regenerativer Energietraeger ist der dritte Schwerpunkt. Abschliessend werden die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Energiebedarf und Lebensstan-dard ausfuehrlich diskutiert.

  17. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, Joseph J.; /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept. /Illinois U., Urbana; Barkhouse, Wayne; /North Dakota U.; Beldica, Cristina; /Illinois U., Urbana; Bertin, Emmanuel; /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.; Dora Cai, Y.; /NCSA, Urbana; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz A.; /Rio de Janeiro Observ.; Darnell, J.Anthony; /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.; Daues, Gregory E.; /NCSA, Urbana; Jarvis, Michael; /Pennsylvania U.; Gower, Michelle; /NCSA, Urbana; Lin, Huan; /Fermilab /Rio de Janeiro Observ.

    2008-07-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our approach leverages investments in publicly available HPC systems, greatly reducing hardware and maintenance costs to the project, which must deploy and maintain only the storage, database platforms and orchestration and web portal nodes that are specific to DESDM. In Fall 2007, we tested the current DESDM system on both simulated and real survey data. We used TeraGrid to process 10 simulated DES nights (3TB of raw data), ingesting and calibrating approximately 250 million objects into the DES Archive database. We also used DESDM to process and calibrate over 50 nights of survey data acquired with the Mosaic2 camera. Comparison to truth tables in the case of the simulated data and internal crosschecks in the case of the real data indicate that astrometric and photometric data quality is excellent.

  18. Conservation and renewable energy resource directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Directory facilitates quick access to DOE offices responsible for conservation and renewable energy activities. Because several offices in DOE may have responsibility for various phases of a technology or service (i.e., research, development, demonstration, commercialization, information, education, etc.) the Directory lists the key contacts from the various phases by category. The Directory is organized in five main categories plus an index and relevant appendices. The categories are: revewable energy technologies (thermal and electric solar, wind energy systems, small scale hydroelectric, biomass, ocean systems); complementary technologies (appropriate technology, advanced engine design, cogeneration, energy storage, total energy systems); conservation technologies (buildings and community systems, transportation, industrial and agricultural energy conservation, state and local programs); environment; and support services (information, outreach, education, small business support, basic research, data and analysis, publication, films, Solar Energy Research Institute, regional offices laboratories, and information centers).

  19. Geothermal energy resource investigations at Mt. Spurr, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.L.; Wescott, E.M. (eds.)

    1986-12-01

    Spurr volcano is a composite Quaternary cone of largely andesitic composition located on the west side of Cook Inlet about 80 miles west of Anchorage and about 40 miles from the Beluga electrical transmission line. Geologic mapping (Plate 1-1) shows that the present summit depression was produced by a Mt. St. Helens-type sector collapse, rather than by a caldera collapse. Geochronologic and previous tephrachronologic studies show that there has been an active magmatic system at Spurr volcano during the late Pleistocene-to-Holocene time interval that is of critical interest for geothermal energy resource assessment. Major effort was devoted to geochemical and geophysical surveys of the accessible area south of Mt. Spurr, in addition to geologic mapping and geochronologic studies. Many coincident mercury and helium anomalies were found, suggesting the presence of geothermal systems at depth. Extremely large electrical self-potential anomalies were also found, together with extensive zones of low resistivity discovered by our controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey. The juxtaposition of all of these different types of anomalies at certain areas on the south slope of Crater Peak indicates the presence of a geothermal system which should be accessible by drilling to about 2000 ft depth. It is also evident that there is a strong volcanic hazard to be evaluated in considering any development on the south side of Mt. Spurr. This hazardous situation may require angle drilling of production wells from safer areas and placement of power generation facilities at a considerable distance from hazardous areas.

  20. The Dark Energy Survey: more than dark energy - an overview

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, T; Allam, S; Aleksic, J; Amara, A; Bacon, D; Balbinot, E; Banerji, M; Bechtol, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernstein, G M; Bertin, E; Blazek, J; Dodelson, S; Bonnett, C; Brooks, D; Bridle, S; Brunner, R J; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Capozzi, D; Caminha, G B; Carlsen, J; Carnero-Rosell, A; Carollo, M; Carrasco-Kind, M; Carretero, J; Castander, F J; Clerkin, L; Collett, T; Conselice, C; Crocce, M; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; Davis, T M; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Drlica-Wagner, A; Etherington, J; Estrada, J; Evrard, A E; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Foley, R J; Frieman, J; Garcia-Bellido, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D W; Giannantonio, T; Goldstein, D A; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Guarnieri, P; Gutierrez, G; Hartley, W; Honscheid, K; Jain, B; James, D J; Jeltema, T; Jouvel, S; Kessler, R; King, A; Kirk, D; Kron, R; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Lima, M; Lin, H; Maia, M A G; Manera, M; Maraston, C; Marshall, J L; Martini, P; McMahon, R G; Melchior, P; Merson, A; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Mohr, J J; Morice-Atkinson, X; Naidoo, K; Neilsen, E; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Ostrovski, F; Palmese, A; Papadopoulos, A; Peiris, H; Peoples, J; Plazas, A A; Percival, W J; Reed, S L; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Ross, A; Rozo, E; Rykoff, E S; Sadeh, I; Sako, M; Sanchez, C; Sanchez, E; Santiago, B; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Sheldon, E; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Soumagnac, M; Suchyta, E; Sullivan, M; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Thomas, R C; Tucker, D; Vieira, J D; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Wechsler, R H; Wester, W; Weller, J; Whiteway, L; Wilcox, H; Yanny, B; Zhang, Y; Zuntz, J

    2016-01-01

    This overview article describes the legacy prospect and discovery potential of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) beyond cosmological studies, illustrating it with examples from the DES early data. DES is using a wide-field camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco Telescope in Chile to image 5000 sq deg of the sky in five filters (grizY). By its completion the survey is expected to have generated a catalogue of 300 million galaxies with photometric redshifts and 100 million stars. In addition, a time-domain survey search over 27 sq deg is expected to yield a sample of thousands of Type Ia supernovae and other transients. The main goals of DES are to characterise dark energy and dark matter, and to test alternative models of gravity; these goals will be pursued by studying large scale structure, cluster counts, weak gravitational lensing and Type Ia supernovae. However, DES also provides a rich data set which allows us to study many other aspects of astrophysics. In this paper we focus on additional science with DES, emphasi...

  1. The Dark Energy Survey Data Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Joseph J; Beldica, Cristina; Bertin, Emmanuel; Cai, Y Dora; da Costa, Luiz; Darnell, J Anthony; Daues, Gregory E; Jarvis, Michael; Gower, Michelle; Lin, Huan; Martelli, leandro; Neilsen, Eric; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ogando, Ricardo; Parga, Alex; Sheldon, Erin; Tucker, Douglas; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Stoughton, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey collaboration will study cosmic acceleration with a 5000 deg2 griZY survey in the southern sky over 525 nights from 2011-2016. The DES data management (DESDM) system will be used to process and archive these data and the resulting science ready data products. The DESDM system consists of an integrated archive, a processing framework, an ensemble of astronomy codes and a data access framework. We are developing the DESDM system for operation in the high performance computing (HPC) environments at NCSA and Fermilab. Operating the DESDM system in an HPC environment offers both speed and flexibility. We will employ it for our regular nightly processing needs, and for more compute-intensive tasks such as large scale image coaddition campaigns, extraction of weak lensing shear from the full survey dataset, and massive seasonal reprocessing of the DES data. Data products will be available to the Collaboration and later to the public through a virtual-observatory compatible web portal. Our appr...

  2. Survey of Research Resources in Colleges of Veterinary Medicine in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, John M.

    1979-01-01

    A survey of research resources in 24 veterinary colleges in the US and Canada reports information on university-wide research facilities, college-wide research facilities, personnel, and instrumentation resources. Corporate research resource management was compared with university research resource management. The survey form is outlined.…

  3. Surveying earth resources by remote sensing from satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterman, J.; Lowman, P.D.; Salomonson, V.V.

    1976-04-01

    The techniques and recent results of orbital remote sensing, with emphasis on Landsat and Skylab imagery are reviewed. Landsat (formerly ERTS) uses electronic sensors (scanners and television) for repetitive observations with moderate ground resolution. The Skylab flights used a wider range of electro-optical sensors and returned film cameras with moderate and high ground resolution. Data from these programs have been used successfully in many fields. For mineral resources, satellite observations have proven valuable in geologic mapping and in exploration for metal, oil, and gas deposits, generally as a guide for other (conventional) techniques. Water resource monitoring with satellite data has included hydrologic mapping, soil moisture studies, and snow surveys. Marine resources have been studied, with applications in the fishing industry and in ocean transportation. Agricultural applications, benefiting from the repetitive coverage possible with satellites, have been especially promising. Crop inventories are being conducted, as well as inventories of timber and rangeland. Overgrazing has been monitored in several areas. Finally, environmental quality has also proven susceptible to orbital remote sensing; several types of water pollution have been successfully monitored. The effects of mining and other activities on the land can also be studied. The future of orbital remote sensing in global monitoring of the Earth's resources seems assured. However, efforts to extend spectral range, increase resolution, and solve cloud-cover problems must be continued. Broad applications of computer analysis techniques are vital to handle the immense amount of information produced by satellite sensors.

  4. Communication Systems for Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, F Richard; Xiao, Weidong; Choudhury, Paul

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in renewable energy around the world. Since most renewable sources are intermittent in nature, it is a challenging task to integrate renewable energy resources into the power grid infrastructure. In this grid integration, communication systems are crucial technologies, which enable the accommodation of distributed renewable energy generation and play extremely important role in monitoring, operating, and protecting both renewable energy generators and power systems. In this paper, we review some communication technologies available for grid integration of renewable energy resources. Then, we present the communication systems used in a real renewable energy project, Bear Mountain Wind Farm (BMW) in British Columbia, Canada. In addition, we present the communication systems used in Photovoltaic Power Systems (PPS). Finally, we outline some research challenges and possible solutions about the communication systems for grid integration of renewable energy resources.

  5. Resource and radioactivity survey in southern Victoria Land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeller, E.J. (Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence); Dreschhoff, G.; Crisler, K.; Tessensohn, F.

    1977-10-01

    This report describes the first systematic attempt at a gamma-ray survey of the exposed rocks in a portion of Antarctica. The area examined is in the Transantarctic Mountains between 76/sup 0/45' and 78/sup 0/30'S and extends from the Ross Sea coast to the ice sheet. Rock radioactivity was examined with the aim of assessing the uranium resource potential of the area. In the course of the airborne survey many results were obtained relating to: mobility of U in the study area; an area of fluorite bearing marble being discovered; pegmatities at Mt. Dromedary and Roaring Valley; granites in the area; volcanics; and metasediments. A calibration test and airborne gamma-ray measurement techniques were used for these, but ground checks were made where significant anomalies were detected. 2 figures.

  6. Survey of potential geopressured resource areas in California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Robertson-Tait, A.; Kraemer, M.; Buening, N.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents the initial results of a survey of the occurrence and characteristics of geopressured fluid resources in California using the publicly- available database involving more than 150,000 oil and gas wells drilled in the State. Of the 975 documented on-shore oil and gas pools studied, about 42% were identified as potentially geopressured. Geothermal gradients in California oil and gas fields lie within the normal range of 1 F to 2 F per 100 feet. Except for the Los Angeles Basin, there was no evidence of higher temperatures or temperature gradients in geopressured pools.

  7. Energy Optimization for Distributed Energy Resources Scheduling with Enhancements in Voltage Stability Margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Perez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    The need for developing new methodologies in order to improve power system stability has increased due to the recent growth of distributed energy resources. In this paper, the inclusion of a voltage stability index in distributed energy resources scheduling is proposed. Two techniques were used...... resources is presented to analyse the proposed methodology. Additionally, the methodology is tested in a real distribution network....

  8. Robust Adaptive Synchronization of the Energy Resource System with Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different chaos synchronization methods are proposed for a class of energy resource demand supply-system with input constraint. Firstly, chaotic synchronization is achieved for a class of energy resource demand supply system with known system parameters based on the Lyapunov theory. Secondly, an adaptive control approach is investigated for a class of energy resource demand supply system with input constraint, and the parameters of the system are unknown based on the Lyapunov stability and robust adaptive theory. To address the input constraint, new auxiliary signals and design systems are employed. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect ov

  10. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect

  11. New Mexico energy research resource registry. Researchers and facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Human resources and facilities in New Mexico available for application to energy research and development are listed. Information regarding individuals with expertise in the environmental, socio-economic, legal, and management and planning areas of the energy effort is included as well as those scientists, engineers, and technicians involved directly in energy research and development.

  12. Terminology Guideline for Classifying Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to establish a clear and consistent vocabulary for conveying offshore wind resource potential and to interpret this vocabulary in terms that are familiar to the oil and gas (O&G) industry. This involves clarifying and refining existing definitions of offshore wind energy resource classes. The terminology developed in this guideline represents one of several possible sets of vocabulary that may differ with respect to their purpose, data availability, and comprehensiveness. It was customized to correspond with established offshore wind practices and existing renewable energy industry terminology (e.g. DOE 2013, Brown et al. 2015) while conforming to established fossil resource classification as best as possible. The developers of the guideline recognize the fundamental differences that exist between fossil and renewable energy resources with respect to availability, accessibility, lifetime, and quality. Any quantitative comparison between fossil and renewable energy resources, including offshore wind, is therefore limited. For instance, O&G resources are finite and there may be significant uncertainty associated with the amount of the resource. In contrast, aboveground renewable resources, such as offshore wind, do not generally deplete over time but can vary significantly subhourly, daily, seasonally, and annually. The intent of this guideline is to make these differences transparent and develop an offshore wind resource classification that conforms to established fossil resource classifications where possible. This guideline also provides methods to quantitatively compare certain offshore wind energy resources to O&G resource classes for specific applications. Finally, this guideline identifies areas where analogies to established O&G terminology may be inappropriate or subject to misinterpretation.

  13. ENERGY FOR ROMANIA FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    LUCIAN Paul

    2012-01-01

    The European Union admits the fact that energy is essential, for the development of the European economy, but that it also constitutes a challenge, due to the impact on climate change. In Romania, as well as in all the countries of the European Union, which have chosen to promote renewable energy, governments have come up with support frameworks for investors in this field. In Romania’s case, the option for green schemes and compulsory quotas was selected, meaning that each energy producer, w...

  14. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource....

  15. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  16. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  17. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  18. Renewable energy resource and technology assessment: Southern Tier Central Region, New York, New York. Renewable Energy Resource Inventory; renewable energy technology handbook; technology assessment workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Resource Inventory contains regional maps that record the location of renewable energy resources such as insolation, wind, biomass, and hydropower in the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State. It contains an outline of a process by which communities can prepare local renewable energy resource inventories using maps and overlays. The process starts with the mapping of the resources at a regional scale and telescopes to an analysis of resources at a site-specific scale. The resource inventory presents a site analysis of Sullivan Street Industrial Park, Elmira, New York.

  19. Identifying productive resources in secondary school students' discourse about energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Benedikt

    A growing program of research in science education acknowledges the beginnings of disciplinary reasoning in students' ideas and seeks to inform instruction that responds productively to these disciplinary progenitors in the moment to foster their development into sophisticated scientific practice. This dissertation examines secondary school students' ideas about energy for progenitors of disciplinary knowledge and practice. Previously, researchers argued that students' ideas about energy were constrained by stable and coherent conceptual structures that conflicted with an assumed unified scientific conception and therefore needed to be replaced. These researchers did not attend to the productive elements in students' ideas about energy. To analyze the disciplinary substance in students' ideas, a theoretical perspective was developed that extends Hammer and colleagues' resources framework. This elaboration allows for the identification of disciplinary productive resources---i.e., appropriately activated declarative and procedural pieces of knowledge---in individual students' utterances as well as in the interactions of multiple learners engaged in group learning activities. Using this framework, original interview transcripts from one of the most influential studies of students' ideas about energy (Watts, 1983. Some alternative views of energy. Physics Education, 18/5, 213-217) were analyzed. Disciplinary productive resources regarding the ontology of energy, indicators for energy, and mechanistic reasoning about energy were found to be activated by interviewed students. These valuable aspects were not recognized by the original author. An interpretive analysis of video recorded student-centered discourse in rural Maine middle schools was carried out to find cases of resource activation in classroom discussions. Several cases of disciplinary productive resources regarding the nature of energy and its forms as well as the construction of a mechanistic energy story

  20. Wind Energy Resource Assessment of the Caribbean and Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DL Elliott; CI Aspliden; GL Gower; CG Holladay, MN Schwartz

    1987-04-01

    A wind energy resource assessment of the Caribbean and Central America has identified many areas with good to outstanding wind resource potential for wind turbine applications. Annual average wind resource maps and summary tables have been developed for 35 island/country areas throughout the Caribbean and Central America region. The wind resource maps highlight the locations of major resource areas and provide estimates of the wind energy resource potential for typical well-exposed sites in these areas. The average energy in the wind flowing in the layer near the ground is expressed as a wind power class: the greater the average wind energy, the higher the wind power class. The summary tables that are included with each of the 35 island/country wind energy maps provide information on the frequency distribution of the wind speeds (expressed as estimates of the Weibull shape factor, k) and seasonal variations in the wind resource for the major wind resource areas identified on the maps. A new wind power class legend has been developed for relating the wind power classes to values of mean wind power density, mean wind speed, and Weibull k. Guidelines are presented on how to adjust these values to various heights above ground for different roughness and terrain characteristics. Information evaluated in preparing the assessment included existing meteorological data from airports and other weather stations, and from ships and buoys in offshore and coastal areas. In addition, new data from recent measurement sites established for wind energy siting studies were obtained for a few areas of the Caribbean. Other types of information evaluated in the assessment were climatological data and maps on winds aloft, surface pressure, air flow, and topography. The various data were screened and evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. Much of the surface data from airports and other land-based weather stations were determined to be from sheltered

  1. The selfish brain: Competition for energy resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes have become the major health problems in many industrialized countries. Here, I present the unconventional concept that a healthy organism maintains its systemic homeostasis by a "competent brain-pull", i.e., the brain's ability to properly demand glucose from the body, and that the underlying cause of obesity is "incompetent brain-pull." I describe the energy fluxes from the environment, through the body, toward the brain as the final consumer in a "supply chain" model. There is data-based support for the hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food abundance incompetent brain-pull will lead to build ups in the supply chain culminating in obesity and type 2 diabetes. There is also support for the related hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food deprivation, a competent brain-pull mechanism is indispensable for the continuation of the brain's high energy level. To experimentally determine how the competent brain-pull functions to demand for cerebral energy, healthy young men undergoing psychosocial stress were studied. It was found that the brain under stressful conditions demands for energy from the body by using a brain-pull mechanism, which is referred to as "cerebral insulin suppression" and in so doing it can satisfy its excessive needs during stress. This article gives an overview about the recent work on the "Selfish Brain" theory dealing with the maintenance of the cerebral and peripheral energy homeostasis. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Energy Crisis: Libya's and Nigeria's Role. Resource Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    This resource packet contains practical suggestions and resource materials to help secondary teachers teach about Libya's and Nigeria's roles in the energy crisis. Students become acquainted with the governments and cultures of the two countries, examine their social problems, and learn how the Libyan and Nigerian governments are using money from…

  3. Energy Crisis: Libya's and Nigeria's Role. Resource Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.

    This resource packet contains practical suggestions and resource materials to help secondary teachers teach about Libya's and Nigeria's roles in the energy crisis. Students become acquainted with the governments and cultures of the two countries, examine their social problems, and learn how the Libyan and Nigerian governments are using money from…

  4. Resource Letter DEAU-1: Dark energy and the accelerating universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2008-03-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on dark energy and the accelerating universe. It is intended to be of use to researchers, teachers, and students at several levels. Journal articles, books, and websites are cited for the following topics: Einstein's cosmological constant, quintessence or dynamical scalar fields, modified cosmic gravity, relations to high-energy physics, cosmological probes and observations, terrestrial probes, calculational tools and parameter estimation, teaching strategies and educational resources, and the fate of the universe.

  5. Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Networks: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Seyed Mahdi; Gomez, Carles

    2017-06-22

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained significant momentum. However, the original design of BLE focused on star topology networking, which limits network coverage range and precludes end-to-end path diversity. In contrast, other competing technologies overcome such constraints by supporting the mesh network topology. For these reasons, academia, industry, and standards development organizations have been designing solutions to enable BLE mesh networks. Nevertheless, the literature lacks a consolidated view on this emerging area. This paper comprehensively surveys state of the art BLE mesh networking. We first provide a taxonomy of BLE mesh network solutions. We then review the solutions, describing the variety of approaches that leverage existing BLE functionality to enable BLE mesh networks. We identify crucial aspects of BLE mesh network solutions and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we highlight currently open issues.

  6. Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Networks: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Seyed Mahdi; Gomez, Carles

    2017-01-01

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained significant momentum. However, the original design of BLE focused on star topology networking, which limits network coverage range and precludes end-to-end path diversity. In contrast, other competing technologies overcome such constraints by supporting the mesh network topology. For these reasons, academia, industry, and standards development organizations have been designing solutions to enable BLE mesh networks. Nevertheless, the literature lacks a consolidated view on this emerging area. This paper comprehensively surveys state of the art BLE mesh networking. We first provide a taxonomy of BLE mesh network solutions. We then review the solutions, describing the variety of approaches that leverage existing BLE functionality to enable BLE mesh networks. We identify crucial aspects of BLE mesh network solutions and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we highlight currently open issues. PMID:28640183

  7. Demand Response Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, M.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility particularly on future systems with high penetrations of variable wind an solar power generation. However, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado test system. We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating

  8. Wave energy resource assessment and review of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Nik, W.B.: Sulaiman, O.O. [Maritime Technology Department, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Rosliza, R. [TATI University College, Teluk Kalong, 24000 Kemaman, Terengganu, (Malaysia); Prawoto, Y. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Muzathik, A.M. [Institute of Technology, University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2011-07-01

    Increase in human population has increased the demand for more energy. Technical improvement in transport and electrical appliances gives a lot of facilities to our life nowadays. Still we need to generate or convert this energy. Energy generation based on conventional technologies is always accompanied by environmental pollution. It gives overheating and greenhouse effects that later result in biosphere degradation. Nowadays sea wave energy is being increasingly regarded in many countries as a major and promising resource. It is renewable and environmentally friendly. In this paper wave parameters related to wave energy is analyzed. Then the paper describes the development of many different types of wave-energy converters. Several topics are addressed; the characterization of the wave energy resource, range of devices and how such devices can be organized into classes.

  9. Renewable Energy Resources With Smart Microgrid Model In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikant Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of civilization is increasing energy consumption. Due to which India is facing an energy crisis. It is estimated that global energy demand will double in 2030. India Trhurga other developing countries will face a crisis. Returning to the problem Fall growth of renewable energy resources will increase. Even for electricity generation from renewable sources. Naturally replenished renewable energy such as sunlight wind rain tides and geothermal heat as will have to depend on natural resources. High energy demand and environmental concerns in the papers smart microgrid is forced to change the existing power grid. This paper dynamic demand response and smart microgrid for residential and industrial consumption in the context of renewable energy production including the proposed management approach. The objectives of this research renewable energy resources with a smart microgrid has played an important role. Power system in rural areas in India to meet growing energy demand. The model deployed PLC networks data management system sensors Switchgears Transformers and other utility tools to integrate Smart Grid Smart homes are used together. Analytical results Residential renewable energy generation and smart meters show the effectiveness of the proposed system to optimize control of the electrical grid and is designed to improve energy conservation.

  10. Wind energy resources in the Ionian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamanis, D. [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Ioannina, 30100 Agrinio (Greece); Tsabaris, C.; Georgopoulos, D. [Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, 190 13 Anavyssos, Attica (Greece); Stamoulis, K. [Center of Archaeometry, University of Ioannina, 45221 Ioannina (Greece)

    2011-02-15

    The wind speed and direction as well as the availability, the duration and the diurnal variation of two offshore sites, Zakinthos and Pylos (BZK and BPY) in the Ionian Sea were assessed. For an analysis period of two years, the mean wind speed at 10 m was determined as 5.7 {+-} 0.1 m s{sup -1} and 5.8 {+-} 0.1 m s{sup -1} for the BZK and BPY sites, respectively. The wind speed variations over the hours of the day were quite small. The monthly variation in the average wind speeds was between 4.3 (May) and 7.5 m s{sup -1} (December) for the BZK site and 4.4 (August) and 7.3 m s{sup -1} (December) for the BPY site. Moreover, QuikSCAT satellite mean values for the grids of the two buoy regions were systematically overestimated in comparison to the buoy data with differences in the range from 8 to 13%. Statistical analysis revealed the high QuikSCAT data uncertainty for wind speeds less than 5 m s{sup -1} as the major factor of the observed mean value differences. The mean wind power densities were calculated with the buoy wind speed measurements and were found more than 250 W m{sup -2} at 10 m, suggesting the suitability of the sites for offshore wind energy applications. Capacity factors of up to 48% for energy production were calculated with the existing offshore turbines technology at a hub height of 100 m. Furthermore, the energy yield for different wind turbines and a service life of 20 years were determined from 6.5 to 8.7 and the energy pay-back periods from 2.8 to 2.1 years, respectively. The maximum avoided greenhouse emissions were 140 kt CO{sub 2}-e for an offshore turbine generator of 5 MW and a period of 20 years. (author)

  11. Wind as a renewable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawsey, R. A.; Ferraro, R. J.

    1988-12-01

    A description of the United States wind energy technology status, a discussion of recent milestones achieved in wind power, and a call for action in order for competitive wind systems to become practical in an international marketplace is presented in this report. An immediate opportunity to initiate a joint venture project with the government, equipment developers, equipment manufacturers, utilities, and the Electric Power Research Institute is described. The key technical areas of materials technology for reduced airfoil fatigue, airfoil design for optimum new-site performance, and power electronics for variable-speed wind turbines are highlighted.

  12. Energy Survival: entertainment as a resource for local energy actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elburg, Henk van; Moosdijk, Catelijne van de [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, SenterNovem, the Dutch Broadcasting Corporation, a publishing company and a consortium of local authorities launched 'Energy Survival'; a renewing energy marketing strategy for children to create a demand for local energy actions. New elements are powerful branding and the use of cross media techniques through national TV, internet, local events and primary education. Through entertainment, Energy Survival influences children's attitude towards energy consumption and its convincing relation with the environment. It aims at qualifying children to become 'energy ambassadors' in their own local environment: family, school and neighbourhood. Energy Survival has become a well tested energy game-concept for children in whom public and private partners cooperate under one brand name and with a clear division of roles and interests. However, the backbone of the concept is the local approach: local actions in municipalities and in primary schools, supported by television and internet where children learn to deal with the upcoming energy challenges of the planet they will inherit. By providing an internet-based teaching method, especially primary schools will be an effective multiplier to reach children. Broadcasting the energy game on national TV on the one hand, and local events and preliminaries on the other hand, ensure opportunities for widespread 'duplication' of the concept, adapted to local policy priorities regarding sustainable energy because each municipality is permitted to choose its own themes. Despite the fact that the project is still young and that the partners consider it as a 'long term-investment', the first independent monitoring results indicate that Energy Survival so far is quite successful. Ratings of the first TV-series show a national market share of 20 % in the age group 6-12 years and significantly more interaction between children and their parents on energy related issues. The website

  13. Estimates of the global tidal range energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Peter; Walkington, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energy generation through tidal lagoons and barrages is an attractive energy source due to tidal predictability and the potential for energy storage. Yet so far, the annual tidal range resource has only been estimated at relatively coarse spatial resolutions and without detailed investigation of the temporal variation from individual or aggregated sites. In this study, we estimate the theoretical tidal range resource of the northwest European shelf seas, using the 3D Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) at roughly 1 km spatial resolution. Through tidal analysis of model output, we calculate the potential energy in both the rising and falling tides and, hence, show temporal variations in PE throughout the year. Based on a range of energy yield thresholds (rather than thresholds based on M2 range and water depth), we calculate the total annual theoretical resource from dual (flood and ebb) strategies. Using the FES global tidal model, which resolves tidal elevations at 1/16° resolution, the global resource was also estimated with the regions with the highest energy yield isolated. We discuss our estimates in relation to the yield that can actually be obtained mechanically, and in relation to the total energy flux of a region and the potential impacts of different lagoon scenarios on the local and far-field energy fluxes.

  14. Resources for Teaching about Energy in the Social Studies Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Robin; Stone, Kim

    1992-01-01

    Lists instructional resources for use by social studies teachers in teaching about energy. Includes curriculum materials, videotapes, organizations, government agencies, and industry trade associations that can provide information. Suggests items on energy conservation, global warming, ecology, nuclear power, fossil fuels, oil spills, and…

  15. Impact of future energy policy on water resources in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivotti, Pedro; Karatayev, Marat; Sobral Mourão, Zenaida; Shah, Nilay; Clarke, Michèle; Konadu, D. Dennis

    2017-04-01

    As part of its commitment to become one of the top-30 developed countries in the world, Kazakhstan set out an ambitious target of increasing the share of renewables and alternative sources of energy in its power generation mix to 50% by 2050. This vision greatly contrasts with the current situation, with coal and natural gas power plants producing around 90% of total electricity in 2016. While this transition provides a unique opportunity to improve the sustainability of the national energy system, major natural resources challenges currently faced in the country should be taken into account. Particularly in the case of water resources management, the current system is characterised by significant losses, heavy reliance on irrigation for the agricultural sector, unevenly distributed surface water, vulnerability to climate change and variations in transboundary inflows, amongst other issues. In this context, this study aims to investigate the future availability of water resources to support food production and the transition to a new energy system. Given the challenges mentioned above, tackling this question requires an integrated analysis of the water-energy-food systems in Kazakhstan. This is done in three stages: (1) characterising the water supply and demand in the country; (2) establishing the linkages between water resources and activities in the power production and agricultural sectors; and (3) identifying potential conflicts at the nexus between water, energy and food, taking into account future energy policy scenarios, trends for food production and water resource use.

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, A; Sinding-Larsen, R

    1988-01-01

    This volume contains the edited papers prepared by lecturers and participants of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Statistical Treatments for Estimation of Mineral and Energy Resources" held at II Ciocco (Lucca), Italy, June 22 - July 4, 1986. During the past twenty years, tremendous efforts have been made to acquire quantitative geoscience information from ore deposits, geochemical, geophys ical and remotely-sensed measurements. In October 1981, a two-day symposium on "Quantitative Resource Evaluation" and a three-day workshop on "Interactive Systems for Multivariate Analysis and Image Processing for Resource Evaluation" were held in Ottawa, jointly sponsored by the Geological Survey of Canada, the International Association for Mathematical Geology, and the International Geological Correlation Programme. Thirty scientists from different countries in Europe and North America were invited to form a forum for the discussion of quantitative methods for mineral and energy resource assessment. Since then, not ...

  17. Reducing LTE Uplink Transmission Energy by Allocating Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Jensen, Anders Riis; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical resource block (PRB) allocation on an LTE modem's transmit power and total modem energy consumption is examined. In this paper the uplink resource blocks are scheduled in either a Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) or Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) manner......, to determine if low transmission power & long transmission time or high transmission power & short transmission time is most energy efficient. It is important to minimize the LTE modem's energy consumption caused by uplink transmission because it affects phone battery time, and because researchers rarely focus...

  18. From Bunker to Building: Results from the 2010 Chief Human Resource Officer Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patrick M.; Stewart, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the researchers, with funding from the Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies (CAHRS), began conducting the annual Chief Human Resource Officers (CHRO) Survey. The 2009 survey was sent to CHROs at the U.S. Fortune 150 companies, as well as to ten other CHROs at CAHRS partner companies. That survey focused on understanding how CHROs…

  19. Energy and Minerals Science at the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Richard C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.; Bills, Donald J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Cordier, Daniel J.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Hein, James R.; Kelley, Karen D.; Nelson, Philip H.; Nuccio, Vito F.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Seal, Robert R., II

    2013-01-01

    The economy, national security, and standard of living of the United States depend on adequate and reliable supplies of energy and mineral resources. Based on population and consumption trends, the Nation’s and World’s use of energy and minerals is expected to grow, driving the demand for scientific understanding of resource formation, location, and availability. The importance of environmental stewardship and human health in sustainable growth emphasizes the need for a broader understanding of energy and mineral resources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a world leader in conducting research needed to address these challenges and to provide a scientific foundation for policy and decisionmaking with respect to resource use, sustainability, environmental protection, and an adaptive resource management approach.

  20. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  1. Quantitative variability of renewable energy resources in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Konstantinos; Varlas, George; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Katsafados, Petros; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Based on European Union (EU) targets for 2030, the share of renewable energy (RE) consumption should be increased at 27%. RE resources such as hydropower, wind, wave power and solar power are strongly depending on the chaotic behavior of the weather conditions and climate. Due to this dependency, the prediction of the spatiotemporal variability of the RE resources is more crucial factor than in other energy resources (i.e. carbon based energy). The fluctuation of the RE resources can affect the development of the RE technologies, the energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the variability of the potential RE resources in Norway. More specifically, hydropower, wind, wave, and solar power are quantitatively analyzed and correlated with respect to various spatial and temporal scales. In order to analyze the diversities and their interrelationships, reanalysis and observational data of wind, precipitation, wave, and solar radiation are used for a quantitative assessment. The results indicate a high variability of marine RE resources in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea.

  2. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  3. Energy Resources Performance Report, FY 1991 and FY 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-07-01

    Once the Federal Columbia River Power System provided all the power our customers needed and surplus energy, which we sold to others. However, we planned for the time when the surplus would disappear. With our customers, we developed centralized, region-wide conservation programs to conserve energy and build the knowledge and ability to save more energy when needed. We began to look at conservation as a resource, comparing it with supply-side alternatives. Much was accomplished. In Bonneville`s service area in the 1980s, our customers acquired 300 average megawatts (aMW) of conservation savings. How? By weatherizing about 240,000 homes, by making aluminum plants, other industrial plants and commercial buildings more efficient, and also by encouraging states to adopt energy-efficient building codes. Now, our energy surplus is gone. Our customers need energy, and in a hurry. While we plan how much energy will be needed, when and by which customers, we must concurrently accelerate our efforts to acquire resources. Our 1990 Resource Program launched a strategy to do just that, starting in 1991 and 1992, with continuing activities in 1993--1995. The goals and plans of the 1990 Resource Program are still being implemented.

  4. Potential for natural evaporation as a reliable renewable energy resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, Ahmet-Hamdi; Chen, Xi; Gentine, Pierre; Sahin, Ozgur

    2017-09-26

    About 50% of the solar energy absorbed at the Earth's surface drives evaporation, fueling the water cycle that affects various renewable energy resources, such as wind and hydropower. Recent advances demonstrate our nascent ability to convert evaporation energy into work, yet there is little understanding about the potential of this resource. Here we study the energy available from natural evaporation to predict the potential of this ubiquitous resource. We find that natural evaporation from open water surfaces could provide power densities comparable to current wind and solar technologies while cutting evaporative water losses by nearly half. We estimate up to 325 GW of power is potentially available in the United States. Strikingly, water's large heat capacity is sufficient to control power output by storing excess energy when demand is low, thus reducing intermittency and improving reliability. Our findings motivate the improvement of materials and devices that convert energy from evaporation.The evaporation of water represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Building on previous models of evaporation, Cavusoglu et al. show that the power available from this natural resource is comparable to wind and solar power, yet it does not suffer as much from varying weather conditions.

  5. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  6. Fiscal 1995 verification survey of geothermal exploration technology. Report on a deep geothermal resource survey; 1995 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk of deep geothermal resource development, the paper investigated three factors for the formation of geothermal resource in the deep underground, that is, heat supply from heat source, supply of geothermal fluids, and the developmental status of fracture systems forming reservoir structures. The survey further clarified the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system including shallow geothermal energy in order to research/study usability of deep geothermal resource. In the deep geothermal resource survey, drilling/examination were made of a deep geothermal exploration well (`WD-1,` target depth: approximately 3,000-4,000m) in the already developed area, with the aim of making rationalized promotion of the geothermal development. And the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system were clarified to investigate/study usability of the geothermal system. In fiscal 1995, `WD-1` in the Kakkonda area reached a depth of 3,729m. By this, surveys were made to grasp the whole image of the shallow-deep geothermal system and to obtain basic data for researching usability of deep geothermal resource. 22 refs., 531 figs., 136 tabs.

  7. 77 FR 10480 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Hawaii Resident Resource Users...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... stewardship of reef resources. Conservation planners will gain information about the threats and status of... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Hawaii Resident Resource Users' Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Coral Reefs in Two...

  8. International Human Resource Management Education: A Survey of HR Professionals, Suggestions for Skill Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lizabeth A.; Wagner-Marsh, Fraya; Loewe, G. Michael

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed a human resource professional association about training and interest in international human resources management. Based on results, offers recommendations for expanding coverage of this topic in credit and non-credit courses. (EV)

  9. Energy Efficiency in Small Server Rooms: Field Surveys and Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Iris [Hoi; Greenberg, Steve; Mahdavi, Roozbeh; Brown, Richard; Tschudi, William

    2014-08-11

    Fifty-seven percent of US servers are housed in server closets, server rooms, and localized data centers, in what are commonly referred to as small server rooms, which comprise 99percent of all server spaces in the US. While many mid-tier and enterprise-class data centers are owned by large corporations that consider energy efficiency a goal to minimize business operating costs, small server rooms typically are not similarly motivated. They are characterized by decentralized ownership and management and come in many configurations, which creates a unique set of efficiency challenges. To develop energy efficiency strategies for these spaces, we surveyed 30 small server rooms across eight institutions, and selected four of them for detailed assessments. The four rooms had Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) values ranging from 1.5 to 2.1. Energy saving opportunities ranged from no- to low-cost measures such as raising cooling set points and better airflow management, to more involved but cost-effective measures including server consolidation and virtualization, and dedicated cooling with economizers. We found that inefficiencies mainly resulted from organizational rather than technical issues. Because of the inherent space and resource limitations, the most effective measure is to operate servers through energy-efficient cloud-based services or well-managed larger data centers, rather than server rooms. Backup power requirement, and IT and cooling efficiency should be evaluated to minimize energy waste in the server space. Utility programs are instrumental in raising awareness and spreading technical knowledge on server operation, and the implementation of energy efficiency measures in small server rooms.

  10. Critical resources in clean energy technologies and waste flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal

    A broader implementation of clean energy technologies in future is a widely motivated scenario for meeting the climate change goals as well as to reduce our dependency on the non‐renewable fossil fuels. However, the transition from the current fossil‐based society to a future low‐carbon society...... constraints for the emerging clean energy technologies in future, along with an insight into the resource criticality assessment methodologies, detailed material flow analysis (MFA) of critical resources, and recovery of critical resources from the waste streams. The key findings of this PhD study were......:  The demand of neodymium and dysprosium, driven by the clean energy technologies is estimated to be 10 times higher by 2050 compared to the present primary supply (mining). This implies that either a highly accelerated rate of mining is required to meet the future demand or a radical change in current...

  11. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  12. Geothermal Energy Resource Development Reporting and Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Arnold

    1977-02-01

    A Monitoring System is described for reporting, in a timely and comprehensive fashion, the important aspects of the development and utilization of geothermal energy in the United States. The Federal program for geothermal energy addresses technological, environmental, institutional, economic and financial problems. The system for monitoring geothermal resource development has been designed to measure progress in developing geothermal energy online and progress in enabling geothermal resources for development, thereby increasing the potential for future exploitation of geothermal resources, as a consequence of successes in the Federal program in solving technological, environmental, institutional, economic and financial problems that currently impede exploitation of geothermal resources. The key indicator of progress in the development of geothermal energy will be ''power online''. Projections of power online will signal deviations from national goals with sufficient warning time to effect corrective action. Correlation of Federal programs with national progress indicators will show where corrective action is needed. Preliminary indicators of geothermal resource development, based on very limited data, are presented. The analyses are illustrative rather than definitive. Some conclusions are drawn from these analyses.

  13. Evaluating Programs That Promote Climate and Energy Education-Meeting Teacher Needs for Online Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynds, S. E.; Buhr, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN) Pathway, is a National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Pathways project that was begun in 2010. The main goal of CLEAN is to generate a reviewed collection of educational resources that are aligned with the Essential Principles of Climate Science (EPCS). Another goal of the project is to support a community that will assist students, teachers, and citizens in climate literacy. A complementary program begun in 2010 is the ICEE (Inspiring Climate Education Excellence) program, which is developing online modules and courses designed around the climate literacy principles for use by teachers and other interested citizens. In these projects, we learn about teacher needs through a variety of evaluation mechanisms. The programs use evaluation to assist in the process of providing easy access to high quality climate and energy learning resources that meet classroom requirements. The internal evaluation of the CLEAN program is multidimensional. At the CLEAN resource review camps, teachers and scientists work together in small groups to assess the value of online resources for use in the classroom. The review camps are evaluated using observation and feedback surveys; the resulting evaluation reports provide information to managers to fine-tune future camps. In this way, a model for effective climate resource development meetings has been refined. Evaluation methods used in ICEE and CLEAN include teacher needs assessment surveys, teacher feedback at professional development opportunities, scientist feedback at resource review workshops, and regular analysis of online usage of resources, forums, and education modules. This paper will review the most successful strategies for evaluating the effectiveness of online climate and energy education resources and their use by educators and the general public.

  14. Identifying Fossil Shell Resources via Geophysical Surveys: Chesapeake Bay Region, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 4 Chesapeake Fossil Shell Survey Identifying Fossil Shell Resources via Geophysical Surveys: Chesapeake Bay Region...other technical reports published by ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. Chesapeake Fossil Shell...Survey ERDC/CHL TR-16-4 May 2016 Identifying Fossil Shell Resources via Geophysical Surveys: Chesapeake Bay Region, Virginia Heidi M. Wadman and Jesse

  15. Distributed energy resources and benefits to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akorede, Mudathir Funsho; Hizam, Hashim; Pouresmaeil, Edris

    2010-01-01

    with widespread adoption of distributed generation (DG) technologies that feed on renewable energy sources, in the generation of electric power. This paper gives a detailed overview of distributed energy resources technologies, and also discusses the devastating impacts of the conventional power plants feeding......The recently released report of the International Energy Outlook (IEO2009) projects an increase of 44% in the world energy demand from 2006 to 2030, and 77% rise in the net electricity generation worldwide in the same period. However, threatening in the said report is that 80% of the total...

  16. Renewable resources and renewable energy a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasiero, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    As energy demands continue to surge worldwide, the need for efficient and environmentally neutral energy production becomes increasingly apparent. In its first edition, this book presented a well-rounded perspective on the development of bio-based feedstocks, biodegradable plastics, hydrogen energy, fuel cells, and other aspects related to renewable resources and sustainable energy production. The new second edition builds upon this foundation to explore new trends and technologies. The authors pay particular attention to hydrogen-based and fuel cell-based technologies and provide real-world c

  17. Sustainable energy resources and economics in Iceland and Greenland

    CERN Document Server

    Kristjánsdóttir, Helga

    2015-01-01

    This book provides fascinating examples of the ways renewable and sustainable energy can support economic growth, which will be illuminating for academic researchers and students, as well as those interested in green investment opportunities. The distinctive glacial, volcanic and oceanic environments of Iceland and Greenland supply abundant renewable energy resources in the form of hydropower and geothermal energy. As one of the few nations in the world with 100% renewable electricity production, Iceland is a compelling case study of a sustainable energy driven economy. Consideration of Green

  18. Energy based Efficient Resource Scheduling in Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Vasumathi,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is an evolving area of efficient utilization of computing resources. Data centers accommodating Cloud applications ingest massive quantities of energy, contributing to high functioning expenditures and carbon footprints to the atmosphere. Hence, Green Cloud computing resolutions are required not only to save energy for the environment but also to decrease operating charges. In this paper, we emphasis on the development of energy based resource scheduling framework and present an algorithm that consider the synergy between various data center infrastructures (i.e., software, hardware, etc., and performance. In specific, this paper proposes (a architectural principles for energy efficient management of Clouds; (b energy efficient resource allocation strategies and scheduling algorithm considering Quality of Service (QoS outlooks. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been evaluated with the existing energy based scheduling algorithms. The experimental results demonstrate that this approach is effective in minimizing the cost and energy consumption of Cloud applications thus moving towards the achievement of Green Clouds.

  19. Resource management for energy and spectrum harvesting sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Deyu; Zhou, Haibo; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief offers a comprehensive review and in-depth discussion of the current research on resource management. The authors explain how to best utilize harvested energy and temporally available licensed spectrum. Throughout the brief, the primary focus is energy and spectrum harvesting sensor networks (ESHNs) including energy harvesting (EH)-powered spectrum sensing and dynamic spectrum access. To efficiently collect data through the available licensed spectrum, this brief examines the joint management of energy and spectrum. An EH-powered spectrum sensing and management scheme for Heterogeneous Spectrum Harvesting Sensor Networks (HSHSNs) is presented in this brief. The scheme dynamically schedules the data sensing and spectrum access of sensors in ESHSNs to optimize the network utility, while considering the stochastic nature of EH process, PU activities and channel conditions. This brief also provides useful insights for the practical resource management scheme design for ESHSNs and motivates a ne...

  20. [Key content and formulation of national Chinese materia medica resources survey at county level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hai-Tao; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Run-Huai; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-08-01

    According to National Census for Water, National Population Census, National Land and Resources Survey, and work experience of experimental measures for national Chinese materia medica resources(CMMR) survey,the national CMMR survey at the county level is the key point of whole survey, that includes organization and management, field survey, sorting data three key links. Organization and management works of national CMMR survey needs to finish four key contents, there are definite goals and tasks, practicable crew, preparation directory, and security assurance. Field survey works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish five key contents, there are preparation works for field survey, the choice of the key survey area (samples), fill in the questionnaire, video data collection, specimen and other physical collection. Sorting data works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish tree key contents, there are data, specimen and census results.

  1. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakun V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  2. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, S.; Rafikova, J.; Shakun, V.

    2012-10-01

    During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  3. National Training Center Fort Irwin expansion area aquatic resources survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.

    1996-02-01

    Biologists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were requested by personnel from Fort Irwin to conduct a biological reconnaissance of the Avawatz Mountains northeast of Fort Irwin, an area for proposed expansion of the Fort. Surveys of vegetation, small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and aquatic resources were conducted during 1995 to characterize the populations and habitats present with emphasis on determining the presence of any species of special concern. This report presents a description of the sites sampled, a list of the organisms found and identified, and a discussion of relative abundance. Taxonomic identifications were done to the lowest level possible commensurate with determining the status of the taxa relative to its possible listing as a threatened, endangered, or candidate species. Consultation with taxonomic experts was undertaken for the Coleoptera ahd Hemiptera. In addition to listing the macroinvertebrates found, the authors also present a discussion related to the possible presence of any threatened or endangered species or species of concern found in Sheep Creek Springs, Tin Cabin Springs, and the Amargosa River.

  4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory information resources catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    NREL`s first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL`s outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be assessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL`s series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL`s General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  5. Final Technical Report: Renewable Energy Feasibility Study and Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Mariah [BEC Environmental, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-02-28

    In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded White Pine County, Nevada, a grant to assess the feasibility of renewable resource-related economic development activities in the area. The grant project included a public outreach and training component and was to include a demonstration project; however, the demonstration project was not completed due to lack of identification of an entity willing to locate a project in White Pine County. White Pine County completed the assessment of renewable resources and a feasibility study on the potential for a renewable energy-focused economic sector within the County. The feasibility study concluded "all resources studied were present and in sufficient quantity and quality to warrant consideration for development" and there were varying degrees of potential economic impact based on the resource type and project size. The feasibility study and its components were to be used as tools to attract potential developers and other business ventures to the local market. White Pine County also marketed the County’s resources to the renewable energy business community in an effort to develop contracts for demonstration projects. The County also worked to develop partnerships with local educational institutions, including the White Pine County School District, conducted outreach and training for the local community.

  6. Effective management of combined renewable energy resources in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Khasan S; Akhmedov, Khakim M; Abid, Muhammad; Petrov, Georgiy N

    2013-09-01

    Water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between downstream countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those upstream countries, which use water for generation of electric power. At present Uzbekistan is blocking railway connection that is going to Tajikistan to interfere to transportation of the equipment and materials for construction of Rogun hydropower plant. In order to avoid conflicts between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan a number of measures for the utilization of water resources of the trans-boundary Rivers Amu-Darya and Sir-Darya are discussed. In addition, utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy projects for proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia; export-import exchanges of electric energy in summer and winter time between neighboring countries; development of small hydropower project, modern irrigation system in main water consuming countries and large water reservoir hydropower projects for control of water resources for hydropower and irrigation are also discussed. It is also concluded that an effective management of water resources can be achieved by signing Water treaty between upstream and downstream countries, first of all between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In this paper management of water as renewable energy resource in Tajikistan and Central Asian Republics are presented. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Energy needs, uses, and resources in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmedo, P.F.; Nathans, R.; Beardsworth, E.; Hale, S. Jr.

    1978-03-01

    The report identifies the energy needs, uses, and resources in the developing countries of the world and examines the energy options available to them for their continued social and economic growth. If traditional patterns of development are to continue, oil consumption in the non-OPEC LDCs will grow steadily to become comparable with current U.S. consumption between 2000 and 2020. Attempts to exploit indigenous hydrocarbon resources even in those LDCs with untapped reserves will be limited by shortages of capital and technical manpower. In the absence of major actions to replace noncommercial fuels or to increase the effectiveness with which they are used, a large fraction of the 3 to 4 billion LDC rural population in the year 2000 will not be able to raise their energy usage above subsistence levels. There is a wide variety of solutions to these problems, many of them emerging directly from the changed economics of energy. For example, most LDCs have not adequately explored and developed their own indigenous resources; in virtually all energy conversion and utilization processes there are opportunities for improvements in efficiency and substitution of renewable energy forms. In virtually all these areas there are opportunities for effective assistance activities.

  8. The Energy Disclosure Among Energy Intensive Companies in Malaysia: A Resource Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyana Tasrip Nabila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the extent of, and factors influencing, energy disclosure in Malaysia. We content analysed the annual reports of top 100 energy intensive companies for the year 2014. Using resource-based theory, we analysed if companies’ tangible and intangible resources as well as human capabilities determine the extent of energy disclosure. Overall, the disclosure is low with an average ‘occurrence’ of energy-related information of 3.53. We also find that the ‘Top Brand Value’ companies and companies with a larger number of directors serving on the board tend to provide greater energy disclosures. However, other variables - in particular tangible resources - have no significant influence. The findings provide tentative evidence to support the arguments of resource-based theory.

  9. 1995 Annual wildlife survey report. Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-25

    This report summarizes the results of wildlife surveys performed at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) from January through December of 1995 as compared with results from previous years. These surveys were performed as part of a long-term ecological monitoring program conducted under the Natural Resource Protection and Compliance Program (NRPCP). This program is essential in identifying and describing fluctuations of wildlife populations, wildlife habitat use, and changes in species using RFETS. The NRPCP provides support to the Department of Energy (DOE) in its role as Natural Resource Trustee, and provides data essential to accomplishing the goal of preserving the unique ecological values of RFETS in keeping with the Rocky Flats Vision presented in the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Public Comment Draft. Wildlife population densities vary due to natural pressures and human influences, and only long-term monitoring can verify which factors influencing wildlife populations are the consequence of natural fluctuations, and which are due to human influences. The wildlife monitoring described in this report provides qualitative data that give an indication of the ecological health of RFETS. Monitoring numbers, habitat affinities, and apparent health of the wildlife populations makes it possible to evaluate the overall ecological health of the site. Monitoring and surveys such as those carried out by the NRPCP can indicate trends of this sort, and act as an {open_quotes}early warning system{close_quotes} for impending ecological problems.

  10. Energy and Resource Recovery from Sludge. State of Science Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogo, Y.; Monteith, H. [Hydromantis Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    There is general consensus among sanitary engineering professionals that municipal wastewater and wastewater sludge is not a 'waste', but a potential source of valuable resources. The subject is a major interest to the members of the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC). The GWRC is therefore preparing a strategic research plan related to energy and resource recovery from wastewater sludge. The initial focus of the strategy will be on sewage sludge as water reuse aspects have been part of earlier studies. The plan will define new research orientations for deeper investigation. The current state of science (SoS) Report was prepared as the preliminary phase of GWRC's future strategic research plan on energy and resource recovery from sludge.

  11. Process applications for geothermal energy resources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C.; Packer, M.B.; Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1981-08-01

    The principal goal of the program was to demonstrate economical and technical suitability of geothermal energy as a source of industrial process heat through a cooperative program with industrial firms. To accomplish that: a critical literature survey in the field was performed; a workshop with the paper and pulp industry representatives was organized; and four parallel methods dealing with technical and economical details of geothermal energy use as a source of industrial process heat were developed.

  12. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  13. Capacity of Distribution Feeders for Hosting Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanassiou, S.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Anagnostopoulos, P.

    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of distributed energy resources (DER) all over the world. Several countries have adopted a variety of support schemes (feed-in tariffs, green certificates, direct subsidies, tax exemptions etc.) so as to promote distributed generation (DG...

  14. 78 FR 78466 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... should be limited to one printed page. Written comments are also invited and may be mailed to the Regional Energy Resource Council, Tennessee Valley Authority, 400 West Summit Hill Drive, WT-11 B... Tennessee Valley Authority, 400 West Summit Hill Drive, Knoxville, TN 37902 and will be open to the...

  15. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  16. Distributed optimal coordination for distributed energy resources in power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Di; Yang, Tao; Stoorvogel, A.

    2017-01-01

    Driven by smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources (DERs) have been rapidly developing in recent years for improving reliability and efficiency of distribution systems. Emerging DERs require effective and efficient coordination in order to reap their potential benefits. In this paper...

  17. Teaching About Energy. Vol. 3. Units 3 through 8 of the Energy 80 Resource Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise for Education, Santa Monica, CA.

    This document is the third of a three-volume teacher resource book for use with the Energy 80 energy education program. The program is designed to enhance students' understanding of energy, either through supplements to traditional courses, such as mathematics, science, social studies, or homemaking, or by developing a mini-course or…

  18. ERG--Energy Resources Game: Simulation Gaming of Regional Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Lyle P.; Laessig, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    ERG--the Energy Resources Game--is a computer based game which explores questions regarding regional energy supply and demand, such as population and economic growth goals; acceptable levels of dependence on imported energy; and acceptable levels of environmental impact. (JA)

  19. Teaching About Energy. Vol. 2. Units 1 and 2 of the Energy 80 Resource Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise for Education, Santa Monica, CA.

    This document is the second of a three-volume teacher resource book for use with the Energy 80 energy education program. The program is designed to enhance students' understanding of energy, either through supplements to traditional courses, such as mathematics, science, social studies, or homemaking, or by developing a mini-course or…

  20. Development of synthetic analysis program concerning on the safety of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S. H.; Choi, S. S.; Cheong, Y. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Chang, W. J. [Atomic Creative Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Methodology development of synthetic analysis of energy resources: build system methodology of synthetic analysis of energy resources. Development of web-based enquete program, develop web-based enquete program to support synthetic analysis of energy resources. Aggregation Software development, develop AHP algorithm and aggregation software for the synthetic analysis of energy resources.

  1. Unconventional energy resources in a crowded subsurface: Reducing uncertainty and developing a separation zone concept for resource estimation and deep 3D subsurface planning using legacy mining data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Alison A

    2017-12-01

    Over significant areas of the UK and western Europe, anthropogenic alteration of the subsurface by mining of coal has occurred beneath highly populated areas which are now considering a multiplicity of 'low carbon' unconventional energy resources including shale gas and oil, coal bed methane, geothermal energy and energy storage. To enable decision making on the 3D planning, licensing and extraction of these resources requires reduced uncertainty around complex geology and hydrogeological and geomechanical processes. An exemplar from the Carboniferous of central Scotland, UK, illustrates how, in areas lacking hydrocarbon well production data and 3D seismic surveys, legacy coal mine plans and associated boreholes provide valuable data that can be used to reduce the uncertainty around geometry and faulting of subsurface energy resources. However, legacy coal mines also limit unconventional resource volumes since mines and associated shafts alter the stress and hydrogeochemical state of the subsurface, commonly forming pathways to the surface. To reduce the risk of subsurface connections between energy resources, an example of an adapted methodology is described for shale gas/oil resource estimation to include a vertical separation or 'stand-off' zone between the deepest mine workings, to ensure the hydraulic fracturing required for shale resource production would not intersect legacy coal mines. Whilst the size of such separation zones requires further work, developing the concept of 3D spatial separation and planning is key to utilising the crowded subsurface energy system, whilst mitigating against resource sterilisation and environmental impacts, and could play a role in positively informing public and policy debate. Copyright © 2017 British Geological Survey, a component institute of NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  3. MADLVF: An Energy Efficient Resource Utilization Approach for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Verma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Last few decades have remained the witness of steeper growth in demand for higher computational power. It is merely due to shift from the industrial age to Information and Communication Technology (ICT age which was marginally the result of digital revolution. Such trend in demand caused establishment of large-scale data centers situated at geographically apart locations. These large-scale data centers consume a large amount of electrical energy which results into very high operating cost and large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 emission due to resource underutilization. We propose MADLVF algorithm to overcome the problems such as resource underutilization, high energy consumption, and large CO2 emissions. Further, we present a comparative study between the proposed algorithm and MADRS algorithms showing proposed methodology outperforms over the existing one in terms of energy consumption and the number of VM migrations.

  4. Optimum selection of an energy resource using fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouelnaga, Ayah E., E-mail: ayahabouelnaga@hotmail.co [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, 21544 Alexandria (Egypt); Metwally, Abdelmohsen; Nagy, Mohammad E.; Agamy, Saeed [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, 21544 Alexandria (Egypt)

    2009-12-15

    Optimum selection of an energy resource is a vital issue in developed countries. Considering energy resources as alternatives (nuclear, hydroelectric, gas/oil, and solar) and factors upon which the proper decision will be taken as attributes (economics, availability, environmental impact, and proliferation), one can use the multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) to optimize the selection process. Recently, fuzzy logic is extensively applied to the MAUT as it expresses the linguistic appraisal for all attributes in wide and reliable manners. The rise in oil prices and the increased concern about environmental protection from CO{sub 2} emissions have promoted the attention to the use of nuclear power as a viable energy source for power generation. For Egypt, as a case study, the nuclear option is found to be an appropriate choice. Following the introduction of innovative designs of nuclear power plants, improvements in the proliferation resistance, environmental impacts, and economics will enhance the selection of the nuclear option.

  5. Learning About Energy Resources Through Student Created Video Documentaries in the University Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, P.; Courtney, A.

    2010-12-01

    Students enrolled in an undergraduate non-science majors’ Energy Perspectives course created 10-15 minute video documentaries on topics related to Energy Resources and the Environment. Video project topics included wave, biodiesel, clean coal, hydro, solar and “off-the-grid” energy technologies. No student had any prior experience with creating video projects. Students had Liberal Arts academic backgrounds that included Anthropology, Theater Arts, International Studies, English and Early Childhood Education. Students were required to: 1) select a topic, 2) conduct research, 3) write a narrative, 4) construct a project storyboard, 5) shoot or acquire video and photos (from legal sources), 6) record the narrative, and 7) construct the video documentary. This study describes the instructional approach of using student created video documentaries as projects in an undergraduate non-science majors’ science course. Two knowledge survey instruments were used for assessment purposes. Each instrument was administered Pre-, Mid- and Post course. One survey focused on the skills necessary to research and produce video documentaries. Results showed students acquired enhanced technology skills especially with regard to research techniques, writing skills and video editing. The second survey assessed students’ content knowledge acquired from each documentary. Results indicated students’ increased their content knowledge of energy resource topics. Students reported very favorable evaluations concerning their experience with creating “Ken Burns” video project documentaries.

  6. Hawaii Energy Strategy: Program guide. [Contains special sections on analytical energy forecasting, renewable energy resource assessment, demand-side energy management, energy vulnerability assessment, and energy strategy integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy program, or HES, is a set of seven projects which will produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. It will include a comprehensive energy vulnerability assessment with recommended courses of action to decrease Hawaii's energy vulnerability and to better prepare for an effective response to any energy emergency or supply disruption. The seven projects are designed to increase understanding of Hawaii's energy situation and to produce recommendations to achieve the State energy objectives of: Dependable, efficient, and economical state-wide energy systems capable of supporting the needs of the people, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The seven projects under the Hawaii Energy Strategy program include: Project 1: Develop Analytical Energy Forecasting Model for the State of Hawaii. Project 2: Fossil Energy Review and Analysis. Project 3: Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. Project 4: Demand-Side Management Program. Project 5: Transportation Energy Strategy. Project 6: Energy Vulnerability Assessment Report and Contingency Planning. Project 7: Energy Strategy Integration and Evaluation System.

  7. Wave energy resource in the Estaca de Bares area (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, G.; Carballo, R. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, EPS, Hydraulic Eng., Campus Univ. s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The area around Cape Estaca de Bares (the northernmost point of Iberia) presents a great potential for wave energy exploitation owing to its prominent position, with average deepwater wave power values exceeding 40 kW/m. The newly available SIMAR-44 dataset, composed of hindcast data spanning 44 years (1958-2001), is used alongside wave buoy data and numerical modelling to assess this substantial energy resource in detail. Most of the energy is provided by waves from the IV quadrant, generated by the prevailing westerlies blowing over the long Atlantic fetch. Combined scatter and energy diagrams are used to characterise the wave energy available in an average year in terms of the sea states involved. The lion's share is shown to correspond to significant wave heights between 2 and 5 m and energy periods between 11 and 14 s. The nearshore energy patterns are then examined using a coastal wave model (SWAN) with reference to four situations: average wave energy, growing wave energy (at the approach of a storm), extreme wave energy (at the peak of the storm) and decaying wave energy (as the storm recedes). The irregular bathymetry is found to produce local concentrations of wave energy in the nearshore between Cape Prior and Cape Ortegal and in front of Cape Estaca de Bares, with similar patterns (but varying wave power) in the four cases. These nearshore areas of enhanced wave energy are of the highest interest as prospective sites for a wave energy operation. The largest of them is directly in the lee of a large underwater mount west of Cape Ortegal. In sum, the Estaca de Bares area emerges as one of the most promising for wave energy exploitation in Europe. (author)

  8. Energy intensive industry for Alaska. Volume I: Alaskan cost factors; market factors; survey of energy-intensive industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, W.H.; Clement, M.; Baker, E.G.; Elliot, D.C.; Jacobsen, J.J.; Powers, T.B.; Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The Alaskan and product market factors influencing industry locations in the state are discussed and a survey of the most energy intensive industries was made. Factors external to Alaska that would influence development and the cost of energy and labor in Alaska are analyzed. Industries that are likely to be drawn to Alaska because of its energy resources are analyzed in terms of: the cost of using Alaska energy resources in Alaska as opposed to the Lower 48; skill-adjusted wage and salary differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48; and basic plant and equipment and other operating cost differentials between relevant Alaskan areas and the Lower 48. Screening and evaluation of the aluminum metal industry, cement industry, chlor-alkali industry, lime industry, production of methanol from coal, petroleum refining, and production of petrochemicals and agrichemicals from North Slope natural gas for development are made.

  9. Stochastic Resource Allocation for Energy-Constrained Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachs DanielGrobe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery-powered wireless systems running media applications have tight constraints on energy, CPU, and network capacity, and therefore require the careful allocation of these limited resources to maximize the system's performance while avoiding resource overruns. Usually, resource-allocation problems are solved using standard knapsack-solving techniques. However, when allocating conservable resources like energy (which unlike CPU and network remain available for later use if they are not used immediately knapsack solutions suffer from excessive computational complexity, leading to the use of suboptimal heuristics. We show that use of Lagrangian optimization provides a fast, elegant, and, for convex problems, optimal solution to the allocation of energy across applications as they enter and leave the system, even if the exact sequence and timing of their entrances and exits is not known. This permits significant increases in achieved utility compared to heuristics in common use. As our framework requires only a stochastic description of future workloads, and not a full schedule, we also significantly expand the scope of systems that can be optimized.

  10. Wind energy literature survey no. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2008-01-01

    To keep readers up-to-date in the field, each issue of Wind Energy will contain a list of relevant published articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Also note that the inclusion in the list...

  11. Wind energy literature survey no. 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Christian

    2008-01-01

    To keep readers up-to-date in the field, each issue of Wind Energy will contain a list of relevant published articles drawn from recent issues of a large number of periodicals including Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, International Journal of Energy Research, Renewable...... Energy, Energy Sources, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, Electric Power Components and Systems along with a number of periodicals published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), etc. The list is limited exclusively...... to journals not specifically devoted to wind energy and its applications. To assist the reader, the list is separated into broad categories. Although many papers fit several categories, each paper is listed only once under the category thought most appropriate. Also note that the inclusion in the list...

  12. Energy Survey. Spring 2012; Energie Enquete. Voorjaar 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strijker, B. [VNU Exhibitions, Utrecht (Netherlands); Van Elburg, A. [Energiemedia, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    Nearly 5000 professionals in various branches in the Netherlands (Industry, Construction and real estate, Business services and consultancy, Government, Architecture) have been asked questions about their strategy in the field of energy saving and energy generation. Fourteen questions have been asked, divided into the following subcategories: Energy and energy saving in the organization; Current use of sustainable energy sources; Investing in energy saving and sustainable energy sources; Propositions [Dutch] Bijna 5000 professionals binnen verschillende branches in Nederland (Industrie, Bouw en vastgoed, Zakelijke dienstverlening en consultancy, Overheid, Architectuur) zijn ondervraagd over hun strategie op het gebied van energiebesparing en energieopwekking. De veertien vragen zijn ingedeeld in de volgende subcategorieen: Energie en energiebesparing binnen de organisatie; Huidig gebruik van duurzame energiebronnen; Investeringen in energiebesparing en duurzame energiebronnen; Stellingen.

  13. Multi-objective optimal dispatch of distributed energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Ayomide

    This thesis is composed of two papers which investigate the optimal dispatch for distributed energy resources. In the first paper, an economic dispatch problem for a community microgrid is studied. In this microgrid, each agent pursues an economic dispatch for its personal resources. In addition, each agent is capable of trading electricity with other agents through a local energy market. In this paper, a simple market structure is introduced as a framework for energy trades in a small community microgrid such as the Solar Village. It was found that both sellers and buyers benefited by participating in this market. In the second paper, Semidefinite Programming (SDP) for convex relaxation of power flow equations is used for optimal active and reactive dispatch for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Various objective functions including voltage regulation, reduced transmission line power losses, and minimized reactive power charges for a microgrid are introduced. Combinations of these goals are attained by solving a multiobjective optimization for the proposed ORPD problem. Also, both centralized and distributed versions of this optimal dispatch are investigated. It was found that SDP made the optimal dispatch faster and distributed solution allowed for scalability.

  14. Applying beliefs and resources frameworks to the psychometric analyses of an epistemology survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Yerdelen-Damar1,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explored how researchers’ views about the form of students’ epistemologies influence how the researchers develop and refine surveys and how they interpret survey results. After running standard statistical analyses on 505 physics students’ responses to the Turkish version of the Maryland Physics Expectations-II survey, probing students’ epistemologies and expectations, we interpreted the results through two different theoretical lenses, the beliefs perspective and the resources perspective. We showed that the beliefs and resources frameworks provided different interpretations of the psychometric analyses, leading to different conclusions about how the survey results should be interpreted and how the survey should be improved.

  15. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-10-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), conducted December 14 through 18, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. The team includes outside experts supplied by private contractors. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with SERI. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SERI, and interviews with site personnel. 33 refs., 22 figs., 21 tabs.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  17. From energy efficiency towards resource efficiency within the Ecodesign Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Mosgaard, Mette; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    -General for Energy and The Directorate-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs have the leadership of the main adopted product groups within the Ecodesign Directive. DG Environment is involved in the process and has a shared leadership of the preparatory study on washing machines...... significant environmental impact. For the introduction of resource efficiency requirements into the Ecodesign Directive, these requirements have to be included in the preparatory study. It is therefore recommended to broaden the scope of the Methodology for the Ecodesign of Energy-related products and the Eco......Report tool and to develop the necessary resource efficiency indicators. A continued pressure from the stakeholders is also important, and a recommendation is therefore to continue the open ecodesign process and strengthen stakeholder consultations during the preparatory study. The Directorate...

  18. Energy taxes, resource taxes and quantity rationing for climate protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Economic sectors react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. Established analysis suggests a Pigouvian emission tax as efficient instrument, but also recommends factor input or output taxes under specific conditions. However, existing studies leave it open whether output taxes, input taxes or input rationing perform better, and at best only touch their distributional consequences. When emissions correspond to extracted ressources, it is questionable whether taxes are effective at all. We determine the effectiveness, efficiency and functional income distribution for these instruments in the energy and resource sector, based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and cumulative resource quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently. Energy taxation is only second best. Mitigation generates a substantial ''climate rent'' in the resource sector that can be converted to transfer incomes by taxes. (orig.)

  19. Resource file: practical publications for energy management, edition III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The Resource File is an in-depth bibliography of 166 practical and action-oriented energy conservation publications and materials. It is a reference tool, designed for Federal, state, and local energy managers or people who are asked to recommend how-to conservation guides to the public. Each listing describes a publication's intended audience and provides a summary of its contents. Included are operations and maintenance manuals, life-cycle costing handbooks, home insulation manuals, films on fuel-saving driving techniques, and courses devoted exclusively to home weatherization. 166 items.

  20. A Framework to Survey the Energy Efficiency of Installed Motor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; Hasanbeigi, Ali; McKane, Aimee

    2013-08-01

    While motors are ubiquitous throughout the globe, there is insufficient data to properly assess their level of energy efficiency across regional boundaries. Furthermore, many of the existing data sets focus on motor efficiency and neglect the connected drive and system. Without a comprehensive survey of the installed motor system base, a baseline energy efficiency of a country or region’s motor systems cannot be developed. The lack of data impedes government agencies, utilities, manufacturers, distributers, and energy managers when identifying where to invest resources to capture potential energy savings, creating programs aimed at reducing electrical energy consumption, or quantifying the impacts of such programs. This paper will outline a data collection framework for use when conducting a survey under a variety of execution models to characterize motor system energy efficiency within a country or region. The framework is intended to standardize the data collected ensuring consistency across independently conducted surveys. Consistency allows for the surveys to be leveraged against each other enabling comparisons to motor system energy efficiencies from other regions. In creating the framework, an analysis of various motor driven systems, including compressed air, pumping, and fan systems, was conducted and relevant parameters characterizing the efficiency of these systems were identified. A database using the framework will enable policymakers and industry to better assess the improvement potential of their installed motor system base particularly with respect to other regions, assisting in efforts to promote improvements to the energy efficiency of motor driven systems.

  1. Information Modeling for Direct Control of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    a desired accumulated response. In this paper, we design such an information model based on the markets that the aggregator participates in and based on the flexibility characteristics of the remote controlled DERs. The information model is constructed in a modular manner making the interface suitable...... for a whole range of different DERs. The devised information model can serve as input to the international standardization efforts on distributed energy resources....

  2. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change.

  3. Measuring the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Nicolas [Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, New Jersey (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Economic assessments of the welfare effects of energy insecurity are typically uncertain and fail to provide clear guidance to policy makers. As a result, governments have had little analytical support to complement expert judgment in the assessment of energy security. This is likely to be inadequate when considering multiple policy goals, and in particular the intersections between energy security and climate change mitigation policies. This paper presents an alternative approach which focuses on gauging the causes of energy insecurity as a way to assist policy making. The paper focuses on the energy security implications of fossil fuel resource concentration and distinguishes between the price and physical availability components of energy insecurity. It defines two separate indexes: the energy security price index (ESPI), based on the measure of market concentration in competitive fossil fuel markets, and the energy security physical availability index (ESPAI), based on the measure of supply flexibility in regulated markets. The paper illustrates the application of ESPI and ESPAI with two case studies - France and the United Kingdom - looking at the evolution of both indexes to 2030. (author)

  4. Multi-objective generation scheduling with hybrid energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Manas

    In economic dispatch (ED) of electric power generation, the committed generating units are scheduled to meet the load demand at minimum operating cost with satisfying all unit and system equality and inequality constraints. Generation of electricity from the fossil fuel releases several contaminants into the atmosphere. So the economic dispatch objective can no longer be considered alone due to the environmental concerns that arise from the emissions produced by fossil fueled electric power plants. This research is proposing the concept of environmental/economic generation scheduling with traditional and renewable energy sources. Environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is a multi-objective problem with conflicting objectives since emission minimization is conflicting with fuel cost minimization. Production and consumption of fossil fuel and nuclear energy are closely related to environmental degradation. This causes negative effects to human health and the quality of life. Depletion of the fossil fuel resources will also be challenging for the presently employed energy systems to cope with future energy requirements. On the other hand, renewable energy sources such as hydro and wind are abundant, inexhaustible and widely available. These sources use native resources and have the capacity to meet the present and the future energy demands of the world with almost nil emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The costs of fossil fuel and renewable energy are also heading in opposite directions. The economic policies needed to support the widespread and sustainable markets for renewable energy sources are rapidly evolving. The contribution of this research centers on solving the economic dispatch problem of a system with hybrid energy resources under environmental restrictions. It suggests an effective solution of renewable energy to the existing fossil fueled and nuclear electric utilities for the cheaper and cleaner production of electricity with hourly

  5. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. COMPLEX MAPPING OF ENERGY RESOURCES FOR ALLOCATION OF SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Novakovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents developed methodology of solar and wind energy resources complex mapping at the regional level, taking into account the environmental and socio-economic factors affecting the placement of renewable energy facilities. Methodology provides a reasonable search and allocation of areas, the most promising for the placement of wind and solar power plants.

  7. Renewable energy and resource curse on the possible consequences of solar energy in North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bae, Yuh Jin

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to project whether the five North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisa) have the potentials to suffer from a solar energy curse. Under the assumption that a solar energy curse will be similar to the current resource curse, the combination of

  8. Efficient Resource Management for Multicast Ad Hoc Networks: Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chopra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Group communication over multicast ad hoc network suffers from insufficient utilization of limited resources, i.e. shared channel, battery, data processing capabilities and storage space etc. Multicast routing protocol should be able to manage all these resources because their consumption depends upon different factors, i.e. Unicast/Multicast network operations, dynamic topology due to mobility, control overhead due to scalability, packet loss and retransmission due to collision and congestion etc. All these factors may cause unnecessary network load, delay and unfair resource utilization. However, multicast ad hoc routing protocols are more efficient than Unicast routing protocols, but they also suffer from performance degradation factors discussed above. Researchers have developed various layer wise solutions for resource optimization. In this paper, we will explore the different schemes for fair utilization of network resources.

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) conducted December 7--11, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with PETC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at PETC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis (S A) Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site Survey activities at PETC. The S A Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the Plan's results will be incorporated into the PETC Survey findings for inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 64 refs., 23 figs., 29 tabs.

  10. EVOLUTION OF THE DEMAND AND SUPPLY IN ENERGY RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestru MAXIMILIAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic, social and political development of human society in recent decades put to the fore the issue of natural resources available to the earth; scientists are asking ever more seriously the question to what extent these resources can support the economic development in the future, can provide food and survival of a growing population and will be able to contribute to the eradication of underdevelopment. The emphasis of major events – the population explosion, the trend of depletion of natural resources, environmental deterioration, underdevelopment etc. – was and it is still discussed with increasing responsibility by specialists, being drafted a large number of forecasts for a variable duration perspective. The trend of depletion of natural resources is another phenomenon of the contemporary world and that will become, certainly, even more pronounced in the near future. Harnessing the increasing exhaustible natural resources with low reserves and a slow recovery of renewable resources raises acutely the issue regarding the conservation of these resources. In recent decades, there is a tendency to waste energy and raw materials in the society. There are produced goods without an absolute utility, being imposed artificially by advertising or fashion swings and many products are designed in such a way that it takes little to compel the buyer to replace them. The "consumption" civilization is characterized as a "society that throws" the population of developed countries (18% of world population dispelling waste form 20 to 25% of the material production of the world. Excessive consumption of raw materials and fuel was favoured by their relatively low prices, maintained under the pressure of interests of transnational companies, prices that disfavoured, however, the developing countries. Consequently, consumption of raw materials and fuel turned to the easily accessible resources that have been heavily exploited, partially abandoning some

  11. The state of solar energy resource assessment in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Alberto; Escobar, Rodrigo [Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Colle, Sergio [Laboratorios de Engenharia de Processos de Conversao e Tecnologia de Energia - LEPTEN, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); de Abreu, Samuel Luna [IFSC - Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Sao Jose, Sao Jose - SC (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The Chilean government has determined that a renewable energy quota of up to 10% of the electrical energy generated must be met by 2024. This plan has already sparked interest in wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass power plants in order to introduce renewable energy systems to the country. Solar energy is being considered only for demonstration, small-scale CSP plants and for domestic water heating applications. This apparent lack of interest in solar energy is partly due to the absence of a valid solar energy database, adequate for energy system simulation and planning activities. One of the available solar radiation databases is 20-40 years old, with measurements taken by pyranographs and Campbell-Stokes devices. A second database from the Chilean Meteorological Service is composed by pyranometer readings, sparsely distributed along the country and available from 1988, with a number of these stations operating intermittently. The Chilean government through its National Energy Commission (CNE) has contracted the formulation of a simulation model and also the deployment of network of measurement stations in northern Chile. Recent efforts by the authors have resulted in a preliminary assessment by satellite image processing. Here, we compare the existing databases of solar radiation in Chile. Monthly mean solar energy maps are created from ground measurements and satellite estimations and compared. It is found that significant deviation exists between sources, and that all ground-station measurements display unknown uncertainty levels, thus highlighting the need for a proper, country-wide long-term resource assessment initiative. However, the solar energy levels throughout the country can be considered as high, and it is thought that they are adequate for energy planning activities - although not yet for proper power plant design and dimensioning. (author)

  12. Survey of Energy Computing in the Smart Grid Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Resource optimization, with advance computing tools, improves the efficient use of energy resources. The renewable energy resources are instantaneous and needs to be conserve at the same time. To optimize real time process, the complex design, includes plan of resources and control for effective utilization. The advances in information communication technology tools enables data formatting and analysis results in optimization of use the renewable resources for sustainable energy solution on smart grid.The paper presents energy computing models for optimally allocating different types of renewable in the distribution system so as to minimize energy loss. The proposed energy computing model optimizes the integration of renewable energy resources with technical and financial feasibility. An econometric model identifies the potential of renewable energy sources, mapping them for computational analysis, which enables the study to forecast the demand and supply scenario. The enriched database on renewable sources and Government policies customize delivery model for potential to transcend the costs vs. benefits barrier. The simulation and modeling techniques have overtaken the drawbacks of traditional information and communication technology (ICT in tackling the new challenges in maximizing the benefits with smart hybrid grid. Data management has to start at the initial reception of the energy source data, reviewing it for events that should trigger alarms into outage management systems and other real-time systems such as portfolio management of a virtual hybrid power plant operator. The paper highlighted two renewable source, solar and wind, for the study in this paper, which can extend to other renewable sources.

  13. Wave Energy Resource along the Coast of Santa Catarina (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Contestabile

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has one of the largest electricity markets in South America, which needs to add 6000 MW of capacity every year in order to satisfy growing the demand from an increasing and more prosperous population. Apart from biomass, no other renewable energy sources, besides hydroelectricity, play a relevant role in the energy mix. The potential for wind and wave energy is very large. Brazil's Santa Catarina state government is starting a clean energy program in the state, which is expected to bring more than 1 GW of capacity. Assessment of wave energy resources is needed along the coastline. This work studied the potential wave energy along the north-central coasts of Santa Catarina, in Southern Brazil, by analysis of the hindcast data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. The annual offshore wave power was found to be equal to 15.25 kW/m, the bulk of which is provided by southeastern waves. The nearshore energetic patterns were studied by means of a numerical coastal propagation model (Mike21 SW. The mean wave power of 20 m isobaths is 11.43 kW/m. Supplementary considerations are drawn on realistic perspectives for wave energy converters installations.

  14. The research and training of human resources to produce renewable resources of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Rangel Delgado

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The prospective technique approach used as a context, this paper emphasizes the importance of a long term vision on the human resources development for renewable energies production. In the same sense it outlines the connection between the professions associated with the generation of renewable energy and the labor market. Results are presented on the research intellectual capacity of Mexico, highlighting, the public universities, specialized research centers, researchers, and the associated academic programs to renewable energies. Finally, it is presented the conclusions, and suggestions oriented to increase strategically, the renewable energies research for the technology development. Also it might incorporate our country towards the international market for renewable technologies, in the long term.

  15. Generation scheduling of renewable energy resources under uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad NEMATBAKHSH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, utilization of renewable energy resources (RERs has become an active and interesting area of research in energy management of power systems. In this paper, a new three-stage generation scheduling method is proposed for thermal units and renewable energy resources. In the method, all generation units are bidding in a competitive market along with the external energy tie-line at the point of common coupling. The scheduling problem is solved while considering uncertainties in both generation and demand. At the first stage, Generation Companies (GenCos use forecasted information (such as market price and climate conditions to determine their optimal bidding strategy for maximum revenue. In the next stages, independent system operator (ISO manages available contracts to minimize the operating cost of the power system. The proposed method is applied to a 10-unit network using GAMS software. Simulation results show that the effectiveness of this method is to the benefit of generation companies and ISO in the presence of traditional tie-line.

  16. The NASA's Long-Term Global Solar Energy Resource: Current Solar Resource Variability and Future Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Cox, S. J.; Zhang, T.; Chandler, W.; Westberg, D.; Hoell, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Considering the likelihood of global climate change and the global competition for energy resources, there is an increasing need to provide improved global Earth surface solar resource information. The improved long-term records are needed to better understand and quantify potential shifts in the solar resource with anticipated changes in climatic weather patterns. As part of the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP) Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), NASA has an active Surface Radiation Budget project that has produced long-term global gridded estimates of the surface solar fluxes. These fluxes have been processed and made available to the solar energy community over the years through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy web site (SSE). This web site provides solar resource and accompanying meteorological variables specifically tailored to the renewable energy community spanning a 22 year period. The web application has been improved over time with usage growing nearly exponentially over the last few years. This paper presents the global and regional variability of the solar resource from the current data available at the SSE web application. The variability is compared for large different spatial scales and compared to other data sets where appropriate. We assess the interannual variability compared against surface sites and other satellite based data sets. These comparisons quantify the limits of usefulness of this data set. For instance, we find long-term linear trends that are dominated by satellite based artifacts in some areas, but agree well with surface measurements in others. Nevertheless, the extremes of solar variability are quantified and show agreement with surface observations good enough for most feasibility studies of solar energy systems. This presentation also contains a description of work currently on going to replace the current solar resource information available on SSE with a completely reprocessed version. The

  17. SURVEY OF THE RESOURCES AND USE OF THE LIBRARIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is on this premise that the Federal Ministry of Education, taking due cognizance of the importance of .... This lack of financial resources has only retarded positive ..... The use of the library should also be incorporated into the school timetable.

  18. Resource and radioactivity survey in the Ellsworth Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreschhoff, G.A.M.; Zeller, E.J.; Thoste, V.; Bulla, K.

    1980-01-01

    During the 1979-80 field season, radiometric survey operations were mostly limited to the Ellsworth Mountain area. The only exception was a brief attempt to detect radioactive fallout on the sea ice at McMurdo Station. The fallout measurements were made in an effort to detect a supposed nuclear bomb test off the South African coast. No fission products were found. The gamma-ray spectrometer used for the survey was a Geometrics GR-800 with a total sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector volume of 8390 cubic centimeters. The equipment had not been modified since the previous year and it functioned without interruption throughout the survey flights.

  19. Survey On Scheduling And Radio Resources Allocation In Lte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayssal Bendaoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an essential task of the enhanced NodeB eNodeB element in LTE architecture, the Radio Resource Manager RRM, which aims to accept or reject requests for connection to the network based on some constraints and ensuring optimal distribution of radio resources between Users Equipments UEs. Its main functionalities include Admission Control AC and Packet Scheduling PS. This paper will center mainly on the PS part of the RRM task, which performs the radio resource allocation in both uplink and downlink directions. Several approaches and algorithms have been proposed in the literature to address this need (allocate resources efficiently, the diversity and multitude of algorithms is related to the factors considered for the optimal management of radio resource, specifically, the traffic type and the QoS (Quality of Service requested by the UE. In this article, an art’s state of the radio resource allocation strategies and a detailed study of several scheduling algorithms proposed for LTE (uplink and downlink are made. Therefore, we offer our evaluation and criticism.

  20. Wave energy resource assessment based on satellite observations around Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribal, Agustinus; Zieger, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of wave energy resource around Indonesian's ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. The wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea states. Wave power scales with significant wave height, characteristic wave period and water depth. In this approach, the significant wave heights were obtained from ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) data which have been calibrated. However, as the characteristic wave period is rarely specified and therefore must be estimated from other variables when information about the wave spectra is unknown. Here, the characteristic wave period was calculated with an empirical model that utilizes altimeter estimates of wave height and backscatter coefficient originally proposed. For the Indonesian region, wave power energy is calculated over two periods of one year each and was compared with the results from global hindcast carried out with a recent release of wave model WAVEWATCH III. We found that, the most promising wave power energy regions around the Indonesian archipelago are located in the south of Java island and the south west of Sumatera island. In these locations, about 20 - 30 kW/m (90th percentile: 30-50 kW/m, 99th percentile: 40-60 kW/m) wave power energy on average has been found around south of Java island during 2010. Similar results have been found during 2011 at the same locations. Some small areas which are located around north of Irian Jaya (West Papua) are also very promising and need further investigation to determine its capacity as a wave energy resource.

  1. Whittier Narrows Flood Control Basin Historic Resources Survey,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-15

    MAKING SURVEY 2.0 General In making this survey of the Whittier Narrows and Los Angeles River-Rio Hondo historic re- sources , the investigators have...various protective facilities. Washington provided the funds with the stipulation that the work be done unqr the direction of the United States Army Corps...testIfying to southern California’s historic penchant for unique town building ("Venice of America") and amusement park operation ( Disneyland ). Finally

  2. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-08-01

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ({mu}Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a {mu}Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the {mu}Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into {mu}Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular {mu}Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a {mu}Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a

  3. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Streams - Wadeable Streams Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  4. Survey of Biomass Resource Assessments and Assessment Capabilities in APEC Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P

    2008-11-01

    This survey of biomass resource assessments and assessment capabilities in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) economies considered various sources: academic and government publications, media reports, and personal communication with contacts in member economies.

  5. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Lakes – National Lake Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  6. Cultural Resource Survey of Proposed Ditch Plugs Near Troublesome Creek in Marion County, Missouri

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A phase I cultural resource survey was conducted for the US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, of three proposed ditch plugs to be constructed...

  7. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Lakes – National Lake Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  8. Cultural Resources Survey for Additional Work at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A cultural resources survey was conducted at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge, Sussex County, during the late summer of 1981. This work concentrated on the...

  9. Energy Optimization for Distributed Energy Resources Scheduling with Enhancements in Voltage Stability Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Morais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for developing new methodologies in order to improve power system stability has increased due to the recent growth of distributed energy resources. In this paper, the inclusion of a voltage stability index in distributed energy resources scheduling is proposed. Two techniques were used to evaluate the resulting multiobjective optimization problem: the sum-weighted Pareto front and an adapted goal programming methodology. With this new methodology, the system operators can consider both the costs and voltage stability. Priority can be assigned to one objective function according to the operating scenario. Additionally, it is possible to evaluate the impact of the distributed generation and the electric vehicles in the management of voltage stability in the future electric networks. One detailed case study considering a distribution network with high penetration of distributed energy resources is presented to analyse the proposed methodology. Additionally, the methodology is tested in a real distribution network.

  10. A Survey on Resource Allocation Strategies in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Vinothina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has become a new age technology that has got huge potentials in enterprises and markets. Clouds can make it possible to access applications and associated data from anywhere. Companies are able to rent resources from cloud for storage and other computational purposes so that their infrastructure cost can be reduced significantly. Further they can make use of company-wide access to applications, based on pay-as-you-go model. Hence there is no need for getting licenses for individual products. However one of the major pitfalls in cloud computing is related to optimizing the resources being allocated. Because of the uniqueness of the model, resource allocation is performed with the objective of minimizing the costs associated with it. The other challenges of resource allocation are meeting customer demands and application requirements. In this paper, various resource allocation strategies and their challenges are discussed in detail. It is believed that this paper would benefit both cloud users and researchers in overcoming the challenges faced.

  11. Psychological career resources of working adults: A South African survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to explore broad trends regarding how individuals from various age, educational, marital, race and gender groups in the South African organisational context differ in terms of their psychological career resources, as measured by the Psychological Career Resources Inventory. A sample of 2 997 working adults registered as students at a South African higher distance education institution participated in this study. The results indicate significant differences between the various biographical variables and the participants’ psychological career resources. In the context of employment equity, and with more women entering the workplace, this study is expected to contribute important knowledge that will inform career development practices concerned with enhancing employees’ career meta-competencies as an important element of their general employability.

  12. Mapping Thermal Energy Resource Potentials from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neugebauer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater heat recovery via heat exchangers and heat pumps constitutes an environmentally friendly, approved and economically competitive, but often underestimated technology. By introducing the spatial dimension in feasibility studies, the results of calculations change considerably. This paper presents a methodology to estimate thermal energy resource potentials of wastewater treatment plants taking spatial contexts into account. In close proximity to settlement areas, wastewater energy can ideally be applied for heating in mixed-function areas, which very likely have a continuous heat demand and allow for an increased amount of full-load hours compared to most single-use areas. For the Austrian case, it is demonstrated that the proposed methodology leads to feasible results and that the suggested technology might reduce up to 17% of the Austrian global warming potential of room heating. The method is transferrable to other countries as the input data and calculation formula are made available. A broad application of wastewater energy with regard to spatial structures and spatial development potentials can lead to (1 increasing energy efficiency by using a maximum of waste heat and (2 a significant reduction of (fossil energy consumption which results in a considerable reduction of the global warming potential of the heat supply (GWP if electricity from renewables is used for the operation of heat pumps.

  13. Capacity of Distribution Feeders for Hosting Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanassiou, S.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Anagnostopoulos, P.

    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of distributed energy resources (DER) all over the world. Several countries have adopted a variety of support schemes (feed-in tariffs, green certificates, direct subsidies, tax exemptions etc.) so as to promote distributed generation (DG...... standards of the networks. To address this need in a timely and effective manner, simplified methodologies and practical rules of thumbs are often applied to assess the DER hosting capacity of existing distribution networks, avoiding thus detailed and time consuming analytical studies. The scope...

  14. Inner solar system prospective energy and material resources

    CERN Document Server

    Zacny, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates Venus and Mercury prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to exploration and utilization of these bodies. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists interested in current and impending Venus and Mercury related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors.   Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in Venus and Mercury exploration and exploitation.

  15. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  16. Coconut as a resource for materials and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai

    1981-03-01

    Coconut palm offers a vast renewable resource of lignocellulosic materials in the tropical areas. Though all parts of the tree have some use or the other, they are underutilized and/or improperly used. This review (i) deals with the conventional uses of the various components of the coconut tree, (ii) identifies some of the major problems facing their utilization, and (iii) projects various technological opportunities for appropriate utilization of the coconut tree for materials and energy. Two fine mapping charts are presented to identify the immediate, near-term and long-term future research priorities and policy imperatives and technological opportunities on the utilization of the coconut tree. 131 references.

  17. 78 FR 37876 - Establishment of Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Establishment of Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of Establishment of the Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Tennessee Valley...

  18. Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Groza, Voicu; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2012-01-01

    Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads......Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads...

  19. Biomass as energy resource of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvero, P. (University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegowina)); Petrovic, S. (IGT R and D Centre for Gas Technology, Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina)); Ballard Tremeer, G. (ECO Ltd., London (United Kingdom)); Maslac, S. (UNDP, Banja Luka Office (Bosnia and Herzegowina))

    2007-07-01

    The production, harvesting and processing of timber is one of the country's oldest economic activities, and has a major strategic importance for the country's economic development, especially in post war period. Some statistical estimations shows that the wood export value within the total Bosnia and Herzegovina export value is probably in order of 15%. It is further estimated that 15% of the total population receives its livelihood through the activities in forestry and forest industry. Sustainable development of the present and future energy systems has to be based on two strategies: energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. Bosnia and Herzegovina thanking to great hydro potential, biomass, geothermal energy etc. belongs to the list of the countries which will development of energy sector mainly based on renewable energy sources. In a present period biomass plays significant role in households and wood processing industry sectors. Bosnia and Herzegovina has large biomass resources: the growing stock is equivalent to 7.44 x 106 m3 of wood giving an annual sustainable production volume of about 4.43 x 106 m3. Because of large potential of biomass, this energy source will play more important role in whole energy sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This paper gives some data regarding to biomass energy potential collected from different sources in Republic of Srpska and Federation of B and H as consisting parts of the Bosnia and Herzegovina and recouped on one place. This paper also gives short analysis of potential biomass resource use. There are a lot of large industrial energy systems in the Country, mainly in wood processing industry, which was passed through privatization process in last couple years. Now, new owners of this mainly to large capacities for them, looking for the chances in ESCO business, electricity production, district heating systems. This paper gives short analysis of potential cogeneration systems based on biomass. Some analysis

  20. Can A Galaxy Redshift Survey Measure Dark Energy Clustering?

    CERN Document Server

    Takada, M

    2006-01-01

    (abridged) A wide-field galaxy redshift survey allows one to probe galaxy clustering at largest spatial scales, which carries an invaluable information on horizon-scale physics complementarily to the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Assuming the planned survey consisting of z~1 and z~3 surveys with areas of 2000 and 300 square degrees, respectively, we study the prospects for probing dark energy clustering from the measured galaxy power spectrum, assuming the dynamical properties of dark energy are specified in terms of the equation of state and the effective sound speed c_e in the context of an adiabatic cold dark matter (CDM) model. The dark energy clustering adds a power to the galaxy power spectrum amplitude at spatial scales greater than the sound horizon, and the enhancement is sensitive to redshift evolution of the net dark energy density, i.e. the equation of state. We find that the galaxy survey, when combined with Planck, can distinguish dark energy clustering from a smooth dark energy model such ...

  1. 76 FR 34684 - Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design Conditions AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... meteorological and oceanographic information to support cost-effective deployment of offshore renewable...

  2. 75 FR 51751 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; User Engagement Survey for Water Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request; User Engagement Survey for Water Resources Forecasts and Climate Information AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... workshops related to water resources and/or climate. This information collection will be conducted by...

  3. Special Educational Resources in the Swedish Upper Secondary Schools: A Total Population Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Joacim

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the special educational resources in the Swedish upper secondary schools using a total population survey that covers all upper secondary schools. Special educators and special teachers together constitute the special educational resources at each school. With two types of regression models (logistic and linear regression), the…

  4. Market survey Slovakia. Bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  5. Market survey Slovak Republic. Bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with

  6. Surveys of arthropod and gastropod diversity in the geothermal resource subzones, Puna, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.; Bruegmann, M.

    1995-04-01

    The invertebrate surveys reported here were carried out as part of ecological studies funded by the Department of Energy in support of their environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Hawaii Geothermal Project. Currently, preparation of the EIS has been suspended, and all supporting information is being archived and made available to the public. The invertebrate surveys reported here assessed diversity and abundance of the arthropod and gastropod fauna in forested habitat and lava tubes in or near the three geothermal resource subzones. Recommendations for conservation of these organisms are given in this report. Surveys were conducted along three 100-m transect lines at each of the six forested locations. Malaise traps, baited pitfall traps, yellow pan traps, baited sponge lures, and visual examination of vegetation were used to assess invertebrate diversity along each transect line. Three of these locations were adjacent to roads, and three were adjacent to lava flows. Two of these lava-forest locations (Keauohana Forest Reserve and Pu`u O`o) were relatively remote from direct human impacts. The third location (Southeast Kula) was near a low-density residential area. Two lava tubes were surveyed. The forest over one of these tubes (Keokea tube) had recently been burned away. This tube was used to assess the effects of loss of forest habitat on the subterranean fauna. An undisturbed tube (Pahoa tube) was used as a control. Recommendations offered in this report direct geothermal development away from areas of high endemic diversity and abundance, and toward areas where natural Hawaiian biotic communities have already been greatly disturbed. These disturbed areas are mainly found in the lower half of the Kamaili (middle) geothermal subzone and throughout most of the Kapoho (lower) geothermal subzone. These recommendation may also generally apply to other development projects in the Puna District.

  7. Bibliographic survey of medium energy inclusive reaction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, E.D.; Madland, D.G.; McClellan, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    A bibliographic survey of inclusive reaction data (experimental and theoretical) for several projectile types having energies between 50 and 1000 MeV has been completed. Approximately one thousand references selected from this survey describe the current state of knowledge for particle-induced inclusive reaction data. The search covered data for the following projectiles: p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, and lithium ions.

  8. E-Resources, Services and User Surveys in Tsinghua University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Shao; Yi, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the e-resources and services in Tsinghua University Library, Beijing, and describe five campus-wide user surveys. It states how these user surveys play an important role in service quality enhancement. Design/methodology/approach: Following a brief history of Tsinghua University Library, a summary…

  9. Using airborne geophysical surveys to improve groundwater resource management models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jared D.; Cannia, James C.; Peterson, Steven M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Minsley, Burke J.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, groundwater management requires more accurate hydrogeologic frameworks for groundwater models. These complex issues have created the demand for innovative approaches to data collection. In complicated terrains, groundwater modelers benefit from continuous high‐resolution geologic maps and their related hydrogeologic‐parameter estimates. The USGS and its partners have collaborated to use airborne geophysical surveys for near‐continuous coverage of areas of the North Platte River valley in western Nebraska. The survey objectives were to map the aquifers and bedrock topography of the area to help improve the understanding of groundwater‐surface‐water relationships, leading to improved water management decisions. Frequency‐domain heliborne electromagnetic surveys were completed, using a unique survey design to collect resistivity data that can be related to lithologic information to refine groundwater model inputs. To render the geophysical data useful to multidimensional groundwater models, numerical inversion is necessary to convert the measured data into a depth‐dependent subsurface resistivity model. This inverted model, in conjunction with sensitivity analysis, geological ground truth (boreholes and surface geology maps), and geological interpretation, is used to characterize hydrogeologic features. Interpreted two‐ and three‐dimensional data coverage provides the groundwater modeler with a high‐resolution hydrogeologic framework and a quantitative estimate of framework uncertainty. This method of creating hydrogeologic frameworks improved the understanding of flow path orientation by redefining the location of the paleochannels and associated bedrock highs. The improved models reflect actual hydrogeology at a level of accuracy not achievable using previous data sets.

  10. Cultural Resource Survey Report. Hildebrand Ranch Area: Proposed Chatfield Arboretum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    on foot and digging test pits if they seemed useful. The pedestrian survey was accomplished in a standard manner by walking slowly in parallel zig - zag ...few hardy visitors on various military, exploratory or religious missions. After discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill , and subsequently on Cherry Creek

  11. Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, Brenna L.; Abbott, Timothy M.C.; Angstadt, Robert; Annis, Jim; Antonik, Michelle, L.; Bailey, Jim; Ballester, Otger.; Bernstein, Joseph P.; Bernstein, Rebbeca; Bonati, Marco; Bremer, Gale; /Fermilab /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /ANL /Texas A-M /Michigan U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Ohio State U. /University Coll. London /LBNL /SLAC /IFAE

    2012-06-29

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. All components of DECam have been shipped to Chile and post-shipping checkout finished in Jan. 2012. Installation is in progress. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  12. Energy education on the move: A national energy education survey and case studies of outstanding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, M.

    1992-03-01

    Energy education, defined as communication that is designed to influence people's energy usage, has been conducted in one form or another by a wide range of organizations since long before the energy crisis of 1973. Energy education is undertaken by a broad range of public, private, non-profit and utility organizations for a variety of purposes. Each program has a unique message, audience and objectives. Although many energy education programs are still in the early stages of development, some of the programs have been evaluated and show promising results. In an effort to consolidate, describe, and communicate information about the broad range of energy education efforts in this country, a survey was conducted. The surveys were developed to determine who provides energy education, what methods they use, and whether they evaluate the results. The results of the surveys are described and analyzed in the second section of this three-tiered report.

  13. Energy education on the move: A national energy education survey and case studies of outstanding programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, M.

    1992-03-01

    Energy education, defined as communication that is designed to influence people`s energy usage, has been conducted in one form or another by a wide range of organizations since long before the energy crisis of 1973. Energy education is undertaken by a broad range of public, private, non-profit and utility organizations for a variety of purposes. Each program has a unique message, audience and objectives. Although many energy education programs are still in the early stages of development, some of the programs have been evaluated and show promising results. In an effort to consolidate, describe, and communicate information about the broad range of energy education efforts in this country, a survey was conducted. The surveys were developed to determine who provides energy education, what methods they use, and whether they evaluate the results. The results of the surveys are described and analyzed in the second section of this three-tiered report.

  14. Probing Dark Energy with the Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Gong-Bo; Wang, Lifan; Fan, Zuhui; Zhang, Xinmin

    2010-01-01

    Dark energy is an important science driver of many upcoming large-scale surveys. With small, stable seeing and low thermal infrared background, Dome A, Antarctica, offers a unique opportunity for shedding light on fundamental questions about the universe. We show that a deep, high-resolution imaging survey of 10,000 square degrees in \\emph{ugrizyJH} bands can provide competitive constraints on dark energy equation of state parameters using type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and weak lensing techniques. Such a survey may be partially achieved with a coordinated effort of the Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope (KDUST) in \\emph{yJH} bands over 5000--10,000 deg$^2$ and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope in \\emph{ugrizy} bands over the same area. Moreover, the joint survey can take advantage of the high-resolution imaging at Dome A to further tighten the constraints on dark energy and to measure dark matter properties with strong lensing as well as galaxy--galaxy weak lensing.

  15. Human resources needs in the Canadian wind energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittholz, H. [Synova International Business Development, London, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviewed human resources issues related to wind energy expansion. As the fastest growing energy source in the world, wind energy has the potential to provide thousands of jobs. With the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, the Canadian government and industry will take measures to increase the use of renewable energy. As such, forecasters predict that Canada's total installed capacity will increase from 444 MW in 2004 to 5,600 MW by 2012. Initially, employment opportunities will be in the service industry, followed by an increased demand for scientists, engineers, technicians and other personnel with specialized knowledge in the wind industry. This paper described the assumptions on which the forecasted demand for skilled labour is based. Approximately 2,230 technicians will be required by 2012 to develop and manufacture wind turbines and to establish an infrastructure that would maximize the benefits of the emerging industry for Canadians. Wind energy initiatives include the establishment of a competitive manufacturing and service base; the provision of specialized training and education to meet the human resources demands of the industry; and, support from research and development to reduce the knowledge gap between Canada and Europe. Canada also holds the potential to establish a niche market for hybrid wind-diesel-storage systems. Insurance companies and investors will require high standards to safeguard their investments. A breakdown of various jobs in the wind power industry was presented along with forecasts of revenues and employment in Canada's wind energy industry. This paper also outlined the wind energy research programs available at Canadian universities, colleges and institutes. It was recommended that education and training programs in this field of study should be developed based on proven programs with a governing body to ensure industry requirements are met. It was also suggested that partnerships should be formed with successful

  16. 75 FR 16173 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... submitting the information collection titled ``Tribal Energy Resource Agreements (TERAs)'' to the Office of... determine the capacity of tribes to manage the development of energy resources on tribal lands....

  17. Information resources for US Department of Energy pollution prevention programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.L.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) pollution prevention efforts being conducted under the aegis of DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with evaluating pollution prevention information resources. The goal of this activity was to improve the effectiveness of DOE`s pollution prevention activities through improved information flow, both within the complex, and more specifically, between DOE and other organizations that share similar pollution prevention challenges. This report presents our findings with respect to the role of information collection and dissemination within the complex, opportunities for teaming from successes of the private sector, and specific information needs of the DOE pollution prevention community. These findings were derived from a series of interviews with pollution prevention coordinators from across the DOE complex, review of DOE site and facility pollution prevention plans, and workshops with DOE information users as well as an information resources workshop that brought together information specialists from private industry, non-profit organizations, as well as state and regional pollution prevention assistance programs.

  18. Coal as South East Asia' energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balce, G.; Zamora, C.G.; Bakker, P. de [ASEAN Centre for Energy, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2000-06-01

    Coal is by far the most abundant energy resource in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), regions. Although many planned capacity additions of coal-fired power plants were stopped or postponed by 1998 as a result of the economic crisis, it is certain that within the next 10 years, more than 30,000 MW of coal-fired plants will be installed. The article quotes figures from the ASEAN 2020 Energy Demand Outlook, updated by the ASEAN Centre for Energy and from other projections in the APEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook. It compares forecast coal-based power demand in business-as-usual and environment-friendly scenarios in the first case ASEAN coal reserves would last 287 years as oppose to 427 years in the latter case. Clean coal technologies (both pre and post combustion) will enable coal to remain competitive even with natural gas. The paper is an edited version of a presentation to the Mining Indonesian Conference 2000, Jakarta, Indonesia, 5-7 April 2000. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Role for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in the Digital Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2007-11-01

    A large, and growing, part of the Nation's economy either serves or depends upon the information technology industry. These high-tech or "digital" enterprises are characterized by a dependence on electronic devices, need for completely reliable power supply, and intolerance to any power quality problems. In some cases these enterprises are densely populated with electronic loads and have very high energy usage per square foot. Serving these enterprises presents both electric power and equipment cooling challenges. Traditional electric utilities are often hard-pressed to deliver power that meets the stringent requirements of digital customers, and the economic and social consequences of a service quality or reliability problem can be large. New energy delivery and control options must be developed to effectively serve a digital economy. This report explores how distributed energy resources, partnerships between utility and customer to share the responsibility for service quality, innovative facility designs, higher energy efficiencies and waste-heat utilization can be coupled to meet the needs of a growing digital economy.

  20. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: Dark Energy Science Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2012-01-01

    This white paper describes the LSST Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC), whose goal is the study of dark energy and related topics in fundamental physics with data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). It provides an overview of dark energy science and describes the current and anticipated state of the field. It makes the case for the DESC by laying out a robust analytical framework for dark energy science that has been defined by its members and the comprehensive three-year work plan they have developed for implementing that framework. The analysis working groups cover five key probes of dark energy: weak lensing, large scale structure, galaxy clusters, Type Ia supernovae, and strong lensing. The computing working groups span cosmological simulations, galaxy catalogs, photon simulations and a systematic software and computational framework for LSST dark energy data analysis. The technical working groups make the connection between dark energy science and the LSST system. The working groups ha...

  1. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional

  2. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-08-20

    This survey reviews efforts by CESA member clean energy funds to promote the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. For each fund, details are provided regarding biomass eligibility for support, specific programs offering support to biomass projects, and examples of supported biomass projects (if available). For the purposes of this survey, biomass is defined to include bio-product gasification, combustion, co-firing, biofuel production, and the combustion of landfill gas, though not all of the programs reviewed here take so wide a definition. Programs offered by non-CESA member funds fall outside the scope of this survey. To date, three funds--the California Energy Commission, Wisconsin Focus on Energy, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority--have offered programs targeted specifically at the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. We begin by reviewing efforts in these three funds, and then proceed to cover programs in other funds that have provided support to biomass projects when the opportunity has arisen, but otherwise do not differentially target biomass relative to other renewable technologies.

  3. Demand-Side Management and Integrated Resource Planning: Findings from a Survey of 24 Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated resource planning differs from traditional utility planning practices primarily in its increased attention to demand-side management (DSM) programs and its integration of supply- and demand-side resources into a combined resource portfolio. This report details the findings from an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) survey of 24 electric utilities that have well-developed integrated planning processes. These utilities account for roughly one-third of total capacity, electricity generation, and DSM-program expenditures nationwide. The ORNL survey was designed to obtain descriptive data on a national sample of utilities and to test a number of hypothesized relationships between selected utility characteristics and the mix of resources selected for the integrated plan, with an emphasis on the use of DSM resources and the processes by which they are chosen. The survey solicited information on each utility's current and projected resource mix, operating environment, procedures used to screen potential DSM resources, techniques used to obtain public input and to integrate supply- and demand-side options into a unified plan, and procedures used in the final selection of resources for the plan.

  4. Canada ocean energy atlas phase 1 : potential tidal current energy resources analysis background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarbotton, M.; Larson, M. [Triton Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    This report was prepared as a background document for a preliminary tidal current resource inventory for Canadian waters. Energy calculations in the study were based on preliminary estimates of known tidal flows. The inventory was based on nautical charts, Canadian sailing directions, tide and tidal current constituent data, and numerical tidal modelling data. A finite element harmonic tidal model tool was used to provide tidal height and current velocities data for a varying number of tidal constituents. The study identified several major tidal current power resources throughout Canada. It was concluded that modelling studies should concentrate on Minas Basin in Nova Scotia; Georgia and Johnstone Straits in British Columbia; and Hudson's Strait and Ungava Bay. Modelling studies should provide estimates of extractable energy as well as provide initial assessments of the environmental impacts of tidal energy extraction in all 3 regions. 3 refs., 8 tabs., 16 figs.

  5. Tidal energy resource complexity in a large strait: The Karori Rip, Cook Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C. L.; Smith, M. J.; Grant, B.; Stewart, C. L.; Divett, T.

    2012-02-01

    Successful extraction of tidal stream energy will require a good understanding of flow at a range of scales, including those relating to average energy, variability in energy supply and fatigue. Current and turbulence measurements from the Karori Rip area of Cook Strait, the prime focal region of open-water tidal stream electricity generation in New Zealand, are described. A key issue is that a significant portion of the energy is contained in waters deeper than normally considered for energy extraction. Here we compare shallow and deep sites. Velocity data were derived from acoustic Doppler current profiler moorings, as well as spatial surveys and show flow magnitudes reaching 3.4 m s -1 in the shallow regions. The maximum speeds in both shallow and deep sites were typically located in the upper part of the measured water column although moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) observations showed some complexity in this regard. Benthic boundary-layers were resolved in the bottom ˜20 m of the water column. Measured turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates ɛ exceeded 10 -5 m 2 s -3 and estimated maximum ɛ is a factor of 10 greater. This was not distributed evenly through the water column, with stratification and velocity shear clearly persisting, especially around the turn of the tide. The implications for tidal stream energy are that (i) there is sufficient energy resource in the region for a moderate sized array of turbines, (ii) the vertical variability in the flow speed suggests turbines that can operate near the surface would be more effective at accessing the resource, (iii) stratification may persist and influence the scales of turbulence and (iv) wave-current interaction effects will influence any near-surface structure as well as vessel operations.

  6. Facts 2006. Energy and water resources in Norway; Fakta 2006. Energi og vannressurser i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, Mats Oeivind (ed.)

    2006-04-15

    The 2006 edition of an annual publication by the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy contains information on energy production and energy use in Norway. The general organisation and management of energy and watercourse resources are described in the first chapter. Special features on Norway's production of electricity are presented in chapter 2, and a comprehensive description of hydroelectric power is provided. Hydroelectric power represents 99 percent of the total Norwegian electricity production. The average Norwegian production capability of hydroelectric power is about 119 TWh per year, varying according to precipitation. Electricity production from natural gas and wind power are also treated. Energy consumption and the factors that influence the development are analysed in chapter 3. Legislation and licences in the field are treated in chapter 4, and organisation and ownership is described in chapter 5. Regulations concerning the network companies are treated in chapter 6. In chapter 7 a description of the framework for trading electric power in the Nordic countries is given. Chapter 8 treats research and developments in the energy field, and chapter 9 describes international energy cooperation. In chapter 10 the administration of the Norwegian water resources is described. The statistical data are up to date per 2005.

  7. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  8. Uncertainty in wave energy resource assessment. Part 1: Historic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackay, Edward B.L.; Bahaj, AbuBakr S. [Sustainable Energy Research Group, School of Civil Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Challenor, Peter G. [Ocean Observing and Climate Group, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    The uncertainty in estimates of the energy yield from a wave energy converter (WEC) is considered. The study is presented in two articles. This first article deals with the accuracy of the historic data and the second article considers the uncertainty which arises from variability in the wave climate. Estimates of the historic resource for a specific site are usually calculated from wave model data calibrated against in-situ measurements. Both the calibration of model data and estimation of confidence bounds are made difficult by the complex structure of errors in model data. Errors in parameters from wave models exhibit non-linear dependence on multiple factors, seasonal and interannual changes in bias and short-term temporal correlation. An example is given using two hindcasts for the European Marine Energy Centre in Orkney. Before calibration, estimates of the long-term mean WEC power from the two hindcasts differ by around 20%. The difference is reduced to 5% after calibration. The short-term temporal evolution of errors in WEC power is represented using ARMA models. It is shown that this is sufficient to model the long-term uncertainty in estimated WEC yield from one hindcast. However, seasonal and interannual changes in model biases in the other hindcast cause the uncertainty in estimated long-term WEC yield to exceed that predicted by the ARMA model. (author)

  9. A survey of energy drink consumption patterns among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter-Aeby Tracy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Energy drink consumption has continued to gain in popularity since the 1997 debut of Red Bull, the current leader in the energy drink market. Although energy drinks are targeted to young adult consumers, there has been little research regarding energy drink consumption patterns among college students in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine energy drink consumption patterns among college students, prevalence and frequency of energy drink use for six situations, namely for insufficient sleep, to increase energy (in general, while studying, driving long periods of time, drinking with alcohol while partying, and to treat a hangover, and prevalence of adverse side effects and energy drink use dose effects among college energy drink users. Methods Based on the responses from a 32 member college student focus group and a field test, a 19 item survey was used to assess energy drink consumption patterns of 496 randomly surveyed college students attending a state university in the Central Atlantic region of the United States. Results Fifty one percent of participants (n = 253 reported consuming greater than one energy drink each month in an average month for the current semester (defined as energy drink user. The majority of users consumed energy drinks for insufficient sleep (67%, to increase energy (65%, and to drink with alcohol while partying (54%. The majority of users consumed one energy drink to treat most situations although using three or more was a common practice to drink with alcohol while partying (49%. Weekly jolt and crash episodes were experienced by 29% of users, 22% reported ever having headaches, and 19% heart palpitations from consuming energy drinks. There was a significant dose effect only for jolt and crash episodes. Conclusion Using energy drinks is a popular practice among college students for a variety of situations. Although for the majority of situations assessed, users consumed one

  10. Geothermal Systems of the Great Basin and U.S. Geological Survey Plans for a Regional Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.

    2002-01-01

    Based on current projections, the United States faces the need to increase its electrical power generating capacity by 40% (approximately 300,000 Megawatts-electrical or MWe) over the next 20 years (Energy Information Administration, EIA - Department of Energy). A critical question for the near future is the extent to which geothermal resources can contribute to this increasing demand for electricity. Geothermal energy constitutes one of the nation's largest sources of renewable and environmentally benign electrical power, yet the installed capacity of 2860 MWe falls far short of estimated geothermal resources. This is particularly true for the Great Basin region of the western United States, which has an installed capacity of about 500 MWe, much lower than the 7500 MWe resource estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the late 1970s. The reasons for the limited development of geothermal power are varied, but political, economic and technological developments suggest the time is ripe for a new assessment effort. Technologies for power production from geothermal systems and scientific understanding of geothermal resource occurrence have improved dramatically in recent years. The primary challenges facing geothermal resource studies are (1) understanding the thermal, chemical and mechanical processes that lead to the colocation of high temperatures and high permeabilities necessary for the formation of geothermal systems and (2) developing improved techniques for locating, characterizing and exploiting these systems. Starting in the fall of 2002, the USGS will begin work with institutions funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Research Program to investigate the nature and extent of geothermal systems in the Great Basin and to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources.

  11. A Review of Methods Applied by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Assessment of Identified Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an updated assessment of geothermal resources in the United States. The primary method applied in assessments of identified geothermal systems by the USGS and other organizations is the volume method, in which the recoverable heat is estimated from the thermal energy available in a reservoir. An important focus in the assessment project is on the development of geothermal resource models consistent with the production histories and observed characteristics of exploited geothermal fields. The new assessment will incorporate some changes in the models for temperature and depth ranges for electric power production, preferred chemical geothermometers for estimates of reservoir temperatures, estimates of reservoir volumes, and geothermal energy recovery factors. Monte Carlo simulations are used to characterize uncertainties in the estimates of electric power generation. These new models for the recovery of heat from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs provide a physically realistic basis for evaluating the production potential of natural geothermal reservoirs.

  12. Facilitating a generic communication interface to distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Hauksson, Einar Bragi; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2010-01-01

    As the power system evolves into a smarter and more flexible state, so must the communication technologies that support it. A key requirement for facilitating the distributed production of future grids is that communication and information are standardized to ensure interoperability. The IEC 61850...... standard, which was originally aimed at substation automation, has been expanded to cover the monitoring and control of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). By having a consistent and well-defined data model the standard enables a DER aggregator, such as a Virtual Power Plant (VPP), in communicating...... with a broad array of DERs. If the data model of IEC 61850 is combined with a set of contemporary web protocols, it can result in a major shift in how DERs can be accessed and coordinated. This paper describes how IEC 61850 can benefit from the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) service concept and how...

  13. NETL's Energy Data Exchange (EDX) - a coordination, collaboration, and data resource discovery platform for energy science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K.; Rowan, C.; Rager, D.; Dehlin, M.; Baker, D. V.; McIntyre, D.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-organizational research teams working jointly on projects often encounter problems with discovery, access to relevant existing resources, and data sharing due to large file sizes, inappropriate file formats, or other inefficient options that make collaboration difficult. The Energy Data eXchange (EDX) from Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is an evolving online research environment designed to overcome these challenges in support of DOE's fossil energy goals while offering improved access to data driven products of fossil energy R&D such as datasets, tools, and web applications. In 2011, development of NETL's Energy Data eXchange (EDX) was initiated and offers i) a means for better preserving of NETL's research and development products for future access and re-use, ii) efficient, discoverable access to authoritative, relevant, external resources, and iii) an improved approach and tools to support secure, private collaboration and coordination between multi-organizational teams to meet DOE mission and goals. EDX presently supports fossil energy and SubTER Crosscut research activities, with an ever-growing user base. EDX is built on a heavily customized instance of the open source platform, Comprehensive Knowledge Archive Network (CKAN). EDX connects users to externally relevant data and tools through connecting to external data repositories built on different platforms and other CKAN platforms (e.g. Data.gov). EDX does not download and repost data or tools that already have an online presence. This leads to redundancy and even error. If a relevant resource already has an online instance, is hosted by another online entity, EDX will point users to that external host either using web services, inventorying URLs and other methods. EDX offers users the ability to leverage private-secure capabilities custom built into the system. The team is presently working on version 3 of EDX which will incorporate big data analytical

  14. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  15. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  16. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program - Science Supporting Mineral Resource Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    The United States is the world's largest user of mineral resources. We use them to build our homes and cities, fertilize our food crops, and create wealth that allows us to buy goods and services. Individuals rarely use nonfuel mineral resources in their natural state - we buy light bulbs, not the silica, soda ash, lime, coal, salt, tungsten, copper, nickel, molybdenum, iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc used to convert electricity into light. The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) is the sole Federal source of scientific information and unbiased research on nonfuel mineral potential, production, and consumption, as well as on the environmental effects of minerals. The MRP also provides baseline geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-deposit data used to understand environmental issues related to extraction and use of mineral resources. Understanding how minerals, water, plants, and organisms interact contributes to our understanding of the environment, which is essential for maintaining human and ecosystem health. To support creation of economic and national security policies in a global context, MRP collects and analyzes data on essential mineral commodities from around the world.

  18. Adaptive prediction model accuracy in the control of residential energy resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negenborn, R.R.; Houwing, M.; De Schutter, B.; Hellendoorn, H.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing use of distributed energy resources and intelligence in the electricity infrastructure, the possibilities for minimizing costs of household energy consumption increase. Technology is moving toward a situation in which automated energy management systems could control domestic

  19. Least-cost model predictive control of residential energy resources when applying μmCHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; Heijnen, P.W.; De Schutter, B.; Hellendoorn, H.

    2007-01-01

    With an increasing use of distributed energy resources and intelligence in the electricity infrastructure, the possibilities for minimizing costs of household energy consumption increase. Technology is moving toward a situation in which households manage their own energy generation and consumption,

  20. The Timber Resources of Maine. A Report on the Forest Survey made by the U.S. Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland H. Ferguson; Franklin R. Longwood; Franklin R. Longwood

    1960-01-01

    This is a report on the timber resources of Maine. It is based on the findings of a forest survey made in 1954-58 by the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, U.S. Forest Service. The Maine survey was part of a nationwide survey that is being made to evaluate the extent and condition of the Nation's forest resources.

  1. Questionnaire survey, Indoor climate measurements and Energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2012-01-01

    to be designed and constructed with a heating demand corresponding to the Danish low-energy standard referred to as "low-energy class 1" in a new settlement called Stenløse Syd. This means that the energy consumption is to be 50% lower than the requirement in BR08 (Danish Building Regulations 2008). 66 flats....... This report presents part of the results of an evaluation of the project that was performed in the settlement. The evaluation consisted of a questionnaire survey of occupant experiences and satisfaction in 35 single-family houses, measurements of energy consumption in 22 selected single-family houses and 58......The municipality of Egedal decided in 2006 to make use of the possibility in the Danish Planning Law for a municipality to tighten the energy requirements in the local plan for a new settlement to be erected in the municipality. During the years 2007-2011 a total of 442 dwellings were...

  2. The Dark Energy Survey and Operations: Years 1 to 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an operating optical survey aimed at understanding the accelerating expansion of the universe using four complementary methods: weak gravitational lensing, galaxy cluster counts, baryon acoustic oscillations, and Type Ia supernovae. To perform the 5000 sq-degree wide field and 30 sq-degree supernova surveys, the DES Collaboration built the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square-degree, 570-Megapixel CCD camera that was installed at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DES has completed its third observing season out of a nominal five. This paper describes DES “Year 1” (Y1) to “Year 3” (Y3), the strategy, an outline of the survey operations procedures, the efficiency of operations and the causes of lost observing time. It provides details about the quality of the first three season's data, and describes how we are adjusting the survey strategy in the face of the El Niño Southern Oscillation

  3. Basic survey on coal resources in Ariake Sea area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, Mitsuharu

    1984-09-21

    This is a contracted NEDO project. Potential existance of coal resources and geological conditions were studied and the following information was acquired. Area examined is the Ariake Sea area with breadth of 12 km (east to west) and 17 km (north to south) between the Miike Coal Mines and the Karatsu Coal Mines. Investigation was made by a marine drilling (depth being 864.8 m and 865.2 m below the sea bottom) and by a marine seismic method. Existence of coal bed groups comparable with the coal bed in the trial section of the Miike Coal Mines was confirmed by the two-drill trial. This indicates that the west end line of the Miike Coal Mines lies further west of the line connecting the Chikugo barrier and the Minenosu barrier. Investigation by a marine earthquake indicates that the upper surface of the coal beds in the investigated area is distributed in the depth of 400 - 1,100 m below the sea level, and that the basic surface is situated at the depth of 700 - 1,400 m below the sea level. This suggests the possibility that the coal beds of the Miike Coal Mines are distributed to reach the western part of the Ariake Sea. (9 figs, 3 tabs)

  4. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts onRegional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of the consumer price shocks and short-term power shortages of the 2000-01 electricity crisis, policymakers and regulators in Western states are placing increased emphasis on integrated resource planning (IRP), resource adequacy and assessment and a diversified portfolio of resources to meet the needs of electricity consumers. In some states, this has led to a resurgence in state and utility commitments to energy efficiency. Increasing interest in acquiring energy efficiency as a power-system resource is also driven by the desire to dampen high growth rates in electricity demand in some Western states, rapid increases in natural gas prices, concerns about the environmental impacts of electricity generation (e.g. water consumption by power plants, air quality), and the potential of energy efficiency to provide utility bill savings for households and businesses (WGA CDEAC 2006). Recognizing the cost-competitiveness and environmental benefits of energy efficiency, the Western Governor's Association (WGA) has set a high priority for energy efficiency, establishing a goal of reducing projected electricity demand by 20% across the West by 2020 in a policy resolution on Clean and Diversified Energy for the West (WGA 2004). Nationally, the need for improved tracking of demand-side resources in load forecasting is formalized in the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC)'s recently adopted reliability standards, which utilities and regional reliability organizations will need to comply with (NERC 2005a and 2005b). In this study, we examine the treatment of energy efficiency in recent resource plans issued by fourteen investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the Western United States and Canada. The goals of this study are to: (1) summarize energy-efficiency resources as represented in a large sample of recent resource plans prepared by Western utilities and identify key issues; (2) evaluate the extent to which the information provided in

  5. The problem of non-renewable energy resources in the production of physical capital

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Barahona, Agustin

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the possibilities of technical progress to deal with the growth limit problem imposed by the usage of non-renewable energy resources, when physical capital production is relatively more energy-intensive than consumption. In particular, this work presents the conditions under which energy-saving technologies can sustain long-run growth, although energy is produced by means of non-renewable energy resources. The mechanism behind that is energy efficiency.

  6. 78 FR 37567 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... of energy resources on tribal lands. Information collection: Enables IEED to engage in a consultation... Assistant Director for Information Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-4M-P...

  7. 75 FR 4836 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... Affairs, is proposing to submit the information collection titled ``Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... resources on tribal lands. Information collected: Enables IEED to engage in a consultation process...

  8. Geothermal resources and energy complex use in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalova, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal energy use is the perspective way to clean sustainable development of the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and makes good steps in their use. In Russia the geothermal resources are used predominantly for heat supply both heating of several cities and settlements on Northern Caucasus and Kamchatka with a total number of the population 500000. Besides in some regions of country the deep heat is used for greenhouses of common area 465000 m2. Most active the hydrothermal resources are used in Krasnodar territory, Dagestan and on Kamchatka. The approximately half of extracted resources is applied for heat supply of habitation and industrial puttings, third - to a heating of greenhouses, and about 13 % - for industrial processes. Besides the thermal waters are used approximately on 150 health resorts and 40 factories on bottling mineral water. The most perspective direction of usage of low temperature geothermal resources is the use of heat pumps. This way is optimal for many regions of Russia - in its European part, on Ural and others. The electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands. At present three stations work in Kamchatka: Pauzhetka GeoPP (11MW e installed capacity) and two Severo-Mutnovka GeoPP ( 12 and 50 MWe). Moreover, another GeoPP of 100 MVe is now under preparation in the same place. Two small GeoPP are in operation in Kuril's Kunashir Isl, and Iturup Isl, with installed capacity of 2,б MWe and 6 MWe respectively. There are two possible uses of geothermal resources depending on structure and properties of thermal waters: heat/power and mineral extraction. The heat/power direction is preferable for low mineralized waters when valuable components in industrial concentration are absent, and the general mineralization does not interfere with normal operation of system. When high potential geothermal waters are characterized by the high

  9. Water energy resources of the United States with emphasis on low head/low power resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Cherry, Shane J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Reeves, Kelly S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Lee, Randy D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Carroll, Gregory R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Sommers, Garold L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL); Verdin, Kristine L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A, and similar presentations for each of the 50 states are made in Appendix B.

  10. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, Bruno M. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santiago, Basílio X. [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Girardi, Léo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Osservatorio Astronomica di Padova-INAF, Padova (Italy); Camargo, Julio I. B. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Balbinot, Eduardo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); da Costa, Luiz N. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Maia, Marcio A. G. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Makler, Martin [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ogando, Ricardo L. C. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pellegrini, Paulo S. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ramos, Beatriz [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); de Simoni, Fernando [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Armstrong, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Bertin, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Desai, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Kuropatkin, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lin, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mohr, J. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Tucker, D. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  11. Job satisfaction in relation to energy resource consciousness and perceptions of energy utilization in selected Illinois manufacturing firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study was developed through a synthesis and review of literature and research related to the current status of job satisfaction, energy resources, and perceptions of how energy is utilized in the manufacturing work environment. This synthesis and review revolved around several proven contributing factors of job satisfaction, such as age, education, and challenge from work itself. Quality of work life programs and their components are discussed in relation to their impact on job satisfaction. The nature of energy resource utilization is traced back through history with an emphasis on the limitations of current resources and options for the future. The review highlights the current debate over what should be the future path of energy resource development. The concept of satisfaction of human needs is reviewed and related to job satisfaction and energy resources. The purpose of this research study was to contribute to the understanding of how perceptions of energy resources relate to job satisfaction. Results of the study indicated that there were no significant differences between an individual's energy resource consciousness and perceptions of energy utilization in the work place, energy resource consciousness and job satisfaction, and job satisfaction and perceptions of energy utilization in the workplace.

  12. A survey of the neuroscience resource landscape: perspectives from the neuroscience information framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachat, Jonathan; Bandrowski, Anita; Grethe, Jeffery S; Gupta, Amarnath; Astakhov, Vadim; Imam, Fahim; Larson, Stephen D; Martone, Maryann E

    2012-01-01

    The number of available neuroscience resources (databases, tools, materials, and networks) available via the Web continues to expand, particularly in light of newly implemented data sharing policies required by funding agencies and journals. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of classic search engine systems make efficient, reliable, and relevant discovery of such resources a significant challenge. This challenge is especially pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is largely opaque to contemporary search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework was initiated to address this problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources. Since its first production release in 2008, NIF has been surveying the resource landscape for the neurosciences, identifying relevant resources and working to make them easily discoverable by the neuroscience community. In this chapter, we provide a survey of the resource landscape for neuroscience: what types of resources are available, how many there are, what they contain, and most importantly, ways in which these resources can be utilized by the research community to advance neuroscience research.

  13. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  14. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  15. [Data validation methods and discussion on Chinese materia medica resource survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Ma, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Xing-Xing

    2013-07-01

    From the beginning of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources, there were 22 provinces have conducted pilots. The survey teams have reported immense data, it put forward the very high request to the database system construction. In order to ensure the quality, it is necessary to check and validate the data in database system. Data validation is important methods to ensure the validity, integrity and accuracy of census data. This paper comprehensively introduce the data validation system of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources database system, and further improve the design idea and programs of data validation. The purpose of this study is to promote the survey work smoothly.

  16. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff.

  17. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron; de Bruet, Andre, G.; Broadwater, Robert; Dilek, Murat

    2007-01-10

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security was accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model--a utility

  18. The Dark Energy Survey Data Processing and Calibration System

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Joseph J; Bertin, Emmanuel; Daues, Gregory E; Desai, Shantanu; Gower, Michelle; Gruendl, Robert; Hanlon, William; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Lin, Huan; Marriner, John; Petravick, Don; Sevilla, Ignacio; Swanson, Molly; Tomashek, Todd; Tucker, Douglas; Yanny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a 5000 deg2 grizY survey reaching characteristic photometric depths of 24th magnitude (10 sigma) and enabling accurate photometry and morphology of objects ten times fainter than in SDSS. Preparations for DES have included building a dedicated 3 deg2 CCD camera (DECam), upgrading the existing CTIO Blanco 4m telescope and developing a new high performance computing (HPC) enabled data management system (DESDM). The DESDM system will be used for processing, calibrating and serving the DES data. The total data volumes are high (~2PB), and so considerable effort has gone into designing an automated processing and quality control system. Special purpose image detrending and photometric calibration codes have been developed to meet the data quality requirements, while survey astrometric calibration, coaddition and cataloging rely on new extensions of the AstrOmatic codes which now include tools for PSF modeling, PSF homogenization, PSF corrected model fitting cataloging and joint mode...

  19. Energy Efficient Resource Allocation for Phantom Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr

    2016-04-01

    Multi-tier heterogeneous networks have become an essential constituent for next generation cellular networks. Meanwhile, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered a critical design criterion along with the traditional spectral efficiency (SE) metric. In this context, we study power and spectrum allocation for the recently proposed two-tier network architecture known as phantom cellular networks. The optimization framework includes both EE and SE. First, we consider sparsely deployed cells experiencing negligible interference and assume perfect channel state information (CSI). For this setting, we propose an algorithm that finds the SE and EE resource allocation strategies. Then, we compare the performance of both design strategies versus number of users, and phantom cells share of the total available resource units (RUs). We aim to investigate the effect of some system parameters to achieve improved SE performance at a non-significant loss in EE performance, or vice versa. It is found that increasing phantom cells share of RUs decreases the SE performance loss due to EE optimization when compared with the optimized SE performance. Second, we consider the densely deployed phantom cellular networks and model the EE optimization problem having into consideration the inevitable interference and imperfect channel estimation. To this end, we propose three resource allocation strategies aiming at optimizing the EE performance metric of this network. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of changing some of the system parameters on the performance of the proposed strategies, such as phantom cells share of RUs, number of deployed phantom cells within a macro cell coverage, number of pilots and the maximum power available for transmission by the phantom cells BSs. It is found that increasing the number of pilots deteriorates the EE performance of the whole setup, while increasing maximum power available for phantom cells transmissions reduces the EE of the whole setup in a

  20. Advanced Distribution Network Modelling with Distributed Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Alison

    The addition of new distributed energy resources, such as electric vehicles, photovoltaics, and storage, to low voltage distribution networks means that these networks will undergo major changes in the future. Traditionally, distribution systems would have been a passive part of the wider power system, delivering electricity to the customer and not needing much control or management. However, the introduction of these new technologies may cause unforeseen issues for distribution networks, due to the fact that they were not considered when the networks were originally designed. This thesis examines different types of technologies that may begin to emerge on distribution systems, as well as the resulting challenges that they may impose. Three-phase models of distribution networks are developed and subsequently utilised as test cases. Various management strategies are devised for the purposes of controlling distributed resources from a distribution network perspective. The aim of the management strategies is to mitigate those issues that distributed resources may cause, while also keeping customers' preferences in mind. A rolling optimisation formulation is proposed as an operational tool which can manage distributed resources, while also accounting for the uncertainties that these resources may present. Network sensitivities for a particular feeder are extracted from a three-phase load flow methodology and incorporated into an optimisation. Electric vehicles are the focus of the work, although the method could be applied to other types of resources. The aim is to minimise the cost of electric vehicle charging over a 24-hour time horizon by controlling the charge rates and timings of the vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage that controlled EV charging can have over an uncontrolled case, as well as the benefits provided by the rolling formulation and updated inputs in terms of cost and energy delivered to customers. Building upon the rolling optimisation, a

  1. Smoothing out the volatility of South Africa’s wind and solar energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, Crescent

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past, renewables were mainly driven by the US, Europe and China, but South Africa is slowly picking up. This presentation discusses South Africa's wind and solar resources as alternative energy resources....

  2. 78 FR 4867 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program... Information Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-4M-P ... comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the collection of...

  3. Survey of Hawaii Resident Resource Users' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Coral Reefs in Two Hawaii Priority Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey collects data regarding resident resource users' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about the condition of coral reef and watershed resources, current...

  4. Search for Kilonovae in Dark Energy Survey Supernova Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Zoheyr; DES-GW Team; DES-SN Team

    2016-03-01

    The Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4-m Telescope is an ideal instrument for identifying rapid optical transients with its large field of view and four optical filters. We utilize two seasons of data from the Dark Energy Survey to search for kilonovae, an optical counterpart to gravitational waves from binary neutron star mergers. Kilonova lightcurves from Barnes and Kasen inform our analysis for removing background signals such as supernovae. We simulate DES observations of kilonovae with the SNANA software package to estimate our search efficiency and optimize cuts. Finally, we report rate limits for binary neutron star mergers and compare to existing rate estimates.

  5. The Feasibility of Constraining Dark Energy Using LAMOST Redshift Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We consider using future redshift surveys with the Large Sky Area MultiObject Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) to constrain the equation of state of dark energy ω. We analyze the Alcock & Paczynski (AP) effect imprinted on the two-point correlation function of galaxies in redshift space. The Fisher matrix analysis is applied to estimate the expected error bounds of ω0 and ωa from galaxy redshift surveys, ω0 and ωa being the two parameters in the equation of state parametrization ω(z) = ω0 + ωaz/(1 -+ z). Strong degeneracies between ω0 and ωa are found. The direction of the degeneracy in ω0 - ωa plane, however, rotates counter-clockwise as the redshift increases. LAMOST can potentially contribute in the redshift range up to 0.5. In combination with other high redshift surveys, such as the proposed KiloAperture Optical Spectrograph project (KAOS), the joint constraint derived from galaxy surveys at different redshift ranges is likely to efficiently break the degeneracy of ω0 and ωa. We do not anticipate that the nature of dark energy can be well constrained with LAMOST alone, but it may help to reduce the error bounds expected from other observations, such as the Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP).

  6. Biomass Energy Systems and Resources in Tropical Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Lugano (KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Tanzania has a characteristic developing economy, which is dependent on agricultural productivity. About 90% of the total primary energy consumption of the country is from biomass. Since the biomass is mostly consumed at the household level in form of wood fuel, it is marginally contributing to the commercial energy supply. However, the country has abundant energy resources from hydro, biomass, natural gas, coal, uranium, solar, wind and geothermal. Due to reasons that include the limited technological capacity, most of these resources have not received satisfactory harnessing. For instance: out of the estimated 4.7GW macro hydro potential only 561MW have been developed; and none of the 650MW geothermal potential is being harnessed. Furthermore, besides the huge potential of biomass (12 million tons of oil equivalent), natural gas (45 million cubic metres), coal (1,200 million tones), high solar insolation (4.5 - 6.5 kWh/m2), 1,424km of coastal strip, and availability of good wind regime (> 4 m/s wind speed), they are marginally contributing to the production of commercial energy. Ongoing exploration work also reveals that the country has an active system of petroleum and uranium. On the other hand, after commissioning the 229 km natural gas pipeline from SongoSongo Island to Dar es Salaam, there are efforts to ensure a wider application in electricity generation, households, automotive and industry. Due to existing environmental concerns, biomass resource is an attractive future energy for the world, Tanzania inclusive. This calls for putting in place sustainable energy technologies, like gasification, for their harnessing. The high temperature gasification (HTAG) of biomass is a candidate technology since it has shown to produce improved syngas quality in terms of gas heating value that has less tar. This work was therefore initiated in order to contribute to efforts on realizing a commercial application of biomass in Tanzania. Particularly, the work aimed at

  7. A survey on resource allocation in high performance distributed computing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Hameed; Malik, Saif Ur Rehman; Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Samee Ullah; Bickler, Gage; Min-Allah, Nasro; Qureshi, Muhammad Bilal; Zhang, Limin; Yongji, Wang; Ghani, Nasir; Kolodziej, Joanna; Zomaya, Albert Y.; Xu, Cheng-Zhong; Balaji, Pavan; Vishnu, Abhinav; Pinel, Fredric; Pecero, Johnatan E.; Kliazovich, Dzmitry; Bouvry, Pascal; Li, Hongxiang; Wang, Lizhe; Chen, Dan; Rayes, Ammar

    2013-11-01

    An efficient resource allocation is a fundamental requirement in high performance computing (HPC) systems. Many projects are dedicated to large-scale distributed computing systems that have designed and developed resource allocation mechanisms with a variety of architectures and services. In our study, through analysis, a comprehensive survey for describing resource allocation in various HPCs is reported. The aim of the work is to aggregate under a joint framework, the existing solutions for HPC to provide a thorough analysis and characteristics of the resource management and allocation strategies. Resource allocation mechanisms and strategies play a vital role towards the performance improvement of all the HPCs classifications. Therefore, a comprehensive discussion of widely used resource allocation strategies deployed in HPC environment is required, which is one of the motivations of this survey. Moreover, we have classified the HPC systems into three broad categories, namely: (a) cluster, (b) grid, and (c) cloud systems and define the characteristics of each class by extracting sets of common attributes. All of the aforementioned systems are cataloged into pure software and hybrid/hardware solutions. The system classification is used to identify approaches followed by the implementation of existing resource allocation strategies that are widely presented in the literature.

  8. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN) customer satisfaction survey, 1997. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.V. [Information International Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, D.P. [USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    the EREN Customer Satisfaction Survey 1997 was designed to follow up the results of the 1995-96 Surveys, enabling comparison to the 1995- 96 baseline, and to provide additional qualitative feedback about EREN. Both the 1995-96 and 1997 Surveys had these objectives: Identify and define actual EREN users; Determine the value or benefits derived from the use of EREN; Determine the kind and quality of services that users want; Determine the users` levels of satisfaction with existing services; Determine users` preferences in both the sources of service and means of delivery; and Establish continuous quality improvement measures. This report presents the methodology used, scope and limitations of the study, description of the survey instrument, and findings regarding demographics, technical capabilities, usage patterns, general use, importance of and satisfaction with resources, and additional information and comments.

  9. The Energy Optimization Mathematic Algorithm on Multi-energy Resource Powertrain of Fuel Cell Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; GUO Hai-tao; YANG Lin; ZHUO Bin

    2007-01-01

    In order to solve the core issue of the energy regulation (ER) on multi-energy resource powertrain of fuel cell vehicle, the work functions of each component were defined; the mathematical algorithm model of energy regulation was established and the relevant solution was found. This algorithm was evaluated successfully on the hardware in loop (HIL) platform under three typical urban nmning cycles. The results showed ER control target had been realized and the mathematical algorithm was effective and reasonable. Based on the HIL simulation, some conclusions and ER strategies were made. According to the different power component parameters and real time control request, this algorithm should be modified and calibrated for application in the actual control system.

  10. Urban Resource Islands: a new perspective on the water-energy nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, D.; Murphy, J.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Water and energy resources are interrelated but their influence on each other is rarely considered. To quantify the externalities associated with the water-energy nexus and the influence of geographic location on resources, we present the Water-Energy Nexus (WEN) tool. The WEN tool quantifies a community’s direct, indirect and nexus (energy for water and water for energy) resources so communities can assess their resource flows. In addition, to provide insight into the full range of impacts of water and energy resource acquisition and to frame the influence of geography on resources, we propose the application of the concept of resource islands. The concept of urban resource islands provides a framework for considering the implication of geography on a community’s water and energy resource acquisition and use. The tool and the concept of resource islands can promote communities to think about their hidden resources and integrate such concepts into their sustainability trade-off analyses. We use Tucson, Arizona as a case study to illustrate these ideas.

  11. [Formulation of technical specification for national survey of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhao, Run-Huai; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-04-01

    According to the process of the technical specification (TS) design for the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources (CMMR), we analyzed the assignment and objectives of the national survey and pointed out that the differences about CMMR management around China, the distribution of CMMR and their habitat, the economic and technological level, and even enthusiasm and initiative of the staff, etc. are the most difficult points for TS design. And we adopt the principle of combination of the mandatory and flexibility in TS design. We fixed the key points which would affect the quality of national survey first, then proposed the framework of TS which including 3 parts of organization and 11 parts of technique itself. The framework will serve and lead the TS preparation, which will not only provide an action standard to the national survey but will also have a profound influence to the popularization and application of the survey technology of CMMR. [Key words

  12. Energy survey of the coal based sponge iron industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant R. Dey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey is made on a typical coal based Indian sponge iron plant of capacity 500 t/d in order to identify the largest energy losses and find ways to increase the efficiency. The required data are obtained by measurements or taken from production industries. The process efficiency is about 51.31%. The energy balances of the process show that the gap between theoretical and actual energy consumption is 45.2% and the exhausts make up the largest loss of 43.5%. A huge amount of waste gas is generated during operation and substantial part of it associated with the waste gas, remains unutilized. The energy content in the exhaust gases which is found at useful temperature can be used in three different ways: by internal use; by external energy supply; or by power generation. The four possible potential areas are identified where energy is being lost and untapped. The largest improvements would be made by design modifications adopting a novel energy conservation scenario by process integration and thereby decreasing the coal and water consumption and by decreasing the cold fresh air.

  13. Normalization of energy-dependent gamma survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Randy; Chambers, Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Instruments and methods for normalization of energy-dependent gamma radiation survey data to a less energy-dependent basis of measurement are evaluated based on relevant field data collected at 15 different sites across the western United States along with a site in Mongolia. Normalization performance is assessed relative to measurements with a high-pressure ionization chamber (HPIC) due to its "flat" energy response and accurate measurement of the true exposure rate from both cosmic and terrestrial radiation. While analytically ideal for normalization applications, cost and practicality disadvantages have increased demand for alternatives to the HPIC. Regression analysis on paired measurements between energy-dependent sodium iodide (NaI) scintillation detectors (5-cm by 5-cm crystal dimensions) and the HPIC revealed highly consistent relationships among sites not previously impacted by radiological contamination (natural sites). A resulting generalized data normalization factor based on the average sensitivity of NaI detectors to naturally occurring terrestrial radiation (0.56 nGy hHPIC per nGy hNaI), combined with the calculated site-specific estimate of cosmic radiation, produced reasonably accurate predictions of HPIC readings at natural sites. Normalization against two to potential alternative instruments (a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator and energy-compensated NaI detector) did not perform better than the sensitivity adjustment approach at natural sites. Each approach produced unreliable estimates of HPIC readings at radiologically impacted sites, though normalization against the plastic scintillator or energy-compensated NaI detector can address incompatibilities between different energy-dependent instruments with respect to estimation of soil radionuclide levels. The appropriate data normalization method depends on the nature of the site, expected duration of the project, survey objectives, and considerations of cost and practicality.

  14. Tidal Energy Conversion Installation at an Estuarine Bridge Site: Resource Evaluation and Energy Production Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnik, M.; Gagnon, I.; Baldwin, K.; Bell, E.

    2015-12-01

    The "Living Bridge" project aims to create a self-diagnosing, self-reporting "smart bridge" powered by a local renewable energy source, tidal energy - transforming Memorial Bridge, a vertical lift bridge over the tidal Piscataqua River connecting Portsmouth, NH and Kittery, ME, into a living laboratory for researchers, engineers, scientists, and the community. The Living Bridge project includes the installation of a tidal turbine at the Memorial Bridge. The energy converted by the turbine will power structural health monitoring, environmental and underwater instrumentation. Utilizing locally available tidal energy can make bridge operation more sustainable, can "harden" transportation infrastructure against prolonged grid outages and can demonstrate a prototype of an "estuarine bridge of the future". A spatio-temporal tidal energy resource assessment was performed using long term bottom-deployed Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) at two locations: near the planned deployment location in 2013-14 for 123 days and mid-channel in 2007 for 35 days. Data were evaluated to determine the amount of available kinetic energy that can be converted into usable electrical energy on the bridge. Changes in available kinetic energy with ebb/flood and spring/neap tidal cycles and electrical energy demand were analyzed. The target deployment site exhibited significantly more energetic ebb tides than flood tides, which can be explained by the local bathymetry of the tidal estuary. A system model is used to calculate the net energy savings using various tidal generator and battery bank configurations. Different resource evaluation methodologies were also analyzed, e.g., using a representative ADCP "bin" vs. a more refined, turbine-geometry-specific methodology, and using static bin height vs. bin height that move w.r.t. the free surface throughout a tidal cycle (representative of a bottom-fixed or floating turbine deployment, respectively). ADCP operating frequencies and bin

  15. Discussion on the Assessment Method of Wind Energy Resources by Using Regional Meteorological Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation status of wind energy resources was analyzed, and the distribution of wind energy resources and regional meteorological stations were introduced, and then the assessment method of wind energy resources by using data from regional meteorological station was studied taking Huangjin Regional Meteorological Station in Xinning County in Hunan Province for example, besides, corresponding software was compiled. By means of SQL database and program, the method was used simply and easily and had pos...

  16. School Resource Officer Facts: Findings from the Fall 1999 DCJS Survey of Virginia SRO Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Dept. of Criminal Justice Services, Richmond.

    This report provides results from the Fall 1999 Department of Criminal Justice Service Survey of Virginia School Resource Officer (SRO) Programs. Through this study, all Virginia police departments and sheriff's offices with primary responsibility for patrol, crime prevention, and community policing within their jurisdictions were contacted by…

  17. Tidal Energy Resource Assessment in Chacao Channel, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, M.; Suarez, L.; Cienfuegos, R.; Thomson, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chacao Channel, located in Los Lagos region in Chile (41º S; 73º W), is a highly energetic tidal channel, with a complex hydrodynamics resulting from the propagation of tidal waves through a narrow channel. The channel flow exhibits bi-directional tidal currents up to 4 to 5 m/s along with a high tidal range up to 6 m in its east end (Aiken, 2008: Cáceres et al., 2003). The channel has previously been identified as one of the most attractive sites in Chile for tidal energy extraction (Garrad Hassan and Partners, 2009); however this statement is based on global model predictions over coarse bathymetric information. In this investigation, the first hydrodynamic characterization of the Chacao channel is carried out in order to assess the hydrokinetic power available and to select the most interesting spots where the first tidal energy extraction devices might be installed in Chile. The Chacao channel hydrodynamic characterization and resource assessment is carried out in two stages: field measurements and numerical hydrodynamic modeling. The first stage involves a 10 m resolution multi-beam bathymetry of the channel, sea-level measurements using 6 tidal gauges distributed over the channel berms, tidal current measurements with 6 ADCPs distributed along the channel, and detailed measurements of turbulence in a specific spot in the channel using the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) developed by Thomson et al. (2013). In a second stage, numerical hydrodynamic modeling using FVCOM (Chen et al., 2003) was prepared for the entire Chacao channel region, using the field data collected in the first stage for calibration and validation of the model. The obtained results allow us to define suitable sites for marine energy extraction, finding large areas with 30 to 60 m depths where horizontal currents are above 1.5 m/s during 60% of the time of a 28 days tidal cycle, however the high levels of turbulence detected by the TTM indicate the need for more detailed studies on the

  18. Energy and the social sciences. A preliminary literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommers, P.

    1975-01-01

    The social science literature pertaining to energy problems is reviewed, and preliminary suggestions for research projects and research strategy are presented. Much of the social science literature on energy is in the field of economics, where such themes as econometric models, pricing policy, taxation, and government-industry interactions are discussed. Among the suggested research efforts is a study of proper economic criteria for determining rates of development of alternative sources of energy. The political science literature on energy is not well developed, but a review of it indicates interesting possibilities for research. The kinds of social and political institutions that would be most effective in an energy-constrained economy should be studied, and a comparative study of institutions now in existence in the United States and other countries is suggested. The social effects of centralized, comprehensive decision-making, which might be necessary in the event of significant shortages of energy, should be studied. The roles of community groups, interest groups, the media, government, etc., in decision-making should receive continuing attention. In the fields of sociology and psychology there is a need for more understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and behavior of individuals about energy matters. The ways in which people adapt to energy shortages and changes in energy prices should be a subject for continuing studies. It is suggested that plans be made for surveys of coping strategies under emergency conditions as well as under conditions of gradual change. A possible long-range reaction to energy shortages and high prices might be a decrease in living-space available to individuals and families, and the work of psychologists in this area should be analyzed. 41 references.

  19. FEATURES OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE OLTENIA ENERGY COMPLEX IMPORTANT PART OF THE COUNTY'S LABOR MARKET RESOURCES GORJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păunescu Alberto Nicolae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently the company Oltenia Energy Complex is in a comprehensive reorganization but not completed. This project implies also the restructuring the workforce including labor force county level. Due to increased production from renewable resources (due to legislation that lead to low price sale by manufacturers and high income by selling green certificates allocated requires a shift in market strategy and the unit with powerful implications on human resources both in the manufacturing sector, energy, heat mining sector, as well as TESA(economic, technical, service, administrative. This implies at least retraining and reducing staff in compliance with the new realities of Energy.

  20. The U.S. Geological Survey Federal-State cooperative water- resources program; fiscal year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B.K.; Mann, William B.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey 's Federal-State Cooperative Water Resources Program (50-50 matching of funds) started in Kansas in 1895. During fiscal year (FY) 1987, hydrologic data collection, investigations, and research are being conducted in every state, Puerto Rico, and several territories in cooperation with 940 state, regional and local agencies. Federal funding of $55.3 million was matched by cooperating agencies; cooperators also provided $4.6 million unmatched, for a program total of about $115 million. The Cooperative Program accounted for almost 45% of the FY 1987 obligations of the Geological Survey 's Water Resources Division. The principal areas of emphasis during the year included groundwater contamination, stream quality, water supply and demand, and hydrologic hazards. Information is presented on program functions and priorities. Data collection activities are also described as is work related to water resources contamination. Several examples of current (1987) investigations are provided. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Harvesting Ambient Environmental Energy for Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbo Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have grown dramatically and made a great progress in many applications. But having limited life, batteries, as the power sources of wireless sensor nodes, have restricted the development and application of WSNs which often requires a very long lifespan for better performance. In order to make the WSNs prevalent in our lives, an alternative energy source is required. Environmental energy is an attractive power source, and it provides an approach to make the sensor nodes self-powered with the possibility of an almost infinite lifetime. The goal of this survey is to present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the various possible energy harvesting technologies from ambient environment for WSNs.

  2. Fair reckoning: a qualitative investigation of responses to an economic health resource allocation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Mita; Hurley, Jeremiah; DeJean, Deirdre

    2014-04-01

    To investigate how participants in an economic resource allocation survey construct notions of fairness. Qualitative interview study guided by interpretive grounded theory methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with volunteer university- (n=39) and community-based (n =7) economic survey participants. INTERVENTION OR MAIN VARIABLES STUDIED: We explored how participants constructed meanings to guide or explain fair survey choices, focusing on rationales, imagery and additional desired information not provided in the survey scenarios. Data were transcribed and coded into qualitative categories. Analysis iterated with data collection iterated through three waves of interviews. Participants compared the survey dilemmas to domains outside the health system. Most compared them with other micro-level, inter-personal sharing tasks. Participants raised several fairness-relevant factors beyond need or capacity to benefit. These included age, weight, poverty, access to other options and personal responsibility for illness; illness duration, curability or seriousness; life expectancy; possibilities for sharing; awareness of other's needs; and ability to explain allocations to those affected. They also articulated a fairness principle little considered by equity theories: that everybody must get something and nobody should get nothing. Lay criteria for judging fairness are myriad. Simple scenarios may be used to investigate lay commitments to abstract principles. Although principles are the focus of analysis and inference, participants may solve simplified dilemmas by imputing extraneous features to the problem or applying unanticipated principles. These possibilities should be taken into account in the design of resource allocation surveys eliciting the views of the public. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. AUTOMATED TRANSIENT IDENTIFICATION IN THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, D. A.; Nugent, P. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall #3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D’Andrea, C. B.; Nichol, R. C.; Papadopoulos, A. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Fischer, J. A.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Foley, R. J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Gupta, R. R. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kessler, R. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, M.; Sullivan, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Wester, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Banerji, M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Bertin, E. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS UMR7095, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2015-09-15

    We describe an algorithm for identifying point-source transients and moving objects on reference-subtracted optical images containing artifacts of processing and instrumentation. The algorithm makes use of the supervised machine learning technique known as Random Forest. We present results from its use in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN), where it was trained using a sample of 898,963 signal and background events generated by the transient detection pipeline. After reprocessing the data collected during the first DES-SN observing season (2013 September through 2014 February) using the algorithm, the number of transient candidates eligible for human scanning decreased by a factor of 13.4, while only 1.0% of the artificial Type Ia supernovae (SNe) injected into search images to monitor survey efficiency were lost, most of which were very faint events. Here we characterize the algorithm’s performance in detail, and we discuss how it can inform pipeline design decisions for future time-domain imaging surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Zwicky Transient Facility. An implementation of the algorithm and the training data used in this paper are available at at http://portal.nersc.gov/project/dessn/autoscan.

  4. Automated transient identification in the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, D. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). et al.

    2015-08-20

    We describe an algorithm for identifying point-source transients and moving objects on reference-subtracted optical images containing artifacts of processing and instrumentation. The algorithm makes use of the supervised machine learning technique known as Random Forest. We present results from its use in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN), where it was trained using a sample of 898,963 signal and background events generated by the transient detection pipeline. After reprocessing the data collected during the first DES-SN observing season (2013 September through 2014 February) using the algorithm, the number of transient candidates eligible for human scanning decreased by a factor of 13.4, while only 1.0 percent of the artificial Type Ia supernovae (SNe) injected into search images to monitor survey efficiency were lost, most of which were very faint events. Here we characterize the algorithm's performance in detail, and we discuss how it can inform pipeline design decisions for future time-domain imaging surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Zwicky Transient Facility.

  5. Energy and Water Consumption End-Use Survey in Commercial and Industrial Sectors in Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The objective of survey was to collect statistical energy and water end-use data for commercial and industrial sectors. The survey identified volumes of energy and...

  6. Application effectiveness of the microtremor survey method in the exploration of geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baoqing; Xu, Peifen; Ling, Suqun; Du, Jianguo; Xu, Xueqiu; Pang, Zhonghe

    2017-10-01

    Geophysical techniques are critical tools of geothermal resource surveys. In recent years, the microtremor survey method, which has two branch techniques (the microtremor sounding technique and the two-dimensional (2D) microtremor profiling technique), has become a common method for geothermal resource exploration. The results of microtremor surveys provide important deep information for probing structures of geothermal storing basins and researching the heat-controlling structures, as well as providing the basis for drilling positions of geothermal wells. In this paper, the southern Jiangsu geothermal resources area is taken as a study example. By comparing the results of microtremor surveys and drilling conclusions, and analyzing microtremor survey effectiveness, and geological and technical factors such as observation radius and sampling frequency, we study the applicability of the microtremor survey method and the optimal way of working with this method to achieve better detection results. A comparative study of survey results and geothermal drilling results shows that the microtremor sounding technique effectively distinguishes sub-layers and determines the depth of geothermal reservoirs in the area with excellent layer conditions. The error of depth is generally no more than 8% compared with the results of drilling. It detects deeper by adjusting the size of the probing radius. The 2D microtremor profiling technique probes exactly the buried structures which display as low velocity anomalies in the apparent velocity profile of the S-wave. The anomaly is the critical symbol of the 2D microtremor profiling technique to distinguish and explain the buried geothermal structures. 2D microtremor profiling results provide an important basis for locating exactly the geothermal well and reducing the risk of drilling dry wells.

  7. The Effect of Distributed Energy Resource Competition with Central Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, SW

    2003-12-10

    Distributed Energy Resource (DER) has been touted as a clean and efficient way to generate electricity at end-use sites, potentially allowing the exhaust heat to be put to good use as well. However, despite its environmental acceptability compared to many other types of generation, it has faced some disapproval because it may displace other, cleaner generation technologies. The end result could be more pollution than if the DER were not deployed. On the other hand, the DER may be competing against older power plants. If the DER is built then these other plants may be retired sooner, reducing their emissions. Or it may be that DER does not directly compete against either new or old plant capacity at the decision-maker level, and increased DER simply reduces the amount of time various plants operate. The key factor is what gets displaced if DER is added. For every kWh made by DER a kWh (or more with losses) of other production is not made. If enough DER is created, some power plants will get retired or not get built so not only their production but their capacity is displaced. Various characteristics of the power system in a region will influence how DER impacts the operation of the grid. The growth in demand in the region may influence whether new plants are postponed or old plants retired. The generation mix, including the fuel types, efficiencies, and emission characteristics of the plants in the region will factor into the overall competition. And public policies such as ease of new construction, emissions regulations, and fuel availability will also come into consideration.

  8. Role of nuclear energy to a future society of shortage of energy resources and global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinzo

    2010-03-01

    Human society entered into the society of large energy consumption since the industrial revolution and consumes more than 10 billion tons of oil equivalent energy a year in the world in the present time, in which over 80% is provided by fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Total energy consumption is foreseen to increase year by year from now on due to significant economical and population growth in the developing countries such as China and India. However, fossil fuel resources are limited with conventional crude oil estimated to last about 40 years, and it is said that the peak oil production time has come now. On the other hand, global warming due to green house gases (GHG) emissions, especially carbon dioxide, has become a serious issue. Nuclear energy plays an important role as means to resolve energy security and global warming issues. Four hundred twenty-nine nuclear power plants are operating world widely producing 16% of the total electric power with total plant capacity of 386 GWe without emission of CO 2 as of 2006. It is estimated that another 250 GWe nuclear power is needed to keep the same level contribution of electricity generation in 2030. On the other hand, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) developed the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) named high temperature gas-cooled engineering test reactor (HTTR) and carbon free hydrogen production process (IS process). Nuclear energy utilization will surely widen in, not only electricity generation, but also various industries such as steel making, chemical industries, together with hydrogen production for transportation by introduction of HTGRs. The details of development of the HTTR and IS process are also described.

  9. Role of nuclear energy to a future society of shortage of energy resources and global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Shinzo, E-mail: saito.shinzo@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Human society entered into the society of large energy consumption since the industrial revolution and consumes more than 10 billion tons of oil equivalent energy a year in the world in the present time, in which over 80% is provided by fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Total energy consumption is foreseen to increase year by year from now on due to significant economical and population growth in the developing countries such as China and India. However, fossil fuel resources are limited with conventional crude oil estimated to last about 40 years, and it is said that the peak oil production time has come now. On the other hand, global warming due to green house gases (GHG) emissions, especially carbon dioxide, has become a serious issue. Nuclear energy plays an important role as means to resolve energy security and global warming issues. Four hundred twenty-nine nuclear power plants are operating world widely producing 16% of the total electric power with total plant capacity of 386 GWe without emission of CO{sub 2} as of 2006. It is estimated that another 250 GWe nuclear power is needed to keep the same level contribution of electricity generation in 2030. On the other hand, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) developed the very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) named high temperature gas-cooled engineering test reactor (HTTR) and carbon free hydrogen production process (IS process). Nuclear energy utilization will surely widen in, not only electricity generation, but also various industries such as steel making, chemical industries, together with hydrogen production for transportation by introduction of HTGRs. The details of development of the HTTR and IS process are also described.

  10. Clouds at CTIO and the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Jr., Eric [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-08-01

    An understanding of the weather patters at Cerro-Tololo Inter-American (CTIO) Observatory, the observing site for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is important for assessing the efciency of DES operations in using observing time and for planning future operations. CTIO has maintained records of cloud-cover by quarters of nights since 1975. A comparison between these cloud records in the 2013-2014 DES observing season (DES year 1) and achieved observing efciency and exposure quality allows the DES collaboration to make better use of the historical records in survey planning. Plots and tables here relate human recorded cloud-cover to collection of good DES data, show the variation of typical cloud-cover by month, and evaluate the relationship between the El Niño weather pattern and cloud-cover at CTIO.

  11. 78 FR 19005 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... resources on tribal lands. Information collection: Enables IEED to engage in a consultation process with... Assistant Director for Information Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-4M-P...

  12. Forward Global Photometric Calibration of the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, D.L.; et al.

    2017-06-05

    Many scientific goals for the Dark Energy Survey (DES) require calibration of optical/NIR broadband $b = grizY$ photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the celestial sky to one percent or better. It is also necessary to limit to similar accuracy systematic uncertainty in the calibrated broadband magnitudes due to uncertainty in the spectrum of the source. Here we present a "Forward Global Calibration Method (FGCM)" for photometric calibration of the DES, and we present results of its application to the first three years of the survey (Y3A1). The FGCM combines data taken with auxiliary instrumentation at the observatory with data from the broad-band survey imaging itself and models of the instrument and atmosphere to estimate the spatial- and time-dependence of the passbands of individual DES survey exposures. "Standard" passbands are chosen that are typical of the passbands encountered during the survey. The passband of any individual observation is combined with an estimate of the source spectral shape to yield a magnitude $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ in the standard system. This "chromatic correction" to the standard system is necessary to achieve sub-percent calibrations. The FGCM achieves reproducible and stable photometric calibration of standard magnitudes $m_b^{\\mathrm{std}}$ of stellar sources over the multi-year Y3A1 data sample with residual random calibration errors of $\\sigma=5-6\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ per exposure. The accuracy of the calibration is uniform across the $5000\\,\\mathrm{deg}^2$ DES footprint to within $\\sigma=7\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$. The systematic uncertainties of magnitudes in the standard system due to the spectra of sources are less than $5\\,\\mathrm{mmag}$ for main sequence stars with $0.5

  13. Integrating renewable energy resources with energy storage for grid-connected systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joseph

    Renewable energy resources have been growing at a rapidly accelerating rate as an alternative for fossil fuels in the modern electric grid. As their penetration increases, variability in these resources, particularly wind and solar, poses a risk of instability on the grid. Energy storage can be used to mitigate this risk as well as provide other benefits to the larger grid. In this dissertation, a novel high frequency common bus multiport converter is proposed as a new integration scheme to improve efficiency of the power electronics interface by reducing the number of conversion steps and to reduce the system size by replacing the line frequency transformer with a high frequency transformer tied to the common bus. Two main innovations are introduced: a new switching scheme for the H-bridges on the common bus which allows them to operate in parallel without interfering in each others operation, and a novel single-phase to three-phase matrix converter which converts the high frequency bus to the line frequency in a single conversion stage. This proposed converter is simulated to develop the inner loop control methodology, then a low power prototype is constructed and tested to verify its operation. The results of these tests demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed ideas as well as suggesting new avenues of research to further improve the proposed system.

  14. Use of hydrogeothermal resources - energy and environmental analysis; Nutzung hydrothermaler Erdwaermevorkommen - Energie und Umweltanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, M.; Kaltschmitt, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung (IER)

    1997-12-01

    The usage of hydrothermal resources for providing low caloric heat is a promissing option for the reduction of energy related environmental effects. This is especially true due the fact that this technology is currently available from the technical point of view. With this background the aim of this paper is to analyze the changes of some key environmental figures fro an existing hydrothermal heating plant in comparison to a fossil fired heating plant. The full life-cycle, from the erection to disposal of these plants are taken into consideration. Based upon the results discussed some conclusions are drawn concerning the contribution of a heat production from hydrothermal resources for realizing an environmental and climatic more sound energy supply system in Germany. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Nutzung hydrothermaler Erdwaermevorkommen zur Bereitstellung von Niedertemperaturwaerme wird als eine vielversprechende Moeglichkeit zur Reduktion der energiebedingten Umweltauswirkungen angesehen, zumal diese Option zwischenzeitlich technisch weitgehend betriebssicher verfuegbar ist. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird im folgenden exemplarisch an einer existierenden geothermischen Heizzentrale die Umweltentlastung im Vergleich zu einer Waermebereitstellung aus leichtem Heizoel und Erdgas unter Beruecksichtigung der Anlagenerrichtung und -entsorgung quantifiziert. Ausgehend davon werden Aussagen gemacht, inwieweit diese Technologie einen Beitrag zu einer umweltfreundlicheren und klimavertraeglicheren Energieversorgung in Deutschland leisten kann. (orig.)

  15. Taboo search by successive confinement: Surveying a potential energy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmarev, Sergei F.

    2001-09-01

    A taboo search for minima on a potential energy surface (PES) is performed by means of confinement molecular dynamics: the molecular dynamics trajectory of the system is successively confined to various basins on the PES that have not been sampled yet. The approach is illustrated for a 13-atom Lennard-Jones cluster. It is shown that the taboo search radically accelerates the process of surveying the PES, with the probability of finding a new minimum defined by a propagating Fermi-like distribution.

  16. Survey on Agricultural Biological Resources and Traditional Cultural Knowledge of Hani People in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqin; ZHANG; Hong; LUO; Wenjie; LONG; Yongtao; LEI; Qing; CAI; Mei; LAN; Li; ZHONG

    2015-01-01

    In 2007- 2008,a systematic survey,collection and arrangement was carried out for agricultural biological resources and traditional cultural knowledge of Hani People in 8 counties,15 towns,and 23 village committees of Yunnan Province. A total of 299 samples were obtained about agricultural biological resources related to production and living of Hani People. According to purpose of utilization,samples were divided into grain crops,medicinal plants,vegetables,fruit trees,and oil crops,taking up 48. 2%,21. 7%,18. 4%,7. 7%,and 2. 0% of the samples respectively. The survey indicated that planting industry and breeding industry take up the dominant role in rural social economy of Hani People,so agricultural biological resources are the fundamental means of production maintaining rural social development of Hani People.The current situation of agricultural biological resources of Hani People in Yunnan,reasons for growth and decline were analyzed,and the utilization,protection and development of agricultural biological resources were discussed.

  17. Wind Energy Resource Assessment on Alaska Native Lands in Cordova Region of Prince William Sound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whissel, John C. [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States); Piche, Matthew [Native Village of Eyak, Cordova, AK (United States)

    2015-06-29

    The Native Village of Eyak (NVE) has been monitoring wind resources around Cordova, Alaska in order to determine whether there is a role for wind energy to play in the city’s energy scheme, which is now supplies entirely by two run-of-the-river hydro plants and diesel generators. These data are reported in Appendices A and B. Because the hydro resources decline during winter months, and wind resources increase, wind is perhaps an ideal counterpart to round out Cordova’s renewable energy supply. The results of this effort suggests that this is the case, and that developing wind resources makes sense for our small, isolated community.

  18. Awareness and Misconceptions of High School Students about Renewable Energy Resources and Applications: Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is the one of the countries in the world which has potential of renewable energy resource because of its geographical position. However, being usage of renewable energy resources and applications (RERAs) is low, it shows that awareness and consciousness of RERAs is very low too. Education must play a key role in growing out of an energy…

  19. 78 FR 28005 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station; Order Approving Direct and Indirect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION System Energy Resources, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station; Order Approving Direct and Indirect Transfers of Early Site Permit and Approving Conforming Amendment I System Energy Resources, Inc. (SERI), is...

  20. Methods and resources for physics education in radiology residency programs: survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresolin, Linda; Bisset, George S; Hendee, William R; Kwakwa, Francis A

    2008-11-01

    Over the past 2 years, ongoing efforts have been made to reevaluate and restructure the way physics education is provided to radiology residents. Program directors and faculty from North American radiology residency programs were surveyed about how physics is being taught and what resources are currently being used for their residents. Substantial needs were identified for additional educational resources in physics, better integration of physics into clinical training, and a standardized physics curriculum closely linked to the initial certification examination of the American Board of Radiology.

  1. Recent advancements in information extraction methodology and hardware for earth resources survey systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Thomson, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    The present work discusses some recent developments in preprocessing and extractive processing techniques and hardware and in user applications model development for earth resources survey systems. The Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System (MIDAS) is currently being developed, and is an attempt to solve the problem of real time multispectral data processing in an operational system. The main features and design philosophy of this system are described. Examples of wetlands mapping and land resource inventory are presented. A user model developed for predicting the yearly production of mallard ducks from remote sensing and ancillary data is described.

  2. System Architecture of the Dark Energy Survey Camera Readout Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Theresa; /FERMILAB; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; /Barcelona, IFAE; Chappa, Steve; /Fermilab; de Vicente, Juan; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Holm, Scott; Huffman, Dave; Kozlovsky, Mark; /Fermilab; Martinez, Gustavo; /Madrid, CIEMAT; Moore, Todd; /Madrid, CIEMAT /Fermilab /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab

    2010-05-27

    The Dark Energy Survey makes use of a new camera, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). DECam will be installed in the Blanco 4M telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DECam is presently under construction and is expected to be ready for observations in the fall of 2011. The focal plane will make use of 62 2Kx4K and 12 2kx2k fully depleted Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) for guiding, alignment and focus. This paper will describe design considerations of the system; including, the entire signal path used to read out the CCDs, the development of a custom crate and backplane, the overall grounding scheme and early results of system tests.

  3. Offshore Wind Energy Permitting: A Survey of U.S. Project Developers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleve, Frances B.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2010-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted a goal to generate 20% of the nation’s electricity from wind power by 2030. Achieving this “20% Wind Scenario” in 2030 requires acceleration of the current rate of wind project development. Offshore wind resources contribute substantially to the nation’s wind resource, yet to date no offshore wind turbines have been installed in the U.S. Progress developing offshore wind projects has been slowed by technological challenges, uncertainties about impacts to the marine environment, siting and permitting challenges, and viewshed concerns. To address challenges associated with siting and permitting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) surveyed offshore wind project developers about siting and project development processes, their experience with the environmental permitting process, and the role of coastal and marine spatial planning (CMSP) in development of the offshore wind industry. Based on the responses to survey questions, we identify several priority recommendations to support offshore wind development. Recommendations also include considerations for developing supporting industries in the U.S. and how to use Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning (CMSP) to appropriately consider ocean energy among existing ocean uses. In this report, we summarize findings, discuss the implications, and suggest actions to improve the permitting and siting process.

  4. Energy and Water Resources of Burkina Faso as Catalyst for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... It is therefore necessary to carry out the engineering and ... this project is to determine potential resources as well as ... and oil refinery with 2 million tons capacity. Field work and ..... proper water treatment. Because of that,.

  5. Supernova Simulations and Strategies For the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, J P; Kuhlmann, S; Biswas, R; Kovacs, E; Aldering, G; Crane, I; Finley, D A; Frieman, J A; Hufford, T; Jarvis, M J; Kim, A G; Marriner, J; Mukherjee, P; Nichol, R C; Nugent, P; Parkinson, D; Reis, R R R; Sako, M; Spinka, H; Sullivan, M

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of supernova light curves simulated for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey (DES) supernova search. The simulations employ a code suite that generates and fits realistic light curves in order to obtain distance modulus/redshift pairs that are passed to a cosmology fitter. We investigated several different survey strategies including field selection, supernova selection biases, and photometric redshift measurements. Using the results of this study, we chose a 30 square degree search area in the griz filter set. We forecast 1) that this survey will provide a homogeneous sample of up to 4000 Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range 0.05

  6. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Nichole; Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2008-09-15

    This article examines the future role of energy efficiency as a resource in the Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the most recent resource plans issued by 16 utilities, representing about 60percent of the region's load. Utility and third-party administered energy efficiency programs proposed by 15 utilities over a ten-year horizon would save almost 19,000 GWh annually, about 5.2percent of forecast load. There are clear regional trends in the aggressiveness of proposed energy savings. California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) had the most aggressive savings targets, followed by IOUs in the Pacific Northwest, and the lowest savings were proposed by utilities in Inland West states and by two public utilities on the West coast. The adoption of multiple, aggressive policies targeting energy efficiency and climate change appear to produce sizeable energy efficiency commitments. Certain specific policies, such as mandated energy savings goals for California's IOUs and energy efficiency provisions in Nevada's Renewable Portfolio Standard had a direct impact on the level of energy savings included in the resource plans. Other policies, such as revenue decoupling and shareholder incentives, and voluntary or legislatively mandated greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, may have also impacted utilities' energy efficiency commitments, though the effects of these policies are not easily measured. Despite progress among the utilities in our sample, more aggressive energy efficiency strategies that include high-efficiency standards for additional appliances and equipment, tighter building codes for new construction and renovation, as well as more comprehensive ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs are likely to be necessary to achieve a region-wide goal of meeting 20percent of electricity demand with efficiency in 2020.

  7. Annual Report: Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program (30 September 2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soong, Yee; Guthrie, George

    2014-03-11

    Yee Soong, Technical Coordinator, George Guthrie, Focus Area Lead, UFER Annual Report, NETL-TRS-UFER-2013, NETL Technical Report Series, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, 2013, p 14.

  8. Wave energy resource assessment for the Indian shelf seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anoop, T.R.

    As a renewable energy, the assessment of wave power potential around a country is crucial. Knowledge of the temporal and spatial variations of wave energy is required for locating a wave power plant. This study investigates the variations in wave...

  9. Nova Southeastern University's Employees Respond to a 1999 Office of Human Resources Customer Satisfaction Survey. Research and Planning Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, Thomas W.

    In 1999 the Office of Human Resources at Nova Southeastern University (Florida) prepared a survey, based on a previous study, to gather information about employee satisfaction with the University's services. This report summarizes the results of this customer satisfaction survey. Surveys were returned by 466 of the 1,941 potential respondents, a…

  10. Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses. Infofacts/Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    The February 2003 death of Baltimore Orioles pitcher Steve Bechler, who according to the coroner's report died after taking ephedrine alkaloids (ephedra), has garnered national attention for the topic of nutritional supplements and energy drinks. Energy drinks and energy-enhancing pills, diet aids, muscle-enlargers, and other supplements fall…

  11. Energy education resources. Kindergarten through 12th grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-17

    This publication is the result of a study undertaken by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC), a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide its customers with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for students and educators. The list is updated once a year.

  12. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, P. [comp.

    1992-12-01

    This publication is the result of a study undertaken by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC), a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide its customers with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related education materials for primary and secondary students and educators. The list is updated once a year.

  13. An assessment of global ocean wave energy resources over the last 45 a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chongwei; SHAO Longtan; SHI Wenli; SU Qin; LIN Gang; LI Xunqiang; CHEN Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of the current world facing an energy crisis, and human beings puzzled by the prob-lems of environment and resources, developing clean energy sources becomes the inevitable choice to deal with a climate change and an energy shortage. A global ocean wave energy resource was reanalyzed by using ERA-40 wave reanalysis data 1957-2002 from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast-s (ECMWF). An effective significant wave height is defined in the development of wave energy resources (short as effective SWH), and the total potential of wave energy is exploratively calculated. Synthetically considering a wave energy density, a wave energy level probability, the frequency of the effective SWH, the stability and long-term trend of wave energy density, a swell index and a wave energy storage, global ocean wave energy resources were reanalyzed and regionalized, providing reference to the development of wave energy resources such as wave power plant location, seawater desalination, heating, pumping.

  14. Potential effects of energy development on environmental resources of the Williston Basin in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post van der Burg, Max; Vining, Kevin C.; Frankforter, Jill D.

    2017-09-28

    The Williston Basin, which includes parts of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota in the United States, has been a leading domestic oil and gas producing area. To better understand the potential effects of energy development on environmental resources in the Williston Basin, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, and in support of the needs identified by the Bakken Federal Executive Group (consisting of representatives from 13 Federal agencies and Tribal groups), began work to synthesize existing information on science topics to support management decisions related to energy development. This report is divided into four chapters (A–D). Chapter A provides an executive summary of the report and principal findings from chapters B–D. Chapter B provides a brief compilation of information regarding the history of energy development, physiography, climate, land use, demographics, and related studies in the Williston Basin. Chapter C synthesizes current information about water resources, identifies potential effects from energy development, and summarizes water resources research and information needs in the Williston Basin. Chapter D summarizes information about ecosystems, species of conservation concern, and potential effects to those species from energy development in the Williston Basin.

  15. Energy reserves. [Summary of reserve estimates and economic supply models for exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Carhart, S.C.; Marcuse, W.

    1977-03-01

    There is an increasing concern about scarcity of the world's remaining natural energy resources and, in particular, the future supply of oil and natural gas. This paper summarizes recent estimates of energy reserves and economic supply models for exhaustible resources. The basic economic theory of resource exhaustion is reviewed, and recent estimates of both discovered and undiscovered energy resources are presented and compared. Domestic and world-wide reserve estimates are presented for crude oil and natural gas liquids, natural gas, coal, and uranium. Economic models projecting supply of these energy forms, given reserve estimates and other pertinent information, are discussed. Finally, a set of recent models which project world oil prices are summarized and their published results compared. The impact of energy conservation efforts on energy supply is also briefly discussed. 53 references.

  16. Estimate of the Geothermal Energy Resource in the Major Sedimentary Basins in the United States (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, A.; Porro, C.; Augustine, C.; Roberts, B.

    2012-09-01

    Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties such as depth to basement and formation thickness are well known. The availability of this data reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin. This study estimates the magnitude of recoverable geothermal energy from 15 major known U.S. sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by (Muffler, 1979). A qualitative recovery factor was determined for each basin based on data on flow volume, hydrothermal recharge, and vertical and horizontal permeability. Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient information was gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data were insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission databases. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size, temperature distribution, and a probable quantitative recovery factor.

  17. Estimate of Geothermal Energy Resource in Major U.S. Sedimentary Basins (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porro, C.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    This study estimates the magnitude of geothermal energy from fifteen major known US sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties are known. This reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin as well as a relative assessment of geologic risk elements for each play. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by Muffler (USGS). Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient Information were gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data was insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission websites. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size and temperature distribution, and to qualitatively assess reservoir productivity.

  18. 75 FR 45623 - Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil LLC; and PSEG Power LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Morris Energy Group, LLC v.PSEG Energy Resources & Trade LLC; PSEG Fossil LLC; and PSEG Power LLC; Notice of Complaint July 27, 2010. Take notice that on July 23, 2010, Morris Energy Group, LLC (Morris Energy) (Complainant) filed a complaint against PSEG Energy Resources &...

  19. DR Resources for Energy and Ancillary Services in the West (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummon, M.; Kiliccote, S.

    2014-04-01

    Demand response (DR) resources present a potentially important source of grid flexibility however, DR in grid models is limited by data availability and modeling complexity. This presentation focuses on the co-optimization of DR resources to provide energy and ancillary services in a production cost model of the Colorado "test system". We assume each DR resource can provide energy services by either shedding load or shifting its use between different times, as well as operating reserves: frequency regulation, contingency reserve, and flexibility (or ramping) reserve. There are significant variations in the availabilities of different types of DR resources, which affect both the operational savings as well as the revenue for each DR resource. The results presented include the system-wide avoided fuel and generator start-up costs as well as the composite revenue for each DR resource by energy and operating reserves.

  20. USDOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy joint collaboration for renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touryan, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint collaboration between the US and Russia to develop renewable energy resources. There are five main goals of the project. First is to establish Intersolarcenter as a sister organization to NREL for joint R&D activities, and to provide training to the staff. Second is to install demonstration systems in parks and selected locations around Moscow. Third is to install pilot projects: a wind/diesel hybrid system at 21 sites in the northern territories; a 500 kW biomass power plant in the Arkhangelsk Region. Fourth is to assist in the start-up operations of a 2 MW/yr Triple Junction amorphous-Si manufacturing facility in Moscow using US technology. Fifth is to explore the possibilities of financing large-scale wind/hybrid and biomass power systems for the nouthern territories (possibly 900 sites).

  1. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 3. Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paton, D.L.; Bass, A.; Smith, D.G.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Great Lakes Region atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data, one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Great Lakes region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than in the regional discussion and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations over several time scales in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and of hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  2. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  3. Wind energy resource atlas: Volume 6. The Southeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabransky, J.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Southeast atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Southeast region (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  4. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  5. Renewable energy resources in a restructured electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen, P.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper highlights a conference presentation addressing changes in the residential energy sector in view of the increasing competitiveness of the energy market. Renewable energy characteristics are briefly outlined, and capacity and generation data for non-hydroelectric power in 1994 are listed. A review of critical factors in renewables development and policy responses to market impediments is made. Current market barriers are identified, and proposals for Federal policies are made. 17 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. DOE's Tribal Energy Program Offers Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. MacCourt, Chair, Indian Law Practice, Ater Wynne LLP

    2010-06-01

    This handbook is an accessible reference for those who are new to tribal energy project development or who seek a refresher on key development issues as they navigate the project development process. Building upon the wealth of feedback and experiences shared by tribal and other participants in tribal energy workshops conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, it is designed to provide tribal leaders, tribal economic and energy enterprises, and those supporting them with a general overview of the renewable energy project development process. It includes information on how to structure a renewable energy project transaction to protect tribal interests, with an emphasis on joint project development efforts undertaken with nontribal parties; a general overview of key energy development agreements, including power sale agreements, transmission and interconnection agreements, and land leases; and a detailed discussion of ways tribes can finance renewable energy projects, the sources of funding or financing that may be available, the types of investors that may be available, and federal tax incentives for renewable energy projects. The guide also includes a glossary of some of the most commonly used technical terms.

  7. The Resource Mapping Algorithm of Wireless Virtualized Networks for Saving Energy in Ultradense Small Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the current network is designed for peak loads, it results in insufficient resource utilization and energy waste. Virtualized technology makes it possible that intelligent energy perception network could be deployed and resource sharing could become an effective energy saving technology. How to make more small cells into sleeping state for energy saving in ultradense small cell system has become a research hot spot. Based on the mapping feature of virtualized network, a new wireless resource mapping algorithm for saving energy in ultradense small cells has been put forward when wireless resource amount is satisfied in every small cell. First of all, the method divides the virtual cells. Again through the alternate updating between small cell mapping and wireless resource allocation, least amount of small cells is used and other small cells turn into sleeping state on the premise of guaranteeing users’ QoS. Next, the energy consumption of the wireless access system, wireless resource utilization, and the convergence of the proposed algorithm are analyzed in theory. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm can effectively reduce the system energy consumption and required wireless resource amount under the condition of satisfying users’ QoS.

  8. Recent wind resource characterization activities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D L; Schwartz, M N

    1997-07-01

    The wind resource characterization team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working to improve the characterization of the wind resource in many key regions of the world. Tasks undertaken in the past year include: updates to the comprehensive meteorological and geographic data bases used in resource assessments in the US and abroad; development and validation of an automated wind resource mapping procedure; support in producing wind forecasting tools useful to utilities involved in wind energy generation; continued support for recently established wind measurement and assessment programs in the US.

  9. Distributed generation for South Africa based on renewable energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available measures must take into account other conditions such as markets, water, infrastructure, telecommunications etc • sociological facilitation to ensure community ownership and sustainable enterprise management. • environmental externalities such as Green... activities New economic activities Natural resources - arable land - tourism potential - forestry potential - minerals, - etc Enterprise creation Sociological (Cultural) Facilitation Governance facilitation Capacity development Intervention...

  10. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  11. Optimizing Resource and Energy Recovery for Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant reductions of carbon emissions and air quality impacts can be achieved by optimizing municipal solid waste (MSW) as a resource. Materials and discards management were found to contribute ~40% of overall U.S. GHG emissions as a result of materials extraction, transpo...

  12. 77 FR 41481 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... the purpose of power production forecasting. DATES: Effective Date: This rule will become effective... Energy Policy and Innovation, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street NE., Washington, DC... Forecasting 1. Data Requirements 155 2. Definition of VER 200 3. Data Sharing 217 4. Cost Recovery 222...

  13. 75 FR 4316 - Integration of Variable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Information), Office of Energy Policy and Innovations, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street..., including the use of accurate forecasting tools; (2) scheduling practices, flexibility, and incentives for... responses to the specific questions listed below. A. Data and Forecasting 14. The scheduling and...

  14. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-24

    This publication provides EIA customers with a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for primary and secondary students and educators. The list is updated once a year. The list is only to aid educators and students in locating materials; it is the responsibility of the educators to help their students draw conclusions about energy issues.

  15. The use of urban wood waste as an energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Danilova, D. A.; Khasanov, R. R.

    2017-06-01

    The capabilities use of wood waste in the Ekaterinburg city, generated during the felling of trees and sanitation in the care of green plantations in the streets, parks, squares, forest parks was investigated in this study. In the cities at the moment, all the wood, that is removed from city streets turns into waste completely. Wood waste is brought to the landfill of solid household waste, and moreover sorting and evaluation of the quantitative composition of wood waste is not carried out. Several technical solutions that are used in different countries have been proposed for the energy use of wood waste: heat and electrical energy generation, liquid and solid biofuel production. An estimation of the energy potential of the city wood waste was made, for total and for produced heat and electrical energy based on modern engineering developments. According to our estimates total energy potential of wood waste in the city measure up more 340 thousand GJ per year.

  16. Limited Resources, Limited Opportunities, and the Accumulation of Disadvantage: Evidence from the Global Survey of Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2012-03-01

    Using the results of the Global Survey of Physicists, which we conducted in collaboration with the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Working Group on Women, we document the effect of limited resources and opportunities on women physicists' careers. We find that women respondents are less likely than men to report access to a variety of resources and opportunities that would be helpful in advancing a scientific career. These include access to funding, travel money, lab and office space, equipment, clerical support, and availability of employees or students to help with research. When asked about specific opportunities, women report fewer invited talks and overseas research opportunities. Women who responded are less likely to have been journal editors, acted as bosses or managers, advised graduate students, served on thesis or dissertation committees, and served on committees for grant agencies. We also show the disproportionate effects of children on women physicists' careers. Women who responded are more likely than men to have changed their work situations upon becoming parents. Mothers are more likely than men and women without children to report that their careers have progressed more slowly than colleagues who finished their degrees at the same time. Furthermore, women are more likely than men to report that their careers affected the decisions they made about marriage and children. The results of this survey draw attention to the need to focus on factors other than representation when discussing the situation of women in physics. 15,000 physicists in 130 countries answered this survey, and across all these countries, women have fewer resources and opportunities and are more affected by cultural expectations concerning child care. Cultural expectations about home and family are difficult to change. However, for women to have successful outcomes and advance in physics, they must have equal access to resources and opportunities.

  17. Calibrated Ultra Fast Image Simulations for the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Bruderer, Claudio; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam; Berge, Joel; Gamper, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Weak lensing by large-scale structure is a powerful technique to probe the dark components of the universe. To understand the measurement process of weak lensing and the associated systematic effects, image simulations are becoming increasingly important. For this purpose we present a first implementation of the $\\textit{Monte Carlo Control Loops}$ ($\\textit{MCCL}$; Refregier & Amara 2014), a coherent framework for studying systematic effects in weak lensing. It allows us to model and calibrate the shear measurement process using image simulations from the Ultra Fast Image Generator (UFig; Berge et al. 2013). We apply this framework to a subset of the data taken during the Science Verification period (SV) of the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We calibrate the UFig simulations to be statistically consistent with DES images. We then perform tolerance analyses by perturbing the simulation parameters and study their impact on the shear measurement at the one-point level. This allows us to determine the relative im...

  18. Crowdsourcing quality control for Dark Energy Survey images

    CERN Document Server

    Melchior, P; Drlica-Wagner, A; Rykoff, E S; Abbott, T M C; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Benoit-Levy, A; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Crocce, M; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; Desai, S; Doel, P; Evrard, A E; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Jarvis, M; Kuehn, K; Li, T S; Maia, M A G; March, M; Marshall, J L; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Vikram, V; Walker, A R; Wester, W; Zhang, Y

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a crowdsourcing web application for image quality control employed by the Dark Energy Survey. Dubbed the "DES exposure checker", it renders science-grade images directly to a web browser and allows users to mark problematic features from a set of predefined classes. Users can also generate custom labels and thus help identify previously unknown problem classes. User reports are fed back to hardware and software experts to help mitigate and eliminate recognized issues. We report on the implementation of the application and our experience with its over 100 users, the majority of which are professional or prospective astronomers but not data management experts. We discuss aspects of user training and engagement, and demonstrate how problem reports have been pivotal to rapidly correct artifacts which would likely have been too subtle or infrequent to be recognized otherwise. We conclude with a number of important lessons learned, suggest possible improvements, and recommend this collective explo...

  19. An organizational survey of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D.A.; Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-09-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administrated at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concerns, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of culture''; that is, the values attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization.

  20. An organizational survey of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D.A.; Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1991-09-01

    An Organizational Survey (OS) was administrated at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) that queried employees on the subjects of organizational culture, various aspects of communications, employee commitment, work group cohesion, coordination of work, environmental, safety, and health concerns, hazardous nature of work, safety and overall job satisfaction. The purpose of the OS is to measure in a quantitative and objective way the notion of ``culture``; that is, the values attitudes, and beliefs of the individuals working within the organization. In addition, through the OS, a broad sample of individuals can be reached that would probably not be interviewed or observed during the course of a typical assessment. The OS also provides a descriptive profile of the organization at one point in time that can then be compared to a profile taken at a different point in time to assess changes in the culture of the organization.

  1. Specialty food safety concerns and multilingual resource needs: an online survey of public health inspectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mai T; Jones, Andria Q; Sargeant, Jan M; Marshall, Barbara J; Dewey, Catherine E

    2010-12-01

    The province of Ontario, Canada, has a highly diverse and multicultural population. Specialty foods (i.e., foods from different cultures) are becoming increasingly available at retail food outlets and foods service establishments across the province; as a result, public health inspectors (PHIs) are increasingly required to assess the safety of foods with which they may be unfamiliar. The aim of this study was to investigate the concerns, perceptions, and self-identified needs of PHIs in Ontario with regard to specialty foods and food safety information resources in languages other than English. A cross-sectional online survey of 239 PHIs was conducted between April and June 2009. The study found that while some food safety information resources were available in languages other than English, fewer than 25% of respondents (56/239) were satisfied with the current availability of these resources. With regard to specialty foods, 60% of respondents (143/239) reported at least one specialty food with which they were not confident about their current food safety knowledge, and 64% of respondents (153/239) reported at least one specialty food with which they were dissatisfied with the current availability of food safety information. Therefore, the development of additional food safety information resources for specialty foods, and food safety resources in additional languages may provide enhanced support to PHIs involved in protecting and promoting a safe food supply.

  2. Geophysical characterization of mineral and energy resources at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Oliver, H.W. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hoover, D.B. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (Department of Energy) as part of the study of the mineral and energy resource potential of the site (Activity 8.3.1.9.2.1.5) under the Human Interference part of the program. Most of the 1991 geophysical scoping activities in the Mineral Resources Study were involved with the acquisition and evaluation of existing data. This report presents an overview of how geophysical data (existing and planned) will aid in the evaluation of the potential for mineral and energy resource potential at Yucca Mountain and vicinity.

  3. Comparison of SAR Wind Speed Retrieval Algorithms for Evaluating Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozai, K.; Ohsawa, T.; Takeyama, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Envisat/ASAR-derived offshore wind speeds and energy densities based on 4 different SAR wind speed retrieval algorithms (CMOD4, CMOD-IFR2, CMOD5, CMOD5.N) are compared with observed wind speeds and energy densities for evaluating offshore wind energy resources. CMOD4 ignores effects of atmospheric...

  4. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for Resolved Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetto, B M; Girardi, L; Camargo, J I B; Balbinot, E; da Costa, L N; Yanny, B; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; Ogando, R L C; Pellegrini, P S; Ramos, B; de Simoni, F; Armstrong, R; Bertin, E; Desai, S; Kuropatkin, N; Lin, H; Mohr, J J; Tucker, D L

    2011-01-01

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2x10^8 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy. DES will probe low-mass stellar and sub-stellar objects at depths from 3 to 8 times larger than SDSS. The faint end of the main-sequence will be densely sampled beyond 10 kpc. The slope of the low mass end of the stellar IMF will be constrained to within a few hundredth dex, even in the thick disk and halo. In the sub-stellar mass regime, the IMF slope will be potentially constrained to within dlog \\phi(m) / dlog m ~ 0.1$. About 3x10^4 brown dwarf and at least 7.6x10...

  5. Automated Transient Identification in the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, D A; Fischer, J A; Foley, R J; Gupta, R R; Kessler, R; Kim, A G; Nichol, R C; Nugent, P; Papadopoulos, A; Sako, M; Smith, M; Sullivan, M; Thomas, R C; Wester, W; Wolf, R C; Abdalla, F B; Banerji, M; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Rosell, A Carnero; Castander, F J; da Costa, L N; Covarrubias, R; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Neto, A Fausti; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; James, D; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; March, M; Marshall, J L; Martini, P; Merritt, K W; Miquel, R; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Walker, A R

    2015-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for identifying point-source transients and moving objects on reference-subtracted optical images containing artifacts of processing and instrumentation. The algorithm makes use of the supervised machine learning technique known as Random Forest. We present results from its use in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN), where it was trained using a sample of 898,963 signal and background events generated by the transient detection pipeline. After reprocessing the data collected during the first DES-SN observing season (Sep. 2013 through Feb. 2014) using the algorithm, the number of transient candidates eligible for human scanning decreased by a factor of 13.4, while only 1 percent of the artificial Type Ia supernovae (SNe) injected into search images to monitor survey efficiency were lost, most of which were very faint events. Here we characterize the algorithm's performance in detail, and we discuss how it can inform pipeline design decisions for future time-domain imaging...

  6. Crowdsourcing quality control for Dark Energy Survey images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, P.; Sheldon, E.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Li, T. S.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a crowdsourcing web application for image quality control employed by the Dark Energy Survey. Dubbed the "DES exposure checker", it renders science-grade images directly to a web browser and allows users to mark problematic features from a set of predefined classes. Users can also generate custom labels and thus help identify previously unknown problem classes. User reports are fed back to hardware and software experts to help mitigate and eliminate recognized issues. We report on the implementation of the application and our experience with its over 100 users, the majority of which are professional or prospective astronomers but not data management experts. We discuss aspects of user training and engagement, and demonstrate how problem reports have been pivotal to rapidly correct artifacts which would likely have been too subtle or infrequent to be recognized otherwise. We conclude with a number of important lessons learned, suggest possible improvements, and recommend this collective exploratory approach for future astronomical surveys or other extensive data sets with a sufficiently large user base. We also release open-source code of the web application and host an online demo version at http://des-exp-checker.pmelchior.net.

  7. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Weak Lensing Shape Catalogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuntz, J.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We present two galaxy shape catalogues from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 data set, covering 1500 square degrees with a median redshift of $0.59$. The catalogues cover two main fields: Stripe 82, and an area overlapping the South Pole Telescope survey region. We describe our data analysis process and in particular our shape measurement using two independent shear measurement pipelines, METACALIBRATION and IM3SHAPE. The METACALIBRATION catalogue uses a Gaussian model with an innovative internal calibration scheme, and was applied to $riz$-bands, yielding 34.8M objects. The IM3SHAPE catalogue uses a maximum-likelihood bulge/disc model calibrated using simulations, and was applied to $r$-band data, yielding 21.9M objects. Both catalogues pass a suite of null tests that demonstrate their fitness for use in weak lensing science. We estimate the 1$\\sigma$ uncertainties in multiplicative shear calibration to be $0.013$ and $0.025$ for the METACALIBRATION and IM3SHAPE catalogues, respectively.

  8. Assessment of regional wind energy resources over the Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobchenko, Anastasiia; Khomenko, Inna

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study has been to provide a preliminary assessment of different regions of the Ukraine. Investigation is based on thirty-minute wind observations collected through an 8-year period (January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2008) for seven airports of the Ukraine. For renewal of vertical profile of the wind direction and speed radiosounding data were used. By applying of the probabilistic analysis techniques to series of wind data and the wind extreme values, yearly, monthly and diurnal variation of wind speed and direction are derived. Based on these results theoretical distribution functions and exceeding probability are found for each airport. The statistic characteristics obtained were compared with the correspondent values provided for 1936-1960 and 1961-1990 periods and site-related temporal changeability is determined. For each period considered assessment of wind resources at 10 meters height is carried out. Since the geostrophic wind are frequently used to calculate the surface wind at heights between 10 and 200 m, in the research the distribution of the geostrophic wind for each airport were determined. Comparative analysis of distribution and statistic characteristics of geostrophic and surface winds are made. The relation between a set of values of the geostrophic wind and a set of values of the surface wind speed was provided for each airport. Using different relationship for variation of wind speed with height wind resources at heights between 10 and 200 were assessed. The results obtained show that with the lapse of the time wind speed and wind resources is decreased half the size. It is reflected general tendencies in the wind speed changeability over the European territory. Places which are most perspective for wind turbine installation are off-shore sites such as Odessa, and sites situated in the Crimea mountain (Simferopol) and the Donetsk ridge (Donetsk). The results derived in the contribution may be used for modeling and mapping wind

  9. Clean Energy: No Longer a Luxury! Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This learning activity provides an overview of the problem of clean energy sources and examination of alternatives. Student activity, quiz with answers, related activities, and nine references are provided. (SK)

  10. Clean Energy: No Longer a Luxury! Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This learning activity provides an overview of the problem of clean energy sources and examination of alternatives. Student activity, quiz with answers, related activities, and nine references are provided. (SK)

  11. Optimizing resource and energy recovery for materials and waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decisions affecting materials management today are generally based on cost and a presumption of favorable outcomes without an understanding of the environmental tradeoffs. However, there is a growing demand to better understand and quantify the net environmental and energy trade-...

  12. Optimizing resource and energy recovery for materials and waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decisions affecting materials management today are generally based on cost and a presumption of favorable outcomes without an understanding of the environmental tradeoffs. However, there is a growing demand to better understand and quantify the net environmental and energy trade-...

  13. 1976 Energy Resource Alternatives II Competition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, R.A.; Iannucilli, M.; Marshal, J.; Sununu, J.H.; Eschbach, J.E.; Anson, J.; Wark, D.; Stock, D.E.

    1977-10-01

    Descriptions of all the entries in the competition are presented. Competition rules and judging procedures are described. Entries consisted of team efforts from colleges and universities. The competition called for the student teams to develop means for producing electrical power sufficient to meet the needs of a single family home, using an energy source other than oil or natural gas. The electric power produced had to be economically realistic when compared to present energy sources.

  14. Fractional Order AGC for Distributed Energy Resources Using Robust Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The applicability of fractional order (FO) automatic generation control (AGC) for power system frequency oscillation damping is investigated in this paper, employing distributed energy generation. The hybrid power system employs various autonomous generation systems like wind turbine, solar photovoltaic, diesel engine, fuel-cell and aqua electrolyzer along with other energy storage devices like the battery and flywheel. The controller is placed in a remote location while receiving and sending...

  15. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

  16. Explanatory Resources on Energy in High School Physics Classes: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Domínguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and reflects on the explanatory resources that are used in high school physics classes for studying the topic of energy. Explanatory resources are a means of constructing and negotiating meaning. The research is an instrumental case study focusing on four years of high school physics classes on energy. The theoretical principles of sociocultural approaches and conversation analysis are taken as benchmarks for understanding how we construct and reconstruct meanings (on energy. The identification of the resources used in the process of meaning construction is of importance for understanding certain scientific phenomena addressed in the curricula. Among the resources most commonly employed to enhance explanation were definitions and the causes of phenomena. We also found that teachers’ interventions, either through verbal explanations or instructional proposals, were crucial for certain kinds of explanations and for the presence or absence of other resources associated with explanations.

  17. Characterization of deep geothermal energy resources using Electro-Magnetic methods, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Sian; Harcout-Menou, Virginie; De Ridder, Fjo; Claessens, Bert; Laenen, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary basins in Northwest Europe have significant potential for low to medium enthalpy, deep geothermal energy resources. These resources are currently assessed using standard exploration techniques (seismic investigations followed by drilling of a borehole). This has enabled identification of geothermal resources but such techniques are extremely costly. The high cost of exploration remains one of the main barriers to geothermal project development due to the lack of capital in the geothermal industry. We will test the possibility of using the Electro-Magnetic (EM) methods to aid identification of geothermal resources in conjunction with more traditional exploration methods. An EM campaign could cost a third of a seismic campaign and is also often a passive technology, resulting in smaller environmental impacts than seismic surveys or drilling. EM methods image changes in the resistivity of the earth's sub-surface using natural or induced frequency dependant variations of electric and magnetic fields. Changes in resistivity can be interpreted as representing different subsurface properties including changes in rock type, chemistry, temperature and/or hydraulic transmissivity. While EM techniques have proven to be useful in geothermal exploration in high enthalpy areas in the last 2-3 years only a handful of studies assess their applicability in low enthalpy sedimentary basins. Challenges include identifying which sub-surface features cause changes in electrical resistivity as low enthalpy reservoirs are unlikely to exhibit the hydrothermally altered clay layer above the geothermal aquifer that is typical for high enthalpy reservoirs. Yet a principal challenge is likely to be the high levels of industrialisation in the areas of interest. Infrastructure such as train tracks and power cables can create a high level of background noise that can obfuscate the relevant signal. We present our plans for an EM campaign in the Flemish region of Belgium. Field

  18. Potential Utilization of Renewable Energy Resources for Electicity Generation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajik Begić

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the current processes of restructuring of Energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina, liberalisation of the electricity market, and modernisation of the existing power plants, Bosnia and Herzegovina must turn to the utilisation of renewable resources in reasonable dynamics as well. Respecting this policy, the initial evaluation of the potential of renewable energy resources in Bosnia and Herzegovina is performed. The methodology of evaluation of wind energy utilisation is presented in this paper, as well as some other aspects of utilisation of the renewable energy resources in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Implementation of selected projects should improve sustainability of energy power production in Bosnia and Herzegovina, by reducing the total emission of carbon dioxide originated from energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  19. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends—in part—on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world’s foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  20. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-09-12

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends -- in part -- on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world's foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  1. Survey of state approaches to solar energy incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, S. B.

    1979-07-01

    A comprehensive survey is presented of state statutes designed to encourage the application of solar technology. A large majority of the states have enacted financial incentives designed to stimulate solar energy use. Commonly, these incentives include preferential property tax treatment of solar systems, and income tax benefits to solar users. There are a wide variety of other tax breaks as well, including excise and franchise tax incentives. Some states have recently developed loan or grant programs for solar installations. Other states have addressed aspects of real property and land-use planning law, which have served as barriers to either the installation of solar technology or access to sunlight. In addition to removing such obstacles as restrictive convenants and zoning limitations, the legislation of several states provides affirmative recognition of the potential of real property law to serve as a spur to solar development, through solar easements, planning and zoning, and public nuisance. A small number of states have legislated in the field of utility regulation, addressing important questions of (1) nondiscriminatory rates for utility backup to solar systems and public utility commissions, and (2) utility involvement in solar energy applicatons.

  2. A National Research Council Evaluation of the Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Holmes, K. J.; Cooke, D.

    2012-12-01

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) resources are increasingly becoming part of energy regulatory, planning, and marketing activities in the U.S. and elsewhere. In particular, state-based renewable portfolio standards and federal production and investment tax credits have led to an increased interest in the possible deployment of MHK technologies. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the size of the MHK resource base. In order to help DOE prioritize its overall portfolio of future research, increase the understanding of the potential for MHK resource development, and direct MHK device and/or project developers to locations of greatest promise, the DOE Wind and Water Power Program requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide an evaluation of the detailed assessments being conducted by five individual resource assessment groups. These resource assessment groups were contracted to estimate the amount of extractable energy from wave, tidal, ocean current, ocean thermal energy conversion, and riverine resources. Performing these assessments requires that each resource assessment group estimate the average power density of the resource base, as well as the basic technology characteristics and spatial and temporal constituents that convert power into electricity for that resource. The NRC committee evaluated the methodologies, technologies, and assumptions associated with each of these resource assessments. The committee developed a conceptual framework for delineating the processes used to develop the assessment results requested by the DOE, with definitions of the theoretical, technical, and practical resource to clarify elements of the overall resource assessment process. This allowed the NRC committee to make a comparison of different methods, terminology, and processes among the five resource assessment groups. The committee concluded that the overall approach taken by the wave resource and

  3. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Survey report on development and utilization of alternative energies for oil in Pacific region; 2000 nendo Taiheiyo chiiki sekiyu daitai energy kaihatsu riyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey was conducted, with environmental matters taken into consideration, for building an information gathering infrastructure for the countries in the Pacific region, capable of promptly and accurately collecting and offering energy related information. Conducted in this fiscal year were regular data gathering, review of oil supply and demand and alternative energy supply and demand in the Pacific region, on-site survey of alternative energy development and utilization in Vietnam, quarterly analyses of trend of energy demand, and the like. The supply of primary energy in the Pacific region increased by 2.3% per year in the period 1980 through 1998. The rate of increase was the lowest with oil, and the highest with hydroelectricity, atomic power, and recoverable energies such as geothermal energy. The Vietnamese Government is promoting its efforts to develop power sources by use of recoverable energies for farm village electrification. Efforts are being earnestly exerted to develop its rich natural gas resources and it is expected that there will be a remarkable achievement in the use of alternative energies due to an increase in natural gas consumption. In the field of data collection, various data were registered with the database. (NEDO)

  4. Proceedings of the Conference on Research for the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the development of geothermal energy resources are presented. The purpose of the conference was to acquaint potential user groups with the Federal and National Science Foundation geothermal programs and the method by which the users and other interested members can participate in the program. Among the subjects discussed are: (1) resources exploration and assessment, (2) environmental, legal, and institutional research, (3) resource utilization projects, and (4) advanced research and technology.

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Workshop Report: Solar Resources and Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffel, T.

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes the technical presentations, outlines the core research recommendations, and augments the information of the Solar Resources and Forecasting Workshop held June 20-22, 2011, in Golden, Colorado. The workshop brought together notable specialists in atmospheric science, solar resource assessment, solar energy conversion, and various stakeholders from industry and academia to review recent developments and provide input for planning future research in solar resource characterization, including measurement, modeling, and forecasting.

  6. Report on an analytical survey on the Pacific energy information; Taiheiyo energy joho bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of collecting and arranging energy information in the Asia and Pacific region, this survey has been conducted for many fiscal years. The Asia and Pacific region is classified into the Chinese area, the Southeast Asia area including Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippine, Singapore and Thailand, the East Asia area including Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, the North America area including the U.S. and Canada, and the Oceania area including Australia and New Zealand. As to the primary energy supplied from 1980 to 1993, China largely increased its share by 3.1%. The Southeast Asia also increased its share by 2.1%, and the East Asia by 2.5%. To the contrary, the North America area largely declined its share by 7.8%, but still has approximately 60% in the Asia and Pacific area. By kind of energy, coal increased the share while oil decreased. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Energy and resource planning: report abstracts. [44 abstracts of reports by Livermore Lab. personnel, Nov. '73--Jan. '77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, I.Y. (ed.)

    1977-04-27

    This document contains 44 chronologically arranged abstracts of reports written by the Energy and Resource Planning Group of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory from November 1973 to January 1977. Subjects covered include energy, resources and resource development, transportation, and biological resources/fuels.

  8. Survey of the actual state of energy consumption in the residential/commercial sector; Minsei bumon energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to energy demand in the business field, the paper conducted a questionnaire survey of the actual state and preparation of the existing literature and data. The purpose is to make the consumption structure and trend clear and to make it useful for the development/introduction of new energy and petroleum substitution energy in the future. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `office buildings` decreased from 227.0 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the fiscal 1990 survey to 179.5 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the fiscal 1995 survey. The energy type shifted from petroleum to electricity and gas. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `wholesale/retail` slightly decreased from 360.9 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the previous survey to 342.7 Mcal/{sup 2} per year in the survey this time. The energy type showed the same trend as in the case of office buildings. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `restaurants` increased from 573.3 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the previous survey to 622.8 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the survey this time. As energy type, electricity increased while gas remarkably decreased. 55 refs., 155 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 1: Techniques, Procedures and Data Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfield, J. O. (Editor); Schiffman, Y. M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Topics dealing with the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information system for application in energy resources management are discussed. Associated remote sensing and image analysis techniques are also addressed.

  10. AN ANTIDOTE TO THE RESOURCE CURSE: THE BLESSING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki N. Menegaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the validity of the resource curse in Europe and it is the first time renewable energy is inserted in this research context. The study uses panel data with a variety of explanatory variable proxies for investment, openness, rule of law, resource endowments and human capital. It employs a single equation fixed effects model with heteroskedasticity robust covariance and a simultaneous two equation model where renewable energy enters the structural equation as an endogenous variable. The resource curse is confirmed only for crude oil and resource productivity in the single equation model while renewable energy has a positive relationship to growth. In the simultaneous two equation model, countries with high oil production and emissions also have a higher production of renewable energies.

  11. Assessment of grid-friendly collective optimization framework for distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Robinson, Matthew; Heine, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in the advanced control of renewable energy resources and distributed generation systems are resulting in pressures to adopt tariffs of increasing complexity. Independently of the tariff structure, utility customers can programmatically optimize their schedule consumption for ...

  12. 78 FR 23290 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program... Burden: $0. Dated: April 12, 2013. John Ashley, Acting Assistant Director for Information Resources... comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the collection of...

  13. Into the new electricity age with Optimal integration of decentralized energy resources - The FENIX Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cech, Heinz; Fuchs, Erich; Heher, Anton; Ilo, Albana; Sezi, Tevfik; Trimmel, Johann; Werner, Thomas; Marti-Rodriguez, Juan

    2010-09-15

    Decentralized Energy Resources (DERs) will play a significant role in future energy scenarios. Today, the 'plug and forget' connection principle for renewable energy resources has the goal to maximize the active power transfer, without using their real capabilities. Other DERs based on fossil fuels are only activated in emergency situations. This paper describes the results of a demonstration project, where DERs installed in a large distribution area are utilized for participating in the day ahead energy market, frequency and voltage support for the transmission system, voltage support at specific distribution locations and feeders, and stability support in emergency situations.

  14. Critical care resources in the Solomon Islands: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westcott Mia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are minimal data available on critical care case-mix, care processes and outcomes in lower and middle income countries (LMICs. The objectives of this paper were to gather data in the Solomon Islands in order to gain a better understanding of common presentations of critical illness, available hospital resources, and what resources would be helpful in improving the care of these patients in the future. Methods This study used a mixed methods approach, including a cross sectional survey of respondents' opinions regarding critical care needs, ethnographic information and qualitative data. Results The four most common conditions leading to critical illness in the Solomon Islands are malaria, diseases of the respiratory system including pneumonia and influenza, diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis. Complications of surgery and trauma less frequently result in critical illness. Respondents emphasised the need for basic critical care resources in LMICs, including equipment such as oximeters and oxygen concentrators; greater access to medications and blood products; laboratory services; staff education; and the need for at least one national critical care facility. Conclusions A large degree of critical illness in LMICs is likely due to inadequate resources for primary prevention and healthcare; however, for patients who fall through the net of prevention, there may be simple therapies and context-appropriate resources to mitigate the high burden of morbidity and mortality. Emphasis should be on the development and acquisition of simple and inexpensive tools rather than complicated equipment, to prevent critical care from unduly diverting resources away from other important parts of the health system.

  15. Energy Accounting and Control with SLURM Resource and Job Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiou, Yiannis; Cadeau, Thomas; Glesser, David; Auble, Danny; Jette, Morris; Hautreux, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Energy consumption has gradually become a very important parameter in High Performance Computing platforms. The Resource and Job Management System (RJMS) is the HPC middleware that is responsible for distributing computing power to applications and has knowledge of both the underlying resources and jobs needs. Therefore it is the best candidate for monitoring and controlling the energy consumption of the computations according to the job specifications. The integration...

  16. Simulated Annealing Approach Applied to the Energy Resource Management Considering Demand Response for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation and management of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) by an Virtual Power Players (VPP) is an important task in a smart grid context. The Energy Resource Management (ERM) of theses DERs can become a hard and complex optimization problem. The large integration of several DERs, including Electric Vehicles (EVs), may lead to a scenario in which the VPP needs several hours to have a solution for the ERM problem. This is the reason why it is necessary to use metaheuristic methodolo...

  17. Simulation based energy-resource efficient manufacturing integrated with in-process virtual management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchasuwanmanee, Kanet; Cheng, Kai; Bateman, Richard

    2016-09-01

    As energy efficiency is one of the key essentials towards sustainability, the development of an energy-resource efficient manufacturing system is among the great challenges facing the current industry. Meanwhile, the availability of advanced technological innovation has created more complex manufacturing systems that involve a large variety of processes and machines serving different functions. To extend the limited knowledge on energy-efficient scheduling, the research presented in this paper attempts to model the production schedule at an operation process by considering the balance of energy consumption reduction in production, production work flow (productivity) and quality. An innovative systematic approach to manufacturing energy-resource efficiency is proposed with the virtual simulation as a predictive modelling enabler, which provides real-time manufacturing monitoring, virtual displays and decision-makings and consequentially an analytical and multidimensional correlation analysis on interdependent relationships among energy consumption, work flow and quality errors. The regression analysis results demonstrate positive relationships between the work flow and quality errors and the work flow and energy consumption. When production scheduling is controlled through optimization of work flow, quality errors and overall energy consumption, the energy-resource efficiency can be achieved in the production. Together, this proposed multidimensional modelling and analysis approach provides optimal conditions for the production scheduling at the manufacturing system by taking account of production quality, energy consumption and resource efficiency, which can lead to the key competitive advantages and sustainability of the system operations in the industry.

  18. The Project Activities of the Renewable Energy Resources Use in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Jovanović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the ratification of the Energy Community of Southeast Europe countries (14th July 2006 the Republic of Serbia, among other things, accepted the obligation to adopt and implement a plan of applying the Directive 2001/77/EC about promoting the production of electrical energy from renewable energy sources. The projects of the renewable energy resources use have a positive impact on the environment, in particular about the mitigation of global climate change and local environmental sustainability.

  19. A Survey Analysis Of The Resource Selection Models In Agile/Virtual Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pires

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a survey is made of the analysis of the resource selection process. We approach the process also fromthe point of view of conventional enterprises but with particular emphasis on the existent models in Agile/VirtualEnterprises in order to identify the main limitations and shortcomings of the process.This analysis was focused in the global process of the resource selection, namely in terms of the pre-selection andselection phases, requisites, mathematical models, tools and other relevant areas in the existent models.It is concluded that the resource pre-selection is an area that is not adequately explored in a systematic way. Thevalue concept is not incorporated in the selection process. As a result, a reasoned analysis is not performed of thedecision-making process for creating an Agile/Virtual Enterprise. These conclusions were made to envision a futureapproach that allows the incorporation of new areas that contribute to the improvement of the resource selectionprocess.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey federal-state cooperative water-resources program, fiscal year 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Melvin; Dodds, Betty

    1996-01-01

    The Federal-State Cooperative Program is a major U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) activity for the collection, analysis, and reporting of information on the quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources. The fundamental characteristic of the program is that most of the work is undertaken by the USGS through joint-funding agreements, with State, regional, and local agencies providing at least one-half the funds. The main objectives of the program are (1) to collect, on a systematic basis, data needed for the continuing determi- nation and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and use of the Nation's water resources; and (2) to appraise the availability and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface and ground water through data analysis and interpretive water-resources investigations and research. During fiscal year (FY) 1995, Cooperative Program activities were underway in offices in every State, Puerto Rico, and several territories in concert with about 1,100 cooperating agencies. In FY 1995, Federal funding of $62.1 million as matched by cooperating agencies, which also provided more than $28.2 million unmatched for a total program of about $152 million. This amounted to nearly 38 percent of the total funds for the USGS's water-resources activities. This report presents examples of FY 1995 investigations, as well as information on hydrologic data collection and water-use activities.