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Sample records for survey comparative experimental

  1. Comparing perceived clarity of information on overdiagnosis used for breast and prostate cancer screening in England: an experimental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanouni, Alex; Renzi, Cristina; McBride, Emily; Waller, Jo

    2017-08-21

    'Overdiagnosis', detection of disease that would never have caused symptoms or death, is a public health concern due to possible psychological and physical harm but little is known about how best to explain it. This study evaluated public perceptions of widely used information on the concept to identify scope for improving communication methods. Experimental survey carried out by a market research company via face-to-face computer-assisted interviews. Interviews took place in participants' homes. 2111 members of the general public in England aged 18-70 years began the survey; 1616 were eligible for analysis. National representativeness was sought via demographic quota sampling. Participants were allocated at random to receive a brief description of overdiagnosis derived from written information used by either the NHS Breast Screening Programme or the prostate cancer screening equivalent. The primary outcome was how clear the information was perceived to be (extremely/very clear vs less clear). Other measures included previous exposure to screening information, decision-making styles and demographic characteristics (eg, education). Binary logistic regression was used to assess predictors of perceived clarity. Overdiagnosis information from the BSP was more likely to be rated as more clear compared with the prostate screening equivalent (adjusted OR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.75; p=0.001). Participants were more likely to perceive the information as more clear if they had previously encountered similar information (OR: 1.77, 1.40 to 2.23; pcommunicating the concept more generally (eg, via organised campaigns). However, this information may be less well-suited to individuals who are less inclined to consider risks and benefits during decision-making. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Neutrino interactions - an experimental survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.

    1980-07-01

    Current studies on neutrino interactions are surveyed and important results are summarised. The charged current studies have been refined to understand the nucleonic structure. Together with e-d and ..mu..-p deep inelastic scattering data, these studies establish a scale breaking in these scatterings. This breaking has been attributed to the 1st order correction of QCD and the quantitative checks seem to agree with the theory rather well. Data from a diverging set of experiments have been used to study the coupling constant in neutral current interaction. The coupling constants agree reasonably well with the SU(2)xU(1) model due to Weinberg and Salam. Parity violating effect in e-d scattering has been experimentally demonstrated. There is some evidence of ..mu..-e universality in neutral current interaction. The hadronic distribution has been studied in the frame work of Quark Parton model. The fragmentation functions seem to agree fairly well with the theoritical expectation. However one finds the effect of first order QCD corrections to be important in the transverse momentum distributions. Experimental data are presented in tables.

  3. Survey of experimental tests about progressive distortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Gerard.

    1981-02-01

    A procedure for evaluation of progressive distorsion experimental data has been set up in CEA. This procedure based on the effective primary stress concept, permits the establishment of a simple design rule. Various published experimental data have been used for verification, validation and generalization of design rule proposed. This rule is compared with existing codified rules (3 Sm, BREE, O'DONNEL and POROWSKI) [fr

  4. A comparative analysis of mail and internet surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin D. Poole; David K. Loomis

    2010-01-01

    Th e field of survey research is constantly evolving with the introduction of new technologies. Each new mini-revolution brings criticism about the accuracy of the new survey method. The latest development in the survey research field has been increased reliance on Internet surveys. This paper compares data collected through a mixed-mode (mail and Internet) survey of...

  5. Markets and Morals: An Experimental Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Julio J.; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another “repugnant” transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A) Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B) Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the “commercialization” of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent) religiosity of the respondent—in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We relate

  6. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J Elias

    Full Text Available Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We

  7. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Julio J; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A) Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B) Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent) religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We relate these

  8. Health inequalities: survey data compared to doctor defined data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westert, G.P.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To compare prevalence of conditions and health inequalities in one study population using two methods of data collection: health interview survey and GP registration of consultations. Methods: Data is from the Second Dutch Survey of General Practice, using a multistage sampling design with

  9. Survey of experimental tests of the IBA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of experimental tests of the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA) Model is presented covering even and odd mass nuclei in the region from A approx. 80 to A approx. 230. Both positive and negative parity states with both high and low spin are discussed. Topics included concern energy levels, electromagnetic transition rates, two nucleon transfer and inelastic scattering. Special attention is given to nuclear symmetries and transitional regions. Comparison with other models is made where appropriate. The distinction between IBA-1 and IBA-2 is discussed including their respective areas of applicability

  10. Experimental survey of the potential energy surfaces associated with fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britt, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the experimental determination of the properties of the potential energy surface associated with fission is reviewed. The importance of nuclear symmetry effects on the calculation of fission widths is demonstrated. Evidence is presented for the fragmentation of the mass-asymmetric second barrier in the thorium region and the axial asymmetric first barrier in the californium region. Detailed analyses of experimental data suggest the presence of two parallel second barriers; the normal mass-asymmetric, axial-symmetric barrier and a slightly higher mass-symmetric, axial-asymmetric barrier. Experimental barrier parameters are determined systematically and compared with calculations from various theoretical models. Techniques for expanding fission probability measurements to higher energies are discussed. (author)

  11. Comparative Study of Complex Survey Estimation Software in ONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Fallows

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many official statistics across the UK Government Statistical Service (GSS are produced using data collected from sample surveys. These survey data are used to estimate population statistics through weighting and calibration techniques. For surveys with complex or unusual sample designs, the weighting can be fairly complicated. Even in more simple cases, appropriate software is required to implement survey weighting and estimation. As with other stages of the survey process, it is preferable to use a standard, generic calibration tool wherever possible. Standard tools allow for efficient use of resources and assist with the harmonisation of methods. In the case of calibration, the Office for National Statistics (ONS has experience of using the Statistics Canada Generalized Estimation System (GES across a range of business and social surveys. GES is a SAS-based system and so is only available in conjunction with an appropriate SAS licence. Given recent initiatives and encouragement to investigate open source solutions across government, it is appropriate to determine whether there are any open source calibration tools available that can provide the same service as GES. This study compares the use of GES with the calibration tool ‘R evolved Generalized software for sampling estimates and errors in surveys’ (ReGenesees available in R, an open source statistical programming language which is beginning to be used in many statistical offices. ReGenesees is a free R package which has been developed by the Italian statistics office (Istat and includes functionality to calibrate survey estimates using similar techniques to GES. This report describes analysis of the performance of ReGenesees in comparison to GES to calibrate a representative selection of ONS surveys. Section 1.1 provides a brief introduction to the current use of SAS and R in ONS. Section 2 describes GES and ReGenesees in more detail. Sections 3.1 and 3.2 consider methods for

  12. COMPARATIVE FIELD EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF DIFFERENT FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Full-scale traditional metal solar collectors and solar collector specimens fabricated from polymeric materials were investigated in the present study. A polymeric collector is 67.8% lighter than a traditional metal solar collector, and a metal solar collector with transparent plastic covering is 40.3% lighter than a traditional metal solar collector. Honeycomb multichannel plates made from polycarbonate were chosen to create a polymeric solar collector. A test rig for the natural circulation of the working fluid in a solar collector was built for a comparative experimental investigation of various solar collectors operating at ambient conditions. It was shown experimentally that the efficiency of a polymeric collector is 8–15% lower than the efficiency of a traditional collector.

  13. Comparing Traditional and Crowdsourcing Methods for Pretesting Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edgar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive interviewing is a common method used to evaluate survey questions. This study compares traditional cognitive interviewing methods with crowdsourcing, or “tapping into the collective intelligence of the public to complete a task.” Crowdsourcing may provide researchers with access to a diverse pool of potential participants in a very timely and cost-efficient way. Exploratory work found that crowdsourcing participants, with self-administered data collection, may be a viable alternative, or addition, to traditional pretesting methods. Using three crowdsourcing designs (TryMyUI, Amazon Mechanical Turk, and Facebook, we compared the participant characteristics, costs, and quantity and quality of data with traditional laboratory-based cognitive interviews. Results suggest that crowdsourcing and self-administered protocols may be a viable way to collect survey pretesting information, as participants were able to complete the tasks and provide useful information; however, complex tasks may require the skills of an interviewer to administer unscripted probes.

  14. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history.

  15. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Nirmalla; Field, R. William; Field, Dan W.; Steck, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ≥148 Bq m -3 . Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. (authors)

  16. How Consumers and Physicians View New Medical Technology: Comparative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeldt, Debra L; Wineinger, Nathan E; Waalen, Jill; Gollamudi, Shreya; Grossberg, Adam; Steinhubl, Steven R; McCollister-Slipp, Anna; Rogers, Marc A; Silvers, Carey; Topol, Eric J

    2015-09-14

    As a result of the digital revolution coming to medicine, a number of new tools are becoming available and are starting to be introduced in clinical practice. We aim to assess health care professional and consumer attitudes toward new medical technology including smartphones, genetic testing, privacy, and patient-accessible electronic health records. We performed a survey with 1406 health care providers and 1102 consumer responders. Consumers who completed the survey were more likely to prefer new technologies for a medical diagnosis (437/1102, 39.66%) compared with providers (194/1406, 13.80%; P<.001), with more providers (393/1406, 27.95%) than consumers (175/1102, 15.88%) reporting feeling uneasy about using technology for a diagnosis. Both providers and consumers supported genetic testing for various purposes, with providers (1234/1406, 87.77%) being significantly more likely than consumers (806/1102, 73.14%) to support genetic testing when planning to have a baby (P<.001). Similarly, 91.68% (1289/1406) of providers and 81.22% (895/1102) of consumers supported diagnosing problems in a fetus (P<.001). Among providers, 90.33% (1270/1406) were concerned that patients would experience anxiety after accessing health records, and 81.95% (1149/1406) felt it would lead to requests for unnecessary medical evaluations, but only 34.30% (378/1102; P<.001) and 24.59% (271/1102; P<.001) of consumers expressed the same concerns, respectively. Physicians (137/827, 16.6%) reported less concern about the use of technology for diagnosis compared to medical students (21/235, 8.9%; P=.03) and also more frequently felt that patients owned their medical record (323/827, 39.1%; and 30/235, 12.8%, respectively; P<.001). Consumers and health professionals differ significantly and broadly in their views of emerging medical technology, with more enthusiasm and support expressed by consumers.

  17. Comparing TCV experimental VDE responses with DINA code simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favez, J.-Y.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.; Lister, J. B.; Lukash, V. E.

    2002-02-01

    The DINA free-boundary equilibrium simulation code has been implemented for TCV, including the full TCV feedback and diagnostic systems. First results showed good agreement with control coil perturbations and correctly reproduced certain non-linear features in the experimental measurements. The latest DINA code simulations, presented in this paper, exploit discharges with different cross-sectional shapes and different vertical instability growth rates which were subjected to controlled vertical displacement events (VDEs), extending previous work with the DINA code on the DIII-D tokamak. The height of the TCV vessel allows observation of the non-linear evolution of the VDE growth rate as regions of different vertical field decay index are crossed. The vertical movement of the plasma is found to be well modelled. For most experiments, DINA reproduces the S-shape of the vertical displacement in TCV with excellent precision. This behaviour cannot be modelled using linear time-independent models because of the predominant exponential shape due to the unstable pole of any linear time-independent model. The other most common equilibrium parameters like the plasma current Ip, the elongation κ, the triangularity δ, the safety factor q, the ratio between the averaged plasma kinetic pressure and the pressure of the poloidal magnetic field at the edge of the plasma βp, and the internal self inductance li also show acceptable agreement. The evolution of the growth rate γ is estimated and compared with the evolution of the closed-loop growth rate calculated with the RZIP linear model, confirming the origin of the observed behaviour.

  18. Comparing TCV experimental VDE responses with DINA code simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favez, J.Y.; Khayrutdinov, J.B.; Lister, J.B.; Lukash, V.E.

    2001-10-01

    The DINA free-boundary equilibrium simulation code has been implemented for TCV, including the full TCV feedback and diagnostic systems. First results showed good agreement with control coil perturbations and correctly reproduced certain non-linear features in the experimental measurements. The latest DINA code simulations, presented in this paper, exploit discharges with different cross- sectional shapes and different vertical instability growth rates which were subjected to controlled Vertical Displacement Events, extending previous work with the DINA code on the DIII-D tokamak. The height of the TCV vessel allows observation of the non- linear evolution of the VDE growth rate as regions of different vertical field decay index are crossed. The vertical movement of the plasma is found to be well modelled. For most experiments, DINA reproduces the S-shape of the vertical displacement in TCV with excellent precision. This behaviour cannot be modelled using linear time-independent models because of the predominant exponential shape due to the unstable pole of any linear time-independent model. The other most common equilibrium parameters like the plasma current Ip, the elongation K, the triangularity d, the safety factor q, the ratio between the averaged plasma kinetic pressure and the pressure of the poloidal magnetic field at the edge of the plasma bp and the internal self inductance l also show acceptable agreement. The evolution of the growth rate g is estimated and compared with the evolution of the closed loop growth rate calculated with the RZIP linear model, confirming the origin of the observed behaviour. (author)

  19. Radiological characteristics of light-water reactor spent fuel: A literature survey of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddy, J.W.; Mailen, J.C.

    1987-12-01

    This survey brings together the experimentally determined light-water reactor spent fuel data comprising radionuclide composition, decay heat, and photon and neutron generation rates as identified in a literature survey. Many citations compare these data with values calculated using a radionuclide generation and depletion computer code, ORIGEN, and these comparisons have been included. ORIGEN is a widely recognized method for estimating the actinide, fission product, and activation product contents of irradiated reactor fuel, as well as the resulting heat generation and radiation levels. These estimates are used as source terms in safety evaluations of operating reactors, for evaluation of fuel behavior and regulation of the at-reactor storage, for transportation studies, and for evaluation of the ultimate geologic storage of spent fuel. 82 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs

  20. Comparing econometric and survey-based methodologies in measuring offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    such as the national or regional level. Most macro analyses are based on proxies and trade statistics with limitations. Drawing on unique Danish survey data, this article demonstrates how survey data can provide important insights into the national scale and impacts of offshoring, including changes of employment...

  1. Comparing DINA code simulations with TCV experimental plasma equilibrium responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Lister, J.B.; Lukash, V.E.; Wainwright, J.P.

    2000-08-01

    The DINA non-linear time dependent simulation code has been validated against an extensive set of plasma equilibrium response experiments carried out on the TCV tokamak. Limited and diverted plasmas are found to be well modelled during the plasma current flat top. In some simulations the application of the PF coil voltage stimulation pulse sufficiently changed the plasma equilibrium that the vertical position feedback control loop became unstable. This behaviour was also found in the experimental work, and cannot be reproduced using linear time-independent models. A single null diverted plasma discharge was also simulated from start-up to shut-down and the results were found to accurately reproduce their experimental equivalents. The most significant difference noted was the penetration time of the poloidal flux, leading to a delayed onset of sawtoothing in the DINA simulation. The complete set of frequency stimulation experiments used to measure the open loop tokamak plasma equilibrium response was also simulated using DINA and the results were analysed in an identical fashion to the experimental data. The frequency response of the DINA simulations agrees with the experimental results. Comparisons with linear models are also discussed to identify areas of good and only occasionally less good agreement. (author)

  2. Comparing methods to quantify experimental transmission of infectious agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Bree, de J.

    2007-01-01

    Transmission of an infectious agent can be quantified from experimental data using the transient-state (TS) algorithm. The TS algorithm is based on the stochastic SIR model and provides a time-dependent probability distribution over the number of infected individuals during an epidemic, with no need

  3. compared performances of the experimental digesters of the animal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... droppings, in different concentrations of Dry Matter (DM), were followed. ... is conditioned largely by the adopted mode of digestion and the physicochemical conditions of ... study proposes the evaluation on an experimental scale, on the one ..... The entry in production of biogas for digester II (with inoculum) ...

  4. Comparative study of thermoluminescent efficiencies before variation of experimental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, O.; Estrada, D.; Gonzalez, P.; Rodriguez V, M.; Buenfil, A.E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Aviles, P.; Horowitz, Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    An investigation for quantifying the influence of varying distinct experimental factors in the measurements of relative thermoluminescent efficiency of 3 MeV protons was realized with respect to gamma radiation in LiF: Mg, Ti. Variations in a dosemeters batch were considered, as presentation, applied thermal treatments and reader equipment. The main conclusion of this work is to emphasize the importance for measuring entire series of experiments in the same laboratory following a protocol defined carefully and using dosemeters of the same batch for obtaining response before charging particle and the response before gamma radiation with identical procedures of baking and reading. (Author)

  5. Survey of cabbage experimental hybrids (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červenski Janko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage takes up significant area in vegetable sowing structure, and one of the factors of improving this production is adequate varieties selection. During the breeding process, experimental hybrids are tested in relation to currently grown varieties and hybrids in production. In this paper the characteristics of 18 cabbage genotypes are presented, out of which there are 9 experimental hybrids, 4 varieties and 5 hybrids from broader production. Cabbage genotypes in the trial are of differing length of growing season, as well as differing head weight. Properties variability analysis was performed using PCA method, where two main components were chosen based on screen test, and these were used to define 57.7%. Head weight and head diameter are properties based on which the tested hybrids were graded into quantitatively different groups.

  6. Comparative studies on the ossification in several experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu; Fukuda, Shun

    1978-01-01

    For estimating the risk of the bone seeking radionuclides in man, it is necessary to extrapolate the data of experimental animals to those of man. Detailed information on the biological stages of development, especially on bone growth of several experimental animals and of man is required for better extrapolation. Multi-species comparison of bone growth and ossification was carried out in several mammalian species such as mouse, rat, dog and monkey. The appearance, ossifying process and fusion of the secondary ossification centers in extremities were selected as indicators of the biological stage of bone. The observation of the secondary ossification centers was made by radiography. The maturity process of the secondary ossification centers in each animal was illustrated. The ossifying process of the secondary ossification center could be divided into the following three categories; (1) the acute ossification observed in mouse, rat, dog and monkey (2) the delayed ossification observed in mouse, rat, dog and monkey, (3) the incomplete ossification without complete fusion which is specific in mouse and rat, appeared and continued up to at least 27 weeks in mouse and up to 134 weeks in rat. The results of the study suggested that a mouse 17 weeks old, a rat 17 - 21 weeks old, a dog (beagle) 14 months old and a monkey about 6 years old may correspond to a man about 20 years old. (author)

  7. Tax evasion and income source: A comparative experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gërxhani, K.; Schram, A.J.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    We compare tax evasive behavior in a country in transition from communism to that in a developed economy by running an experiment across distinct social groups in Albania and the Netherlands. Aside from the tax compliance decision, subjects choose a source of income, where one type enables

  8. Union Underground: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    This is the third unit to the second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course which focuses on a specific, controversial, political issue. The unit analyzes the concept of political maintenance by studying the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) between 1918 and 1975 and its fight to secure mine safety standards. A documentary…

  9. Comparative survey of petroleum hydrocarbons i lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeham, S G

    1976-11-01

    Hydrocarbon distribution in sediments from three lakes in Washington State were studied and found to be related to the level of human activity in the respective drainage basins. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination was found in surface sediments of a lake surrounded by a major city, compared to no detectable contamination in a lake located in a National Park.

  10. Designing questionnaires: healthcare survey to compare two different response scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A widely discussed design issue in patient satisfaction questionnaires is the optimal length and labelling of the answering scale. The aim of the present study was to compare intra-individually the answers on two response scales to five general questions evaluating patients’ perception of hospital care. Methods Between November 2011 and January 2012, all in-hospital patients at a Swiss University Hospital received a patient satisfaction questionnaire on an adjectival scale with three to four labelled categories (LS) and five redundant questions displayed on an 11-point end-anchored numeric scale (NS). The scales were compared concerning ceiling effect, internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), individual item answers (Spearman’s rank correlation), and concerning overall satisfaction by calculating an overall percentage score (sum of all answers related to the maximum possible sum). Results The response rate was 41% (2957/7158), of which 2400 (81%) completely filled out all questions. Baseline characteristics of the responders and non-responders were similar. Floor and ceiling effect were high on both response scales, but more pronounced on the LS than on the NS. Cronbach’s alpha was higher on the NS than on the LS. There was a strong individual item correlation between both answering scales in questions regarding the intent to return, quality of treatment and the judgement whether the patient was treated with respect and dignity, but a lower correlation concerning satisfactory information transfer by physicians or nurses, where only three categories were available in the LS. The overall percentage score showed a comparable distribution, but with a wider spread of lower satisfaction in the NS. Conclusions Since the longer scale did not substantially reduce the ceiling effect, the type of questions rather than the type of answering scale could be addressed with a focus on specific questions about concrete situations instead of general questions

  11. Laryngotracheal morphology of Afro-Madagascan geckos: a comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, A P; Rittenhouse, D R; Bauer, A M

    2000-09-01

    The structural variation of the gekkonid larynx and trachea is examined within a representative subset of 17 species of Afro-Madagascan gekkonines to determine if there are underlying morphological correlates of vocalization. The documented morphology is compared to that of the tokay (Gekko gecko), which has previously been described. Data were obtained from gross anatomical observations, scanning electron microscopy, histological examinations and computer-generated, three-dimensional, skeletal reconstructions. Although there is limited variation among most Afro-Malagasy gekkonids, the larynges of Ptenopus garrulus and Uroplatus fimbriatus exhibit marked degrees of differentiation, suggesting that laryngeal and tracheal morphology may account for the documented vocal variability of gekkonid lizards. Cladistic analyses indicated that parallel adaptive trends characterize the laryngeal morphology of the examined taxa. Alternate designs and refinements to a model of gekkonid phonation are presented, and the evolution of acoustic communication in the Gekkonidae is considered. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. A survey and experimental comparison of distributed SPARQL engines for very large RDF data

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Harbi, Razen; Khayyat, Zuhair; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    Distributed SPARQL engines promise to support very large RDF datasets by utilizing shared-nothing computer clusters. Some are based on distributed frameworks such as MapReduce; others implement proprietary distributed processing; and some rely on expensive preprocessing for data partitioning. These systems exhibit a variety of trade-offs that are not well-understood, due to the lack of any comprehensive quantitative and qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we present a survey of 22 state-of-the-art systems that cover the entire spectrum of distributed RDF data processing and categorize them by several characteristics. Then, we select 12 representative systems and perform extensive experimental evaluation with respect to preprocessing cost, query performance, scalability and workload adaptability, using a variety of synthetic and real large datasets with up to 4.3 billion triples. Our results provide valuable insights for practitioners to understand the trade-offs for their usage scenarios. Finally, we publish online our evaluation framework, including all datasets and workloads, for researchers to compare their novel systems against the existing ones.

  13. A survey and experimental comparison of distributed SPARQL engines for very large RDF data

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Ibrahim

    2017-10-19

    Distributed SPARQL engines promise to support very large RDF datasets by utilizing shared-nothing computer clusters. Some are based on distributed frameworks such as MapReduce; others implement proprietary distributed processing; and some rely on expensive preprocessing for data partitioning. These systems exhibit a variety of trade-offs that are not well-understood, due to the lack of any comprehensive quantitative and qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we present a survey of 22 state-of-the-art systems that cover the entire spectrum of distributed RDF data processing and categorize them by several characteristics. Then, we select 12 representative systems and perform extensive experimental evaluation with respect to preprocessing cost, query performance, scalability and workload adaptability, using a variety of synthetic and real large datasets with up to 4.3 billion triples. Our results provide valuable insights for practitioners to understand the trade-offs for their usage scenarios. Finally, we publish online our evaluation framework, including all datasets and workloads, for researchers to compare their novel systems against the existing ones.

  14. An aerial radiological survey of the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation facility and surrounding area, Saxton, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, R.A.

    1991-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period July 5 to 22, 1989, over an 83-square kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC) facility which is owned by General Public Utilities and located near Saxton, Pennsylvania. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 9 to 11 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) over most of the survey area. The levels over the SNEC family did not differ from the exposure rates seen over the entire survey area. Cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels typical of worldwide fallout deposition were detected throughout the surveyed area. No other trends of Cs-137 were observed. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at six locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data

  15. Comparing web and mail responses in a mixed mode survey in college alcohol use research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Diez, Alison; Boyd, Carol J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Weitzman, Elissa R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This exploratory study examined potential mode effects (web versus U.S. mail) in a mixed mode design survey of alcohol use at eight U.S. colleges. Methods Randomly selected students from eight U.S. colleges were invited to participate in a self-administered survey on their alcohol use in the spring of 2002. Data were collected initially by web survey (n =2619) and non-responders to this mode were mailed a hardcopy survey (n =628). Results College students who were male, living on-campus and under 21 years of age were significantly more likely to complete the initial web survey. Multivariate analyses revealed few substantive differences between survey modality and alcohol use measures. Conclusions The findings from this study provide preliminary evidence that web and mail surveys produce comparable estimates of alcohol use in a non-randomized mixed mode design. The results suggest that mixed mode survey designs could be effective at reaching certain college sub-populations and improving overall response rate while maintaining valid measurement of alcohol use. Web surveys are gaining popularity in survey research and more work is needed to examine whether these results can extend to web surveys generally or are specific to mixed mode designs. PMID:16460882

  16. Comparative evaluation of experimental and theoretical erosion resistance of materials upon electric pulse treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpman, M.G.; Fetisov, G.P.; Bologov, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    Using the Palatnik criterion a comparative analysis is performed of the theoretical and experimental data on comparative electric erosion and erosion resistance of the electrodes and parts made of different materials upon their treatment using electric pulse technique. A reasonable qualitative agreement of the theoretical and experimental data indicates the possibility of using the Palatnik criterion to predict the serviceability of different pairs of the materials in conditions of electroerosion wear [ru

  17. Comparing two survey methods for estimating maternal and perinatal mortality in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, Hoeuy; Heng, Yang Van; Samol, Ha; Husum, Hans

    2008-03-01

    We need solid estimates of maternal mortality rates (MMR) to monitor the impact of maternal care programs. Cambodian health authorities and WHO report the MMR in Cambodia at 450 per 100,000 live births. The figure is drawn from surveys where information is obtained by interviewing respondents about the survival of all their adult sisters (sisterhood method). The estimate is statistically imprecise, 95% confidence intervals ranging from 260 to 620/100,000. The MMR estimate is also uncertain due to under-reporting; where 80-90% of women deliver at home maternal fatalities may go undetected especially where mortality is highest, in remote rural areas. The aim of this study was to attain more reliable MMR estimates by using survey methods other than the sisterhood method prior to an intervention targeting obstetric rural emergencies. The study was carried out in rural Northwestern Cambodia where access to health services is poor and poverty, endemic diseases, and land mines are endemic. Two survey methods were applied in two separate sectors: a community-based survey gathering data from public sources and a household survey gathering data direct from primary sources. There was no statistically significant difference between the two survey results for maternal deaths, both types of survey reported mortality rates around the public figure. The household survey reported a significantly higher perinatal mortality rate as compared to the community-based survey, 8.6% versus 5.0%. Also the household survey gave qualitative data important for a better understanding of the many problems faced by mothers giving birth in the remote villages. There are detection failures in both surveys; the failure rate may be as high as 30-40%. PRINCIPLE CONCLUSION: Both survey methods are inaccurate, therefore inappropriate for evaluation of short-term changes of mortality rates. Surveys based on primary informants yield qualitative information about mothers' hardships important for the design

  18. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available

  19. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available.

  20. Comparing online and telephone survey results in the context of a skin cancer prevention campaign evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, L P; Pettigrew, S; Slevin, T; Strickland, M; Minto, C

    2017-03-01

    A large proportion of health promotion campaign evaluation research has historically been conducted via telephone surveys. However, there are concerns about the continued viability of this form of surveying in providing relevant and representative data. Online surveys are an increasingly popular alternative, and as such there is a need to assess the comparability between data collected using the two different methods to determine the implications for longitudinal comparisons. The present study compared these survey modes in the context of health promotion evaluation research. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviewing and an online panel. In total, 688 and 606 respondents aged between 14 and 45 years completed the online and telephone surveys, respectively. Online respondents demonstrated higher awareness of the advertisement, rated the advertisement as more personally relevant and had better behavioural outcomes compared with the telephone respondents. The results indicate significant differences between the telephone and online surveys on most measures used to assess the effectiveness of a health promotion advertising campaign. Health promotion practitioners could consider the combination of both methods to overcome the deterioration in telephone survey response rates and the likely differences in respondent outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs for estimating supersonic missile aerodynamic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, W. C.; Allen, J. M.; Hernandez, G.; Dillenius, M. F. E.; Hemsch, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of engineering computational methods and experimental programs used for estimating the aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations. Emphasis is placed on those methods which are suitable for preliminary design of conventional and advanced concepts. An analysis of the technical approaches of the various methods is made in order to assess their suitability to estimate longitudinal and/or lateral-directional characteristics for different classes of missile configurations. Some comparisons between the predicted characteristics and experimental data are presented. These comparisons are made for a large variation in flow conditions and model attitude parameters. The paper also presents known experimental research programs developed for the specific purpose of validating analytical methods and extending the capability of data-base programs.

  2. Improving Comparability Of Survey Results Through Ex-Post Harmonisation A Case Study With Twelve European National Travel Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Hubert, Jean-Paul; Järvi, Tuuli

    An essential prerequisite for research, decision making and effective policies in the field of sustainable transport are reliable data on travel behaviour. In particular comparative analyses over space or time allow for a better understanding of transport systems and their impact on travel...... behaviour. Further, there is an increasing need for comparable transport indicators at the international level. All along, National Travel Surveys (NTS) have been used to perform such analyses and to generate respective indicators. Despite their similar intention to elicit basic information on travel...

  3. A survey of Wien bridge-based chaotic oscillators: Design and experimental issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, Recai [Erciyes University, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: kilic@erciyes.edu.tr; Yildirim, Fatma [Erciyes University, Civil Aviation School, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents a comparative study on design and implementation of Wien type chaotic oscillators. By making a collection of almost all Wien bridge-based chaotic circuits, we have investigated these oscillators in terms of chaotic dynamics, circuit structures, active building blocks, nonlinear element structures and operating frequency by using PSpice simulations and laboratory experiments. In addition to this comparative investigation, we present our two basic experimental contributions to referred implementations. While the first of our experimental contributions consists of the experimentally implementation of CFOA-based Chua's circuit modified for very high chaotic oscillations, the scope of the second is to experimentally implement a Wien type high frequency chaos generator, which has the diode-inductor composite, in the inductorless form by using CFOA-based synthetic inductor.

  4. A survey of Wien bridge-based chaotic oscillators: Design and experimental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Recai; Yildirim, Fatma

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on design and implementation of Wien type chaotic oscillators. By making a collection of almost all Wien bridge-based chaotic circuits, we have investigated these oscillators in terms of chaotic dynamics, circuit structures, active building blocks, nonlinear element structures and operating frequency by using PSpice simulations and laboratory experiments. In addition to this comparative investigation, we present our two basic experimental contributions to referred implementations. While the first of our experimental contributions consists of the experimentally implementation of CFOA-based Chua's circuit modified for very high chaotic oscillations, the scope of the second is to experimentally implement a Wien type high frequency chaos generator, which has the diode-inductor composite, in the inductorless form by using CFOA-based synthetic inductor

  5. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Zwickl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS evaluates students’ epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students’ reflections on their course’s expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  6. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Michael; Callinan, Sarah; Raninen, Jonas; Pennay, Amy; Dietze, Paul M

    2018-04-01

    Survey data remain a crucial means for monitoring alcohol consumption, but there has been limited work done to ensure that surveys adequately capture changes in per-capita consumption in Australia. In this study, we explore how trends in consumption from two major Australian surveys compare with an official measure of per-capita consumption between 2001 and 2014 and examine age-specific trends in drinking. Data were from five waves of the cross-sectional National Health Survey (total n = 113 279) and 12 waves of the longitudinal Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Study (average n = 12 347). Overall and age-specific estimates of annual alcohol consumption were derived and compared with official per-capita consumption and previous analyses of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey. In terms of overall consumption, both surveys broadly reflected trends in per-capita consumption, especially the decline that has been observed since 2007/2008. Age-specific trends were broadly similar, with the recent decline in consumption clearly concentrated among teenagers and young adults. The main Australian monitoring surveys remain useful monitoring tools for alcohol consumption in Australia. There is consistent evidence that the recent declines in Australian per-capita consumption have been driven by sharp falls in drinking among young people, a trend that requires further study. [Livingston M, Callinan S, Raninen J, Pennay A, Dietze PM. Alcohol consumption trends in Australia: Comparing surveys and sales-based measures. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Social networking versus facebook advertising to recruit survey respondents: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Conor; Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-09-17

    Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people's attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region's schools using standard mail and email. Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods.

  8. Social Networking Versus Facebook Advertising to Recruit Survey Respondents: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Bourke, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, social contact and knowledge of other people’s attitudes and behavior are mediated by online social media such as Facebook. The main research to which this recruitment study pertains investigates the influence of parents on adolescent alcohol consumption. Given the pervasiveness of online social media use, Facebook may be an effective means of recruitment and intervention delivery. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of study recruitment via social networks versus paid advertising on Facebook. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental sequential trial with response rate as the outcome, and estimates of cost-effectiveness. The target population was parents of 13-17 year old children attending high schools in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment occurred via: method (1) social recruitment using Facebook, email-based, social networks, and media coverage followed by method (2) Facebook advertising. Results Using a range of online and other social network approaches only: method (1) 74 parents were recruited to complete a survey over eight months, costing AUD58.70 per completed survey. After Facebook advertising: method (2) 204 parents completed the survey over four weeks, costing AUD5.94 per completed survey. Participants were representative of the parents recruited from the region’s schools using standard mail and email. Conclusions Facebook advertising is a cost-effective means of recruiting parents, a group difficult to reach by other methods. PMID:25230740

  9. An experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1988-09-01

    This report represents the results of an experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from several types of solidified low-level radioactive waste forms. The goal of these investigations was to determine those factors that accelerate leaching without changing its mechanism(s). Typically, although not in every case,the accelerating factors include: increased temperature, increased waste loading (i.e., increased waste to binder ratio), and decreased size (i.e., decreased waste form volume to surface area ratio). Additional factors that were studied were: increased leachant volume to waste form surface area ratio, pH, leachant composition (groundwaters, natural and synthetic chelating agents), leachant flow rate or replacement frequency and waste form porosity and surface condition. Other potential factors, including the radiation environment and pressure, were omitted based on a survey of the literature. 82 refs., 236 figs., 13 tabs

  10. Signal Validation: A Survey of Theoretical and Experimental Studies at the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A.

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this survey paper is to collect the results of the theoretical and experimental work that has been done on early failure and change detection, signal/detector validation, parameter estimation and system identification problems in the Applied Reactor Physics Department of the KFKI-AEI. The present paper reports different applications of the theoretical methods using real and computer simulated data. The final goal is two-sided: 1) to better understand the mathematical/physical background of the applied methods and 2) to integrate the useful algorithms into a large, complex diagnostic software system. The software is under development, a preliminary version (called JEDI) has already been accomplished. (author)

  11. Telephone follow-up to a mail survey: when to offer an interview compared to a reminder call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a different mode of contact on the final follow-up to survey non-respondents is an identified strategy to increase response rates. This study was designed to determine if a reminder phone call or a phone interview as a final mode of contact to a mailed survey works better to increase response rates and which strategy is more cost effective. Methods A randomized study was embedded within a survey study of individuals treated with ulcerative colitis conducted in March 2009 in Olmsted County, Minnesota. After two mail contacts, non-respondents were randomly assigned to either a reminder telephone call or a telephone interview. Average cost per completed interview and response rates were compared between the two experimental conditions. Results The response rate in the reminder group and the interview did not differ where we considered both a completed survey and a signed form a complete (24% vs. 29%, p = 0.08. However, if such a signed form was not required, there was a substantial advantage to completing the interview over the phone (24% vs. 43%, p Conclusions The additional cost of completing an interview is worth it when an additional signed form is not required of the respondent. However, when such a signed form is required, offering an interview instead of a reminder phone call as a follow up to non-respondents does not increase response rates enough to outweigh the additional costs.

  12. Epidemiological survey of the effects of low level radiation dose: a comparative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1993-10-01

    This volume presents the collations tables of a six volume comparative epidemiological survey of the effects of low level radiation dose. Data are collated for the effects observed in the following irradiated groups:- Preconception irradiation, intra-uterine irradiation, childhood irradiation, adult irradiation. (UK).

  13. Comparative experimental and numerical studies of usual insulation materials and PCMs in buildings at Casablanca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourid, Amina; El Alami, Mustapha

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present a comparative thermal study of the usual insulation materials used in the building as well as the innovate one like phase change materials (PCMs). Both experimental study and numerical approach were applied in this work for summer season. In the experimental study the PCM was installed on the outer surface on the ceiling of one of two full-scale rooms located at FSAC, Casablanca. A simulation model was performed with TRNSYS’17 software. We have established as a criterion of comparison the internal temperatures. An economic study also has been carried out. Based on this latter, that the PCM is most efficient.

  14. Japanese citizens’ preferences regarding voluntary carbon offsets: an experimental social survey of Yokohama and Kitakyushu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hidenori; Kato, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    This study uses an experimental social survey in two large Japanese cities to explore citizens’ attitudes toward international voluntary carbon offsetting that encourages low carbon development in developing countries. In particular, the study focuses on whether the offsetting is a contribution to meet national target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction under the Kyoto Protocol or reduction beyond the national target, using Kyoto credits generated from climate change mitigation projects in developing countries. The study finds that around 40% of the survey respondents chose real carbon offsetting over a gift certificate as compensation for their participation in the survey, around half of whom chose carbon offsetting contribution to the world. However, most of the current Japanese carbon offsetting providers utilise only the carbon offsetting contribution to the Japanese government. Thus, Japanese citizens have significant untapped potential for undertaking more carbon offsetting to meet targets other than national targets. However, the results also show that there is a general lack of understanding regarding the mechanism of carbon offsetting. Carbon offsetting providers in Japan and other countries that may have national self-imposed targets and allowing the usage of international carbon offsetting should therefore be considered, so as to provide individuals with the options of either contributing to their government to help it meet its national target or contributing to the world to help reduce GHG emissions beyond the national targets.

  15. Monitoring undergraduate student needs and activities at Experimental Biology: APS pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Ilatovskaya, Daria V; Matyas, Marsha L

    2017-06-01

    Life science professional societies play important roles for undergraduates in their fields and increasingly offer membership, fellowships, and awards for undergraduate students. However, the overall impacts of society-student interactions have not been well studied. Here, we sought to develop and test a pilot survey of undergraduate students to determine how they got involved in research and in presenting at the Experimental Biology (EB) meeting, what they gained from the scientific and career development sessions at the meeting, and how the American Physiological Society (APS) can best support and engage undergraduate students. This survey was administered in 2014 and 2015 to undergraduate students who submitted physiology abstracts for and attended EB. More than 150 students responded (38% response rate). Respondents were demographically representative of undergraduate students majoring in life sciences in the United States. Most students (72%) became involved in research through a summer research program or college course. They attended a variety of EB sessions, including poster sessions and symposia, and found them useful. Undergraduate students interacted with established researchers at multiple venues. Students recommended that APS provide more research fellowships (25%) and keep in touch with students via both e-mail (46%) and social media (37%). Our results indicate that APS' EB undergraduate activities are valued by students and are effective in helping them have a positive scientific meeting experience. These results also guided the development of a more streamlined survey for use in future years. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Can Appealing to Patient Altruism Reduce Overuse of Health Care Services? An Experimental Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Kevin R; Ubel, Peter A; Saloner, Brendan

    2017-07-01

    A challenge to reducing overuse of health services is communicating recommendations against unnecessary health services to patients. The predominant approach has been to highlight the limited benefit and potential harm of such services for that patient, but the prudent use of health resources can also benefit others. Whether appealing to patient altruism can reduce overuse is unknown. To determine whether altruistic appeals reduce hypothetical requests for overused services and affect physician ratings. Experimental survey using hypothetical vignettes describing three overused health services (antibiotics for acute sinusitis, imaging for acute low back pain, and annual exams for healthy adults). U.S. adults recruited from Research Now, an online panel of individuals compensated for performing academic and marketing research surveys. In the control version of the vignettes, the physician's rationale for recommending against the service was the minimal benefit and potential for harm. In the altruism version, the rationale additionally included potential benefit to others by forgoing that service. Differences in requests for overused services and physician ratings between participants randomized to the control and altruism versions of the vignettes. A total of 1001 participants were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences in requests for overused services for any of the clinical scenarios (P values ranged from 0.183 to 0.547). Physician ratings were lower in the altruism version for the acute sinusitis (6.68 vs. 7.03, P = 0.012) and back pain scenarios (6.14 vs. 6.83, P < 0.001), and marginally lower for the healthy adult scenario (5.27 vs. 5.57, P = 0.084). In this experimental survey, altruistic appeals delivered by physicians did not reduce requests for overused services, and resulted in more negative physician ratings. Further studies are warranted to determine whether alternative methods of appealing to patient altruism

  17. Workshop Synthesis: Stated Preference Surveys and Experimental Design, an Audit of the Journey so far and Future Research Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchi, Elisabetta; Hensher, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a synthesis of the discussions and ideas that were generated during the workshop on “Stated preference surveys and experimental design” at the 2014 Travel Survey Methods Conference in Leura (Australia). The workshop addressed the challenges related to the design and implementation o...

  18. Prenotification, Incentives, and Survey Modality: An Experimental Test of Methods to Increase Survey Response Rates of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Robin Tepper; Jacob, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Teacher and principal surveys are among the most common data collection techniques employed in education research. Yet there is remarkably little research on survey methods in education, or about the most cost-effective way to raise response rates among teachers and principals. In an effort to explore various methods for increasing survey response…

  19. Comparing two survey methods of measuring health-related indicators: Lot Quality Assurance Sampling and Demographic Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoke, Sarah C; Mwai, Paul; Jeffery, Caroline; Valadez, Joseph J; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-12-01

    Two common methods used to measure indicators for health programme monitoring and evaluation are the demographic and health surveys (DHS) and lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS); each one has different strengths. We report on both methods when utilised in comparable situations. We compared 24 indicators in south-west Uganda, where data for prevalence estimations were collected independently for the two methods in 2011 (LQAS: n = 8876; DHS: n = 1200). Data were stratified (e.g. gender and age) resulting in 37 comparisons. We used a two-sample two-sided Z-test of proportions to compare both methods. The average difference between LQAS and DHS for 37 estimates was 0.062 (SD = 0.093; median = 0.039). The average difference among the 21 failures to reject equality of proportions was 0.010 (SD = 0.041; median = 0.009); among the 16 rejections, it was 0.130 (SD = 0.010, median = 0.118). Seven of the 16 rejections exhibited absolute differences of 0.10 and 0.20 (mean = 0.261, SD = 0.083). There is 75.7% agreement across the two surveys. Both methods yield regional results, but only LQAS provides information at less granular levels (e.g. the district level) where managerial action is taken. The cost advantage and localisation make LQAS feasible to conduct more frequently, and provides the possibility for real-time health outcomes monitoring. © 2015 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Developing skills versus reinforcing concepts in physics labs: Insight from a survey of students' beliefs about experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-06-01

    Physics laboratory courses have been generally acknowledged as an important component of the undergraduate curriculum, particularly with respect to developing students' interest in, and understanding of, experimental physics. There are a number of possible learning goals for these courses including reinforcing physics concepts, developing laboratory skills, and promoting expertlike beliefs about the nature of experimental physics. However, there is little consensus among instructors and researchers interested in the laboratory learning environment as to the relative importance of these various learning goals. Here, we contribute data to this debate through the analysis of students' responses to the laboratory-focused assessment known as the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Using a large, national data set of students' responses, we compare students' E-CLASS performance in classes in which the instructor self-reported focusing on developing skills, reinforcing concepts, or both. As the classification of courses was based on instructor self-report, we also provide additional description of these courses with respect to how often students engage in particular activities in the lab. We find that courses that focus specifically on developing lab skills have more expertlike postinstruction E-CLASS responses than courses that focus either on reinforcing physics concepts or on both goals. Within first-year courses, this effect is larger for women. Moreover, these findings hold when controlling for the variance in postinstruction scores that is associated with preinstruction E-CLASS scores, student major, and student gender.

  1. An experimental-numerical method for comparative analysis of joint prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claramunt, R.; Rincon, E.; Zubizarreta, V.; Ros, A.

    2001-01-01

    The difficulty that exists in the analysis of mechanical stresses in bones is high due to its complex mechanical and morphological characteristics. This complexity makes generalists modelling and conclusions derived from prototype tests very questionable. In this article a relatively simple comparative analysis systematic method that allow us to establish some behaviour differences in different kind of prosthesis is presented. The method, applicable in principle to any joint problem, is based on analysing perturbations produced in natural stress states of a bone after insertion of a joint prosthesis and combines numerical analysis using a 3-D finite element model and experimental studies based on photoelastic coating and electric extensometry. The experimental method is applied to compare two total hip prosthesis cement-free femoral stems of different philosophy. One anatomic of new generation, being of oblique setting over cancellous bone and the other madreporique of trochantero-diaphyseal support over cortical bone. (Author) 4 refs

  2. Computations for the 1:5 model of the THTR pressure vessel compared with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangenberg, F.

    1972-01-01

    In this report experimental results measured at the 1:5-model of the prestressed concrete pressure vessel of the THTR-nuclear power station Schmehausen in 1971, are compared with the results of axis-symmetrical computations. Linear-elastic computations were performed as well as approximate computations for overload pressures taking into consideration the influences of the load history (prestressing, temperature, creep) and the effects of the steel components. (orig.) [de

  3. Comparative activities of ciprofloxacin, ticarcillin, and tobramycin against experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiff, J B; Small, G J; Pennington, J E

    1984-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of ciprofloxacin, an investigational quinoline derivative, was compared with those of ticarcillin and tobramycin in guinea pigs with experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Guinea pigs challenged with tracheal instillations of 10(8) CFU of P. aeruginosa developed acute pneumonia, for which survival rates were: controls, 0%; ticarcillin treatment, 37%; ciprofloxacin treatment, 57%; and tobramycin treatment, 69%. Intrapulmonary killing of P. aeruginosa was greate...

  4. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this report, the health effects of low-level doses of radiation are considered by reference to published epidemiological surveys. The work was carried out with three objectives in mind: 1. to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the subject; 2. to seek consistent indications of particular health effects by collating results and comparing with those from surveys at moderate-level doses; 3. to provide an authoritative view on the epidemiology of low-level radiation-induced health effects. Vol E (DRAFT A) is appended and contains group collation tables. Epidemiological surveys can be conveniently divided into four classes (A, B, C, D) according to the phase of life when irradiation occurs or the effect is diagnosed. The first of the classes (A) is addressed here; this class is concerned with possible effects arising from radiation received by a parent before conception. Possible effects of preconception irradiation were identified under four broad groupings. These are Down's syndrome, ''Indicators of Reproductive Damage'' (mainly Primary Sterility, Congenital Abnormalities, Sex Ratio, Fetal Mortality, Infant Mortality), Childhood Malignancies, and Chromosomal Changes in Abortuses. Information about each survey, and comparisons with results from moderate-level dose surveys, are contained in synopses that are set out in the Appendix. (author)

  5. Longitudinal control behaviour: Analysis and modelling based on experimental surveys in Italy and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariota, Luigi; Bifulco, Gennaro Nicola; Galante, Francesco; Montella, Alfonso; Brackstone, Mark

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyses driving behaviour in car-following conditions, based on extensive individual vehicle data collected during experimental field surveys carried out in Italy and the UK. The aim is to contribute to identify simple evidence to be exploited in the ongoing process of driving assistance and automation which, in turn, would reduce rear-end crashes. In particular, identification of differences and similarities in observed car-following behaviours for different samples of drivers could justify common tuning, at a European or worldwide level, of a technological solution aimed at active safety, or, in the event of differences, could suggest the most critical aspects to be taken into account for localisation or customisation of driving assistance solutions. Without intending to be exhaustive, this paper moves one step in this direction. Indeed, driving behaviour and human errors are considered to be among the main crash contributory factors, and a promising approach for safety improvement is the progressive introduction of increasing levels of driving automation in next-generation vehicles, according to the active/preventive safety approach. However, the more advanced the system, the more complex will be the integration in the vehicle, and the interaction with the driver may sometimes become unproductive, or risky, should the driver be removed from the driving control loop. Thus, implementation of these systems will require the interaction of human driving logics with automation logics and then an enhanced ability in modelling drivers' behaviour. This will allow both higher active-safety levels and higher user acceptance to be achieved, thus ensuring that the driver is always in the control loop, even if his/her role is limited to supervising the automatic logic. Currently, the driving mode most targeted by driving assistance systems is longitudinal driving. This is required in various driving conditions, among which car-following assumes key importance

  6. Comparing Conventional Bank Credit Vis A Vis Shariah Bank Musharakah: Experimental Economic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Abduh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Bank of Indonesia with dual banking system – i.e Shariah and Conventional Bank – keep on developing system that considered as an answer to generate the national economic growth. One of the banking activities that emphasized by the Central Bank of Indonesia is fund distribution through either conventional bank credit or shariah bank fi nancing. Having the Experimental Economic Approach based on Induced Value Theory and employing ANOVA, this paper found that shariah bank musharakah fi nancing system would come up with higher profi t opportunity compare to conventional credit system. One main reason is that musharakah fi nancing in shariah bank applies profi t and lost sharing (PLS scheme so that will not be a burden to the customer when he fi nd low profi t.Keywords: Credit Loan, Musharakah Financing, Induced Value Theory, Experimental Economic Approach, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.

  7. A comparative study to investigate burnup in research reactor fuel using two independent experimental methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Mehmood, T.; Ayazuddin, S.K.; Salahuddin, A.; Pervez, S.

    2001-01-01

    Two independent experimental methods have been used for the comparative study of fuel burnup measurement in low enriched uranium, plate type research reactor. In the first method a gamma ray activity ratio method was employed. An experimental setup was established for gamma ray scanning using prior calibrated high purity germanium detector. The computer software KORIGEN gave the theoretical support. In the second method reactivity difference technique was used. At the same location in the same core configuration the fresh and burned fuel element's reactivity worth was estimated. For theoretical estimated curve, group cross-sections were generated using computer code WIMS-D/4, and three dimensional modeling was made by computer code CITATION. The measured burnup of different fuel elements using these methods were found to be in good agreement

  8. Study design elements for rigorous quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Curtis, Lesley H; Dowd, Bryan

    2013-03-01

    Quasi-experiments are likely to be the workhorse study design used to generate evidence about the comparative effectiveness of alternative treatments, because of their feasibility, timeliness, affordability and external validity compared with randomized trials. In this review, we outline potential sources of discordance in results between quasi-experiments and experiments, review study design choices that can improve the internal validity of quasi-experiments, and outline innovative data linkage strategies that may be particularly useful in quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research. There is an urgent need to resolve the debate about the evidentiary value of quasi-experiments since equal consideration of rigorous quasi-experiments will broaden the base of evidence that can be brought to bear in clinical decision-making and governmental policy-making.

  9. Man Versus Machine: Comparing Double Data Entry and Optical Mark Recognition for Processing CAHPS Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifolt, Matthew; Blackburn, Justin; Rhodes, David J; Gillespie, Shemeka; Bennett, Aleena; Wolff, Paul; Rucks, Andrew

    Historically, double data entry (DDE) has been considered the criterion standard for minimizing data entry errors. However, previous studies considered data entry alternatives through the limited lens of data accuracy. This study supplies information regarding data accuracy, operational efficiency, and cost for DDE and Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) for processing the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems 5.0 survey. To assess data accuracy, we compared error rates for DDE and OMR by dividing the number of surveys that were arbitrated by the total number of surveys processed for each method. To assess operational efficiency, we tallied the cost of data entry for DDE and OMR after survey receipt. Costs were calculated on the basis of personnel, depreciation for capital equipment, and costs of noncapital equipment. The cost savings attributed to this method were negated by the operational efficiency of OMR. There was a statistical significance between rates of arbitration between DDE and OMR; however, this statistical significance did not create a practical significance. The potential benefits of DDE in terms of data accuracy did not outweigh the operational efficiency and thereby financial savings of OMR.

  10. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men whohave sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey.\\ud Methods: We compared 148 MSM aged 18–64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010–2012, with men inthe same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European...

  11. Comparing Social Media Data and Survey Data in Assessing the Attractiveness of Beijing Olympic Forest Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Together with the emerging popularity of big data in numerous studies, increasing theoretical discussions of the challenges and limitations of such data sources exist. However, there is a clear research gap in the empirical comparison studies on different data sources. The goal of this paper is to use “attractiveness” as a medium to examine the similarity and differences of Social media data (SMD and survey data in academic research, based on a case study of the Beijing Olympic Forest Park, in Beijing, China. SMD was extracted from two social media platforms and two surveys were conducted to assess the attractiveness of various locations and landscape elements. Data collection, keyword extraction and keyword prioritization were used and compared in the data gathering and analysis process. The findings revealed that SMD and survey data share many similarities. Both data sources confirm that natural ambience is more appreciated than cultural elements, particularly the naturalness of the park. Spaces of practical utility are more appreciated than facilities designed to have cultural meanings and iconic significance. Despite perceived similarities, this study concludes that SMD exhibits exaggerated and aggregated bias. This resulted from the intrinsic character of SMD as volunteered and unstructured data selected through an emotional process rather than from a rational synthesis. Exciting events were reported more often than daily experiences. Reflecting upon the strength and weakness of SMD and survey data, this study would recommend a combined landscape assessment process, which first utilizes SMD to build up an assessment framework, then applies conventional surveys for supplementary and detailed information. This would ultimately result in comprehensive understanding.

  12. Survey sequencing and comparative analysis of the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrappa Venkatesh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their phylogenetic position, cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays, skates, and chimaeras provide a critical reference for our understanding of vertebrate genome evolution. The relatively small genome of the elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii, a chimaera, makes it an attractive model cartilaginous fish genome for whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis. Here, the authors describe survey sequencing (1.4x coverage and comparative analysis of the elephant shark genome, one of the first cartilaginous fish genomes to be sequenced to this depth. Repetitive sequences, represented mainly by a novel family of short interspersed element-like and long interspersed element-like sequences, account for about 28% of the elephant shark genome. Fragments of approximately 15,000 elephant shark genes reveal specific examples of genes that have been lost differentially during the evolution of tetrapod and teleost fish lineages. Interestingly, the degree of conserved synteny and conserved sequences between the human and elephant shark genomes are higher than that between human and teleost fish genomes. Elephant shark contains putative four Hox clusters indicating that, unlike teleost fish genomes, the elephant shark genome has not experienced an additional whole-genome duplication. These findings underscore the importance of the elephant shark as a critical reference vertebrate genome for comparative analysis of the human and other vertebrate genomes. This study also demonstrates that a survey-sequencing approach can be applied productively for comparative analysis of distantly related vertebrate genomes.

  13. Emission of biocides from hospitals: comparing current survey results with European Union default values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczkiewicz, Inga; Bitsch, Annette; Hahn, Stefan; Hahn, Torsten

    2010-04-01

    Under the European Union (EU) Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC, comprehensive evaluations on substances of the Third Priority List were conducted until 31 July 2007. This list includes, among other categories, disinfectants for human hygiene (e.g., skin and surface disinfection). For environmental exposure assessment of biocides, the EU emission scenarios apply. Currently available default values for disinfectants are based on consumption data from not more than 8 hospitals and were originally assembled for other purposes. To revalidate these default values, a survey on annual consumption data was performed in 27 German hospitals. These data were analyzed to provide consumption data per bed and day and per nurse and day for particular categories of active ingredients and were compared with default values from the EU emission scenario documents. Although several deviations were detected, an overall acceptable correspondence between Emission Scenario Documents default values and the current survey data was found. (c) 2009 SETAC

  14. Spectroscopic and vibrational analysis of the methoxypsoralen system: A comparative experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Yuan, H.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    2013-03-01

    Raman spectra measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to investigate three psoralens: 5-amino-8-methoxypsoralen (5-A-8-MOP), 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) with the aim of differentiating these similar bioactive molecules. The Raman spectra were recorded in the region 300-3500 cm-1. All three psoralens were found to have similar Raman spectrum in the region 1500-1650 cm-1. 5-A-8-MOP can be easily differentiated from 5-MOP or 8-MOP based on the Raman spectrum. The Raman spectrum differences at 651 and 795 cm-1 can be used to identify 5-MOP from 8-MOP. The theoretically computed vibrational frequencies and relative peak intensities were compared with experimental data. DFT calculations using the B3LYP method and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set were found to yield results that are very comparable to experimental Raman spectra. Detailed vibrational assignments were performed with DFT calculations and the potential energy distribution (PED) obtained from the Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) program.

  15. A comparative experimental and computational study of methanol, ethanol, and n-butanol flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veloo, Peter S.; Wang, Yang L.; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Laminar flame speeds and extinction strain rates of premixed methanol, ethanol, and n-butanol flames were determined experimentally in the counterflow configuration at atmospheric pressure and elevated unburned mixture temperatures. Additional measurements were conducted also to determine the laminar flame speeds of their n-alkane/air counterparts, namely methane, ethane, and n-butane in order to compare the effect of alkane and alcohol molecular structures on high-temperature flame kinetics. For both propagation and extinction experiments the flow velocities were determined using the digital particle image velocimetry method. Laminar flame speeds were derived through a non-linear extrapolation approach based on direct numerical simulations of the experiments. Two recently developed detailed kinetics models of n-butanol oxidation were used to simulate the experiments. The experimental results revealed that laminar flame speeds of ethanol/air and n-butanol/air flames are similar to those of their n-alkane/air counterparts, and that methane/air flames have consistently lower laminar flame speeds than methanol/air flames. The laminar flame speeds of methanol/air flames are considerably higher compared to both ethanol/air and n-butanol/air flames under fuel-rich conditions. Numerical simulations of n-butanol/air freely propagating flames, revealed discrepancies between the two kinetic models regarding the consumption pathways of n-butanol and its intermediates. (author)

  16. Comparing NICU teamwork and safety climate across two commonly used survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Jochen; Lee, Henry C; Sharek, Paul J; Kan, Peggy; Nisbet, Courtney C; Thomas, Eric J; Etchegaray, Jason M; Sexton, Bryan

    2016-12-01

    Measurement and our understanding of safety culture are still evolving. The objectives of this study were to assess variation in safety and teamwork climate and in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting, and compare measurement of safety culture scales using two different instruments (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) and Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC)). Cross-sectional survey study of a voluntary sample of 2073 (response rate 62.9%) health professionals in 44 NICUs. To compare survey instruments, we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. We also compared similar scales and items across the instruments using t tests and changes in quartile-level performance. We found significant variation across NICUs in safety and teamwork climate scales of SAQ and HSOPSC (pteamwork scales (teamwork climate and teamwork within units) of the two instruments correlated strongly (safety r=0.72, pteamwork r=0.67, p<0.001). However, the means and per cent agreements for all scale scores and even seemingly similar item scores were significantly different. In addition, comparisons of scale score quartiles between the two instruments revealed that half of the NICUs fell into different quartiles when translating between the instruments. Large variation and opportunities for improvement in patient safety culture exist across NICUs. Important systematic differences exist between SAQ and HSOPSC such that these instruments should not be used interchangeably. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Abler, Laurie; Pan, Suiming; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xingliang; Parish, William L

    2014-02-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported STI in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n = 398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n = 2,186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou.

  18. Comparing cancer screening estimates: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ann Goding; Liu, Benmei; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Fedewa, Stacey A

    2018-01-01

    Cancer screening prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), designed to provide state-level estimates, and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), designed to provide national estimates, are used to measure progress in cancer control. A detailed description of the extent to which recent cancer screening estimates vary by key demographic characteristics has not been previously described. We examined national prevalence estimates for recommended breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening using data from the 2012 and 2014 BRFSS and the 2010 and 2013 NHIS. Treating the NHIS estimates as the reference, direct differences (DD) were calculated by subtracting NHIS estimates from BRFSS estimates. Relative differences were computed by dividing the DD by the NHIS estimates. Two-sample t-tests (2-tails), were performed to test for statistically significant differences. BRFSS screening estimates were higher than those from NHIS for breast (78.4% versus 72.5%; DD=5.9%, pNHIS, each survey has a unique and important role in providing information to track cancer screening utilization among various populations. Awareness of these differences and their potential causes is important when comparing the surveys and determining the best application for each data source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A dual tracer ratio method for comparative emission measurements in an experimental dairy housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Joachim; Zeyer, Kerstin; Keck, Margret; Keller, Markus; Zähner, Michael; Poteko, Jernej; Emmenegger, Lukas; Schrade, Sabine

    2018-04-01

    Agriculture, and in particular dairy farming, is an important source of ammonia (NH3) and non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This calls for the development and quantification of effective mitigation strategies. Our study presents the implementation of a dual tracer ratio method in a novel experimental dairy housing with two identical, but spatially separated housing areas. Modular design and flexible floor elements allow the assessment of structural, process engineering and organisational abatement measures at practical scale. Thereby, the emission reduction potential of specific abatement measures can be quantified in relation to a reference system. Emissions in the naturally ventilated housing are determined by continuous dosing of two artificial tracers (sulphur hexafluoride SF6, trifluoromethylsulphur pentafluoride SF5CF3) and their real-time detection in the ppt range with an optimized GC-ECD method. The two tracers are dosed into different experimental sections, which enables the independent assessment of both housing areas. Mass flow emissions of NH3 and GHGs are quantified by areal dosing of tracer gases and multipoint sampling as well as real-time analysis of both tracer and target gases. Validation experiments demonstrate that the technique is suitable for both areal and point emission sources and achieves an uncertainty of less than 10% for the mass emissions of NH3, methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), which is superior to other currently available methods. Comparative emission measurements in this experimental dairy housing will provide reliable, currently unavailable information on emissions for Swiss dairy farming and demonstrate the reduction potential of mitigation measures for NH3, GHGs and potentially other pollutants.

  20. Private and Public Schooling in Ghana: A Census and Comparative Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Amuah, Isaac

    2007-07-01

    A census and survey of schools in the district of Ga, Ghana, explored the nature and extent of private education, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Three quarters of all schools found were private, with almost as many unregistered private as government schools. Several important differences between registered and unregistered private schools were noted, including age, fee levels charged, teacher salaries and class size. A range of inputs, such as teacher activity, availability of desks, chairs, libraries, toilets and drinking water, were used to compare inputs to government, unregistered and registered private schools. Some conclusions are explored about the potential role for the private sector in helping meet "education for all" targets.

  1. How few countries will do? Comparative survey analysis from a Bayesian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop J.C.M. Hox

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Meuleman and Billiet (2009 have carried out a simulation study aimed at the question how many countries are needed for accurate multilevel SEM estimation in comparative studies. The authors concluded that a sample of 50 to 100 countries is needed for accurate estimation. Recently, Bayesian estimation methods have been introduced in structural equation modeling which should work well with much lower sample sizes. The current study reanalyzes the simulation of Meuleman and Billiet using Bayesian estimation to find the lowest number of countries needed when conducting multilevel SEM. The main result of our simulations is that a sample of about 20 countries is sufficient for accurate Bayesian estimation, which makes multilevel SEM practicable for the number of countries commonly available in large scale comparative surveys.

  2. Comparative effects of vitamin K2 and vitamin E on experimental arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyama, Y; Hayashi, M; Takegami, H; Usami, E

    1999-01-01

    The comparative effects of vitamin K2 and vitamin E on aortic calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) levels in the aorta and the elastin fraction (fr.) were investigated in male rats after experimental arteriosclerosis was induced by vitamin D2 with atherogenic diet. Both vitamin K2 (100 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (40 mg/kg b.w.) inhibited the increase of Ca and P in the aorta and the elastin fr. from the arteriosclerotic rats. Vitamin K2 (50 mg/kg b.w.) also suppressed the deposition of Ca and P in the aorta, but there was no change due to vitamin K3 or geranylgeraniol (side chain of vitamin K2) administration. Both vitamin K2 and vitamin E showed lipid radical scavenging activity in the in vitro experiment. However, neither vitamin K3 nor geranylgeraniol exhibited anti-arteriosclerotic or radical scavenging activity under the above experimental conditions. It is suggested that vitamin K2 and vitamin E promoted an antiarteriosclerotic effect by radical scavenging activity. These actions of vitamin K2 are required in the structure of 2-methylnaphtoquinone and its side chain (geranylgeraniol).

  3. Fasciola hepatica: comparative metacercarial productions in experimentally-infected Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignoles Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As large numbers of metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica are necessary for research, experimental infections of Galba truncatula and Pseudosuccinea columella with this digenean were carried out to determine the better intermediate host for metacercarial production and, consequently, the most profitable snail for decreasing the cost price of these larvae. Pre-adult snails (4 mm in shell height originating from two populations per lymnaeid species were individually exposed to two or five miracidia, raised at 23 °C and followed for cercarial shedding up to their death. Compared to values noted in G. truncatula, the survival of P. columella on day 30 post-exposure was significantly greater, while the prevalence of F. hepatica infection was significantly lower. In the four P. columella groups, metacercarial production was significantly greater than that noted in the four groups of G. truncatula (347–453 per cercariae-shedding snail versus 163–275, respectively. Apart from one population of G. truncatula, the use of five miracidia per snail at exposure significantly increased the prevalence of F. hepatica in P. columella and the other population of G. truncatula, whereas it did not have any clear effect on the mean number of metacercariae. The use of P. columella for experimental infections with F. hepatica resulted in significantly higher metacercarial production than that noted with G. truncatula, in spite of a lower prevalence for the former lymnaeid. This finding allows for a significant decrease in the cost price of these larvae for commercial production.

  4. Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jack T; Joyner, Ken H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles. PMID:22377680

  5. Stereoscopic Visualization of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data: A Comparative Survey of Visualization Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raslan, O.; Debnam, J.M.; Ketonen, L.; Kumar, A.J.; Schellingerhout, D.; Wang, J.

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data has traditionally been displayed as a gray scale functional anisotropy map (GSFM) or color coded orientation map (CCOM). These methods use black and white or color with intensity values to map the complex multidimensional DTI data to a two-dimensional image. Alternative visualization techniques, such as V m ax maps utilize enhanced graphical representation of the principal eigenvector by means of a headless arrow on regular non stereoscopic (VM) or stereoscopic display (VMS). A survey of clinical utility of patients with intracranial neoplasms was carried out by 8 neuro radiologists using traditional and nontraditional methods of DTI display. Pairwise comparison studies of 5 intracranial neoplasms were performed with a structured questionnaire comparing GSFM, CCOM, VM, and VMS. Six of 8 neuro radiologists favored V m ax maps over traditional methods of display (GSFM and CCOM). When comparing the stereoscopic (VMS) and the non-stereoscopic (VM) modes, 4 favored VMS, 2 favored VM, and 2 had no preference. In conclusion, processing and visualizing DTI data stereoscopically is technically feasible. An initial survey of users indicated that V m ax based display methodology with or without stereoscopic visualization seems to be preferred over traditional methods to display DTI data.

  6. Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jack T; Joyner, Ken H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles.

  7. Experimental dosimetry in conformal breast teletherapy compared with the planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Luciana Batista; Silva, Hugo Leonardo Lemos; Passos Ribeiro de Campos, Tarcísio

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare and analyse the absorbed dose profiles from the conformal radiotherapy planning and experimental dosimetry taken in a breast anthropomorphic and anthropometric phantom. Conformal radiotherapy planning was elaborated in the Treatment Planning System (TPS). EBT2 Gafchromic radiochromic films were applied as dosimeters, positioned internally and superficially in the breast phantom. The standard radiation protocol was applied in the breast phantom. The films were digitalised, and their responses were analysed in RGB. The optical densities were processed, reproducing the spatial dose distribution. - Highlights: • Distributions of absorbed doses were generated by the TPS and measured by radiochromic films. • The breast phantom simulated a human breast in position for treatment. • A large portion of the glandular tissue absorbed doses that were equivalent to the radiotherapy planning. • There were regions of hot spots and small areas of under dosage in deeper areas at the lung interface

  8. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. We compared 148 MSM aged 18-64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010-2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%-95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Men who have sex with men in Great Britain: comparing methods and estimates from probability and convenience sample surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, Philip; Hickson, Ford; Bonell, Chris; McDaid, Lisa M; Johnson, Anne M; Wayal, Sonali; Clifton, Soazig; Sonnenberg, Pam; Nardone, Anthony; Erens, Bob; Copas, Andrew J; Riddell, Julie; Weatherburn, Peter; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine sociodemographic and behavioural differences between men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in recent UK convenience surveys and a national probability sample survey. Methods We compared 148 MSM aged 18–64 years interviewed for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) undertaken in 2010–2012, with men in the same age range participating in contemporaneous convenience surveys of MSM: 15 500 British resident men in the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS); 797 in the London Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey; and 1234 in Scotland's Gay Men's Sexual Health Survey. Analyses compared men reporting at least one male sexual partner (past year) on similarly worded questions and multivariable analyses accounted for sociodemographic differences between the surveys. Results MSM in convenience surveys were younger and better educated than MSM in Natsal-3, and a larger proportion identified as gay (85%–95% vs 62%). Partner numbers were higher and same-sex anal sex more common in convenience surveys. Unprotected anal intercourse was more commonly reported in EMIS. Compared with Natsal-3, MSM in convenience surveys were more likely to report gonorrhoea diagnoses and HIV testing (both past year). Differences between the samples were reduced when restricting analysis to gay-identifying MSM. Conclusions National probability surveys better reflect the population of MSM but are limited by their smaller samples of MSM. Convenience surveys recruit larger samples of MSM but tend to over-represent MSM identifying as gay and reporting more sexual risk behaviours. Because both sampling strategies have strengths and weaknesses, methods are needed to triangulate data from probability and convenience surveys. PMID:26965869

  10. Dynamics tromal hydration during phacoemulsification: a comparative study with experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Özyol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To present a different approach called dynamic stromal hydration. Though common, conventional hydration technique should be standardized to ascertain wound integrity at the time of stromal hydration during cataract surgery. No explicit criteria exist to suggest that hydration of wound edges is adequate. METHODS: This study was designed as prospective, randomized, comparative study. Leakage sites were detected by continuous irrigation. At that point, stromal hydration was performed in consideration of the leakage points. The wound edges were hydrated until no further leakage could be visually detected. Trypan blue 0.0125% was applied over the wound sites, and each wound was individually observed for leakage. On the day after surgery, Seidel's test was performed to assess wound integrity.RESULTS: All 120 eyes in the experimental group were evaluated, including all 360 wound sites-120 left side ports, 120 right side ports, and 120 main incisions-as were all 120 eyes in the control group. Though the dye test revealed leakage of aqueous humour from only 29 wound sites of 22 eyes(8.0% of 360 woundsin the experimental group, leakage appeared in 41 wound sites of 30 eyes(11.3% of 360 woundsin the control group. When groups were compared in terms of leakage, the difference was statistically different(P=0.042.CONCLUSION: Dynamic stromal hydration-meaning standardized conventional stromal hydration-is a direct observational technique that allows the easy evaluation of wound integrity at the time of stromal hydration by way of observing wound dynamics.

  11. Comparative performance of three experimental hut designs for measuring malaria vector responses to insecticides in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massue, Dennis J; Kisinza, William N; Malongo, Bernard B; Mgaya, Charles S; Bradley, John; Moore, Jason D; Tenu, Filemoni F; Moore, Sarah J

    2016-03-15

    Experimental huts are simplified, standardized representations of human habitations that provide model systems to evaluate insecticides used in indoor residual spray (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to kill disease vectors. Hut volume, construction materials and size of entry points impact mosquito entry and exposure to insecticides. The performance of three standard experimental hut designs was compared to evaluate insecticide used in LLINs. Field studies were conducted at the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) testing site in Muheza, Tanzania. Three East African huts, three West African huts, and three Ifakara huts were compared using Olyset(®) and Permanet 2.0(®) versus untreated nets as a control. Outcomes measured were mortality, induced exophily (exit rate), blood feeding inhibition and deterrence (entry rate). Data were analysed using linear mixed effect regression and Bland-Altman comparison of paired differences. A total of 613 mosquitoes were collected in 36 nights, of which 13.5% were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato, 21% Anopheles funestus sensu stricto, 38% Mansonia species and 28% Culex species. Ifakara huts caught three times more mosquitoes than the East African and West African huts, while the West African huts caught significantly fewer mosquitoes than the other hut types. Mosquito densities were low, very little mosquito exit was measured in any of the huts with no measurable exophily caused by the use of either Olyset or Permanet. When the huts were directly compared, the West African huts measured greater exophily than other huts. As unholed nets were used in the experiments and few mosquitoes were captured, it was not possible to measure difference in feeding success either between treatments or hut types. In each of the hut types there was increased mortality when Permanet or Olyset were present inside the huts compared to the control, however this did not vary between the hut types. Both East African

  12. Changing patient safety culture in China: a case study of an experimental Chinese hospital from a comparative perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yong Hong; Ng, Chui Shan; Cai, Xiao; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Xin Shi; Ke, Dong Ge; Yu, Qian Hui; Chan, Chi Kuen

    2018-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization highlights that patient safety interventions are not lacking but that the local context affects their successful implementation. Increasing attention is being paid to patient safety in Mainland China, yet few studies focus on patient safety in organizations with mixed cultures. This paper evaluates the current patient safety culture in an experimental Chinese hospital with a Hong Kong hospital management culture, and it aims to explore the application of Hong Kong’s patient safety strategies in the context of Mainland China. Methods A quantitative survey of 307 hospital staff members was conducted using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. The findings were compared with a similar study on general Chinese hospitals and were appraised with reference to the Manchester Patient Safety Framework. Results Lower scores were observed among participants with the following characteristics: males, doctors, those with more work experience, those with higher education, and those from the general practice and otolaryngology departments. However, the case study hospital achieved better scores in management expectations, actions and support for patient safety, incident reporting and communication, and teamwork within units. Its weaknesses were related to non-punitive responses to errors, teamwork across units, and staffing. Conclusions The case study hospital contributes to a changing patient safety culture in Mainland China, yet its patient safety culture remains mostly bureaucratic. Further efforts could be made to deepen the staff’s patient safety culture mind-set, to realize a “bottom-up” approach to cultural change, to build up a comprehensive and integrated incident management system, and to improve team building and staffing for patient safety. PMID:29750061

  13. Changing patient safety culture in China: a case study of an experimental Chinese hospital from a comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu XP

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Ping Xu,* Dong Ning Deng,* Yong Hong Gu, Chui Shan Ng, Xiao Cai, Jun Xu, Xin Shi Zhang, Dong Ge Ke, Qian Hui Yu, Chi Kuen Chan Clinical Service Department, The University of Hong Kong - Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The World Health Organization highlights that patient safety interventions are not lacking but that the local context affects their successful implementation. Increasing attention is being paid to patient safety in Mainland China, yet few studies focus on patient safety in organizations with mixed cultures. This paper evaluates the current patient safety culture in an experimental Chinese hospital with a Hong Kong hospital management culture, and it aims to explore the application of Hong Kong’s patient safety strategies in the context of Mainland China. Methods: A quantitative survey of 307 hospital staff members was conducted using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. The findings were compared with a similar study on general Chinese hospitals and were appraised with reference to the Manchester Patient Safety Framework. Results: Lower scores were observed among participants with the following characteristics: males, doctors, those with more work experience, those with higher education, and those from the general practice and otolaryngology departments. However, the case study hospital achieved better scores in management expectations, actions and support for patient safety, incident reporting and communication, and teamwork within units. Its weaknesses were related to non-punitive responses to errors, teamwork across units, and staffing. Conclusions: The case study hospital contributes to a changing patient safety culture in Mainland China, yet its patient safety culture remains mostly bureaucratic. Further efforts could be made to deepen the staff’s patient safety culture mind-set, to realize a

  14. Acoustic emissions of a boiling liquid - an experimental survey in water and extrapolation to SFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderhaegen, M.; Paumel, K.; Tourin, A.

    2013-06-01

    The acoustic detection of sodium boiling is seen as a promising and innovative surveillance technique for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). It could be especially useful to detect in-core boiling that are the consequence of initiating accidents or whilst the mean subassembly temperature is very close to the nominal value. This latter is a consequence of the fuel assembly design of SFRs. Furthermore, it is a technique that has been proven to be successful in the past to follow the boiling behavior during SFR experiments that were aimed at simulating accidental conditions. However its effectiveness as in-core instrumentation still has to be demonstrated. In that aim, the acoustic emissions of sodium boiling in subassemblies are studied. Experimental studies are however limited to the boiling of common coolants due to the complications that arise when boiling liquid metals. As such, simple water experiments are performed. And although the results of these experiments are not completely representative for sodium boiling due to the incomplete thermo-hydraulic similarities between sodium and water, they can provide an interesting knowledge of the many influences that control the acoustic pressure field. In this article we'll specifically show how the condensation of vapor in subcooled liquid, the principal contribution to the acoustic emissions during boiling and hence the acoustic spectrum, is influenced by a pin-bundle geometry. We study this influence by comparing pool boiling experimental acoustic recordings with those of a simple pin-bundle geometry boiling experiment. The qualitative link, between this relatively simple pin-bundle experiment and the condensation phenomena that take place during sodium boiling inside SFR subassemblies, is used as a basis for this analysis. This simple experimental evidence, together with other theoretical arguments based on a thorough analysis of the sodium material properties, enables us to deduce that simple sodium

  15. Benchmarking surgeon satisfaction at academic health centers: a nationwide comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachman, D A

    1996-01-01

    Forty-six academic health centers (AHCs) belonging to the University HealthSystem consortium joined forces to compare the efficiency of their surgical services and to identify best practices. In addition to measures of operational performance, surgeon satisfaction with the surgical services provided was measured by using a standardized questionnaire. From hospital records, indicators of the efficiency of surgical services were collected in three main areas: scheduling, preoperative testing and assessment, and the intraoperative process. Responding to a mail questionnaire, a sample of surgeons rated their satisfaction with key aspects of surgical services including scheduling, operating room staff, and equipment/supplies. On the basis of a review of the operational measures and the survey results, high performers were identified. Site visits were made to several of these high performers to uncover the critical factors responsible for their success. The survey revealed distinct variations in surgeon satisfaction across the participating institutions. Numerical benchmarks were obtained for surgeon satisfaction with each key component of surgical services. Scheduling was the most important component of overall surgeon satisfaction, explaining 71% of the variance in the rating of overall satisfaction with surgical services. High operational efficiency and high surgeon satisfaction were not incompatible. Several of the participating institutions were able to achieve both. These results were disseminated to all of the participants at a national meeting as well as in written form. The surgeon satisfaction survey allowed the participants to establish benchmarks for surgeon satisfaction for each key component of the surgical services they receive. The site visits revealed several common characteristics of highly efficient surgical services. Taken by themselves, the participating institutions might have been reluctant to consider adopting these best practices for fear of

  16. High road utilizers surveys compared to police data for road traffic crash hotspot localization in Rwanda and Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Catherine A; De Silva, Vijitha; Krebs, Elizabeth; Andrade, Luciano; Rulisa, Stephen; Mallawaarachchi, Badra Chandanie; Jin, Kezhi; RicardoVissoci, Joao; Østbye, Truls

    2016-01-20

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a leading cause of death. In low and middle income countries (LMIC) data to conduct hotspot analyses and safety audits are usually incomplete, poor quality, and not computerized. Police data are often limited, but there are no alternative gold standards. This project evaluates high road utilizer surveys as an alternative to police data to identify RTC hotspots. Retrospective police RTC data was compared to prospective data from high road utilizer surveys regarding dangerous road locations. Spatial analysis using geographic information systems was used to map dangerous locations and identify RTC hotspots. We assessed agreement (Cohen's Kappa), sensitivity/specificity, and cost differences. In Rwanda police data identified 1866 RTC locations from 2589 records while surveys identified 1264 locations from 602 surveys. In Sri Lanka, police data identified 721 RTC locations from 752 records while survey data found 3000 locations from 300 surveys. There was high agreement (97 %, 83 %) and kappa (0.60, 0.60) for Rwanda and Sri Lanka respectively. Sensitivity and specificity are 92 % and 95 % for Rwanda and 74 % and 93 % for Sri Lanka. The cost per crash location identified was $2.88 for police and $2.75 for survey data in Rwanda and $2.75 for police and $1.21 for survey data in Sri Lanka. Surveys to locate RTC hotspots have high sensitivity and specificity compared to police data. Therefore, surveys can be a viable, inexpensive, and rapid alternative to the use of police data in LMIC.

  17. A qualitative comparative survey of First Cycle radiography programmes in Europe and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tatsuhito; Caruana, Carmel J.; Shimosegawa, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To qualitatively compare First Cycle Radiography programmes in Europe and Japan. Methods: This qualitative survey was conducted via a series of case-studies of university-based radiography curricula in Europe and Japan. Findings and conclusions: The main themes arising from the survey were that: (a) in Europe the freedom that most universities have in setting their own curricula and examinations means that in practice there is still a wide variability in curricula between and within states. On the other hand in Japan curricula are more uniform owing to central government guidelines regarding radiography education and a centrally administered national radiography examination. This means that student and worker mobility is much easier for Japanese radiographers. (b) in some countries in Europe principles of reporting and healthcare management are being expanded at the expense of the more technological aspects of radiography. Physical science competences on the other hand are considered highly in Japanese culture and form a major part of the curriculum. This may indicate that Japanese students would be in a much better position to cope with role developments linked to changes in imaging technology. Pragmatically oriented studies need to be carried out to determine ways in which radiographers can enhance their role without sacrificing their technological competences. The profession cannot afford to lose its technological expertise - it is neither in the interest of the profession itself and even less of the patient.

  18. A preliminary survey of M. hyopneumoniae virulence factors based on comparative genomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Bunselmeyer Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP, a major problem for the pig industry. The mechanisms of M. hyopneumoniae pathogenicity allow to predict the existence of several classes of virulence factors, whose study has been essentially restricted to the characterization of adhesion-related and major antigenic proteins. The now available complete sequences of the genomes of two pathogenic and one non-pathogenic strain of M. hyopneumoniae allowed to use a comparative genomics approach to putatively identify virulence genes. In this preliminary survey, we were able to identify 118 CDSs encoding putative virulence factors, based on specific criteria ranging from predicted cell surface location or variation between strains to previous functional studies showing antigenicity or involvement in host-pathogen interaction. This survey is expected to serve as a first step towards the functional characterization of new virulence genes/proteins that will be important not only for a better comprehension of M. hyopneumoniae biology, but also for the development of new and improved protocols for PEP vaccination, diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Comparative numerical and experimental study of two combined wind and wave energy concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a successful and rapid development of offshore wind industry and increased research activities on wave energy conversion in recent years, there is an interest in investigating the technological and economic feasibility of combining offshore wind turbines (WTs with wave energy converters (WECs. In the EU FP7 MARINA Platform project, three floating combined concepts, namely the spar torus combination (STC, the semi-submersible flap combination (SFC and the oscillating water column (OWC array with a wind turbine, were selected and studied in detail by numerical and experimental methods. This paper summarizes the numerical modeling and analysis of the two concepts: STC and SFC, the model tests at a 1:50 scale under simultaneous wave and wind excitation, as well as the comparison between the numerical and experimental results. Both operational and survival wind and wave conditions were considered. The numerical analysis was based on a time-domain global model using potential flow theory for hydrodynamics and blade element momentum theory (for SFC or simplified thrust force model (for STC for aerodynamics. Different techniques for model testing of combined wind and wave concepts were discussed with focus on modeling of wind turbines by disk or redesigned small-scale rotor and modeling of power take-off (PTO system for wave energy conversion by pneumatic damper or hydraulic rotary damper. In order to reduce the uncertainty due to scaling, the numerical analysis was performed at model scale and both the numerical and experimental results were then up-scaled to full scale for comparison. The comparison shows that the current numerical model can well predict the responses (motions, PTO forces, power production of the combined concepts for most of the cases. However, the linear hydrodynamic model is not adequate for the STC concept in extreme wave conditions with the torus fixed to the spar at the mean water level for which the wave slamming on the

  20. Comparing LiDAR-Generated to ground- surveyed channel cross-sectional profiles in a forested mountain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. Dietterick; Russell White; Ryan Hilburn

    2012-01-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) holds promise to provide an alternative to traditional ground-based survey methods for stream channel characterization and some change detection purposes, even under challenging landscape conditions. This study compared channel characteristics measured at 53 ground-surveyed and LiDAR-derived crosssectional profiles located...

  1. Use of models in large-area forest surveys: comparing model-assisted, model-based and hybrid estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran Stahl; Svetlana Saarela; Sebastian Schnell; Soren Holm; Johannes Breidenbach; Sean P. Healey; Paul L. Patterson; Steen Magnussen; Erik Naesset; Ronald E. McRoberts; Timothy G. Gregoire

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of models for increasing the precision of estimators in large-area forest surveys. It is motivated by the increasing availability of remotely sensed data, which facilitates the development of models predicting the variables of interest in forest surveys. We present, review and compare three different estimation frameworks where...

  2. Severity of chronic Lyme disease compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Johnson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Overview. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC health-related quality of life (HRQoL indicators are widely used in the general population to determine the burden of disease, identify health needs, and direct public health policy. These indicators also allow the burden of illness to be compared across different diseases. Although Lyme disease has recently been acknowledged as a major health threat in the USA with more than 300,000 new cases per year, no comprehensive assessment of the health burden of this tickborne disease is available. This study assesses the HRQoL of patients with chronic Lyme disease (CLD and compares the severity of CLD to other chronic conditions.Methods. Of 5,357 subjects who responded to an online survey, 3,090 were selected for the study. Respondents were characterized as having CLD if they were clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease and had persisting symptoms lasting more than 6 months following antibiotic treatment. HRQoL of CLD patients was assessed using the CDC 9-item metric. The HRQoL analysis for CLD was compared to published analyses for the general population and other chronic illnesses using standard statistical methods.Results. Compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases reviewed here, patients with CLD reported significantly lower health quality status, more bad mental and physical health days, a significant symptom disease burden, and greater activity limitations. They also reported impairment in their ability to work, increased utilization of healthcare services, and greater out of pocket medical costs.Conclusions. CLD patients have significantly impaired HRQoL and greater healthcare utilization compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. The heavy burden of illness associated with CLD highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and innovative treatment approaches that may reduce the burden of illness and concomitant costs posed

  3. Severity of chronic Lyme disease compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lorraine; Wilcox, Spencer; Mankoff, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Overview. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) health-related quality of life (HRQoL) indicators are widely used in the general population to determine the burden of disease, identify health needs, and direct public health policy. These indicators also allow the burden of illness to be compared across different diseases. Although Lyme disease has recently been acknowledged as a major health threat in the USA with more than 300,000 new cases per year, no comprehensive assessment of the health burden of this tickborne disease is available. This study assesses the HRQoL of patients with chronic Lyme disease (CLD) and compares the severity of CLD to other chronic conditions. Methods. Of 5,357 subjects who responded to an online survey, 3,090 were selected for the study. Respondents were characterized as having CLD if they were clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease and had persisting symptoms lasting more than 6 months following antibiotic treatment. HRQoL of CLD patients was assessed using the CDC 9-item metric. The HRQoL analysis for CLD was compared to published analyses for the general population and other chronic illnesses using standard statistical methods. Results. Compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases reviewed here, patients with CLD reported significantly lower health quality status, more bad mental and physical health days, a significant symptom disease burden, and greater activity limitations. They also reported impairment in their ability to work, increased utilization of healthcare services, and greater out of pocket medical costs. Conclusions. CLD patients have significantly impaired HRQoL and greater healthcare utilization compared to the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. The heavy burden of illness associated with CLD highlights the need for earlier diagnosis and innovative treatment approaches that may reduce the burden of illness and concomitant costs posed by this

  4. Vector analysis as a fast and easy method to compare gene expression responses between different experimental backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breitling, R.; Armengaud, P.; Amtmann, A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Gene expression studies increasingly compare expression responses between different experimental backgrounds (genetic, physiological, or phylogenetic). By focusing on dynamic responses rather than a direct comparison of static expression levels, this type of study allows a finer

  5. Sacroiliac joint pain: Prospective, randomised, experimental and comparative study of thermal radiofrequency with sacroiliac joint block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas Martínez, L; Orduña Valls, J; Paramés Mosquera, E; Lamelas Rodríguez, L; Rojas Gil, S; Domínguez García, M

    2016-05-01

    To compare the analgesic effects between the blockade and bipolar thermal radiofrequency in the treatment of sacroiliac joint pain. Prospective, randomised and experimental study conducted on 60 patients selected in the two hospitals over a period of nine months, who had intense sacroiliac joint pain (Visual Analogue Scale [VAS]>6) that lasted more than 3 months. Patients were randomised into three groups (n=20): Group A (two intra-articular sacroiliac injections of local anaesthetic/corticosteroid guided by ultrasound in 7 days). Group B: conventional bipolar radiofrequency "palisade". Target points were the lateral branch nerves of S1, S2, and S3, distance needles 1cm. Group C: modified bipolar radiofrequency "palisade" (needle distance >1cm). Patients were evaluated at one month, three months, and one year. Demographic data, VAS reduction, and side effects of the techniques were assessed. One month after the treatment, pain reduction was >50% in the three groups PDolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Modified method for bronchial suture by Ramirez Gama compared to separate stitches suture: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Mayer de Moura

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To experimentally compare two classic techniques described for manual suture of the bronchial stump. METHODS: We used organs of pigs, with isolated trachea and lungs, preserved by refrigeration. We dissected 30 bronchi, which were divided into three groups of ten bronchi each, of 3mm, 5mm, and 7mm, respectively. In each, we performed the suture with simple, separated, extramucosal stitches in five other bronchi, and the technique proposed by Ramirez and modified by Santos et al in the other five. Once the sutures were finished, the anastomoses were tested using compressed air ventilation, applying an endotracheal pressure of 20mmHg. RESULTS: the Ramirez Gama suture was more effective in the bronchi of 3, 5 and 7 mm, and there was no air leak even after subjecting them to a tracheal pressure of 20mmHg. The simple interrupted sutures were less effective, with extravasation in six of the 15 tested bronchi, especially in the angles of the sutures. These figures were not significant (p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: manual sutures of the bronchial stumps were more effective when the modified Ramirez Gama suture was used in the caliber bronchi arms when tested with increased endotracheal pressure.

  7. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Ameliorated FCA-Induced Experimental Arthritis: A Comparative Study among Different Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroos, Maliha; Sattar, Shumaila; Umer, Nigarish; Sharif, Ahsan

    2017-01-01

    Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (NAT) is commonly used traditionally for the treatment of rheumatism and inflammatory diseases. Current study evaluates the antiarthritic potential of NAT using Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model. Treatments with methanolic, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts were continued for consecutive 20 days. Macroscopic arthritic scoring and water displacement plethysmometry were used to evaluate arthritic development. Hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated and ankle joints were processed for histopathological evaluation. Qualitative phytochemical analysis and GC-MS analysis were conducted for identification of constituents. NAT extracts suppressed arthritic scoring, paw edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells, pannus formation, and bone erosion. The plant extracts ameliorated total leukocytes and platelet counts and nearly normalized red blood cells (RBC) counts and hemoglobin (Hb) content. The extracts were found safe in terms of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity as determined by aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and urea levels. Comparative analysis showed that ethyl acetate extract produced the highest inhibition of paw edema. The major constituents found in ethyl acetate extract can be classified into three major classes, that is, terpenes, terpenoids, fatty acids, and iridoid glycosides. Current study showed that Nyctanthes arbor-tristis ameliorated experimental rheumatoid arthritis and ethyl acetate extract possessed the highest inhibitory activity. PMID:28676830

  8. An experimental comparative study of radiography, ultrasonography and CT imaging in the IV catheter fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect the fragments generated during IV (intravenous) catheter injection of contrast medium and drug administration in a clinical setting and removal was performed by experimentally producing a phantom, and to compare the radiography, ultrasonography, and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging and radiation dose. A 1 cm fragment of an 18 gage Teflon® IV catheter with saline was inserted into the IV control line. Radiography, CT, and ultrasonography were performed and radiography and CT dose were calculated. CT and ultrasonography showed an IV catheter fragment clinically and radiography showed no visible difference in the ability to provide a useful image of an IV catheter fragment modality (p >.05). Radiography of effective dose (0.2139 mSv·Gy-1·cm-2) form DAP DAP (0.93 μGy·m2 ), and dose length product (DLP) (201 mGy·cm) to effective dose was calculated as 0.483 mSv. IV catheter fragment were detected of radiography, ultrasonography and CT. These results can be obtained by menas of an excellent IV catheter fragment of detection capability CT. However, CT is followed by radiation exposure. IV catheter fragment confirming the position and information recommend an ultrasonography

  9. Innovativeness as an emergent property: a new alignment of comparative and experimental research on animal innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Andrea S

    2016-03-19

    Innovation and creativity are key defining features of human societies. As we face the global challenges of the twenty-first century, they are also facets upon which we must become increasingly reliant. But what makes Homo sapiens so innovative and where does our high innovation propensity come from? Comparative research on innovativeness in non-human animals allows us to peer back through evolutionary time and investigate the ecological factors that drove the evolution of innovativeness, whereas experimental research identifies and manipulates underpinning creative processes. In commenting on the present theme issue, I highlight the controversies that have typified this research field and show how a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about innovativeness will contribute to resolving these tensions. In the past decade, innovativeness has been considered by many as a trait, a direct product of cognition, and a direct target of selection. The evidence I review here suggests that innovativeness will be hereon viewed as one component, or even an emergent property of a larger array of traits, which have evolved to deal with environmental variation. I illustrate how research should capitalize on taxonomic diversity to unravel the full range of psychological processes that underpin innovativeness in non-human animals. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Power of tests for comparing trend curves with application to national immunization survey (NIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen

    2011-02-28

    To develop statistical tests for comparing trend curves of study outcomes between two socio-demographic strata across consecutive time points, and compare statistical power of the proposed tests under different trend curves data, three statistical tests were proposed. For large sample size with independent normal assumption among strata and across consecutive time points, the Z and Chi-square test statistics were developed, which are functions of outcome estimates and the standard errors at each of the study time points for the two strata. For small sample size with independent normal assumption, the F-test statistic was generated, which is a function of sample size of the two strata and estimated parameters across study period. If two trend curves are approximately parallel, the power of Z-test is consistently higher than that of both Chi-square and F-test. If two trend curves cross at low interaction, the power of Z-test is higher than or equal to the power of both Chi-square and F-test; however, at high interaction, the powers of Chi-square and F-test are higher than that of Z-test. The measurement of interaction of two trend curves was defined. These tests were applied to the comparison of trend curves of vaccination coverage estimates of standard vaccine series with National Immunization Survey (NIS) 2000-2007 data. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Abiotic nitrate and sulphate reduction by hydrogen: a comparative experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truche, L.; Berger, G.; Albrecht, A.; Giffaut, E.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The bituminous waste which is part of the intermediate level, long-lived waste (MAVL) is characterised, amongst others, by the coexistence of nitrates, sulphates, organic matter, native metals and hydrogen gas in the waste mixture and package. It can be considered as the most complex example that will be used to discuss redox reactions occurring in such waste mixtures. The evaluation of the redox conditions requires quantification of the amount of electron acceptors and donors and definition of the kinetics of redox reaction. The objectives of an experimental study to unravel some of these reaction complexities are: - to investigate nature and rate of sulphate and nitrate reduction by hydrogen in the presence of different catalysts (stainless steel, hastelloy, magnetite and argillite); - to compare sulphate and nitrate as electron acceptors; - to provide a mechanistic model of these reactions. It is well known that reduction of sulphate and nitrate requires high activation energies, usually supplied either by thermal processes or via bacterial and surface catalysis, of which the latter has been investigated in this study. Preliminary experiments performed at 150 deg. C and under H 2 pressure show that sulphate reduction is enhanced in the presence of magnetite, but essentially under the restricted condition of low sulphate concentration and at a pH below the Point of Zero Charge of magnetite. This suggests that sorption of sulphate contributes to the catalysed reaction (at low pH) but provided that the magnetite surface sites are not saturated with respect to aqueous sulphate (low concentration). On the contrary, nitrate reduction is observed whatever the pH and the nitrate concentration in the presence of both magnetite and hastelloy C276 (Ni, Cr, Mo, W, Fe alloy). The effect of temperature on the rate of nitrate reduction (500 ppm KNO 3 solution) is shown by comparing three different experiments conducted in

  12. A comparative survey of the impacts of extreme rainfall in two international case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spekkers, Matthieu; Rözer, Viktor; Thieken, Annegret; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; Kreibich, Heidi

    2017-08-01

    Flooding is assessed as the most important natural hazard in Europe, causing thousands of deaths, affecting millions of people and accounting for large economic losses in the past decade. Little is known about the damage processes associated with extreme rainfall in cities, due to a lack of accurate, comparable and consistent damage data. The objective of this study is to investigate the impacts of extreme rainfall on residential buildings and how affected households coped with these impacts in terms of precautionary and emergency actions. Analyses are based on a unique dataset of damage characteristics and a wide range of potential damage explaining variables at the household level, collected through computer-aided telephone interviews (CATI) and an online survey. Exploratory data analyses based on a total of 859 completed questionnaires in the cities of Münster (Germany) and Amsterdam (the Netherlands) revealed that the uptake of emergency measures is related to characteristics of the hazardous event. In case of high water levels, more efforts are made to reduce damage, while emergency response that aims to prevent damage is less likely to be effective. The difference in magnitude of the events in Münster and Amsterdam, in terms of rainfall intensity and water depth, is probably also the most important cause for the differences between the cities in terms of the suffered financial losses. Factors that significantly contributed to damage in at least one of the case studies are water contamination, the presence of a basement in the building and people's awareness of the upcoming event. Moreover, this study confirms conclusions by previous studies that people's experience with damaging events positively correlates with precautionary behaviour. For improving future damage data acquisition, we recommend the inclusion of cell phones in a CATI survey to avoid biased sampling towards certain age groups.

  13. Health literacy in Europe: comparative results of the European health literacy survey (HLS-EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Röthlin, Florian; Ganahl, Kristin; Slonska, Zofia; Doyle, Gerardine; Fullam, James; Kondilis, Barbara; Agrafiotis, Demosthenes; Uiters, Ellen; Falcon, Maria; Mensing, Monika; Tchamov, Kancho; van den Broucke, Stephan; Brand, Helmut

    2015-12-01

    Health literacy concerns the capacities of people to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. In spite of the growing attention for the concept among European health policymakers, researchers and practitioners, information about the status of health literacy in Europe remains scarce. This article presents selected findings from the first European comparative survey on health literacy in populations. The European health literacy survey (HLS-EU) was conducted in eight countries: Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain (n = 1000 per country, n = 8000 total sample). Data collection was based on Eurobarometer standards and the implementation of the HLS-EU-Q (questionnaire) in computer-assisted or paper-assisted personal interviews. The HLS-EU-Q constructed four levels of health literacy: insufficient, problematic, sufficient and excellent. At least 1 in 10 (12%) respondents showed insufficient health literacy and almost 1 in 2 (47%) had limited (insufficient or problematic) health literacy. However, the distribution of levels differed substantially across countries (29-62%). Subgroups within the population, defined by financial deprivation, low social status, low education or old age, had higher proportions of people with limited health literacy, suggesting the presence of a social gradient which was also confirmed by raw bivariate correlations and a multivariate linear regression model. Limited health literacy represents an important challenge for health policies and practices across Europe, but to a different degree for different countries. The social gradient in health literacy must be taken into account when developing public health strategies to improve health equity in Europe. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  14. Containment accident analysis using CONTEMPT4/M0D2 compared with experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, L.J.; Hargroves, D.W.; Wells, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    CONTEMPT4/MOD2 is a new computer program developed to predict the long-term thermal hydraulic behavior of light-water reactor and experimental containment systems during postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. Improvements over previous containment codes include multicompartment capability and ice condenser analytical models. A program description and comparisons of calculated results with experimental data are presented

  15. Enveloping bioabsorbable polyglycolide membrane and immobilization in Achilles tendon repair: A comparative experimental study on rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlajamäki, Harri; Tynninen, Olli; Karjalainen, Pertti; Rokkanen, Pentti

    2008-02-01

    Using qualitative and histoquantitative methods, we investigated the effect of immobilization versus nonimmobilization on the biodegradation process, implant-tissue interaction, and scar formation after enveloping a rejoined rabbit Achilles tendon with a self-reinforced polyglycolide (SR-PGA) membrane. The soleus and gastrocnemius tendons of the right hind legs of 40 rabbits were transected. After suturing the ends, the seam was enveloped with the bioabsorbable membrane. Twenty ankles were immobilized with cast, 20 remained nonimmobilized. All nonoperated left ankles served as intact controls. During the follow-up of 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks, scar formation, tissue response, and membrane biodegradation were studied histologically and histomorphometrically. The amount of scar tissue, highest at 3 weeks, gradually approached intact controls. SR-PGA degradation in both cast and noncast specimens was near complete by 24 weeks. Signs of an inflammatory process were most prominent at 3 weeks and diminished gradually by 24 weeks. No significant difference between cast and noncast specimens was noted at any time point regarding the amount of scar tissue, degradation process of PGA, or intensity of inflammatory reaction. In the present experimental setting, cast immobilization influenced neither scar formation nor speed of degradation during reunion of transected Achilles tendon ends as compared with nonimmobilization. No differences in the reunion process of the tendon ends were seen between the immobilized and nonimmobilized groups. Moreover, inflammatory cells were similar in both groups and reflected a transient tissue reaction to the membrane. Within the follow-up, the seam area (cross-sectional) approached that of intact controls. (c) 2007 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Bursting strength and collagen content changes in esophageal anastomoses. Comparative experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, T; Köves, I; Pandi, E; Németh, T; Kralovánszky, J

    2001-01-01

    The Biofragmentable Anastomosis Ring (BAR) is a mechanical device composed of absorbable material, performs an inverted anastomosis by atraumatic compression. It is a safe method recommended for bowel ends covered by serosal layer. The feasibility for esophageal surgery hasn't been proved. In our study we compared the healing of transsected intrathoracic esophagus anastomosed with BAR versus Stapler on an experimental dog model by evaluating the bursting strength (BS) and collagen (Hydroxyproline (HP)) concentration and content in different sites and defined time points after surgery (4th, 7th, 14th, 28th day). Forty-six mongrel dogs were randomly separated into two groups (28 BAR, 18 Stapler) and parameters of surgical repair evaluated after sacrification on certain days. Although we had a total of 4 leaks (14,3%) only in the BAR group (2 were clinically relevant and fatal), there was no significant difference in the leakage rate between the two groups. BS was significantly higher in the BAR group during the first week with values almost equal from the 14th day, in both groups. BS measurement reflects anastomotic strength only during the first two postoperative weeks. After this rupture is often produced outside the anastomotic line. HP concentration showed no significant differences from samples taken next to and far from the anastomotic line. The HP rate showed a significant reduction in the 4th and 7th day subgroups, and values close to the reference from the 14th day with both techniques. BS and HP changes proved a normal tissue repair with no significant difference, showing that both methods are suitable to perform anastomoses on the intrathoracic esophagus in mongrel dogs. The higher mechanical stability of the BAR anastomosis could suggest the feasibility of the method in conditions where higher mechanical strength is requested.

  17. Cerebral biochemical pathways in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and adjuvant arthritis: a comparative metabolomic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert W Lutz

    Full Text Available Many diseases, including brain disorders, are associated with perturbations of tissue metabolism. However, an often overlooked issue is the impact that inflammations outside the brain may have on brain metabolism. Our main goal was to study similarities and differences between brain metabolite profiles of animals suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE and adjuvant arthritis (AA in Lewis rat models. Our principal objective was the determination of molecular protagonists involved in the metabolism underlying these diseases. EAE was induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA and spinal-cord homogenate (SC-H, whereas AA was induced by CFA only. Naive rats served as controls (n = 9 for each group. Two weeks after inoculation, animals were sacrificed, and brains were removed and processed for metabolomic analysis by NMR spectroscopy or for immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, both inflammatory diseases caused similar, though not identical, changes in metabolites involved in regulation of brain cell size and membrane production: among the osmolytes, taurine and the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate, were decreased, and the astrocyte marker, myo-inositol, slightly increased in both inoculated groups compared with controls. Also ethanolamine-containing phospholipids, sources of inflammatory agents, and several glycolytic metabolites were increased in both inoculated groups. By contrast, the amino acids, aspartate and isoleucine, were less concentrated in CFA/SC-H and control vs. CFA rats. Our results suggest that inflammatory brain metabolite profiles may indicate the existence of either cerebral (EAE or extra-cerebral (AA inflammation. These inflammatory processes may act through distinct pathways that converge toward similar brain metabolic profiles. Our findings open new avenues for future studies aimed at demonstrating whether brain metabolic effects provoked by AA are pain/stress-mediated and

  18. Comparative Experimental Infection Study in Dogs with Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, Anaplasma platys and A. phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Arathy D S; Cheng, Chuanmin; Ganta, Chanran K; Sanderson, Michael W; Alleman, Arthur R; Munderloh, Ulrike G; Ganta, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Dogs acquire infections with the Anaplasmataceae family pathogens, E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum mostly during summer months when ticks are actively feeding on animals. These pathogens are also identified as causing diseases in people. Despite the long history of tick-borne diseases in dogs, much remains to be defined pertaining to the clinical and pathological outcomes of infections with these pathogens. In the current study, we performed experimental infections in dogs with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. Animals were monitored for 42 days to evaluate infection-specific clinical, hematological and pathological differences. All four pathogens caused systemic persistent infections detectible throughout the 6 weeks of infection assessment. Fever was frequently detected in animals infected with E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and A. platys, but not in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum. Hematological differences were evident in all four infected groups, although significant overlap existed between the groups. A marked reduction in packed cell volume that correlated with reduced erythrocytes and hemoglobin was observed only in E. canis infected animals. A decline in platelet numbers was common with E. canis, A. platys and A. phagocytophilum infections. Histopathological lesions in lung, liver and spleen were observed in all four groups of infected dogs; infection with E. canis had the highest pathological scores, followed by E. chaffeensis, then A. platys and A. phagocytophilum. All four pathogens induced IgG responses starting on day 7 post infection, which was predominantly comprised of IgG2 subclass antibodies. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in dogs after inoculation with four pathogens belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family. The study revealed a significant overlap in clinical, hematological and pathological changes resulting from the

  19. Cerebral biochemical pathways in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and adjuvant arthritis: a comparative metabolomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Norbert W; Fernandez, Carla; Pellissier, Jean-François; Cozzone, Patrick J; Béraud, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Many diseases, including brain disorders, are associated with perturbations of tissue metabolism. However, an often overlooked issue is the impact that inflammations outside the brain may have on brain metabolism. Our main goal was to study similarities and differences between brain metabolite profiles of animals suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and adjuvant arthritis (AA) in Lewis rat models. Our principal objective was the determination of molecular protagonists involved in the metabolism underlying these diseases. EAE was induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and spinal-cord homogenate (SC-H), whereas AA was induced by CFA only. Naive rats served as controls (n = 9 for each group). Two weeks after inoculation, animals were sacrificed, and brains were removed and processed for metabolomic analysis by NMR spectroscopy or for immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, both inflammatory diseases caused similar, though not identical, changes in metabolites involved in regulation of brain cell size and membrane production: among the osmolytes, taurine and the neuronal marker, N-acetylaspartate, were decreased, and the astrocyte marker, myo-inositol, slightly increased in both inoculated groups compared with controls. Also ethanolamine-containing phospholipids, sources of inflammatory agents, and several glycolytic metabolites were increased in both inoculated groups. By contrast, the amino acids, aspartate and isoleucine, were less concentrated in CFA/SC-H and control vs. CFA rats. Our results suggest that inflammatory brain metabolite profiles may indicate the existence of either cerebral (EAE) or extra-cerebral (AA) inflammation. These inflammatory processes may act through distinct pathways that converge toward similar brain metabolic profiles. Our findings open new avenues for future studies aimed at demonstrating whether brain metabolic effects provoked by AA are pain/stress-mediated and/or due to the

  20. Experimental critical loadings and control rod worths in LWR-PROTEUS configurations compared with MCNPX results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaschy, M.; Murphy, M.; Jatuff, F.; Seiler, R.; Chawla, R.

    2006-01-01

    The PROTEUS research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) has been operating since the sixties and has already permitted, due to its high flexibility, investigation of a large range of very different nuclear systems. Currently, the ongoing experimental programme is called LWR-PROTEUS. This programme was started in 1997 and concerns large-scale investigations of advanced light water reactors (LWR) fuels. Until now, the different LWR-PROTEUS phases have permitted to study more than fifteen different configurations, each of them having to be demonstrated to be operationally safe, in particular, for the Swiss safety authorities. In this context, recent developments of the PSI computer capabilities have made possible the use of full-scale SD-heterogeneous MCNPX models to calculate accurately different safety related parameters (e.g. the critical driver loading and the shutdown rod worth). The current paper presents the MCNPX predictions of these operational characteristics for seven different LWR-PROTEUS configurations using a large number of nuclear data libraries. More specifically, this significant benchmarking exercise is based on the ENDF/B6v2, ENDF/B6v8, JEF2.2, JEFF3.0, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3 libraries. The results highlight certain library specific trends in the prediction of the multiplication factor k eff (e.g. the systematically larger reactivity calculated with JEF2.2 and the smaller reactivity associated with JEFF3.0). They also confirm the satisfactory determination of reactivity variations by all calculational schemes, for instance, due to the introduction of a safety rod pair, these calculations having been compared with experiments. (authors)

  1. When Does Money Make Money More Important? Survey and Experimental Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sanford E. DeVoe; Jeffrey Pfeffer; Byron Y. Lee

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigate how the amount and source of income affects the importance placed on money. Using a longitudinal analysis of the British Household Panel Survey and evidence from two laboratory experiments, they found that larger amounts of money received for labor were associated with individuals placing greater importance on money; but this effect did not hold for money not related to work. The longitudinal survey analysis demonstrated these differential effects of the source of inco...

  2. Survey of basic medical researchers on the awareness of animal experimental designs and reporting standards in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ma

    Full Text Available To investigate the awareness and use of the Systematic Review Center for Laboratory Animal Experimentation's (SYRCLE risk-of-bias tool, the Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE reporting guidelines, and Gold Standard Publication Checklist (GSPC in China in basic medical researchers of animal experimental studies.A national questionnaire-based survey targeting basic medical researchers was carried in China to investigate the basic information and awareness of SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, ARRIVE guidelines, GSPC, and animal experimental bias risk control factors. The EpiData3.1 software was used for data entry, and Microsoft Excel 2013 was used for statistical analysis in this study. The number of cases (n and percentage (% of classified information were statistically described, and the comparison between groups (i.e., current students vs. research staff was performed using chi-square test.A total of 298 questionnaires were distributed, and 272 responses were received, which included 266 valid questionnaires (from 118 current students and 148 research staff. Among the 266 survey participants, only 15.8% was aware of the SYRCLE's risk of bias tool, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.003, and the awareness rates of ARRIVE guidelines and GSPC were only 9.4% and 9.0%, respectively; 58.6% survey participants believed that the reports of animal experimental studies in Chinese literature were inadequate, with significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.004. In addition, only approximately 1/3 of the survey participants had read systematic reviews and meta-analysis reports of animal experimental studies; only 16/266 (6.0% had carried out/participated in and 11/266 (4.1% had published systematic reviews/meta-analysis of animal experimental studies.The awareness and use rates of SYRCLE's risk-of-bias tool, the ARRIVE guidelines, and the GSPC were low among Chinese basic medical researchers. Therefore

  3. A survey comparing the attitudes toward perinatal bereavement care of nurses from three Asian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Lou, Feng-lan; Arthur, David Gordon

    2010-12-01

    Caring for parents whose infant has died is extremely demanding, difficult, and stressful. In some situations, nurses may experience personal failure, feel helpless, and need to distance themselves from bereaved parents because they are unable to deal with the enormity of the parental feelings of loss. The aim of the study was to describe and compare attitudes toward perinatal bereavement care across a sample of nurses working in five obstetrics and gynecology settings from three Asian cities, as well as the factors associated with these attitudes. A survey was conducted, and 573 nurses were recruited from 2006 to 2007. The data were collected using the perinatal bereavement attitudes scale, which involves an 11-item self-report questionnaire. Nurses' attitudes were mainly positive, but differed across cities, with the attitude of Jinan nurses being significantly more positive than nurses from the other two cities, and the attitude of Hong Kong nurses being significantly the lowest. Positive attitudes were associated with position, and nurses who were well informed of hospital policy and received training for bereavement care were statistically significantly more likely to have a positive attitude toward perinatal bereavement care. Although nurses' attitudes to prenatal bereavement care differ significantly across the three Asian cities, they are generally similar. The differences observed could be related to the wider social, cultural, and organizational circumstances of nursing practice.

  4. A Survey Comparing Delegation of Cosmetic Procedures Between Dermatologists and Nondermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Molly B; Srivastava, Divya; Bernstein, Ira H; Dover, Jeffrey S

    2015-07-01

    How delegation of procedures varies among cosmetic specialties in the United States is not well described. To better describe current practices in delegation of procedures to nonphysicians among physicians of different cosmetic specialties in the United States. An Internet-based survey was administered to physician members of the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery (ASDS), the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS), and the American Society for Laser Medicine and Surgery (ASLMS). A total of 823 responses were collected. Two hundred ninety-one of the 521 dermatologists (55.9%) reported delegating cosmetic procedures compared with 223 of the 302 nondermatologists (73.8%) (p delegation occurred, dermatologists were more likely than nondermatologists to delegate the following procedures to higher level non-physician providers (NPP): chemical peels, neuromodulator and filler injections, laser hair removal, pulsed dye laser, tattoo removal, intense pulsed light, nonablative fractional laser, and sclerotherapy. No difference in delegation rate was noted between dermatologists and non-dermatologist physicians with respect to microdermabrasion, ablative fractional laser, cryolipolysis, radiofrequency skin tightening, focused ultrasound skin tightening, and focused ultrasound fat reduction. Dermatologists delegate procedures to NPP less frequently than non-dermatologist physicians, and when they do, it is typically to higher level NPP.

  5. How empathic are vegan medical professionals compared to others? Leads from a paper-pencil-survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Christian S; Michalsen, Andreas; Holler, Sophie; Murthy, Vijayendra S; Cramer, Holger

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this survey was to examine differences in personality profiles among 198 vegan (n = 64; 32.3%), vegetarian (n = 78; 39.4%) and omnivore (n = 55; 27.8%) medical professionals. Outcomes were motives for the nutritional approaches, WHO QoL-BREF, Big Five SOEP Inventory, Portraits Value Questionnaire, and Empathizing Scale. Regarding motives for particular diets, omnivores rated influence of guardians (p vegans and vegetarians. Vegans and vegetarians consumed less coffee (p = 0.007) and alcohol compared to omnivores (p = 0.017). The duration of adhering to a specific diet was significantly shorter in vegans. Data suggest that vegan medical professionals do not differ from vegetarians or omnivores regarding empathy, values or personality traits. Differences to a related internet sample were observed for a number of outcomes. Given the small sample size and potential selection bias through the specific subpopulation attending a plant-based nutrition conference, further studies are warranted to confirm these results. Particularly, potential reciprocities between empathy and individual nutritional choices deserve further attention.

  6. The POINT-AGAPE Survey: Comparing Automated Searches of Microlensing Events toward M31

    CERN Document Server

    Tsapras, Y; Weston, M J; Kerins, E; Baillon, P; Gould, A; Paulin-Henriksson, S

    2010-01-01

    Searching for microlensing in M31 using automated superpixel surveys raises a number of difficulties which are not present in more conventional techniques. Here we focus on the problem that the list of microlensing candidates is sensitive to the selection criteria or "cuts" imposed and some subjectivity is involved in this. Weakening the cuts will generate a longer list of microlensing candidates but with a greater fraction of spurious ones; strengthening the cuts will produce a shorter list but may exclude some genuine events. We illustrate this by comparing three analyses of the same data-set obtained from a 3-year observing run on the INT in La Palma. The results of two of these analyses have been already reported: Belokurov et al. (2005) obtained between 3 and 22 candidates, depending on the strength of their cuts, while Calchi Novati et al. (2005) obtained 6 candidates. The third analysis is presented here for the first time and reports 10 microlensing candidates, 7 of which are new. Only two of the cand...

  7. National Food Safety Systems in the European Union: A Comparative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hadjigeorgiou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comparative survey of the National Food Safety Systems (NFSS of the European Union (EU Member-States (MS and the Central EU level. The main organizational structures of the NFSS, their legal frameworks, their responsibilities, their experiences, and challenges relating to food safety are discussed. Growing concerns about food safety have led the EU itself, its MS and non-EU countries, which are EU trade-partners, to review and modify their food safety systems. Our study suggests that the EU and 22 out of 27 Member States (MS have reorganized their NFSS by establishing a single food safety authority or a similar organization on the national or central level. In addition, the study analyzes different approaches towards the establishment of such agencies. Areas where marked differences in approaches were seen included the division of responsibilities for risk assessment (RA, risk management (RM, and risk communication (RC. We found that in 12 Member States, all three areas of activity (RA, RM, and RC are kept together, whereas in 10 Member States, risk management is functionally or institutionally separate from risk assessment and risk communication. No single ideal model for others to follow for the organization of a food safety authority was observed; however, revised NFSS, either in EU member states or at the EU central level, may be more effective from the previous arrangements, because they provide central supervision, give priority to food control programs, and maintain comprehensive risk analysis as part of their activities.

  8. Comparative experimental study of cancer induced by ionizing radiations or by chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Animal experiments have contributed to specify a number of parameters used in setting human safety limits for ionizing radiation. In the same way, comparisons have been made between cancers induced in man and in animals in well-defined conditions. In order to use the same experimental data for chemical carcinogens, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis should be the same, i.e. additivity of responses instead of synergy of effects, which requires the development of a new experimental method [fr

  9. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Agnes E; van Winsum-Westra, Marijke; de Vries, Sjerp; van Dillen, Sonja M E

    2010-11-23

    The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP), four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends) and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening and being active, and less towards passive relaxation

  10. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Winsum-Westra Marijke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. Methods A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP, four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. Results After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening

  11. Multimorbidity in Australia: Comparing estimates derived using administrative data sources and survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Lujic

    Full Text Available Estimating multimorbidity (presence of two or more chronic conditions using administrative data is becoming increasingly common. We investigated (1 the concordance of identification of chronic conditions and multimorbidity using self-report survey and administrative datasets; (2 characteristics of people with multimorbidity ascertained using different data sources; and (3 whether the same individuals are classified as multimorbid using different data sources.Baseline survey data for 90,352 participants of the 45 and Up Study-a cohort study of residents of New South Wales, Australia, aged 45 years and over-were linked to prior two-year pharmaceutical claims and hospital admission records. Concordance of eight self-report chronic conditions (reference with claims and hospital data were examined using sensitivity (Sn, positive predictive value (PPV, and kappa (κ.The characteristics of people classified as multimorbid were compared using logistic regression modelling.Agreement was found to be highest for diabetes in both hospital and claims data (κ = 0.79, 0.78; Sn = 79%, 72%; PPV = 86%, 90%. The prevalence of multimorbidity was highest using self-report data (37.4%, followed by claims data (36.1% and hospital data (19.3%. Combining all three datasets identified a total of 46 683 (52% people with multimorbidity, with half of these identified using a single dataset only, and up to 20% identified on all three datasets. Characteristics of persons with and without multimorbidity were generally similar. However, the age gradient was more pronounced and people speaking a language other than English at home were more likely to be identified as multimorbid by administrative data.Different individuals, with different combinations of conditions, are identified as multimorbid when different data sources are used. As such, caution should be applied when ascertaining morbidity from a single data source as the agreement between self-report and administrative

  12. Multimorbidity in Australia: Comparing estimates derived using administrative data sources and survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujic, Sanja; Simpson, Judy M; Zwar, Nicholas; Hosseinzadeh, Hassan; Jorm, Louisa

    2017-01-01

    Estimating multimorbidity (presence of two or more chronic conditions) using administrative data is becoming increasingly common. We investigated (1) the concordance of identification of chronic conditions and multimorbidity using self-report survey and administrative datasets; (2) characteristics of people with multimorbidity ascertained using different data sources; and (3) whether the same individuals are classified as multimorbid using different data sources. Baseline survey data for 90,352 participants of the 45 and Up Study-a cohort study of residents of New South Wales, Australia, aged 45 years and over-were linked to prior two-year pharmaceutical claims and hospital admission records. Concordance of eight self-report chronic conditions (reference) with claims and hospital data were examined using sensitivity (Sn), positive predictive value (PPV), and kappa (κ).The characteristics of people classified as multimorbid were compared using logistic regression modelling. Agreement was found to be highest for diabetes in both hospital and claims data (κ = 0.79, 0.78; Sn = 79%, 72%; PPV = 86%, 90%). The prevalence of multimorbidity was highest using self-report data (37.4%), followed by claims data (36.1%) and hospital data (19.3%). Combining all three datasets identified a total of 46 683 (52%) people with multimorbidity, with half of these identified using a single dataset only, and up to 20% identified on all three datasets. Characteristics of persons with and without multimorbidity were generally similar. However, the age gradient was more pronounced and people speaking a language other than English at home were more likely to be identified as multimorbid by administrative data. Different individuals, with different combinations of conditions, are identified as multimorbid when different data sources are used. As such, caution should be applied when ascertaining morbidity from a single data source as the agreement between self-report and administrative data

  13. Comparing Twitter and Online Panels for Survey Recruitment of E-Cigarette Users and Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie; Kim, Annice; Murphy, Joe; Bradfield, Brian; Nonnemaker, James; Hsieh, Yuli

    2016-11-15

    E-cigarettes have rapidly increased in popularity in recent years, driven, at least in part, by marketing and word-of-mouth discussion on Twitter. Given the rapid proliferation of e-cigarettes, researchers need timely quantitative data from e-cigarette users and smokers who may see e-cigarettes as a cessation tool. Twitter provides an ideal platform for recruiting e-cigarette users and smokers who use Twitter. Online panels offer a second method of accessing this population, but they have been criticized for recruiting too few young adults, among whom e-cigarette use rates are highest. This study compares effectiveness of recruiting Twitter users who are e-cigarette users and smokers who have never used e-cigarettes via Twitter to online panelists provided by Qualtrics and explores how users recruited differ by demographics, e-cigarette use, and social media use. Participants were adults who had ever used e-cigarettes (n=278; male: 57.6%, 160/278; age: mean 34.26, SD 14.16 years) and smokers (n=102; male: 38.2%, 39/102; age: mean 42.80, SD 14.16 years) with public Twitter profiles. Participants were recruited via online panel (n=190) or promoted tweets using keyword targeting for e-cigarette users (n=190). Predictor variables were demographics (age, gender, education, race/ethnicity), e-cigarette use (eg, past 30-day e-cigarette use, e-cigarette puffs per day), social media use behaviors (eg, Twitter use frequency), and days to final survey completion from survey launch for Twitter versus panel. Recruitment method (Twitter, panel) was the dependent variable. Across the total sample, participants were recruited more quickly via Twitter (incidence rate ratio=1.30, P=.02) than panel. Compared with young adult e-cigarette users (age 18-24 years), e-cigarette users aged 25 to 34 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.60, P=.03) and 35 to 44 years (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.00-0.51, P=.02) were more likely to be recruited via Twitter than panel. Smokers aged 35 to 44 years were less

  14. Experimental ComparativeStudy of potential anxiolytic effect of Vitamin C and Buspirone in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Farouk Soliman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety disorders are the most common of all mental health problems. They are more prevalent among women than among men, and they affect children as well as adults. The aim of the current study is to evaluate this problem via an experimental animal model and try to explore its possible mechanisms by studying the effect of Vitamin C compared to Buspirone on anxiety in rats induced by Monosodium Glutamate (MSG. Materials and Methods: 56 healthy adult male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley weighing 200-250 gm were used and divided into 7 groups (8 rats each. The first and the second groups were provided with normal saline and MSG at a dose of (2 mg/g p.o. respectively. The other five groups were given MSG and treated daily in the following way: The third and fourth groups were treated with Vitamin C (100, 200 mg/kg p.o respectively. The fifth group was treated with only Buspirone (10 mg/kg p.o., while the last sixth and seventh groups were given a combination of Buspirone and Vitamin C with (100, 200 mg/kg respectively. After 3 weeks, the open field and successive alleys tests were used to assess behavioral changes. The percentage change of systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured. Additionally, glutathione reductase (GR, malondialdehyde (MDA, and corticosterone levels were determined biochemically. Results: The results after 3 weeks revealed that MSG group showed significant anxiogenic effects in both behavioral tests, with an increased percentage change of SBP in addition to increased malondialdehyde and corticosterone level measured statistically. While the results of the treated groups revealed that the Vitamin C (100mg/kg treated group demonstrated significant improvement in anxiety levels in the open field test, there were no significant changes in the biochemical assessment. However, vitamin C (200mg/kg treated group revealed a significant anxiolytic effect in behavioral tests, improved glutathione and malondialdehyde with low

  15. Comparing Two Inferential Approaches to Handling Measurement Error in Mixed-Mode Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buelens Bart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays sample survey data collection strategies combine web, telephone, face-to-face, or other modes of interviewing in a sequential fashion. Measurement bias of survey estimates of means and totals are composed of different mode-dependent measurement errors as each data collection mode has its own associated measurement error. This article contains an appraisal of two recently proposed methods of inference in this setting. The first is a calibration adjustment to the survey weights so as to balance the survey response to a prespecified distribution of the respondents over the modes. The second is a prediction method that seeks to correct measurements towards a benchmark mode. The two methods are motivated differently but at the same time coincide in some circumstances and agree in terms of required assumptions. The methods are applied to the Labour Force Survey in the Netherlands and are found to provide almost identical estimates of the number of unemployed. Each method has its own specific merits. Both can be applied easily in practice as they do not require additional data collection beyond the regular sequential mixed-mode survey, an attractive element for national statistical institutes and other survey organisations.

  16. An experimental-numerical method for comparative analysis of joint prosthesis; Un metodo numerico-experimental para el analisis comparativo de protesis articulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claramunt, R.; Rincon, E.; Zubizarreta, V.; Ros, A.

    2001-07-01

    The difficulty that exists in the analysis of mechanical stresses in bones is high due to its complex mechanical and morphological characteristics. This complexity makes generalists modelling and conclusions derived from prototype tests very questionable. In this article a relatively simple comparative analysis systematic method that allow us to establish some behaviour differences in different kind of prosthesis is presented. The method, applicable in principle to any joint problem, is based on analysing perturbations produced in natural stress states of a bone after insertion of a joint prosthesis and combines numerical analysis using a 3-D finite element model and experimental studies based on photoelastic coating and electric extensometry. The experimental method is applied to compare two total hip prosthesis cement-free femoral stems of different philosophy. One anatomic of new generation, being of oblique setting over cancellous bone and the other madreporique of trochantero-diaphyseal support over cortical bone. (Author) 4 refs.

  17. Comparing acquired angioedema with hereditary angioedema (types I/II): findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, H J; Zanichelli, A; Caballero, T; Bouillet, L; Aberer, W; Maurer, M; Fain, O; Fabien, V; Andresen, I

    2017-04-01

    Icatibant is used to treat acute hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency types I/II (C1-INH-HAE types I/II) and has shown promise in angioedema due to acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-AAE). Data from the Icatibant Outcome Survey (IOS) were analysed to evaluate the effectiveness of icatibant in the treatment of patients with C1-INH-AAE and compare disease characteristics with those with C1-INH-HAE types I/II. Key medical history (including prior occurrence of attacks) was recorded upon IOS enrolment. Thereafter, data were recorded retrospectively at approximately 6-month intervals during patient follow-up visits. In the icatibant-treated population, 16 patients with C1-INH-AAE had 287 attacks and 415 patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II had 2245 attacks. Patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II were more often male (69 versus 42%; P = 0·035) and had a significantly later mean (95% confidence interval) age of symptom onset [57·9 (51·33-64·53) versus 14·0 (12·70-15·26) years]. Time from symptom onset to diagnosis was significantly shorter in patients with C1-INH-AAE versus C1-INH-HAE types I/II (mean 12·3 months versus 118·1 months; P = 0·006). Patients with C1-INH-AAE showed a trend for higher occurrence of attacks involving the face (35 versus 21% of attacks; P = 0·064). Overall, angioedema attacks were more severe in patients with C1-INH-HAE types I/II versus C1-INH-AAE (61 versus 40% of attacks were classified as severe to very severe; P types I/II, respectively. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  18. Comparing short versions of the AUDIT in a community-based survey of young people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-10) is commonly used to monitor harmful alcohol consumption among high-risk groups, including young people. However, time and space constraints have generated interest for shortened versions. Commonly used variations are the AUDIT-C (three questions) and the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST) (four questions), but their utility in screening young people in non-clinical settings has received little attention. Methods We examined the performance of established and novel shortened versions of the AUDIT in relation to the full AUDIT-10 in a community-based survey of young people (16–29 years) attending a music festival in Melbourne, Australia (January 2010). Among those reporting drinking alcohol in the previous 12 months, the following statistics were systematically assessed for all possible combinations of three or four AUDIT items and established AUDIT variations: Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency), variance explained (R2) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (concurrent validity). For our purposes, novel shortened AUDIT versions considered were required to represent all three AUDIT domains and include item 9 on alcohol-related injury. Results We recruited 640 participants (68% female) reporting drinking in the previous 12 months. Median AUDIT-10 score was 10 in males and 9 in females, and 127 (20%) were classified as having at least high-level alcohol problems according to WHO classification. The FAST scored consistently high across statistical measures; it explained 85.6% of variance in AUDIT-10, correlation with AUDIT-10 was 0.92, and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.66. A number of novel four-item AUDIT variations scored similarly high. Comparatively, the AUDIT-C scored substantially lower on all measures except internal consistency. Conclusions Numerous abbreviated variations of the AUDIT may be a suitable alternative to the AUDIT-10 for classifying high-level alcohol problems in a

  19. Comparative experimental and theoretical investigations of the DM neutron moisture probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Povl Lebeck; Haahr, Vagner

    1967-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of the Danish produced DM subsurface moisture probe have been carried out at the Research Establishment Risö, and the results obtained are presented in this paper. The DM probe contains an Am-Be fast neutron source and has a glass scintillator containing...

  20. Comparing data quality and cost from three modes of on-board transit passenger surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the findings from a research project investigating the relative data quality and administration costs for three : different modes of surveying bus passengers that produce results generalizable to the full passenger population. Th...

  1. Comparing survey and assessment data: Consequences for stock evaluation of Northeast Arctic Greenland halibut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Thomas Albert

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on VPA-estimates of abundance, survey data and commercial catch statistics of Northeast Arctic Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides Walbaum, the paper describes trends by year-class and age in the distribution of Greenland halibut between surveyed and not-surveyed areas. Changes in the distribution of I-group around 1990 to areas beyond the Svalbard surveys has previously been described and related to temperature changes in the Spitsbergen Current. This paper shows that this displaced distribution of the 1989-94 year-classes persisted up to age 7. The results indicate that the displacement was an extraordinary situation and other similar distribution shifts have not occurred during the last 30 years or more. Further, the shift co-occurred with extreme levels of the 137 year long time series of the index of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. The results are discussed in relation to stock management and climate change.

  2. Construction of an experimental plot seeder of wheat planting and compare it by imported one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Eskandari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Researchers frequently include multiple cultivars and fertility levels in field experiments. Therefore, the experiments sowing operation must represent a considerable saving in time and labor, compared to hand sowing. Greater flexibility in experimental design and setup could be achieved by equipment that enables quick changes in the cultivar and fertilizer rates from one plot to the next. A satisfactory seed drill must distribute a given quantity of seed evenly over a predetermined length of coulter row, the coulters must be spaced at exact intervals and depth of sowing must be uniform. In a self-propelled type of plot seeder, no coulter should run in a wheel track as the compaction of the soil can cause observable differences in vigor between plants in such a row and those in un-compacted rows. The machine should sow in succession from a try in which a series of seed pocket separated clearly and must be put into distributer funnel by an assistant operator. The length of gap being varied according to the nature and purpose of the plot. The objectives of this experiment were 1- to design and construct a local self-propelled plot seeder and 2- To compare it with the imported (Wintersteiger plot seeder in cereal breeding programs. Materials and Methods A small-plot seeder was designed and constructed to meet this objective. The unit consists of the following basic components: a toolbar for pulling a set of six blade coulter, an air compressor for lifting and putting down the openers and metering transmission drive wheel, an operators chair and work rack, one belt seed distribution. A cone-celled and rotor seed distributor is used for seed distribution to the openers. The cone system is connected to the gearbox and allows for great flexibility in changing cultivars, crop species, and plot length. This is driven by the separate drive wheel. The cone-celled distributor sows all the seed of the sample in making one complete turn. The

  3. Comparing Lay Community and Academic Survey Center Interviewers in Conducting Household Interviews in Latino Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Golston, Alec M; Friedlander, Scott; Glik, Deborah C; Prelip, Michael L; Belin, Thomas R; Brookmeyer, Ron; Santos, Robert; Chen, Jie; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The employment of professional interviewers from academic survey centers to conduct surveys has been standard practice. Because one goal of community-engaged research is to provide professional skills to community residents, this paper considers whether employing locally trained lay interviewers from within the community may be as effective as employing interviewers from an academic survey center with regard to unit and item nonresponse rates and cost. To study a nutrition-focused intervention, 1035 in-person household interviews were conducted in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, 503 of which were completed by lay community interviewers. A chi-square test was used to assess differences in unit nonresponse rates between professional and community interviewers and Welch's t tests were used to assess differences in item nonresponse rates. A cost comparison analysis between the two interviewer groups was also conducted. Interviewers from the academic survey center had lower unit nonresponse rates than the lay community interviewers (16.2% vs. 23.3%; p < 0.01). However, the item nonresponse rates were lower for the community interviewers than the professional interviewers (1.4% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.01). Community interviewers cost approximately $415.38 per survey whereas professional interviewers cost approximately $537.29 per survey. With a lower cost per completed survey and lower item nonresponse rates, lay community interviewers are a viable alternative to professional interviewers for fieldwork in community-based research. Additional research is needed to assess other important aspects of data quality interviewer such as interviewer effects and response error.

  4. Comparative evaluation of ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, and ofloxacin in experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kemmerich, B; Small, G J; Pennington, J E

    1986-01-01

    The therapeutic activity of ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, and ofloxacin was evaluated in guinea pigs with acute and chronic experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Intratracheal instillations of P. aeruginosa resulted in fatal pneumonia in all untreated animals within 36 h. Among treatment groups (80 mg/kg [body weight] per day), cumulative survival rates were: 47%, ciprofloxacin; 55%, enoxacin; and 42%, ofloxacin. These rates were not significantly different. Intrapulmonary killing of P. a...

  5. Pressure ulcer prevalence and prevention practices: a cross-sectional comparative survey in Norway and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Z; Johansen, E; Etten, M van; Strapp, H; Solbakken, T; Smith, B Eskerud; Faulstich, J

    2015-08-01

    This study explored whether the risk assessment method, structured versus clinical judgment, influences pressure ulcer (PU) prevalence or prevention strategies. A cross section survey design was employed with use of a pre-designed data collection instrument. Following ethical approval and consent, data was gathered from two acute care settings, one in Norway (clinical judgment) and one in Ireland (structured risk assessment using the Maelor Score). Data were obtained from 180 patients, 59 in Norway and 121 in Ireland. Of the patients 48% were male and 49% were female, gender was not recorded for 3%. The most common age bracket was 70-99 years of age, 46% of the study population. PU prevalence was 54% in the Norwegian site with the majority of PUs (69%) being category 1, and 12% in the Irish site with the majority (50%) being category 2. Only 8% of patients in the Norwegian site were risk assessed on admission compared with 85% in the Irish site. No dynamic mattresses and four pressure redistribution cushions were in use in the Norwegian site, whereas, in the Irish site, 27 dynamic mattresses and 11 pressure redistribution cushions were used, the majority (44%) for high-risk individuals. Of those at risk of PU development, 15% in the Norwegian site and 56% in the Irish site had a documented repositioning care plan when in bed, and 0% in the Norwegian site and 13% in the Irish site for when seated on a chair. There were inconsistencies in approach to PU risk assessment and prevention across the two clinical settings. However, prevalence rates differed, mainly relating to category 1 PU damage. Even though formal risk assessment is well established in the Irish site, this is not necessarily followed up with appropriated PU prevention. Thus, the method of risk assessment does not seem to influence subsequent care planning, questioning the role of formal risk assessment; however, despite this, risk assessment does put a focus on an important clinical problem. In the

  6. Are happier people less judgmental of other people's selfish behaviors? Experimental survey evidence from trust and gift exchange games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouvelis, Michalis; Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2015-10-01

    What determines people's moral judgments of selfish behaviors? Here we study whether people's normative views in trust and gift exchange games, which underlie many situations of economic and social significance, are themselves functions of positive emotions. We use experimental survey methods to investigate the moral judgments of impartial observers empirically, and explore whether we could influence subsequent judgments by deliberately making some individuals happier. We find that moral judgments of selfish behaviors in the economic context depend strongly on the behavior of the interaction partner of the judged person, but their relationships are significantly moderated by an increase in happiness for the person making the judgment.

  7. Conservatism of loss-of-coolant accident licensing analysis compared to experimental results and best-estimate calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, F.; Friedmann, P.

    1986-01-01

    The paper compares results of loss-of-coolant accident licensing analysis with experimental results and results of best-estimate calculations. The large safety margins resulting from the more realistic best-estimate results are used to show the high conservatism inherent in the licensing process of pressurized water reactors. (orig.) [de

  8. POLYMERIC MATERIALS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION: A COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Doroshenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Full-scale metal solar collectors and solar collectors fabricated from polymeric materials are studied in present research. Honeycomb multichannel plates made from polycarbonate were chosen to create a polymeric solar collector. Polymeric collector is 67.8% lighter than metal solar collector. It was experimentally shown that the efficiency of a polymeric collector is 7–14% lower than a traditional collector. An ecologically based Life Cycle Assessment showed the advantages of the application of polymeric materials in the construction of solar collectors.

  9. Health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: illness or illness behavior? A comparative general health survey in two former Soviet regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, J.; Rumyantzeva, G.; Kasyanenko, A.; Kaasjager, K.; Westermann, Anneke; van den Brink, W.; van den Bout, J.; Savelkoul, J.

    1997-01-01

    Results are described of a general health survey (n = 3044) that was conducted 6.5 years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 in a seriously contaminated region in Belarus and a socioeconomically comparable, but unaffected, region in the Russian Federation. The purpose of the study was to

  10. Spatial memory: Theoretical basis and comparative review on experimental methods in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Carrillo-Mora; Magda, Giordano; Abel, Santamaría

    2009-11-05

    The assessment of learning and memory in animal models has been widely employed in scientific research for a long time. Among these models, those representing diseases with primary processes of affected memory - such as amnesia, dementia, brain aging, etc. - studies dealing with the toxic effects of specific drugs, and other exploring neurodevelopment, trauma, epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders, are often called on to employ these tools. There is a diversity of experimental methods assessing animal learning and memory skills. Overall, mazes are the devices mostly used today to test memory in rodents; there are several types of them, but their real usefulness, advantages and applications remain to be fully established and depend on the particular variant selected by the experimenter. The aims of the present article are first, to briefly review the accumulated knowledge in regard to spatial memory tasks; second, to bring the reader information on the different types of rodent mazes available to test spatial memory; and third, to elucidate the usefulness and limitations of each of these devices.

  11. Socializing the Semantic Gap: A Comparative Survey on Image Tag Assignment, Refinement and Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Uricchio, T.; Ballan, L.; Bertini, M.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Del Bimbo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Where previous reviews on content-based image retrieval emphasize what can be seen in an image to bridge the semantic gap, this survey considers what people tag about an image. A comprehensive treatise of three closely linked problems (i.e., image tag assignment, refinement, and tag-based image

  12. Comparing Two Survey Research Approaches: E-Mail and Web-Based Technology versus Traditional Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Colleen M.; Mailloux, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    Contrasted two survey methodologies: e-mail-Web and traditional mail. Found that: (1) e-mail-Web respondents were proportionately more likely to be male and enrolled in school full-time; (2) more individual question non-response was present for the e-mail-Web sample; and (3) e-mail-Web respondents value different aspects of graduate school. (EV)

  13. The International scale interval study: improving the comparability of responses to survey questions about happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhoven, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study is about survey questions on happiness using verbal response options, such as ‘very happy’ and ‘fairly happy’. The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and Languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a 0 to 10

  14. A Randomized Trial Comparing Mail versus In-Office Distribution of the CAHPS Clinician and Group Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastario, Michael P; Rodriguez, Hector P; Gallagher, Patricia M; Cleary, Paul D; Shaller, Dale; Rogers, William H; Bogen, Karen; Safran, Dana Gelb

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of survey distribution protocol (mail versus handout) on data quality and measurement of patient care experiences. Data Sources/Study Setting Multisite randomized trial of survey distribution protocols. Analytic sample included 2,477 patients of 15 clinicians at three practice sites in New York State. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Mail and handout distribution modes were alternated weekly at each site for 6 weeks. Principal Findings Handout protocols yielded an incomplete distribution rate (74 percent) and lower overall response rates (40 percent versus 58 percent) compared with mail. Handout distribution rates decreased over time and resulted in more favorable survey scores compared with mailed surveys. There were significant mode–physician interaction effects, indicating that data cannot simply be pooled and adjusted for mode. Conclusions In-office survey distribution has the potential to bias measurement and comparison of physicians and sites on patient care experiences. Incomplete distribution rates observed in-office, together with between-office differences in distribution rates and declining rates over time suggest staff may be burdened by the process and selective in their choice of patients. Further testing with a larger physician and site sample is important to definitively establish the potential role for in-office distribution in obtaining reliable, valid assessment of patient care experiences. PMID:20579126

  15. UV-Vis optoelectronic properties of α-SnWO4: A comparative experimental and density functional theory based study

    KAUST Repository

    Ziani, Ahmed

    2015-09-03

    We report a combined experimental and theoretical study on the optoelectronic properties of α-SnWO4 for UV-Vis excitation. The experimentally measured values for thin films were systematically compared with high-accuracy density functional theory and density functional perturbation theory using the HSE06 functional. The α-SnWO4 material shows an indirect bandgap of 1.52 eV with high absorption coefficient in the visible-light range (>2 × 105 cm−1). The results show relatively high dielectric constant (>30) and weak diffusion properties (large effective masses) of excited carriers.

  16. The effect of porosity on the mechanical properties of porous titanium scaffolds: comparative study on experimental and analytical values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, Mohammad; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Meratian, Mahmood; Savabi, Omid

    2018-05-01

    Reducing the elastic modulus and also improving biological fixation to the bone is possible by using porous scaffolds. In the present study, porous titanium scaffolds containing different porosities were fabricated using the space holder method. Pore distribution, formed phases and mechanical properties of titanium scaffolds were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and cold compression test. Then the results of compression test were compared to the Gibson-Ashby model. Both experimentally measured and analytically calculated elastic modulus of porous titanium scaffolds decreased by porosity increment. The compliance between experimentally measured and analytically calculated elastic modulus of titanium scaffolds are also increased by porosity increment.

  17. Comparative Experimental Study on Ionic Polymer Mental Composite based on Nafion and Aquivion Membrane as Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Chen, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Most ionic polymer mental composites employ Nafion as the polymer matrix, Aquivion can also manufactured as ionic polymer mental composite while research was little. This paper researched on two kinds of ionic polymer mental composite based on Aquivion and Nafion matrix with palladium electrode called Aquivion-IPMC and Nafion-IPMC. The samples were fabricated by the same preparation process. The current and deformation responses of the samples were measured at voltage to characterize the mechano-electrical properties. The experimental observations revealed that shorter flexible side chains in Aquivion-IPMC provide a larger force than Nafion-IPMC, while the displacement properties were similar in two different samples. The results also showed that Aquivion membrane can also replace Nafion to reproduce IPMC application in soft robots, MEMS, and so on.

  18. A comparative study of behaviors of ventilated supercavities between experimental models with different mounting configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Karn, Ashish; Arndt, Roger E A; Kawakami, Ellison

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale water tunnel experiments of the phenomenon of supercavitation can be carried out broadly using two different kinds of experimental models–in the first model (forward facing model, or FFM), the incoming flow first interacts with the cavitator at front, which is connected to the strut through a ventilation pipe. The second model could have the strut and the ventilation pipe preceding the cavitator (backward facing model, or BFM). This is the continuation of a water tunnel study of the effects of unsteady flows on axisymmetric supercavities. In this study, the unwanted effect of test model configuration on supercavity shape in periodic flows was explored through a comparison of FFM and BFM models. In our experiments, it was found that periodic gust flows have only a minimal effect on the maximum diameter and the cavity length can be shortened above a certain vertical velocity of periodic flows. These findings appear to be robust regardless of the model configuration. (paper)

  19. Experimental Data and Guidelines for Stone Masonry Structures: a Comparative Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    Indications about the mechanical properties of masonry structures contained in many Italian guidelines are based on different aspects both concerning the constituents material (units and mortar) and their assemblage. Indeed, the documents define different classes (depending on the type, the arrangement and the unit properties) and suggest the use of amplification coefficients for taking into account the influence of different factors on the mechanical properties of masonry. In this paper, a critical discussion about the indications proposed by some Italian guidelines for stone masonry structures is presented. Particular attention is addressed to the classification criteria of the masonry type and to the choice of the amplification factors. Finally, a detailed analytical comparison among the suggested values and some inherent experimental data recently published is performed

  20. Comparative study of methods on outlying data detection in experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.M.S.; Munita, C.S.; Hazenfratz, R.

    2009-01-01

    The interpretation of experimental results through multivariate statistical methods might reveal the outliers existence, which is rarely taken into account by the analysts. However, their presence can influence the results interpretation, generating false conclusions. This paper shows the importance of the outliers determination for one data base of 89 samples of ceramic fragments, analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The results were submitted to five procedures to detect outliers: Mahalanobis distance, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis, and standardized residual. The results showed that although cluster analysis is one of the procedures most used to identify outliers, it can fail by not showing the samples that are easily identified as outliers by other methods. In general, the statistical procedures for the identification of the outliers are little known by the analysts. (author)

  1. A comparative study of behaviors of ventilated supercavities between experimental models with different mounting configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Karn, Ashish; Arndt, Roger E A [Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota (United States); Kawakami, Ellison, E-mail: hul94@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: ekawakami@mmm.com, E-mail: karn@umn.edu, E-mail: arndt001@umn.edu [3M Corporate Research Process Laboratory (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Small-scale water tunnel experiments of the phenomenon of supercavitation can be carried out broadly using two different kinds of experimental models–in the first model (forward facing model, or FFM), the incoming flow first interacts with the cavitator at front, which is connected to the strut through a ventilation pipe. The second model could have the strut and the ventilation pipe preceding the cavitator (backward facing model, or BFM). This is the continuation of a water tunnel study of the effects of unsteady flows on axisymmetric supercavities. In this study, the unwanted effect of test model configuration on supercavity shape in periodic flows was explored through a comparison of FFM and BFM models. In our experiments, it was found that periodic gust flows have only a minimal effect on the maximum diameter and the cavity length can be shortened above a certain vertical velocity of periodic flows. These findings appear to be robust regardless of the model configuration. (paper)

  2. Muscle lesion comparing of imaging procedures (sonography and MRT) -experimental and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellerowicz, H.; Lubasch, A.; Dulce, M.; Wagner, S.; Paul, B.

    1993-01-01

    Muscle injuries in sports are more common now. Diagnosis and follow up of muscle injuries is nowadays achieved by sonography and MRT. In order to assess the two imagine procedures, a direct test for comparison of sonography and MRT was performed in an experimental study: A standardised disconnection of m. triceps surae in rats was either sutured and glued or not treated. Clinical studies were performed in 26 patients suffering from muscle trauma. Sonography was proved to be a reliable procedure especially in follow up control until full weight bearing and should be used first. Negative or doubtfull findings require further investigation by MRT. Especially contrast medium (Gd-DTPA) assisted examinations enables a long term follow up and may even show small (muscle strain) and deep lying injuries. (orig.) [de

  3. Comparative evaluation of a two stroke compressed natural gas mixer design using simulation and experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, D.; Bakar, R.A.; Rahim, M.F.; Noor, M.M. [Malaysia Pahang Univ., Pahang (Malaysia). Automotive Focus Group

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted in which a two-stroke engine was converted for use with bi-fuel, notably compressed natural gas and gasoline. The excessive by-products generated by two-stroke engine combustion can be attributed to the inefficient combustion process. This prototype uniflow-type single-cylinder engine was equipped with a bi-fuel conversion system. A dedicated mixer was also developed to meter the gaseous fuel through the engine intake system. It was designed to meet air and fuel requirement similar to its gasoline counterpart. The mixer was modeled to obtain optimum orifice diameter using three different sizes of 14, 16 and 18 mm respectively. A standard computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package was used to simulate the flow. A pressure reading was obtained during the prototype test. The drop in pressure across the venturi was shown to be an important parameter as it determined the actual fuel-air ratio in the actual engine. A good agreement of CFD outputs with that of the experimental outputs was recorded. The experimental technique validated the pressure distribution predicted by CFD means on the effects of the three insert rings in the CNG mixer. The simulation exercise can be used to predict the amount of CNG consumed by the engine. It was concluded that the 14 mm throat ring was best suited for the CNG mixer because it provided the best suction. Once the mixer is tested on a real engine, it will clear any doubts as to whether the throat can function at high engine speeds. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  4. Experimental survey of the L-H transition conditions in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, T.N.; Gohil, P.; Watkins, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    We present the global analysis of a recent survey of the H-mode power threshold in DIII-D using D o → D + NBI after boronization of the vacuum vessel. Single parameter scans of B T , I p , density, and plasma shape have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak for neutral beam heated single-null and double-null diverted plasmas. In single-null discharges, the power threshold is found to increase approximately linearly with B T and n e but remains independent of I p . In double-null discharges, the power threshold is found to be approximately independent of both B T and n e . Various shape parameters such as plasma-wall gaps had only a weak effect on the power threshold. Imbalancing the double null configuration resulted in a large increase in the threshold power

  5. Comparing Sexual Assult Survey Prevalence Rates at Military Service Academies and U.S. Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    and Weitzman, L. (1988). The incidence and dimensions of sexual harassment in academia and the workplace . Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32, 152...nonconforming,” or as something not listed on the survey. This group had high rates of being victims of nonconsensual sexual contact and harassment . However...physical harm or promised rewards, or 4) failure to obtain affirmative consent. The study also collected data on sexual harassment , stalking, and

  6. Epidemiological survey of the effects of low level radiation dose: a comparative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1993-10-01

    This is the fifth of six volumes containing synopses of surveys, notably from the U.K., U.S.A., Canada, Japan and New Zealand, that have studied the effects of low dose irradiation of adults. The effects of radon are also considered. Incidence and mortality of cancer of the following sites are included:-Prostate, Testis, Bladder, Urinogenital tract, uterus and cervix, pancreas, liver, gall bladder, skin, connective tissue, eyes. Melanomas are also listed. (UK)

  7. Personality and professional commitment of students in nursing, social work, and teaching: A comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesje, Kjersti

    2016-01-01

    Nurses are often portrayed as possessing specific traits and dispositions associated with care and empathy. The assumption has been that possessing these traits makes nurses competent, engaged, and well suited to their job. This proposition has been mostly normative, and few studies have investigated how this plays out empirically. The aims of this study were to investigate (a) whether possessing a personality trait related to empathy and care was more common among nursing students than students in teaching and social work programs and (b) whether nursing students possessing an affirming personality trait judged themselves to be more suited to their future work - understood as commitment to the profession - than students in teaching and social work. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All first-year students attending seven Norwegian universities and university colleges were invited to participate in the study. Of the 1675 students who participated in the survey, 527 were nursing students, 668 were students in teaching, and 480 were social work students. A response rate of 65 percent was achieved. The survey was conducted by Oslo and Akershus University College in the autumn of 2012. Data collection methods included both a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and an online survey. Instruments used included Blau's Career Commitment Scale and Orlinsky and Rønnestad's Interpersonal Adjective Scale. Analysis of variance and regression analysis were performed on the data. Nursing students did not differ from students in teaching and social work programs in terms of the degree of affirming personality trait. Furthermore, the regression analysis revealed an equally strong association between having an affirming personality trait and being committed to the profession among all these student groups. The results of this study indicate that the narrative of nursing students as individuals who possess a special personality characteristic does not entirely reflect reality

  8. The dark energy survey Y1 supernova search: Survey strategy compared to forecasts and the photometric type Is SN volumetric rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, John Arthur

    For 70 years, the physics community operated under the assumption that the expansion of the Universe must be slowing due to gravitational attraction. Then, in 1998, two teams of scientists used Type Ia supernovae to discover that cosmic expansion was actually acceler- ating due to a mysterious "dark energy." As a result, Type Ia supernovae have become the most cosmologically important transient events in the last 20 years, with a large amount of effort going into their discovery as well as understanding their progenitor systems. One such probe for understanding Type Ia supernovae is to use rate measurements to de- termine the time delay between star formation and supernova explosion. For the last 30 years, the discovery of individual Type Ia supernova events has been accelerating. How- ever, those discoveries were happening in time-domain surveys that probed only a portion of the redshift range where expansion was impacted by dark energy. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is the first project in the "next generation" of time-domain surveys that will discovery thousands of Type Ia supernovae out to a redshift of 1.2 (where dark energy be- comes subdominant) and DES will have better systematic uncertainties over that redshift range than any survey to date. In order to gauge the discovery effectiveness of this survey, we will use the first season's 469 photometrically typed supernovee and compare it with simulations in order to update the full survey Type Ia projections from 3500 to 2250. We will then use 165 of the 469 supernovae out to a redshift of 0.6 to measure the supernovae rate both as a function of comoving volume and of the star formation rate as it evolves with redshift. We find the most statistically significant prompt fraction of any survey to date (with a 3.9? prompt fraction detection). We will also reinforce the already existing tension in the measurement of the delayed fraction between high (z > 1.2) and low red- shift rate measurements, where we find no

  9. Survey of existing underground openings for in-situ experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.; Graf, A.; Strisower, B.; Korbin, G.

    1981-07-01

    In an earlier project, a literature search identified 60 underground openings in crystalline rock capable of providing access for an in-situ experimental facility to develop geochemical and hydrological techniques for evaluating sites for radioactive waste isolation. As part of the current project, discussions with state geologists, owners, and operators narrowed the original group to 14. Three additional sites in volcanic rock and one site in granite were also identified. Site visits and application of technical criteria, including the geologic and hydrologic settings and depth, extent of the rock unit, condition, and accessibility of underground workings, determined four primary candidate sites: the Helms Pumped Storage Project in grandiodorite of the Sierra Nevada, California; the Tungsten Queen Mine in Precambrian granodiorite of the North Carolina Piedmont; the Mount Hope Mine in Precambrian granite and gneiss of northern New Jersey; and the Minnamax Project in the Duluth gabbro complex of northern Minnesota

  10. Comparative study of radiologic-pathologic findings of experimental clonorchiasis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, You Jung; Yang, Moon Ho

    1993-01-01

    Radiological investigation in patients with clonorchiasis is very important as this is the only method of evaluating the severity of clonorchiasis. In order to correlate the radiologic and pathologic findings of clonorchiasis, fourteen rabbits infested with Clonorchis sinensis and five control rabbits were examined radiologically by ultrasonography, computed tomography and cholangiography and the results were correlated with pathologic findings. Dilatation of the intrahepatic small bile ducts of the liver was due to obstruction by flukes: oval or elliptical, small filling defects or irregular margin of the bile ducts on cholangiogram or intraluminal echoes on sonogram represented flukes per se; periductal thickening on sonogram and periductal enhancement of bile ducts on CT were due to inflammatory cell infiltration, adenomatous hyperplasia and periductal fibrosis; band like enhancement at the periphery of the liver on CT represented proliferated bile ducts, destruction of liver cells and resultant fibrosis. The study confirmed the pathological bases for the radiological findings of clonorchiasis in liver and bile ducts and will, perhaps, serve as a basis for the future radiologic-pathological correlation of clonorchiasis and in further clinical and experimental researches in the biliary tract diseases

  11. Fretting Corrosion Behavior of Experimental Ti-20Cr Compared to Titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Tomofumi; Schille, Christine; Almadani, Atif; Geis-Gerstorfer, Jürgen

    2017-02-17

    Experimental cast titanium alloys containing 20 mass% chromium (Ti-20Cr) show preferable mechanical properties and a good corrosion resistance. This study evaluated the fretting corrosion behavior of Ti-20Cr. Ti-20Cr ( n = 4) and commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti, n = 6) disk specimens were used. The fretting corrosion test was performed by electrochemical corrosion at 0.3 V in 0.9% saline solution and mechanical damage using 10 scratching cycles with three different scratching speeds (10-40 mm/s) at 10 N. After testing, the activation peak, repassivation time and surface morphology of each specimen were analyzed. The differences between the results were tested by parametric tests (α = 0.05). The average activation peaks were significantly higher in CP-Ti than in Ti-20Cr ( p Ti. Slight differences in the repassivation time were observed between the materials at every scratching speed; faster scratching speeds showed shorter repassivation times in both materials ( p Ti showed severe damage and significantly higher wear depth than Ti-20Cr ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, adding chromium to titanium reduced surface damage and improved the fretting corrosion resistance.

  12. Comparative study of radiologic-pathologic findings of experimental clonorchiasis in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyung Nam; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, You Jung; Yang, Moon Ho [College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-01-15

    Radiological investigation in patients with clonorchiasis is very important as this is the only method of evaluating the severity of clonorchiasis. In order to correlate the radiologic and pathologic findings of clonorchiasis, fourteen rabbits infested with Clonorchis sinensis and five control rabbits were examined radiologically by ultrasonography, computed tomography and cholangiography and the results were correlated with pathologic findings. Dilatation of the intrahepatic small bile ducts of the liver was due to obstruction by flukes: oval or elliptical, small filling defects or irregular margin of the bile ducts on cholangiogram or intraluminal echoes on sonogram represented flukes per se; periductal thickening on sonogram and periductal enhancement of bile ducts on CT were due to inflammatory cell infiltration, adenomatous hyperplasia and periductal fibrosis; band like enhancement at the periphery of the liver on CT represented proliferated bile ducts, destruction of liver cells and resultant fibrosis. The study confirmed the pathological bases for the radiological findings of clonorchiasis in liver and bile ducts and will, perhaps, serve as a basis for the future radiologic-pathological correlation of clonorchiasis and in further clinical and experimental researches in the biliary tract diseases.

  13. A comparative experimental study on engine operating on premixed charge compression ignition and compression ignition mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhiogade Girish E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New combustion concepts have been recently developed with the purpose to tackle the problem of high emissions level of traditional direct injection Diesel engines. A good example is the premixed charge compression ignition combustion. A strategy in which early injection is used causing a burning process in which the fuel burns in the premixed condition. In compression ignition engines, soot (particulate matter and NOx emissions are an extremely unsolved issue. Premixed charge compression ignition is one of the most promising solutions that combine the advantages of both spark ignition and compression ignition combustion modes. It gives thermal efficiency close to the compression ignition engines and resolves the associated issues of high NOx and particulate matter, simultaneously. Premixing of air and fuel preparation is the challenging part to achieve premixed charge compression ignition combustion. In the present experimental study a diesel vaporizer is used to achieve premixed charge compression ignition combustion. A vaporized diesel fuel was mixed with the air to form premixed charge and inducted into the cylinder during the intake stroke. Low diesel volatility remains the main obstacle in preparing premixed air-fuel mixture. Exhaust gas re-circulation can be used to control the rate of heat release. The objective of this study is to reduce exhaust emission levels with maintaining thermal efficiency close to compression ignition engine.

  14. Isotopic geothermometers in geothermal areas. A comparative experimental study in Larderella, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuti, S.; Panichi, C.

    1979-06-01

    The stable isotope composition of some geothermal fluid components has been determined in view of evaluating the temperature at depth in Italian geothermal fields (Larderello, Mt. Amiata, Travale). The isotopic systems used are: 13 C(CO 2 -CH 4 ), 18 O(CO 2 -H 2 O), D(H 2 -CH 4 ) and D(H 2 O-H 2 ), for which the isotopic equilibrium variation with temperature are known either experimentally or theoretically. The 18 O(CO 2 -H 2 O) geothermometer gives temperatures similar to those observed at the well-head, and provides therefore useful information on the physical state of water (steam or evaporating liquid water) at the well bottom. On the contrary, all other geothermometers produce too high temperatures which can be explained by incomplete equilibration or lack of equilibrium between components and, perhaps in some cases, by the insufficient knowledge of the fractionation factors. The comparison between the different isotopic geothermometers, along with some chemical and physico-chemical evidence, suggests that the reaction already proposed, i.e. CO 2 +4H 2 =CH 4 +2H 2 O, is unable to explain the isotopic composition observed. On the contrary, the water dissociation reaction (H 2 O=H 2 +1/2O 2 ) and the synthesis reaction of methane (C+2H 2 =CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (C+O 2 =CO 2 ) seem able to provide an appropriate explanation of the isotopic behaviour of the geothermal field fluid components

  15. Comparative analysis of experimental methods for quantification of small amounts of oil in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Ahkami, Mehrdad; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

    2016-01-01

    ) and the quantification of oil is then difficult. In this study, we compare four approaches to determine the volume of the collected oil fraction in core flooding effluents. The four methods are: Image analysis, UV/visible spectroscopy, liquid scintillation counting, and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR...... comparison to a pre-made standard curve. Image analysis, UV/visible spectroscopy, and liquid scintillation counting quantify only the oil fraction by comparing with a pre-made standard curve. The image analysis technique is reliable when more than 0.1 ml oil is present, whereas liquid scintillation counting...... performs well when less than 0.6 ml oil is present. Both UV/visible spectroscopy and NMR spectrometry produced high accuracy results in the entire studied range (0.006-1.1 ml). In terms of laboratory time, the liquid scintillation counting is the fastest and least user dependent, whereas the NMR...

  16. Comparative animal experimental studies of the effects of different radiopharmaceuticals on the electroencephalogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretschneider, T.; Gundlach, H.J.; Krueger, M.; Reincke, R.; Schwebke, R.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the radiopharmaceuticals recently recommended for isotope cisternography were compared as to their effects on the bioelectric activity. Relaxed cats did not reveal any effects of 198 Au or 169 Yb-Ca-DTPA on the bioelectric activity. Following suboccipital administration, 169 Yb-DTPA and 131 I-HSA caused changes of the electroencephalogram in one of 7 and 6 cases, respectively. (author)

  17. An experimental paradigm to compare motor performance under laboratory and under everyday-like conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Otmar; Hagemann, Anne

    2010-10-30

    Research findings on human motor skills may not necessarily hold in everyday life, since laboratory and everyday scenarios typically differ with respect to the subjects' attention to the skill, their motivation to perform at their best, the goals they try to achieve, and the mode of movement initiation - extrinsic versus intrinsic. Here we present an experimental approach which can be used to substantiate the hypothesized effects of laboratory (L) versus everyday (E) settings on one type of motor skill, i.e., manual prehension. This approach is based on two tasks: In task L, subjects are told that they will participate in an experiment on grasping, and are instructed to seize and move a lever upon appearance of a visual target. In task E, they are told that they will play a computer game, and they have to seize and move the lever in order to proceed from one game level to the next. Both tasks include prehension movements from the same starting position and object to the same terminal position and object; movements differ only in their behavioural context. We exemplify the utility of our approach with a preliminary analysis of kinematic and force data. It shows that the two tasks differ with respect to several performance measures, and that some performance measures make independent contributions to that difference. The existence of independent contributions suggests that behavioural context may influence prehension via several distinct routes. Our approach can be used for comprehensive analyses of the context-dependence of motor skills in various reference groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative and experimental evaluation of performance of stocked diploid and triploid brook trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, Phaedra E.; Thiede, G.P.; Dean, A.; Olsen, D.; Rowley, G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous negative impacts, nonnative trout are still being stocked to provide economically and socially valuable sport fisheries in western mountain lakes. We evaluated relative performance and potential differences in feeding strategy and competitive ability of triploid versus diploid brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in alpine lakes, as well as behavioral and performance differences of diploid and triploid brook trout in two controlled experimental settings: behavioral experiments in the laboratory and performance evaluations in ponds. Across lakes, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and relative weight (Wr ) were not significantly different between ploidy levels. Mean sizes were also similar between ploidy levels except in two of the larger lakes where diploids attained slightly larger sizes (approximately 20 mm longer). We observed no significant differences between diploids and triploids in diet, diet preference, or trophic structure. Similarly, growth and condition did not differ between ploidy levels in smaller-scale pond experiments, and aggressive behavior did not differ between ploidy levels (fed or unfed fish trials) in the laboratory. Independent of ploidy level, the relative performance of brook trout varied widely among lakes, a pattern that appeared to be a function of lake size or a factor that covaries with lake size such as temperature regime or carrying capacity. In summary, we observed no significant differences in the relative performance of brook trout from either ploidy level across a number of indices, systems, and environmental conditions, nor any indication that one group is more aggressive or a superior competitor than the other. Collectively, these results suggest that triploid brook trout will offer a more risk-averse and promising management opportunity when they are stocked to these lakes and elsewhere to simultaneously meet the needs for the sport fishery and conservation objectives.

  19. Osseointegration and biocompatibility of different metal implants - a comparative experimental investigation in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In the present study, 4 different metallic implant materials, either partly coated or polished, were tested for their osseointegration and biocompatibility in a pelvic implantation model in sheep. Methods Materials to be evaluated were: Cobalt-Chrome (CC), Cobalt-Chrome/Titanium coating (CCTC), Cobalt-Chrome/Zirconium/Titanium coating (CCZTC), Pure Titanium Standard (PTST), Steel, TAN Standard (TANST) and TAN new finish (TANNEW). Surgery was performed on 7 sheep, with 18 implants per sheep, for a total of 63 implants. After 8 weeks, the specimens were harvested and evaluated macroscopically, radiologically, biomechanically (removal torque), histomorphometrically and histologically. Results Cobalt-Chrome screws showed significantly (p = 0.031) lower removal torque values than pure titanium screws and also a tendency towards lower values compared to the other materials, except for steel. Steel screws showed no significant differences, in comparison to cobalt-chrome and TANST, however also a trend towards lower torque values than the remaining materials. The results of the fluorescence sections agreed with those of the biomechanical test. Histomorphometrically, there were no significant differences of bone area between the groups. The BIC (bone-to-implant-contact), used for the assessment of the osseointegration, was significantly lower for cobalt-chrome, compared to steel (p = 0.001). Steel again showed a lower ratio (p = 0.0001) compared to the other materials. Conclusion This study demonstrated that cobalt-chrome and steel show less osseointegration than the other metals and metal-alloys. However, osseointegration of cobalt-chrome was improved by zirconium and/or titanium based coatings (CCTC, TANST, TAN, TANNEW) being similar as pure titanium in their osseointegrative behavior. PMID:22400715

  20. Comparative experimental evaluation of the efficacy of Prostamol Uno and Samprost on rat model of chronic aseptic prostate inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahomova, A V; Borovskaja, T G; Fomina, T I; Ermolaeva, L A; Vychuzhanina, A V; Rumpel, O A; Granstrem, O K; Baranova, O V

    2011-11-01

    Comparative experimental evaluation of the efficiency of prostatotropic drugs Prostamol Uno and Samprost on the model of the chronic aseptic prostate inflammation in rats was performed. It was established that peptide drug Samprost decelerates sclerotic processes in the prostate gland to a greater extent than herbal preparation Prostamol Uno. Both products equally stimulate secretory activity of the gland. Prostamol Uno, unlike Samprost, prevents the development of reduced sexual motivation, one of the complications of chronic prostatitis.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Comparative Process Capabilities of Metal and Ceramic Injection Molding for Precision Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Giannekas, Nikolaos; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    and discussion presented in the paper will be useful for thorough understanding of the MIM and CIM processes and to select the right material and process for the right application or even to combine metal and ceramic materials by molding to produce metal–ceramic hybrid components.......The purpose of this paper is to make a comparative study on the process capabilities of the two branches of the powder injection molding (PIM) process—metal injection molding (MIM) and ceramic injection molding (CIM), for high-end precision applications. The state-of-the-art literature does...

  2. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment. V. E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    These tables present data on the effects of low-level radiation dose for the following effects:- pre-conception irradiation and Down's Syndrome, pre-conception irradiation and reproductive damage, surveys of effect in relation to the source of radiation, distribution by maternal preconception exposure of the 7 most common major congenital abnormalities in the Japanese, pre-conception irradiation and childhood malignancies, parental gonadal dose at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in relation to leukemia, sex chromosome aneuploids in children of A-bomb survivors, untoward pregnancy outcomes by parental gonad dose, pre-conception irradiation and chromosomal abnormalities, and intra-uterine irradiation and intelligence. (author).

  3. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment. V. E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    These tables present data on the effects of low-level radiation dose for the following effects:- pre-conception irradiation and Down's Syndrome, pre-conception irradiation and reproductive damage, surveys of effect in relation to the source of radiation, distribution by maternal preconception exposure of the 7 most common major congenital abnormalities in the Japanese, pre-conception irradiation and childhood malignancies, parental gonadal dose at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in relation to leukemia, sex chromosome aneuploids in children of A-bomb survivors, untoward pregnancy outcomes by parental gonad dose, pre-conception irradiation and chromosomal abnormalities, and intra-uterine irradiation and intelligence. (author)

  4. An Experimental Comparative Study of Clergies and Academics’ View on Religiosity Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Serajzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper clergies and academics' View on Religiosity Criteria will study and compare. Religiosity criterion is considered as the principle based on which the extent of religiosity of people is evaluated.Based on the sociological theories of Weber, Stark and Girth about the relationship between religious understandings of different groups and their social status and situations and on the basis of secularization theories, and also considering the fact that clergies and academics enjoy different social characteristics, particularly with regard to their relation with academic institutions and modern values, it was hypothesized that clergies and academics criteria for religiosity vary and academics put more focus on general moral aspects and less emphasis on ritualistic, collective and juridical aspects of religiosity.For this aim, three samples of clergies, academics and academic clergies compared by conducting a questionnaire in which the respondents decided on the significance of the items of a multidimensional religiosity scale. The data revealed that academics and clergies emphasized differently on various aspects of religiosity. While clerics focused on all aspects and dimensions of religiosity, academics put primarily stress on moral aspects of religiosity and put less stress on collective rituals. The diversity could be explained based on the differences of social situation and educational tradition of clergies and academics.

  5. {sup 3}He bubble evolution in ErT{sub 2}: A survey of experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, C.S., E-mail: cssnow@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Browning, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bond, G.M. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Rodriguez, M.A.; Knapp, J.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    For the past several years we have been carrying out a long term experimental study of {sup 3}He in ErT{sub 2} (erbium di-tritide). This study has attempted to answer questions regarding the evolution of helium bubbles in ErT{sub 2-x}He{sub x}. ErT{sub 2} samples have been studied periodically over four years using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Nano-Indentation (NI). In ErT{sub 2-x}He{sub x}, helium bubbles are plate-like and grow along {1 1 1} planes. The bubbles grow in three distinct phases. First, they nucleate and grow as “Griffith-cracks” until an age of ∼0.15 He:M. Second, around 0.15 He:M the diameter stops increasing and instead the bubbles grow in thickness by punching dislocation dipoles. Third, the bubbles grow in size until ∼0.3 He:M at which point the bubbles begin to link.

  6. Comparing the effects of community service and imprisonment on reconviction: results from a quasi-experimental Danish study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klement, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study compares reconviction rates for Danish offenders sentenced to community service and imprisonment. A large general sample of offenders (n = 1602) is examined. Methods The study relies on a quasi-experimental design and uses propensity score matching as well as logistic....... Results Imprisonment is associated with a higher rate of recidivism and the result is statistically significant at conventional statistical levels. Conclusions Community service (CS) compared to imprisonment appears to cause a lower reconviction rate in general. Additional research is needed to shed light...

  7. Comparative placental transfer, localization, and effects of radionuclides in experimental animal and human pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Traub, R.J.; Meznarich, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    Estimating radiation doses to the human embryo/fetus from radionuclides and predicting effects requires extrapolation of data from studies of laboratory species with scaling for species-specific developmental stage and gestational time relationships and maturities at birth. Combinations of fetal-to-maternal ratios of concentrations, patterns of deposition, transfer kinetics, and compartmental and physiologic models are used to predict radioactivity levels and radiation doses to the conceptus. There is agreement between values expressing fractional transfer across the placenta with values for fractional absorption from gastrointestinal tract or lung for most substances. Information about three elements - cesium, strontium, and iodine - serve to present comparative approaches to predicting radiation dose and effect. 25 refs., 11 figs., tab

  8. Comparative experimental study of PIXE and X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega B, L.R. De la.

    1994-01-01

    PIXE and X RF techniques are powerful analysis instruments in the determination of traces of elements. Although the physical processes characteristic X-rays production (ionization-emission) are similar in both methods, the representative background of each technique, responsible of its sensitivity, are different. This is because the interaction between exciter agents and the matter produces different effects. In PIXE, the background is caused by the radiation produced by the braking of the secondary electrons: Bremsstrahlung. In X RF, the background is due to the elastic and inelastic scattering of photons: Rayleigh and Compton effects. In this work, we have compared the results of the analysis of environmental samples using both methods, in order to know the scope of each one and develop them as complementary techniques. (Author)

  9. PSU/WES interlaboratory comparative methodology study of an experimental cementitious repository seal material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Grutzeck, M.W.; Mather, K.

    1980-09-01

    A study is underway in two separate laboratories to investigate possible use of portland cement grout as repository sealing material for underground isolation of nuclear waste. The labs involved are the Materials Research Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and the Structures Laboratory (SL) of the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The same cementitious (grout) mixture was prepared in each laboratory in September 1980, and tests were started. Testing included characterization of cement and fly ash by chemical, physical, and petrographic procedures. Tests of hardened specimens included restrained expansion, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, density, permeability, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Each laboratory made many of the same tests and some that were not directly comparable. This document (Report 1) contains largely 3- and 7-day results and none beyond 28-day ages

  10. Models for comparing lung-cancer risks in radon- and plutonium-exposed experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.; Cross, F.T.; Sanders, C.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1990-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies of radon-exposed underground miners have provided the primary basis for estimating human lung-cancer risks resulting from radon exposure. These studies are sometimes used to estimate lung-cancer risks resulting from exposure to other alpha- emitters as well. The latter use, often referred to as the dosimetric approach, is based on the assumption that a specified dose to the lung produces the same lung-tumor risk regardless of the substance producing the dose. At Pacific Northwest Laboratory, experiments have been conducted in which laboratory rodents have been given inhalation exposures to radon and to plutonium ( 239 PuO 2 ). These experiments offer a unique opportunity to compare risks, and thus to investigate the validity of the dosimetric approach. This comparison is made most effectively by modeling the age-specific risk as a function of dose in a way that is comparable to analyses of human data. Such modeling requires assumptions about whether tumors are the cause of death or whether they are found incidental to death from other causes. Results based on the assumption that tumors are fatal indicate that the radon and plutonium dose-response curves differ, with a linear function providing a good description of the radon data, and a pure quadratic function providing a good description of the plutonium data. However, results based on the assumption that tumors are incidental to death indicate that the dose-response curves for the two exposures are very similar, and thus support the dosimetric approach. 14 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Comparative and Experimental Studies on the Genes Altered by Chronic Hypoxia in Human Brain Microendothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mata-Greenwood

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1A is a master regulator of acute hypoxia; however, with chronic hypoxia, HIF1A levels return to the normoxic levels. Importantly, the genes that are involved in the cell survival and viability under chronic hypoxia are not known. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia leads to the upregulation of a core group of genes with associated changes in the promoter DNA methylation that mediates the cell survival under hypoxia.Results : We examined the effect of chronic hypoxia (3 days; 0.5% oxygen on human brain micro endothelial cells (HBMEC viability and apoptosis. Hypoxia caused a significant reduction in cell viability and an increase in apoptosis. Next, we examined chronic hypoxia associated changes in transcriptome and genome-wide promoter methylation. The data obtained was compared with 16 other microarray studies on chronic hypoxia. Nine genes were altered in response to chronic hypoxia in all 17 studies. Interestingly, HIF1A was not altered with chronic hypoxia in any of the studies. Furthermore, we compared our data to three other studies that identified HIF-responsive genes by various approaches. Only two genes were found to be HIF dependent. We silenced each of these 9 genes using CRISPR/Cas9 system. Downregulation of EGLN3 significantly increased the cell death under chronic hypoxia, whereas downregulation of ERO1L, ENO2, adrenomedullin, and spag4 reduced the cell death under hypoxia.Conclusions : We provide a core group of genes that regulates cellular acclimatization under chronic hypoxic stress, and most of them are HIF independent.

  12. Socio-Political Influences on EFL Motivation and Attitudes: Comparative Surveys of Korean High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates Korean high school students' English learning motivation and attitudes. In this regard, the results of a 2002 study were compared with those of a 2006 study. Questionnaire data were obtained from a total of 1,037 high school students in a major city in South Korea, and the data were compared with those on the students'…

  13. Assessing experiential education factors contributing to a PGY1 residency match: Pharmacy residency program director and comparative student survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Jennifer L; Hritcko, Philip M; Feret, Brett; Yorra, Mark L; Todd, Noreen E; Kim Tanzer; Basile, Cathy; Bonaceto, Kara; Morelli, Rita; Carace, Nicole; Szumita, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    To compare and contrast experiential education perceptions of pharmacy residency program directors (RPDs) and doctor of pharmacy students in their last year of the curriculum for residency application considerations. The New England Regional Departments of Experiential Education (NERDEE) consortium developed a 17-question survey to assess residency factors, including those related to experiential education. The survey was dispersed to advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) students from six colleges/schools of pharmacy and RPDs nationwide. Students have different values on experiential preferences compared to RPDs. Sample findings include internal medicine and specialty clinical elective experiences prior to American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Midyear were extremely important to important for students, while RPDs viewed these experiences as somewhat important at best (p hinder a successful postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residency match. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative experimental evaluation of uncertainty estimation methods for two-component PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Aaron; Bhattacharya, Sayantan; Troolin, Dan; Pothos, Stamatios; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty quantification in planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement is critical for proper assessment of the quality and significance of reported results. New uncertainty estimation methods have been recently introduced generating interest about their applicability and utility. The present study compares and contrasts current methods, across two separate experiments and three software packages in order to provide a diversified assessment of the methods. We evaluated the performance of four uncertainty estimation methods, primary peak ratio (PPR), mutual information (MI), image matching (IM) and correlation statistics (CS). The PPR method was implemented and tested in two processing codes, using in-house open source PIV processing software (PRANA, Purdue University) and Insight4G (TSI, Inc.). The MI method was evaluated in PRANA, as was the IM method. The CS method was evaluated using DaVis (LaVision, GmbH). Utilizing two PIV systems for high and low-resolution measurements and a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system, data were acquired in a total of three cases: a jet flow and a cylinder in cross flow at two Reynolds numbers. LDV measurements were used to establish a point validation against which the high-resolution PIV measurements were validated. Subsequently, the high-resolution PIV measurements were used as a reference against which the low-resolution PIV data were assessed for error and uncertainty. We compared error and uncertainty distributions, spatially varying RMS error and RMS uncertainty, and standard uncertainty coverages. We observed that qualitatively, each method responded to spatially varying error (i.e. higher error regions resulted in higher uncertainty predictions in that region). However, the PPR and MI methods demonstrated reduced uncertainty dynamic range response. In contrast, the IM and CS methods showed better response, but under-predicted the uncertainty ranges. The standard coverages (68% confidence interval) ranged from

  15. A comparative experimental evaluation of uncertainty estimation methods for two-component PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boomsma, Aaron; Troolin, Dan; Pothos, Stamatios; Bhattacharya, Sayantan; Vlachos, Pavlos

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification in planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement is critical for proper assessment of the quality and significance of reported results. New uncertainty estimation methods have been recently introduced generating interest about their applicability and utility. The present study compares and contrasts current methods, across two separate experiments and three software packages in order to provide a diversified assessment of the methods. We evaluated the performance of four uncertainty estimation methods, primary peak ratio (PPR), mutual information (MI), image matching (IM) and correlation statistics (CS). The PPR method was implemented and tested in two processing codes, using in-house open source PIV processing software (PRANA, Purdue University) and Insight4G (TSI, Inc.). The MI method was evaluated in PRANA, as was the IM method. The CS method was evaluated using DaVis (LaVision, GmbH). Utilizing two PIV systems for high and low-resolution measurements and a laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system, data were acquired in a total of three cases: a jet flow and a cylinder in cross flow at two Reynolds numbers. LDV measurements were used to establish a point validation against which the high-resolution PIV measurements were validated. Subsequently, the high-resolution PIV measurements were used as a reference against which the low-resolution PIV data were assessed for error and uncertainty. We compared error and uncertainty distributions, spatially varying RMS error and RMS uncertainty, and standard uncertainty coverages. We observed that qualitatively, each method responded to spatially varying error (i.e. higher error regions resulted in higher uncertainty predictions in that region). However, the PPR and MI methods demonstrated reduced uncertainty dynamic range response. In contrast, the IM and CS methods showed better response, but under-predicted the uncertainty ranges. The standard coverages (68% confidence interval) ranged from

  16. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ZAFAR, G. MUHAMMAD, M. H. HUSSAIN, T. AHMAD, A. YOUSAF AND I. SARFARAZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B. All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated with normal saline solution @ 90 ml/kg BW, while group B was given hypertonic saline solution @ 4 ml/kg BW, followed by normal saline solution @ 10 ml/kg BW. Different parameters were observed for evaluation of these fluids including clinical and haematological parameters, serum electrolytes, mean arterial pressure, and blood gases at different time intervals up to 24 hours post treatments. After infusion of respective fluids, all parameters returned to baseline values in both the groups but group B showed better results than group A except bicarbonates, which better recovered in group A. Thus, it was concluded that a small-volume of hypertonic saline solution could be effectively used in reversing the endotoxaemia. Moreover, it provides a rapid and inexpensive resuscitation from endotoxic shock.

  17. Biodiversity mediates top-down control in eelgrass ecosystems: a global comparative-experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J Emmett; Reynolds, Pamela L; Boström, Christoffer; Coyer, James A; Cusson, Mathieu; Donadi, Serena; Douglass, James G; Eklöf, Johan S; Engelen, Aschwin H; Eriksson, Britas Klemens; Fredriksen, Stein; Gamfeldt, Lars; Gustafsson, Camilla; Hoarau, Galice; Hori, Masakazu; Hovel, Kevin; Iken, Katrin; Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Moksnes, Per-Olav; Nakaoka, Masahiro; O'Connor, Mary I; Olsen, Jeanine L; Richardson, J Paul; Ruesink, Jennifer L; Sotka, Erik E; Thormar, Jonas; Whalen, Matthew A; Stachowicz, John J

    2015-07-01

    Nutrient pollution and reduced grazing each can stimulate algal blooms as shown by numerous experiments. But because experiments rarely incorporate natural variation in environmental factors and biodiversity, conditions determining the relative strength of bottom-up and top-down forcing remain unresolved. We factorially added nutrients and reduced grazing at 15 sites across the range of the marine foundation species eelgrass (Zostera marina) to quantify how top-down and bottom-up control interact with natural gradients in biodiversity and environmental forcing. Experiments confirmed modest top-down control of algae, whereas fertilisation had no general effect. Unexpectedly, grazer and algal biomass were better predicted by cross-site variation in grazer and eelgrass diversity than by global environmental gradients. Moreover, these large-scale patterns corresponded strikingly with prior small-scale experiments. Our results link global and local evidence that biodiversity and top-down control strongly influence functioning of threatened seagrass ecosystems, and suggest that biodiversity is comparably important to global change stressors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  18. Impact of a decision aid about stratified ovarian cancer risk-management on women's knowledge and intentions: a randomised online experimental survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Susanne F; Freeman, Maddie; Waller, Jo; Fraser, Lindsay; Gessler, Sue; Jacobs, Ian; Kalsi, Jatinderpal; Manchanda, Ranjit; Rahman, Belinda; Side, Lucy; Wardle, Jane; Lanceley, Anne; Sanderson, Saskia C

    2017-11-16

    Risk stratification using genetic and other types of personal information could improve current best available approaches to ovarian cancer risk reduction, improving identification of women at increased risk of ovarian cancer and reducing unnecessary interventions for women at lower risk. Amounts of information given to women may influence key informed decision-related outcomes, e.g. knowledge. The primary aim of this study was to compare informed decision-related outcomes between women given one of two versions (gist vs. extended) of a decision aid about stratified ovarian cancer risk-management. This was an experimental survey study comparing the effects of brief (gist) information with lengthier, more detailed (extended) information on cognitions relevant to informed decision-making about participating in risk-stratified ovarian cancer screening. Women with no personal history of ovarian cancer were recruited through an online survey company and randomised to view the gist (n = 512) or extended (n = 519) version of a website-based decision aid and completed an online survey. Primary outcomes were knowledge and intentions. Secondary outcomes included attitudes (values) and decisional conflict. There were no significant differences between the gist and extended conditions in knowledge about ovarian cancer (time*group interaction: F = 0.20, p = 0.66) or intention to participate in ovarian cancer screening based on genetic risk assessment (t(1029) = 0.43, p = 0.67). There were also no between-groups differences in secondary outcomes. In the sample overall (n = 1031), knowledge about ovarian cancer increased from before to after exposure to the decision aid (from 5.71 to 6.77 out of a possible 10: t = 19.04, p type of content for decision aids about stratified ovarian cancer risk-management. This study was registered with the ISRCTN registry; registration number: ISRCTN48627877 .

  19. Comparative survey of comprehensiveness of literature collection between two information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narui, Shigeko; Habara, Tadashi; Izawa, Michiyo; Naramoto, Miyoko; Kajiro, Tadashi

    1983-01-01

    To make clear a feature of INIS database for the subject areas of plasma physics and thermonuclear reactions (the INIS category A14), the overlap literature was surveyedwhich had been collected into both INIS and INSPEC databases. All of 4,454 items of literature inputted into that category of INIS during 1980 were checked on whether they had also been included in INSPEC or not. The overlap ratio of the items to those in INIS was found to be 50 % and the ratios for types of literature were 96%, 42%, 28%, 3% and 0% for journals, books, pamphlets, technical reports, and patent dissertations, respectively. Journal articles not included into INSPEC were found to be derived from the journals which were not central to INSPEC. These facts show that INIS covers various types of literature, which INSPEC collected mainly journal literature. For more warrantable conclusion, it needs further survey on those items which are collected into INSPEC but not into INIS. (author)

  20. Comparative survey of comprehensiveness of literature collection between two information systems, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narui, Shigeko; Habara, Tadashi; Izawa, Michiyo; Naramoto, Miyoko; Kajiro, Tadashi

    1984-01-01

    To make clear a feature of nuclear fusion area of the INIS database in comparison with the INSPEC, a survey has been made of overlap literature included in both databases, and of unique literature included only in the INSPEC. All of the 5,774 items in the categories a50.00 and a28.50R of the INSPEC in 1980 were checked on whether each item was also included in the fusion category A14 of the INIS during four years of 1979 to 1982 or not. The ratios of literature included in the INIS were 52 % and 84 % for journal and technical report, respectively. The ratio for journal was considered in connection with differences in the scope and coverage as well as input system between the two databases. High comprehensiveness for technical report is achievable in the INIS. Comparison of language of literature included in both databases, and time lags for publication are briefly described. (author)

  1. Comparing administrative and survey data for ascertaining cases of irritable bowel syndrome: a population-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Targownick Laura E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administrative and survey data are two key data sources for population-based research about chronic disease. The objectives of this methodological paper are to: (1 estimate agreement between the two data sources for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and compare the results to those for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; (2 compare the frequency of IBS-related diagnoses in administrative data for survey respondents with and without self-reported IBS, and (3 estimate IBS prevalence from both sources. Methods This retrospective cohort study used linked administrative and health survey data for 5,134 adults from the province of Manitoba, Canada. Diagnoses in hospital and physician administrative data were investigated for respondents with self-reported IBS, IBD, and no bowel disorder. Agreement between survey and administrative data was estimated using the κ statistic. The χ2 statistic tested the association between the frequency of IBS-related diagnoses and self-reported IBS. Crude, sex-specific, and age-specific IBS prevalence estimates were calculated from both sources. Results Overall, 3.0% of the cohort had self-reported IBS, 0.8% had self-reported IBD, and 95.3% reported no bowel disorder. Agreement was poor to fair for IBS and substantially higher for IBD. The most frequent IBS-related diagnoses among the cohort were anxiety disorders (34.4%, symptoms of the abdomen and pelvis (26.9%, and diverticulitis of the intestine (10.6%. Crude IBS prevalence estimates from both sources were lower than those reported previously. Conclusions Poor agreement between administrative and survey data for IBS may account for differences in the results of health services and outcomes research using these sources. Further research is needed to identify the optimal method(s to ascertain IBS cases in both data sources.

  2. Comparative pathology of chickens experimentally inoculated with avian influenza viruses of low and high pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, I P; Brugh, M; Fletcher, O J; Rowland, G N; Swayne, D E

    1997-01-01

    Pathologic changes and distribution of viral antigen as determined by immunohistochemistry were compared among 4-wk-old specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated intratracheally with avian influenza virus (AIV) isolates of either low or high pathogenicity. Viruses of low pathogenicity, previously characterized as mildly pathogenic (MP), included A/chicken/Pennsylvania/21525/83 (H5N2) (MP-Penn) and A/chicken/Alabama/7395/75 (H4N8) (MP-Alab). Viruses of high pathogenicity included A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 (H5N2), A/chicken/Victoria/A185/85 (H7N7), and A/turkey/Ontario/7732/66 (H5N9). Extremely variable clinical signs ranging from mild respiratory distress to high mortality were present among chickens inoculated with these viruses. Chickens inoculated with highly pathogenic (HP) virus had histologic lesions of necrosis and inflammation in cloacal bursa, thymus, spleen, heart, pancreas, kidney, brain, trachea, lung, and skeletal muscle, whereas chickens inoculated with MP virus had histologic lesions most frequently in lung and trachea or lacked histologic lesions. Immunospecific staining for avian influenza viral proteins was most common in cells within heart, lung, kidney, brain, and pancreas of chicken inoculated with HP viruses, but immunospecific staining was present only and infrequently in trachea and lung of chickens inoculated with MP-Penn AIV. MP-Alab did not produce lesions nor have viral antigen in inoculated chickens but did produce serologic evidence of infection. The pattern of organ involvement and viral antigen distribution in chickens intratracheally inoculated with HP AIV isolates indicates a common capability to spread beyond the respiratory tract and confirms the pantrophic replicative, pathobiologic, and lethal nature of the viruses. However, variability in severity and lesion distribution exists between different HP AIVs. By contrast, MP viruses had the ability to replicate in respiratory or enteric tracts or both and produce lesions

  3. Experimental tests on winter cereal: Sod seeding compared to minimum tillage and traditional plowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniotto Guidobono Cavalchini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to traditional plowing and minimum tillage, the sod seeding technique has been tested in order to evaluate the differences in energy consumption, labor and machinery requirement and CO2 emission reduction. The experiments were conducted on winter cereal seeding in a Po valley farm in October 2011. The tests were carried out as follows: wheat variety seeding, over corn and alfalfa crops, in large plots with three repetitions for each thesis. They included: sod seeding anticipated by round up weeding in the case of the plots over alfalfa; traditional plowing at 35 cm followed by rotary tillage and combined seeding (seeder plus rotary tiller; minimum tillage based on ripping at the same depth (35 cm and combined seeder ( seeder plus rotary tiller. The following farm operations - fertilizer, and other agrochemical distributionshave been the same in all the considered theses. The results, statistically significant (P<0.001 in terms of yields, highlighted slight differences: the best data in the case of the traditional plowing both in the case of wheat crop over corn and alfalfa (84.43 and 6.75 t/ha; slightly lower yields for the sod seeding (6.23 and 79.9 t/ha for corn and alfalfa respectively; lower in the case of minimum tillage (5.87; 79.77 t/ha in the two situations. Huge differences in energy and oil consumption have been recorded: in the case of succession to corn 61.47; 35.31; 4.27 kg oil/ha respectively for, traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding; in the case of alfalfa 61.2; 50.96; 5.14 kg oil/ha respectively for traditional plowing, minimum tillage and sod seeding. The innovative technique, highlighted huge energy saving with an oil consumption equal to 92% and 89% (P<0.001 of what happens in traditional plowing and minimum tillage. Large differences concern labor and machine productivity. These parameters together with oil consumption and machine size [power (kW and weight (t] lead to even greater differences in

  4. Comparing hospital staff and patient perceptions of customer service: a pilot study utilizing survey and focus group data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, Myron D; Dickson, Duncan; Ford, Robert C; Bradley, Kenneth; Johnson, Lee

    2006-02-01

    The measurement of patient satisfaction is crucial to enhancing customer service and competitive advantage in the health-care industry. While there are numerous approaches to such measurement, this paper provides a case study which compares and contrasts patient and staff perceptions of customer service using both survey and focus group data. Results indicate that there is a high degree of correlation between staff and patient perceptions of customer service based on both survey and focus group data. However, the staff and patient subgroups also provided complementary information regarding patient perceptions of their service experience. Staff members tended to have more negative perceptions of service attributes than did the patients themselves. The focus group results provide complementary information to survey results in terms of greater detail and more managerially relevant information. While these results are derived from a pilot study, they suggest that diversification of data sources beyond patient surveys may enhance the utility of customer service information. If further research can affirm these findings, they create exciting possibilities for gathering valid, reliable and cost-effective customer service information.

  5. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  6. A comparative experimental study of steel fibre-additive reinforced concrete beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altun, F.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Five different batches of class C20 concrete, containing Dramix-RC-80/60-BN steel fibers (SFs as additives at doses of 0, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kg/m3, and six Ø 15x30 cm prisms were poured from each batch. Standard crushing tests were run on all the specimens and the respective load-displacement and stress-strain curves were plotted. Toughness, ultimate compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity were determined for all specimens. The compressive strength and modulus of elasticity declined in 30 kg/m3 steel-fiber-additive concrete (SFAC by 9% and 7% compared to the reference C20 concrete without SFs, and the area under the load-deflection curve grew more than twofold. In concrete with a higher SF dosage, the differences in strength and elasticity were around I0% whilst toughness was about the same. Because toughness values were similar in 30, 40, 50 and 60 kg/m3 plain SF-additive concrete and the strength and modulus of elasticity were slightly better in the mixes with the smallest proportion of SF for reasons of economy, 30 kg/m3 was taken as the optimum dose of steel fiber to be added to the reinforced concrete used in a second phase of the study. Hence, of the six reinforced concrete (RC beams made, all of equal size and with the same under-reinforced tensile reinforcement design, three were made with concrete containing the above-mentioned dose of SF. In addition to compressive strength, these beams were tested for flexural strength, which was found to be 18% greater for the SFARC beams than the ordinary RC beams, and the upper arms of the load versus mid-span deflection curves prior to ultimate failure of the SFARC beams were considerably longer than the same arms on the curves for ordinary RC beams.

    Se han utilizado cinco lotes diferentes de hormigón clase C20 cuatro de ellos con fibras de acero (FA, identificadas como Dramix-CR-80/60-BN, en cuatro proporciones diferentes: 30, 40, 50 y 60 kg/m3 y el quinto exento de

  7. Institutional Contexts and International Performances in Schooling : comparing patterns and trends over time in international surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Roelande H.; Gray, John M.; Hofman, Roelande

    15 European countries were classified into four types in an international comparative study. The country profiles are based on indicators of the key concepts' funding, governance and choice. This research attempts to answer the question of how the quality of schooling of these types of education

  8. Empirically simulated study to compare and validate sampling methods used in aerial surveys of wildlife populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaemba, W.M.; Stein, A.; Rasch, D.; Leeuw, de J.; Georgiadis, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the distribution, sampling and estimation of abundance for two animal species in an African ecosystem by means of an intensive simulation of the sampling process under a geographical information system (GIS) environment. It focuses on systematic and random sampling designs,

  9. A Comparative Study of Collagen Matrix Density Effect on Endothelial Sprout Formation Using Experimental and Computational Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Amir; Mohammadaliha, Negar; Heilshorn, Sarah C; Bauer, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    A thorough understanding of determining factors in angiogenesis is a necessary step to control the development of new blood vessels. Extracellular matrix density is known to have a significant influence on cellular behaviors and consequently can regulate vessel formation. The utilization of experimental platforms in combination with numerical models can be a powerful method to explore the mechanisms of new capillary sprout formation. In this study, using an integrative method, the interplay between the matrix density and angiogenesis was investigated. Owing the fact that the extracellular matrix density is a global parameter that can affect other parameters such as pore size, stiffness, cell-matrix adhesion and cross-linking, deeper understanding of the most important biomechanical or biochemical properties of the ECM causing changes in sprout morphogenesis is crucial. Here, we implemented both computational and experimental methods to analyze the mechanisms responsible for the influence of ECM density on the sprout formation that is difficult to be investigated comprehensively using each of these single methods. For this purpose, we first utilized an innovative approach to quantify the correspondence of the simulated collagen fibril density to the collagen density in the experimental part. Comparing the results of the experimental study and computational model led to some considerable achievements. First, we verified the results of the computational model using the experimental results. Then, we reported parameters such as the ratio of proliferating cells to migrating cells that was difficult to obtain from experimental study. Finally, this integrative system led to gain an understanding of the possible mechanisms responsible for the effect of ECM density on angiogenesis. The results showed that stable and long sprouts were observed at an intermediate collagen matrix density of 1.2 and 1.9 mg/ml due to a balance between the number of migrating and proliferating

  10. Comparing the Age-Friendliness of Different Neighbourhoods Using District Surveys: An Example from Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Moses; Chau, Pui Hing; Cheung, Francis; Phillips, David R.; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background To address the age-friendliness of living environment in cities, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the “Age-friendly cities” (AFC) initiative in 2005. To date, however, no universal standard tool for assessing age-friendliness of a community has been agreed. Methodology Two quantitative studies on AFC conducted in two Hong Kong districts—Sha Tin and Tuen Mun—were compared. A total of 801 residents aged ≥50 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires based on the WHO’s AFC criteria. District-wide differences in age-friendliness were compared on the basis of eight domain scores. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The provision of services and amenities was also compared to help explain the difference in domain scores. Results Variations in mean domain scores were observed in both districts. Sha Tin showed significantly lower scores in outdoor spaces and buildings, transportation, social participation, respect and social inclusion, civic participation and employment, communication and information, as compared with Tuen Mun. Although a significantly higher score on the housing domain was observed in Sha Tin, differences in community and health services domains were insignificant. Socio-demographic factors, such as age group, gender, area of residence, type of housing, experience of elderly care, employment status, self-rated health and income, were associated with domain scores. However, variations in services and amenities provision appeared not to be strongly associated with district-wide difference in domain scores. Conclusions District differences in public opinions towards age-friendly characteristics were observed in this study. Except for two of the eight domains, Sha Tin had significantly lower scores than Tuen Mun. Some socio-demographic indicators seemed predictive to the differences. Paradoxically, Sha Tin had better services and

  11. Comparative survey of dynamic analyses of free-piston Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankam, M. D.; Rauch, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Reported dynamics analyses for evaluating the steady-state response and stability of free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) systems are compared. Various analytical approaches are discussed to provide guidance on their salient features. Recommendations are made in the recommendations remarks for an approach which captures most of the inherent properties of the engine. Such an approach has the potential for yielding results which will closely match practical FPSE-load systems.

  12. Comparing the Age-Friendliness of Different Neighbourhoods Using District Surveys: An Example from Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Wong

    Full Text Available To address the age-friendliness of living environment in cities, the World Health Organization (WHO launched the "Age-friendly cities" (AFC initiative in 2005. To date, however, no universal standard tool for assessing age-friendliness of a community has been agreed.Two quantitative studies on AFC conducted in two Hong Kong districts-Sha Tin and Tuen Mun-were compared. A total of 801 residents aged ≥50 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires based on the WHO's AFC criteria. District-wide differences in age-friendliness were compared on the basis of eight domain scores. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The provision of services and amenities was also compared to help explain the difference in domain scores.Variations in mean domain scores were observed in both districts. Sha Tin showed significantly lower scores in outdoor spaces and buildings, transportation, social participation, respect and social inclusion, civic participation and employment, communication and information, as compared with Tuen Mun. Although a significantly higher score on the housing domain was observed in Sha Tin, differences in community and health services domains were insignificant. Socio-demographic factors, such as age group, gender, area of residence, type of housing, experience of elderly care, employment status, self-rated health and income, were associated with domain scores. However, variations in services and amenities provision appeared not to be strongly associated with district-wide difference in domain scores.District differences in public opinions towards age-friendly characteristics were observed in this study. Except for two of the eight domains, Sha Tin had significantly lower scores than Tuen Mun. Some socio-demographic indicators seemed predictive to the differences. Paradoxically, Sha Tin had better services and infrastructure and higher socio

  13. Comparing the Age-Friendliness of Different Neighbourhoods Using District Surveys: An Example from Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Moses; Chau, Pui Hing; Cheung, Francis; Phillips, David R.; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background To address the age-friendliness of living environment in cities, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the “Age-friendly cities” (AFC) initiative in 2005. To date, however, no universal standard tool for assessing age-friendliness of a community has been agreed. Methodology Two quantitative studies on AFC conducted in two Hong Kong districts—Sha Tin and Tuen Mun—were compared. A total of 801 residents aged ≥50 years were interviewed using structured questionnaire...

  14. Comparing the Age-Friendliness of Different Neighbourhoods Using District Surveys: An Example from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Moses; Chau, Pui Hing; Cheung, Francis; Phillips, David R; Woo, Jean

    2015-01-01

    To address the age-friendliness of living environment in cities, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the "Age-friendly cities" (AFC) initiative in 2005. To date, however, no universal standard tool for assessing age-friendliness of a community has been agreed. Two quantitative studies on AFC conducted in two Hong Kong districts-Sha Tin and Tuen Mun-were compared. A total of 801 residents aged ≥50 years were interviewed using structured questionnaires based on the WHO's AFC criteria. District-wide differences in age-friendliness were compared on the basis of eight domain scores. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations with demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The provision of services and amenities was also compared to help explain the difference in domain scores. Variations in mean domain scores were observed in both districts. Sha Tin showed significantly lower scores in outdoor spaces and buildings, transportation, social participation, respect and social inclusion, civic participation and employment, communication and information, as compared with Tuen Mun. Although a significantly higher score on the housing domain was observed in Sha Tin, differences in community and health services domains were insignificant. Socio-demographic factors, such as age group, gender, area of residence, type of housing, experience of elderly care, employment status, self-rated health and income, were associated with domain scores. However, variations in services and amenities provision appeared not to be strongly associated with district-wide difference in domain scores. District differences in public opinions towards age-friendly characteristics were observed in this study. Except for two of the eight domains, Sha Tin had significantly lower scores than Tuen Mun. Some socio-demographic indicators seemed predictive to the differences. Paradoxically, Sha Tin had better services and infrastructure and higher socio-economic status, but lower

  15. A Comparative Survey on Parameters Influencing on Hexavalent Chromium Measurement as an Occupational Carcinogen

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    A. Tirgar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hexavalent chromium, Cr+6, is a very harmful pollutant and a relatively unstable compound that is present in many industries. It is a known human respiratory carcinogen and occupational exposure to this chemical is associated with different health hazards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four parameters including: type of sampling head, sampling height from the surface of electroplating solution, sampling duration, and sample storage duration on Cr+6 mist monitoring.Materials & Methods: To evaluate the influence of the main parameters as an experimental study, the 24 factorial design was applied at constant electroplating condition. A chromium electroplating bath with the ability to produce homogenous mist was used to create Cr+6 mist in laboratory setting. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH method 7600 was used to determine the Cr+6 concentration. Results: The results of 48 Cr+6 mist samples showed that Cr+6 concentration was higher: (1 for sampling by closed-face filter cassettes than for sampling by open-face filter cassettes (P<0.001; (2 for samples collected at 35 cm above the electroplating solution surface than for samples collected at 50 cm (P <0.001; (3 for sampling duration of 30 minutes than for sampling duration of 180 minutes (P <0.001; and, (4 for samples extracted immediately after sampling than for samples with delayed extraction (24 hours after sampling (P <0.001. Conclusion: It is concluded that the accuracy of Cr+6 mist sampling in electroplating shops will be enhanced when: (1 a closed-face filter cassette is used to prevent liquid splash contamination; (2 the sampling height is suitable as determined by further research; (3 the sampling duration is short (approximately 30 minutes; and, (4 the extraction of the Cr+6 sample is performed as soon as the sampling is completed.

  16. VLT FORS2 comparative transmission spectral survey of clear and cloudy exoplanet atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Sing, David; Gibson, Neale; Evans, Thomas; Barstow, Joanna Katy; Kataria, Tiffany; Wilson, Paul A.

    2016-10-01

    Transmission spectroscopy is a key to unlocking the secrets of close-in exoplanet atmospheres. Observations have started to unveil a vast diversity of irradiated giant planet atmospheres with clouds and hazes playing a definitive role across the entire mass and temperature regime. We have initiated a ground-based, multi-object transmission spectroscopy of a hand full of hot Jupiters, covering the wavelength range 360-850nm using the recently upgraded FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph (FORS2) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). These targets were selected for comparative follow-up as their transmission spectra showed evidence for alkali metal absorption, based on the results of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. This talk will discuss the first results from the programme, demonstrating excellent agreement between the transmission spectra measured from VLT and HST and further reinforce the findings of clear, cloudy and hazy atmospheres. More details will be discussed on the narrow alkali features obtained with FORS2 at higher resolution, revealing its high potential in securing optical transmission spectra. These FORS2 observations are the first ground-based detections of clear, cloudy and hazy hot-Jupiter atmosphere with a simultaneous detections of Na, K, and H2 Rayleigh scattering. Our program demonstrates the large potential of the instrument for optical transmission spectroscopy, capable of obtaining HST-quality light curves from the ground. Compared to HST, the larger aperture of VLT will allow for fainter targets to be observed and higher spectral resolution, which can greatly aid comparative exoplanet studies. This is important for further exploring the diversity of exoplanet atmospheres and is particularly complementary to the near- and mid-IR regime, to be covered by the upcoming James-Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and is readily applicable to less massive planets down to super-Earths.

  17. A Comparative Survey of Methods for Remote Heart Rate Detection From Frontal Face Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Remotely measuring physiological activity can provide substantial benefits for both the medical and the affective computing applications. Recent research has proposed different methodologies for the unobtrusive detection of heart rate (HR using human face recordings. These methods are based on subtle color changes or motions of the face due to cardiovascular activities, which are invisible to human eyes but can be captured by digital cameras. Several approaches have been proposed such as signal processing and machine learning. However, these methods are compared with different datasets, and there is consequently no consensus on method performance. In this article, we describe and evaluate several methods defined in literature, from 2008 until present day, for the remote detection of HR using human face recordings. The general HR processing pipeline is divided into three stages: face video processing, face blood volume pulse (BVP signal extraction, and HR computation. Approaches presented in the paper are classified and grouped according to each stage. At each stage, algorithms are analyzed and compared based on their performance using the public database MAHNOB-HCI. Results found in this article are limited on MAHNOB-HCI dataset. Results show that extracted face skin area contains more BVP information. Blind source separation and peak detection methods are more robust with head motions for estimating HR.

  18. Asking about Sex in General Health Surveys: Comparing the Methods and Findings of the 2010 Health Survey for England with Those of the Third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Prah

    Full Text Available Including questions about sexual health in the annual Health Survey for England (HSE provides opportunities for regular measurement of key public health indicators, augmenting Britain's decennial National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal. However, contextual and methodological differences may limit comparability of the findings. We examine the extent of these differences between HSE 2010 and Natsal-3 and investigate their impact on parameter estimates.Complex survey analyses of data from men and women in the 2010 HSE (n = 2,782 men and 3,588 women and Natsal-3 undertaken 2010-2012 (n = 4,882 men and 6,869 women aged 16-69y and resident in England, both using probability sampling, compared their characteristics, the amount of non-response to, and estimates from, sexual health questions. Both surveys used self-completion for the sexual behaviour questions but this was via computer-assisted self-interview (CASI in Natsal-3 and a pen-and-paper questionnaire in HSE 2010.The surveys achieved similar response rates, both around 60%, and demographic profiles largely consistent with the census, although HSE participants tended to be less educated, and reported worse general health, than Natsal-3 participants. Item non-response to the sexual health questions was typically higher in HSE 2010 (range: 9-18% relative to Natsal-3 (all <5%. Prevalence estimates for sexual risk behaviours and STI-related indicators were generally slightly lower in HSE 2010 than Natsal-3.While a relatively high response to sexual health questions in HSE 2010 demonstrates the feasibility of asking such questions in a general health survey, differences with Natsal-3 do exist. These are likely due to the HSE's context as a general health survey and methodological limitations such as its current use of pen-and-paper questionnaires. Methodological developments to the HSE should be considered so that its data can be interpreted in combination with those from dedicated

  19. Testing a Personal Narrative for Persuading People to Value and Use Comparative Physician Quality of Care Information: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Sacks, Rebecca M

    2017-09-01

    This study tests whether a personal narrative can persuade people to value comparative data on physician quality. We conducted an online experiment with 850 adults. One group viewed a cartoon narrative on physician quality variation, another saw text on physician quality variation, and there was a control group. Study participants hypothetically selected a physician from a display of four physicians. The top-quality physician was furthest away and most expensive. We conducted multivariate models examining the relationship between experimental group and choice of the top-quality physician. There was no overall relationship between narrative or text information and choice of the highest quality physician. Among higher numerate participants, however, those who viewed the narrative had odds 2.7 times higher of selecting the top-quality physician compared with the control group. Personal narratives can persuade higher numerate people to consider quality when selecting physicians.

  20. A comparative study of Northern Ireland's estuaries based on the results of beam trawl fish surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Trevor D.; Armour, Neil D.; McNeill, Michael T.; Moorehead, Peter W.

    2017-11-01

    The fish communities of Northern Ireland's estuaries were described and compared using data collected with a modified beam trawl over a six year period from 2009 to 2014. Multivariate analyses identified four estuary groups based on variations in their physico-chemical attributes. These groups broadly corresponded with the distribution and variation of estuary geomorphic types identified around the Irish coast. The dominant fish species captured were also among the main species reported in other North East Atlantic estuaries. A significant link between the estuary types and their fish communities was found; each estuary group contained a somewhat distinctive fish community. The fish communities also showed a significant relationship with the physico-chemical characteristics of the estuaries. Differences in fish species composition are attributed to habitat and environmental preferences of key estuary-associated species.

  1. Comparative Survey of Holding Positions for Reducing Vaccination Pain in Young Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chu Yin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infant holding position may reduce vaccination pain. However, the optimal position for young infants remains controversial. Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of holding infants in the supine position and the effectiveness of holding infants in upright position for relieving acute pain from vaccine injection. Methods. This prospective cohort study enrolled 6–12-week-old healthy infants. We examined infant pain responses by evaluating the following three categories: (1 crying, (2 irritability, and (3 facial expression. Results. In total, 282 infants were enrolled, with 103 and 179 held in the supine and upright positions, respectively. At 30 s after vaccination, the infants in the supine position showed a larger decrease in crying (p<0.001, irritability (p=0.002, and pained facial expression (p=0.001 than did those in the upright position. However, there was no significant difference in pain response between two groups at 180 s after intervention. Conclusion. In 2-month-old infants, the supine position may reduce acute pain more effectively than does the upright position. Our findings provide a clinical strategy for relieving vaccination pain in young infants.

  2. A DOUBLE-CENTER RETROSPECTIVE 5 YEARS SURVEY OF 385 CABG CASES COMPARING GENDER CHARACTERISTICS

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    A. A. Karimi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality especially in the indusirialzcd societies. This retrospective study was carried out on 385 patients who were referred to Shariati and Jamaran Hospitals from 1992 till 1997 and who underwent coronaty artery bypass grafting. The objective was to obtain a descriptive analysis of the important factors in this population and to draw a comparison betweent the two genders and to draw genders regarding these variables. The data were obtained from patients' files, angiography and operation notes; 82.9% of the study population were of male. The mean age of women was higher than men by 2.2years. The most common risk factors among the male gender were found to be smoking, hyperlipedemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Except for smoking which was omitted in women, all other risk factors showed a comparative low prevalence in this gender. Most patients (93.37% fell in group II and III of functional class as per NYHA classification and the most frequent signs and symptoms on admission being chest pain (81.5% and dyspnea (11.2%. The affected vessels in order of frequency were the left anterior descending, the right coronary and the circumflex arteries respectively. The average number of grafts utilized were 3 in the entire population. Overall mortality recorded was 2.1%.

  3. A survey to study and compare factors affecting human resources efficiency

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    MOHSEN KHADEMI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human resources are considered the main asset of any society. If used properly and effectively, it will create other sources and above all the added value. The quality of the life is usually dependent on the quality of human professional life including factors such as job security, services and welfare pensions, health services, income, and job quality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role and priority of the above-mentioned factors on efficacy of the staff members of the Fars Office of Education. Methods: The research sample comprised the staff members of the Fars Office of Education across the state, including 61 districts. Based on the Cochran Formula, 25 districts were randomly selected. In order to measure the factors, the Likert-type instrument designed by Hossainpoor to compare the Ideal and current situation, was used. Results: The staff rated job security as the most important factor affecting their efficacy in both current and ideal situations followed by income. Discussion: Based on the previous research and review of literature, success of the educational organizations is fully dependent on their personnel. If executives of such organizations try to attract the qualified personnel and keep them motivated, their success will be guaranteed.

  4. Medicine in words and numbers: a cross-sectional survey comparing probability assessment scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koele Pieter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the complex domain of medical decision making, reasoning under uncertainty can benefit from supporting tools. Automated decision support tools often build upon mathematical models, such as Bayesian networks. These networks require probabilities which often have to be assessed by experts in the domain of application. Probability response scales can be used to support the assessment process. We compare assessments obtained with different types of response scale. Methods General practitioners (GPs gave assessments on and preferences for three different probability response scales: a numerical scale, a scale with only verbal labels, and a combined verbal-numerical scale we had designed ourselves. Standard analyses of variance were performed. Results No differences in assessments over the three response scales were found. Preferences for type of scale differed: the less experienced GPs preferred the verbal scale, the most experienced preferred the numerical scale, with the groups in between having a preference for the combined verbal-numerical scale. Conclusion We conclude that all three response scales are equally suitable for supporting probability assessment. The combined verbal-numerical scale is a good choice for aiding the process, since it offers numerical labels to those who prefer numbers and verbal labels to those who prefer words, and accommodates both more and less experienced professionals.

  5. Comparative survey of PAHs incidence in Portuguese traditional meat and blood sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseiro, L C; Gomes, A; Patarata, L; Santos, C

    2012-06-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in representative traditional sausages produced in "Trás-os-Montes" and "Alentejo", were determined. Light PAHs represented similar overall contents in both regions and showed close decreasing order patterns (ACY, PHE, FLR and NAP), irrespective of the product type considered. Amongst the carcinogenic/mutagenic PAHs analyzed (PAH8), both regions also had greater contents associated to BaA and CHR, with slightly higher values for the former compound in "Alentejo" and, oppositely, for the later in "Trás-os-Montes". However, their quantitative comparison showed that the general mean total PAH content found in "Trás-os-Montes" was almost 3-fold higher than in similar products from "Alentejo" and this factor was about 8-fold superior when the PAH8 and PAH4 indicators were compared, expressing benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalencies (BaPE), 15 times (total mean toxicity), 34 times (PAH8) and 9 times (PAH4) higher. In general terms, the mean BaP content of all analyzed samples from "Alentejo" was 0.41 μg kg(-1). Differently that value in "Trás-os-Montes" reached 3.57 μg kg(-1), expressing concerning average contents of 5.35, 5.87 and 4.51 μg kg(-1) in Chouriço de Carne, Moura and Salpicão sausages, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in medical services in Nordic general practice: a comparative survey from the QUALICOPC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Torunn Bjerve; Straand, Jørund; Björkelund, Cecilia; Kosunen, Elise; Thorgeirsson, Ofeigur; Vedsted, Peter; Rosvold, Elin Olaug

    2017-06-01

    We aim to describe medical services provided by Nordic general practitioners (GPs), and to explore possible differences between the countries. We did a comparative analysis of selected data from the Nordic part of the study Quality and Costs of Primary Care in Europe (QUALICOPC). A total of 875 Nordic GPs (198 Norwegian, 80 Icelandic, 97 Swedish, 212 Danish and 288 Finnish) answered identical questionnaires regarding their practices. The GPs indicated which equipment they used in practice, which procedures that were carried out, and to what extent they were involved in treatment/follow-up of a selection of diagnoses. The Danish GPs performed minor surgical procedures significantly less frequent than GPs in all other countries, although they inserted IUDs significantly more often than GPs in Iceland, Sweden and Finland. Finnish GPs performed a majority of the medical procedures more frequently than GPs in the other countries. The GPs in Iceland reported involvement in a more narrow selection of conditions than the GPs in the other countries. The Finnish GPs had more advanced technical equipment than GPs in all other Nordic countries. GPs in all Nordic countries are well equipped and offer a wide range of medical services, yet with a substantial variation between countries. There was no clear pattern of GPs in one country doing consistently more procedures, having consistently more equipment and treating a larger diversity of medical conditions than GPs in the other countries. However, structural factors seemed to affect the services offered.

  7. The evolution of nursing in Australian general practice: a comparative analysis of workforce surveys ten years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Salamonson, Yenna; Davidson, Patricia M; Kaur, Rajneesh; Young, Samantha Am

    2014-03-25

    Nursing in Australian general practice has grown rapidly over the last decade in response to government initiatives to strengthen primary care. There are limited data about how this expansion has impacted on the nursing role, scope of practice and workforce characteristics. This study aimed to describe the current demographic and employment characteristics of Australian nurses working in general practice and explore trends in their role over time. In the nascence of the expansion of the role of nurses in Australian general practice (2003-2004) a national survey was undertaken to describe nurse demographics, clinical roles and competencies. This survey was repeated in 2009-2010 and comparative analysis of the datasets undertaken to explore workforce changes over time. Two hundred eighty four nurses employed in general practice completed the first survey (2003/04) and 235 completed the second survey (2009/10). Significantly more participants in Study 2 were undertaking follow-up of pathology results, physical assessment and disease specific health education. There was also a statistically significant increase in the participants who felt that further education/training would augment their confidence in all clinical tasks (p nurses' role in general practice decreased between the two time points, more participants perceived lack of space, job descriptions, confidence to negotiate with general practitioners and personal desire to enhance their role as barriers. Access to education and training as a facilitator to nursing role expansion increased between the two studies. The level of optimism of participants for the future of the nurses' role in general practice was slightly decreased over time. This study has identified that some of the structural barriers to nursing in Australian general practice have been addressed over time. However, it also identifies continuing barriers that impact practice nurse role development. Understanding and addressing these issues is vital

  8. CFD analysis of pressure drop across grid spacers in rod bundles compared to correlations and heavy liquid metal experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batta, A., E-mail: batta@kit.edu; Class, A.G., E-mail: class@kit.edu

    2017-02-15

    Early studies of the flow in rod bundles with spacer grids suggest that the pressure drop can be decomposed in contributions due to flow area variations by spacer grids and frictional losses along the rods. For these shape and frictional losses simple correlations based on theoretical and experimental data have been proposed. In the OECD benchmark study LACANES it was observed that correlations could well describe the flow behavior of the heavy liquid metal loop including a rod bundle with the exception of the core region, where different experts chose different pressure-loss correlations for the losses due to spacer grids. Here, RANS–CFD simulations provided very good data compared to the experimental data. It was observed that the most commonly applied Rehme correlation underestimated the shape losses. The available correlations relate the pressure drop across a grid spacer to the relative plugging of the spacer i.e. solidity e{sub max}. More sophisticated correlations distinct between spacer grids with round or sharp leading edge shape. The purpose of this study is to (i) show that CFD is suitable to predict pressure drop across spacer grids and (ii) to access the generality of pressure drop correlations. By verification and validation of CFD results against experimental data obtained in KALLA we show (i). The generality (ii) is challenged by considering three cases which yield identical pressure drop in the correlations. First we test the effect of surface roughness, a parameter not present in the correlations. Here we compare a simulation assuming a typical surface roughness representing the experimental situation to a perfectly smooth spacer surface. Second we reverse the flow direction for the spacer grid employed in the experiments which is asymmetric. The flow direction reversal is chosen for convenience, since an asymmetric spacer grid with given blockage ratio, may result in different flow situations depending on flow direction. Obviously blockage

  9. Class, gender and culture in the experience of menopause. A comparative survey in Tunisia and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoë, Daniel; Hajri, Selma; Bachelot, Annie; Mahfoudh Draoui, Dorra; Hassoun, Danielle; Marsicano, Elise; Ringa, Virginie

    2012-07-01

    The experience of menopause can vary strongly from one society to another: frequency of hot flushes, other somatic and psychological symptoms, and changes in family and social relations. Several studies have shown that country of residence, country of birth, ethnicity, and social class all play roles in these variations. But few comparative anthropological studies have analysed the social processes that construct the experience of menopause or considered menopausal women's social and financial autonomy. To study the impact of the social status accorded to menopausal women and their social resources, during 2007 and 2008 we conducted a series of 75 in-depth interviews with women in different sociocultural settings: Tunisian women in Tunisia, Tunisian women in France, and French women in France, all aged from 45 to 70 years. Our methodological approach to the data included content analysis, typology development and socio-demographic analysis. Quite substantial differences appeared, as a function of social class and cultural environment. We identified three principal experiences of menopause. Tunisian working class women, in Tunisia and France, experience menopause with intense symptoms and strong feelings of social degradation. Among Tunisian middle-class women in both countries, menopause was most often accompanied by a severe decline in aesthetic and social value but few symptoms. For most of the French women, menopause involved few symptoms and little change in their social value. The distribution of types of experiences according to social but not geographic or national factors indicates that, in the populations studied here, the differences in symptoms are not biologically determined. Different experiences of menopause are linked to social class and to the degree of male domination. A given level of independence and emancipation allows women an identity beyond their reproductive function and a status unimpaired by menopause. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Aiming at Tobacco Harm Reduction: A survey comparing smokers differing in readiness to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafidou Jasmin-Olga

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greece has the highest smoking rates (in the 15-nation bloc in Europe. The purpose of this study was to investigate Greek smokers' intention and appraisal of capability to quit employing the theoretical frameworks of Decisional Balance (DB and Cognitive Dissonance (CD. Methods A cross-sectional study including 401 Greek habitual smokers (205 men and 195 women, falling into four groups according to their intention and self-appraised capability to quit smoking was carried out. Participants completed a questionnaire recording their attitude towards smoking, intention and self appraised capability to quit smoking, socio-demographic information, as well as a DB and a CD scale. Results The most numerous group of smokers (38% consisted of those who neither intended nor felt capable to quit and these smokers perceived more benefits of smoking than negatives. DB changed gradually according to smokers' "readiness" to quit: the more ready they felt to quit the less the pros of smoking outnumbered the cons. Regarding relief of CD, smokers who intended but did not feel capable to quit employed more "excuses" compared to those who felt capable. Additionally smokers with a past history of unsuccessful quit attempts employed fewer "excuses" even though they were more frequently found among those who intended but did not feel capable to quit. Conclusion Findings provide support for the DB theory. On the other hand, "excuses" do not appear to be extensively employed to reduce the conflict between smoking and concern for health. There is much heterogeneity regarding smokers' intention and appraised capability to quit, reflecting theoretical and methodological problems with the distinction among stages of change. Harm reduction programs and interventions designed to increase the implementation of smoking cessation should take into account the detrimental effect of past unsuccessful quit attempts.

  11. Mining and comparative survey of EST-SSR markers among members of Euphorbiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Surojit; Dehury, Budheswar; Sahu, Jagajjit; Rathi, Sunayana; Yadav, Raj Narain Singh

    2018-04-06

    Euphorbiaceae represents flowering plants family of tropical and sub-tropical region rich in secondary metabolites of economic importance. To understand and assess the genetic makeup among the members, this study was undertaken to characterize and compare SSR markers from publicly available ESTs and GSSs of nine selected species of the family. Mining of SSRs was performed by MISA, primer designing by Primer3, while functional annotation, gene ontology (GO) and enrichment analysis were performed by Blast2GO. A total 12,878 number of SSRs were detected from 101,701 number of EST sequences. SSR density ranged from 1 SSR/3.22 kb to 1 SSR/15.65 kb. A total of 1873 primer pairs were designed for the annotated SSR-Contigs. About 77.07% SSR-ESTs could be assigned a significant match to the protein database. 3037 unique SSR-FDM were assigned and IPR003657 (WRKY Domain) was found to be the most dominant FDM among the members. 1810 unique GO terms obtained were further subjected to enrichment analysis to obtain 513 statistically significant GO terms mapped to the SSR containing ESTs. Most frequent enriched GO terms were, GO:0003824 for molecular function, GO:0006350 for biological process and GO:0005886 for cellular component, justifying the richness of defensive secondary metabolites and phytomedicine within the family. The results from this study provides tangible insight to genetic make-up and distribution of SSRs. Functional annotation corresponded many genes of unknown functions which may be considered as novel genes or genes responsible for stress specific secondary metabolites. Further studies are required to understand stress specific genes accountable for leveraging the synthesis of secondary metabolites.

  12. Cowhage-induced itch as an experimental model for pruritus. A comparative study with histamine-induced itch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru D P Papoiu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Histamine is the prototypical pruritogen used in experimental itch induction. However, in most chronic pruritic diseases, itch is not predominantly mediated by histamine. Cowhage-induced itch, on the other hand, seems more characteristic of itch occurring in chronic pruritic diseases.We tested the validity of cowhage as an itch-inducing agent by contrasting it with the classical itch inducer, histamine, in healthy subjects and atopic dermatitis (AD patients. We also investigated whether there was a cumulative effect when both agents were combined.Fifteen healthy individuals and fifteen AD patients were recruited. Experimental itch induction was performed in eczema-free areas on the volar aspects of the forearm, using different itch inducers: histamine, cowhage and their combination thereof. Itch intensity was assessed continuously for 5.5 minutes after stimulus application using a computer-assisted visual analogue scale (COVAS.In both healthy and AD subjects, the mean and peak intensity of itch were higher after the application of cowhage compared to histamine, and were higher after the combined application of cowhage and histamine, compared to histamine alone (p<0.0001 in all cases. Itch intensity ratings were not significantly different between healthy and AD subjects for the same itch inducer used; however AD subjects exhibited a prolonged itch response in comparison to healthy subjects (p<0.001.Cowhage induced a more intense itch sensation compared to histamine. Cowhage was the dominant factor in itch perception when both pathways were stimulated in the same time. Cowhage-induced itch is a suitable model for the study of itch in AD and other chronic pruritic diseases, and it can serve as a new model for testing antipruritic drugs in humans.

  13. XY sex chromosome complement, compared with XX, in the CNS confers greater neurodegeneration during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Sienmi; Itoh, Noriko; Askarinam, Sahar; Hill, Haley; Arnold, Arthur P; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

    2014-02-18

    Women are more susceptible to multiple sclerosis (MS) and have more robust immune responses than men. However, men with MS tend to demonstrate a more progressive disease course than women, suggesting a disconnect between the severity of an immune attack and the CNS response to a given immune attack. We have previously shown in an MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, that autoantigen-sensitized XX lymph node cells, compared with XY, are more encephalitogenic. These studies demonstrated an effect of sex chromosomes in the induction of immune responses, but did not address a potential role of sex chromosomes in the CNS response to immune-mediated injury. Here, we examined this possibility using XX versus XY bone marrow chimeras reconstituted with a common immune system of one sex chromosomal type. We found that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice with an XY sex chromosome complement in the CNS, compared with XX, demonstrated greater clinical disease severity with more neuropathology in the spinal cord, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex. A candidate gene on the X chromosome, toll-like receptor 7, was then examined. Toll-like receptor 7 expression in cortical neurons was higher in mice with XY compared with mice with XX CNS, consistent with the known neurodegenerative role for toll-like receptor 7 in neurons. These results suggest that sex chromosome effects on neurodegeneration in the CNS run counter to effects on immune responses, and may bear relevance to the clinical enigma of greater MS susceptibility in women but faster disability progression in men. This is a demonstration of a direct effect of sex chromosome complement on neurodegeneration in a neurological disease.

  14. Comparing the results of recall surveys and standardized searches in understanding bird-window collisions at houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A. Kummer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year a large number of birds die when they collide with windows. The actual number is difficult to ascertain. Previous attempts to estimate bird-window collision rates in Canada relied heavily on a prior citizen-science study that used memory-based surveys. Such an approach to data collection has many potential biases. We built upon this study and its recommendations for future research by creating a citizen-science program that actively searched for collision evidence at houses and apartments for an extended period with the objective to see how standardized approaches to data collection compared with memory recall. Absolute collision estimates as well as relative differences were compared between residence types in the two studies, and we found considerable differences in absolute values for collisions but similar rankings of collision rates between residence types. Collision recall rates in our study (56.5% were very similar those in the prior 2012 study, where 50.5% of participants remembered a bird colliding with a window at some time in the past. Fatality estimates, however, were 1.4 times higher in the 2012 study than in our study based on standardized searches. Rural houses with a bird feeder consistently had the highest number of collisions. This suggests that memory recall surveys may be a useful tool for understanding the relative importance of different risk factors causing bird-window collisions.

  15. The impact of cigarette branding and plain packaging on perceptions of product appeal and risk among young adults in Norway: A between-subjects experimental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Ingeborg

    2013-12-04

    This study examined the perceptions of cigarette packaging and the potential impact of plain packaging regulations. The hypothesis was that the branded cigarette packages would be rated more positively than the corresponding plain packs with and without descriptors. Between-subjects experimental online survey. Male and female participants were separately randomised to one of the three experimental conditions: fully branded cigarette packs, plain packs with descriptors and plain packs without descriptors; participants were asked to evaluate 12 individual cigarette packages. The participants were also asked to compare five pairs of packs from the same brand family. Norway. 1010 youths and adults aged 15-22. Ratings of appeal, taste and harmfulness for individual packages. Ratings of taste, harm, quality, 'would rather try' and 'easier to quit' for pairs of packages. Plain with and without descriptors packs were rated less positively than the branded packs on appeal (index score 1.63/1.61 vs 2.42, pbranded condition was significant for appeal (index score 2.08/1.92 vs 2.58, pbranded condition for taste (index score 1.18 vs 1.70, pbranded compared with the plain condition on dimensions less harmful (β -0.77, 95% CI -0.97 to -0.56), would rather try (β -0.32, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.14) and easier to quit (β -0.58, 95% CI -0.76 to -0.39). The results indicate that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging could lead to a reduction in positive perceptions of cigarettes among young people.

  16. Comparative study of experimental and numerical behaviors of microwave absorbers based on ultrathin Al and Cu films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, D.S., E-mail: daniel_eng_aero@hotmail.com [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia/UNIFESP, Rua Talim, 330, CEP 12.231-280, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Nohara, E.L. [Universidade de Taubaté, Rua Daniel Danelli, s/n, CEP 12060-440, Taubaté, SP (Brazil); Rezende, M.C. [Instituto de Ciência e Tecnologia/UNIFESP, Rua Talim, 330, CEP 12.231-280, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    The study of radar absorbing materials increasingly thin, lightweight and flexible has gained growing importance in recent years. In military area these characteristics allow the reduction of weight and volume of platforms, and in civilian sector these materials stimulate innovative projects of electronic and microwave devices. The present work was devoted to studying ultrathin films of Al (20–80 nm) and Cu (10–100 nm) deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate by magnetron sputtering technique. The electrical conductivity values of the films were determined by 4 probes method, the S parameters (S{sub 11} and S{sub 12}) were obtained by transmission line using a X-band waveguide and the skin depth calculated. The results show the dependence of the electrical conductivity with the thickness for both films. The experimental values of microwave attenuation were compared with calculated values based on the equivalent electric circuit theory. This comparison shows a good adjustment and confirms the use of electrical conductivity measurements to predict the microwave absorption behavior of ultrathin films. - Highlights: • This article focuses on recent progresses in ultrathin films aiming microwave absorption. • Nanometric films of Al and Cu deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate were produced. • Electrical conductivity (4-probes) and S-parameters (S{sub 11} and S{sub 12}) of nanofilms were measured. • Calculated microwave attenuations were obtained based on the equivalent electric circuit theory. • A good fit between experimental and predictions data of microwave absorption was observed.

  17. A Comparative Histopathology, Serology and Molecular Study, on Experimental Ocular Toxocariasis by Toxocara cati in Mongolian Gerbils and Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zibaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three in-house diagnostic tests, that is, histopathology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, for the diagnosis after experimental infection with Toxocara cati. Twenty Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats were divided into ten groups (n=2/group. Toxocara cati infections were established in Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats by administering doses of 240 and 2500 embryonated Toxocara cati eggs by gavage, respectively. Tissue sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and observed under the light microscope. Sera and vitreous fluid collected from separate infected groups were tested against Toxocara cati antigens, for 92 days postinfection. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE blocks, and aqueous fluids belong to the animals. The histopathology test gave negative results among the groups of animals examined between 5 and 92 days postinfection. The ELISA results showed that anti-Toxocara antibodies have risen between 7 and 61 days postinfection in sera and vitreous fluid in the animals infected, respectively. Analysis of PCR products revealed positive band (660 bp in the orbital tissue infected Mongolian gerbils at 5 days postinfection. Of the three evaluated methods, the PCR could be recommended for scientific and laboratory diagnoses of toxocariasis in experimentally infected animals.

  18. Comparative study of experimental and numerical behaviors of microwave absorbers based on ultrathin Al and Cu films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, D.S.; Nohara, E.L.; Rezende, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The study of radar absorbing materials increasingly thin, lightweight and flexible has gained growing importance in recent years. In military area these characteristics allow the reduction of weight and volume of platforms, and in civilian sector these materials stimulate innovative projects of electronic and microwave devices. The present work was devoted to studying ultrathin films of Al (20–80 nm) and Cu (10–100 nm) deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate by magnetron sputtering technique. The electrical conductivity values of the films were determined by 4 probes method, the S parameters (S_1_1 and S_1_2) were obtained by transmission line using a X-band waveguide and the skin depth calculated. The results show the dependence of the electrical conductivity with the thickness for both films. The experimental values of microwave attenuation were compared with calculated values based on the equivalent electric circuit theory. This comparison shows a good adjustment and confirms the use of electrical conductivity measurements to predict the microwave absorption behavior of ultrathin films. - Highlights: • This article focuses on recent progresses in ultrathin films aiming microwave absorption. • Nanometric films of Al and Cu deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate were produced. • Electrical conductivity (4-probes) and S-parameters (S_1_1 and S_1_2) of nanofilms were measured. • Calculated microwave attenuations were obtained based on the equivalent electric circuit theory. • A good fit between experimental and predictions data of microwave absorption was observed.

  19. A comparative study of soft sensor design for lipid estimation of microalgal photobioreactor system with experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sung Jin; Jung, Dong Hwi; Kim, Jung Hun; Lee, Jong Min

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the applicability of various nonlinear estimators for online estimation of the lipid concentration in microalgae cultivation system. Lipid is a useful bio-product that has many applications including biofuels and bioactives. However, the improvement of lipid productivity using real-time monitoring and control with experimental validation is limited because measurement of lipid in microalgae is a difficult and time-consuming task. In this study, estimation of lipid concentration from other measurable sources such as biomass or glucose sensor was studied. Extended Kalman filter (EKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF), and particle filter (PF) were compared in various cases for their applicability to photobioreactor systems. Furthermore, simulation studies to identify appropriate types of sensors for estimating lipid were also performed. Based on the case studies, the most effective case was validated with experimental data and found that UKF and PF with time-varying system noise covariance is effective for microalgal photobioreactor system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Vienna comparative cognition technology (VCCT): an innovative operant conditioning system for various species and experimental procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer, Michael Morten; Aust, Ulrike; Huber, Ludwig

    2012-12-01

    This article describes a laboratory system for running learning experiments in operant chambers with various species. It is based on a modern version of a classical learning chamber for operant conditioning, the so-called "Skinner box". Rather than constituting a stand-alone unit, as is usually the case, it is an integrated part of a comprehensive technical solution, thereby eliminating a number of practical problems that are frequently encountered in research on animal learning and behavior. The Vienna comparative cognition technology combines modern computer, stimulus presentation, and reinforcement technology with flexibility and user-friendliness, which allows for efficient, widely automatized across-species experimentation, and thus makes the system appropriate for use in a broad range of learning tasks.

  1. Impact of a decision aid about stratified ovarian cancer risk-management on women’s knowledge and intentions: a randomised online experimental survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne F. Meisel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk stratification using genetic and other types of personal information could improve current best available approaches to ovarian cancer risk reduction, improving identification of women at increased risk of ovarian cancer and reducing unnecessary interventions for women at lower risk. Amounts of information given to women may influence key informed decision-related outcomes, e.g. knowledge. The primary aim of this study was to compare informed decision-related outcomes between women given one of two versions (gist vs. extended of a decision aid about stratified ovarian cancer risk-management. Methods This was an experimental survey study comparing the effects of brief (gist information with lengthier, more detailed (extended information on cognitions relevant to informed decision-making about participating in risk-stratified ovarian cancer screening. Women with no personal history of ovarian cancer were recruited through an online survey company and randomised to view the gist (n = 512 or extended (n = 519 version of a website-based decision aid and completed an online survey. Primary outcomes were knowledge and intentions. Secondary outcomes included attitudes (values and decisional conflict. Results There were no significant differences between the gist and extended conditions in knowledge about ovarian cancer (time*group interaction: F = 0.20, p = 0.66 or intention to participate in ovarian cancer screening based on genetic risk assessment (t(1029 = 0.43, p = 0.67. There were also no between-groups differences in secondary outcomes. In the sample overall (n = 1031, knowledge about ovarian cancer increased from before to after exposure to the decision aid (from 5.71 to 6.77 out of a possible 10: t = 19.04, p < 0.001, and 74% of participants said that they would participate in ovarian cancer screening based on genetic risk assessment. Conclusions No differences in knowledge or

  2. Comparative experimental studies on Trypanosoma isolates in mice and response to diminazene aceturate and isometamidium chloride treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluken Yayeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study was undertaken from December 2015 to May 2016 with the aim of determining and comparing the pathogenicity and response to diminazene aceturate (DA and isometamidium chloride (ISM treatment in experimentally infected mice with trypanosome isolates from Jawi and Birsheleko areas of northwest Ethiopia. A total of 42 mice were used for the experiment. These mice were randomly assigned in to 7 groups of 6 mice per group. Three of the groups (Group 1, 4 and 5 were inoculated with trypanosome isolated from Jawi and three other groups (Group-2, 6 and 7 were inoculated with trypanosome isolated from Birsheleko and the remaining one group (Group 3 was negative control. Each experimental mice were received 0.3 ml of positive blood at the 105 parasites/ml from donor animals intraperitoneally while negative control group were received 0.3 ml sterile water. The mice were clinically observed daily during the study period. Parameters including level of parasitaemia, body weight, PCV and hemoglobin value were recorded once per week for ten consecutive weeks post infection. Trypanocidal treatment was given on day 21 post infection when peak parasitaemia was detected in groups (Group 4-DA-Jawi, 5-ISM-Jawi, 6-DA-BRSH and 7-ISM-BRSH. The treatment doses for DA was at 28 mg/kg and for ISM at 4 mg/kg. In all experimental groups during study period when the mice showed severe clinical signs and at the end of the experiment they were euthanized with 70% ethanol for gross and histopathological examinations. The parameters measured during the study period revealed markers leading to pathological changes in all infected groups. Parasitaemia were detected early in the Jawi isolate infected groups compared to the Birsheleko groups. All infected mice showed clear clinical manifestation of depression, weight loss, reduction in feed intake and huddled together in the corner of the cage. Significant (P < 0.05 reduction was observed in the mean PCV and

  3. Sex differences in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and male engineers: a comparative cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Fisher, Murray

    2011-08-01

    There continue to be assumptions within the nursing literature that nursing is synonymous with a feminine sex role identity. A comparative cross-sectional survey consisting of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Australian sex role scale was used to determine sex difference in gender characteristics of Australian nurses and with male engineers. A statistically significant difference in femininity was found between all the samples (F((2,908)) = 20.24, p orientation (t = 27.67) and self display (t = 12.42). Whilst differences in expressive characteristics were found between male and female nurses, a similar difference was found between male nurses and male engineers, supporting the notion that male nurses perceive themselves as having feminine characteristics essentially required for nursing.

  4. Adherence to best practice guidelines in dyspepsia: a survey comparing dyspepsia experts, community gastroenterologists and primary-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, B M R; Farid, M; van Oijen, M G H; Laine, L; Howden, C W; Esrailian, E

    2009-04-15

    Although 'best practice' guidelines for dyspepsia management have been disseminated, it remains unclear whether providers adhere to these guidelines. To compare adherence to 'best practice' guidelines among dyspepsia experts, community gastroenterologists and primary-care providers (PCPs). We administered a vignette survey to elicit knowledge and beliefs about dyspepsia including a set of 16 best practices, to three groups: (i) dyspepsia experts; (ii) community gastroenterologists and (iii) PCPs. The expert, community gastroenterologist and PCP groups endorsed 75%, 73% and 57% of best practices respectively. Gastroenterologists were more likely to adhere with guidelines than PCPs (P guideline adherence (P = 0.04). Gastroenterologists are more likely than PCPs to comply with best practices in dyspepsia, although compliance remains incomplete in both groups. PCPs harbour more concerns regarding long-term PPI use and these concerns may affect therapeutic decision making. This suggests that best practices have not been uniformly adopted and persistent guideline-practice disconnects should be addressed.

  5. Utilization of Solar Dynamics Observatory space weather digital image data for comparative analysis with application to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekoyan, V.; Dehipawala, S.; Liu, Ernest; Tulsee, Vivek; Armendariz, R.; Tremberger, G.; Holden, T.; Marchese, P.; Cheung, T.

    2012-10-01

    Digital solar image data is available to users with access to standard, mass-market software. Many scientific projects utilize the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format, which requires specialized software typically used in astrophysical research. Data in the FITS format includes photometric and spatial calibration information, which may not be useful to researchers working with self-calibrated, comparative approaches. This project examines the advantages of using mass-market software with readily downloadable image data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for comparative analysis over with the use of specialized software capable of reading data in the FITS format. Comparative analyses of brightness statistics that describe the solar disk in the study of magnetic energy using algorithms included in mass-market software have been shown to give results similar to analyses using FITS data. The entanglement of magnetic energy associated with solar eruptions, as well as the development of such eruptions, has been characterized successfully using mass-market software. The proposed algorithm would help to establish a publicly accessible, computing network that could assist in exploratory studies of all FITS data. The advances in computer, cell phone and tablet technology could incorporate such an approach readily for the enhancement of high school and first-year college space weather education on a global scale. Application to ground based data such as that contained in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey is discussed.

  6. Where on earth to publish? A sample survey comparing traditional and open access publishing in the oncological field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Elisabetta; Bravo, Elena; Camerini, Tiziana; Ferri, Maurizio; Rizzo, Roberto; Solimini, Renata; Cognetti, Gaetana

    2013-01-22

    The paper intends to help scientific authors to make the best choice of journals in which to publish, by describing and comparing journal features in the area of oncology. For this purpose, the authors identified impact factor (IF) ranking, cost options and copyright conditions offered to authors wishing to publish in full open access (OA), subscription-based or hybrid journals. Data referring to articles published in 2010 by three Italian research institutions (National Institute of Health - Rome (ISS), Regina Elena National Cancer Institute - Rome (IRE), National Cancer Institute - Milan (INT) in journals (78) managed according to different business models, all listed in the Journal Citation Reports, subject category Oncology, were collected and analysed. The journals surveyed were ranked according to IF, position in quartiles, publication charges, usage rights in published articles, self-archiving conditions in OAI-compliant repositories digital archives. Almost half (34) the journals surveyed were included in the first quartile, thus revealing authors' preference for journals with a high IF. The prevalent journal business model was the hybrid formula (based on subscriptions but also offering a paid OA option) with 51 journals, followed by subscription-based only journals accounting for 22, while just 5 full OA journals were identified. In general, no relationship was found between IF and article publication charges, in terms of correspondence between more expensive fees and higher IF. The issue of OA journals as compared with traditional subscription-based journals is highly debated among stakeholders: library administrators facing financial restrictions, authors seeking to locate the best outlet for their research, publishers wishing to increase their revenues by offering journals with wider appeal. Against this background, factors such as the quest for alternatives to high-cost business models, investments in setting up institutional repositories hosting the

  7. Knowledge, attitude, and preventive practice survey regarding AIDS comparing registered to freelance commercial sex workers in Iloilo City, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T I; So, R

    1996-12-01

    A survey of female commercial sex workers (CSW) in Iloilo City, Philipines, was conducted in October and November 1995 to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding HIV/AIDS to guide future education programs. CSWs in the Philippines were categorized as registered or freelance. Registered CSWs included "hospitality girls" from licensed bars, night clubs, and massage parlors who have registered with the local social hygiene clinic (SHC). Freelance CSWs are not registered. 110 registered and 46 freelance CSWs were surveyed. We compared demographic data, scores from a basic knowledge test, and preventive practices between registered and freelance CSWs. Demographic data indicate that registered CSWs often originate from provinces outside of the Visayan Islands (25%) and most have never been married (93%). Freelance CSWs included more married (11%) and separated (11%) women from nearby cities. Knowledge test scores of registered and freelance CSWs were not significantly different. 90-96% of CSWs correctly answered questions regarding modes of transmission. However, 25% still believed it is possible to contract AIDS from using a public restroom. Registered and freelance CSWs believed their risks for AIDS to be equally great. However, 38% of freelance CSWs admit to never or almost never using condoms compared to 15% of registered CSWs. Licensed establishments and a support staff at the social hygiene clinic may provide a relatively structured working environment, giving registered CSWs security and confidence to insist on condom use. In most cases, condom use seems to depend on male customer compliance, and CSWs, especially freelancers, cannot afford to insist on condom use. The CSWs indicated that they learned most about AIDS through health personnel and television.

  8. Modeling and experimental study of a corrugated wick type solar still: Comparative study with a simple basin type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrawy, K.K.; Alosaimy, A.S.; Mahrous, A.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance of corrugated wick type solar still is compared with simple type. • Corrugated porous surface contributes by about 75% of the total productivity. • Productivity of corrugated solar still was 34% more than that for simple type. - Abstract: In the present work, the productivity of a solar still is modified by forming the evaporative surface as a corrugated shape as well as by decreasing the heat capacity with the use of a porous material. This target has been achieved by using black clothes in a corrugated shape that are immersed in water where the clothes absorbs water and get saturated by capillary effect. Along with the proposed corrugated wick type solar still, a simple basin still type was fabricated and tested to compare the enhancement accomplished by the developed solar still. Inclined reflectors were used to augment the solar radiation incident on the plane of the developed solar stills. The energy balance in the developed mathematical models takes into consideration the glass covers, the porous material, along with the portion of water exposed to the transmitted solar radiation as well as the portion of water shaded by the corrugated surface. The developed mathematical model was validated by fabricating and testing two models for the proposed and simple basin solar stills under the same conditions. Good agreement between the simulated and experimental results has been detected. It has been found that an improvement of about 34% in the productivity for the proposed wick type solar still is gained as compared to the simple basin case. Also, the best tilt angle for the inclined reflector has been found to be about 30° with respect to the vertical direction of the setup under consideration.

  9. Calculating of Dose Distribution in Tongue Brachytherapy by Different Radioisotopes using Monte Carlo Simulation and Comparing by Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Zeinali Rafsanjani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among different kinds of oral cavity cancers, the frequency of tongue cancer occurrence is more significant. Brachytherapy is the most common method to cure tongue cancers. Long sources are used in different techniques of tongue brachytherapy. The objective of this study is to asses the dose distribution around long sources, comparing different radioisotopes as brachytherapy sources, measuring the homogeneity of delivered dose to treatment volume and also comparing mandible dose and dose of tongue in the regions near the mandible with and without using shield. Material and Method: The Monte Carlo code MCNP4C was used for simulation. The accuracy of simulation was verified by comparing the results with experimental data. The sources like Ir-192, Cs-137, Ra-226, Au-198, In-111 and Ba-131 were simulated and the position of sources was determined by Paris system. Results: The percentage of mandible dose reduction with use of 2 mm Pb shield for the sources mentioned above were: 35.4%, 20.1%, 86.6%, 32.24%, 75.6%, and 36.8%. The tongue dose near the mandible with use of shied did not change significantly. The dose homogeneity from the most to least was obtained from these sources: Cs-137, Au-198, Ir-192, Ba-131, In-111 and Ra-226. Discussion and Conclusion: Ir-192 and Cs-137 were the best sources for tongue brachytherapy treatment but In-111 and Ra-226 were not suitable choices for tongue brachytherapy. The sources like Au-198 and Ba-131 had rather the same performance as Ir-192

  10. Making comparative performance information more comprehensible: an experimental evaluation of the impact of formats on consumer understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Olga C; De Jong, Anco; Hibbard, Judith H; Timmermans, Danielle R M

    2016-11-01

    We aimed to investigate how different presentation formats influence comprehension and use of comparative performance information (CPI) among consumers. An experimental between-subjects and within-subjects design with manipulations of CPI presentation formats. We enrolled both consumers with lower socioeconomic status (SES)/cognitive skills and consumers with higher SES/cognitive skills, recruited through an online access panel. Respondents received fictitious CPI and completed questions about interpretation and information use. Between subjects, we tested (1) displaying an overall performance score (yes/no); (2) displaying a small number of quality indicators (5 vs 9); and (3) displaying different types of evaluative symbols (star ratings, coloured dots and word icons vs numbers and bar graphs). Within subjects, we tested the effect of a reduced number of healthcare providers (5 vs 20). Data were analysed using descriptive analysis, analyses of variance and paired-sampled t tests. A total of 902 (43%) respondents participated. Displaying an overall performance score and the use of coloured dots and word icons particularly enhanced consumer understanding. Importantly, respondents provided with coloured dots most often correctly selected the top three healthcare providers (84.3%), compared with word icons (76.6% correct), star ratings (70.6% correct), numbers (62.0%) and bars (54.2%) when viewing performance scores of 20 providers. Furthermore, a reduced number of healthcare providers appeared to support consumers, for example, when provided with 20 providers, 69.5% correctly selected the top three, compared with 80.2% with five providers. Particular presentation formats enhanced consumer understanding of CPI, most importantly the use of overall performance scores, word icons and coloured dots, and a reduced number of providers displayed. Public report efforts should use these formats to maximise impact on consumers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  11. Accuracy and Precision of Three-Dimensional Low Dose CT Compared to Standard RSA in Acetabular Cups: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodén, Cyrus; Olivecrona, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The gold standard for detection of implant wear and migration is currently radiostereometry (RSA). The purpose of this study is to compare a three-dimensional computed tomography technique (3D CT) to standard RSA as an alternative technique for measuring migration of acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods. With tantalum beads, we marked one cemented and one uncemented cup and mounted these on a similarly marked pelvic model. A comparison was made between 3D CT and standard RSA for measuring migration. Twelve repeated stereoradiographs and CT scans with double examinations in each position and gradual migration of the implants were made. Precision and accuracy of the 3D CT were calculated. Results. The accuracy of the 3D CT ranged between 0.07 and 0.32 mm for translations and 0.21 and 0.82° for rotation. The precision ranged between 0.01 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.06 and 0.29° for rotations, respectively. For standard RSA, the precision ranged between 0.04 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.08 and 0.32° for rotations, respectively. There was no significant difference in precision between 3D CT and standard RSA. The effective radiation dose of the 3D CT method, comparable to RSA, was estimated to be 0.33 mSv. Interpretation. Low dose 3D CT is a comparable method to standard RSA in an experimental setting.

  12. Trusting Social Media as a Source of Health Information: Online Surveys Comparing the United States, Korea, and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hayeon; Omori, Kikuko; Kim, Jihyun; Tenzek, Kelly E; Morey Hawkins, Jennifer; Lin, Wan-Ying; Kim, Yong-Chan; Jung, Joo-Young

    2016-03-14

    The Internet has increasingly become a popular source of health information by connecting individuals with health content, experts, and support. More and more, individuals turn to social media and Internet sites to share health information and experiences. Although online health information seeking occurs worldwide, limited empirical studies exist examining cross-cultural differences in perceptions about user-generated, experience-based information compared to expertise-based information sources. To investigate if cultural variations exist in patterns of online health information seeking, specifically in perceptions of online health information sources. It was hypothesized that Koreans and Hongkongers, compared to Americans, would be more likely to trust and use experience-based knowledge shared in social Internet sites, such as social media and online support groups. Conversely, Americans, compared to Koreans and Hongkongers, would value expertise-based knowledge prepared and approved by doctors or professional health providers more. Survey questionnaires were developed in English first and then translated into Korean and Chinese. The back-translation method ensured the standardization of questions. Surveys were administered using a standardized recruitment strategy and data collection methods. A total of 826 participants living in metropolitan areas from the United States (n=301), Korea (n=179), and Hong Kong (n=337) participated in the study. We found significant cultural differences in information processing preferences for online health information. A planned contrast test revealed that Koreans and Hongkongers showed more trust in experience-based health information sources (blogs: t451.50=11.21, Psocial networking sites [SNS]: t466.75=11.36, P<.001) and also reported using blogs (t515.31=6.67, P<.001) and SNS (t529.22=4.51, P<.001) more frequently than Americans. Americans showed a stronger preference for using expertise-based information sources (eg, Web

  13. Apical Periodontitis and Endodontic Treatment in Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Comparative Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadi, Leena

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients compared with nondiabetic patients and to examine the effect of glycemic control on the prevalence of AP. Radiographs of a group of DM patients were compared with those of a matched nondiabetic group to identify AP. The diabetic group was subdivided according to the level of glycemic control into two subgroups: A well-controlled DM and a poorly controlled DM. The periapical index score was used to assess the periapical status. All groups were compared in regard to the presence of AP lesions, the number of end-odontically treated teeth (ET), and the percentage of failure of endodontically treated teeth (AP/ET ratio). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used for all the analyses; p ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The prevalence of AP was higher in diabetic group than in the nondiabetic group (13.5 vs 11.9% respectively). Diabetic group had more teeth with endodontic treatment ET compared with nondiabetic group (4.18 vs 1.82% respectively); this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001) along with higher AP/ET ratio (27.7 vs 19.3 respectively). The poorly controlled DM group had a higher prevalence of AP lesions compared with the well-controlled DM group (18.29 vs 9.21 respectively). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.001); they also had a higher percentage of ET (5.55 vs 3.13% respectively) and AP/ ET ratio (32.0 vs 21.8% respectively). This survey demonstrates a higher prevalence of AP in DM patients compared with nondiabetic group, with an increased prevalence of persistent chronic AP. Compared with a well-controlled diabetic group, a poor glycemic control may be associated with a higher prevalence of AP and increased rate of endodontic failures. Counseling diabetic patients, particularly those with poor glycemic control, about the risk of

  14. Study types and reliability of Real World Evidence compared with experimental evidence used in Polish reimbursement decision-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, N; Wierzbicka, N; Skrzekowska-Baran, I; Moćko, P; Tomassy, J; Kloc, K

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship and impact between Real World Evidence (RWE) and experimental evidence (EE) in Polish decision-making processes for the drugs from selected Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) groups. Descriptive study. A detailed analysis was performed for 58 processes from five ATC code groups in which RWE for effectiveness, or effectiveness and safety were cited in Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Tariff System's (AOTMiT) documents published between January 2012 and September 2015: Verification Analysis of AOTMiT, Statement of the Transparency Council of AOTMiT, and Recommendation of the President of AOTMiT. In 62% of the cases, RWE supported the EE and confirmed its main conclusions. The majority of studies in the EE group showed to be RCTs (97%), and the RWE group included mainly cohort studies (89%). There were more studies without a control group within RWE compared with the EE group (10% vs 1%). Our results showed that EE are more often assessed using Jadad, NICE or NOS scale by AOTMiT compared with RWE (93% vs 48%). When the best evidence within a given decision-making process is analysed, half of RWE and two-thirds of EE are considered high quality evidence. RWE plays an important role in the decision-making processes on public funding of drugs in Poland, contributing to nearly half (45%) of all the evidence considered. There exist such processes in which the proportion of RWE is dominant, with one process showing RWE as the only evidence presented. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preventing intraperitoneal adhesions with ethyl pyruvate and hyaluronic acid/carboxymethylcellulose: a comparative study in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, E Kıyak; Caglayan, K; Erdogan, N; Cinar, H; Güngör, B

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of ethyl pyruvate (EP) with that of hyaluronic acid+carboxymethyl cellulose (Seprafilm) for the prevention of intraperitoneal adhesions. Seprafilm has been shown to be effective in many experimental and clinical studies. Thirty rats were divided into three groups at random, and uterine horn abrasion was performed by laparotomy. One group received no treatment (control group), one group received a single intraperitoneal dose of EP 50mg/kg (EP group), and a 2×1-cm patch of Seprafilm was applied in the third group (Seprafilm group). All rats were killed 14 days after surgery. Macroscopic and histopathological evaluation were performed by a surgeon and a pathologist who were blinded to group allocation. Histopathologically, inflammation, fibroblastic activity, foreign body reaction, collagen proliferation, vascular proliferation, Masson-Trichrome score, matrix metalloproteinase-2 score and vascular endothelial growth factor score were studied. Median macroscopic intraperitoneal adhesion scores for the control, EP and Seprafilm groups were 2.8, 1.2 and 1.1, respectively. Multiple comparisons between groups showed a significant difference (p0.05). After histopathological evaluation, significant differences in all parameters were found between the groups (p0.0167). In comparison with the untreated control group, EP and Seprafilm were found to reduce the formation of intraperitoneal adhesions. No significant difference was found between EP and Seprafilm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the radiographic process using a experimental monobath solution compared with normal (Kodak) and rapid (RAY) developer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratieri, N.M.M.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the radiographic image quality of two dental X-ray films (Kodak's EP-21 and Agfa-Gevaert DOS-1) when processed in a normal (Kodak) a rapid (Ray) and a experimental monobath solutions, is presented. These films, processed in those solutions had their time of development, temperature and agitation performances checked by sensitometry; pH and color by routine methods and hipo rests by spectrophotometry. The radiographies were also analysed by able professionals regarding the best development time. The data so obtained allowed the conclusions that the best development time for the monobath was 3 minutes at 20 0 C but 25 or 30 0 C give also acceptable results at shorter times. The agitation of 10 seconds every minute is an important factor concerning image quality. pH and color do alter rapidally but with little influence in the final result. We found a certain amount of residual chemical compounds which were not identified but that are not hipo components, and being important to note that they seem not act upon the emulsion at least during one year after processing. (author) [pt

  17. MR-Imaging of teeth and periodontal apparatus: an experimental study comparing high-resolution MRI with MDCT and CBCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudino, Chiara; Csernus, Reka; Pham, Mirko; Bendszus, Martin; Rohde, Stefan; Cosgarea, Raluca; Kim, Ti-Sun; Heiland, Sabine; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was (1) to assess the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize dental and periodontal structures and (2) to compare findings with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT). Four porcine mandibles were examined with (1) 3T-MRI, (2) MDCT and (3) CBCT. Two observers independently reviewed MR, MDCT and CBCT images and assessed image quality of different dental and periodontal structures. To assess quantitatively the accuracy of the different imaging technique, both observers measured burr holes, previously drilled in the mandibles. Dental structures, e.g. teeth roots, pulpa chamber and dentin, were imaged accurately with all imaging sources. Periodontal space and cortical/trabecular bone were better visualized by MRI (p < 0.001). MRI could excellently display the lamina dura, not detectable with MDCT and only inconstant visible with CBCT (p < 0.001). Burr hole measurements were highly precise with all imaging techniques. This experimental study shows the diagnostic feasibility of MRI in visualization of teeth and periodontal anatomy. Detection of periodontal structures was significantly better with MRI than with MDCT or CBCT. Prospective trials have to evaluate further the potential benefit of MRI in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  18. MR-Imaging of teeth and periodontal apparatus: an experimental study comparing high-resolution MRI with MDCT and CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudino, Chiara; Csernus, Reka; Pham, Mirko; Bendszus, Martin; Rohde, Stefan [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Cosgarea, Raluca; Kim, Ti-Sun [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Periodontology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heiland, Sabine [University Hospital Heidelberg, Section of Experimental Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Beomonte Zobel, Bruno [University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Department of Radiology, Interdisciplinary Center for Biomedical Research, Rome (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was (1) to assess the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize dental and periodontal structures and (2) to compare findings with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone beam CT (CBCT). Four porcine mandibles were examined with (1) 3T-MRI, (2) MDCT and (3) CBCT. Two observers independently reviewed MR, MDCT and CBCT images and assessed image quality of different dental and periodontal structures. To assess quantitatively the accuracy of the different imaging technique, both observers measured burr holes, previously drilled in the mandibles. Dental structures, e.g. teeth roots, pulpa chamber and dentin, were imaged accurately with all imaging sources. Periodontal space and cortical/trabecular bone were better visualized by MRI (p < 0.001). MRI could excellently display the lamina dura, not detectable with MDCT and only inconstant visible with CBCT (p < 0.001). Burr hole measurements were highly precise with all imaging techniques. This experimental study shows the diagnostic feasibility of MRI in visualization of teeth and periodontal anatomy. Detection of periodontal structures was significantly better with MRI than with MDCT or CBCT. Prospective trials have to evaluate further the potential benefit of MRI in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  19. Outbreaks, gene flow and effective population size in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria: a regional-scale comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Marie-Pierre; Loiseau, Anne; Michalakis, Yannis; Lecoq, Michel; Franc, Alex; Estoup, Arnaud

    2009-03-01

    The potential effect of population outbreaks on within and between genetic variation of populations in pest species has rarely been assessed. In this study, we compare patterns of genetic variation in different sets of historically frequently outbreaking and rarely outbreaking populations of an agricultural pest of major importance, the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. We analyse genetic variation within and between 24 populations at 14 microsatellites in Western Europe, where only ancient and low-intensity outbreaks have been reported (non-outbreaking populations), and in Madagascar and Northern China, where frequent and intense outbreak events have been recorded over the last century (outbreaking populations). Our comparative survey shows that (i) the long-term effective population size is similar in outbreaking and non-outbreaking populations, as evidenced by similar estimates of genetic diversity, and (ii) gene flow is substantially larger among outbreaking populations than among non-outbreaking populations, as evidenced by a fourfold to 30-fold difference in FST values. We discuss the implications for population dynamics and the consequences for management strategies of the observed patterns of genetic variation in L. migratoria populations with contrasting historical outbreak frequency and extent.

  20. Comparing profiles of mental disorder across birth cohorts: results from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Buchan, Heather; Batterham, Philip J; Slade, Tim

    2014-05-01

    To describe and compare individuals with any DSM-IV mental disorder from three different birth cohorts - young (16-34 years), middle age (35-59 years) and older age (60-85 years) - on a range of clinically relevant factors. Data were derived from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Individuals from three birth cohorts with a range of mental health and substance use disorders were identified using DSM-IV criteria and compared using regression analysis. The specific factors that were compared include: (1) type of disorder/disorders present; (2) suicidality; (3) number of co-occurring disorders; (4) levels of distress and impairment; (5) self-assessed physical and mental health; (6) presence of physical conditions; (7) size and quality of social support/network; and (8) treatment-seeking behaviour. The birth cohorts differed dramatically in terms of the specific disorders that were present. The older cohort were significantly more likely to experience internalising disorders and significantly less likely to experience externalising disorders in comparison to the young cohort. The older cohort were significantly more likely to experience co-morbid physical conditions as well as lower life satisfaction, poorer self-rated physical health, increased functional impairment, and more days out of role. The younger cohort had a significantly larger peer group that they could confide in and rely on in comparison to the older cohort. Clinicians and researchers need to be cognisant that mental disorders manifest as highly heterogeneous constructs. The presentation of a disorder in a younger individual could be vastly different from the presentation of the same disorder in an older individual. The additional burden associated with these factors and how they apply to different birth cohorts must be taken into consideration when planning mental health services and effective treatment for the general population.

  1. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SUPERNOVA LEGACY SURVEY SAMPLE WITH ΛCDM AND THE Rh=ct UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift–luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the R h = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the R h = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since R h = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of R h = ct is ∼90%, compared with only ∼10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to R h = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely

  2. The impact of cigarette branding and plain packaging on perceptions of product appeal and risk among young adults in Norway: A between-subjects experimental survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Ingeborg

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the perceptions of cigarette packaging and the potential impact of plain packaging regulations. The hypothesis was that the branded cigarette packages would be rated more positively than the corresponding plain packs with and without descriptors. Design Between-subjects experimental online survey. Male and female participants were separately randomised to one of the three experimental conditions: fully branded cigarette packs, plain packs with descriptors and plain packs without descriptors; participants were asked to evaluate 12 individual cigarette packages. The participants were also asked to compare five pairs of packs from the same brand family. Setting Norway. Participants 1010 youths and adults aged 15–22. Primary outcome measures Ratings of appeal, taste and harmfulness for individual packages. Ratings of taste, harm, quality, ‘would rather try’ and ‘easier to quit’ for pairs of packages. Results Plain with and without descriptors packs were rated less positively than the branded packs on appeal (index score 1.63/1.61 vs 2.42, p<0.001), taste (index score 1.21/1.12 vs 1.70, p<0.001) and as less harmful (index score 1.0.34/0.36 vs 0.82, p<0.001) among females. Among males, the difference between the plain with and without descriptors versus branded condition was significant for appeal (index score 2.08/1.92 vs 2.58, p<0.005) and between the plain without descriptors versus branded condition for taste (index score 1.18 vs 1.70, p<0.00). The pack comparison task showed that the packs with descriptors suggesting a lower content of harmful substances, together with lighter colours, were more positively rated in the branded compared with the plain condition on dimensions less harmful (β −0.77, 95% CI −0.97 to −0.56), would rather try (β −0.32, 95% CI −0.50 to −0.14) and easier to quit (β −0.58, 95% CI −0.76 to −0.39). Conclusions The results indicate that a shift from branded to plain cigarette

  3. Trends in x-ray photography and patient exposure dose. Questionnaire survey results compared with those in 1973. [questionnaire survey in 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orito, T; Sanada, S; Maekawa, R; Koshida, K; Hiraki, T [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine

    1980-04-01

    The exposure doses of patients in X-ray photography are influenced by such technological factors as X-ray tube voltage, filter, sensitizing screen, film and grid. Survey by questionnnaire was made previously in 1973 on the above factors. The trends five years after were surveyed similarly, in connection with the exposure doses of patients. Questionnaires were sent to 200 radiation technicians, and 121 (60.5%) answered the survey in March, 1979. The results in the cases of simple X-ray photography and obstetric, infant and breast X-ray photographings are described. X-ray tube voltage is generally on the increase. In the sensitizing screens, exposure doses are fairly decreased due to the use of improved intensifying screen (LT-II). In the grid, the ratio 8 : 1 is used more than 5 : 1. In the usage of additional filters and in the distance of photography, improvements are desired.

  4. A comparative study on experimental and theoretical ESR spectra of lactic acid polymers irradiated by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoglu, Oe.; Oezbey, T.; Gueven, O.

    1998-01-01

    Homo polymers of L-Lactic acid (LLA) and D,L-Lactic acid (DLLA), being biocompatible and absorbable in body iluids have recently found wide applications in the preparation of surgical sutures, controlled drug delivery systems, burn wound coverings etc. For sometime these polymers have also been prepared in the form of plates and screws for mandibular fracture fixation, tissue implants. Their chemical sensitivities against relatively high temperatures and hydrolysis with water make them unsuitable for conventional sterilization techniques like hot water vapor and ethylene oxide. Sterilization of the devices made of these polymers is therefore possible by gamma ray irradiation. This has initiated a number of research works in order to better understand the effects of ionizing radiation on this polymer. The aim of this study is to determine the possible radical types, their location on macromolecular structure and the reasons for peak shifts in the experimental and theoretical ESR spectra. Polymer samples were irradiated in air and in vacuum (10□□ torr) to 25 kGy sterilization dose at the dose rate 0.59 kGy/h and at room temperature by 60 Co γ-irradiator. Despite being chemically the same radical type, some differences were observed in the splitting of peaks of PLLA and PDLLA samples. These differences were determined and compared by means of fitting studies. Firstly, PLLA was characterized and its g and hyperfine splitting values were found as 2.0032±0.0002 and 20.37±0.2. In the characterization study of PDLLA, it was found that one of the nearest two radicals was on the upper and the other one was on the lower plane of PDLLA chain. (author)

  5. Long-Term Therapeutic Effects of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Compared to Dexamethasone on Recurrent Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingjun; Zheng, Hui; Shao, Hui; Nian, Hong; Zhang, Yan; Bai, Lingling; Su, Chang; Liu, Xun; Dong, Lijie; Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We tested the long-term effects of different regimens of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration in a recurrent experimental autoimmune uveitis (rEAU) model in rats, and compared the efficacy of MSC to that of dexamethasone (DEX). Methods. One or two courses of MSC treatments were applied to R16-specific T cell–induced rEAU rats before or after disease onsets. The DEX injections were given for 7 or 50 days continuously after disease onsets. Clinical appearances were observed until the 50th day after transfer. On the 10th day, T cells from control and MSC groups were analyzed by flow cytometry. Supernatants from the proliferation assay and aqueous humor were collected for cytokine detection. Functions of T cells and APCs in spleens also were studied by lymphocyte proliferation assays. Results. One course of MSC therapy, administered after disease onset, led to a lasting therapeutic effect, with a decreased incidence, reduced mean clinical score, and reduced retinal impairment after 50 days of observation, while multiple courses of treatment did not improve the therapeutic benefit. Although DEX and MSCs equally reduced the severity of the first episode of rEAU, the effect of DEX was shorter lasting, and DEX therapy failed to control the disease even with long periods of treatment. The MSCs significantly decreased T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 responses, suppressed the function of antigen-presenting cells, and upregulated T regulatory cells. Conclusions. These results suggested that MSCs might be new corticosteroid spring agents, while providing fewer side effects and longer lasting suppressive effects for recurrent uveitis. PMID:25125599

  6. Comparative effects of amlodipine and benazepril on left atrial pressure in dogs with experimentally-induced mitral valve regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shuji; Fukushima, Ryuji; Ishikawa, Taisuke; Yamamoto, Yuta; Hamabe, Lina; Kim, Soomin; Yoshiyuki, Rieko; Machida, Noboru; Tanaka, Ryou

    2012-09-18

    One of the purposes of treatment for dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) is lowering left atrial pressure (LAP). There has been few study of the amlodipine in dogs with MR and amlodipine's effect on LAP has not been fully evaluated in a quantitative manner because of difficulties in directly measuring LAP. The objective of our study was to compare the short-term effects of amlodipine (0.2 mg/kg PO q12h) vs benazepril (0.5 mg/kg PO q12h), on LAP and echocardiographic parameters in five beagle dogs with experimentally-induced MR. LAP of eight dogs that has own control were measured using radiotelemetry system at baseline and again on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 of the drug administration. Mean LAP decreased significantly after amlodipine (11.20 ± 4.19 mmHg vs 14.61 ± 3.81 mmHg at baseline, p benazepril treatment (13.19 ± 3.47 mmHg, p > .05). LAP was lower after 7 days of amlodipine treatment than after 7 days of benazepril treatment. Significant reduction was seen for the first time 4 days after the administration amlodipine. The rate of the maximal area of the regurgitant jet signals to the left atrium area (ARJ/LAA) of the amlodipine treatment was significantly lower (p benazepril treatment. Although this study did not focus on adverse effects, amlodipine may be an effective drug for helping the patients with acute onset of severe MR, such as rupture of chordae tendinae or end stage patients were the LAP is likely to be elevated. Additional studies in clinical patients with degenerative mitral valve disease and acute chordal rupture are warranted because the blood-pressure lowering effects of amlodipine can decrease renal perfusion and this can further activate the RAAS.

  7. Audio computer-assisted self interview compared to traditional interview in an HIV-related behavioral survey in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Linh Cu; Vu, Lan T H

    2012-10-01

    Globally, population surveys on HIV/AIDS and other sensitive topics have been using audio computer-assisted self interview for many years. This interview technique, however, is still new to Vietnam and little is known about its application and impact in general population surveys. One plausible hypothesis is that residents of Vietnam interviewed using this technique may provide a higher response rate and be more willing to reveal their true behaviors than if interviewed with traditional methods. This study aims to compare audio computer-assisted self interview with traditional face-to-face personal interview and self-administered interview with regard to rates of refusal and affirmative responses to questions on sensitive topics related to HIV/AIDS. In June 2010, a randomized study was conducted in three cities (Ha Noi, Da Nan and Can Tho), using a sample of 4049 residents aged 15 to 49 years. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three interviewing methods: audio computer-assisted self interview, personal face-to-face interview, and self-administered paper interview. Instead of providing answers directly to interviewer questions as with traditional methods, audio computer-assisted self-interview respondents read the questions displayed on a laptop screen, while listening to the questions through audio headphones, then entered responses using a laptop keyboard. A MySQL database was used for data management and SPSS statistical package version 18 used for data analysis with bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Rates of high risk behaviors and mean values of continuous variables were compared for the three data collection methods. Audio computer-assisted self interview showed advantages over comparison techniques, achieving lower refusal rates and reporting higher prevalence of some sensitive and risk behaviors (perhaps indication of more truthful answers). Premarital sex was reported by 20.4% in the audio computer-assisted self-interview survey

  8. Teaching musculoskeletal examination skills to UK medical students: a comparative survey of Rheumatology and Orthopaedic education practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Tim

    2014-03-28

    Specialists in Rheumatology and Orthopaedics are frequently involved in undergraduate teaching of musculoskeletal (MSK) examination skills. Students often report that specialty-led teaching is inconsistent, confusing and bears little resemblance to the curricula. The Gait, Arms, Legs and Spine (GALS) is a MSK screening tool that provides a standardised approach to examination despite it being fraught with disapproval and low uptake. Recent studies would appear to support innovative instructional methods of engaging learners such as patient educators and interactive small group teaching. This comparative cross-sectional survey evaluates the current state of undergraduate teaching in Rheumatology and Orthopaedics, including preferred teaching methods, attitudes towards GALS, and barriers to effective teaching. An electronic questionnaire was sent to specialist trainees and Consultants in the East and West Midlands region, representing 5 UK medical schools. Descriptive statistical data analysis was performed. There were 76 respondents representing 5 medical schools. There was a request for newer teaching methodologies to be used: multi-media computer-assisted learning (35.5%), audio-visual aids (31.6%), role-playing (19.7%), and social media (3.9%). It is evident that GALS is under-utilised with 50% of clinicians not using GALS in their teaching. There is a genuine desire for clinical educators to improve their teaching ability, collaborate more with curriculum planners, and feel valued by institutions. There remains a call for implementing a standardised approach to MSK clinical teaching to supersede GALS.

  9. An Optimization Study on Listening Experiments to Improve the Comparability of Annoyance Ratings of Noise Samples from Different Experimental Sample Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guoqing; Lu, Kuanguang; Shi, Xiaofan

    2018-03-08

    Annoyance ratings obtained from listening experiments are widely used in studies on health effect of environmental noise. In listening experiments, participants usually give the annoyance rating of each noise sample according to its relative annoyance degree among all samples in the experimental sample set if there are no reference sound samples, which leads to poor comparability between experimental results obtained from different experimental sample sets. To solve this problem, this study proposed to add several pink noise samples with certain loudness levels into experimental sample sets as reference sound samples. On this basis, the standard curve between logarithmic mean annoyance and loudness level of pink noise was used to calibrate the experimental results and the calibration procedures were described in detail. Furthermore, as a case study, six different types of noise sample sets were selected to conduct listening experiments using this method to examine the applicability of it. Results showed that the differences in the annoyance ratings of each identical noise sample from different experimental sample sets were markedly decreased after calibration. The determination coefficient ( R ²) of linear fitting functions between psychoacoustic annoyance (PA) and mean annoyance (MA) of noise samples from different experimental sample sets increased obviously after calibration. The case study indicated that the method above is applicable to calibrating annoyance ratings obtained from different types of noise sample sets. After calibration, the comparability of annoyance ratings of noise samples from different experimental sample sets can be distinctly improved.

  10. Physiotherapists use a small number of behaviour change techniques when promoting physical activity: A systematic review comparing experimental and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstler, Breanne E; Cook, Jill L; Freene, Nicole; Finch, Caroline F; Kemp, Joanne L; O'Halloran, Paul D; Gaida, James E

    2018-06-01

    Physiotherapists promote physical activity as part of their practice. This study reviewed the behaviour change techniques physiotherapists use when promoting physical activity in experimental and observational studies. Systematic review of experimental and observational studies. Twelve databases were searched using terms related to physiotherapy and physical activity. We included experimental studies evaluating the efficacy of physiotherapist-led physical activity interventions delivered to adults in clinic-based private practice and outpatient settings to individuals with, or at risk of, non-communicable diseases. Observational studies reporting the techniques physiotherapists use when promoting physical activity were also included. The behaviour change techniques used in all studies were identified using the Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy. The behaviour change techniques appearing in efficacious and inefficacious experimental interventions were compared using a narrative approach. Twelve studies (nine experimental and three observational) were retained from the initial search yield of 4141. Risk of bias ranged from low to high. Physiotherapists used seven behaviour change techniques in the observational studies, compared to 30 behaviour change techniques in the experimental studies. Social support (unspecified) was the most frequently identified behaviour change technique across both settings. Efficacious experimental interventions used more behaviour change techniques (n=29) and functioned in more ways (n=6) than did inefficacious experimental interventions (behaviour change techniques=10 and functions=1). Physiotherapists use a small number of behaviour change techniques. Less behaviour change techniques were identified in observational studies compared to experimental studies, suggesting physiotherapists use less BCTs clinically than experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Enalapril and Losartan in Pharmacological Correction of Experimental Osteoporosis and Fractures of Its Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, D. S. R.; Faitelson, A. V.; Gudyrev, O. S.; Dubrovin, G. M.; Pokrovski, M. V.; Ivanov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    In the experiment on the white Wistar female rats (222 animals), the osteoprotective effect of enalapril and losartan was studied on experimental models of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. It was revealed that in rats after ovariectomy, the endothelial dysfunction of microcirculation vessels of osteal tissue develops, resulting in occurrence of osteoporosis and delay of consolidation of experimental fractures. Enalapril and losartan prevented the reduction of microcirculation in bone, which was reflected in slowing the thinning of bone trabeculae and in preventing the occurrence of these microfractures, as well as increasing quality of experimental fractures healing. PMID:23401845

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Enalapril and Losartan in Pharmacological Correction of Experimental Osteoporosis and Fractures of Its Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. R. Rajkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment on the white Wistar female rats (222 animals, the osteoprotective effect of enalapril and losartan was studied on experimental models of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. It was revealed that in rats after ovariectomy, the endothelial dysfunction of microcirculation vessels of osteal tissue develops, resulting in occurrence of osteoporosis and delay of consolidation of experimental fractures. Enalapril and losartan prevented the reduction of microcirculation in bone, which was reflected in slowing the thinning of bone trabeculae and in preventing the occurrence of these microfractures, as well as increasing quality of experimental fractures healing.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Supernova Legacy Survey Sample With ΛCDM and the Rh=ct Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S.

    2015-03-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has thus far produced the most reliable measurement of the expansion history of the universe, suggesting that ΛCDM offers the best explanation for the redshift-luminosity distribution observed in these events. However, analysis of other kinds of sources, such as cosmic chronometers, gamma-ray bursts, and high-z quasars, conflicts with this conclusion, indicating instead that the constant expansion rate implied by the Rh = ct universe is a better fit to the data. The central difficulty with the use of SNe Ia as standard candles is that one must optimize three or four nuisance parameters characterizing supernova (SN) luminosities simultaneously with the parameters of an expansion model. Hence, in comparing competing models, one must reduce the data independently for each. We carry out such a comparison of ΛCDM and the Rh = ct universe using the SN Legacy Survey sample of 252 SN events, and show that each model fits its individually reduced data very well. However, since Rh = ct has only one free parameter (the Hubble constant), it follows from a standard model selection technique that it is to be preferred over ΛCDM, the minimalist version of which has three (the Hubble constant, the scaled matter density, and either the spatial curvature constant or the dark energy equation-of-state parameter). We estimate using the Bayes Information Criterion that in a pairwise comparison, the likelihood of Rh = ct is ˜90%, compared with only ˜10% for a minimalist form of ΛCDM, in which dark energy is simply a cosmological constant. Compared to Rh = ct, versions of the standard model with more elaborate parametrizations of dark energy are judged to be even less likely. This work is dedicated to the memory of Prof. Tan Lu, who sadly passed away 2014 December 3. Among his many achievements, he is considered to be one of the founders of high-energy astrophysics, and a pioneer in modern cosmology, in China.

  14. Nationwide Survey of Patient Knowledge and Attitudes towards Human Experimentation Using Stem Cells or Bee Venom Acupuncture for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveStem cell treatment is a well-recognized experimental treatment among patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD, for which there are high expectations of a positive impact. Acupuncture with bee venom is one of the most popular complementary and alternative treatments for PD. Patient knowledge and attitudes towards these experimental treatments are unknown. MethodsUsing a 12-item questionnaire, a nationwide survey was conducted of 963 PD patients and 267 caregivers in 44 Korean Movement Disorders Society member hospitals from April 2013 to June 2013. The survey was performed by trained interviewers using conventional methods. ResultsRegarding questions on experimental treatments using stem cells or bee venom acupuncture, 5.1–17.7% of PD patients answered questions on safety, efficacy, and evidence-based practice incorrectly; however, more than half responded that they did not know the correct answer. Although safety and efficacy have not been established, 55.5% of PD patients responded that they were willing to receive stem cell treatment. With regard to participating in experimental treatments, there was a strong correlation between stem cell treatment and bee venom acupuncture (p < 0.0001, odds ratio = 5.226, 95% confidence interval 3.919–6.969. Younger age, higher education, and a longer duration of PD were all associated with a correct understanding of experimental treatments. ConclusionsOur data suggest that relatively few PD patients correctly understand the safety and efficacy of experimental treatments and that PD patients are greatly interested in new treatments. We hope that our data will be used to educate or to plan educational programs for PD patients and caregivers.

  15. Experimental study comparing the behaviour of steel truss plates and birch plywood inserts in ridge joints on glued laminated rafters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Gayarre, F.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on an analysis of the mechanical performance of two flat joining systems used in roof members made of glued laminated timber.Six pairs of laminated timber rafters for a double-pitched roof with a 100x180-mm cross-section, a 6.00-m span and a height of 1.00 m were subjected to full-scale four-point bending. In three of the specimens the rafters were joined at the ridge with a birch plywood insert, while in the other three the connection was secured with a fitting consisting in a standard flat steel truss plate. The objective pursued was to evaluate the possibility of replacing the steel fittings with birch plywood inserts. The approach adopted to reach this objective was to compare the strength of the two joint pieces and the deformation generated in the overall structure during strength tests.The results proved to be highly satisfactory in terms of both the bearing capacity and the stiffness of the structures tested.El presente trabajo tiene por objeto llevar a cabo un análisis experimental del comportamiento mecánico de ciertos sistemas planos de unión para elementos estructurales de madera laminada empleados en la construcción de cubiertas.El estudio incluye los ensayos a escala real de seis din-teles a dos aguas de madera laminada, de 6 m de luz, 1 m de altura y una sección de 100 mm x 180 mm, sometidos a flexión en cuatro puntos. En tres dinteles el elemento de unión es una pieza de tablero contra-chapado de abedul, mientras que en los otros tres se ha utilizado un herraje de acero. La finalidad es valorar la posibilidad de sustituir los elementos de unión, realizados mediante herrajes, por otros constituidos por piezas de tablero contrachapado de abedul. Este objetivo se logra comparando el comportamiento resistente mostrado por ambos dispositivos de unión, y las deformaciones en cada caso de las estructuras completas.Los resultados resultaron muy satisfactorios tanto en la capacidad portante como en la

  16. Comparative effects of amlodipine and benazepril on Left Atrial Pressure in Dogs with experimentally-induced Mitral Valve Regurgitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Shuji

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the purposes of treatment for dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR is lowering left atrial pressure (LAP. There has been few study of the amlodipine in dogs with MR and amlodipine’s effect on LAP has not been fully evaluated in a quantitative manner because of difficulties in directly measuring LAP. The objective of our study was to compare the short-term effects of amlodipine (0.2 mg/kg PO q12h vs benazepril (0.5 mg/kg PO q12h, on LAP and echocardiographic parameters in five beagle dogs with experimentally-induced MR. LAP of eight dogs that has own control were measured using radiotelemetry system at baseline and again on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 of the drug administration. Results Mean LAP decreased significantly after amlodipine (11.20 ± 4.19 mmHg vs 14.61 ± 3.81 mmHg at baseline, p  .05. LAP was lower after 7 days of amlodipine treatment than after 7 days of benazepril treatment. Significant reduction was seen for the first time 4 days after the administration amlodipine. The rate of the maximal area of the regurgitant jet signals to the left atrium area (ARJ/LAA of the amlodipine treatment was significantly lower (p  Conclusions LAP was significantly decreased after amlodipine treatment in dogs with surgically-induced MR but not after benazepril treatment. Although this study did not focus on adverse effects, amlodipine may be an effective drug for helping the patients with acute onset of severe MR, such as rupture of chordae tendinae or end stage patients were the LAP is likely to be elevated. Additional studies in clinical patients with degenerative mitral valve disease and acute chordal rupture are warranted because the blood-pressure lowering effects of amlodipine can decrease renal perfusion and this can further activate the RAAS.

  17. Comparative Amino Acids Studies on Phac Synthases and Proteases as Well as Establishing a New Trend in Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd al fattah Amara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A question addressed in this study is: why similar enzymes are classified into different subclasses? As an example, PhaC synthases are classified according to four different classes (I, II, III and IV. To answer this question we proposed that besides the catalytic residues, the overall amino acids (AAs present are responsible for the differences observed. The AAs’ composition affects the structure/function/substrate specificity (SFS of these enzymes. The differences between the classes in various PhaC synthases and proteases were analysed to support our argument. Homology and phylogenic tree of some selected PhaC synthases of different strains (representing the four classes were demonstrated. The properties of a specific class of enzyme could not be changed into those of another by changing the catalytic residues. Moreover, these differences could not be detected from the proteins’ 3D structures, despite clear differences at the AAs level. Another question was also addressed: could we benefit from the various existing protein databases in the field of biotechnology? To answer this, we introduced a model for an Experimental Design based on the information in the protein database (for strains available in our lab regarding their ability to degrade castor oil. Two enzymes in the phenol degradation pathway, phenol 2-monooxygenase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, and a lipase enzyme were analysed. These enzymes were screened and analysed according to the BLAST-protein database and BRENDA. The comprehensive enzyme information system compared six strains against each other, including: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Only P. aeruginosa proved to have the three required enzymes and was suitable for the production of lipases from castor oil (crude castor oil is usually contaminated with phenol as indicated by the databases. In

  18. 'Burden to others' as a public concern in advanced cancer: a comparative survey in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausewein, Claudia; Calanzani, Natalia; Daveson, Barbara A; Simon, Steffen T; Ferreira, Pedro L; Higginson, Irene J; Bechinger-English, Dorothee; Deliens, Luc; Gysels, Marjolein; Toscani, Franco; Ceulemans, Lucas; Harding, Richard; Gomes, Barbara

    2013-03-08

    Europe faces an enormous public health challenge with aging populations and rising cancer incidence. Little is known about what concerns the public across European countries regarding cancer care towards the end of life. We aimed to compare the level of public concern with different symptoms and problems in advanced cancer across Europe and examine factors influencing this. Telephone survey with 9,344 individuals aged ≥16 in England, Flanders, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Participants were asked about nine symptoms and problems, imagining a situation of advanced cancer with less than one year to live. These were ranked and the three top concerns examined in detail. As 'burden to others' showed most variation within and between countries, we determined the relative influence of factors on this concern using GEE and logistic regression. Overall response rate was 21%. Pain was the top concern in all countries, from 34% participants (Italy) to 49% (Flanders). Burden was second in England, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Breathlessness was second in Flanders and the Netherlands. Concern with burden was independently associated with age (70+ years, OR 1.50; 95%CI 1.24-1.82), living alone (OR 0.82, 95%CI 0.73-0.93) and preferring quality rather than quantity of life (OR 1.43, 95%CI 1.14-1.80). When imagining a last year of life with cancer, the public is not only concerned about medical problems but also about being a burden. Public education about palliative care and symptom control is needed. Cancer care should include a routine assessment and management of social concerns, particularly for older patients with poor prognosis.

  19. The management of chronic pain in Switzerland: a comparative survey of Swiss medical specialists treating chronic pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Mohrle, J.J.; Dolin, P.J.; Martin, N.C.

    2001-01-01

    Chronic pain management by Swiss specialist physicians with the primary hypothesis that pain clinic practitioners conform better to good practice (interdisciplinarity, diagnostic/therapeutic routines, quality control, education) than other specialists treating chronic pain was surveyed. Management

  20. Comparing vegetation cover in the Santee Experimental Forest, South Carolina (USA), before and after hurricane Hugo: 1989-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanni R. Cosentino

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Hugo struck the coast of South Carolina on September 21, 1989 as a category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Landsat Thematic mapper was utilized to determine the extent of damage experienced at the Santee Experimental Forest (SEF) (a part of Francis Marion National Forest) in South Carolina. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the...

  1. Leadership Styles: An Experimental Study to Determine the Comparative Effectiveness of Democratic and Autocratic Leadership in Adult, "Real World" Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadely, L. Dean; Fadely, Patricia R.

    To study the effect of democratic and autocratic leadership styles upon the commitment and productivity of voluntary adult groups, eight tenant councils, composed of approximately six persons each, were selected to serve as experimental groups. Trained researchers acting as discussion leaders for each council functioned as either democratic or…

  2. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Methods: Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. Results: The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p p p < 0.001. Conclusions: POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  3. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  4. Experimental diet based on the foods listed in the Family Budget Survey is more detrimental to growth than to the reflex development of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Figueiredo Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed the pregnancy and lactation performances of rats fed an experimental diet based on the foods listed in the Family Budget Survey (Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar 2002/2003 and the impact of said diet on the growth and development of the pups until weaning. METHODS: Wistar (n=12 rats were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (control group, n=6 fed a commercial chow (Labina®, Brazil and an experimental group (n=6 fed the Family Budget Survey diet during the entire pregnancy and lactation period. All animals had free access to food and water during the entire study period. RESULTS: The Family Budget Survey diet increased the duration of pregnancy (control group=21.00±0.00; POFG=21.57±0.55, p=0.025 and made the dams lose weight during the lactation period (control group=27.92±18.47g; POFG=-15.66±16.90g. The Family Budget Survey group presented low food, energy and nutrient intakes during pregnancy, which became even lower during lactation. Pups from Family Budget Survey dams presented lower body weight at weaning (control group=52.38±4.49g; POFG=39.88±2.78g, p=0.001 and lower nose-to-anus length (control group= 117.37±0.64mm; POFG=125.62±0.96mm, p=0.001. However, some physical milestones and reflexes occurred earlier, such as the placing response reflex [control group= 12.00 (9.00-15.00 days; POFG=9.50 (9.00-14.00 days] aerial righting reflex [control group=18.00 (17.00-20.00 days; POFG=16.00 (13.00-18.00 days] and unfolding of the external ear [control group=3.00 (3.00-3.00 days; POFG=2.00 (2.00-3.00 days]. CONCLUSION: The Family Budget Survey diet seems to be more detrimental to the physical growth of the pups than to their brain growth, according to the assessed reflexes and physical milestones and measures. This may be due to the low protein content of the diet for rat reproduction and growth combined with adequate fat and essential fatty acid contents. Providing an adequate amount of

  5. Perceptions of Animal Experimentation: A Longitudinal Survey with Veterinary Students in Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Gisele F.; Melo, Guilherme D.; Perri, Silvia H. V.; Fernandes, Fernando V.; Moraes, Olívia C.; Souza, Milena S.; Grano, Fernanda G.; Silva, José E. S.; Nunes, Cáris M.

    2017-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a controversial topic, especially among the general public and the scientific community. Thirty-eight undergraduate students attending the College of Veterinary Medicine--São Paulo State University in the municipality of Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, were followed up between 2008 and 2011 and were asked to complete an…

  6. Comparative study of OMA applied to experimental and simulated data from an operating Vestas V27 wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requeson, Oscar Ramirez; Tcherniak, Dmitri; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2015-01-01

    ), and modal analysis requirements are thus fulfilled for the dynamic characterization. Under operation, the system cannot be considered as LTI and must be modelled as a linear periodic time-variant (LPTV) system, which allows for the application of the related theory for such systems. One of these methods...... results, and in turn, numerical and analytical modelling help improve and validate new experimental techniques. Wind turbines are complex dynamic systems that consist of mutually moving substructures under high dynamic loads. At a standstill, the system can be modelled as linear time-invariant (LTI...... which is the assumption of isotropic rotors. Since rotors are never completely isotropic in real life, this paper presents the application of operational modal analysis together with the Coleman transformation on both experimental data from a full-scale Vestas wind turbine with instrumented blades...

  7. A Comparative Experimental Study of Fixed Temperature and Fixed Heat Flux Boundary Conditions in Turbulent Thermal Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Di; Wang, Fei; Xi, Heng-Dong; Xia, Ke-Qing

    2014-11-01

    We report an experimental study of the influences of thermal boundary condition in turbulent thermal convection. Two configurations were examined: one was fixed heat flux at the bottom boundary and fixed temperature at the top (HC cells); the other was fixed temperature at both boundaries (CC cells). It is found that the flow strength in the CC cells is on average 9% larger than that in the HC ones, which could be understood as change in plume emission ability under different boundary conditions. It is further found, rather surprisingly, that flow reversals of the large-scale circulation occur more frequently in the CC cell, despite a stronger large-scale flow and more uniform temperature distribution over the boundaries. These findings provide new insights into turbulent thermal convection and should stimulate further studies, especially experimental ones. This work is supported by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council under Grant No. CUHK 403712.

  8. The dynamics of structures - Necessity and methodology for amendment by comparing the calculated model with experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneparo, B.; Zirilli, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this work relating to support structures for seismic tests, the authors present a mixed procedure necessitating the experimental measurement of natural frequencies, dampings, and the response to impulse stresses (in the case of a seismic stress, the subject of this study, a single impulse is sufficient) in the zone in question. Experimental measurements are used to adjust the finite elements model; it may then be used for later studies. In the presence of interaction with structures not included in the model, such as, for example, the means used for the actual test, it is impossible to adjust it according to the methods proposed and it is up to the experienced author to introduce the modifications judged opportune to take into account everything which is not a part of the model. The authors have, however, carried out a programme based on the local modification of Young's module, which uses only natural frequencies, useful in the adjustment process. Once the zone of poor modelling has been found, this programme enables optimizing the value of E as a function of the experimental data, whilst also furnishing an estimate of residual differences. Dynamic tests have shown that the model thus obtained can be refined by the forced impulse to an impulse stress. In addition to setting out the theories and formulae used, we then give account of verification of the methodology using a plate, and of its application to a support structure in the form of a frame for seismic tests. The appendices include both experimental measurements and tests. The authors carried out the modal analysis with even greater care than necessary in view of the methodology verification phase

  9. Mode system effects in an online panel study : Comparing a probability-based online panel with two face-to-face reference surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struminskaya, Bella; de Leeuw, E.D.; Kaczmirek, Lars

    2015-01-01

    One of the methods for evaluating online panels in terms of data quality is comparing the estimates that the panels provide with benchmark sources. For probability-based online panels, high-quality surveys or government statistics can be used as references. If differences among the benchmark and the

  10. Comparative study of the effects of experimentally induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in some brain regions in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bakry, A M; El-Gareib, A W; Ahmed, R G

    2010-08-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a crucial role in the development and physiological functioning of different body organs especially the brain. Therefore, the objective of this study was to show the histopathological effects of the different thyroid states on some brain regions (cerebrum and cerebellum) and the skeletal features of their newborns during the postnatal development from the 1st to 3rd week. The female white albino rats were allocated into 3 groups as follows: the experimental hypothyroidism group is induced by 0.02% methimazole (MMI) (w/v) in drinking water, while the experimental hyperthyroidism group is performed by exogenous T4 [from 50 to 200microg/kg body weight intragastric administration beside adding 0.002% T4 (w/v) to the drinking water] from the gestation day 1 to lactation day 21 and control group which received tap water. As well, both maternal hypo- and hyperthyroidism caused some malformation and developmental defects in the cerebellar and cerebral cortex of their newborns along the duration of the experiment. These degenerative symptoms became more prominent and widely spread at the 3rd postnatal week. Concomitantly, there were some degeneration, deformation and severe growth retardation in neurons of these regions in both treated groups throughout the experimental period. Moreover, the skeletal features of these newborns were accelerated in hyperthyroid group while these maturations were delayed partially in hypothyroid ones during the examined periods. These alterations, on both treated groups, were age and dose dependent. Thus, further studies need to be done to emphasize this concept. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Laying a Foundation for Comparing Departmental Structures between Reference and Instructional Services: Analysis of a Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kristin; Fountain, Kathleen Carlisle

    2002-01-01

    Describes a survey of midsized academic libraries that measured the departmental relationship between librarians who provide reference services and librarians who provide instructional services. Discusses satisfaction levels with various organizational arrangements as well as pros and cons of integrated or separate reference and instruction…

  12. A Comparative Study of the Analysis, Numerical Modelling and Experimental Test on a Sandwich Panel with Plane and Profiled Facings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich panels are remarkable products because they can be as strong as a solid material but with less weight. The analysis that is required to predict the stresses and deflections in panels with flat or lightly profiled facings is that of conventional beam theory but with the addition of shear deformation. Knowing that the profiled sheets bring an increase of the flexural stiffness, formulas showing the calculus of a panel with flat and profiled facings are established. A comparison between the results of a mathematical calculus, an experimental test and a numerical modelling is provided.

  13. Comparative analysis of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of membrane-active cationic peptides: aspects of experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváti, Kata; Bacsa, Bernadett; Mlinkó, Tamás; Szabó, Nóra; Hudecz, Ferenc; Zsila, Ferenc; Bősze, Szilvia

    2017-06-01

    Cationic peptides proved fundamental importance as pharmaceutical agents and/or drug carrier moieties functioning in cellular processes. The comparison of the in vitro activity of these peptides is an experimental challenge and a combination of different methods, such as cytotoxicity, internalisation rate, haemolytic and antibacterial effect, is necessary. At the same time, several issues need to be addressed as the assay conditions have a great influence on the measured biological effects and the experimental setup needs to be optimised. Therefore, critical comparison of results from different assays using representative examples of cell penetrating and antimicrobial peptides was performed and optimal test conditions were suggested. Our main goal was to identify carrier peptides for drug delivery systems of antimicrobial drug candidates. Based on the results of internalisation, haemolytic, cytotoxic and antibacterial activity assays, a classification of cationic peptides is advocated. We found eight promising carrier peptides with good penetration ability of which Penetratin, Tat, Buforin and Dhvar4 peptides showed low adverse haemolytic effect. Penetratin, Transportan, Dhvar4 and the hybrid CM15 peptide had the most potent antibacterial activity on Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC lower than 1.2 μM) and Transportan was effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well. The most selective peptide was the Penetratin, where the effective antimicrobial concentration on pneumococcus was more than 250 times lower than the HC 50 value. Therefore, these peptides and their analogues will be further investigated as drug delivery systems for antimicrobial agents.

  14. Experimental and comparative study of the effect of paraffin oil and covering for solar ponds without saline water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spyridonos, A V; Anagnostatos, G S; Novakovic, M M

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a superficial layer of paraffin or a plastic covering on the thermal storage efficiency of three kinds of non-saline solar pond has been investigated. Four small scale ponds were used for experimental measurements. These were: (1) a reference pond; (2) a pond divided horizontally into compartments separated by plastic sheets; (3) a pond with a superficial layer of paraffin and (4) a pond filled with hollow plastic cubes. Comparisons were made between these four ponds with and without plastic coverings, and with a layer of paraffin in addition on ponds 2 and 4. The rise in mean temperature of each pond during a number of heating cycles has been studied. A difference in mean temperature of the order of 10 to 20/sup 0/C was observed in each case between the beginning and end of the heating period and the temperature at the bottom of the pond after heating was in the range 30 to 50/sup 0/C. The results for these experimental ponds may be of use in the choice of full-size shallow ponds and may also give important indications for ponds of much greater depth.

  15. COMPARING H{alpha} AND H I SURVEYS AS MEANS TO A COMPLETE LOCAL GALAXY CATALOG IN THE ADVANCED LIGO/VIRGO ERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Brian D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08542 (United States); Kaplan, David L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Berger, Edo, E-mail: bmetzger@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: kaplan@uwm.edu, E-mail: eberger@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Identifying the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) sources detected by upcoming networks of advanced ground-based interferometers will be challenging, due in part to the large number of unrelated astrophysical transients within the {approx}10-100 deg{sup 2} sky localizations. A potential way to greatly reduce the number of such false positives is to limit detailed follow-up to only those candidates near galaxies within the GW sensitivity range of {approx}200 Mpc for binary neutron star mergers. Such a strategy is currently hindered by the fact that galaxy catalogs are grossly incomplete within this volume. Here, we compare two methods for completing the local galaxy catalog: (1) a narrowband H{alpha} imaging survey and (2) an H I emission line radio survey. Using H{alpha} fluxes, stellar masses (M {sub *}), and star formation rates (SFRs) from galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), combined with H I data from the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey and the Herschel Reference Survey, we estimate that an H{alpha} survey with a luminosity sensitivity of L {sub H{alpha}} = 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} at 200 Mpc could achieve a completeness of f {sup H{alpha}} {sub SFR} Almost-Equal-To 75% with respect to total SFR, but only f{sub M* Star-Operator }{sup H{alpha}} approx. 33% with respect to M {sub *} (due to lack of sensitivity to early-type galaxies). These numbers are significantly lower than those achieved by an idealized spectroscopic survey due to the loss of H{alpha} flux resulting from resolving out nearby galaxies and the inability to correct for the underlying stellar continuum. An H I survey with sensitivity similar to the proposed WALLABY survey on ASKAP could achieve f{sub SFR}{sup H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 80% and f{sub M Star-Operator }{sup H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 50%, somewhat higher than that of the H{alpha} survey. Finally, both H{alpha} and H I surveys should achieve {approx}> 50% completeness with respect to the host galaxies of

  16. Using the LOINC Semantic Structure to Integrate Community-based Survey Items into a Concept-based Enterprise Data Dictionary to Support Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Manuel C; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Quarles, Leigh; Wilcox, Adam; Bakken, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    In designing informatics infrastructure to support comparative effectiveness research (CER), it is necessary to implement approaches for integrating heterogeneous data sources such as clinical data typically stored in clinical data warehouses and those that are normally stored in separate research databases. One strategy to support this integration is the use of a concept-oriented data dictionary with a set of semantic terminology models. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the use of the semantic structure of Clinical LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers, Names, and Codes) in integrating community-based survey items into the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) to support the integration of survey data with clinical data for CER studies.

  17. Comparative FT-Raman, FT-IR and colour shifts spectroscopic evaluation of gamma irradiated experimental models of oil paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, M.M.; Virgolici, M.; Cutrubinis, M.; Moise, I.V.; Ponta, C.C.; Negut, C.D.; Stanculescu, I.R.; Bucharest University

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The present study follows the changes of gamma irradiated historic pigments and experimental models of oil paintings with non-destructive and non-contact spectroscopic analytical techniques which are the only ones accepted by the conservators/restorers community. Molecular structure characterization was performed by FT-IR / Raman spectroscopy using a Bruker Vertex 70 class equipped with two mobile probes: a MIR fibre module for MIR probes (with LN2 cooled detector) and a Raman RAM II module (LN2 Ge detector) with a RAMPROBE fibre. Colour was measured by a portable reflectance spectrophotometer (Miniscan XE Plus, HunterLab) in diffuse/8 deg geometry with a beam diameter of 4 mm and specular component included. Correlations between colour shifts and changes in molecular structure induced by gamma irradiation were further investigated.

  18. [The significance of low-frequency magnetotherapy for local treatment of burns. An experimental comparative approach (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, H D; Rudy, D

    1980-02-01

    Under standardized experimental conditions 3rd degree burns were produced on the neck of 241 Wistar-rats. The process of wound-healing was documented by means of planimetric, histologic and microbiologic methods. In comparison to an untreated control-group the effectiveness of low-frequency magnetotherapy (system magnetodyn 5 by W. Krauss) as well as coagulation of necrosis according to Grob and autologous skin-transplantation were studied. The results obtained indicate that only early debridement of necrosis and subsequent autologous skin-grafting guarantees sufficient acceleration of wound healing. The low-frequency magnetotherapy according to Krauss showed no effect of therapeutic value. With the coagulation of necrosis, as described by Grob, a germfree status under the necrosis was obtained for nearly 2 weeks.

  19. Comparative efficacy of Prolene and Prolene-Vicryl composite mesh for experimental ventral hernia repair in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, H; Bokhari, S G; Khan, M A; Awais, M; Mughal, Z U; Shahzad, H K; Ijaz, F; Siddiqui, M I; Khan, I U; Chaudhry, A S; Akhtar, R; Aslam, S; Akbar, H; Asif, M; Maan, M K; Khan, M A; Noor, A; Khan, W A; Ullah, A; Hayat, M A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, efficacy of two hernia mesh implants viz. conventional Prolene and a novel Prolene-Vicryl composite mesh was assessed for experimental ventral hernia repair in dogs. Twelve healthy mongrel dogs were selected and randomly divided into three groups, A, Band C (n=4). In all groups, an experimental laparotomy was performed; thereafter, the posterior rectus sheath and peritoneum were sutured together, while, a 5 × 5 cm defect was created in the rectus muscle belly and anterior rectus sheath. For sublay hernioplasty, the hernia mesh (Prolene: group A; Prolene-Vicryl composite mesh: group B), was implanted over the posterior rectus sheath. In group C (control), mesh was not implanted; instead the laparotomy incision was closed after a herniorrhaphy. Post-operative pain, mesh shrinkage and adhesion formation were assessed as short term complications. Post-operatively, pain at surgical site was significantly less (P<0.001) in group B (composite mesh); mesh shrinkage was also significantly less in group B (21.42%, P<0.05) than in group A (Prolene mesh shrinkage: 58.18%). Group B (composite mesh) also depicted less than 25% adhesions (Mean ± SE: 0.75 ± 0.50 scores, P≤0.013) when assessed on the basis of a Quantitative Modified Diamond scale; a Qualitative Adhesion Tenacity scale also depicted either no adhesions (n=2), or, only flimsy adhesions (n=2) in group B (composite mesh), in contrast to group A (Prolene), which manifested greater adhesion formation and presence of dense adhesions requiring blunt dissection. Conclusively, the Prolene-Vicryl composite mesh proved superior to the Prolene mesh regarding lesser mesh contraction, fewer adhesions and no short-term follow-up complications.

  20. Comparative cost assessment of the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques for soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis in epidemiological surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speich Benjamin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kato-Katz technique is widely used for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in epidemiological surveys and is believed to be an inexpensive method. The FLOTAC technique shows a higher sensitivity for the diagnosis of light-intensity soil-transmitted helminth infections but is reported to be more complex and expensive. We assessed the costs related to the collection, processing and microscopic examination of stool samples using the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques in an epidemiological survey carried out in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Methods We measured the time for the collection of a single stool specimen in the field, transfer to a laboratory, preparation and microscopic examination using standard protocols for the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques. Salaries of health workers, life expectancy and asset costs of materials, and infrastructure costs were determined. The average cost for a single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the FLOTAC dual or double technique were calculated. Results The average time needed to collect a stool specimen and perform a single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears or the FLOTAC dual or double technique was 20 min and 34 sec (20:34 min, 27:21 min, 28:14 min and 36:44 min, respectively. The total costs for a single and duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were US$ 1.73 and US$ 2.06, respectively, and for the FLOTAC double and dual technique US$ 2.35 and US$ 2.83, respectively. Salaries impacted most on the total costs of either method. Conclusions The time and cost for soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis using either the Kato-Katz or FLOTAC method in epidemiological surveys are considerable. Our results can help to guide healthcare decision makers and scientists in budget planning and funding for epidemiological surveys, anthelminthic drug efficacy trials and monitoring of control interventions.

  1. Equity and the Sun Quality Health Private Provider Social Franchise: comparative analysis of patient survey data and a nationally representative TB prevalence survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagu, Dominic; Sudhinaraset, May; Lwin, Thandar; Onozaki, Ikushi; Win, Zaw; Aung, Tin

    2013-01-10

    Since 2004, the Sun Quality Health (SQH) franchise network has provided TB care in Myanmar through a network of established private medical clinics. This study compares the wealth distribution of the TB patients to non-TB patients to determine if TB is most common among the poor, and compares the wealth of all TB patients to SQH TB patients to assess whether the franchise achieves its goal of serving the poor. The study uses data from two sources: 1) Myanmar's first nationally representative TB prevalence study conducted in 2009, and 2) client exit interviews from TB patients from SQH clinics. In total, 1,114 TB-positive individuals were included in the study, including 739 from the national sample and 375 from the SQH sample. TB patients at SQH clinics were poorer than TB-positive individuals in the overall population, though not at a statistically significant level (p > 0.05). After stratification we found that in urban areas, TB patients at SQH clinics were more likely to be in the poorest quartile compared to general TB positive population (16.8% vs. 8.6%, respectively; p  0.05). Franchised clinics in Myanmar are reaching poor populations of TB patients in urban areas; more efforts are needed in order to reach the most vulnerable in rural areas.

  2. Equity and the Sun Quality Health Private Provider Social Franchise: comparative analysis of patient survey data and a nationally representative TB prevalence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagu Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Since 2004, the Sun Quality Health (SQH franchise network has provided TB care in Myanmar through a network of established private medical clinics. This study compares the wealth distribution of the TB patients to non-TB patients to determine if TB is most common among the poor, and compares the wealth of all TB patients to SQH TB patients to assess whether the franchise achieves its goal of serving the poor. Methods The study uses data from two sources: 1 Myanmar’s first nationally representative TB prevalence study conducted in 2009, and 2 client exit interviews from TB patients from SQH clinics. In total, 1,114 TB-positive individuals were included in the study, including 739 from the national sample and 375 from the SQH sample. Results TB patients at SQH clinics were poorer than TB-positive individuals in the overall population, though not at a statistically significant level (p > 0.05. After stratification we found that in urban areas, TB patients at SQH clinics were more likely to be in the poorest quartile compared to general TB positive population (16.8% vs. 8.6%, respectively; p  0.05. Conclusion Franchised clinics in Myanmar are reaching poor populations of TB patients in urban areas; more efforts are needed in order to reach the most vulnerable in rural areas.

  3. Equity and the Sun Quality Health Private Provider Social Franchise: comparative analysis of patient survey data and a nationally representative TB prevalence survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Since 2004, the Sun Quality Health (SQH) franchise network has provided TB care in Myanmar through a network of established private medical clinics. This study compares the wealth distribution of the TB patients to non-TB patients to determine if TB is most common among the poor, and compares the wealth of all TB patients to SQH TB patients to assess whether the franchise achieves its goal of serving the poor. Methods The study uses data from two sources: 1) Myanmar’s first nationally representative TB prevalence study conducted in 2009, and 2) client exit interviews from TB patients from SQH clinics. In total, 1,114 TB-positive individuals were included in the study, including 739 from the national sample and 375 from the SQH sample. Results TB patients at SQH clinics were poorer than TB-positive individuals in the overall population, though not at a statistically significant level (p > 0.05). After stratification we found that in urban areas, TB patients at SQH clinics were more likely to be in the poorest quartile compared to general TB positive population (16.8% vs. 8.6%, respectively; p  0.05). Conclusion Franchised clinics in Myanmar are reaching poor populations of TB patients in urban areas; more efforts are needed in order to reach the most vulnerable in rural areas. PMID:23305063

  4. Comparing two remote video survey methods for spatial predictions of the distribution and environmental niche suitability of demersal fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaiduk, Ronen; Radford, Ben T; Wilson, Shaun K; Harvey, Euan S

    2017-12-15

    Information on habitat associations from survey data, combined with spatial modelling, allow the development of more refined species distribution modelling which may identify areas of high conservation/fisheries value and consequentially improve conservation efforts. Generalised additive models were used to model the probability of occurrence of six focal species after surveys that utilised two remote underwater video sampling methods (i.e. baited and towed video). Models developed for the towed video method had consistently better predictive performance for all but one study species although only three models had a good to fair fit, and the rest were poor fits, highlighting the challenges associated with modelling habitat associations of marine species in highly homogenous, low relief environments. Models based on baited video dataset regularly included large-scale measures of structural complexity, suggesting fish attraction to a single focus point by bait. Conversely, models based on the towed video data often incorporated small-scale measures of habitat complexity and were more likely to reflect true species-habitat relationships. The cost associated with use of the towed video systems for surveying low-relief seascapes was also relatively low providing additional support for considering this method for marine spatial ecological modelling.

  5. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms and Related Factors in Japanese Employees: A Comparative Study between Surveys from 2007 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Fushimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their related factors in Japan. The results were analyzed to identify the relationship between high scores on the CES-D, sociodemographic status, and employment-related variables. Methods. Employees in Akita prefecture completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D during a survey period between November and December 2010. The cutoff point for the CES-D scores was 16 or above (high scorers. Results. Data from 1,476 employees indicated that 44.2% had high scores on the CES-D. Sociodemographic and occupation-related factors associated with a high risk of depression were being female, young age, fewer hours of sleep on weekdays, and working over 8 hours per day, whereas drinking alcohol one to two days per week, albeit only in men, was significantly associated with a low risk of depression. The present results were consistent with the results of a previous survey completed in 2007; however, the present results regarding job categories and smoking behavior were not significantly associated with depression and thus were inconsistent with the 2007 survey data. Conclusions. These results can be useful as benchmark values for the CES-D and might help predict depressive disorders.

  6. Influence of a modified preservation solution in kidney transplantation: A comparative experimental study in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golriz

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Although the new preservation HTK solution is in several points a well-thought-out modification of the standard HTK solution, its preservation efficacy, at least for kidney preservation in a pig model for 30 hours, seems to be comparable to the current used solutions. A real advantage, however, could be confirmed in clinical settings, where marginal organs may influence the clinical outcome.

  7. A method to compare calculated and experimental 14 MeV neutron attenuation coefficient and to determine the total removal cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elay, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    A method to compare calculated and experimental neutron attenuation coefficients (chi) when samples are o, different geometries but the same material is proposed. The best Σ (total removal cross section) is determined by using the fact that the logarithm of the attenuation coefficient varies linearly with respect to Σ i.e. lg chi = + asub(s) Σ, where asub(s) is a parameter that characterises all the geometrical experimental conditions of the neutron source, the sample and the relative source-to-sample geometry. In order to increase the precision, samples of different geometries but the same material were used. Values of chi are determined experimentally and asub(s) calculated for these geometries. The graph of lg chi as a function of asub(s) together with a simple fit to a straight line is sufficient to determine Σ (the slope of the line). (T.G.)

  8. Just-in-time consent: The ethical case for an alternative to traditional informed consent in randomized trials comparing an experimental intervention with usual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Young-Afat, Danny A; Ehdaie, Behfar; Kim, Scott Yh

    2018-02-01

    Informed consent for randomized trials often causes significant and persistent anxiety, distress and confusion to patients. Where an experimental treatment is compared to a standard care control, much of this burden is potentially avoidable in the control group. We propose a "just-in-time" consent in which consent discussions take place in two stages: an initial consent to research from all participants and a later specific consent to randomized treatment only from those assigned to the experimental intervention. All patients are first approached and informed about research procedures, such as questionnaires or tests. They are also informed that they might be randomly selected to receive an experimental treatment and that, if selected, they can learn more about the treatment and decide whether or not to accept it at that time. After randomization, control patients undergo standard clinical consent whereas patients randomized to the experimental procedure undergo a second consent discussion. Analysis would be by intent-to-treat, which protects the trial from selection bias, although not from poor acceptance of experimental treatment. The advantages of just-in-time consent stem from the fact that only patients randomized to the experimental treatment are subject to a discussion of that intervention. We hypothesize that this will reduce much of the patient's burden associated with the consent process, such as decisional anxiety, confusion and information overload. We recommend well-controlled studies to compare just-in-time and traditional consent, with endpoints to include characteristics of participants, distress and anxiety and participants' understanding of research procedures.

  9. Objectives and methodology of Romanian SEPHAR II Survey. Project for comparing the prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors in two East-European countries: Romania and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorobantu, Maria; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Darabont, Roxana; Ghiorghe, Silviu; Badila, Elisabeta; Dana, Minca; Dobreanu, Minodora; Baila, Ilarie; Rutkowski, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2015-08-12

    Comparing results of representative surveys conducted in different East-European countries could contribute to a better understanding and management of cardiovascular risk factors, offering grounds for the development of health policies addressing the special needs of this high cardiovascular risk region of Europe. The aim of this paper was to describe the methodology on which the comparison between the Romanian survey SEPHAR II and the Polish survey NATPOL 2011 results is based. SEPHAR II, like NATPOL 2011, is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a representative sample of the adult Romanian population (18 to 80 years) and encompasses two visits with the following components: completing the study questionnaire, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and collection of blood and urine samples. From a total of 2223 subjects found at 2860 visited addresses, 2044 subjects gave written consent but only 1975 subjects had eligible data for the analysis, accounting for a response rate of 69.06%. Additionally we excluded 11 subjects who were 80 years of age (NATPOL 2011 included adult subjects up to 79 years). Therefore, the sample size included in the statistical analysis is 1964. It has similar age groups and gender structure as the Romanian population aged 18-79 years from the last census available at the moment of conducting the survey (weight adjustments for epidemiological analyses range from 0.48 to 8.7). Sharing many similarities, the results of SEPHAR II and NATPOL 2011 surveys can be compared by a proper statistical method offering crucial information regarding cardiovascular risk factors in a high-cardiovascular risk European region.

  10. Comparative Effects of Human Neural Stem Cells and Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells on the Neurobehavioral Disorders of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Kwon Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since multiple sclerosis (MS is featured with widespread demyelination caused by autoimmune response, we investigated the recovery effects of F3.olig2 progenitors, established by transducing human neural stem cells (F3 NSCs with Olig2 transcription factor, in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein- (MOG- induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model mice. Six days after EAE induction, F3 or F3.olig2 cells (1 × 106/mouse were intravenously transplanted. MOG-injected mice displayed severe neurobehavioral deficits which were remarkably attenuated and restored by cell transplantation, in which F3.olig2 cells were superior to its parental F3 cells. Transplanted cells migrated to the injured spinal cord, matured to oligodendrocytes, and produced myelin basic proteins (MBP. The F3.olig2 cells expressed growth and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF. In addition, the transplanted cells markedly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced cytokine levels in the spinal cord and lymph nodes, and protected host myelins. The results indicate that F3.olig2 cells restore neurobehavioral symptoms of EAE mice by regulating autoimmune inflammatory responses as well as by stimulating remyelination and that F3.olig2 progenitors could be a candidate for the cell therapy of demyelinating diseases including MS.

  11. Epidemiological surveys on the effects of low-level radiation dose: a comparative assessment. Vol. A: pre-conception irradiation effects. Vol. E (DRAFT A): group collation tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.S.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this report, the health effects of low-level doses of radiation are considered by reference to published epidemiological surveys. The work was carried out with three objectives in mind: 1. to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the subject; 2. to seek consistent indications of particular health effects by collating results and comparing with those from surveys at moderate-level doses; 3. to provide an authoritative view on the epidemiology of low-level radiation-induced health effects. Vol E (DRAFT A) is appended and contains group collation tables. Epidemiological surveys can be conveniently divided into four classes (A, B, C, D) according to the phase of life when irradiation occurs or the effect is diagnosed. The first of the classes (A) is addressed here; this class is concerned with possible effects arising from radiation received by a parent before conception. Possible effects of preconception irradiation were identified under four broad groupings. These are Down's syndrome, ''Indicators of Reproductive Damage'' (mainly Primary Sterility, Congenital Abnormalities, Sex Ratio, Fetal Mortality, Infant Mortality), Childhood Malignancies, and Chromosomal Changes in Abortuses. Information about each survey, and comparisons with results from moderate-level dose surveys, are contained in synopses that are set out in the Appendix.

  12. Experimental study of domestic inferior vena cava filter comparative to Antheor temporary vena cava filter in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guoping; Gu Jianping; Lou Wensheng; He Xu; Chen Liang; Su Haobo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clot capturing efficacy and stability of a new domestic designed inferior vena cava filter (DDIVCF) by comparing with Anthem temporary vena cava filter in vitro. Methods: (1)The DDIVCF and Antheor filter were tested in a flow model simulated the inferior vena cava (IVC) with 20 mm and 25 mm in diameter. The swine clots of four sizes were used: 3 mm x 20 mm, 3 mm x 30 mm, 6 mm x 20 mm, 6 mm x 30 mm. The clot capturing capacity was observed in horizontal position. (2) The stability was observed by measuring the comparative moving distance of 6 mm x 30 mm clots after clot trapping. Results: (1) DDIVCF capture rates were 34%, 56%, 82%, 94% and 26%, 38%, 56%, 86% for the 20 mm and 25 mm IVC models of four different sizes clots respectively, comparing with 54%, 64%, 86%, 96% and 38%, 44%, 68%, 90% respectively of Anthem temporary vena cava filter. The capture rates of DDIVCF and Antheor filter showed no significant differences of 3 mm x 30 mm, 6mm x 20 mm and 6 mm x 30 mm clots in 20 mm and 25 mm IVC models (P>0.05). (2) There was a few caudal migration with no significant difference (P>0.05). The filter migration distances were (0.6±0.3) cm and (1.0±0.1) cm respectively in the 20 mm and 25 mm IVC models with most clots of 6 mm x 30 mm were captured, comparing with (0.4±0.1) cm and (0.8 ±0.3) cm respectively for Antheor filter. Conclusions: DDIVCF is a stable and effective filter in an in-vitro model experiment but application in vivo would rather be further evaluated through more animal experiments. (authors)

  13. The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma on the skin wound healing process: A comparative experimental study in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daikh Badis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The therapeutic evaluation of the biological effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP used as a surgical adjunct to maintain the inflammatory process and to potentiate tissue healing, make the subject of recent research in regenerative medicine. This study was designed to evaluate the healing activity of PRP by its topical application on the skin experimentally injured in a sheep model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 9 adult and clinically healthy males sheep. PRP was obtained by a protocol of double centrifugation of whole blood from each animal. After sterile skin preparation, full-thickness excisional wounds (20 mm x 20 mm were created on the back of each animal. The animals were randomly divided into three equal groups of three sheep for each. In Group I, the wounds were treated with PRP, in Group II; wounds were treated with Asiaticoside; in Group III, wounds were treated with saline solution. The different treatments were administered topically every 3 days. Morphometric measurements of the contraction surface of the wounds and histopathological biopsies were carried out at the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days of healing. Results: The results of the morphometric data obtained revealed that it was significant differences recorded at the 7th and 14th day of healing in favor for animals of Group I. Semi-quantitative histopathological evaluation showed that PRP reduces inflammation during 3 first days post-surgical and promotes epithelialization in 3 weeks of healing. Conclusion: We concluded that topical administration of PRP obtained by double centrifugation protocol could potentially improve the skin healing process in sheep.

  14. A Comparative Experimental Study on Identification of Defect Severity in Rolling Element Bearings using Acoustic Emission and Vibration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the comparison between Vibration Analysis (VA and Acoustic Emission (AE method to predict the defect severity in rolling element bearings with respect to the gradual increase of defect size. In bearing fault diagnosis vibration based methods are very popular, but the signals acquired by its transducers from the bearings are distorted by other faults and mechanical noise from the equipment. Vibration based methods are effective when the defect in the bearings has already become severe. AE is a non destructive testing (NDT technique used in structural health monitoring and its application for bearing defect diagnosis is gaining momentum as an alternate diagnostic tool because of its inherent high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR. A bearing test rig was designed and set up to study the various defects in rolling element bearings in real environment. In earlier cases, though the researchers studied on different types of seeded defects with random sizes, they could not ascertain the correlation between their defect sizes and the vibration amplitude. The experimental investigation reported in this paper is centered on seeded defect of same type with gradual increase of its size on outer race of radially loaded cylindrical roller bearings and running the defective bearing at different speeds and loads. Data acquired through AE & vibration probes simultaneously for better diagnosis. Comparisons between AE and VA over a range of speed and load conditions at gradual increase of defect size are presented and from them it is concluded that AE method is superior to identify the severity of defect.

  15. A comparative experimental approach to ecotoxicology in shallow-water and deep-sea holothurians suggests similar behavioural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alastair; Wright, Roseanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Hauton, Chris

    2017-10-01

    Exploration of deep-sea mineral resources is burgeoning, raising concerns regarding ecotoxicological impacts on deep-sea fauna. Assessing toxicity in deep-sea species is technologically challenging, which promotes interest in establishing shallow-water ecotoxicological proxy species. However, the effects of temperature and hydrostatic pressure on toxicity, and how adaptation to deep-sea environmental conditions might moderate these effects, are unknown. To address these uncertainties we assessed behavioural and physiological (antioxidant enzyme activity) responses to exposure to copper-spiked artificial sediments in a laboratory experiment using a shallow-water holothurian (Holothuria forskali), and in an in situ experiment using a deep-sea holothurian (Amperima sp.). Both species demonstrated sustained avoidance behaviour, evading contact with contaminated artificial sediment. However, A. sp. demonstrated sustained avoidance of 5mgl -1 copper-contaminated artificial sediment whereas H. forskali demonstrated only temporary avoidance of 5mgl -1 copper-contaminated artificial sediment, suggesting that H. forskali may be more tolerant of metal exposure over 96h. Nonetheless, the acute behavioural response appears consistent between the shallow-water species and the deep-sea species, suggesting that H. forskali may be a suitable ecotoxicological proxy for A. sp. in acute (≤24h) exposures, which may be representative of deep-sea mining impacts. No antioxidant response was observed in either species, which was interpreted to be the consequence of avoiding copper exposure. Although these data suggest that shallow-water taxa may be suitable ecotoxicological proxies for deep-sea taxa, differences in methodological and analytical approaches, and in sex and reproductive stage of experimental subjects, require caution in assessing the suitability of H. forskali as an ecotoxicological proxy for A. sp. Nonetheless, avoidance behaviour may have bioenergetic consequences that

  16. In vivo efficiency of four commercial monopolar radiofrequency ablation systems: a comparative experimental study in pig liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, Jens; Pereira, Philippe L; Trübenbach, Jochen; Schenk, Martin; Kröber, Stefan-Martin; Schmidt, Diethard; Aubé, Christophe; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of 4 radiofrequency (RF) systems by assessing the amount of delivered energy for each thermal induced lesion after perfusion mediated RF ablation and to compare the influence of perfusion mediation types on the energy efficiency. A total of 43 ablations in 16 male landrace pigs with 4 RF devices were performed strictly according to the manufacturers' instructions. Total absorbed energy was computed and then related to 3D volumetry obtained after histopathological evaluation. Sixteen ablations were performed under physiological liver perfusion and 27 ablations with occlusion of portal vein, hepatic artery, or both vessels. Energy efficiency values of the RF systems for different vascular occlusion techniques were compared and analyzed by a nonparametrical rank sum test. Under physiological perfusion, the average energy delivered to produce 1-cm3 lesion size was calculated to 1650 +/- 929, 3097 +/- 389, 8312 +/- 2068, and 5493 +/- 2306 Watt x s/cm3 for the Berchtold, Radionics, Radiotherapeutics, and RITA system, respectively. After perfusion-mediated RF ablation, artery occlusion was not as effective as portal vein occlusion, which reduced the energy to 587 +/- 148, 869 +/- 276, and 903 +/- 394 Watt. s/cm3 for the Berchtold, Radionics, and Radiotherapeutics system, respectively. The occlusion of vessels, portal vein, and artery or portal vein alone increased the energy efficiency compared with physiological liver perfusion or occlusion of the artery (P = 0,003). Under physiological liver perfusion the open perfused system and the internally cooled system provided the best efficiency values with lowest standard deviations. The energy efficiency was increased markedly for all systems after occlusion of the portal vein either alone or in combination with arterial occlusion. Occlusion of the hepatic artery did not improve the efficiency.

  17. Effect of Cissus quadrangularis on gastric mucosal defensive factors in experimentally induced gastric ulcer-a comparative study with sucralfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainu, Mallika; Devi, C S Shyamala

    2004-01-01

    Cissus quadrangularis is an indigenous plant commonly mentioned in Ayurveda for treatment of gastric ulcers. The ulcer-protective effect of a methanolic extract of C. quadrangularis (CQE) was comparable to that of the reference drug sucralfate. Further, gastric juice and mucosal studies showed that CQE at a dose of 500 mg/kg given for 10 days significantly increased the mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion, mucosal cell proliferation, glycoproteins, and life span of cells. The present investigation suggests that CQE not only strengthens mucosal resistance against ulcerogens but also promotes healing by inducing cellular proliferation. Thus, CQE has potential usefulness for treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

  18. Microbial risk in wastewater irrigated lettuce: comparing Escherichia coli contamination from an experimental site with a laboratory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkaew, P; Miller, M; Fallowfield, H J; Cromar, N J

    This study assessed the contamination of Escherichia coli, in lettuce grown with treated domestic wastewater in four different irrigation configurations: open spray, spray under plastic sheet cover, open drip and drip under plastic sheet cover. Samples of lettuce from each irrigation configuration and irrigating wastewater were collected during the growing season. No E. coli was detected in lettuce from drip irrigated beds. All lettuce samples from spray beds were positive for E. coli, however, no statistical difference (p > 0.05) was detected between lettuces grown in open spray or covered spray beds. The results from the field experiment were also compared to a laboratory experiment which used submersion of lettuce in wastewater of known E. coli concentration as a surrogate method to assess contamination following irrigation. The microbial quality of spray bed lettuces was not significantly different from submersed lettuce when irrigated with wastewater containing 1,299.7 E. coli MPN/100 mL (p > 0.05). This study is significant since it is the first to validate that the microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in the field is comparable with a laboratory technique frequently applied in the quantitative microbial risk assessment of the consumption of wastewater irrigated salad crops.

  19. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations compared with continuum models and experimental properties of pattern formation during ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chason, E; Chan, W L

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations model the evolution of surfaces during low energy ion bombardment using atomic level mechanisms of defect formation, recombination and surface diffusion. Because the individual kinetic processes are completely determined, the resulting morphological evolution can be directly compared with continuum models based on the same mechanisms. We present results of simulations based on a curvature-dependent sputtering mechanism and diffusion of mobile surface defects. The results are compared with a continuum linear instability model based on the same physical processes. The model predictions are found to be in good agreement with the simulations for predicting the early-stage morphological evolution and the dependence on processing parameters such as the flux and temperature. This confirms that the continuum model provides a reasonable approximation of the surface evolution from multiple interacting surface defects using this model of sputtering. However, comparison with experiments indicates that there are many features of the surface evolution that do not agree with the continuum model or simulations, suggesting that additional mechanisms are required to explain the observed behavior.

  20. [The comparative assessment of the wound-healing effects of the treatment with the use of Bioptron, Minitag, Orion+ apparatuses and hollow cathode lamps (experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipova, M M; Voronova, S N; Rukin, E M; Vasilenko, A M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present experimental study was the comparative assessment of the wound-healing effects of radiation emitted from Bioptron, Minitag, Orion+ apparatuses and hollow cathode lamps (HCL). The emitters of any type were shown to be equally efficacious in that they accelerated wound epithelization by 30% on the average compared with control. Based on the difference between spectral and power characteristics of different sources of radiation and dynamics of their wound-healing efficacy (including that of two types of HCL), the authors arrived at the conclusion that the further development of the proposed approach to wound healing is a promising line of research in the field of spectral phototherapy.

  1. Comparative Study Between the Two Experimental Design Approaches Taguchi and Traditional in Presence of Control by Control Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Nava Elías Heriberto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Design of experiments plays an important role in the field of creating and innovating process and products directly in manufacturing and improving areas. There are several areas into designs of experiments; robust design is one of them. Robust parameter design is a principle that emphasize in products creation through a correct selection of values called “control” which make a product robust to the variability by the noise introducing by another factors known as “noise” factors. This article aims for a comparative study between two well-known robust design methodologies, making a special emphasis in the control by control interaction effects over optimal operating conditions. The results showed that Taguchi´s crossed arrays are unable to estimate all significant terms in a model. The optimizations result concludes that the Taguchi´s approach is less efficient than the traditional approach in both; maximization and minimization.

  2. Grandparenting and mothers' labour force participation: A comparative analysis using the Generations and Gender Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnstein Aassve

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND It is well known that the provision of public childcare plays an important role for women labour force participation and its availability varies tremendously across countries. In many countries, informal childcare is also important and typically provided by the grandparents, but its role on mothers' employment is not yet well understood. Understanding the relationship between labour supply decisions and grandparental childcare is complex. While the provision of grandparental childcare is clearly a function of the social and institutional context of a country, it also depends on family preferences, which are typically unobserved in surveys. OBJECTIVE We analyze the role of informal childcare provided by grandparents on mothers' labour force participation keeping unobserved preferences into account. METHODS Bivariate probit models with instrumental variables are estimated on data from seven countries (Bulgaria, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Russia and The Netherlands drawn from the Generations and Gender Survey. RESULTS We find that only in some countries mothers' employment is positively and significantly associated with grandparents providing childcare. In other countries, once we control for unobserved preferences, we do not find this effect. CONCLUSIONS The role of grandparents is an important element to reconcile work and family for women in some countries. Our results show the importance of considering family preferences and country differences when studying the relationship between grandparental childcare and mothers' labour supply. COMMENTS Our results are consistent with previous research on this topic. However, differently from previous studies, we conduct separate analyses by country and show that the effect of grandparental childcare varies considerably. The fact that we also include in the analyses Bulgaria, Hungary, Russia and Georgia is an important novelty as there are no studies on this issue

  3. Can physicians’ judgments of futility be accepted by patients?: A comparative survey of Japanese physicians and laypeople

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    Kadooka Yasuhiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Back ground Empirical surveys about medical futility are scarce relative to its theoretical assumptions. We aimed to evaluate the difference of attitudes between laypeople and physicians towards the issue. Methods A questionnaire survey was designed. Japanese laypeople (via Internet and physicians with various specialties (via paper-and-pencil questionnaire were asked about whether they would provide potentially futile treatments for end-of-life patients in vignettes, important factors for judging a certain treatment futile, and threshold of quantitative futility which reflects the numerical probability that an act will produce the desired physiological effect. Also, the physicians were asked about their practical frequency and important reasons for futile treatments. Results 1134 laypeople and 401 (80% physicians responded. In all vignettes, the laypeople were more affirmative in providing treatments in question significantly. As the factors for judging futility, medical information and quality of life (QOL of the patient were rather stressed by the physicians. Treatment wish of the family of the patient and psychological impact on patient side due to the treatment were rather stressed by laypeople. There were wide variations in the threshold of judging quantitative futility in both groups. 88.3% of the physicians had practical experience of providing futile treatment. Important reasons for it were communication problem with patient side and lack of systems regarding futility or foregoing such treatment. Conclusion Laypeople are more supportive of providing potentially futile treatments than physicians. The difference is explained by the importance of medical information, the patient family’s influence to decision-making and QOL of the patient. The threshold of qualitative futility is suggested to be arbitrary.

  4. Health Characteristics of Solo Grandparent Caregivers and Single Parents: A Comparative Profile Using the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis). Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents' physical and emotional capacities.

  5. Adherence to best practice guidelines in dyspepsia: a survey comparing dyspepsia experts, community gastroenterologists and primary-care providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, B. M. R.; Farid, M.; van Oijen, M. G. H.; Laine, L.; Howden, C. W.; Esrailian, E.

    2009-01-01

    Although 'best practice' guidelines for dyspepsia management have been disseminated, it remains unclear whether providers adhere to these guidelines. To compare adherence to 'best practice' guidelines among dyspepsia experts, community gastroenterologists and primary-care providers (PCPs). We

  6. Adherence to best practice guidelines in dyspepsia: a survey comparing dyspepsia experts, community gastroenterologists and primary-care providers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, B.M.; Farid, M.; Oijen, M.G.H. van; Laine, L.; Howden, C.W.; Esrailian, E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although 'best practice' guidelines for dyspepsia management have been disseminated, it remains unclear whether providers adhere to these guidelines. AIM: To compare adherence to 'best practice' guidelines among dyspepsia experts, community gastroenterologists and primary-care providers

  7. Health Characteristics of Solo Grandparent Caregivers and Single Parents: A Comparative Profile Using the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M. Whitley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe the health characteristics of solo grandparents raising grandchildren compared with single parents. Methods. Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, respondents identified as a single grandparent raising a grandchild were categorized as a solo grandparent; grandparent responses were compared with single parents. Descriptive analysis compared health characteristics of 925 solo grandparents with 7,786 single parents. Results. Compared to single parents, grandparents have a higher prevalence of physical health problems (e.g., arthritis. Both parent groups have a high prevalence of lifetime depression. A larger share of grandparents actively smoke and did no recreational physical exercise in the last month. However, grandparents appear to have better access to health services in comparison with single parents. Conclusion. Solo grandparents may be at risk for diminished physical capacity and heightened prevalence of depression. Health professionals can be an important resource to increase grandparents’ physical and emotional capacities.

  8. A Comparative Experimental Study on the Use of Machine Learning Approaches for Automated Valve Monitoring Based on Acoustic Emission Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salah M.; Hui, K. H.; Hee, L. M.; Salman Leong, M.; Al-Obaidi, M. A.; Ali, Y. H.; Abdelrhman, Ahmed M.

    2018-03-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) analysis has become a vital tool for initiating the maintenance tasks in many industries. However, the analysis process and interpretation has been found to be highly dependent on the experts. Therefore, an automated monitoring method would be required to reduce the cost and time consumed in the interpretation of AE signal. This paper investigates the application of two of the most common machine learning approaches namely artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) to automate the diagnosis of valve faults in reciprocating compressor based on AE signal parameters. Since the accuracy is an essential factor in any automated diagnostic system, this paper also provides a comparative study based on predictive performance of ANN and SVM. AE parameters data was acquired from single stage reciprocating air compressor with different operational and valve conditions. ANN and SVM diagnosis models were subsequently devised by combining AE parameters of different conditions. Results demonstrate that ANN and SVM models have the same results in term of prediction accuracy. However, SVM model is recommended to automate diagnose the valve condition in due to the ability of handling a high number of input features with low sampling data sets.

  9. Physiologic Responses to Infrarenal Aortic Cross-Clamping during Laparoscopic or Conventional Vascular Surgery in Experimental Animal Model: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Martín-Cancho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic and ventilatory effects of prolonged infrarenal aortic cross-clamping in pigs undergoing either laparotomy or laparoscopy. 18 pigs were used for this study. Infrarenal aortic crossclamping was performed for 60 minutes in groups I (laparotomy, n=6 and II (laparoscopy, n=6. Group III (laparoscopy, n=6 underwent a 120-minute long pneumoperitoneum in absence of aortic clamping (sham group. Ventilatory and hemodynamic parameters and renal function were serially determined in all groups. A significant decrease in pH and significant increase in PaCO2 were observed in group II, whereas no changes in these parameters were seen in group I and III. All variables returned to values similar to baseline in groups I and II 60 minutes after declamping. A significant increase in renal resistive index was evidenced during laparoscopy, with significantly higher values seen in Group II. Thus a synergic effect of pneumoperitoneum and aortic cross-clamping was seen in this study. These two factors together cause decreased renal perfusion and acidosis, thus negatively affecting the patient's general state during this type of surgery.

  10. A Comparative Study of Continental vs. Intraoceanic Arc Mantle Melting: Experimentally Determined Phase Relations of Hydrous, Primitive Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, S.; Johnston, A.; Wallace, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    It is widely recognized that H2O and other volatiles play a crucial role in mantle melting in subduction zones. This work is a comparative study focused on determining the H2O-undersaturated, near-liquidus phase relations for two primitive subduction related compositions with the goal of determining the P-T-H2O conditions of mantle melting beneath arcs. These samples, JR-28, a calc-alkaline basalt from Volcan Jorullo, Mexico, and ID-16, a tholeiitic basalt from Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, have major element compositions that indicate they are primary, mantle-derived melts. H2O-undersaturated piston cylinder experiments have been carried out at upper mantle pressures and temperatures (1.0-2.0 GPa and 1100-1350°C). The near-liquidus mineralogy of these two compositions has been mapped in P-T- H2O space in order to constrain the conditions under which these melts are multiply saturated with a mantle residue (lherzolite or harzburgite). Previous studies of dissolved volatiles in olivine-hosted melt inclusions have provided an estimate of pre-eruptive H2O-contents for JR-28 at ≥5 wt% H2O and experiments have been carried out accordingly. Preliminary results for JR-28 at 5 wt% H2O show olivine ± Cr-rich spinel on the liquidus at 1.0 GPa and enstatite as the liquidus phase at higher pressures (1.3 to 2.0 GPa). Ca-rich pyroxene appears in only one experiment 50°C below the liquidus at 1.5 GPa. These data show that JR-28 melts are multiply saturated with a harzburgite assemblage at ~1175°C and ~1.2 GPa at 5 wt% H2O. Experiments at 7 wt% H2O show similar results, although the olivine/Cr-spinel stability field expands at the expense of the enstatite stability field. Consequently, the olivine-enstatite cotectic is shifted to higher pressures and slightly cooler temperatures. The relatively high SiO2 content in the bulk rock (~52 wt% SiO2) supports the hypothesis that JR-28 last equilibrated with a depleted or harzburgite residue rather than a more fertile mantle

  11. Experimental assessment of oral hygiene achieved by children wearing rapid palatal expanders, comparing manual and electric toothbrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, S; Bonaldo, G; Pontarolo, E; Zuccon, A; De Francesco, M; Stellini, E

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to compare the efficacy of the electric versus the manual toothbrush in terms of the oral hygiene achieved by patients wearing rapid palatal expanders (RPEs). Forty patients were randomly divided into two groups; one equipped with a manual toothbrush (Group A), the other with an electric toothbrush (Group B). Each child's plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were calculated at banded molar level at times T0 (before banding), T1 (a month later), T2 (3 months later) and T3 (when the expander was removed). At each appointment, the PI and GI were recorded and the patient was remotivated. The level of oral hygiene achieved by the group using an electric toothbrush produced a greater improvement in the two indexes than in the group using the manual toothbrush that showed no statistically significant improvement (PI T0-T3: P = 0.309; GI T0-T3: P = 0.141). Both indexes dropped considerably in both groups from T0 to T2, but more so in the group B. From T2 to T3, although the electric toothbrush continued to be substantially more effective, Group B showed a statistically significant deterioration in the oral hygiene (PI +20%; GI +33%). Other assessments conducted on particular areas of the tooth showed improvements in the PI (-33%) for the vestibular region, and for the GI (-57%) in the palatal region among the patients in Group B, while there were no significant changes in these indexes in Group A. Our findings show that the electric toothbrush is statistically more efficient in performing an adequate level of oral hygiene in children wearing RPE. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A comparative study of the experimental and the theoretical elastic data of Tm{sup 3+} doped zinc borotellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnimulyati, L. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Halimah, M.K., E-mail: halimahmk@upm.edu.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zakaria, A.; Halim, S.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ishak, M. [Technical Support Division, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)

    2017-05-01

    A series of glass samples with composition {[(TeO_2)_0_._7(B_2O_3)_0_._3]_0_._7[ZnO]_0_._3}{sub 1-x}{Tm_2O_3}{sub x} was prepared by using the melt-quenching technique. Then, the samples were characterized by using the densimeter, FTIR and ultrasound technique. The variations of density, molar volume, ultrasonic velocity, elastic moduli, and Poisson’s ratio were discussed and correlated with the composition of the glass samples and the FTIR spectra. It was found that the addition of thulium caused bridging and non-bridging oxygen to be formed at the same time due to the different effect that occur to tellurite and borate network as thulium is added. As thulium is varied from 1 until 3 mol%, bridging oxygens had been found to occur at a high rate and caused the ultrasonic velocity to increase. Nonetheless, when thulium oxide exceeded 3 mol%, non-bridging oxygens formed at a high rate. As a result, ultrasonic velocity was reduced. Furthermore, the values of elastic moduli (including bulk, shear, Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) were compared with the data that were calculated theoretically by using bulk compression, Makishima-Mackenzie, and Rocherulle models. - Highlights: • Bridging and non-bridging oxygen produced concurrently with the addition of Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • All elastic moduli are increase with the increment of thulium oxide. • The three theoretical models are found invalid to be used in this study.

  13. Comparative experimental studies into radioimmunoscintigraphy using radioactive antibodies in animals with HeLa cell carcinomas and Yoshida sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettl, T.

    1988-01-01

    TPA-positive and TPA-negative tumour-bearing animal systems (HeLa cell carcinomas in RNU rats and Yoshida sarcomas in Wistar rats) were examined to show that the method of scanning can well be used to visualise tumour tissue. In this connection, further attempts were made to shed light on the specifity of immunoscintigraphy in the search for tumour tissue. 125-Iodine-anti-TPA was found to be a specific carcinoma-seeking substance. The amount of antibodies accumulating in the tumour was multiplied by previous intravenous treatment of test animals with unspecific immunoglobulin. In control studies using 125-iodine-immunoglobulin the site of the carcinomatous tissue could not be determined with sufficient diagnostic accuracy. It was found that the discriminating power of radioimmunoscintigraphy using 125-iodine-anti-TPA is quite unrelated to an increased circulation in the proliferating carcinomatous tissue. For the detection of TPA in HeLa cell carcinomas anti-TPA PAP stains were prepared. Radionuclide studies using 125-iodine-anti-TPA were also useful in the visualisation of the Yoshida sarcoma, even though this scores negative on TPA. Here, the amounts of radioactivity accumulating in the tumour were smaller than with the HeLa cell carcinoma. Moreover, peak levels were measured after no less than one day, as compared to the five days required for HeLa cell tumours to reach maximum levels. This finding would appear to provide presumptive evidence that there are other, unspecific mechanisms of tumour selectivity. (orig/MG) [de

  14. [Influence of the shift work on circadian-rhythms compare survey on health service employees and policemen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorek-Strumiłło, Edyta; Zawilska, Jolanta B; Misiak, Piotr; Jabłoński, Sławomir; Kordiak, Jacek; Brocki, Marian

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimating that about 20% working persons works in the shift system. It concerns health service employees and policemen among others. The shift work causes permanent conflict "of biological clock" with required working hours. The work in the night hours is less effective, it is held with greater expensive and triggering the increased tiredness.The aim of overtaken by the authors questionnaire survey amongst the population working in shifts, was to determining the influence of the shift work on the length and the quality of the dream and the tiredness and the sleepiness during day in comparison to group working only on the day shift. The survey was conducted in the group of employees of the Health Service (30 persons) and policemen (20 persons) working in shifts. Healthy volunteers working in the system of the daily work constituted the control group (30 persons). The examination consisted of questionnaire forms which were filled in anonymously, the duration of examining one person lasted 4 weeks. Age and sex of the examined and control group were similar. In the examined period of time the number of night shift was averaged 6. During holidays 47 persons had night changes. Average time of dream was approximately 7 hours, for those who was working only at daily shift. On the following day after the night shift examined slept additionally average about 3 hours. Those who didn't work in shifts slept average 7.5 hour/24. Clinically significant sleeplessness was developed: examined group--18 persons, control group--3 persons. Amongst respondents we measured level of sleepiness during night shift using carolain scale of the sleepiness. Increase of sleepiness and decrease of activity appeared between 2:00 and 6:00 a.m. In the process of the examination a measurement of appearing the indications of exaggerated sleepiness and tiredness was also conducted using the ATS scale. The frequency of appearing was two or even three times bigger in the examined group. In

  15. Populating dark matter haloes with galaxies: comparing the 2dFGRS with mock galaxy redshift surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohu; Mo, H. J.; Jing, Y. P.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Chu, YaoQuan

    2004-06-01

    In two recent papers, we developed a powerful technique to link the distribution of galaxies to that of dark matter haloes by considering halo occupation numbers as a function of galaxy luminosity and type. In this paper we use these distribution functions to populate dark matter haloes in high-resolution N-body simulations of the standard ΛCDM cosmology with Ωm= 0.3, ΩΛ= 0.7 and σ8= 0.9. Stacking simulation boxes of 100 h-1 Mpc and 300 h-1 Mpc with 5123 particles each we construct mock galaxy redshift surveys out to a redshift of z= 0.2 with a numerical resolution that guarantees completeness down to 0.01L*. We use these mock surveys to investigate various clustering statistics. The predicted two-dimensional correlation function ξ(rp, π) reveals clear signatures of redshift space distortions. The projected correlation functions for galaxies with different luminosities and types, derived from ξ(rp, π), match the observations well on scales larger than ~3 h-1 Mpc. On smaller scales, however, the model overpredicts the clustering power by about a factor two. Modelling the `finger-of-God' effect on small scales reveals that the standard ΛCDM model predicts pairwise velocity dispersions (PVD) that are ~400 km s-1 too high at projected pair separations of ~1 h-1 Mpc. A strong velocity bias in massive haloes, with bvel≡σgal/σdm~ 0.6 (where σgal and σdm are the velocity dispersions of galaxies and dark matter particles, respectively) can reduce the predicted PVD to the observed level, but does not help to resolve the overprediction of clustering power on small scales. Consistent results can be obtained within the standard ΛCDM model only when the average mass-to-light ratio of clusters is of the order of 1000 (M/L)solar in the B-band. Alternatively, as we show by a simple approximation, a ΛCDM model with σ8~= 0.75 may also reproduce the observational results. We discuss our results in light of the recent WMAP results and the constraints on σ8 obtained

  16. Taguchi Experimental Design for Optimization of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Production in CHO Cell Lines and Comparing its Biological Activity with Prokaryotic Growth Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Zahra Sadat; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid

    2018-02-01

    Growth hormone deficiency results in growth retardation in children and the GH deficiency syndrome in adults and they need to receive recombinant-GH in order to rectify the GH deficiency symptoms. Mammalian cells have become the favorite system for production of recombinant proteins for clinical application compared to prokaryotic systems because of their capability for appropriate protein folding, assembly, post-translational modification and proper signal. However, production level in mammalian cells is generally low compared to prokaryotic hosts. Taguchi has established orthogonal arrays to describe a large number of experimental situations mainly to reduce experimental errors and to enhance the efficiency and reproducibility of laboratory experiments.In the present study, rhGH was produced in CHO cells and production of rhGH was assessed using Dot blotting, western blotting and Elisa assay. For optimization of rhGH production in CHO cells using Taguchi method An M16 orthogonal experimental design was used to investigate four different culture components. The biological activity of rhGH was assessed using LHRE-TK-Luciferase reporter gene system in HEK-293 and compared to the biological activity of prokaryotic rhGH.A maximal productivity of rhGH was reached in the conditions of 1%DMSO, 1%glycerol, 25 µM ZnSO 4 and 0 mM NaBu. Our findings indicate that control of culture conditions such as the addition of chemical components helps to develop an efficient large-scale and industrial process for the production of rhGH in CHO cells. Results of bioassay indicated that rhGH produced by CHO cells is able to induce GH-mediated intracellular cell signaling and showed higher bioactivity when compared to prokaryotic GH at the same concentrations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, Bradley; Baird, Danielle; Bastiaans, Kathryn; Hendrie, Gilly; Riley, Malcolm; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Syrette, Julie; Noakes, Manny

    2016-05-25

    As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.

  18. Changes in Food Intake in Australia: Comparing the 1995 and 2011 National Nutrition Survey Results Disaggregated into Basic Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ridoutt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As nations seek to address obesity and diet-related chronic disease, understanding shifts in food intake over time is an imperative. However, quantifying intake of basic foods is not straightforward because of the diversity of raw and cooked wholefoods, processed foods and mixed dishes actually consumed. In this study, data from the Australian national nutrition surveys of 1995 and 2011, each involving more than 12,000 individuals and covering more than 4500 separate foods, were coherently disaggregated into basic foods, with cooking and processing factors applied where necessary. Although Australians are generally not eating in a manner consistent with national dietary guidelines, there have been several positive changes. Australians are eating more whole fruit, a greater diversity of vegetables, more beans, peas and pulses, less refined sugar, and they have increased their preference for brown and wholegrain cereals. Adult Australians have also increased their intake of nuts and seeds. Fruit juice consumption markedly declined, especially for younger Australians. Cocoa consumption increased and shifts in dairy product intake were mixed, reflecting one of several important differences between age and gender cohorts. This study sets the context for more detailed research at the level of specific foods to understand individual and household differences.

  19. Psychosocial determinants of self-reported hand hygiene behaviour: a survey comparing physicians and nurses in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lengerke, T; Lutze, B; Graf, K; Krauth, C; Lange, K; Schwadtke, L; Stahmeyer, J; Chaberny, I F

    2015-09-01

    Research applying psychological behaviour change theories to hand hygiene compliance is scarce, especially for physicians. To identify psychosocial determinants of self-reported hand hygiene behaviour (HHB) of physicians and nurses in intensive care units (ICUs). A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire that applied concepts from the Health Action Process Approach on hygienic hand disinfection was conducted in 10 ICUs and two haematopoietic stem cell transplantation units at Hannover Medical School, Germany. Self-reported compliance was operationalized as always disinfecting one's hands when given tasks associated with risk of infection. Using seven-point Likert scales, behavioural planning, maintenance self-efficacy and action control were assessed as psychological factors, and personnel and material resources, organizational problems and cooperation on the ward were assessed as perceived environmental factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed. In total, 307 physicians and 348 nurses participated in this study (response rates 70.9% and 63.4%, respectively). Self-reported compliance did not differ between the groups (72.4% vs 69.4%, P = 0.405). While nurses reported stronger planning, self-efficacy and action control, physicians indicated better personnel resources and cooperation on the ward (P Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Water-soluble proteinase activity of gastric fluids in the European whip snake, Hierophis viridiflavus: an experimental preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Felicioli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanism of metabolic digestion and of food assimilation in wild snake species is of fundamental importance to compare trophic niches, their adaptive significance and evolutionary patterns of diet selection for different snake species. From two adult Hierophis viridiflavus males in fasting condition, we sampled gastric fluids using fiberoptic endoscopy. We analyzed the proteolytic activities (optimal pH and temperature, response to inhibitors of snake samples by zymography techniques. The two major protease activity bands were always detected at every tested pH. Activity bands were also detectable over 37 °C; in particular both bands showed the highest activity ranging from 55 °C to 60 °C. Ranging from 65 °C to 85 °C, one band remained visible while the other band disappeared over 60 °C. The pattern of proteolytic enzymes activity of sampled gastric fluids highlighted a scenario composed of few active proteases, reflecting the feeding status (e.g., fasting of studied snakes. Detection of proteolytic activity until 85 °C, as in prokaryotic organisms, supported the hypothesis about the presence of proteases of exogenous source.

  1. How narrow-band and broad-band uvb irradiation influences the immunohistochemistry analyses of experimental animals’ skin – a comparative study. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Borowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of the artcle series impact narrow-band UVB radiation (NB-UVB and broad-band UVB radiation (BB-UVB on experimental animals’ skin (white Wistar female rats. The aim of this comparative study was immunohistochemistry analyses containing expression of p53 protein. Expression of p53 protein was performed on two experimental groups. One – exposed to NB-UVB; the other – exposed to BB-UVB radiation. The results indicate that p53 protein takes an active part in the process of apoptosis that is induced by both NB-UVB and BB-UVB. The results showed an increase in p53 expressing cells following BB-UVB than NB-UVB phototherapy.

  2. Bacteriological, histological and functional examination of rat kidneys during 5-days gentamycin therapy of experimental E. coli pyelonephritis as compared to 9-days therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, I.; Briedigkeit, H.; Strangfeld, D.; Ditscherlein, G.; Schuerer, M.; Pietsch, R.; Kruse, L.; Camu, A.; Blank, W.

    1985-01-01

    Short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended in infections of the lower urinary tract but its effectiveness is questioned in upper urinary tract infections. 5 and 9-days treatment of experimental E. coli 022 pyelonephritis after unilateral nephrectomy in 127 male Wistar rats were compared. 9 mg gentamycin per kg b.w. twice daily were applied. 131 I-hippurate excretion was not decreased during the 5 day treatment but was temporarily diminished during 9-days treatment. Histologically the severe acute pyelonephritis was decreased after 9-days treatment but not after 5 days of treatment. Bacteriologically almost all the kidneys were sterile after 9-days treatment but the majority of the kidneys showed the injected strain of E. coli after 5-days treatment. The results indicated that the shortened treatment was much less effective in acute experimental pyelonephritis. (author)

  3. A random cluster survey and a convenience sample give comparable estimates of immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children of school age in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath; Riddell, Michaela A; Gidding, Heather F; Nolan, Terry; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-08-19

    We compared estimates of the age-specific population immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B and varicella zoster viruses in Victorian school children obtained by a national sero-survey, using a convenience sample of residual sera from diagnostic laboratories throughout Australia, with those from a three-stage random cluster survey. When grouped according to school age (primary or secondary school) there was no significant difference in the estimates of immunity to measles, mumps, hepatitis B or varicella. Compared with the convenience sample, the random cluster survey estimated higher immunity to rubella in samples from both primary (98.7% versus 93.6%, P = 0.002) and secondary school students (98.4% versus 93.2%, P = 0.03). Despite some limitations, this study suggests that the collection of a convenience sample of sera from diagnostic laboratories is an appropriate sampling strategy to provide population immunity data that will inform Australia's current and future immunisation policies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. World Cup's impact on mental health and lifestyle behaviors in the general population: comparing results of 2 serial population-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Joseph Tai Fai; Tsui, Hi Yi; Mo, Phoenix Kit Han; Mak, Winnie Wing Sze; Griffiths, Sian

    2015-03-01

    This study compares the prevalence of health-related behaviors and mental health well-being in the Hong Kong general male population before and after the 2006 World Cup finals. Two anonymous, serial, comparable cross-sectional surveys. A total of 500 and 530 adult Chinese men, respectively, were interviewed in 2 telephone surveys before and after the finals. Those interviewed after the World Cup were more likely to eat snacks more than 3 d/wk, to be binge drinkers, or to spend more than 2 h/d communicating with family members. They were less likely to have higher General Health Questionnaire or lower Short Form-36 Health Survey Vitality scores (odds ratio [OR] = 0.684 and 0.765), to perceive family-related or work-related stress (OR = 0.327 and 0.345), or to self-report being sick or have visited a doctor (OR = 0.645 and 0.722). All variables between watchers versus nonwatchers of World Cup games were significant or marginally significant. Public health education should be incorporated into global sport events. © 2013 APJPH.

  5. Low-birthweight rates higher among Bangladeshi neonates measured during active birth surveillance compared to national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Rolf D W; Merrill, Rebecca D; Wu, Lee; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Labrique, Alain; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P

    2015-10-01

    Birth size is an important gauge of fetal and neonatal health. Birth size measurements were collected within 72 h of life for 16 290 live born, singleton infants in rural Bangladesh from 2004 to 2007. Gestational age was calculated based on the date of last menstrual period. Newborns were classified as small-for-gestational age (SGA) based on a birthweight below the 10th percentile for gestational age, using three sets of US reference data. Birth size distributions were explored based on raw values as well as after z-score standardisation in reference to World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 growth standards. Mean (SD) birthweight (g), length (cm) and head circumference (cm) measurements, completed within [median (25th, 75th percentile)] 15 (8, 23) h of life, were 2433 (425), 46.4 (2.4) and 32.4 (1.6), respectively. Twenty-two per cent were born preterm. Over one-half (55.3%) of infants were born low birthweight; 46.6%, 37.0% and 33.6% had a weight, length and head circumference below -2 z-scores of the WHO growth standard at birth; and 70.9%, 72.2% and 59.8% were SGA for weight based on Alexander et al., Oken et al. and Olsen et al. references, respectively. Infants in this typical rural Bangladesh setting were commonly born small, reflecting a high burden of fetal growth restriction and preterm birth. Our findings, produced by active birth surveillance, suggest that low birthweight is far more common than suggested by cross-sectional survey estimates. Interventions that improve fetal growth during pregnancy may have the largest impact on reducing SGA rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A methodological study to compare survey-based and observation-based evaluations of organisational and safety cultures and then compare both approaches with markers of the quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeth, D; Sandall, J; Allan, T; Warburton, F; Berridge, E J; Mackintosh, N; Rogers, M; Abbott, S

    2012-05-01

    Patient safety concerns have focused attention on organisational and safety cultures, in turn directing attention to the measurement of organisational and safety climates. First, to compare levels of agreement between survey- and observation-based measures of organisational and safety climates/cultures and to compare both measures with criterion-based audits of the quality of care, using evidence-based markers drawn from national care standards relating to six common clinical conditions. (This required development of an observation-based instrument.) Second, to examine whether observation-based evaluations could replace or augment survey measurements to mitigate concerns about declining response rates and increasing social desirability bias. Third, to examine mediating factors in safety and organisational climate scores. The study had three strands: (A) a postal questionnaire survey to elicit staff perceptions of organisational and safety climates, using six prevalidated scales; (B) semistructured non-participant observation of clinical teams; and (C) a retrospective criterion-based audit carried out by non-clinical auditors to minimise hindsight bias. Standardised summary scores were created for each strand, and pairs of measurements were compared (strand A with strand B, strand A with strand C, and strand B with strand C) using Bland-Altman plots to evaluate agreement. Correlations were also examined. Multilevel modelling of Strand A scores explored mediating factors. Eight emergency departments and eight maternity units in England, UK. None. Examination of feasibility, correlation and agreement. Strand A: the overall response rate was 27.6%, whereas site-specific rates ranged from 9% to 47%. We identified more mediating factors than previous studies; variable response rates had little effect on the results. Organisational and safety climate scores were strongly correlated (r = 0.845) and exhibited good agreement [standard deviation (SD) differences 0.449; 14 (88

  7. Southern Nevada residents' views about the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository and related issues: A comparative analysis of urban and rural survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krannich, R.S.; Little, R.L.; Mushkatel, A.; Pijawka, K.D.; Jones, P.

    1991-10-01

    Two separate surveys were undertaken in 1988 to ascertain southern Nevadans' views about the Yucca Mountain repository and related issues. The first of these studies focused on the attitudes and perceptions of residents in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The second study addressed similar issues, but focused on the views of residents in six rural communities in three counties adjacent to the Yucca Mountain site. However, parallel findings from the two data sets have not been jointly analyzed in order to identify ways in which the views and orientations of residents in the rural and urban study areas may be similar or different. The purpose of this report is to develop and present a comparative assessment of selected issues addressed in the rural and urban surveys. Because both urban and rural populations would potentially be impacted by the Yucca Mountain repository, such an analysis will provide important insights into possible repository impacts on the well-being of residents throughout southern Nevada

  8. The balanced scorecard as a potential instrument for supporting planning and improvement in accounting education: Comparative survey findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Cronje

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is firstly a comparison of the components of a potential balanced scorecard for accounting departments of universities in South Africa and Australia. Secondly, the various suggested measurement criteria of the balanced scorecard components are also compared. The findings of the research paper indicate no significant differences. The conclusion is that the balanced scorecard constitutes a potential instrument for supporting the planning and improvement of the accounting education environment.

  9. Evaluating a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback: what does an expert focus group yield compared to a web-based end-user survey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosbergen, Sandra; Mahieu, Guy R; Laan, Eva K; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Jaspers, Monique Wm; Peek, Niels

    2014-01-02

    Increasingly, Web-based health applications are developed for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, their reach and utilization is often disappointing. Qualitative evaluations post-implementation can be used to inform the optimization process and ultimately enhance their adoption. In current practice, such evaluations are mainly performed with end-user surveys. However, a review approach by experts in a focus group may be easier to administer and might provide similar results. The aim of this study was to assess whether industrial design engineers in a focus group would address the same issues as end users in a Web-based survey when evaluating a commercial Web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback. Seven Dutch companies used the HRA as part of their corporate health management strategy. Employees using the HRA (N=2289) and 10 independent industrial designers were invited to participate in the study. The HRA consisted of four components: (1) an electronic health questionnaire, (2) biometric measurements, (3) laboratory evaluation, and (4) individually tailored feedback generated by decision support software. After participating in the HRA as end users, both end users and designers evaluated the program. End users completed an evaluation questionnaire that included a free-text field. Designers participated in a focus group discussion. Constructs from user satisfaction and technology acceptance theories were used to categorize and compare the remarks from both evaluations. We assessed and qualitatively analyzed 294 remarks of 189 end users and 337 remarks of 6 industrial designers, pertaining to 295 issues in total. Of those, 137 issues were addressed in the end-user survey and 148 issues in the designer focus group. Only 7.3% (10/137) of the issues addressed in the survey were also addressed in the focus group. End users made more remarks about the usefulness of the HRA and prior expectations that were not met. Designers made

  10. Multinational comparative cross-sectional survey of views of medical students about acceptable terminology and subgroups in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Shanaya; Irfan, Muhammad; Bhargava, Rachna; Pinninti, Narsimha; Scott, Joseph; Mohammad Algahtani, Haifa; Guo, Zhihua; Gupta, Rishab; Nadkarni, Pallavi; Naeem, Farooq; Howells, Fleur; Sorsdahi, Katherine; Thorne, Kerensa; Osman-Hicks, Victoria; Pallikadavath, Sasee; Phiri, Peter; Carr, Hannah; Graves, Lizi; Kingdon, David

    2018-06-07

    The aim of this study was to inform thinking around the terminology for 'schizophrenia' in different countries. The objective of this study was to investigate: (1) whether medical students view alternative terminology (psychosis subgroups), derived from vulnerability-stress models of schizophrenia, as acceptable and less stigmatising than the term schizophrenia; (2) if there are differences in attitudes to the different terminology across countries with different cultures and (3) whether clinical training has an impact in reducing stigma. This is a cross-sectional survey that examined the attitudes of medical students towards schizophrenia and the alternative subgroups. The study was conducted across eight sites: (1) University of Southampton, UK; (2) All India Institute of Medical Science, India; (3) Rowan University, USA; (4) Peshawar Medical College, Pakistan; (5) Capital Medical University, China; (6) College of Medicine and Medical sciences, Bahrain; (7) Queens University, Kingston, Canada and (8) University of Cape Town, South Africa. This study extended an initial pilot conducted by the Royal College of Psychiatrists on the term schizophrenia and psychosis subgroups to assess whether the subgroup terminology might have an effect on the attitudes of a convenience sample of medical students from eight different countries and potentially play a role in reducing stigmatisation. 1873 medical students completed a questionnaire recording their attitudes to schizophrenia and the psychosis subgroups. A reduction in negative perceptions were found for the psychosis subgroups, especially for the stress sensitivity psychosis and anxiety psychosis subgroups. Negative perceptions were found for drug-related psychosis. Participants who had undergone clinical training had overall positive attitudes. Differences across different countries were found. The attitudes towards psychosis subgroups used in this study have shown mixed results and variation across countries. Further

  11. A Comparative Experimental Analysis of Tribological Properties Between Commercial Mineral Oil and Neat Castor Oil using Taguchi Method in Boundary Lubrication Regime

    OpenAIRE

    S. Bhaumik; S.D Pathak

    2016-01-01

    The present work aims to carry out a comparative experimental analysis of tribological properties of 372cSt mineral oil and 229cSt castor oil. The antiwear and extreme pressure properties of both the oils have been analysed according to ASTM G 99 and ASTM D-2783 standards. The surfaces of the balls and pins after tribo tests have been analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images. The present test results predict that the antiwear and extreme pressure properties in case of the sele...

  12. A survey of informatics platforms that enable distributed comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional heterogeneous clinical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F.; Hazlehurst, Brian L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Murphy, Shawn; Rosenman, Marc; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) has the potential to transform the current healthcare delivery system by identifying the most effective medical and surgical treatments, diagnostic tests, disease prevention methods and ways to deliver care for specific clinical conditions. To be successful, such research requires the identification, capture, aggregation, integration, and analysis of disparate data sources held by different institutions with diverse representations of the relevant clinical events. In an effort to address these diverse demands, there have been multiple new designs and implementations of informatics platforms that provide access to electronic clinical data and the governance infrastructure required for inter-institutional CER. The goal of this manuscript is to help investigators understand why these informatics platforms are required and to compare and contrast six, large-scale, recently funded, CER-focused informatics platform development efforts. We utilized an 8-dimension, socio-technical model of health information technology use to help guide our work. We identified six generic steps that are necessary in any distributed, multi-institutional CER project: data identification, extraction, modeling, aggregation, analysis, and dissemination. We expect that over the next several years these projects will provide answers to many important, and heretofore unanswerable, clinical research questions. PMID:22692259

  13. A survey of informatics platforms that enable distributed comparative effectiveness research using multi-institutional heterogenous clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F; Hazlehurst, Brian L; Brown, Jeffrey; Murphy, Shawn; Rosenman, Marc; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Wilcox, Adam B

    2012-07-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has the potential to transform the current health care delivery system by identifying the most effective medical and surgical treatments, diagnostic tests, disease prevention methods, and ways to deliver care for specific clinical conditions. To be successful, such research requires the identification, capture, aggregation, integration, and analysis of disparate data sources held by different institutions with diverse representations of the relevant clinical events. In an effort to address these diverse demands, there have been multiple new designs and implementations of informatics platforms that provide access to electronic clinical data and the governance infrastructure required for interinstitutional CER. The goal of this manuscript is to help investigators understand why these informatics platforms are required and to compare and contrast 6 large-scale, recently funded, CER-focused informatics platform development efforts. We utilized an 8-dimension, sociotechnical model of health information technology to help guide our work. We identified 6 generic steps that are necessary in any distributed, multi-institutional CER project: data identification, extraction, modeling, aggregation, analysis, and dissemination. We expect that over the next several years these projects will provide answers to many important, and heretofore unanswerable, clinical research questions.

  14. Potential and limitations of X-Ray micro-computed tomography in arthropod neuroanatomy: A methodological and comparative survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombke, Andy; Lipke, Elisabeth; Michalik, Peter; Uhl, Gabriele; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Classical histology or immunohistochemistry combined with fluorescence or confocal laser scanning microscopy are common techniques in arthropod neuroanatomy, and these methods often require time-consuming and difficult dissections and sample preparations. Moreover, these methods are prone to artifacts due to compression and distortion of tissues, which often result in information loss and especially affect the spatial relationships of the examined parts of the nervous system in their natural anatomical context. Noninvasive approaches such as X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can overcome such limitations and have been shown to be a valuable tool for understanding and visualizing internal anatomy and structural complexity. Nevertheless, knowledge about the potential of this method for analyzing the anatomy and organization of nervous systems, especially of taxa with smaller body size (e.g., many arthropods), is limited. This study set out to analyze the brains of selected arthropods with micro-CT, and to compare these results with available histological and immunohistochemical data. Specifically, we explored the influence of different sample preparation procedures. Our study shows that micro-CT is highly suitable for analyzing arthropod neuroarchitecture in situ and allows specific neuropils to be distinguished within the brain to extract quantitative data such as neuropil volumes. Moreover, data acquisition is considerably faster compared with many classical histological techniques. Thus, we conclude that micro-CT is highly suitable for targeting neuroanatomy, as it reduces the risk of artifacts and is faster than classical techniques. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:1281–1295, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25728683

  15. Experimental Study on Welded Headed Studs Used In Steel Plate-Concrete Composite Structures Compared with Contactless Method of Measuring Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisała, Dawid; Tekieli, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Steel plate-concrete composite structures are a new innovative design concept in which a thin steel plate is attached to the reinforced concrete beam by means of welded headed studs. The comparison between experimental studies and theoretical analysis of this type of structures shows that their behaviour is dependent on the load-slip relationship of the shear connectors used to ensure sufficient bond between the concrete and steel parts of the structure. The aim of this paper is to describe an experimental study on headed studs used in steel plate-concrete composite structures. Push-out tests were carried out to investigate the behaviour of shear connectors. The test specimens were prepared according to standard push-out tests, however, instead of I-beam, a steel plate 16 mm thick was used to better reflect the conditions in the real structure. The test specimens were produced in two batches using concrete with significantly different compressive strength. The experimental study was carried out on twelve specimens. Besides the traditional measurements based on LVDT sensors, optical measurements based on the digital image correlation method (DIC) and pattern tracking methods were used. DIC is a full-field contactless optical method for measuring displacements in experimental testing, based on the correlation of the digital images taken during test execution. With respect to conventional methods, optical measurements offer a wider scope of results and can give more information about the material or construction behaviour during the test. The ultimate load capacity and load-slip curves obtained from the experiments were compared with the values calculated based on Eurocodes, American and Chinese design specifications. It was observed that the use of the relationships developed for the traditional steel-concrete composite structures is justified in the case of ultimate load capacity of shear connectors in steel plate-concrete composite structures.

  16. Comparative experimental study on municipal wastewater disinfection with ozone and peracetic acid; Indagine sperimentale comparata sulla disinfezione di acque reflue urbane con ozono e acido peracetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreottola, G.; Bertola, P.; Ziglio, G. [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Civile Ambientale

    1996-04-01

    The results of a pilot experimental study on the disinfection of treated municipal wastewater to be used in agriculture are presented. A comparative evaluation has been carried out on two parallel pilot-scale disinfection plants using respectively ozone and peracetic acid. After a preliminary sand filtration pilot unit. Both processes showed the capability of meeting the Italian standards for agricultural reuse, but the disinfection process with ozone required much higher doses than the one with peracetic acid, probably because of the higher reactivity of ozone, if compared to peracetic acid with the organic matter present in wastewater. Further research is needed in order to evaluate the efficiency of peracetic acid applied to microorganism different from the bacterial ones and to identify nature and consequences of possible disinfection by products.

  17. Transplant of Hepatocytes, Undifferentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells, and In Vitro Hepatocyte-Differentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Chronic Liver Failure Experimental Model: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baz, Hanan; Demerdash, Zeinab; Kamel, Manal; Atta, Shimaa; Salah, Faten; Hassan, Salwa; Hammam, Olfat; Khalil, Heba; Meshaal, Safa; Raafat, Inas

    2018-02-01

    Liver transplant is the cornerstone line of treatment for chronic liver diseases; however, the long list of complications and obstacles stand against this operation. Searching for new modalities for treatment of chronic liver illness is a must. In the present research, we aimed to compare the effects of transplant of undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cells, in vitro differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, and adult hepatocytes in an experimental model of chronic liver failure. Undifferentiated human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells were isolated, pro-pagated, and characterized by morphology, gene expression analysis, and flow cytometry of surface markers and in vitro differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells. Rat hepatocytes were isolated by double perfusion technique. An animal model of chronic liver failure was developed, and undifferentiated human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells, in vitro hepato-genically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, or freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were transplanted into a CCL4 cirrhotic experimental model. Animals were killed 3 months after transplant, and liver functions and histopathology were assessed. Compared with the cirrhotic control group, the 3 cell-treated groups showed improved alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, and bilirubin levels, with best results shown in the hepatocyte-treated group. Histopathologic examination of the treated groups showed improved fibrosis, with best results obtained in the undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell-treated group. Both adult hepatocytes and cord blood mesenchymal stem cells proved to be promising candidates for cell-based therapy in liver regeneration on an experimental level. Improved liver function was evident in the hepatocyte-treated group, and fibrosis control was more evident in the undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell-treated group.

  18. A comparative study of clinical manifestations, haematological and serological responses after experimental infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two Norwegian sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandstedt Karin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been questioned if the old native Norwegian sheep breed, Old Norse Sheep (also called Norwegian Feral Sheep, normally distributed on coastal areas where ticks are abundant, is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds due to a continuously high selection pressure on pasture. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis in an experimental infection study. Methods Five-months-old lambs of two Norwegian sheep breeds, Norwegian White (NW sheep and Old Norse (ON sheep, were experimentally infected with a 16S rRNA genetic variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (similar to GenBank accession number M73220. The experiment was repeated for two subsequent years, 2008 and 2009, with the use of 16 lambs of each breed annually. Ten lambs of each breed were inoculated intravenously each year with 0.4 ml A. phagocytophilum-infected blood containing approximately 0.5 × 106 infected neutrophils/ml. Six lambs of each breed were used as uninfected controls. Half of the primary inoculated lambs in each breed were re-challenged with the same infectious dose at nine (2008 and twelve (2009 weeks after the first challenge. The clinical, haematological and serological responses to A. phagocytophilum infection were compared in the two sheep breeds. Results The present study indicates a difference in fever response and infection rate between breeds of Norwegian sheep after experimental infection with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusion Although clinical response seems to be less in ON-lambs compared to NW-lambs, further studies including more animals are needed to evaluate if the ON-breed is more protected against tick-borne infections than other Norwegian breeds.

  19. Comparative antioxidant status in freshwater fish Carassius auratus exposed to six current-use brominated flame retardants: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Mingbao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •A combined experimental and theoretical approach was used for risk assessments of six BFRs in fish. •Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured for toxicity identification. •Toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response. •Theoretical calculations were performed to analyze the BFRs toxicity. -- Abstract: Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and several non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are persistent halogenated contaminants ubiquitously detected in aquatic systems. However, data on comparative toxicological effects of these BFRs are lacking for fish. In this study, a combined experimental and theoretical approach was used to compare and analyze the effects of these BFRs on biochemical biomarkers in liver of Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with different doses (10 and 100 mg/kg) for 7, 14 and 30 days. Oxidative stress was evoked evidently for the prolonged exposure, represented by the significantly altered indices (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked biotoxicity as: PBT > HBB > HBCD > TBBPA > BDE-209 > DBDPE. Quantum chemical calculations (electronic parameters, frontier molecular orbitals, and Wiberg bond order) were performed for theoretical analysis. Notably, some descriptors were correlated with the toxicity order, probably implying the existence of a potential structure–activity relationship when more BFRs were included. Besides, theoretical calculations also provided some valuable information regarding the molecular characteristics and metabolic pathways of these current-use BFRs, which may facilitate the understanding on their environmental behavior and fate. Overall, this study adopted a combined

  20. A comparative study on the hepatoprotective action of bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma aqueous extract on experimental liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Feng, Yibin; Cheung, Fan; Chow, Oi-Yee; Wang, Xuanbin; Su, Weiwei; Tong, Yao

    2012-11-29

    Bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma have been used in Chinese medicine with a long tradition in treating heat-diseases. Both bear bile and Coptidis Rhizoma are used to treat liver diseases in clinical practice of Chinese Medicine. Since bears are currently endangered, it raises the question whether the use of bear bile is ethical. To look for substitute for bear bile, the aim of this study is to compare the anti-fibrotic effects of Coptidis Rhizoma and its major component berberine with the actions of bear bile and its major compound tauroursodeoxycholic acid on experimental liver fibrosis in rats. Quality assessment was conducted with high performance liquid chromatography. The experimental liver fibrosis in rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride, alcohol, and bile duct ligation respectively. The biochemical criteria in the blood and tissue samples were measured to evaluate the anti-fibrotic properties and underlying mechanisms of the drugs. Coptidis Rhizoma Aqueous Extract (CRAE), berberine, and bear bile exerted anti-fibrotic properties on various liver fibrosis models in rats. CRAE and berberine significantly reduced the peroxidative stress in liver through increasing the superoxide dismutase enzyme activity. CRAE and berberine were able to excrete bilirubin products from the liver and protect hepatocytes from cholestatic damage. The effect of CRAE and berberine are comparable to that of bear bile. Instead of using bear bile, CRAE and berberine can be potential substitutes in treating liver fibrosis.

  1. Levantamento pedológico da estação experimental de Pindamonhangaba A soil survey of the Pindamonhangaba agr. Exp. Sta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Küpper

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são estudados, classificados e delimitados os solos da Estação Experimental de Pindamonhangaba. Êsse campo experimental possui uma área de 226 hectares, ou 93,9 alqueires paulistas, dedicando-se a pesquisas agrícolas. Os solos estão classificados em séries monotípicas ou tipos de solo, grande grupo, subordem e ordem, segundo a classificação climática. Acompanham cada série descrições morfológica e genética, bem como principais propriedades físicas e químicas. A fertilidade foi analisada somente pelas propriedades químicas de amostras compostas, colhidas em locais diversos dentro da Estação Os solos zonais, da subordem Latossolo, de boa drenagem, compreendem as séries Pinhão, Pinda, Polêmica e Ponte Alta, e os moderadamente drenados estão definidos pelas séries Guatemala e Gleba. Na categoria de intrazonais são encontrados os grandes grupos Glei Pouco Húmico (série Mosqueada e o Glei Húmico (série Estação. A eerie Dourada é a única que se enquadra no grande grupo Aluvião, da ordem azonal.A detailed soil survey of lhe Paraíba Valley (Taubaté basin is being carried on as a cooperative project between the Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, and the Serviço do Vale do Paraíba. As a part of this project, a soil survey of the Pindamonhangaba Agr, Exp. Sta. (226 hectares was made, the results of which are reported in this paper. The soils were classified in monotype series or soil types, Great Soil Group, sub-order, and order, according to the climatic classification. The fertility problems were studied on the basis of composile soil samples several site of the slatian. The zonal soils belong to the sub-order Latosol and were defined in soil types Pinhão, Pinda. Polêmica, and Ponte Alta, as well drained soils, and Guatemala and Gleba as moderately drained ones. As intraional soils was the Mosqueada series present, defined as Low Humíc Gley and Estação Series as Humic Gley. The Dourada

  2. Comparative Survey of Mental Disorders and Personality Characteristics in Persons With Drug Dependent and Non Drug Dependent in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghaleiha

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The influence of genetic, biological, psychological, social and cultural factors on drug dependency and high rate comorbidity of this phenomenon with psychiatric disorders for example anxiety, depression and characteristics and personality disorders is emphasized. The aim of this study was the comparative investigation of mental disorders and personality traits in persons with drug dependent and non drug dependent in Hamadan city in 2001-2003 .Materials & Methods: Present research was a descriptive comparison and subjects were 100 drug dependent persons and 100 non drug dependent individuals .Case group was chosen through available sampling among persons who call on psychiatrist and control group was chosen through randomly simple sampling from general population. Measurement and diagnostic tools includes questionnaire for examining demographic characteristics, designed by researchers and MMPI, SCL90-R tests and DSM IV criteria diagnostic and also T test that was used for analyzing data.Results: Between two groups in clinical and validity scales of MMPI test expect for hypochondriasis and hysteria and scales of SCL 90-R test expect somatization and interpersonal sensitivity differences were statistically significant (P<0.05.Conclusion: We can conclude that persons with drug dependent display more signs of psychopathology and mental disorders in comparison with non drug dependent people and Major depressive disorder and personality disorder were frequent among drug dependent groups. Depression and personal disorders were frequent in non drug dependent persons too. Our results support the results of previous studies.

  3. Fewer specialists support using medical marijuana and CBD in treating epilepsy patients compared with other medical professionals and patients: result of Epilepsia's survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathern, Gary W; Beninsig, Laurie; Nehlig, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    From May 20 to September 1 2014, Epilepsia conducted an online survey seeking opinions about the use of medical marijuana and cannabidiol (CBD) for people with epilepsy. This study reports the findings of that poll. The survey consisted of eight questions. Four questions asked if there were sufficient safety and efficacy data, whether responders would advise trying medical marijuana in cases of severe refractory epilepsy, and if pharmacologic grade compounds containing CBD should be available. Four questions addressed occupation, geographic region of residence, if responders had read the paper, and if they were International League Against Epilepsy/International Bureau for Epilepsy (ILAE/IBE) members. Of 776 who started or completed the survey, 58% were patients from North America, and 22% were epileptologists and general neurologists from Europe and North America. A minority of epileptologists and general neurologists said that there were sufficient safety (34%) and efficacy (28%) data, and 48% would advise using medical marijuana in severe cases of epilepsy. By comparison, nearly all patients and the public said there were sufficient safety (96%) and efficacy (95%) data, and 98% would recommend medical marijuana in cases of severe epilepsy. General physicians, basic researchers, nurses, and allied health professions sided more with patients, saying that there were sufficient safety (70%) and efficacy (71%) data, and 83% would advise using marijuana in severe cases. A majority (78%) said there should be pharmacologic grade compounds containing CBD, and there were no differences between specialists, general medical personal, and patients and the public. This survey indicates that there is a wide disparity in opinion on the use of medical marijuana and CBD in the treatment of people with epilepsy, which varied substantially, with fewer medical specialists supporting its use compared with general medical personal, and patients and the public. Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  4. A Literature Survey and Experimental Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art in Uplift Modeling: A Stepping Stone Toward the Development of Prescriptive Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devriendt, Floris; Moldovan, Darie; Verbeke, Wouter

    2018-03-01

    Prescriptive analytics extends on predictive analytics by allowing to estimate an outcome in function of control variables, allowing as such to establish the required level of control variables for realizing a desired outcome. Uplift modeling is at the heart of prescriptive analytics and aims at estimating the net difference in an outcome resulting from a specific action or treatment that is applied. In this article, a structured and detailed literature survey on uplift modeling is provided by identifying and contrasting various groups of approaches. In addition, evaluation metrics for assessing the performance of uplift models are reviewed. An experimental evaluation on four real-world data sets provides further insight into their use. Uplift random forests are found to be consistently among the best performing techniques in terms of the Qini and Gini measures, although considerable variability in performance across the various data sets of the experiments is observed. In addition, uplift models are frequently observed to be unstable and display a strong variability in terms of performance across different folds in the cross-validation experimental setup. This potentially threatens their actual use for business applications. Moreover, it is found that the available evaluation metrics do not provide an intuitively understandable indication of the actual use and performance of a model. Specifically, existing evaluation metrics do not facilitate a comparison of uplift models and predictive models and evaluate performance either at an arbitrary cutoff or over the full spectrum of potential cutoffs. In conclusion, we highlight the instability of uplift models and the need for an application-oriented approach to assess uplift models as prime topics for further research.

  5. A Comparative Genomic Survey Provides Novel Insights into Molecular Evolution of l-Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a pleiotropic molecule with various important physiological roles in vertebrates. l-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD is the second enzyme for melatonin synthesis. By far, a clear-cut gene function of AAAD in the biosynthesis of melatonin has been unclear in vertebrates. Here, we provide novel insights into the evolution of AAAD based on 77 vertebrate genomes. According to our genome-wide alignments, we extracted a total of 151 aaad nucleotide sequences. A phylogenetic tree was constructed on the basis of these sequences and corresponding protein alignments, indicating that tetrapods and diploid bony fish genomes contained one aaad gene and a new aaad-like gene, which formed a novel AAAD family. However, in tetraploid teleosts, there were two copies of the aaad gene due to whole genome duplication. A subsequent synteny analysis investigated 81 aaad sequences and revealed their collinearity and systematic evolution. Interestingly, we discovered that platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus, Atlantic cod (Guadus morhua, Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus, and a Sinocyclocheilus cavefish (S. anshuiensis have long evolutionary branches in the phylogenetic topology. We also performed pseudogene identification and selection pressure analysis; however, the results revealed a deletion of 37 amino acids in Atlantic cod and premature stop codons in the cave-restricted S. anshuiensis and A. mexicanus, suggesting weakening or disappearing rhythms in these cavefishes. Selective pressure analysis of aaad between platypus and other tetrapods showed that rates of nonsynonymous (Ka and synonymous (Ks substitutions were higher when comparing the platypus to other representative tetrapods, indicating that, in this semiaquatic mammal, the aaad gene experienced selection during the process of evolution. In summary, our current work provides novel insights into aaad genes in vertebrates from a genome-wide view.

  6. Survey of Serum Zinc and Copper Levels in the Patients with Brucellosis and Comparing with Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Eini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Brucellosis is a zoonotic infection. Metabolism of trace elements such as zinc and copper can influence the response of immunity system and can activate host 's immunochemical mechanisms against the organism. Therefore, this study aimed to determine changes in serum levels of Zn and Cu in patients with brucellosis in pre and post treatment compared with healthy persons. Methods: In this individual matched case-control study, 26 patients participated who were admitted to infectious unit of Farshchian Hospital with brucellosis. Moreover, 26 healthy individuals were included in the control group. 5mL of venous blood was taken from all cases in pre-treatment as well post-treatment. Then, the serum samples were diluted with deionized water, and Cu and Zn levels were measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: In this study, 26 patients with brucellosis were enrolled, who were 13 men (50% and 13 women (50%. No significant difference was observed between the patients and the control group in regard with their age and sex. Serum level of Cu in patients with brucellosis was found to be 100.31µg/dl and 92.81µg/dl, respectively before and after the treatment (P=0.495. Serum level of Cu in healthy individuals was reported to be 97.96µg/dl. In addition, serum level of Zn in the patients and controls was 93 µg/dl and 96.38 µg/dl, respectively (P= 0.625. Patients' Zn Serum level was found to be 90.27µg/dl after the treatment. Conclusion: In this study, no significant changes were observed in serum levels of copper and zinc in the patients with brucellosis in comparison with the control group. Besides, no significant changes were reported in serum levels of these elements in the patients in the end of treatment.

  7. Comparative quality measures of emergency care: an outcome cockpit proposal to survey clinical processes in real life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgemeister S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Susanne Burgemeister,1 Alexander Kutz,1 Antoinette Conca,2 Thomas Holler,3 Sebastian Haubitz,1 Andreas Huber,4 Ulrich Buergi,5 Beat Mueller,1 Philipp Schuetz1 1University Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Faculty of the University of Basel, Kantonsspital Aarau, Basel, 2Department of Clinical Nursing Science, 3Department of Controlling and Quality Management, 4Department of Laboratory Medicine, 5Emergency Department, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland Background: Benchmarking of real-life quality of care may improve evaluation and comparability of emergency department (ED care. We investigated process management variables for important medical diagnoses in a large, well-defined cohort of ED patients and studied predictors for low quality of care. Methods: We prospectively included consecutive medical patients with main diagnoses of community-acquired pneumonia, urinary tract infection (UTI, myocardial infarction (MI, acute heart failure, deep vein thrombosis, and COPD exacerbation and followed them for 30 days. We studied predictors for alteration in ED care (treatment times, satisfaction with care, readmission rates, and mortality by using multivariate regression analyses.Results: Overall, 2986 patients (median age 72 years, 57% males were included. The median time to start treatment was 72 minutes (95% CI: 23 to 150, with a median length of ED stay (ED LOS of 256 minutes (95% CI: 166 to 351. We found delayed treatment times and longer ED LOS to be independently associated with main medical admission diagnosis and time of day on admission (shortest times for MI and longest times for UTI. Time to first physician contact (–0.01 hours, 95% CI: –0.03 to –0.02 and ED LOS (–0.01 hours, 95% CI: –0.02 to –0.04 were main predictors for patient satisfaction. Conclusion: Within this large cohort of consecutive patients seeking ED care, we found time of day on admission to be an important predictor for ED timeliness, which again

  8. Spectroscopic investigation on structure (monomer and dimer), molecular characteristics and comparative study on vibrational analysis of picolinic and isonicotinic acids using experimental and theoretical (DFT & IVP) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Gaddam; Reddy, Byru Venkatram

    2018-05-01

    ) analysis. The 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts of the molecules are calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectra of the compounds are also recorded in the region 200-400 nm. Thermodynamic parameters and rotational constants are also determined and found that they are comparable with experimental literature values for these molecules.

  9. Experimental program at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, D.

    1974-01-01

    The experimental program at Fermilab is briefly surveyed: accelerators and experimental areas, current experiments such as elastic scattering of π +- , K +- , p +- , on proton and deuteron total cross sections, neutrino physics, high transverse momentum [fr

  10. Empirical Correlations and CFD Simulations of Vertical Two-Phase Gas-Liquid (Newtonian and Non-Newtonian) Slug Flow Compared Against Experimental Data of Void Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Majumder, S.K.; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Gas-Newtonian liquid two-phase flows (TPFs) are presented in several industrial processes (e.g. oil-gas industry). In spite of the common occurrence of these TPFs, the understanding of them is limited compared to single-phase flows. Various studies on TPF focus on developing empirical correlations...... based on large sets of experimental data for void fraction, which have proven accurate for specific conditions for which they were developed limiting their applicability. On the other hand, few studies focus on gas-non-Newtonian liquids TPFs, which are very common in chemical processes. The main reason...... is due to the characterization of the viscosity, which determines the hydraulic regime and flow behaviours of the system. The focus of this study is the analysis of the TPF (slug flow) for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids in a vertical pipe in terms of void fraction using computational fluid dynamics...

  11. Comparison of experimental techniques for measuring fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steels by performance of a comparative round-robin test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huthmann, H.; Akhurst, K.N.; Bethmont, M.; Picker, C.; Rongen, H.J.M. van; Soulat, P.

    1987-01-01

    The CEC fast breeder coordinating committee, activities group 3 Materials of the working group for codes and standards, has recently examined existing data on the fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steels. As a result, the committee decided to sponsor a round robin test programme aimed at comparing experimental techniques and assisting in establishing a standard test method for these steels. The contract for this programme was placed with Interatom, who have subcontracted with CEA-Saclay, CEGB-Leatherhead, TNO-Apeldoorn and UKAEA-Risley. Additionally CISE/ENEL-Milano and EdF-Les Renardieres took part in the round robin. This final report presents a common evaluation and discussion of the results gained by the different laboratories

  12. Experimental model for endometriosis. Comparative histological study between the ectopic and eutopic endometrium Modelo experimental de endometriose: estudo histológico comparativo entre o endométrio estópico e o eutópico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cézar Alencar de Lima Rezende

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyrty-six rats werw implanted with endometrial squares (2 X 2mm to the left parietal peritoneum and the right uterine horn was tied. The rats were mated for 20 days and then sacrificed. Topic and ectopic endometrial histological pattern were compared. There was a correlation between the histological pattern of the autografted endometrium and the eutopic endometrium im most rats, pregnant or not. This suggests that both responded in a similar way to the same endocrine stimuli. The experimental model for endometriosis admiting the histological correlation between the uterine endometrium and the ectopic is factible and it is easy to be repetead.Trinta e seis ratas foram submetidas a implante cirúrgico de retalho endometrial quadrangular (2 x 2mm no peritônio parietal esquerdo e ligadura do corno uterino direito. As ratas foram acasaladas por 20 dias e logo após sacrificadas. Foram comparados o padrão histológico do endométrio eutópico e do ectópico.Houve correspondência entre o padrão histológico do endométrio auto-transplantado e o endométrio eutópico na maioria das ratas, prenhes ou não, sugerindo que ambos responderam de forma semelhante aos mesmo estímulos endócrinos. O modelo experimental de endometriose na rata, permitindo a correlação histológica entre o endométrio uterino e o ectópico, é viável e de fácil repetição.

  13. Survey of Thermal-Fluids Evaluation and Confirmatory Experimental Validation Requirements of Accident Tolerant Cladding Concepts with Focus on Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ali, Amir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Maolong [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blandford, Edward [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is working closely with the nuclear industry to develop fuel and cladding candidates with potentially enhanced accident tolerance, also known as accident tolerant fuel (ATF). Thermal-fluids characteristics are a vital element of a holistic engineering evaluation of ATF concepts. One vital characteristic related to boiling heat transfer is the critical heat flux (CHF). CHF plays a vital role in determining safety margins during normal operation and also in the progression of potential transient or accident scenarios. This deliverable is a scoping survey of thermal-fluids evaluation and confirmatory experimental validation requirements of accident tolerant cladding concepts with a focus on boiling heat transfer characteristics. The key takeaway messages of this report are: 1. CHF prediction accuracy is important and the correlations may have significant uncertainty. 2. Surface conditions are important factors for CHF, primarily the wettability that is characterized by contact angle. Smaller contact angle indicates greater wettability, which increases the CHF. Surface roughness also impacts wettability. Results in the literature for pool boiling experiments indicate changes in CHF by up to 60% for several ATF cladding candidates. 3. The measured wettability of FeCrAl (i.e., contact angle and roughness) indicates that CHF should be investigated further through pool boiling and flow boiling experiments. 4. Initial measurements of static advancing contact angle and surface roughness indicate that FeCrAl is expected to have a higher CHF than Zircaloy. The measured contact angle of different FeCrAl alloy samples depends on oxide layer thickness and composition. The static advancing contact angle tends to decrease as the oxide layer thickness increases.

  14. Occupational health physicians have better work conditions for handling sickness certification compared with general practitioners: results from a nationwide survey in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungquist, Therese; Alexanderson, Kristina; Kjeldgård, Linnea; Arrelöv, Britt; Nilsson, Gunnar H

    2015-02-01

    To study whether occupational health physicians (OPs) have a better work situation regarding handling of sickness certification compared with other physicians, in particular general practitioners (GPs), and to analyze associations between OPs' experiences of assessing and providing a long-term prognosis of patients' work capacity and some potentially interrelated factors. Answers to a nationwide survey from physicians who had sickness certification consultations at least once monthly were analyzed. Differences among OPs (n=481), GPs (n=4257) and physicians working in other clinical settings (n=9452) were estimated by chi square tests. Associations between OPs' experiences as above and potentially interrelated factors were estimated using logistic regression analyses. Among OPs, a lower proportion experienced clinical work situations related to sickness certifications as 'very problematic', compared with the other physicians, and especially so compared with GPs. A higher proportion of OPs also had organizational support for handling sickness certifications. For OPs, experience of sickness certification consultations as problematic once a month or less often, not experiencing sickness certification tasks as a work environment problem, and having a well-established workplace policy regarding sickness certification matters were significantly positively associated with finding assessing and providing a long-term prognosis of work capacity as 'not at all/somewhat problematic'. OPs' work situation regarding sickness certifications was favorable compared with that of other physicians, and especially compared with that of GPS. Our results underline the importance of organizational support for ensuring physicians' experience of having professional competence in handling assessments of patients' work capacity. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  15. Comparing Coral Reef Survey Methods. Unesco Reports in Marine Science No. 21 Report of a Regional Unesco/UNEP Workshop on Coral Reef Survey Management and Assessment Methods in Asia and the Pacific (Phuket, Thailand, December 13-17, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    This report includes nine papers prepared for a workshop on coral reef survey management and assessment methods in Asia and the Pacific. The papers are: "A Contrast in Methodologies between Surveying and Testing" (Charles Birkeland); "Coral Reef Survey Methods in the Andaman Sea" (Hansa Chansang); "A Review of Coral Reef…

  16. Comparative experimental and modeling study of the low- to moderate-temperature oxidation chemistry of 2,5-dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, and furan

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Luc-Sy; Wang, Zhandong; Carstensen, Hans-Heinrich; Hemken, Christian; Battin-Leclerc, Fré dé rique; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    The reaction chemistry of furanic fuels, proposed as next-generation bio-derived fuels, has been a target of recent studies. However, quantitative intermediate species profiles at low- to moderate-temperature (LMT) conditions remain scarce. The present paper reports the first systematic full speciation dataset in the temperature range 730–1170 K for three furanic fuels, 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), 2-methylfuran (MF), and furan, measured for different equivalence ratios under near-identical LMT conditions in a flow reactor at 1 bar. More than 35 species including reactants, intermediate species, and products were analyzed using electron ionization (EI) molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). These experimental results provided motivation to extend a previous single joint mechanism for the three furanic fuels, developed for the high-temperature regime in low-pressure premixed flames, to include the LMT oxidation chemistry. A decisive difference of the present mechanism versus all previously reported models is a more complete description of fuel radical reactions for LMT oxidation, obtained from theoretical calculations of thermodynamic properties and rate constants. The experimentally observed differences in fuel conversion behavior and species distribution between the three fuels have been compared to model predictions using the newly extended mechanism. The dependence of fuel conversion on equivalence ratio decreases significantly from DMF to furan, a behavior consistent with the different number of lateral methyl groups in the fuel structure. All three furanic fuels, especially DMF, produce several highly toxic oxygenated species including acrolein, methyl vinyl ketone, furfural, and phenol. These toxic species were found to be products of the primary reactions of these fuels, and these undesirable trends could be explained satisfactorily by the present model, pointing to some caution with regard to the potential emission spectra under LMT conditions.

  17. A comparative study of key properties of glycine glycinium picrate (GGP and glycinium picrate (GP: A combined experimental and quantum chemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Shkir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using experimental and computational techniques, a comparative study of electro-optical properties for glycine glycinium picrate (GGP and glycinium picrate (GP compounds has been performed. The single crystal of GGP has been grown using slow evaporation technique that was further subjected to experimental characterization of its electro-optical properties. The good optical transparency and mechanical strength at micro level was confirmed from optical and nanoindentation measurements using the Oliver–Pharr method of the grown single crystals. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC analysis was done to probe the thermal stability of the grown single crystals. Using the density functional theory (DFT methods, we have not only investigated the GGP but also proposed GP molecule. Additionally, we have shed light on the molecular geometries, infrared and Raman spectra, linear and nonlinear optical properties of both GGP and GP at molecular level. The time dependent DFT (TD-DFT approach was adopted to calculate the excitation energies of the molecules in different phases including gas, water, acetone, cyclohexane and chloroform as well. For GGP, its wavelength of maximum absorption is calculated to be ∼390 nm at B3LYP/6-31G∗ level of theory. The calculated amplitudes of first hyperpolarizability (βtot for GGP and GP are found to be 712 and 970 a. u., respectively, which are about 16 and 23 times larger than that of the urea molecule (a prototype NLO molecule. Thus the present study not only brings to limelight the optical and nonlinear optical properties of GGP but also sheds light on the possible potential of GP as new NLO molecule.

  18. Comparative experimental and modeling study of the low- to moderate-temperature oxidation chemistry of 2,5-dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, and furan

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Luc-Sy

    2017-04-21

    The reaction chemistry of furanic fuels, proposed as next-generation bio-derived fuels, has been a target of recent studies. However, quantitative intermediate species profiles at low- to moderate-temperature (LMT) conditions remain scarce. The present paper reports the first systematic full speciation dataset in the temperature range 730–1170 K for three furanic fuels, 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), 2-methylfuran (MF), and furan, measured for different equivalence ratios under near-identical LMT conditions in a flow reactor at 1 bar. More than 35 species including reactants, intermediate species, and products were analyzed using electron ionization (EI) molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). These experimental results provided motivation to extend a previous single joint mechanism for the three furanic fuels, developed for the high-temperature regime in low-pressure premixed flames, to include the LMT oxidation chemistry. A decisive difference of the present mechanism versus all previously reported models is a more complete description of fuel radical reactions for LMT oxidation, obtained from theoretical calculations of thermodynamic properties and rate constants. The experimentally observed differences in fuel conversion behavior and species distribution between the three fuels have been compared to model predictions using the newly extended mechanism. The dependence of fuel conversion on equivalence ratio decreases significantly from DMF to furan, a behavior consistent with the different number of lateral methyl groups in the fuel structure. All three furanic fuels, especially DMF, produce several highly toxic oxygenated species including acrolein, methyl vinyl ketone, furfural, and phenol. These toxic species were found to be products of the primary reactions of these fuels, and these undesirable trends could be explained satisfactorily by the present model, pointing to some caution with regard to the potential emission spectra under LMT conditions.

  19. Generation of Chimeric “ABS Nanohemostat” Complex and Comparing Its Histomorphological In Vivo Effects to the Traditional Ankaferd Hemostat in Controlled Experimental Partial Nephrectomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Huri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using the classical Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS solution to create active hemostasis during partial nephrectomy (PN may not be so effective due to insufficient contact surface between the ABS hemostatic liquid agent and the bleeding area. In order to broaden the contact surface, we generated a chimeric hemostatic agent, ABS nanohemostat, via combining a self-assembling peptide amphiphile molecule with the traditional Ankaferd hemostat. Materials and Methods. In order to generate ABS nanohemostat, a positively charged Peptide Amphiphile (PA molecule was synthesized by using solid phase peptide synthesis. For animal experiments, 24 Wistar rats were divided into the following 4 groups: Group 1: control; Group 2: conventional PN with only 0.5 ml Ankaferd hemostat; Group 3: conventional PN with ABS + peptide gel; Group 4: conventional PN with only 0.5 ml peptide solution. Results. Mean warm ischemia times (WITs were 232.8 ± 56.3, 65.6±11.4, 75.5± 17.2, and 58.1±17.6 seconds in Group 1 to Group 4, respectively. Fibrosis was not different among the groups, while inflammation was detected to be significantly different in G3 and G4. Conclusions. ABS nanohemostat has comparable hemostatic efficacy to the traditional Ankaferd hemostat in the partial nephrectomy experimental model. Elucidation of the cellular and tissue effects of this chimeric compound may establish a catalytic spark and open new avenues for novel experimental and clinical studies in the battlefield of hemostasis.

  20. A comparative analysis of chiropractic and general practitioner patients in North America: Findings from the joint Canada/United States survey of health, 2002–03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Lu-May

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientifically rigorous general population-based studies comparing chiropractic with primary-care medical patients within and between countries have not been published. The objective of this study is to compare care seekers of doctors of chiropractic (DCs and general practitioners (GPs in the United States and Canada on a comprehensive set of sociodemographic, quality of life, and health-related variables. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/U.S. Survey of Health (JCUSH, 2002–03, a random sample of adults in Canada (N = 3505 and the U.S. (N = 5183. Respondents were categorized according to their pattern of health-care use in the past year. Distributions, percentages, and estimates (adjusted odds ratios weighted to reflect the complex survey design were produced. Results Nearly 80% of respondents sought care from GPs; 12% sought DC care. Compared with GP only patients, DC patients in both countries tend to be under 65 and white, with arthritis and disabling back or neck pain. U.S. DC patients are more likely than GP only patients to be obese and to lack a regular doctor; Canadian DC patients are more likely than GP only patients to be college educated, to have higher incomes, and dissatisfied with MD care. Compared with seekers of both GP and DC care, DC only patients in both countries have fewer chronic conditions, take fewer drugs, and have no regular doctor. U.S. DC only patients are more likely than GP+DC patients to be uninsured and dissatisfied with health care; Canadian DC only patients are more likely than GP+DC patients to be under 45, male, less educated, smokers, and not obese, without disabling back or neck pain, on fewer drugs, and lacking a regular doctor. Conclusion Chiropractic and GP patients are dissimilar in both Canada and the U.S., with key differences between countries and between DC patients who do and do not seek care from GPs. Such variation has broad and potentially far-reaching health policy and

  1. Healing of esophageal anastomoses performed with the biofragmentable anastomosis ring versus the end-to-end anastomosis stapler: comparative experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Tibor; Köves, István; Orosz, Zsolt; Németh, Tibor; Pandi, Erzsébet; Kralovanszky, Judit

    2003-04-01

    The biofragmentable anastomosis ring (BAR) has been used successfully for anastomoses from the stomach to the upper rectum. The healing of intrathoracic esophageal anastomoses performed with the BAR or an end-to-end anastomosis (EEA) stapler on an experimental model was compared. Parameters of tissue repair were evaluated: macroscopic examination, bursting strength (BS), collagen (hydroxyproline, or HP), histology (H&E and Picrosirius red staining for collagen). A series of 48 mongrel dogs were randomly separated into two groups (30 BAR, 18 stapler) and subgroups according to the time of autopsy (days 4, 7, 14, 28). Mortality was 13.3% (4 BAR cases) with two deaths not related to surgery (excluded). There were four leaks in the BAR group (14.3%) and no leaks or deaths but two strictures in the stapler group. BS was significantly higher in the BAR group during the first week, and values were almost equal from the second week with both methods. The HP rate was significantly reduced on days 4 and 7 in both groups compared to the reference values; the values were close to reference values from the second week (lower in the BAR group). Stapled anastomoses caused less pronounced inflammation and were associated with an earlier start of regeneration, but the difference was not significant compared to that in the BAR group. Accumulation of new collagen (green polarization) started on day 7 in both groups, but maturation (orange-red polarization) was significantly more advanced in the BAR group after the second week. A strong linear correlation between the BS and HP rate was found with both methods. There was no significant difference in the complication rate or healing of intrathoracic BAR and stapled anastomoses. The BAR method is simple, quick, and safe; and it seems to be a feasible procedure for creating intrathoracic esophageal anastomoses in dogs.

  2. A Comparative Experimental Analysis of Tribological Properties Between Commercial Mineral Oil and Neat Castor Oil using Taguchi Method in Boundary Lubrication Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhaumik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to carry out a comparative experimental analysis of tribological properties of 372cSt mineral oil and 229cSt castor oil. The antiwear and extreme pressure properties of both the oils have been analysed according to ASTM G 99 and ASTM D-2783 standards. The surfaces of the balls and pins after tribo tests have been analysed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM images. The present test results predict that the antiwear and extreme pressure properties in case of the selected commercially available mineral oil are better than neat castor oil. Both coefficient of friction and frictional force increased by 16-42 % and 16-35 % respectively in case of neat castor oil as compared with that of the mineral oil. The load carrying capacity in case of mineral oil has been found to be 250 kg while in case of castor oil it has been found to be 126 kg. SEM images show a higher plastic deformation in case of castor oil as compared to the mineral oil. Both mineral oil and castor oil showed surface deteriorations and increase in roughness after 40 hrs of intermittent running during scuffing test. Thus, the present investigation indicates that the tribological properties of neat castor are inferior to that of mineral oil although close observation of the results shows that both AW and EP properties of neat castor oil are much closer to that of commercial mineral oil. Thus, the present work would help in formulating castor oil based new bio lubricants with better anti wear and extreme pressure properties

  3. Influence of temperature on the micro-and nano-structures of experimental PBMR TRISO coated particles: A comparative study - HTR2008-58189

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooyen, I. J.; Neethling, J. H.; Mahlangu, J.

    2008-01-01

    The PBMR fuel consists of TRISO Coated Particles (CPs) in a graphite matrix. The three layer system, IPyC-SIC-OPyC, forms the primary barrier to fission product release, with the SiC layer acting as the main pressure boundary of the particle. The containment of fission products inside the CPs is however a function of the operating temperature and microstructure of the SiC layer. During accident conditions, the CPs will reach higher temperatures than normal operating conditions. The Fuel Design Dept. of PBMR is therefore investigating various characteristics of the SiC layer, especially nano characteristics at variant conditions. The integrity of the interface between the SiC and Inner PyC layers is also important for fission product retention and therefore interesting TEM images of this region of the experimental PBMR TRISO particles will be shown. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the microstructure of TRISO coated particles of three different experimental batches after annealing will be discussed. Particles annealed at 1980 deg. C for 1 hour revealed that the inner PyC layer de-bonded from the SiC layer. Changes observed in the diffraction rings are evidence that the PyC structure is becoming organized or anisotropic. The SiC layer, on the other hand, did not show any changes as a result of annealing. Only the cubic 3C-SiC phase was observed for a limited number of grains analyzed. The nano hardness and elasticity measurements of the three test batches were done using a CSM Nano Hardness Tester. These results are compared to indicate possible differences between the 1 hour and 5 hour annealing time as a function of annealing temperature from 1000 deg. C to 1980 deg. C. The variation of hardness and elasticity as a function of temperature for the three experimental batches are identified and discussed. This preliminary TEM investigation and nano hardness measurements have contributed new knowledge about the effect of high temperature annealing on

  4. Comparing between predicted output temperature of flat-plate solar collector and experimental results: computational fluid dynamics and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The significant of solar energy as a renewable energy source, clean and without damage to the environment, for the production of electricity and heat is of great importance. Furthermore, due to the oil crisis as well as reducing the cost of home heating by 70%, solar energy in the past two decades has been a favorite of many researchers. Solar collectors are devices for collecting solar radiant energy through which this energy is converted into heat and then heat is transferred to a fluid (usually air or water. Therefore, a key component in performance improvement of solar heating system is a solar collector optimization under different testing conditions. However, estimation of output parameters under different testing conditions is costly, time consuming and mostly impossible. As a result, smart use of neural networks as well as CFD (computational fluid dynamics to predict the properties with which desired output would have been acquired is valuable. To the best of our knowledge, there are no any studies that compare experimental results with CFD and ANN. Materials and Methods A corrugated galvanized iron sheet of 2 m length, 1 m wide and 0.5 mm in thickness was used as an absorber plate for absorbing the incident solar radiation (Fig. 1 and 2. Corrugations in absorber were caused turbulent air and improved heat transfer coefficient. Computational fluid dynamics K-ε turbulence model was used for simulation. The following assumptions are made in the analysis. (1 Air is a continuous medium and incompressible. (2 The flow is steady and possesses have turbulent flow characteristics, due to the high velocity of flow. (3 The thermal-physical properties of the absorber sheet and the absorber tube are constant with respect to the operating temperature. (4 The bottom side of the absorber tube and the absorber plate are assumed to be adiabatic. Artificial neural network In this research a one-hidden-layer feed-forward network based on the

  5. Systematic experimental survey on projectile fragmentation and fission induced in collisions of {sup 238}U at 1 A GeV with lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enquist, T.; Benlliure, J.; Farget, F.; Schmidt, K.H.; Armbruster, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Bernas, M.; Tassan-Got, L. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Boudard, A.; Legrain, R.; Volant, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de Physique des Particules, de Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee (DAPNIA); Boeckstiegel, C.; Jong, M. de [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Dufour, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, 33 - Gradignan (France)

    1999-03-01

    Projectile fragmentation and fission, induced in collisions of {sup 238}U at 1 A GeV with lead, have systematically been studied. A complete survey on the isotopic production cross sections of all elements between vanadium (Z = 23) and rhenium (Z = 75) down to a cross section of 0.1 mb is given. About 600 isotopes produced in fragmentation and about 600 isotopes produced in fission were identified in the GSI fragment separator FRS from magnetic rigidities, time-of-flight values, and the energy loss in an ionisation chamber. In addition, the velocity distributions of all these reaction products have been mapped, and the products are unambiguously attributed to the different reaction mechanisms due to their kinematical properties. The results are compared with empirical systematics and previous data. The velocity of the fragments obtained in the fission process by the Coulomb repulsion allows to reconstruct the TKE-value of the break-up and to identify the atomic number of the fissioning nucleus in hot fission. The mean velocities of light projectile fragments were found to be higher than the beam velocity. (orig.) 41 refs.

  6. Systematic experimental survey on projectile fragmentation and fission induced in collisions of 238U at 1 A GeV with lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, T.; Benlliure, J.; Farget, F.; Schmidt, K.H.; Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.; Tassan-Got, L.; Boeckstiegel, C.; Jong, M. de; Dufour, J.P.

    1999-03-01

    Projectile fragmentation and fission, induced in collisions of 238 U at 1 A GeV with lead, have systematically been studied. A complete survey on the isotopic production cross sections of all elements between vanadium (Z = 23) and rhenium (Z = 75) down to a cross section of 0.1 mb is given. About 600 isotopes produced in fragmentation and about 600 isotopes produced in fission were identified in the GSI fragment separator FRS from magnetic rigidities, time-of-flight values, and the energy loss in an ionisation chamber. In addition, the velocity distributions of all these reaction products have been mapped, and the products are unambiguously attributed to the different reaction mechanisms due to their kinematical properties. The results are compared with empirical systematics and previous data. The velocity of the fragments obtained in the fission process by the Coulomb repulsion allows to reconstruct the TKE-value of the break-up and to identify the atomic number of the fissioning nucleus in hot fission. The mean velocities of light projectile fragments were found to be higher than the beam velocity. (orig.)

  7. Comparative evaluation of the nested ITS PCR against the 18S PCR-RFLP in a survey of bovine trypanosomiasis in Kwale County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, Steven; Delespaux, Vincent; Ngotho, Maina; Bekkele, Serkalem Mindaye; Magez, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    We compared the nested internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP (restriction-fragment length polymorphism) pan-trypanosome assays in a cross-sectional survey of bovine trypanosomiasis in 358 cattle in Kwale County, Kenya. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis as determined by the nested ITS PCR was 19.6% (70/358) and by 18S PCR-RFLP was 16.8% (60/358). Of the pathogenic trypanosomes detected, the prevalence of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax was greater than that of Trypanosoma simiae The nested ITS PCR detected 83 parasite events, whereas the 18S PCR-RFLP detected 64; however, overall frequencies of infections and the parasite events detected did not differ between the assays (χ(2) = 0.8, df = 1, p > 0.05 and χ(2) = 2.5, df = 1, p > 0.05, respectively). The kappa statistic (0.8) showed good agreement between the tests. The nested ITS PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP had comparable sensitivity, although the nested ITS PCR was better at detecting mixed infections (χ(2) = 5.4, df = 1, p < 0.05). © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Management of optic neuritis in Ireland: a survey comparing the management practices of acute demyelinating optic neuritis amongst ophthalmologists and neurologists in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayter, Lina; Chetty, Shivona

    2018-04-24

    Acute optic neuritis (ON) is often the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis which is particularly common in Ireland. Despite the specific clinical details regarding investigations and management of ON provided by the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT), international surveys have shown that there are still notable differences in the management of ON between neurologists and ophthalmologists. To compare the investigation and treatment of acute optic neuritis between ophthalmologists and neurologists in Ireland METHOD: A survey consisting of a case scenario and questions regarding treatment and investigations of a patient with ON was emailed to ophthalmology consultants, trainees and medical ophthalmologists registered with the Irish College of Ophthalmologists and to neurology consultants and registrars registered with the Irish Institute of Clinical Neuroscience. One hundred sixty recipients responded out of 350 (46%). The majority of the neurologists would initiate steroid treatment regardless of the patient's vision (75%), treat with 1 g IV methylprednisolone (100%) for 5 days (57%), perform an MRI brain and orbits with contrast (92%) and multiple laboratory tests (96%). In contrast, the ophthalmologists tended to initiate treatment depending on the patient's vision (48%), treat with 1 g IV methylprednisolone (97%) for 3 days instead of 5 days (93%), perform MRI brain and orbits with contrast (73%) and favour electrophysiology testing (73%) over laboratory testing (68%). Overall, most respondents would follow the ONTT guidelines regarding IV methylprednisolone. There was a significant difference in responses between the ophthalmologists and neurologists regarding who to treat, duration of treatment and appropriate investigations.

  9. Simulated JWST/NIRISS Transit Spectroscopy of Anticipated TESS Planets Compared to Select Discoveries from Space-Based and Ground-Based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Dana; Deming, Drake; Albert, Loic; Bouma, Luke; Bean, Jacob; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

    2018-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will embark in 2018 on a 2-year wide-field survey mission of most of the celestial sky, discovering over a thousand super-Earth and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets potentially suitable for follow-up observations using the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Bouma et al. (2017) and Sullivan et al. (2015) used Monte Carlo simulations to predict the properties of the planetary systems that TESS is likely to detect, basing their simulations upon Kepler-derived planet occurrence rates and photometric performance models for the TESS cameras. We employed a JWST Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) simulation tool to estimate the signal-to-noise (S/N) that JWST/NIRISS will attain in transmission spectroscopy of these anticipated TESS discoveries, and we then compared the S/N for anticipated TESS discoveries to our estimates of S/N for 18 known exoplanets. We analyzed the sensitivity of our results to planetary composition, cloud cover, and presence of an observational noise floor. We find that only a few anticipated TESS discoveries in the terrestrial planet regime will result in better JWST/NIRISS S/N than currently known exoplanets, such as the TRAPPIST-1 planets, GJ1132b, or LHS1140b. However, we emphasize that this outcome is based upon Kepler-derived occurrence rates, and that co-planar compact systems (e.g. TRAPPIST-1) were not included in predicting the anticipated TESS planet yield. Furthermore, our results show that several hundred anticipated TESS discoveries in the super-Earth and sub-Neptune regime will produce S/N higher than currently known exoplanets such as K2-3b or K2-3c. We apply our results to estimate the scope of a JWST follow-up observation program devoted to mapping the transition region between high molecular weight and primordial planetary atmospheres.

  10. [Comparative analyze on hepatitis B seroepidemiological surveys among population aged 1-29 years in different epidemic regions of China in 1992 and 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F Z; Zhang, G M; Shen, L P; Zheng, H; Wang, F; Miao, N; Yuan, Q L; Sun, X J; Bi, S L; Liang, X F; Wang, H Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of hepatitis B prevention and control by comparative analysis on the results of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc prevalence from national hepatitis B seroepidemiological surveys in 1992 and 2014 in different epidemic regions of China. Methods: Data was from the national seroepidemiological surveys of hepatitis B conducted in 1992 and 2014. The survey in 1992 was conducted in 145 disease surveillance points of 30 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. The survey in 2016 was conducted in 160 disease surveillance points of 31 provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China. In the two surveys, face-to-face interviews with the subject by door to door or on the investigation site were conducted by trained staff using standard questionnaires to obtain basic information including birth date, gender, ethnicity, resident place and so on. And then 5 ml venous blood was collected to test the sero-markers of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc. We analyzed unweighted point prevalence and 95 % CI of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc in 1992 which had no design weighting, and analyzed weighted point prevalence and 95 %CI of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc in 2014 which had design weighting. Results: 34 291 and 31 713 people aged 1-29 years were involved in 1992 and 2014 national serosurveys of China, respectively. For the people aged 1-29 years, HBsAg prevalence was 2.64% (95 %CI: 2.28%-3.06%) in 2014 and decreased by 73.92% as compared with the rate 10.13% (95 % CI: 9.81%-10.45%) in 1992. Anti-HBc prevalence was 13.01% (95 %CI: 12.09%-14.00%) in 2014 and decreased by 71.61% as compared with the rate 45.84% (95 % CI: 45.31%-46.37%) in 1992. Anti-HBs prevalence was 57.79% (95 %CI: 56.33%-59.25%) in 2014 and ascended by 127.41% as compared with the rate 25.41% (95 % CI: 24.95%-25.87%) in 1992. In high, medium and low epidemic region, for the people who born

  11. Inflammatory and apoptotic alterations in serum and injured tissue after experimental polytrauma in mice: distinct early response compared with single trauma or "double-hit" injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckbach, Sebastian; Hohmann, Christoph; Braumueller, Sonja; Denk, Stephanie; Klohs, Bettina; Stahel, Philip F; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus S; Perl, Mario

    2013-02-01

    The exact alterations of the immune system after polytrauma leading to sepsis and multiple-organ failure are poorly understood. Thus, the early local and systemic inflammatory and apoptotic response was characterized in a new polytrauma model and compared with the alterations seen after single or combined injuries. Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either blunt bilateral chest trauma (Tx), closed head injury, right femur fracture including contralateral soft tissue injury, or a combination of injuries (PTx). After 2 hours or 6 hours, animals were sacrificed, and the systemic as well as the local pulmonary immune response (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL]/plasma cytokines, lung myeloperoxidase [MPO] activity, and alveolocapillary barrier dysfunction) were evaluated along with lung/brain apoptosis (lung caspase 3 Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMN] Annexin V). Hemoglobin, PO2 saturation, and pH did not differ between the experimental groups. Local BAL cytokines/chemokines were significantly increased in almost all groups, which included Tx. There was no further enhancement of this local inflammatory response in the lungs in case of PTx. At 2 hours, all groups except sham and closed head injury alone revealed an increased activity of lung MPO. However, 6 hours after injury, lung MPO remained increased only in the PTx group. Increased BAL protein levels were found, reflecting enhanced lung leakage in all groups with Tx 6 hours after trauma. Only after PTx was neutrophil apoptosis significantly decreased, whereas lung caspase 3 and plasma interleukin 6/keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) were substantially increased. The combination of different injuries leads to an earlier systemic inflammatory response when compared with the single insults. Interestingly, only after PTx but not after single or double hits was lung apoptosis increased, and PMN apoptosis was decreased along with a prolonged presence of neutrophils in the

  12. Counteracting negative venous line pressures to avoid arterial air bubbles: an experimental study comparing two different types of miniaturized extracorporeal perfusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Anas; Mederos-Dahms, Hendrikje; Liebing, Kai; Zittermann, Armin; Schubert, Harald; Murray, Edward; Renner, Andre; Gummert, Jan; Börgermann, Jochen

    2015-05-29

    Because of its low rate of clinical complications, miniaturized extracorporeal perfusion systems (MEPS) are frequently used in heart centers worldwide. However, many recent studies refer to the higher probability of gaseous microemboli formation by MEPS, caused by subzero pressure values. This is the main reason why various de-airing devices were developed for today's perfusion systems. In the present study, we investigated the potential benefits of a simple one-way-valve connected to a volume replacement reservoir (OVR) for volume and pressure compensation. In an experimental study on 26 pigs, we compared MEPS (n = 13) with MEPS plus OVR (n = 13). Except OVR, perfusion equipment was identical in both groups. Primary endpoints were pressure values in the venous line and the right atrium as well as the number and volume of air bubbles. Secondary endpoints were biochemical parameters of systemic inflammatory response, ischemia, hemodilution and hemolysis. One animal was lost in the MEPS + OVR group. In the MEPS + OVR group no pressure values below -150 mmHg in the venous line and no values under -100 mmHg in right atrium were noticed. On the contrary, nearly 20% of venous pressure values in the MEPS group were below -150 and approximately 10% of right atrial pressure values were below -100 mmHg. Compared with the MEPS group, the bubble counter device showed lower numbers of arterial air bubbles in the MEPS + OVR group (mean ± SD: 13444 ± 5709 vs. 1 ± 2, respectively; p pressures and to reduce the number and volume of arterial air bubbles. This approach may lead to a lower rate of neurological complications.

  13. Reproducibility of swollen sinuses in broilers by experimental infection with avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B of turkey origin and their comparative pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ye Htut; Liman, Martin; Neumann, Ulrich; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2008-02-01

    Swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype A or subtype B in broilers and broiler breeders has been reported worldwide. Data about pathogenesis of aMPV subtypes A and B in broilers are scarce. It has been difficult to reproduce swollen sinuses in chickens with aMPV under experimental conditions. In the field, SHS in broilers is suspected to be induced by combined infections with different respiratory pathogens. The objectives of the present study were to compare the pathogenesis of subtypes A and B aMPV in commercial broilers and to investigate the reproducibility of clinical disease. In two repeat experiments, commercial broilers free of aMPV maternal antibodies were inoculated with aMPV subtypes A and B of turkey origin. The clinical signs such as depression, coughing, nasal exudates, and frothy eyes appeared at 4 days post inoculation, followed by swelling of periorbital sinuses at 5 days post inoculation. Higher numbers of broilers showed clinical signs in subtype-B-inoculated compared with subtype-A-inoculated groups. Seroconversion to aMPV was detectable from 10 to 11 days post inoculation. The appearance of serum aMPV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies and the clearance of the aMPV genome coincided. Subtype B aMPV showed a broader tissue distribution and longer persistence than subtype A. Histopathological changes were observed in the respiratory tract tissues of aMPV-inoculated broilers, and also in paraocular glands, such as the Harderian and lachrymal glands. Overall, our study shows that representative strains of both aMPV turkey isolates induced lesions in the respiratory tract, accompanied by swelling of infraorbital sinuses, indicating the role of aMPV as a primary pathogen for broilers.

  14. Comparative Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Systems With and Without a Mini-Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC Reflector(C < 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehong Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evacuated tube solar water heater systems are widely used in China due to their high thermal efficiency, simple construction requirements, and low manufacturing costs. CPC evacuated tube solar water heaters with a geometrical concentration ratio C of less than one are rare. A comparison of the experimental rig of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector was set up, with a series of experiments done in Hefei (31°53'N, 117°15'E, China. The first and second laws of thermodynamics were used to analyze and contrast their thermal performance. The water in the tank was heated from 26.9 to 55, 65, 75, 85, and 95 °C. Two types of solar water heater systems were used, and the data gathered for two days were compared. The results show that when attaining low temperature water, the evacuated tube solar water heater system without a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the system with a mini-CPC reflector, including the average and immediate values. On the other hand, when attaining high temperature water, the system with a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the other one. The comparison presents the advantages of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector, which can be offered as a reference when choosing which solar water system to use for actual applications.

  15. Efficacy of linezolid compared to vancomycin in an experimental model of pneumonia induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ventilated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Olondris, Pilar; Rigol, Montserrat; Soy, Dolors; Guerrero, Laura; Agusti, Carlos; Quera, Maria Angels; Li Bassi, Gianluigi; Esperatti, Mariano; Luque, Nestor; Liapikou, Manto; Filella, Xavier; Marco, Francesc; de la Bellacasa, Jordi Puig; Torres, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of linezolid compared with vancomycin in an experimental model of pneumonia induced by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in ventilated pigs. Forty pigs (30 kg) were intubated and challenged via bronchoscopy with a suspension of 106 colony forming units of MRSA into every lobe. Afterwards, pigs were ventilated up to 96 hours. Twelve hours after bacterial inoculation, the animals were randomized into 4 groups of treatment: group 1, control; group 2, vancomycin twice daily; group 3, continuous infusion of vancomycin; and group 4, linezolid. Clinical and laboratory parameters were monitored throughout the study. Bacterial cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples were performed at the end of the study. Measurements of histopathology derangements of lung samples and studies of intrapulmonary drug penetration were performed. A total of 34 animals completed the study. No differences in clinical and laboratory parameters were observed. The percentage of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue samples with positive cultures for MRSA in controls and groups 2, 3, and 4 was respectively 75%, 11%, 11%, and 0% (p pneumonia in 95%, 69%, 58%, and 57% and signs of severe pneumonia in 48%, 29%, 22%, and 0% of controls and groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively (p treatments. In this animal model of MRSA pneumonia, linezolid showed a better efficacy than vancomycin showed because of a better pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics index.

  16. Epoetin Alpha and Epoetin Zeta: A Comparative Study on Stimulation of Angiogenesis and Wound Repair in an Experimental Model of Burn Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrera, Natasha; Bitto, Alessandra; Pizzino, Gabriele; Vaccaro, Mario; Squadrito, Francesco; Galeano, Mariarosaria; Stagno d'Alcontres, Francesco; Stagno d'Alcontres, Ferdinando; Buemi, Michele; Minutoli, Letteria; Colonna, Michele Rosario; Altavilla, Domenica

    2015-01-01

    Deep second-degree burns are characterized by delayed formation of granulation tissue and impaired angiogenesis. Erythropoietin (EPO) is able to stimulate angiogenesis and mitosis, activating vascularization and cell cycle. The aim of our study was to investigate whether two biosimilar recombinant human erythropoietins, EPO-α and EPO-Z, may promote these processes in an experimental model of burn injury. A total of 84 mice were used and a scald burn was produced on the back after shaving, in 80°C water for 10 seconds. Mice were then randomized to receive EPO-α (400 units/kg/day/sc) or EPO-Z (400 units/kg/day/sc) or their vehicle (100 μL/day/sc 0.9% NaCl solution). After 12 days, both EPO-α and EPO-Z increased VEGF protein expression. EPO-α caused an increased cyclin D1/CDK6 and cyclin E/CDK2 expression compared with vehicle and EPO-Z (p<0.001). Our study showed that EPO-α and EPO-Z accelerated wound closure and angiogenesis; however EPO-α resulted more effectively in achieving complete skin regeneration. Our data suggest that EPO-α and EPO-Z are not biosimilars for the wound healing effects. The higher efficacy of EPO-α might be likely due to its different conformational structure leading to a more efficient cell proliferation and skin remodelling.

  17. Comparing four service delivery models for adolescent girls and young women through the 'Girl Power' study: protocol for a multisite quasi-experimental cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Nora E; Pettifor, Audrey E; Myers, Laura; Phanga, Twambilile; Marcus, Rebecca; Bhushan, Nivedita Latha; Madlingozi, Nomtha; Vansia, Dhrutika; Masters, Avril; Maseko, Bertha; Mtwisha, Lulu; Kachigamba, Annie; Tang, Jennifer; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2017-12-14

    In sub-Saharan Africa, adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) face a range of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges. Clinical, behavioural and structural interventions have each reduced these risks and improved health outcomes. However, combinations of these interventions have not been compared with each other or with no intervention at all. The 'Girl Power' study is designed to systematically make these comparisons. Four comparable health facilities in Malawi and South Africa (n=8) were selected and assigned to one of the following models of care: (1) Standard of care : AGYW can receive family planning, HIV testing and counselling (HTC), and sexually transmitted infection (STI) syndromic management in three separate locations with three separate queues with the general population. No youth-friendly spaces, clinical modifications or trainings are offered, (2) Youth-Friendly Health Services (YFHS) : AGYW are meant to receive integrated family planning, HTC and STI services in dedicated youth spaces with youth-friendly modifications and providers trained in YFHS, (3) YFHS+behavioural intervention (BI) : In addition to YFHS, AGYW can attend 12 monthly theory-driven, facilitator-led, interactive sessions on health, finance and relationships, (4) YFHS+BI+conditional cash transfer (CCT) : in addition to YFHS and BI, AGYW receive up to 12 CCTs conditional on monthly BI session attendance.At each clinic, 250 AGYW 15-24 years old (n=2000 total) will be consented, enrolled and followed for 1 year. Each participant will complete a behavioural survey at enrolment, 6 months and 12 months . All clinical, behavioural and CCT services will be captured. Outcomes of interest include uptake of each package element and reduction in HIV risk behaviours. A qualitative substudy will be conducted. This study has received ethical approval from the University of North Carolina Institutional Review Board, the University of Cape Town Human Research Ethics Committee and Malawi

  18. Effect of changes in a food frequency questionnaire: comparing data from two national dietary survey instruments among 12-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Anne Lene; Laugsand Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Frost Andersen, Lene

    2013-07-24

    National dietary surveys among Norwegian 12-months olds have been conducted twice: in 1999 and 2007. At both time-points diet were assessed by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) (the SFFQ-1999 and the SFFQ-2007). Modifications in the SFFQ-2007 compared to the SFFQ-1999 have been made; therefore, the objective of the present study has been to explore the comparability of the data obtained by the two questionnaires. Moreover, reliability of maternal recall of infant feeding practices was assessed. Three hundred Norwegian infants born in April 2007 were invited to participate by completing both the SFFQ-1999 and the SFFQ-2007. An invitation letter and one of two questionnaires were sent by mail to the mother/parents about two weeks before the child turned 12 months of age. The study had a cross-over design where half of the sample received the SFFQ-1999 first and then about 2-3 weeks later they received the SFFQ-2007. The second half received the SFFQ-2007 first, and then 2-3 weeks later they received the SFFQ-1999. Ninety three participants completed both questionnaires (SFFQ-1999 and SFFQ-2007). For nutrients, the largest significant differences between the questionnaires were found for intake of vitamin D and added sugar, where added sugar was reported lower and vitamin D was reported higher with the SFFQ-2007 compared to the SFFQ-1999. For food items, lower intake of yoghurt and higher intake of vegetables and fish were observed with the SFFQ-2007 compared to the SFFQ-1999. In addition, reliable answers with regard to breastfeeding status, age for breastfeeding cessation and age for introducing solid foods were found. There was reasonable comparability between the two questionnaires for most nutrients and foods. The differences between the two questionnaires could mainly be explained by modifications that had occurred over time, where changes in the food composition databases used and especially changes in commercial recipes with regard to

  19. Application, advantages and limitations of high-density gravimetric surveys compared with three-dimensional geological modelling in dolomite stability investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Breytenbach, I J; Bosch, P J A

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the nature of the gravimetric survey as applied and used in dolomite stability investigations on areas underlain by the Chuniespoort Group in South Africa. A short discussion is given on the gravimetric survey procedure along with its uses and alternative methods. Finally, two case studies illustrate the application of the method on a high-density survey grid spacing in comparison with three-dimensional geological modelling based on the lithology and karst weathering hor...

  20. Experimental survey on percutaneous injection of calcium phosphate cement in preventing the articular surface collapsing secondary to avascular necrosis of femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Changlong; Lv Weifu; Zhang Xuebin; Wang Weiyu; Zhang Xingming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the technical way for animal model of ANFH with TAE (transcatheter arterial embolization)and to observe the image and pathologic changes of percutaneous injection with CPC (Calcium Phosphate Cement)in preventing the articular surface collapsing secondary to ANFH (avascular necrosis of femoral head)in pigs and its feasibility and safety. Methods: Branch arteries of the pig's left femoral head were embolized with woolly threads. Twenty pigs were randomly divided into A and B groups, and after about 1 month changes were assessed by imagings. Group A(n=8)was served as control of model contrast group, with only TAE and then surveyed the avascular necrosis features of femoral head by imaging together with pathologic and histologic examinations. Group B (n=12) was designated as percutaneous injection with CPC for interventional treatment group of ANFH at the stage Ficat II. Results: The animal models of ANFH in early stage were established by embolization of feeding arteries. In Group A, bone collapse occurred in 1.5 months after TAE, with imaging features of femoral head necrosis aggravated gradually. In group B, technical success of percutaneous injection with CPC was high and technical criteria included precise injection time, vigorous percutaneous fixing of bone, suitable proportion of CPC powder to liquid. CT scan of femoral head with injection CPC showed that it diffused well. Volume of bone trabecula (TBV)and percentage of bone lacuna (PBL)at unit area under microscopy were also inspected in two groups. TBV and PBL of two groups were compared in different special times and calculated especially for group B (P<0.05). Conclusion: The percutaneous injection of CPC to femoral head is a quite safe and effective palliative therapy for ANFH in early stage. (authors)

  1. Comparing student clinical self-efficacy and team process outcomes for a DEU, blended, and traditional clinical setting: A quasi-experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemmons, Christina; Clark, Michele; Feng, Du

    2018-03-01

    Clinical education is vital to both the development of clinical self-efficacy and the integration of future nurses into health care teams. The dedicated education unit clinical teaching model is an innovative clinical partnership, which promotes skill development, professional growth, clinical self-efficacy, and integration as a team member. Blended clinical teaching models are combining features of the dedicated education unit and traditional clinical model. The aims of this study are to explore how each of three clinical teaching models (dedicated education unit, blended, traditional) affects clinical self-efficacy and attitude toward team process, and to compare the dedicated education unit model and blended model to traditional clinical. A nonequivalent control-group quasi-experimental design was utilized. The convenience sample of 272 entry-level baccalaureate nursing students included 84 students participating in a dedicated education unit model treatment group, 66 students participating in a blended model treatment group, and 122 students participating in a traditional model control group. Perceived clinical self-efficacy was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the General Self-Efficacy scale. Attitude toward team process was evaluated by the pretest/posttest scores obtained on the TeamSTEPPS® Teamwork Attitude Questionnaire. All three clinical teaching models resulted in significant increases in both clinical self-efficacy (p=0.04) and attitude toward team process (p=0.003). Students participating in the dedicated education unit model (p=0.016) and students participating in the blended model (pteam process among entry-level baccalaureate nursing students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative evaluation of the US Environmental Protection Agency's and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education's environmental survey and site assessment program field sampling procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, T.J.; Bright, T.L.; Roberts, S.A.

    1997-10-01

    At the request of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Headquarters Office, the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) compared the documented procedures that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and ESSAP use for collecting environmental samples. The project objectives were to review both organizations' procedures applicable to collecting various sample matrices, compare the procedures for similarities and differences, and then to evaluate the reason for any identified procedural differences and their potential impact on ESSAP's sample data quality. The procedures reviewed included those for sampling surface and subsurface soil, surface and groundwater, vegetation, air, and removable surface contamination. ESSAP obtained copies of relevant EPA documents and reviewed and prepared a tabulated summary of each applicable procedure. The methods for collecting and handling each type of sample were evaluated for differences, and where these were identified, the significance and effect of the differences on analytical quality were determined. The results of the comparison showed that, overall, the procedures and methods that EPA and ESSAP use for sample collection are very similar. The number of minor differences noted were the result of restrictions or procedures necessary to ensure sample integrity and prevent the introduction of interfering compounds when samples are to be analyzed for chemical parameters. For most radio nuclide analyses, these additional procedures are not necessary. Another item noted was EPA's inclusion of steps that reduce the potential for sample cross-contamination by preparing (dressing) a location prior to collecting a sample or removing a portion of a sample prior to containerization

  3. A comparative study of 99mTc-HL91 and 99mTc-MIBI imaging in experimental tumor and inflammatory models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, W.; Zhang, X.Y.; An, R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: 99m Tc-HL91 is a newly developed hypoxic imaging agent for ischemic myocardium and tumor imaging. 99m Tc-MIBI is one of imaging agent for mammary tumor imaging. The aim of this experiment is to evaluate the diagnostic value of 99m Tc-HL91 in detection of solid tumor in experimental tumor and inflammatory models, via comparative study with 99m Tc-MIBI. Material and Methods: HL91 kits was provided by China Nine Star Co. Three kinds of bearing solid neoplasm mice groups (bearing Ehrlich carcinoma mice, bearing H 22 carcinoma mice and bearing human ovarian COC 1 neoplasm nude mice) and two inflammatory model groups (chemical and bacterial inflammation) underwent static whole body planar images at 1 and 4 hours post injection of 99m Tc-HL91. Two kinds of bearing neoplasm mice groups (bearing Ehrlich carcinoma mice, bearing H 22 carcinoma mice) and two inflammatory model groups (chemical and bacterial inflammation) underwent static planar images post injection of 99m Tc-MIBI, at early phase (10∼20 minutes) and delayed phase (2 hrs). All of mice were sacrificed at 4 hrs. The tumors, or inflammatory lesions, blood and contralateral muscles were removed, weighed and the radioactivity was measured. Regions of interesting (ROIs) were drawn around tumor, inflammatory lesions and contralateral muscles in planar images, and the radioactivity ratios of target (tumor or inflammatory lesions)-to-blood (T/B), target-to-non target (contralateral muscles) i. e. T/NT was calculated. Results: Neoplasm can be clearly visible in planar images at 1hr and 4 hrs post injection of 99m Tc-HL91 in all tumor models. At same time inflammatory lesions cannot be seen clearly. Neoplasm can be seen in delayed phase in 99m Tc-MIBI groups, but not easy to distinguish them from inflammation. Conclusion: Compared with 99m Tc-MIBI imaging, 99m Tc-HL91 has much more diagnostic value in detection of solid neoplasm, and can distinguish neoplasm from inflammation

  4. Simulated JWST/NIRISS Transit Spectroscopy of Anticipated Tess Planets Compared to Select Discoveries from Space-based and Ground-based Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Dana R.; Deming, Drake; Albert, Loic; Bouma, L. G.; Bean, Jacob; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

    2018-04-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will embark in 2018 on a 2 year wide-field survey mission, discovering over a thousand terrestrial, super-Earth and sub-Neptune-sized exoplanets ({R}pl}≤slant 4 {R}\\oplus ) potentially suitable for follow-up observations using the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This work aims to understand the suitability of anticipated TESS planet discoveries for atmospheric characterization by JWST’s Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) by employing a simulation tool to estimate the signal-to-noise (S/N) achievable in transmission spectroscopy. We applied this tool to Monte Carlo predictions of the TESS expected planet yield and then compared the S/N for anticipated TESS discoveries to our estimates of S/N for 18 known exoplanets. We analyzed the sensitivity of our results to planetary composition, cloud cover, and presence of an observational noise floor. We find that several hundred anticipated TESS discoveries with radii 1.5 {R}\\oplus R}pl}≤slant 2.5 {R}\\oplus will produce S/N higher than currently known exoplanets in this radius regime, such as K2-3b or K2-3c. In the terrestrial planet regime, we find that only a few anticipated TESS discoveries will result in higher S/N than currently known exoplanets, such as the TRAPPIST-1 planets, GJ1132b, and LHS1140b. However, we emphasize that this outcome is based upon Kepler-derived occurrence rates, and that co-planar compact multi-planet systems (e.g., TRAPPIST-1) may be under-represented in the predicted TESS planet yield. Finally, we apply our calculations to estimate the required magnitude of a JWST follow-up program devoted to mapping the transition region between hydrogen-dominated and high molecular weight atmospheres. We find that a modest observing program of between 60 and 100 hr of charged JWST time can define the nature of that transition (e.g., step function versus a power law).

  5. The relative size of measurement error and attrition error in a panel survey. Comparing them with a new multi-trait multi-method model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to simultaneously estimate both measurement and nonresponse errors for attitudinal and behavioural questions in a longitudinal survey. The method uses a Multi-Trait Multi-Method (MTMM) approach, which is commonly used to estimate the reliability and validity of survey

  6. Assessment of delta ferrite in multipass TIG welds of 40 mm thick SS 316L plates: a comparative study of ferrite number (FN) prediction and experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Shaikh, Shamsuddin; Raole, Prakash M.; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2015-01-01

    used to predict the FN with Schaeffler's, DeLong and WRC-1992 diagram by calculating the Creq and Nieq ratios and compared with experimental data of FN from Feritescope measurements. The low heat input conditions (1.67 kJ /mm) have produced higher FN (7.28), medium heat input (1.72 kJ/mm) shown FN (7.04) where as high heat input (1.87 kJ/mm) conditions has shown FN (6.68). (author)

  7. Can the impact of gender equality on health be measured? a cross-sectional study comparing measures based on register data with individual survey-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sörlin Ann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between gender equality at work and self-rated health. Methods 2861 employees in 21 companies were invited to participate in a survey. The mean response rate was 49.2%. The questionnaire contained 65 questions, mainly on gender equality and health. Two logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between (i self-rated health and a register-based company gender equality index (OGGI, and (ii self-rated health and self-rated gender equality at work. Results Even though no association was found between the OGGI and health, women who rated their company as “completely equal” or “quite equal” had higher odds of reporting “good health” compared to women who perceived their company as “not equal” (OR = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.4 – 5.5 and OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.6-4.6. Although not statistically significant, we observed the same trends in men. The results were adjusted for age, highest education level, income, full or part-time employment, and type of company based on the OGGI. Conclusions No association was found between gender equality in companies, measured by register-based index (OGGI, and health. However, perceived gender equality at work positively affected women’s self-rated health but not men’s. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether the results are fully credible given the contemporary health patterns and positions in the labour market of women and men or whether the results are driven by selection patterns.

  8. Job control, work-family balance and nurses' intention to leave their profession and organization: A comparative cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshiko; Inoue, Takahiro; Harada, Hiroko; Oike, Miyako

    2016-12-01

    The shortage of nurses is a problem in many countries. In Japan, the distribution of nurses across different care settings is uneven: the shortage of nurses in home healthcare and nursing homes is more serious than in hospitals. Earlier research has identified numerous factors affecting nurses' intention to leave work (e.g., job control, family-related variables, work-family conflict); however, these factors' levels and effect size may vary between nurses in hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes. This study measured job control, family-related variables, and work-family conflict among nurses in hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes, and compared these variables' levels and effect size on nurses' intention to leave their organization or profession between these care settings. The research design was cross-sectional. Participating nurses from hospitals, home healthcare facilities, and nursing homes self-administered an anonymous questionnaire survey; nurses were recruited from the Kyushu district of Japan. Nurses from nine hospitals, 86 home healthcare offices, and 107 nursing homes participated. We measured nurses' intention to leave nursing or their organization, perceived job control, family variables and work-family conflict. We analyzed 1461 participants (response rate: 81.7%). The level of job control, family variables, and work-family conflict affecting nurses varied between hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes; additionally, these variables' effect on nurses' intention to leave their organization or profession varied between these care settings. Work-family conflict, family variables, and job control most strongly predicted nurses' intention to leave their organization or profession in hospitals, home healthcare, and nursing homes, respectively. Interventions aiming to increase nurse retention should distinguish between care settings. Regarding hospitals, reducing nurses' work-family conflict will increase nurse retention. Regarding

  9. Can the impact of gender equality on health be measured? A cross-sectional study comparing measures based on register data with individual survey-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörlin, Ann; Öhman, Ann; Ng, Nawi; Lindholm, Lars

    2012-09-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between gender equality at work and self-rated health. 2861 employees in 21 companies were invited to participate in a survey. The mean response rate was 49.2%. The questionnaire contained 65 questions, mainly on gender equality and health. Two logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between (i) self-rated health and a register-based company gender equality index (OGGI), and (ii) self-rated health and self-rated gender equality at work. Even though no association was found between the OGGI and health, women who rated their company as "completely equal" or "quite equal" had higher odds of reporting "good health" compared to women who perceived their company as "not equal" (OR = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.4 - 5.5 and OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.6-4.6). Although not statistically significant, we observed the same trends in men. The results were adjusted for age, highest education level, income, full or part-time employment, and type of company based on the OGGI. No association was found between gender equality in companies, measured by register-based index (OGGI), and health. However, perceived gender equality at work positively affected women's self-rated health but not men's. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether the results are fully credible given the contemporary health patterns and positions in the labour market of women and men or whether the results are driven by selection patterns.

  10. A comparative study to identify factors of caregiver burden between baby boomers and post baby boomers: a secondary analysis of a US online caregiver survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejung; Lee, Sangeun; Cheon, Jooyoung; Hong, Soyun; Chang, Mido

    2018-05-02

    Baby boomers' position in the caregiving context is shifting from caregiver to care recipient as the population ages. While the unique characteristics of baby boomer caregivers are well established in caregiving literature, there is limited information about the next caregiving group after the baby boomers. In this study, the sociodemographic and caregiving-related characteristics of the two generations are compared and specific factors contributing to caregiver burden between baby boomer and post baby boomer caregivers are identified. This cross-sectional and correlational study used secondary analysis of data from the National Alliance for Caregiving and the American Association of Retired Persons. A structured online survey was conducted in 2014 with randomly selected samples (n = 1069) in the United States focusing on sociodemographics, caregiving-related characteristics, and burden of care. Descriptive statistics, multivariate linear regression analyses, and Steiger's Z-test were used to identify group differences in multivariate factors related to caregiver burden in two generational groups. Baby boomers and post baby boomers experienced caregiver burden to a similar degree. Caregiving-related factors are more likely to increase burden of care than sociodemographics in both groups. Caregiving without choice and spending longer hours on caregiving tasks were common factors that increased the burden in both generational groups (all p values baby boomer caregivers reported additional challenges, such as unemployment during caregiving, the dual responsibility of both adult and child care, and a family relationship with the care recipient. Due to the aging population of baby boomers, post baby boomers encounter different challenges related to caregiving burden, which is often considered an additional workload in their life course. Current policy and program tailored to baby boomers should be re-designed to meet the different needs of emerging caregivers

  11. Crack closure and sequential effects in fatigue: A literature survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, M.

    A literature survey of the phenomenon of crack closure is reported here. The state of the art is reviewed and several empirical formulas for determining the crack closure are compared with each other. Their properties, advantages and disadvantages are briefly discussed. Experimental techniques for determining the crack closure stress are presented and experimental data from the literature are reported.

  12. Nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity parameters in breakfast patterns compared with no breakfast in adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-12-01

    The effect of different breakfast consumption patterns on nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity status is unknown. To compare nutrient intake, diet quality, and weight/adiposity measures of consumers assigned to different breakfast patterns with breakfast skippers. These associations were assessed in adults 19+ years (N=18,988) participating in the 2001-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Intake was determined from 1-day 24-hour dietary recall. Diet quality was quantified using the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) and waist circumferences were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [approximately 19% of population]), explaining 58% of the variance in energy from the breakfast meal, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare nutrient intakes, Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and body mass index/waist circumference of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The P value was Bonferroni corrected (Juice and Presweetened Ready-to-Eat Cereal (RTEC)/Lower-Fat Milk patterns had lower daily intakes of nutrients to limit (added sugars, saturated fatty acids, solid fats, cholesterol, and sodium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; and RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice patterns had higher daily intakes of all shortfall nutrients examined (dietary fiber; vitamins A, D, and C; calcium, potassium, folate, iron, and magnesium) than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Grain; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice; Cooked Cereal; Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit; and Whole Fruit patterns had higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores than breakfast skippers. Consumers of the Grain/100% Fruit Juice; Presweetened RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk; RTEC/Lower-Fat Milk/Whole Fruit/100% Fruit Juice; and Cooked Cereal patterns had lower

  13. Comparing caseload and non-caseload midwives' burnout levels and professional attitudes: A national, cross-sectional survey of Australian midwives working in the public maternity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kate; Newton, Michelle; Forster, Della; McLachlan, Helen

    2018-08-01

    Caseload midwifery has many benefits for women and their babies, however only around 8% of women receive caseload care in the public maternity system in Australia. Midwives working within caseload models are required to provide activity-based care (working on-call, responsively to the needs of their caseload of women) rather than undertaking shift work. There has been debate regarding the impact of caseload work on midwives, but recently caseload work has been associated with higher professional satisfaction and lower burnout when compared to midwives working in traditional models. However, there continues to be debate about the impact of caseload on midwives, so further investigation is needed. A national cross-sectional survey of midwives working in Australian public hospitals that have birthing services was undertaken. We explored burnout and midwives' attitudes to their professional role using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and the Midwifery Process Questionnaire, respectively. Comparisons were made across three groups of midwives: those who worked in the caseload model, midwives who did not work in this model but worked in a hospital with a caseload model, and midwives who worked in a hospital without a caseload model. We received 542 responses from midwives from 111 hospitals from all Australian states and one of the territories. Of respondents, 107 midwives worked in a caseload model, 212 worked in a hospital with a caseload model but did not work in caseload, and 220 midwives worked in a hospital without a caseload model. Midwives working in caseload had significantly lower burnout scores in the personal and work-related burnout subscales, and a trend toward lower scores in the client-related burnout subscale. They also had higher scores across all four subscales of the midwifery process questionnaire, demonstrating more positive attitudes to their professional role. Although concerns have been raised regarding the impact of caseload midwifery on midwives

  14. Antibiotic prescribing for endodontic therapies: a comparative survey between general dental practitioners and final year Bachelor of Dental Surgery students in Cardiff, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Masan, A A; Dummer, P M H; Farnell, D J J; Vianna, M E

    2018-07-01

    To evaluate the views of final year dental surgery students (BDS; G1) at Cardiff University and general dental practitioners (GDPs; G2) within the geographic area of Cardiff, Wales, on antibiotic prescribing for endodontic conditions, and investigate the potential differences between the two groups. A cross-sectional online questionnaire-based survey of 12 qualitative and quantitative questions was distributed to 76 final year BDS Cardiff University students and 55 dental practices within Cardiff, UK. Six questions recorded general information, and the remaining questions included a series of hypothetical clinical scenarios, where the participants were asked to state whether they would or would not prescribe antibiotics. The data were analysed using spss version 23 to produce descriptive statistics, contingency tables and to run chi-square (χ²) tests, Fisher's exact tests and relative risk calculations. The response rate was 60% (n = 79). All G1 participants were aware of the consequences of antibiotic overuse. Approximately 60% of responders were aware of guidelines for antibiotic use in endodontic therapies, and 83% would only use antibiotics for a limited selection of patients (e.g. patients with systemic complications). G1 responses to clinical scenarios indicated overall that they were comparable to the ideal answers except for acute apical abscess (64% believed that antibiotics were indicated). The majority of G2 were aware of the consequences of antibiotic overuse. Only 28% of G2 were aware of guidelines for antibiotic use in endodontic therapies. Overall responses revealed that antibiotics would be prescribed for: systemic complications (78%), acute apical abscess (72%) and symptomatic apical periodontitis (28%). The clinical scenarios revealed G1 were more likely to prescribe antibiotics compared to G2 for cases of necrotic pulp with symptomatic apical periodontitis without systemic complications (incorrect answer) and less likely to other clinical

  15. Fewer specialists support using medical marijuana and CBD in treating epilepsy patients compared with other medical professionals and patients: Result of Epilepsia's survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mathern, GW; Beninsig, L; Nehlig, A

    2015-01-01

    © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy. Summary Objective From May 20 to September 1 2014, Epilepsia conducted an online survey seeking opinions about the use of medical marijuana and cannabidiol (CBD) for people with epilepsy. This study reports the findings of that poll. Methods The survey consisted of eight questions. Four questions asked if there were sufficient safety and efficacy data, whether responders would advise trying medical marijuana in cases of s...

  16. Survey compare team based learning and lecture teaching method, on learning-teaching process nursing student\\'s, in Surgical and Internal Diseases course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Vaezi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effect of teaching methods on learning process of students will help teachers to improve the quality of teaching by selecting an appropriate method. This study aimed to compare the team- based learning and lecture teaching method on learning-teaching process of nursing students in surgical and internal diseases courses. Method: This quasi-experimental study was carried on the nursing students in the School of Nursing and Midwifery in Yazd and Meybod cities. Studied sample was all of the students in the sixth term in the Faculty of Nursing in Yazd (48 persons and the Faculty of Nursing in Meybod (28 persons. The rate of students' learning through lecture was measured using MCQ tests and teaching based on team-based learning (TBL method was run using MCQ tests (IRAT, GRAT, Appeals and Task group. Therefore, in order to examine the students' satisfaction about the TBL method, a 5-point Likert scale (translated questionnaire (1=completely disagree, 2= disagree, 3=not effective, 4=agree, and 5=completely agree consisted of 22 items was utilized. The reliability and validity of this translated questionnaire was measured. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS 17.0 using descriptive and analytical statistic. Result: The results showed that the mean scores in team-based learning were meaningful in individual assessment (17±84 and assessment group (17.2±1.17. The mean of overall scores in TBL method (17.84±0.98% was higher compared with the lecture teaching method (16±2.31. Most of the students believed that TBL method has improved their interpersonal and group interaction skills (100%. Among them, 97.7% of students mentioned that this method (TBL helped them to understand the course content better. The lowest levels of the satisfaction have related to the continuous learning during lifelong (51.2%. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that the TBL method led to improving the communication skills, understanding

  17. Mercury methylation, export and bioaccumulation in rice agriculture - model results from comparative and experimental studies in 3 regions of the California Delta, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Fleck, J.; Eagles-Smith, C.; Ackerman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Seasonally flooded wetland ecosystems are often poised for mercury (Hg) methylation, thus becoming sources of methylmercury (MeHg) to in situ and downstream biota. The seasonal flooding associated with cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) also generates MeHg, which may be stored in sediment or plants, bioaccumulated into fauna, degraded or exported, depending on hydrologic and seasonal conditions. While many U.S. waters are regulated for total Hg concentrations based on fish targets, California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) will soon implement the first MeHg total maximum daily load (TMDL) control program. Since 2007, a conceptual model (DRERIP-MCM) and several ecosystem-level studies have been advanced to better understand the mechanisms behind Hg methylation, export and bioaccumulation within Delta wetlands, including rice agriculture. Three Delta rice-growing regions (Yolo Bypass, Cosumnes River, Central Delta) of varied soil characteristics, mining influences and hydrology, were monitored over full crop years to evaluate annual MeHg dynamics. In addition to fish tissue Hg accumulation, a broad suite of biogeochemical and hydrologic indices were assessed and compared between wetland types, seasons, and regions. In general, Delta rice fields were found to export MeHg during the post-harvest winter season, and promote MeHg uptake in fish and rice grain during the summer growing season. As described in a companion presentation (Eagles-Smith et al., this session), the experimental Cosumnes River study suggests that rice-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fuels MeHg production and uptake into aquatic foodwebs. Explicit DRERIP-MCM linkages for the role of rice-DOC in MeHg production, export and bioaccumulation were verified across two summers (2011, 2012): rice biomass and root productivity influenced porewater DOC availability and microbial processes, which drove sediment MeHg production and flux to surface water, promoting MeHg bioaccumulation in fish

  18. Comparative transcriptional survey between laser-microdissected cells from laminar abscission zone and petiolar cortical tissue during ethylene-promoted abscission in citrus leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeo Francisco R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abscission is the cell separation process by which plants are able to shed organs. It has a great impact on the yield of most crop plants. At the same time, the process itself also constitutes an excellent model to study cell separation processes, since it occurs in concrete areas known as abscission zones (AZs which are composed of a specific cell type. However, molecular approaches are generally hampered by the limited area and cell number constituting the AZ. Therefore, detailed studies at the resolution of cell type are of great relevance in order to accurately describe the process and to identify potential candidate genes for biotechnological applications. Results Efficient protocols for the isolation of specific citrus cell types, namely laminar abscission zone (LAZ and petiolar cortical (Pet cells based on laser capture microdissection (LCM and for RNA microextraction and amplification have been developed. A comparative transcriptome analysis between LAZ and Pet from citrus leaf explants subjected to an in-vitro 24 h ethylene treatment was performed utilising microarray hybridization and analysis. Our analyses of gene functional classes differentially represented in ethylene-treated LAZ revealed an activation program dominated by the expression of genes associated with protein synthesis, protein fate, cell type differentiation, development and transcription. The extensive repertoire of genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis and metabolism strongly suggests that LAZ layers activate both catabolic and anabolic wall modification pathways during the abscission program. In addition, over-representation of particular members of different transcription factor families suggests important roles for these genes in the differentiation of the effective cell separation layer within the many layers contained in the citrus LAZ. Preferential expression of stress-related and defensive genes in Pet reveals that this tissue is

  19. Reporting of pain by people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): comparative results from the HUNT3 population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andenæs, Randi; Momyr, Astrid; Brekke, Idunn

    2018-01-25

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with chronic pain, but pain in COPD remains poorly understood, particularly in comparison to pain in other groups. We compared the pain reported by people with COPD with that reported by arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, and those not reporting any disease, while adjusting for the effects of selected sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, comorbidities, anxiety, and depression. Using cross-sectional data from a population-based health survey in Norway (HUNT3; n = 50,807), we included participants with COPD (n = 1199), participants without COPD, but with arthritis (n = 8582), heart disease (n = 4109), or diabetes (n = 1254), and participants without any disease (n = 18,811). Logistic and linear regression analyses were performed to estimate the probability of reporting chronic pain and the level of pain intensity in the different groups adjusting for other relevant factors. Approximately half (51.8%) of people with COPD reported chronic pain, which was a significantly higher rate than in the diabetes and non-disease groups, and similar to the heart disease group. People with arthritis had a chronic pain rate of 75.4%, which was higher than all other groups, including COPD. Analyses of pain intensity yielded similar findings, with the COPD group having higher pain intensity than the diabetes and non-disease groups, similar pain intensity as the heart disease group, and less pain intensity than the arthritis group. The likelihood of chronic pain and the intensity of pain were generally higher among women, people employed in occupations with low educational requirements, smokers, and those with comorbidity. Chronic pain rates and pain intensity increased with age and higher anxiety and depression scores, and were inversely related to physical activity. People with COPD are at increased risk for chronic pain and higher pain intensity, second only to those with arthritis among the

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and a comparative study of the corrosion inhibitive efficiency of an α-aminophosphonate and Schiff base derivatives: Experimental and theoretical investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbouguerra, Khalissa; Chafaa, Salah; Chafai, Nadjib; Mehri, Mouna; Moumeni, Ouahiba; Hellal, Abdelkader

    2018-04-01

    New α-aminophosphonate (α-APD) and Schiff base (E-NDPIMA) derivatives have been prepared and their structures ware proved by IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopy. Their inhibitive capacities on the XC48 carbon steel corrosion in 0.5 mol L-1 H2SO4 solution were explored by weight loss, Tafel polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Experimental results illustrate that the synthesized compounds are an effectives inhibitors and the adsorption of inhibitors molecules on the carbon steel surface obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In addition, quantum chemical calculations performed with density function theory (DFT) method have been used to correlate the inhibition efficiency established experimentally. Also, the molecular dynamics simulations have been utilized to simulate the interactions between the inhibitors molecules and Fe (100) surface in aqueous solution.

  1. A comparative study of two statistical approaches for the analysis of real seismicity sequences and synthetic seismicity generated by a stick-slip experimental model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Marquez, Leticia Elsa; Ramirez Rojaz, Alejandro; Telesca, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    The study of two statistical approaches is analyzed for two different types of data sets, one is the seismicity generated by the subduction processes occurred at south Pacific coast of Mexico between 2005 and 2012, and the other corresponds to the synthetic seismic data generated by a stick-slip experimental model. The statistical methods used for the present study are the visibility graph in order to investigate the time dynamics of the series and the scaled probability density function in the natural time domain to investigate the critical order of the system. This comparison has the purpose to show the similarities between the dynamical behaviors of both types of data sets, from the point of view of critical systems. The observed behaviors allow us to conclude that the experimental set up globally reproduces the behavior observed in the statistical approaches used to analyses the seismicity of the subduction zone. The present study was supported by the Bilateral Project Italy-Mexico Experimental Stick-slip models of tectonic faults: innovative statistical approaches applied to synthetic seismic sequences, jointly funded by MAECI (Italy) and AMEXCID (Mexico) in the framework of the Bilateral Agreement for Scientific and Technological Cooperation PE 2014-2016.

  2. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  3. Comparative genomic survey, exon-intron annotation and phylogenetic analysis of NAT-homologous sequences in archaea, protists, fungi, viruses, and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously published extensive genomic surveys [1-3], reporting NAT-homologous sequences in hundreds of sequenced bacterial, fungal and vertebrate genomes. We present here the results of our latest search of 2445 genomes, representing 1532 (70 archaeal, 1210 bacterial, 43 protist, 97 fungal,...

  4. Serological & molecular diagnostic surveys combined with examining hematological profiles suggest increased levels of infection & hematological response of cattle to babesiosis infections compared to native buffaloes in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Babesiosis threatens the development of the cattle and buffaloes industries in Egypt and improved control is needed. The main objectives of this study are surveying the presence of bovine babesiosis in distinct selected bovine and buffalo populations in Egypt using novel molecular and pr...

  5. Platelet-rich plasma in orthopedic therapy: a comparative systematic review of clinical and experimental data in equine and human musculoskeletal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossi, Patrícia M; Moreira, Juliana J; Machado, Thaís S L; Baccarin, Raquel Y A

    2015-04-22

    This systematic review aimed to present and critically appraise the available information on the efficacy of platelet rich plasma (PRP) in equine and human orthopedic therapeutics and to verify the influence of study design and methodology on the assumption of PRP's efficacy. We searched Medline, PubMed, Embase, Bireme and Google Scholar without restrictions until July 2013. Randomized trials, human cohort clinical studies or case series with a control group on the use of PRP in tendons, ligaments or articular lesions were included. Equine clinical studies on the same topics were included independently of their design. Experimental studies relevant to the clarification of PRP's effects and mechanisms of action in tissues of interest, conducted in any animal species, were selected. This review included 123 studies. PRP's beneficial effects were observed in 46.7% of the clinical studies, while the absence of positive effects was observed in 43.3%. Among experimental studies, 73% yielded positive results, and 7.9% yielded negative results. The most frequent flaws in the clinical trials' designs were the lack of a true placebo group, poor product characterization, insufficient blinding, small sampling, short follow-up periods, and adoption of poor outcome measures. The methods employed for PRP preparation and administration and the selected outcome measures varied greatly. Poor study design was a common feature of equine clinical trials. From studies in which PRP had beneficial effects, 67.8% had an overall high risk of bias. From the studies in which PRP failed to exhibit beneficial effects, 67.8% had an overall low risk of bias. Most experimental studies revealed positive effects of PRP. Although the majority of equine clinical studies yielded positive results, the human clinical trials' results failed to corroborate these findings. In both species, beneficial results were more frequently observed in studies with a high risk of bias. The use of PRP in musculoskeletal

  6. A comparative study of parameters used in design and operation of desalination experimental facility versus the process parameters in a commercial desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanra, M.S.; Verma, R.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.

    1982-01-01

    Desalination Experimental Facility (DEF) based on multistage flash desalination process has been set up by the Desalination Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. The design parameters of DEF and materials used for various equipment and parts of DEF are mentioned. DEF was operated for 2300 hours in six operational runs. The range of operational parameters maintained during operation and observations on the performance of the materials of construction are given. Detailed comparison has been made for the orocess parameters in DEF and those in a large size plant. (M.G.B.)

  7. Comparing Spray Characteristics from Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) National Combustion Code (NCC) Calculations Against Experimental Data for a Turbulent Reacting Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.; Moder, Jeffery P.

    2010-01-01

    Developing physics-based tools to aid in reducing harmful combustion emissions, like Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Unburnt Hydrocarbons (UHC s), and Sulfur Dioxides (SOx), is an important goal of aeronautics research at NASA. As part of that effort, NASA Glenn Research Center is performing a detailed assessment and validation of an in-house combustion CFD code known as the National Combustion Code (NCC) for turbulent reacting flows. To assess the current capabilities of NCC for simulating turbulent reacting flows with liquid jet fuel injection, a set of Single Swirler Lean Direct Injection (LDI) experiments performed at the University of Cincinnati was chosen as an initial validation data set. This Jet-A/air combustion experiment operates at a lean equivalence ratio of 0.75 at atmospheric pressure and has a 4 percent static pressure drop across the swirler. Detailed comparisons of NCC predictions for gas temperature and gaseous emissions (CO and NOx) against this experiment are considered in a previous work. The current paper is focused on detailed comparisons of the spray characteristics (radial profiles of drop size distribution and at several radial rakes) from NCC simulations against the experimental data. Comparisons against experimental data show that the use of the correlation for primary spray break-up implemented by Raju in the NCC produces most realistic results, but this result needs to be improved. Given the single or ten step chemical kinetics models, use of a spray size correlation gives similar, acceptable results

  8. Towards comparability of data: using the ICF to map the contrasting definitions of disability in Irish surveys and census, 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Mary-Ann; Good, Anne

    2010-01-01

    To examine how disability was measured and understood within Irish data sources 2000-2006, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a guiding framework for a more comprehensive and transformative definition of disability. During the EU-funded Measuring Health and Disability in Europe (MHADIE) project (2003-2006), an audit of data sources which included a disability identifier question was conducted. Thirty Irish data sources were examined in total. An overview of these data sources was provided in 'Disability Data Sources in Ireland' (National Disability Authority, unpublished, 2007). Using guidelines developed by Cieza et al. (J Rehabil Med 2002;34:205-210, J Rehabil Med 2002;27:212-218) five data sources were selected for detailed examination and were mapped to the ICF. These were the census (2006), National Disability Survey (2006), National Physical and Sensory Disability Database (2006), Survey of Lifestyles, Attitudes and Nutrition (2002), Euro Student Survey (2003). Subsequent work conducted after the completion of the MHADIE project added to the findings. The environmental dimension of disability dominated the data collection exercises which used the ICF as their framework-for the National Disability Survey (NDS) and the National Physical and Sensory Disability Database (NPSDD). Both also had strong focus on activity and participation. When mapped on to the ICF, the data sources which preceded the ICF or did not use it, are shown to focus more on activity and participation data than any other ICF component. Across the five selected data sources, limited information was collected on body function and body structure.

  9. Non-use Economic Values for Little-Known Aquatic Species at Risk: Comparing Choice Experiment Results from Surveys Focused on Species, Guilds, and Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Murray A.; Andres, Sheri; Kilfoil, Mary

    2016-09-01

    Accounting for non-market economic values of biological diversity is important to fully assess the benefits of environmental policies and regulations. This study used three choice experiments (species-, guild-, and ecosystem-based surveys) in parallel to quantify non-use values for little-known aquatic species at risk in southern Ontario. Mean willingness-to-pay (WTP) ranged from 9.45 to 21.41 per listing status increment under Canada's Species at Risk Act for both named and unnamed little-known species. Given the broad range of valuable ecosystem services likely to accrue to residents from substantial increases in water quality and the rehabilitation of coastal wetlands, the difference in WTP between species- and ecosystem-based surveys seemed implausibly small. It appeared that naming species—the `iconization' of species in two of the three surveys—had an important effect on WTP. The results suggest that reasonable annual household-level WTP values for little-known aquatic species may be 10 to 25 per species or 10 to 20 per listing status increment. The results highlighted the utility of using parallel surveys to triangulate on non-use economic values for little-known species at risk.

  10. A comparative study on the effect of glazing and cooling for compound parabolic concentrator PV systems – Experimental and analytical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahaidarah, Haitham M.; Gandhidasan, P.; Baloch, Ahmer A.B.; Tanweer, Bilal; Mahmood, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We model glazed and unglazed PV-CPC systems with and without active water cooling. • Model is validated with experimental results and found good agreement. • Significant increase in the maximum power output is observed with active cooling. • Unglazed PV-CPC system is recommended for greater electric power output. • Levelized cost of energy found was found lower for unglazed CPC with cooling. - Abstract: A key barrier to achieving the economic viability and widespread adoption of photovoltaic (PV) technology for the direct conversion of solar radiation to electricity is the losses related to the high operating temperatures of typical flat-type PV modules. This technical and economic study addresses the cost reduction of PV systems by proposing a methodology for the improvement of solar cell efficiency using low-concentration PV technology and compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs). A theoretical model was developed to evaluate the performance of PV-CPC systems considering their optical, thermal and electrical properties. The model was implemented to investigate glazed and unglazed PV-CPC systems with and without active cooling and it was validated against experimental data. A laboratory-scale bench-top PV string was designed and built with symmetrically truncated CPC modules in these four configurations. The constructed glazed and unglazed PV-CPC systems were used for measurements at the geographic location of Dhahran and showed a very good agreement of 3.8–6.5% between the calculated and experimental results. The effect of glazing was studied and from the electrical point of view, glazing was found to reduce the power output. From the thermal point of view, glazing increased the thermal gain of the PV-CPC system. An unglazed PV-CPC system is recommended for greater electric power output, and glazed system is recommended for higher thermal gain. For economic feasibility, levelized cost of energy (LCE) analysis was performed using annual

  11. Interviews within experimental frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    2010-01-01

    , an amount of control was required over the nature of those experiences.  With these requirements, a hybrid study was designed by deconstructing the conceptualization of "the experiment" and utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods.  The resulting study involved the following: a within......-subjects experimental design served as the framework for the study, while in-depth qualitative interviews were employed alongside surveys and audio and video recording as the data collection methods.  Data collection occurred while participants were engaging with the media products, via talk aloud protocols......, and afterwards when they were asked to recall and compare these situations in open-ended questionnaires and interviews structured using Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology.  Having completed the study using this mixed method(ology) approach, I discuss the effectiveness of this approach, and where the approach...

  12. Evaluation of the toxicity of onyx compared with n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate in the subarachnoid space of a rabbit model: an experimental research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, Bulent [Kirikkale University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kirikkale (Turkey); Kirikkale University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kirikkale (Turkey); Oruckaptan, Hakan H.; Hazer, Burcu D. [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Ankara (Turkey); Saatci, Isil [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Atilla, Pergin; Muftuoglu, Sevda F. [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embriology, Ankara (Turkey); Kilic, Kamer [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-02-15

    The toxic effects of onyx, its solvent dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), and n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) were evaluated after infusion into the subaracnoid space of a rabbit model. Each of the two various concentrations of onyx, pure DMSO, NBCA, and normal saline solution were percutaneously infused into the pontocerebellar cisternae of 39 domestic male albino rabbits, after which, the brain stems and medial cerebellar tissues were harvested for biochemical and histopathological studies. The specimens infused in various concentration of onyx, DMSO, and NBCA showed neural tissue necrosis and edema with inflammatory cell infiltration in the acute stage. Although the mean values of the lipid peroxidase in the control, saline, and NBCA groups were found to be almost similar, they were found to be low in the onyx and DMSO groups. This experimental study suggests that NBCA, and various concentrations of onyx and DMSO have toxic effects on the neural tissues of rabbits when infused into the subarachnoid space. (orig.)

  13. Experimental comparative study and fracture resistance simulation with irrigation solution of 0.2% chitosan, 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Ernani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation in endodontic need irrigation materials as root canal debridement and disinfectant. However, irrigation materials is one of the factors that influence the tendency of fracture. Purpose: This study was aimed to see the resistance and fracture distribution if teeth irrigated with high molecular horseshoe crab chitosan at 0.2% concentration, 2.5% NaOCl solution and 17% EDTA solution in endodontic treatment with finite element method (FEM simulation study and experimental studies. Method: Endodontic treatment performed on 28 maxillary premolars with group A: irrigation solution of 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCl solution; group B: 2.5% NaOCl irrigation solution; group C: 2.5% NaOCl irrigation solution and 0.2% chitosan solution; group D: 0.2% chitosan solution irrigation. Final restoration was done using prefabricated glass fiber post. Cementation of post using resin cement then restored with direct composite resin restorations. Pressure test was performed with a Universal Testing Machine with a speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture occurred. A three dimensional finite element analysis was performed for total deformation, equivalent (von-mises stress, and equivalent elastic strains. Result: Anova test showed significant differences in fracture resistance (p0.05. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference (p>0.05 between the results of experiment and FEM analysis results using the t-test. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that there was effect of the use of high molecular 0.2% chitosan as a combined irrigation with NaOCl, but did not affect the fracture pattern distribution of endodontically treated teeth both experimentally and FEM analysis test.

  14. Experimental Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.; Serin, L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  15. A meta-analytic review of measurement equivalence study findings of the SF-36® and SF-12® Health Surveys across electronic modes compared to paper administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michelle K; Maher, Stephen M; Rizio, Avery A; Bjorner, Jakob B

    2018-04-16

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures originally developed for paper administration are increasingly being administered electronically in clinical trials and other health research studies. Three published meta-analyses of measurement equivalence among paper and electronic modes aggregated findings across hundreds of PROs, but there has not been a similar meta-analysis that addresses a single PRO, partly because there are not enough published measurement equivalence studies using the same PRO. Because the SF-36 (R) Health Survey (SF-36) is a widely used PRO, the aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of measurement equivalence studies of this survey. A literature search of several medical databases used search terms for variations of "SF-36" or "SF-12" and "equivalence" in the title or abstract of English language publications. The eight scale scores and two summary measures of the SF-36 and SF-12 were transformed to norm-based scores (NBS) using developer guidelines. A threshold of within ± 2 NBS points was set as the margin of equivalence. Comprehensive meta-analysis software was used. Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results indicated that mean differences across domains and summary scores ranged from 0.01 to 0.39 while estimates of agreement ranged from 0.76 to 0.91, all well within the equivalence threshold. Moderator analyses showed that time between administration, survey language, and type of electronic device did not influence equivalence. The results of the meta-analysis support equivalence of paper-based and electronic versions of the SF-36 and SF-12 across a variety of disease populations, countries, and electronic modes.

  16. The effect of 50% compared to 100% inspired oxygen fraction on brain oxygenation and post cardiac arrest mitochondrial function in experimental cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelskylä, Annika; Nurmi, Jouni; Jousi, Milla; Schramko, Alexey; Mervaala, Eero; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Skrifvars, Markus B

    2017-07-01

    We hypothesised that the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen maintains cerebral oxygenation and ameliorates the disturbance of cardiac mitochondrial respiration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced electrically in anaesthetised healthy adult pigs and left untreated for seven minutes followed by randomisation to manual ventilation with 50% or 100% oxygen and mechanical chest compressions (LUCAS ® ). Defibrillation was performed at thirteen minutes and repeated if necessary every two minutes with 1mg intravenous adrenaline. Cerebral oxygenation was measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (rSO 2 , INVOS™5100C Cerebral Oximeter) and with a probe (NEUROVENT-PTO, RAUMEDIC) in the frontal brain cortex (PbO 2 ). Heart biopsies were obtained 20min after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with an analysis of mitochondrial respiration (OROBOROS Instruments Corp., Innsbruck, Austria), and compared to four control animals without VF and CPR. Brain rSO 2 and PbO 2 were log transformed and analysed with a mixed linear model and mitochondrial respiration with an analysis of variance. Of the twenty pigs, one had a breach of protocol and was excluded, leaving nine pigs in the 50% group and ten in the 100% group. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in six pigs in the 50% group and eight in the 100% group. The rSO 2 (p=0.007) was lower with FiO 2 50%, but the PbO 2 was not (p=0.93). After ROSC there were significant interactions between time and FiO 2 regarding both rSO 2 (p=0.001) and PbO 2 (p=0.004). Compared to the controls, mitochondrial respiration was decreased, with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) levels of 57 (17)pmols -1 mg -1 compared to 92 (23)pmols -1 mg -1 (p=0.008), but there was no difference between different oxygen fractions (p=0.79). The use of 50% oxygen during CPR results in lower cerebral oximetry values compared to 100% oxygen but there is no difference in brain tissue oxygen. Cardiac

  17. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Atehmengo Ngongeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS goat isolate (RSHc and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc (isolated from WAD goats, was studied by experimental infections of 4–6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3 of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP, faecal egg counts (FEC, worm burden (WB, body weight (BW, packed cell volume (PCV, and body condition score (BCS were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63±0.26 and 19.50±0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P=0.004 and WB (P=0.001. BW were significantly higher (P=0.004 both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P=0.001. There was a significant drop in PCV (P=0.004 of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.

  18. Yellow fever virus isolated from a fatal post vaccination event: an experimental comparative study with the 17DD vaccine strain in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the pathogenicity of the virus strain GOI 4191 that was isolated from a fatal adverse event after yellow fever virus (YFV vaccination, an experimental assay using hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus as animal model and YFV 17DD vaccine strain as virus reference was accomplished. The two virus strains were inoculated by intracerebral, intrahepatic and subcutaneous routes. The levels of viremia, antibody response, and aminotransferases were determined in sera; while virus, antigen and histopathological changes were determined in the viscera. No viremia was detected for either strain following infection; the immune response was demonstrated to be more effective to strain GOI 4191; and no significant aminotransferase levels alterations were detected. Strain GOI 4191 was recovered only from the brain of animals inoculated by the IC route. Viral antigens were detected in liver and brain by immunohistochemical assay. Histothological changes in the viscera were characterized by inflammatory infiltrate, hepatocellular necrosis, and viral encephalitis. Histological alterations and detection of viral antigen were observed in the liver of animals inoculated by the intrahepatic route. These findings were similar for both strains used in the experiment; however, significant differences were observed from those results previously reported for wild type YFV strains.

  19. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Onyeabor, Amaechi

    2015-01-01

    Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS) goat isolate (RSHc) and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc) (isolated from WAD goats), was studied by experimental infections of 4-6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3) of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP), faecal egg counts (FEC), worm burden (WB), body weight (BW), packed cell volume (PCV), and body condition score (BCS) were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63 ± 0.26 and 19.50 ± 0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P = 0.004) and WB (P = 0.001). BW were significantly higher (P = 0.004) both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P = 0.001). There was a significant drop in PCV (P = 0.004) of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.

  20. The Use of Online Pre-Lab Assessments Compared with Written Pre-Lab Assignments Requiring Experimental Result Prediction Shows No Difference in Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Erica L. Suchman

    2015-01-01

    Exam performance was compared for students who hand wrote questions designed to prepare them for daily lab activities in a senior level virology laboratory course versus those who answered questions created to mirror the written questions on-line.  No significant difference was noted in exam scores on any of the three midterms, written final exam, nor the practical exam.  Neither was there a significant difference in the quality of the laboratory reports turned in as evidenced by similar aver...

  1. Comparative influence of propranolol and verapamil on glycemic control and histamine sensitivity associated with L-thyroxine-induced hyperthyroidism - an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Parloop A; Makwana, Dharmesh

    2008-02-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the comparative effectiveness of beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and calcium channel blocker verapamil on L-thyroxine-induced alteration on glycemic control and histamine sensitivity on rats and guinea pigs, respectively. Injection of L-thyroxine sodium every alternate day for 3 weeks in guinea pigs (75 microg/kg, i.p.) and rats (75 mg/kg, s.c.) produced a condition similar to thyrotoxicosis. Verapamil and propranolol administered daily in the third week along with L-thyroxine to two separate groups of hyperthyroid animals reversed thyroxine-induced loss in body weight, reduction in serum TSH levels, and rise in body temperature. Effect on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity was studied on rats. Compared to normal rats, L-thyroxine-treated animals showed a state of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance. Propranolol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment significantly decreased fasting serum glucose levels without affecting serum insulin levels, AUC glucose, and K(ITT) values. Treatment with verapamil (5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced fasting serum glucose and insulin levels, AUC glucose, and significantly increased K(ITT) values. Effect of propranolol (15 mg/kg, orally) and verapamil (20 mg/kg, orally) treatment on histamine sensitivity was studied on L-thyroxine-treated guinea pigs. Compared to normal guinea pigs, L-thyroxine-treated guinea pigs showed an increased sensitivity to histamine-induced asphyxia. Verapamil treatment reversed this increased histamine sensitivity while propranolol aggravated it. In conclusion, compared to propranolol, verapamil has advantageous effects on glucose metabolism, insulin and histamine sensitivity and could therefore be a valuable addition as an adjunctive therapy option currently available for thyrotoxicosis associated with diabetes and/or anaphylaxis.

  2. Young smokers and non-smokers perceptions of typical users of plain vs. branded cigarette packs: a between-subjects experimental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ingeborg; Scheffels, Janne

    2013-10-24

    In an attempt to minimize the pack design avenue of communication between tobacco producers and smokers and potential smokers, several jurisdictions, including Norway, have considered regulations on cigarette pack design. The main aim of the current study was to investigate how package design affects young people's perceptions of typical smokers of some pre-chosen cigarette brands and brand varieties. Based on data from a web survey among 1022 15-22 year-olds, possible effects of plain packaging of cigarettes on adolescents' views about typical cigarette smokers were investigated. The data collection had a between-subjects design, in which participants were allocated to one of three groups, and asked to typify the smokers of selected cigarette packs either in branded, plain or plain with descriptor versions. The sample included boys and girls, and smokers and non-smokers. The smoker characteristics included in the investigation were: gender, glamour, stylishness, popularity, coolness, sophistication and slimness. After creating sum-scores within and across packs and pack versions, analyses indicated that a shift from branded to plain cigarette packaging would result in a reduction in positive user images related to smoking among adolescents and young adults. For girls, this effect held up after controlling for confounders. To the extent that plain packaging contributes to making smoking images less positive, it can potentially be an efficient aid in reducing smoking uptake among adolescents.

  3. Surplus Facilities Management Program. Post-remedial-action survey report for SNAP-8 Experimental Reactor Facility, Building 010 site, Santa Susana Field Laboratories, Rockwell International, Ventura County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Smith, W.H.; Sholeen, C.M.; Mayes, C.B.; Justus, A.L.; Flynn, K.F.

    1984-04-01

    Based on the results of the radiological assessment, the Argonne National Laboratory Radiological Survey Group arrived at the following conclusions: (1) soil contaminated with the radionuclides 60 Co and 152 Eu of undetermined origin was detected in the southwest quadrant of the Building 010 site. 60 Co was also detected in one environmental sample taken from an area northwest of the site and in a borehole sample taken from the area that previously held the radioactive gas hold-up tanks. Uranium was detected in soil from a hole in the center of the building site and in a second hole southwest of the building site. In all cases, the radionuclide levels encountered in the soil were well below the criteria set by DOE for this site; and (2) the direct instrument readings at the surface of the site were probably the result of natural radiation (terrestrial and celestial), as well as shine from the material being stored at the nearby RMDF facility. There was no evidence that the contaminated soil under the asphalt pad contributed detectable levels to the total background readings

  4. Experimental study of sector and linear array ultrasound accuracy and the influence of navigated 3D-reconstruction as compared to MRI in a brain tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmann, Max; Lothes, Thomas; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Coburger, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Currently, intraoperative ultrasound in brain tumor surgery is a rapidly propagating option in imaging technology. We examined the accuracy and resolution limits of different ultrasound probes and the influence of 3D-reconstruction in a phantom and compared these results to MRI in an intraoperative setting (iMRI). An agarose gel phantom with predefined gel targets was examined with iMRI, a sector (SUS) and a linear (LUS) array probe with two-dimensional images. Additionally, 3D-reconstructed sweeps in perpendicular directions were made of every target with both probes, resulting in 392 measurements. Statistical calculations were performed, and comparative boxplots were generated. Every measurement of iMRI and LUS was more precise than SUS, while there was no apparent difference in height of iMRI and 3D-reconstructed LUS. Measurements with 3D-reconstructed LUS were always more accurate than in 2D-LUS, while 3D-reconstruction of SUS showed nearly no differences to 2D-SUS in some measurements. We found correlations of 3D-reconstructed SUS and LUS length and width measurements with 2D results in the same image orientation. LUS provides an accuracy and resolution comparable to iMRI, while SUS is less exact than LUS and iMRI. 3D-reconstruction showed the potential to distinctly improve accuracy and resolution of ultrasound images, although there is a strong correlation with the sweep direction during data acquisition.

  5. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar System with Different Cooling Methods and a Bi-Reflector PV System (BRPVS: An Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adil Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the price of solar photovoltaic (PV systems has been a constant challenge. Despite recent advances, solar PV systems are still more costly than conventional energy resources. For the first time, this study examines the effectiveness of three different structures/materials: (i silvered glass plane mirror; (ii convex spherical mirrors; and (iii aluminum (Al foil as reflector. Comparative analysis of four different cooling techniques, i.e., water sprinkling system, passive heat sink method, active air fan method, and closed loop method, for enhancement of output power was performed. A novel Bi reflector solar PV system (BRPVS was suggested to control the working of the reflectors. The Al foil enhanced the power output compared to the others. In addition, the effect of using a reflector on the temperature of a solar PV system was studied. High operating temperatures resulted in a decrease in the maximum output power under the same solar radiation conditions. The combined enhancement of the output power by both Al foil BRPVS system and cooling system was almost 22.75–38.55%. An optimal control algorithm to use cooling and BRPVS in an efficient manner is described.

  6. Comparing the experience of regret and its predictors among smokers in four Asian countries: findings from the ITC surveys in Thailand, South Korea, Malaysia, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Natalie; Fong, Geoffrey T; Lee, Wonkyong B; Laux, Fritz L; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Seo, Hong-Gwan; Omar, Maizurah; Jiang, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Nearly all smokers in high-income Western countries report that they regret smoking (Fong, G. T., Hammond, D., Laux, F. L., Zanna, M. P., Cummings, M. K., Borland, R., & Ross, H. [2004]. The near-universal experience of regret among smokers in four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, S341-S351. doi:10.1080/14622200412331320743), but no research to date has examined the prevalence of regret among smokers in non-Western, low- and middle-income countries. Data were from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Surveys of smokers in 4 Asian countries (China, Malaysia, South Korea, and Thailand); N = 9,738. Regret was measured with the statement: "If you had to do it over again, you would not have started smoking." Prevalence of regret in 3 countries (South Korea = 87%, Malaysia = 77%, and China = 74%) was lower than that found by Fong et al. in the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom (89%-90%); but was higher in Thailand (93%). These significant country differences in regret corresponded with differences in tobacco control and norms regarding smoking. The predictors of regret in the Asian countries were very similar to those in the 4 Western countries: Regret was more likely to be experienced by smokers who smoked fewer cigarettes per day, perceived greater benefits of quitting and higher financial costs of smoking, had more prior quit attempts, worried that smoking would damage their health, and felt that their loved ones and society disapproved of smoking. Regret was also positively associated with intentions to quit (r = 0.23, p tobacco control and is related to factors associated with future quitting.

  7. AN EXPERIMENTAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA: AMADA (MANGO - GINGER WITH CONVENTIONAL NSAID ASPIRIN IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

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    Shanmukananda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. belongs to Zingiberaceae family has biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. Pain is often the first indication of disease or injury and a major symptom in many clinical conditions and can significantly interferes with a person’s quality of life and general functioning. The standard and test drugs suppress the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. This article brings out the analgesic activity of C. Amada in comparison with aspirin. Therefore aqueous extract of C. amada was evaluated for analgesic activity in animal models of pain. OBJECTIVES: 1. To evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats and to compare the analgesic activity with aspirin . 2. To Evaluate if combination of Curcuma Amada with aspirin is synergistic . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats are the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines .The aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada was used. Aspirin (100mg/kg was used as the standard analgesic drug. 4x4 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity will be assessed with the help of following screening methods Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid, Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer, Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C , Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULTS : Aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to standard drug aspirin. In the Tail flick and Hot plate test Curcuma

  8. 177Lu-immunotherapy of experimental peritoneal carcinomatosis shows comparable effectiveness to 213Bi-immunotherapy, but causes toxicity not observed with 213Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Christof; Zoeckler, Christine; Beck, Roswitha; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Bruchertseifer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    213 Bi-d9MAb-immunoconjugates targeting gastric cancer cells have effectively cured peritoneal carcinomatosis in a nude mouse model following intraperitoneal injection. Because the β-emitter 177 Lu has proven to be beneficial in targeted therapy, 177 Lu-d9MAb was investigated in this study in order to compare its therapeutic efficacy and toxicity with those of 213 Bi-d9MAb. Nude mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with HSC45-M2 gastric cancer cells expressing d9-E-cadherin and were treated intraperitoneally 1 or 8 days later with different activities of specific 177 Lu-d9MAb immunoconjugates targeting d9-E-cadherin or with nonspecific 177 Lu-d8MAb. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by monitoring survival for up to 250 days. For evaluation of toxicity, both biodistribution of 177 Lu-d9MAb and blood cell counts were determined at different time points and organs were examined histopathologically. Treatment with 177 Lu-immunoconjugates (1.85, 7.4, 14.8 MBq) significantly prolonged survival. As expected, treatment on day 1 after tumour cell inoculation was more effective than treatment on day 8, and specific 177 Lu-d9MAb conjugates were superior to nonspecific 177 Lu-d8MAb. Treatment with 7.4 MBq of 177 Lu-d9MAb was most successful, with 90% of the animals surviving longer than 250 days. However, treatment with therapeutically effective activities of 177 Lu-d9MAb was not free of toxic side effects. In some animals lymphoblastic lymphoma, proliferative glomerulonephritis and hepatocarcinoma were seen but were not observed after treatment with 213 Bi-d9MAb at comparable therapeutic efficacy. The therapeutic efficacy of 177 Lu-d9MAb conjugates in peritoneal carcinomatosis is impaired by toxic side effects. Because previous therapy with 213 Bi-d9MAb revealed comparable therapeutic efficacy without toxicity it should be preferred for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. (orig.)

  9. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis. III. Comparative study of the evolution of rigor mortis in different sized muscle groups in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, T; Fryc, O

    1978-01-01

    The use of new methods and an appropriate apparatus has allowed us to make successive measurements of rigor mortis and a study of its evolution in the rat. By a comparative examination on the front and hind limbs, we have determined the following: (1) The muscular mass of the hind limbs is 2.89 times greater than that of the front limbs. (2) In the initial phase rigor mortis is more pronounced in the front limbs. (3) The front and hind limbs reach maximum rigor mortis at the same time and this state is maintained for 2 hours. (4) Resolution of rigor mortis is accelerated in the front limbs during the initial phase, but both front and hind limbs reach complete resolution at the same time.

  10. Effects of low-energy laser irradiation on the distalization velocity during experimental canine tooth movement in humans: 'comparative clinical study'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Delma Rebelo

    2003-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) upon the velocity of canine tooth movement and consequently bone remodeling. A total of eleven patients were treated with a 780 nm diode laser. One side of the upper arcade was considered control group and was not irradiated but received mechanical activation every thirty days. The opposite side received the same mechanical activation but was also irradiated at days 0, 3, 7 and 14 of each month. Data of the biometrical progress were taken on both sides on days 3,7,14,21 and 30 of each month. The results indicate that all patients showed significant acceleration of the distalization velocity on the side treated with LLLT when compared to the control. (author)

  11. A comparative study on the efficacy of 10% hypertonic saline and equal volume of 20% mannitol in the treatment of experimentally induced cerebral edema in adult rats

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    Fang Ming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline and mannitol are commonly used in the treatment of cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP at present. In this connection, 10% hypertonic saline (HS alleviates cerebral edema more effectively than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. However, the exact underlying mechanism for this remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanism whereby 10% hypertonic saline can ameliorate cerebral edema more effectively than mannitol. Results Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were subjected to permanent right-sided middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and treated with a continuous intravenous infusion of 10% HS, 20% mannitol or D-[1-3H(N]-mannitol. Brain water content (BWC as analyzed by wet-to-dry ratios in the ischemic hemisphere of SD rats decreased more significantly after 10% HS treatment compared with 20% mannitol. Concentration of serum Na+ and plasma crystal osmotic pressure of the 10% HS group at 2, 6, 12 and 18 h following permanent MCAO increased significantly when compared with 20% mannitol treated group. Moreover, there was negative correlation between the BWC of the ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere and concentration of serum Na+, plasma crystal osmotic pressure and difference value of concentration of serum Na+ and concentration of brain Na+ in ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere in the 10% HS group at the various time points after MCAO. A remarkable finding was the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue. Conclusions We conclude that 10% HS is more effective in alleviating cerebral edema than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. This is because 10% HS contributes to establish a higher osmotic gradient across BBB and, furthermore, the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue counteracts its therapeutic efficacy on cerebral edema.

  12. Comparing growth rate in a mixed plantation (walnut, poplar and nurse trees with different planting designs: results from an experimental plantation in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pelleri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Results of a mixed plantation with poplar, walnut and nurse trees established in winter 2003 in Northern Italy, are reported. Main tree species (poplar and walnut were planted according to a rectangular design (10 x 11m, with different spacings and alternate lines. The experimental trial was carried out to verify the following working hypotheses: (i possibility to combine main trees with different growth levels (common walnut, hybrid walnut, and different poplar clones and test two different poplar and walnut spacings (5.0 and 7.4 m in the same plantation; (ii opportunity to reduce cultivation’s workload, in comparison with poplar monoculture, using mixtures with different poplar clones and N-fixing nurse trees; (iii verifying the growth pattern of two new poplar clones in comparison with the traditional clones cultivated for different purposes in Italy.The use of different valuable crop trees’ mixtures intercropped with nurse trees and shrubs (including N-fixing trees allows to decrease the cultivation’s workload. In fact, a heavy reduction of cultural practices - fertilizers, weed control, irrigation and pesticides applications (-61% are the main concurrent, supplementary benefits. The best growth performances (DBH and tree height, associated with the higher competition towards walnuts, were recorded with the new clones Lena and Neva in comparison with the I214 and Villafranca. The closer spacing (5 m between poplar and walnut trees was found to be unsuited to get merchantable poplars sized 30 cm without developing a heavy competition towards walnut trees. The wider spacing (7.4 m resulted vice versa suitable to get poplar trees sized as requested by veneer factories and to maintain an acceptable competitive level with walnut. Within this plantation design, a shorter rotation (8 yrs is needed for Lena and Neva clones in comparison with I214 and Villafranca (10 yrs. Walnut intercropped with poplar showed cone-shaped crowns, light

  13. Comparative experimental study of myocardial protection with crystalloid solutions for heart transplantation Estudo comparativo experimental da proteção miocárdica com soluções cristalóides para transplante cardíaco

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    Melchior Luiz Lima

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a growing need to improve myocardial protection, which will lead to better performance of cardiac operations and reduce morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of myocardial protection solution using both intracellular and extracellular crystalloid type regarding the performance of the electrical conduction system, left ventricular contractility and edema, after being subjected to ischemic arrest and reperfusion. METHODS: Hearts isolated from male Wistar (n=32 rats were prepared using Langendorff method and randomly divided equally into four groups according the cardioprotective solutions used Krebs-Henseleit-Buffer (KHB, Bretschneider-HTK (HTK, St. Thomas-1 (STH-1 and Celsior (CEL. After stabilization with KHB at 37ºC, baseline values (control were collected for heart rate (HR, left ventricle systolic pressure (LVSP, maximum first derivate of rise left ventricular pressure (+dP/dt, maximum first derivate of fall left ventricular pressure (-dP/dt and coronary flow (CF. The hearts were then perfused at 10ºC for 5 min and kept for 2 h in static ischemia at 20ºC in each cardioprotective solution. Data evaluation was done using analysis of variance in completely randomized One-Way ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. The level of statistical significance chosen was PKHB>STH-1.INTRODUÇÃO: Existe crescente necessidade de aprimorar a proteção miocárdica, para melhor desempenho das operações cardíacas e diminuição da morbimortalidade. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia da proteção miocárdica usando tanto solução cristaloide tipo intracelular como extracelular quanto ao desempenho do sistema de condução elétrica, contratilidade do ventrículo esquerdo e edema, após parada isquêmica e posterior reperfusão. MÉTODOS: Corações isolados de ratos Wistar foram montados em Langendorff e aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos

  14. A comparative experimental study of the in-vitro efficiency of hypertonic saline-enhanced hepatic bipolar and monopolar radiofrequency ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Se Hyung; Sohn, Kyu Li; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Ah, Su Kyung; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2003-01-01

    To compare the in-vitro efficiency of a hypertonic saline (HS)- enhanced bipolar radiofrequency (RF) system with monopolar RF applications by assessing the temperature profile and dimensions of RF-created coagulation necrosis in bovine liver. A total of 27 ablations were performed in explanted bovine livers. After placement of two 16-gauge open-perfused electrodes at an interelectrode distance of 3 cm, 5% HS was instilled into tissue at a rate of 1 mL/min through the electrode. Seventeen thermal ablation zones were created in the monopolar mode (groups A, B), and ten more were created using the two open-perfused electrodes in the bipolar mode (group C). RF was applied to each electrode for 5 mins (for a total of 10 mins, group A) or 10 mins (for a total of 20 mins, group B) at 50W in the sequential monopolar mode, or to both electrodes for 10 min in the bipolar mode (group C). During RF instillation, we measured tissue temperature at the midpoint between the two electrodes. The dimensions of the thermal ablation zones and changes in impedance and wattage during RFA were compared between the groups. With open-perfusion electrodes, the mean accumulated energy output value was lower in the bipolar mode (group C: 26675±3047 Watt's) than in the monopolar mode (group A: 28778±1300 Watt's) but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In the bipolar mode, there were impedance rises of more than 700 Ω during RF energy application, but in the monopolar modes, impedance did not changed markedly. In the bipolar mode, however, the temperature at the mid-point between the two probes was higher (85 .deg. C) than in the monopolar modes (65 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C for group A, B, respectively) (p<0.05). In addition, in HS-enhanced bipolar RFA (group C), the shortest diameter at the midpoint between the two electrodes was greater than in either of the monopolar modes: 5.4±5.6 mm (group A); 28.8±8.2 mm (group B); 31.2±7.6 mm (group C) (p<0.05) Using an open

  15. Impact on alcohol purchasing of a ban on multi-buy promotions: a quasi-experimental evaluation comparing Scotland with England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Pechey, Rachel; Morciano, Marcello; Roland, Martin; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the impact of the 2011 Scottish ban on multi-buy promotions of alcohol in retail stores. Design and setting Difference-in-differences analysis was used to estimate the impact of the ban on the volume of alcohol purchased by Scottish households, compared with those in England and Wales, between January 2010 and June 2012. Participants A total of 22 356 households in Scotland, England and Wales. Measurements Records of alcohol purchasing from each of four categories (beer and cider, wine, spirits and flavoured alcoholic beverages), as well as total volume of pure alcohol purchased. Findings Controlling for general time trends and household heterogeneity, there was no significant effect of the multi-buy ban in Scotland on volume of alcohol purchased either for the whole population or for individual socio-economic groups. There was also no significant effect on those who were large pre-ban purchasers of alcohol. Most multi-buys were for beer and cider or for wine. The frequency of shopping trips involving beer and cider purchases increased by 9.2% following the ban (P purchased on each trip decreased by 8.1% (P purchasing in the short term. Wider regulation of price promotion and price may be needed to achieve this. PMID:24251415

  16. Higher bioavailability of iron from whole wheat bread compared with iron-fortified white breads in caco-2 cell model: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Neyestani, Tirang R

    2017-06-01

    Bread, as the staple food of Iranians, with average per capita consumption of 300 g d -1 , could potentially be a good vehicle for many fortificants, including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in a caco-2 cell model. Despite having a lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread. Assuming iron bioavailability from the ferrous sulfate supplement used as standard was about 10%, the estimated bioavailability of iron from the test breads was calculated as 5.0-8.0%. Whole wheat bread (∼8%), as compared with the fortified breads (∼5-6.5%), had higher iron bioavailability. Iron from unfortified whole wheat bread is more bioavailable than from three types of iron-fortified breads. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Levantamento pedológico detalhado da estação experimental de Itararé, SP Detailed soil survey of the agricultural experiment station at Itararé, SP

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    J. Bertoldo de Oliveira

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve o levantamento de solos ao nível de série, efetuado na Estação Experimental de Itararé, SP, que ocupa uma área de 495 ha. O relevo regional é representado por superfícies suavizadas esculpidas em material do Devoniano. O tipo climático é Cfa, segundo Koppen, e a vegetação primitiva, campos altimontanos. Foram observados 118 pontos em 50 dos quais foi coletado material para análise granulométrica e/ou química. Foram coletados, descritos e analisados 10 perfis e estabelecidas sete unidades de mapeamento pertencentes aos grandes grupos Inceptisol e Oxisol, e a um complexo indiscriminado.In this paper a description of a detailed soil survey in the Agricultural Experiment Station at Itararé, SP is given. The soil survey of the 495 ha of the Experiment Station was done at the series level. Seven soil units were identified and the description and analysis of four Inceptisols, and two Oxisols are presented. A soil map at 1:10,000 scale is also presented.

  18. Using wavelet analysis to compare the QCD prediction and experimental data on R{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}} and to determine parameters of the charmonium states above the D anti D threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henner, V.K. [University of Louisville, Department of Physics, Louisville, KY (United States); Perm State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Perm (Russian Federation); Perm State Technical University, Department of Mathematics, Perm (Russian Federation); Davis, C.L. [University of Louisville, Department of Physics, Louisville, KY (United States); Belozerova, T.S. [Perm State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Perm (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    The first part of our analysis uses the wavelet method to compare the quantum chromodynamic (QCD) prediction for the ratio of hadronic to muon cross sections in electron-positron collisions, R, with experimental data for R over a center of mass energy range up to about 7 GeV. A direct comparison of the raw experimental data and the QCD prediction is difficult because the data have a wide range of structures and large statistical errors and the QCD description contains sharp quark-antiquark thresholds. However, a meaningful comparison can be made if a type of ''smearing'' procedure is used to smooth out rapid variations in both the theoretical and experimental values of R. A wavelet analysis (WA) can be used to achieve this smearing effect. The second part of the analysis concentrates on the 3.0-6.0 GeV energy region which includes the relatively wide charmonium resonances ψ(1{sup -}). We use the wavelet methodology to distinguish these resonances from experimental noise, background and from each other, allowing a reliable determination of the parameters of these states. Both analyses are examples of the usefulness of WA in extracting information in a model independent way from high energy physics data. (orig.)

  19. Prevention of experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis by extracts of Isatis tinctoria compared to pure tryptanthrin and its impact on UVB-induced erythema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Christian; Schliemann-Willers, Sibylle; Oberthür, Christine; Hamburger, Matthias; Elsner, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Lipophilic extracts of Isatis tinctoria L. exhibit significant activity against several clinically relevant targets of inflammation. The alkaloid tryptanthrin was identified as one of the active principles in woad and characterised as a potent dual inhibitor of COX-2 and 5-LOX. Here, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of topical application of three different Isatis extracts and tryptanthrin was investigated in human volunteers. Two different models were used, namely the sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and UVB-induced erythema. Twenty healthy volunteers without any skin disease participated in the study. Cumulative irritant contact dermatitis was induced on test fields on the volunteers' backs by twice daily application of 0.5 % sodium lauryl sulphate over a period of four days. Half of the test fields were treated with the test substances during the eliciting phase, while the remaining test fields were treated over a period of 4 days after induction of dermatitis. In the second model, a UVB erythema on the volunteers' lower backs was induced using the double minimal erythema dose (MED). Twenty-four hours after irradiation the test fields were treated with the test substances over a period of 3 days. All reactions were assessed visually and by non-invasive bioengineering methods (evaporimetry and chromametry). Treatment with extracts during the ICD eliciting phase led to a significantly smaller increase of visual scores and transepidermal water loss compared to the untreated test field. For tryptanthrin this benefit was also observed, but the improvement was not statistically significant. When treatment was performed after completing the eliciting phase, accelerated resolution of the irritant reaction could not be observed. In the UVB erythema model anti-inflammatory effects of the test substances were not observed.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of carvedilol and propranolol on glycemic control and insulin resistance associated with L-thyroxin-induced hyperthyroidism--an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Parloop; Makwana, Dharmesh; Santani, Devdas; Goyal, Ramesh

    2007-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of adrenergic antagonists carvedilol and propranolol on L-thyroxin-induced cardiovascular and metabolic disturbances in rats. Treatment with L-thyroxin sodium (75 mg/kg body mass, s.c., every alternate day for 3 weeks), produced a significant increase in food and water intake, body temperature, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, along with an increase in serum T3, T4, and triglyceride levels. Besides a significant reduction in body mass, serum levels of TSH and cholesterol were also reduced following L-thyroxin treatment. Carvedilol (10 mg/kg body mass, orally) and propranolol (10 mg/kg body mass, i.p.) administered daily in the third week to 2 separate groups of L-thyroxin-treated animals reversed thyroxin-induced loss in body mass and rise in body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate. Propranolol treatment increased TSH levels and decreased T3 and T4 levels in hyperthyroid animals, whereas carvedilol did not produce any effect on thyroid hormones. Carvedilol treatment reversed thyroxin induced hypertriglyceridemia, whereas propranolol treatment had no effect. Both carvedilol and propranolol prevented decrease in cholesterol levels induced by thyroxine. Compared with normal animals, L-thyroxin-treated animals showed a state of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance, as inferred from elevated fasting serum glucose and insulin levels, higher area under the curve over 120 min for glucose, and decreased insulin sensitivity index (KITT). Propranolol and carvedilol treatment significantly decreased fasting serum glucose levels. Treatment with propranolol did not alter serum insulin levels, area-under-the-curve glucose, or KITT values. However, treatment with carvedilol significantly reduced area-under-the-curve glucose, decreased fasting serum insulin levels and significantly increased KITT values. In conclusion, carvedilol appears to produce

  1. Self-Efficacy, Planning, or a Combination of Both? A Longitudinal Experimental Study Comparing Effects of Three Interventions on Adolescents’ Body Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Hagger, Martin S.; Banik, Anna; Horodyska, Karolina; Knoll, Nina; Scholz, Urte

    2016-01-01

    Background The superiority of an intervention combining two sets of theory-based behavior change techniques targeting planning and self-efficacy over an intervention targeting planning only or self-efficacy only has rarely been investigated. Purpose We compared the influence of self-efficacy, planning, and self-efficacy+planning interventions with an education-based control condition on adolescents’ body fat, assuming mediating effects of respective social cognitive variables and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The moderating role of the built environment was examined. Methods Participants (N = 1217, aged 14–18 years) were randomly assigned to four conditions: planning (n = 270), self-efficacy (n = 311), self-efficacy+planning (n = 351), and control (n = 285). The measurement was conducted at baseline (T1), two-month follow-up (T2), and fourteen-month follow-up