WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveillance system definition

  1. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moynihan, P.I. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  2. Continuously rethinking the definition of influenza for surveillance systems: a Dependent Bayesian Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Farrokh; Atherton, Martin J; Pattie, David C; Torii, Manabu

    2013-08-01

    In the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE), influenza was originally defined by a list of 29 and later by a list of 12 diagnosis codes. This article describes a dependent Bayesian procedure designed to improve the ESSENCE system and exploit multiple sources of information without being biased by redundancy. We obtained 13,096 cases within the Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technological Application electronic medical records that included an influenza laboratory test. A Dependent Bayesian Expert System (D-BESt) was used to predict influenza from diagnoses, symptoms, reason for visit, temperature, month of visit, category of enrollment, and demographics. For each case, D-BESt sequentially selects the most discriminating piece of information, calculates its likelihood ratio conditioned on previously selected information, and updates the case's probability of influenza. When the analysis was limited to definitions based on diagnoses and was applied to a sample of patients for whom laboratory tests had been ordered, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) for the previous (29-diagnosis) and current (12-diagnosis) ESSENCE lists and the D-BESt algorithm were, respectively, 0.47, 0.36, and 0.77. Including other sources of information further improved the AUC for D-BESt to 0.79. At the best cutoff point for D-BESt, where the receiver operating characteristic curve for D-BESt is farthest from the diagonal line, the D-BESt algorithm correctly classified 84% of cases (specificity = 88%, sensitivity = 62%). In comparison, the current ESSENCE approach of using a list of 12 diagnoses correctly classified only 31% of this sample of cases (specificity = 29%, sensitivity = 42%). False alarms in ESSENCE surveillance systems can be reduced if a probabilistic dynamic learning system is used.

  3. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The development progress during the reporting period 1988 of the laser surveillance system of spent fuel pools is summarized. The present engineered system comes close to a final version for field application as all technical questions have been solved in 1988. 14 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  4. Laser surveillance system (LASSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1991-09-01

    Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) is a beam of laser light which scans a plane above the water or under-water in a spent-fuel pond. The system can detect different objects and estimates its coordinates and distance as well. LASSY can operate in stand-alone configuration or in combination with a video surveillance to trigger signal to a videorecorder. The recorded information on LASSY computer's disk comprises date, time, start and stop angle of detected alarm, the size of the disturbance indicated in number of deviated points and some other information. The information given by the laser system cannot be fully substituted by TV camera pictures since the scanning beam creates a horizontal surveillance plan. The engineered prototype laser system long-term field test has been carried out in Soluggia (Italy) and has shown its feasibility and reliability under the conditions of real spent fuel storage pond. The verification of the alarm table on the LASSY computer with the recorded video pictures of TV surveillance system confirmed that all alarm situations have been detected. 5 refs

  5. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei

    2001-01-01

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  6. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  7. Reliability demonstration of imaging surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.F.; Henderson, J.T.; MacDiarmid, P.R.

    1979-01-01

    Security surveillance systems which employ closed circuit television are being deployed with increasing frequency for the protection of property and other valuable assets. A need exists to demonstrate the reliability of such systems before their installation to assure that the deployed systems will operate when needed with only the scheduled amount of maintenance and support costs. An approach to the reliability demonstration of imaging surveillance systems which employ closed circuit television is described. Failure definitions based on industry television standards and imaging alarm assessment criteria for surveillance systems are discussed. Test methods which allow 24 hour a day operation without the need for numerous test scenarios, test personnel and elaborate test facilities are presented. Existing reliability demonstration standards are shown to apply which obviate the need for elaborate statistical tests. The demonstration methods employed are shown to have applications in other types of imaging surveillance systems besides closed circuit television

  8. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  9. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  10. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed for vari......This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed...... for various purposes, even as a service for those being observed, but in any case they will to some degree invade their privacy. The model provided here can indicate how invasive any particular system may be – and be used to compare the invasiveness of different systems. Applying a functional approach......, the model is established by first considering the social function of privacy in everyday life, which in turn lets us determine which different domains will be considered as private, and finally identify the different types of privacy invasion. This underlying model (function – domain – invasion) then serves...

  11. Neonatal Near Miss: the need for a standard definition and appropriate criteria and the rationale for a prospective surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Latin American, there is currently a regional action with the main purposes of putting the concept of severe neonatal morbidity in practice and formulating proposals for interventions. A general overview of neonatal health conditions, including morbidity and mortality, is provided to update regional knowledge on the topic. An example of the development and implementation of the concept of maternal near miss is also provided, followed by results from a systematic review covering all previously published studies on Neonatal Near Miss. Finally, some proposals for building a common concept on the topic and for launching a prospective surveillance study are presented. A Neonatal Near Miss is a neonate who had a severe morbidity (organ dysfunction or failure but who survived this condition within the first 27 days of life. The pragmatic criteria recommended to be used are as follows: birth weight below 1700 g, Apgar score below 7 at 5 minutes of life and gestational age below 33 weeks. As a proxy for organ dysfunction, the following management criteria are also confirmed: parenteral therapeutic antibiotics; nasal continuous positive airway pressure; any intubation during the first 27 days of life; phototherapy within the first 24 h of life; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; the use of vasoactive drugs, anticonvulsants, surfactants, blood products and steroids for refractory hypoglycemia and any surgical procedure. Although this study starts from a regional perspective, this topic is clearly globally relevant. All nations, especially low and middle-income countries, could benefit from the proposed standardization.

  12. Surveillance case definitions for work related upper limb pain syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, J. M.; Carter, J. T.; Birrell, L.; Gompertz, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish consensus case definitions for several common work related upper limb pain syndromes for use in surveillance or studies of the aetiology of these conditions. METHODS: A group of healthcare professionals from the disciplines interested in the prevention and management of upper limb disorders were recruited for a Delphi exercise. A questionnaire was used to establish case definitions from the participants, followed by a consensus conference involving the core grou...

  13. High Quality Camera Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Helaakoski, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Oulu University of Applied Sciences Information Technology Author: Ari Helaakoski Title of the master’s thesis: High Quality Camera Surveillance System Supervisor: Kari Jyrkkä Term and year of completion: Spring 2015 Number of pages: 31 This master’s thesis was commissioned by iProtoXi Oy and it was done to one iProtoXi customer. The aim of the thesis was to make a camera surveillance system which is using a High Quality camera with pan and tilt possibility. It should b...

  14. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  15. SCORPIO - VVER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalesky, K.; Svarny, J.; Novak, L.; Rosol, J.; Horanes, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Halden Project has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. So far the system has only been implemented on western PWRs but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactor including WWERs. The main differences between WWERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a WWER version of SCORPIO was initiated in cooperation with the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system will be installed at the Dukovany NPP. (author)

  16. Next generation surveillance system (NGSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Development of 'functional requirements' for transparency systems may offer a near-term mode of regional cooperation. New requirements under development at the IAEA may provide a foundation for this potential activity. The Next Generation Surveillance System (NGSS) will become the new IAEA remote monitoring system Under new requirements the NGSS would attempt to use more commercial components to reduce cost, increase radiation survivability and further increase reliability. The NGSS must be available in two years due to rapidly approaching obsolescence in the existing DCM family. (author)

  17. Reliability of case definitions for public health surveillance assessed by Round-Robin test methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Hermann

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case definitions have been recognized to be important elements of public health surveillance systems. They are to assure comparability and consistency of surveillance data and have crucial impact on the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of a surveillance system. The reliability of case definitions has rarely been investigated systematically. Methods We conducted a Round-Robin test by asking all 425 local health departments (LHD and the 16 state health departments (SHD in Germany to classify a selection of 68 case examples using case definitions. By multivariate analysis we investigated factors linked to classification agreement with a gold standard, which was defined by an expert panel. Results A total of 7870 classifications were done by 396 LHD (93% and all SHD. Reporting sensitivity was 90.0%, positive predictive value 76.6%. Polio case examples had the lowest reporting precision, salmonellosis case examples the highest (OR = 0.008; CI: 0.005–0.013. Case definitions with a check-list format of clinical criteria resulted in higher reporting precision than case definitions with a narrative description (OR = 3.08; CI: 2.47–3.83. Reporting precision was higher among SHD compared to LHD (OR = 1.52; CI: 1.14–2.02. Conclusion Our findings led to a systematic revision of the German case definitions and build the basis for general recommendations for the creation of case definitions. These include, among others, that testable yes/no criteria in a check-list format is likely to improve reliability, and that software used for data transmission should be designed in strict accordance with the case definitions. The findings of this study are largely applicable to case definitions in many other countries or international networks as they share the same structural and editorial characteristics of the case definitions evaluated in this study before their revision.

  18. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  19. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie-Claude Bourgeois

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective: To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design: Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national; all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results: Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon, Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic, United States (Alaska] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7 and commercial software (n=6. Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion: This review successfully establishes

  20. SCORPIO - VVER core surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornaes, A.; Bodal, T.; Sunde, S.

    1998-01-01

    The Institutt for energiteknikk has developed the core surveillance system SCORPIO, which has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators, which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behavior. This can first of all improve plant safety, as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. The system has been implemented on western PWRs, but the basic concept is applicable to a wide range of reactors including VVERs. The main differences between VVERs and typical western PWRs with respect to core surveillance requirements are outlined. The development of a VVER version of SCORPIO has been done in co-operation with the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, and industry partners in the Czech Republic. The first system is installed at Dukovany NPP, where the Site Acceptance Test was completed 6. March 1998.(author)

  1. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  2. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS. Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  3. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School, Whole Community, Whole Child Tools Health Education Curriculum Analysis Tool (HECAT) HECAT FAQs Health Education Teacher ... Button type="submit" value="Submit" /> Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance ...

  4. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  5. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  6. Remote container monitoring and surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Aquila Technologies Group is developing a monitoring and surveillance system to monitor containers of nuclear materials. The system will both visually and physically monitor the containers. The system is based on the combination of Aquila's Gemini All-Digital Surveillance System and on Aquila's AssetLAN trademark asset tracking technology. This paper discusses the Gemini Digital Surveillance system as well as AssetLAN technology. The Gemini architecture with emphasis on anti-tamper security features is also described. The importance of all-digital surveillance versus other surveillance methods is also discussed. AssetLAN trademark technology is described, emphasizing the ability to continually track containers (as assets) by location utilizing touch memory technology. Touch memory technology provides unique container identification, as well as the ability to store and retrieve digital information on the container. This information may relate to container maintenance, inspection schedules, and other information. Finally, this paper describes the combination of the Gemini system with AssetLAN technology, yielding a self contained, container monitoring and area/container surveillance system. Secure container fixture design considerations are discussed. Basic surveillance review functions are also discussed

  7. Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tools used to measure periodontal diseases and the integration of these tools into surveillance systems. Tools to measure periodontal diseases at the surveillance level have focussed on current manifestations of disease (e.g. gingival inflammation) or disease sequelae (e......-report measures, are currently under validation. In this paper, we do not review indices designed to measure plaque or residual accumulation around the tooth, indices focussed only on gingival inflammation or radiographic approaches with limited applicability in surveillance systems. Finally, we review current...

  8. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  9. Science and engineering intelligent surveillance systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huihuan, Qian; Xu, Yangsheng

    2011-01-01

    As shortcomings such as high labor costs make intelligent surveillance systems more desirable, this practical book focuses on detecting abnormal behavior based on learning and the analysis of dangerous crowd behavior based on texture and optical flow.

  10. Tower controller surveillance system parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-03-01

    A brief study of airport ground traffic control surveillance parameters has been conducted. The study addressed the following questions by means of a set of simple experiments: (1) Can vehicle ID be displayed in a suitable format; (2) What size displ...

  11. Optimal use of antibiotic resistance surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, I A; Karlowsky, J A

    2004-06-01

    Increasing concern about the emergence of resistance in clinically important pathogens has led to the establishment of a number of surveillance programmes to monitor the true extent of resistance at the local, regional and national levels. Although some programmes have been operating for several years, their true usefulness is only now being realised. This review describes some of the major surveillance initiatives and the way in which the data have been used in a number of different settings. In the hospital, surveillance data have been used to monitor local antibiograms and determine infection control strategies and antibiotic usage policies. In the community, surveillance data have been used to monitor public health threats, such as infectious disease outbreaks involving resistant pathogens and the effects of bioterrorism countermeasures, by following the effects of prophylactic use of different antibiotics on resistance. Initially, the pharmaceutical industry sponsored surveillance programmes to monitor the susceptibility of clinical isolates to marketed products. However, in the era of burgeoning resistance, many developers of antimicrobial agents find surveillance data useful for defining new drug discovery and development strategies, in that they assist with the identification of new medical needs, allow modelling of future resistance trends, and identify high-profile isolates for screening the activity of new agents. Many companies now conduct pre-launch surveillance of new products to benchmark activity so that changes in resistance can be monitored following clinical use. Surveillance data also represent an integral component of regulatory submissions for new agents and, together with clinical trial data, are used to determine breakpoints. It is clear that antibiotic resistance surveillance systems will continue to provide valuable data to health care providers, university researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and government and regulatory agencies.

  12. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures

  13. Intelligent video surveillance systems and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yunqian

    2009-01-01

    From the streets of London to subway stations in New York City, hundreds of thousands of surveillance cameras ubiquitously collect hundreds of thousands of videos, often running 24/7. How can such vast volumes of video data be stored, analyzed, indexed, and searched? How can advanced video analysis and systems autonomously recognize people and detect targeted activities real-time? Collating and presenting the latest information Intelligent Video Surveillance: Systems and Technology explores these issues, from fundamentals principle to algorithmic design and system implementation.An Integrated

  14. A comprehensive review on intelligent surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutrisno Warsono Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent surveillance system (ISS has received growing attention due to the increasing demand on security and safety. ISS is able to automatically analyze image, video, audio or other type of surveillance data without or with limited human intervention. The recent developments in sensor devices, computer vision, and machine learning have an important role in enabling such intelligent system. This paper aims to provide general overview of intelligent surveillance system and discuss some possible sensor modalities and their fusion scenarios such as visible camera (CCTV, infrared camera, thermal camera and radar. This paper also discusses main processing steps in ISS: background-foreground segmentation, object detection and classification, tracking, and behavioral analysis.

  15. Surveillance systems for nuclear materials in storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron Hawkins; Tom Williams; Lee ReFalo; Rod Martin

    1999-01-01

    The goal for the use of surveillance systems is the real time event detection and subsequent anomaly identification and investigation. The objective to be addressed by surveillance system include: timely and localized detection of changes in the status of nuclear materials (NM) whether from normal operations, unauthorized and unplanned incidents, or diversion of materials, or providing assurance that no changes have occurred; verifying that operations involving special NM were conducted in accordance with established procedures and assuring the quality of NM accounting and control data. There two general approaches to establishing a monitoring and surveillance system. In one case, containment of the materials is based on boundary and pathway control. The other approach is material and container oriented [ru

  16. Surveillance system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeracki, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated surveillance system for nuclear power plant application. The author explores an expanded role for closed circuit television, with remotely located cameras and infrared scanners as the basic elements. The video system, integrated with voice communication, can enhance the safe and efficient operation of the plant, by improving the operator's knowledge of plant conditions. 7 refs

  17. Multimodal surveillance sensors, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Zhigang

    2007-01-01

    From front-end sensors to systems and environmental issues, this practical resource guides you through the many facets of multimodal surveillance. The book examines thermal, vibration, video, and audio sensors in a broad context of civilian and military applications. This cutting-edge volume provides an in-depth treatment of data fusion algorithms that takes you to the core of multimodal surveillance, biometrics, and sentient computing. The book discusses such people and activity topics as tracking people and vehicles and identifying individuals by their speech.Systems designers benefit from d

  18. Advanced Integrated Multi-Sensor Surveillance (AIMS. Operator Machine Interface (OMI) Definition Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, Kevin; Youngson, Gord

    2007-01-01

    To enhance the capability of airborne search and rescue (SAR) and surveillance, particularly at night and in poor weather, a multi sensor electro optical imaging system, the Advanced Integrated Multi sensor Surveillance (AIMS...

  19. System specification for the integrated monitoring and surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This System Specification establishes the requirements for the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS). In this document, ''Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System'' is used to describe the concept of integrated sensors, computers, personnel, and systems that perform the functions of sensing conditions, acquiring data, monitoring environmental safety and health, controlling and accounting for materials, monitoring material stability, monitoring container integrity, transferring data, and analyzing, reporting, and storing data. This concept encompasses systems (e.g. sensors, personnel, databases, etc.) that are already in place at the sites but may require modifications or additions to meet all identified surveillance requirements. The purpose of this System Specification is to provide Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store plutonium materials with a consolidation of all known requirements for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides. This compilation may be used (1) as a baseline for surveillance system design specifications where 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides will be stored and monitored; (2) as a checklist for evaluating existing surveillance systems to ensure that all requirements are met for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides; and (3) as a baseline for preparing procurement specifications tailored for site specific storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides

  20. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  1. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rivers State has been reported to have the highest HIV prevalence of all the thirty-six states in Nigeria. HIV surveillance system generates information for timely and appropriate public health action. Evaluation of the surveillance system is vital in ensuring that the purpose of the surveillance system is being met.

  2. The Argentine remote monitoring and surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonino, A.; Roca, J.L.; Perez, A.; Pizarro, L.; Krimer, M.; Teira, R.; Higa, Z.; Saettone, S.; Monzon, J.; Moroni, D.

    1996-01-01

    The Scientific and Technical Support Department of the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN) has developed a Remote Monitoring and Surveillance System (RMSS) that provides a media to verify state of variables related to the monitoring and surveillance activities of nuclear facilities, mainly safeguard applications. RMSS includes a variety of on site installed sensors, an authenticated radiofrequency communication link, a receiver processing unit, an active vision set and a user friendly personal computer interface to collect, view and store pertinent histories of events. A real time data base allows consulting, maintenance, updating and checking activities. RMSS could be integrated into a LAN or WAN via modem for use in a remote operation scheme. In this paper a description of the RMSS is provided. Also, an overview of the RMSS operation at one facility under safeguards belonging to the National Commission of Atomic Energy (CNEA) is presented. Results and conclusions of the system associated with this facility are given. (author). 37 figs

  3. Surveillance versus clinical adjudication: differences persist with new ventilator-associated event definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Kathleen M; Boyer, Anthony F; Schoenberg, Noah; Babcock, Hilary M; Micek, Scott T; Kollef, Marin H

    2015-06-01

    The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) has recently supported efforts to shift surveillance away from ventilator-associated pneumonia to ventilator-associated events (VAEs) to decrease subjectivity in surveillance and minimize concerns over clinical correlation. The goals of this study were to compare the results of an automated surveillance strategy using the new VAE definition with a prospectively performed clinical application of the definition. All patients ventilated for ≥2 days in a medical and surgical intensive care unit were evaluated by 2 methods: retrospective surveillance using an automated algorithm combined with manual chart review after the NHSN's VAE methodology and prospective surveillance by pulmonary physicians in collaboration with the clinical team administering care to the patient at the bedside. Overall, a similar number of events were called by each method (69 vs 67). Of the 1,209 patients, 56 were determined to have VAEs by both methods (κ = .81, P = .04). There were 24 patients considered to be a VAE by only 1 of the methods. Most discrepancies were the result of clinical disagreement with the NHSN's VAE methodology. There was good agreement between the study teams. Awareness of the limitations of the surveillance definition for VAE can help infection prevention personnel in discussions with critical care partners about optimal use of these data. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating multimorbidity prevalence with the Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Feely

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Public Health Agency of Canada’s Canadian Chronic Disease Surveillance System (CCDSS uses a validated, standardized methodology to estimate prevalence of individual chronic diseases, such as diabetes. Expansion of the CCDSS for surveillance of multimorbidity, the co-occurrence of two or more chronic diseases, could better inform health promotion and disease prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of using the CCDSS to estimate multimorbidity prevalence. Methods: We used administrative health data from seven provinces and three territories and five validated chronic conditions (i.e. cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, mental illness, hypertension and diabetes to estimate multimorbidity prevalence. We produced age-standardized (using Canada’s 1991 population and age-specific estimates for two multimorbidity definitions: (1 two or more conditions, and (2 three or more conditions from the five validated conditions, by sex, fiscal year and geography. Results: Among Canadians aged 40 years and over in the fiscal year 2011/12, the prevalence of two or more and three or more chronic conditions was 26.5% and 10.2%, respectively, which is comparable to other estimates based on administrative health data. The increase in multimorbidity prevalence with increasing age was similar across provinces. The difference in prevalence for males and females varied by province and territory. We observed substantial variation in estimates over time. Results were consistent for the two definitions of multimorbidity. Conclusion: The CCDSS methodology can produce comparative estimates of multimorbidity prevalence across provinces and territories, but there are challenges in using it to estimate temporal trends. Further expansion of the CCDSS in the number and breadth of validated case definitions will improve the accuracy of multimorbidity surveillance for the Canadian population.

  5. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  6. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Al Qaseer, Bashir; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.

    1998-04-28

    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  8. Does the Reliability of Reporting in Injury Surveillance Studies Depend on Injury Definition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew; Williams, Sean; Kemp, Simon P.T.; Fuller, Colin; Taylor, Aileen; Brooks, John; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Background: Choosing an appropriate definition for injury in injury surveillance studies is essential to ensure a balance among reporting reliability, providing an accurate representation of injury risk, and describing the nature of the clinical demand. Purpose: To provide guidance on the choice of injury definition for injury surveillance studies by comparing within- and between-team variability in injury incidence with >24-hour and >7-day time-loss injury definitions in a large multiteam injury surveillance study. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Injury data were reported for 2248 professional rugby union players from 15 Premiership Rugby clubs over 12 seasons. Within-team percentage coefficient of variation and mean between-team standard deviation (expressed as a percentage coefficient of variation) in injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 player match hours) were calculated. For both variables, a comparison was made between >24-hour and >7-day injury incidence rates in terms of the magnitude of the observed effects. Results: The overall mean incidence across the population with a >24-hour time-loss injury definition was approximately double the reported incidence with the >7-day definition. There was a 10% higher between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with the >24-hour time-loss definition versus the >7-day definition. Conclusion: There was a likely higher degree of between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with a >24-hour time-loss definition than with a >7-day definition of injury. However, in professional sports settings, it is likely that the benefits of using a more inclusive definition of injury (improved understanding of clinical demand and the appropriate and accurate reporting of injury risk) outweigh the small increase in variation in reporting consistency. PMID:29581994

  9. Does the Reliability of Reporting in Injury Surveillance Studies Depend on Injury Definition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew; Williams, Sean; Kemp, Simon P T; Fuller, Colin; Taylor, Aileen; Brooks, John; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2018-03-01

    Choosing an appropriate definition for injury in injury surveillance studies is essential to ensure a balance among reporting reliability, providing an accurate representation of injury risk, and describing the nature of the clinical demand. To provide guidance on the choice of injury definition for injury surveillance studies by comparing within- and between-team variability in injury incidence with >24-hour and >7-day time-loss injury definitions in a large multiteam injury surveillance study. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Injury data were reported for 2248 professional rugby union players from 15 Premiership Rugby clubs over 12 seasons. Within-team percentage coefficient of variation and mean between-team standard deviation (expressed as a percentage coefficient of variation) in injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 player match hours) were calculated. For both variables, a comparison was made between >24-hour and >7-day injury incidence rates in terms of the magnitude of the observed effects. The overall mean incidence across the population with a >24-hour time-loss injury definition was approximately double the reported incidence with the >7-day definition. There was a 10% higher between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with the >24-hour time-loss definition versus the >7-day definition. There was a likely higher degree of between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with a >24-hour time-loss definition than with a >7-day definition of injury. However, in professional sports settings, it is likely that the benefits of using a more inclusive definition of injury (improved understanding of clinical demand and the appropriate and accurate reporting of injury risk) outweigh the small increase in variation in reporting consistency.

  10. Testing a symptom-based surveillance system at high-profile gatherings as a preparatory measure for bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, K; Takahashi, H; Ohyama, T

    2002-12-01

    We tested symptom-based surveillance during the G8 conference in 2000 as a means of detecting outbreaks, including bio-terrorism attacks, promptly. Five categories of symptoms (skin and haemorrhagic, respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological and unexplained) were adopted for the case definition of the surveillance. The surveillance began I week before the conference, and continued until 1 week after the conference ended. We could not detect any outbreaks during this surveillance. Compared to the existing diagnosis-based surveillance system, symptom-based surveillance has the advantages of timeliness and simplicity. However, poor specificity and difficulties in determining epidemic threshold were important limitations of this system. To increase the specificity of surveillance, it is essential to incorporate rapid laboratory diagnoses into the system.

  11. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Verbruggen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings.

  12. Evaluation of a radioactive aerosol surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Stafford, R.G.; Beckman, R.J.; Tillery, M.I.; Romero, P.O.

    Measurements of the dilution of air contaminants between worker breathing zone and area air samplers were made by releasing a test aerosol in a workroom equipped with an aerosol surveillance system. The data were used to evaluate performance, and suggest improvements in design of the workroom's alarming air monitor system. It was found that a breathing zone concentration of 960 times the maximum permissible concentration in air (MPC/sub a/) for a half-hour was required to trigger alarms of the existing monitoring system under some release conditions. Alternative air monitor placement, suggested from dilution measurements, would reduce this average triggering concentration to 354 MPC/sub a/. Deployment of additional air monitors could further reduce the average triggering concentration to 241 MPC/sub a/. The relation between number of monitors and triggering concentration was studied. No significant decrease in average triggering concentration was noted for arrays containing greater than five monitors

  13. Low-cost panoramic infrared surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskes, Ian; Engel, Ezra; Wolfe, Christopher M.; Thomson, George

    2017-05-01

    A nighttime surveillance concept consisting of a single surface omnidirectional mirror assembly and an uncooled Vanadium Oxide (VOx) longwave infrared (LWIR) camera has been developed. This configuration provides a continuous field of view spanning 360° in azimuth and more than 110° in elevation. Both the camera and the mirror are readily available, off-the-shelf, inexpensive products. The mirror assembly is marketed for use in the visible spectrum and requires only minor modifications to function in the LWIR spectrum. The compactness and portability of this optical package offers significant advantages over many existing infrared surveillance systems. The developed system was evaluated on its ability to detect moving, human-sized heat sources at ranges between 10 m and 70 m. Raw camera images captured by the system are converted from rectangular coordinates in the camera focal plane to polar coordinates and then unwrapped into the users azimuth and elevation system. Digital background subtraction and color mapping are applied to the images to increase the users ability to extract moving items from background clutter. A second optical system consisting of a commercially available 50 mm f/1.2 ATHERM lens and a second LWIR camera is used to examine the details of objects of interest identified using the panoramic imager. A description of the components of the proof of concept is given, followed by a presentation of raw images taken by the panoramic LWIR imager. A description of the method by which these images are analyzed is given, along with a presentation of these results side-by-side with the output of the 50 mm LWIR imager and a panoramic visible light imager. Finally, a discussion of the concept and its future development are given.

  14. Optimizing the response to surveillance alerts in automated surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Masoumeh; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-02-28

    Although much research effort has been directed toward refining algorithms for disease outbreak alerting, considerably less attention has been given to the response to alerts generated from statistical detection algorithms. Given the inherent inaccuracy in alerting, it is imperative to develop methods that help public health personnel identify optimal policies in response to alerts. This study evaluates the application of dynamic decision making models to the problem of responding to outbreak detection methods, using anthrax surveillance as an example. Adaptive optimization through approximate dynamic programming is used to generate a policy for decision making following outbreak detection. We investigate the degree to which the model can tolerate noise theoretically, in order to keep near optimal behavior. We also evaluate the policy from our model empirically and compare it with current approaches in routine public health practice for investigating alerts. Timeliness of outbreak confirmation and total costs associated with the decisions made are used as performance measures. Using our approach, on average, 80 per cent of outbreaks were confirmed prior to the fifth day of post-attack with considerably less cost compared to response strategies currently in use. Experimental results are also provided to illustrate the robustness of the adaptive optimization approach and to show the realization of the derived error bounds in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Ferrell, Regina K.; Kercel, Stephen W.; Abston, Ruth A.

    1995-01-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a traffic flow wide-area surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  16. Market-Based Approach to Mobile Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elmogy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The active surveillance of public and private sites is increasingly becoming a very important and critical issue. It is, therefore, imperative to develop mobile surveillance systems to protect these sites. Modern surveillance systems encompass spatially distributed mobile and static sensors in order to provide effective monitoring of persistent and transient objects and events in a given area of interest (AOI. The realization of the potential of mobile surveillance requires the solution of different challenging problems such as task allocation, mobile sensor deployment, multisensor management, cooperative object detection and tracking, decentralized data fusion, and interoperability and accessibility of system nodes. This paper proposes a market-based approach that can be used to handle different problems of mobile surveillance systems. Task allocation and cooperative target tracking are studied using the proposed approach as two challenging problems of mobile surveillance systems. These challenges are addressed individually and collectively.

  17. An Optimization Framework for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shi, Leyuan

    2007-01-01

    This project is to investigate and verify the feasibility for development of a methodological approach and corresponding tools for the management of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) systems...

  18. Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Automated Safety Incident Surveillance and Tracking System (ASISTS) is a repository of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee accident data. Many types of...

  19. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  20. Development of a Surveillance Definition for United States-Mexico Binational Cases of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Rachel S Yelk; Miner, Mark C; Miramontes, Roque

    Consistently collected binational surveillance data are important in advocating for resources to manage and treat binational cases of tuberculosis (TB). The objective of this study was to develop a surveillance definition for binational (United States-Mexico) cases of TB to assess the burden on US TB program resources. We collaborated with state and local TB program staff members in the United States to identify characteristics associated with binational cases of TB. We collected data on all cases of TB from 9 pilot sites in 5 states (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas) during January 1-June 30, 2014, that had at least 1 binational characteristic (eg, "crossed border while on TB treatment" and "received treatment in another country, coordinated by an established, US-funded, binational TB program"). A workgroup of US state, local, and federal partners reviewed results and used them to develop a practical surveillance definition. The pilot sites reported 87 cases of TB with at least 1 binational characteristic during the project period. The workgroup drafted a proposed surveillance definition to include 2 binational characteristics: "crossed border while on TB treatment" (34 of 87 cases, 39%) and "received treatment in another country, coordinated by an established, US-funded, binational TB program" (26 of 87 cases, 30%). Applying the new proposed definition, 39 of 87 pilot cases of TB (45%) met the definition of binational. Input from partners who were responsible for the care and treatment of patients who cross the United States-Mexico border was crucial in defining a binational case of TB.

  1. Mound Laboratory's Air Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carfagno, D. G.

    1974-12-31

    A comprehensive air surveillance system was developed. The system includes surveillance of the source, transport conditions, and concentration at the receptor sites. An unusual aspect of the system is the implementation of off-site sampling programs through local governmental agencies. Background levels of radioactivity are routinely determined.

  2. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Paediatric active enhanced disease surveillance: a new surveillance system for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurynski, Yvonne; McIntyre, Peter; Booy, Robert; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2013-07-01

    The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) is described. PAEDS is active in four tertiary children's hospitals in four states of Australia and aims to address gaps in surveillance for severe vaccine-preventable diseases and adverse events following immunisation. From August 2007 to December 2010, surveillance nurses actively identified and recruited children admitted with: acute flaccid paralysis, varicella infection, intussusception, seizures in infants and pandemic influenza (June-October 2009). Details of presentation, medical and immunisation history, outcome and laboratory results were collected. Completeness of ascertainment was estimated through audits of International Classification of Diseases 10th edition-coded medical records where possible. Seven hundred thirty-three cases matching case definition criteria for the four conditions were recruited. In addition, 601 cases of influenza were recruited during the 2009 pandemic. PAEDS enhanced acute flaccid paralysis surveillance by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit; the World Health Organization surveillance target was met when Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit and PAEDS cases were combined. Among 133 children hospitalised for varicella, only 16 were vaccinated; samples of vesicle scrapings were collected in 57% for genotyping. Of 122 infants presenting with seizures, only six (12%) had received a vaccine in the last 7 days. Intussusception was more frequent among infants receiving their first dose of either of the rotavirus vaccines. Results informed policy and education for parents and health professionals. Preliminary audits of medical records suggest excellent ascertainment through PAEDS. PAEDS provides important, previously unavailable data to inform public health policy, clinical practice and community confidence. It has potential to respond quickly during outbreaks and epidemics. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child

  4. Risk analysis of a video-surveillance system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.; Lefter, I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a surveillance system of cameras installed at lamppost of a military area. The surveillance system has been designed to detect unwanted visitors or suspicious behaviors. The area is composed of streets, building blocks and surrounded by gates and water. The video recordings are

  5. The omni-directional image assisted optical surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Hwang, Chi-Hung; Wang, Wei-Chung; Lin, Chun-Fu

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a high resolution optical surveillance system which integrated an omni-directional imager as an event finder/ system trigger. The omni-directional optics, a fish-eye camera in this study, provides a wider field of view (FOV) which can monitor widely range continuously without scanning mechanism but offers sufficient information which includes sign of field event and direction and then drive high resolution surveillance camera for detail imaging. To archive an optical triggering surveillance system, the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is implemented to detect features both from images taken by omni-directional imager and the high resolution surveillance camera. Considering the FOV of high resolution surveillance system is narrow, to ensure the pointing of high resolution surveillance system, feature matching is also implemented in this system to identify the images obtained by high resolution surveillance system are identical to the existing omni-directional image obtained from fish-eye camera. This provides a robust and accurate solution to the problem of optical radar surveillance system localization in unknown environments. An experiment is performed on outdoor image sequences with demonstrating the efficiency of our algorithm.

  6. Evaluation of the adverse drug reaction surveillance system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Medicines Control Authority of Zimbabwe monitors reactions to medicines through the Adverse Drugs Reactions Surveillance System. The system relies on health professionals to report adverse drug reactions to maximize patient safety. We report results of an evaluation of the Adverse Drugs Reactions Surveillance ...

  7. Evaluation of HIV Surveillance System in Rivers State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sony Computer (Iby)

    Private health facilities should be included in the HIV surveillance system to ensure better representativeness. Key words: HIV, surveillance, Rivers State. INTRODUCTION. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a chronic viral infection that attacks the immune system of the infected individual and rapidly progresses to ...

  8. Health protection in Brazil: the National Sanitary Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, Marismary Horsth De; Oliveira, Catia Veronica Dos Santos; Pepe, Vera Lúcia Edais

    2017-10-01

    This essay presents the singular arrangement named Health Surveillance in Brazil and the specificities of its components: public Health Surveillance, Worker's Surveillance, Environmental Surveillance, Sanitary Surveillance, as well as the constitutional determination to carry out the actions of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and Worker's Surveillance. The two national systems of protection and promote health are also presented - National Public Health Surveillance System and National Sanitary Surveillance System, with an emphasis on the regulatory issues in health made by the latter and some constraints to its action by the Legislative Branch. It reaffirms the Brazilian State's constitutional duty to protect health, and to provide the means for adequate functioning of the two systems, bearing in mind that defense of the public interest in health products and services means confronting oligopolies of transnational economic interests. This paper states the opinion that the financial constraints facing the Brazilian State from time to time cannot be allowed to prevail over the rights of citizenship, independently of the public underfunding of health in Brazil.

  9. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Matthew; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina Maria; Noonan, Gary; Ordunez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT). According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  10. Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) for unannounced safeguards inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdoz, Erwin G.; Pinkalla, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The joint project addresses specific requirements of redundant surveillance systems installed in two South American nuclear facilities as a tool to support unannounced inspections conducted by ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The surveillance covers the critical time (as much as a few hours) between the notification of an inspection and the access of inspectors to the location in facility where surveillance equipment is installed. ABACC and the IAEA currently use the EURATOM Multiple Optical Surveillance System (EMOSS). This outdated system is no longer available or supported by the manufacturer. The current EMOSS system has met the project objective; however, the lack of available replacement parts and system support has made this system unsustainable and has increased the risk of an inoperable system. A new system that utilizes current technology and is maintainable is required to replace the aging EMOSS system. ABACC intends to replace one of the existing ABACC EMOSS systems by the Secure Video Surveillance System. SVSS utilizes commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technologies for all individual components. Sandia National Laboratories supported the system design for SVSS to meet Safeguards requirements, i.e. tamper indication, data authentication, etc. The SVSS consists of two video surveillance cameras linked securely to a data collection unit. The collection unit is capable of retaining historical surveillance data for at least three hours with picture intervals as short as 1sec. Images in .jpg format are available to inspectors using various software review tools. SNL has delivered two SVSS systems for test and evaluation at the ABACC Safeguards Laboratory. An additional 'proto-type' system remains

  11. Mobile remote surveillance system for the CERN LHC cryogenic system

    CERN Document Server

    Torbjørn, Houge

    2006-01-01

    This thesis documents the research, planning and partial implementation of a remote surveillance system for use in the CERN LHC machine tunnel. The system is planned to provide surveillance of the cryogenic system in the LHC, eliminating the need for the personnel to go personally to look at a piece of possible faulty equipment. For this project, the complete system is planned. The system will be controlled via an Ethernet connection. This is fed into a 400V power line as a powerline communication signal, and picked up by the surveillance system. Then it is decoded into an Ethernet signal again, and sent to a camera with an on board web server. The power is transported by the same powered rail as used for communication, so that the system can take power and communication along the whole tunnel. The thesis describes the goals of the system and explains the requirements it needs to meet. Several solutions, especially technologies for communication, are considered, and details about them are described. A solutio...

  12. Surveillance Systems to Track and Evaluate Obesity Prevention Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Ranjit, Nalini; Pérez, Adriana

    2017-03-20

    To address the obesity epidemic, the public health community must develop surveillance systems that capture data at levels through which obesity prevention efforts are conducted. Current systems assess body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity behaviors at the individual level, but environmental and policy-related data are often lacking. The goal of this review is to describe US surveillance systems that evaluate obesity prevention efforts within the context of international trends in obesity monitoring, to identify potential data gaps, and to present recommendations to improve the evaluation of population-level initiatives. Our recommendations include adding environmental and policy measures to surveillance efforts with a focus on addressing underserved populations, harmonizing existing surveillance systems, including more sensitive measures of obesity outcomes, and developing a knowledgeable workforce. In addition, the widespread use of electronic health records and new technologies that allow self-quantification of behaviors offers opportunities for innovative surveillance methods.

  13. The South African national non-natural mortality surveillance system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. While individual mortuaries have recorded data for non-natural deaths in time-limited studies, there have been no systematic efforts to draw forensic-medical services and state mortuaries into a nationwide fatal injury surveillance system. Beginning in June 1998, the National Non-Natural Mortality Surveillance ...

  14. Mobile Phone–based Syndromic Surveillance System, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B.; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2013-01-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone–based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance. PMID:24188144

  15. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project

  16. Intelligent network video understanding modern video surveillance systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Offering ready access to the security industry's cutting-edge digital future, Intelligent Network Video provides the first complete reference for all those involved with developing, implementing, and maintaining the latest surveillance systems. Pioneering expert Fredrik Nilsson explains how IP-based video surveillance systems provide better image quality, and a more scalable and flexible system at lower cost. A complete and practical reference for all those in the field, this volume:Describes all components relevant to modern IP video surveillance systemsProvides in-depth information about ima

  17. Dynvect's overview of the Culicoides surveillance systems in the EU and distribution maps of key species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balenghien, T.; Bødker, Rene; Kiel, E.

    : defining "vector-free" periods and describing the diversity and dynamics of species. Except in Italy, all surveillance protocols evolved over the years, for example from covering specific regions to the entire country, and/or with an increasing number of traps. Surveillance systems vary between countries...... night trapping, except Belgium with 2 consecutive nights and Germany with 7 consecutive days), v) trap location within farm (inside or outside buildings or both according to the season), vi) the level to which species are identified (Group, Complex or species) and vii) the definition of the vector...

  18. Update of the case definitions for population-based surveillance of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Page, Roy C; Wei, Liang; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Genco, Robert J

    2012-12-01

    This report adds a new definition for mild periodontitis that allows for better descriptions of the overall prevalence of periodontitis in populations. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in partnership with the American Academy of Periodontology developed and reported standard case definitions for surveillance of moderate and severe periodontitis based on measurements of probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (AL) at interproximal sites. However, combined cases of moderate and severe periodontitis are insufficient to determine the total prevalence of periodontitis in populations. The authors proposed a definition for mild periodontitis as ≥ 2 interproximal sites with AL ≥ 3 mm and ≥ 2 interproximal sites with PD ≥ 4 mm (not on the same tooth) or one site with PD ≥ 5 mm . The effect of the proposed definition on the total burden of periodontitis was assessed in a convenience sample of 456 adults ≥ 35 years old and compared with other previously reported definitions for similar categories of periodontitis. Addition of mild periodontitis increases the total prevalence of periodontitis by ≈31% in this sample when compared with the prevalence of severe and moderate disease. Total periodontitis using the case definitions in this study should be based on the sum of mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis.

  19. Effect of dependency in systems for multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Systems for multivariate on-line surveillance (e.g. outbreak detection), are investigated. Optimal systems for statistical surveillance are based on likelihood ratios. Three systems are compared; based on each marginal density, based on the joint density and based on the Hotelling?s T2. The effect of dependency between the monitored processes is investigated, and the effect of correlation between the change times. When the first change occurs immediately, the three methods...

  20. Dual, use-based definition of "system"

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gonçalves, DP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The standard definition (ISO 15288, 2008) of the concept of a system is not complete and is the definition of a closed system. Such a definition is inadequate for systems engineering. A use-based definition is proposed which spans the open...

  1. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  2. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  3. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Rufiji HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrema, Sigilbert; Kante, Almamy M; Levira, Francis; Mono, Amaniel; Irema, Kahema; de Savigny, Don; Masanja, Honorati

    2015-04-01

    The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) was established in October 1998 to evaluate the impact on burden of disease of health system reforms based on locally generated data, prioritization, resource allocation and planning for essential health interventions. The Rufiji HDSS collects detailed information on health and survival and provides a framework for population-based health research of relevance to local and national health priorities.In December 2012 the population under surveillance was about 105,503 people, residing in 19,315 households. Monitoring of households and members within households is undertaken in regular 6-month cycles known as 'rounds'. Self reported information is collected on demographic, household, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics. Verbal autopsy is conducted using standardized questionnaires, to determine probable causes of death. In conjunction with core HDSS activities, the ongoing studies in Rufiji HDSS focus on maternal and new-born health, evaluation of safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) exposure in early pregnancy and the clinical safety of a fixed dose of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) in the community. Findings of studies conducted in Rufiji HDSS can be accessed at www.ihi.or.tz/IHI-Digital-Library. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  4. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  5. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Historical Questions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1984-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). BRFSS Survey Data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information...

  6. CPSC’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a national probability sample of hospitals in the U.S. and its territories. Patient information is...

  7. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  8. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): Middle School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  9. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adolescent's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). This data is used for...

  10. Integrated design of intelligent surveillance systems and their user interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.

    2005-01-01

    Modern complex surveillance systems consisting of multiple and heterogeneous sensors, automatic information registration and data analysis techniques, and decision support tools should provide the human operator an integrated, transparent and easily comprehensible view of the surveyed scene.

  11. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  12. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on adult's diet, physical activity, and weight status from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This data is used for DNPAO's Data,...

  13. Tamper Detection for Active Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodore, Tsesmelis; Christensen, Lars; Fihl, Preben

    2013-01-01

    If surveillance data are corrupted they are of no use to neither manually post-investigation nor automatic video analysis. It is therefore critical to automatically be able to detect tampering events such as defocusing, occlusion and displacement. In this work we for the first time ad- dress...

  14. Feasibility of using pedometers in a state-based surveillance system: 2014 Arizona Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Flórez-Pregonero

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The feasibility of using pedometers in a state-based surveillance system is modest at best. Feasibility may potentially be improved with easy-to-use pedometers where data can be electronically downloaded.

  15. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Molecular Surveillance System for Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

  17. Testosterone Therapy on Active Surveillance and Following Definitive Treatment for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, Vishnukamal; Kaplan, Alan L

    2017-07-01

    Previously considered an absolute contraindication, the use of testosterone therapy in men with prostate cancer has undergone an important paradigm shift. Recent data has changed the way we approach the treatment of testosterone deficiency in men with prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize and analyze the literature surrounding effects of testosterone therapy on patients being treated in an active surveillance protocol as well as following definitive treatment for prostate cancer. The conventional notion that defined the relationship between increasing testosterone and prostate cancer growth was based on limited studies and anecdotal case reports. Contemporary evidence suggests testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency does not increase prostate cancer risk or the chances of more aggressive disease at prostate cancer diagnosis. Although the studies are limited, men who received testosterone therapy for localized disease did not have higher rates of recurrences or worse clinical outcomes. Current review of the literature has not identified adverse progression events for patients receiving testosterone therapy while on active surveillance/watchful waiting or definitive therapies. The importance of negative effects of testosterone deficiency on health and health-related quality of life measures has pushed urologists to re-evaluate the role testosterone plays in prostate cancer. This led to a paradigm shift that testosterone therapy might in fact be a viable option for a select group of men with testosterone deficiency and a concurrent diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  18. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Lozier

    Full Text Available SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT. According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age < 60 years with CKD, without type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypertensive diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  19. Validating the 8 CPCSSN case definitions for chronic disease surveillance in a primary care database of electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tyler; Green, Michael E; Birtwhistle, Richard; Khan, Shahriar; Garies, Stephanie; Wong, Sabrina T; Natarajan, Nandini; Manca, Donna; Drummond, Neil

    2014-07-01

    The Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) is Canada's first national chronic disease surveillance system based on electronic health record (EHR) data. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate case definitions and case-finding algorithms used to identify 8 common chronic conditions in primary care: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), dementia, depression, diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis, parkinsonism, and epilepsy. Using a cross-sectional data validation study design, regional and local CPCSSN networks from British Columbia, Alberta (2), Ontario, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland participated in validating EHR case-finding algorithms. A random sample of EHR charts were reviewed, oversampling for patients older than 60 years and for those with epilepsy or parkinsonism. Charts were reviewed by trained research assistants and residents who were blinded to the algorithmic diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPVs, NPVs) were calculated. We obtained data from 1,920 charts from 4 different EHR systems (Wolf, Med Access, Nightingale, and PS Suite). For the total sample, sensitivity ranged from 78% (osteoarthritis) to more than 95% (diabetes, epilepsy, and parkinsonism); specificity was greater than 94% for all diseases; PPV ranged from 72% (dementia) to 93% (hypertension); NPV ranged from 86% (hypertension) to greater than 99% (diabetes, dementia, epilepsy, and parkinsonism). The CPCSSN diagnostic algorithms showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for hypertension, diabetes, epilepsy, and parkinsonism and acceptable values for the other conditions. CPCSSN data are appropriate for use in public health surveillance, primary care, and health services research, as well as to inform policy for these diseases. © 2014 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  20. Designing and evaluating risk-based surveillance systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Risk-based surveillance systems reveal occurrence of disease or infection in a sample of population units, which are selected on the basis of risk factors for the condition under study. The purpose of such systems for supporting practical animal disease policy formulations and management decisions...... are: A: to detect an emerging disease or infection, if it becomes introduced into a population; or B: to substantiate freedom from a condition in a population; or C: to detect cases and estimate the prevalence of an endemic condition in a population. In risk-based surveillance these aims should be met...... applicable risk estimate for use in designing and evaluating a risk-based surveillance system would be a crude (unadjusted) relative risk, odds ratio or apparent prevalence. Risk estimates found in the published literature, however, are often the results of multivariable analyses implicitly adjusting...

  1. On Mario Bunge's Definition of System and System Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    In this short paper we discuss Mario Bunge's definition of system boundary. It is quickly discovered that Bunge's definition of system and system boundary are both deficient. We thus propose new definitions, which (hopefully) improve the situation. Our definition of system boundary works off the same intuition behind Bunge's.

  2. Information systems to support surveillance for malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y; Gosling, Roly D

    2015-07-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-05-08

    Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of arboviral disease and unexplained pneumonia were analysed to gain a better understanding of the RAEW mode of operation. This study may be used to explore options for further strengthening of global collaboration and timely detection and surveillance of infectious disease outbreaks. A qualitative study design was used, combining data retrieved from the literature and from semi-structured interviews with Chinese (5 national-level and 6 provincial-level) and Dutch (5 national-level) experts. The results show that some differences exist such as in the use of automated electronic components of the early warning system in China ('CIDARS'), compared to a more limited automated component in the Netherlands ('barometer'). Moreover, RAEW units in the Netherlands focus exclusively on infectious diseases, while China has a broader 'all hazard' approach (including for example chemical incidents). In the Netherlands, veterinary specialists take part at the RAEW meetings, to enable a structured exchange/assessment of zoonotic signals. Despite these differences, the main conclusion is that for the two infections studied, the early warning system in China and the Netherlands are remarkably similar considering their large differences in infectious disease history, population size and geographical setting. Our main recommendations are continued emphasis on international corporation that requires insight into national infectious disease surveillance systems, the usage of a One Health approach in infectious disease surveillance, and further exploration/strengthening of a combined syndromic and laboratory surveillance system.

  4. Will smart surveillance systems listen, understand and speak Slovene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dobrišek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the spoken language technologies that could enable the so-called smart (intelligent surveillance systems to listen, understand and speak Slovenian in the near future. Advanced computational methods of artificial perception and pattern recognition enable such systems to be at least to some extent aware of the environment, the presence of people and other phenomena that could be subject to surveillance. Speech is one such phenomenon that has the potential to be a key source of information in certain security situations. Technologies that enable automatic speech and speaker recognition as well as their psychophysical state by computer analysis of acoustic speech signals provide an entirely new dimension to the development of smart surveillance systems. Automatic recognition of spoken threats, screaming and crying for help, as well as a suspicious psycho-physical state of a speaker provide such systems to some extent with intelligent behaviour. The paper investigates the current state of development of these technologies and the requirements and possibilities of these systems to be used for the Slovenian spoken language, as well as different possible security application scenarios. It also addresses the broader legal and ethical issues raised by the development and use of such technologies, especially as audio surveillance is one of the most sensitive issues of privacy protection.

  5. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  6. Design of natural user interface of indoor surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lili; Liu, Dan; Jiang, Mu-Jin; Cao, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Conventional optical video surveillance systems usually just record what they view, but they can't make sense of what they are viewing. With lots of useless video information stored and transmitted, waste of memory space and increasing the bandwidth are produced every day. In order to reduce the overall cost of the system, and improve the application value of the monitoring system, we use the Kinect sensor with CMOS infrared sensor, as a supplement to the traditional video surveillance system, to establish the natural user interface system for indoor surveillance. In this paper, the architecture of the natural user interface system, complex background monitoring object separation, user behavior analysis algorithms are discussed. By the analysis of the monitoring object, instead of the command language grammar, when the monitored object need instant help, the system with the natural user interface sends help information. We introduce the method of combining the new system and traditional monitoring system. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact, online, real time, higher precision and rapid speed to control the state of affairs at the scene.

  7. INVIS : Integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.; Son, R. van

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite

  8. Results of EMC market surveillance tests for UPS systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamaeki, J. [Safety Technology Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports the first wide electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) market surveillance project in Finland in which the uninterruptible power systems (UPS) on the Finnish market are monitored. Altogether 11 UPS units are EMC tested and the results of these tests are described in this paper. The effect of basic characters of UPS on the level of electromagnetic interference are analysed. (orig.) 3 refs.

  9. [Construction of the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System: arguments to debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seta, Marismary Horsth; Dain, Sulamis

    2010-11-01

    This paper analyzes the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System as an arrangement aimed at regulating and reducing health risks associated with consumption of products, use of health services and the environment. Historical, political and tax aspects were considered and their development compared with the National Health Surveillance System, which has received strong international cooperation. The comparison was based on the trajectory of their national systems and related federal agencies, as well as on criteria adopted for decentralization. The central category of analysis is federative coordination and was based on the framework of federalism and intergovernmental relations. The institutional context of health and sanitary surveillance presents strong political competition, instability in the project and probable reduction of the ability of federal coordination after the Pact for Health. The National Sanitary Surveillance System due to its nature of public good and high externality in its field of action requires federal coordination for increasing the regional and local cooperation, also because of the structural heterogeneity of Brazilian municipalities.

  10. Assessment of the core and support functions of the Integrated Disease Surveillance system in Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Monitoring the progress of the Integrated Disease Surveillance (IDS) strategy is an important component to ensure its sustainability in the state of Maharashtra in India. The purpose of the study was to document the baseline performance of the system on its core and support functions and to understand the challenges for its transition from an externally funded “project” to a state owned surveillance “program”. Methods Multi-centre, retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study to assess the structure, core and support surveillance functions using modified WHO generic questionnaires. All 34 districts in the state and randomly identified 46 facilities and 25 labs were included in the study. Results Case definitions were rarely used at the periphery. Limited laboratory capacity at all levels compromised case and outbreak confirmation. Only 53% districts could confirm all priority diseases. Stool sample processing was the weakest at the periphery. Availability of transport media, trained staff, and rapid diagnostic tests were main challenges at the periphery. Data analysis was weak at both district and facility levels. Outbreak thresholds were better understood at facility level (59%) than at the district (18%). None of the outbreak indicator targets were met and submission of final outbreak report was the weakest. Feedback and training was significantly better (p challenges exist. Support functions (laboratory, transport and communication equipment, training, supervision, human and other resources) are particularly weak at the district level. Structural integration and establishing permanent state and district surveillance officer positions will ensure leadership; improve performance; support continuity; and offer sustainability to the program. Institutionalizing the integrated disease surveillance strategy through skills based personnel development and infrastructure strengthening at district levels is the only way to avoid it from ending up

  11. Inexpensive remote video surveillance system with microcomputer and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara Betancourt, Edder

    2013-01-01

    A low-cost prototype is developed with a RPI plate for remote video surveillance. Additionally, the theoretical basis to provide energy independence have developed through solar cells and a battery bank. Some existing commercial monitoring systems are studied and analyzed, components such as: cameras, communication devices (WiFi and 3G), free software packages for video surveillance, control mechanisms and theory remote photovoltaic systems. A number of steps are developed to implement the module and install, configure and test each of the elements of hardware and software that make up the module, exploring the feasibility of providing intelligence to the system using the software chosen. Events that have been generated by motion detection have been simple, intuitive way to view, archive and extract. The implementation of the module by a microcomputer video surveillance and motion detection software (Zoneminder) has been an option for a lot of potential; as the platform for monitoring and recording data has provided all the tools to make a robust and secure surveillance. (author) [es

  12. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  13. Design and Implementation of an Embedded Smart Intruder Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Naseer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote and scattered valuable and sensitive locations such as labs and offices inside university campus need efficient monitoring and warning system. As well as scattered area and belonging. This research presents a Real-Time intruder Surveillance System based on a single board computer (SBC. Thus the design and development of a cost effective surveillance management system based SBC that can be deployed efficiently in remote and scattered locations such as universities belonging. The fusion of embedded Python codes with SBC that attached to cameras, Long distance sensors, alerting circuitry and wireless module presents a novel integration based effective cost solution and enhances SBC of much flexibility of improvement and development for pervasive remote locations. The system proves the high integrity of smooth working with web application, it’s cost effective and thus can be deployed as many of units to seize and concisely covered remote and scattered area as well as university belonging and departments. The system can be administrated by a remote user sparsely or geographically away from any networked workstation. The proposed solution offers efficient stand alone, flexibility to upgrade and cheap development and installation as well as cost effective ubiquitous surveillance solution. In conclusion, the system acceptable boundaries of successful intruder recognition and warning alert are computed between 1m and 3m distance of intruder from system camera. Recognition rate of 95% and 83% are achieved and the successful warning alert were in the range of 86-97%.

  14. Automated surveillance system for hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condell, Orla; Gubbels, Sophie; Nielsen, J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA) is an automated surveillance system using hospital administrative, microbiological, and antibiotic medication data. AIM: To define and evaluate the case definition for hospital-acquired urinary tract infection (HA...... HAIBA and PPS, including laboratory results being unavailable at the time of the survey, the results considered clinically irrelevant by the surveyor due to an indwelling urinary catheter or lack of clinical signs of infection, and UTIs being considered HA-UTI in PPS even though the first sample...

  15. Redefining syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Katz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field’s capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries.

  16. Imaging sensor systems for air to ground surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bruce A.; Penn, Joseph A.

    2006-05-01

    Automated aerial surveillance and detection of hostile ground events, and the tracking of the perpetrators have become of critical importance in the prevention and control of insurgent uprisings and the global war on terror. Yet a basic understanding of the limitations of sensor system coverage as a function of aerial platform position and attitude is often unavailable to program managers and system administrators. In an effort to better understand this problem we present some of the design tradeoffs for two applications: 1) a 360° viewing focal-plane array sensor system modeled for low altitude aerostat applications, and 2) a fixed diameter area of constant surveillance modeled for high altitude fixed wing aircraft applications. Ground coverage requirement tradeoffs include the number of sensors, sensor footprint geometry, footprint coverage variability as a function of platform position and attitude, and ground surface modeling. Event location specification includes latitude, longitude, altitude for the pixel centroid and corners, and line-of-sight centroid range.

  17. An intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahboub, Khalid; Gadgil, Neeraj; Ribera, Javier; Delgado, Blanca; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value for public safety. With an exponential increase in the number of cameras, videos obtained from surveillance systems are often archived for forensic purposes. Many automatic methods have been proposed to do video analytics such as anomaly detection and human activity recognition. However, such methods face significant challenges due to object occlusions, shadows and scene illumination changes. In recent years, crowdsourcing has become an effective tool that utilizes human intelligence to perform tasks that are challenging for machines. In this paper, we present an intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video that includes the video recorded as a part of search and rescue missions and large-scale investigation tasks. We describe a method to enhance crowdsourcing by incorporating human detection, re-identification and tracking. At the core of our system, we use a hierarchal pyramid model to distinguish the crowd members based on their ability, experience and performance record. Our proposed system operates in an autonomous fashion and produces a final output of the crowdsourcing analysis consisting of a set of video segments detailing the events of interest as one storyline.

  18. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  19. A Novel Surveillance System Applied in Civil Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hua Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional security monitoring of civil airport usually uses a fixed camera to acquire images. There are several problems with performance including difficulties introduced in the information transmission, storage, and analysis of the process. Insect compound eyes offer unique advantages for moving target capture and these have attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. This paper contributes to this research by proposing a new surveillance system applied in civil airport. We discuss the finished bionic structure of the system, the development of the bionic control circuit, and introduce the proposed mathematical model of bionic compound eyes for data acquisition and image mosaic. Image matching for large view is also illustrated with different conditions. This mode and algorithm effectively achieve safety surveillance of airport with large field of view and high real-time processing.

  20. Present status of metrology of electro-optical surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a significant progress in equipment for testing electro-optical surveillance systems over the last decade. Modern test systems are increasingly computerized, employ advanced image processing and offer software support in measurement process. However, one great challenge, in form of relative low accuracy, still remains not solved. It is quite common that different test stations, when testing the same device, produce different results. It can even happen that two testing teams, while working on the same test station, with the same tested device, produce different results. Rapid growth of electro-optical technology, poor standardization, limited metrology infrastructure, subjective nature of some measurements, fundamental limitations from laws of physics, tendering rules and advances in artificial intelligence are major factors responsible for such situation. Regardless, next decade should bring significant improvements, since improvement in measurement accuracy is needed to sustain fast growth of electro-optical surveillance technology.

  1. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kira; Esposito, Douglas H; Han, Pauline; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Freedman, David O; Plier, D Adam; Sotir, Mark J

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the number of international tourist arrivals worldwide was projected to reach a new high of 1 billion arrivals, a 48% increase from 674 million arrivals in 2000. International travel also is increasing among U.S. residents. In 2009, U.S. residents made approximately 61 million trips outside the country, a 5% increase from 1999. Travel-related morbidity can occur during or after travel. Worldwide, 8% of travelers from industrialized to developing countries report becoming ill enough to seek health care during or after travel. Travelers have contributed to the global spread of infectious diseases, including novel and emerging pathogens. Therefore, surveillance of travel-related morbidity is an essential component of global public health surveillance and will be of greater importance as international travel increases worldwide. September 1997-December 2011. GeoSentinel is a clinic-based global surveillance system that tracks infectious diseases and other adverse health outcomes in returned travelers, foreign visitors, and immigrants. GeoSentinel comprises 54 travel/tropical medicine clinics worldwide that electronically submit demographic, travel, and clinical diagnosis data for all patients evaluated for an illness or other health condition that is presumed to be related to international travel. Clinical information is collected by physicians with expertise or experience in travel/tropical medicine. Data collected at all sites are entered electronically into a database, which is housed at and maintained by CDC. The GeoSentinel network membership program comprises 235 additional clinics in 40 countries on six continents. Although these network members do not report surveillance data systematically, they can report unusual or concerning diagnoses in travelers and might be asked to perform enhanced surveillance in response to specific health events or concerns. During September 1997-December 2011, data were collected on 141,789 patients with confirmed or

  2. Food and water radioactivity surveillance system in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucu, A.; Gheorghe, R.; May, C.; Barbu, R.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Justification: Food and water radioactivity content are closely related both to natural radioactivity and also generated by contamination due to anthropic nuclear activities. Consequently, in accordance with the European Union acquis and World Health Organization recommendation, surveillance systems were operationalized in many European countries. According to the national Romanian derived legislation the public health authorities are responsible for organizing and coordination of the national surveillance system for water and food radioactivity and their health related effects. Objectives: Description of the levels and type of radioactivity of drinking water and main foodstuffs and their contribution to the Romanian population exposure in order to elaborate appropriate public health interventions. Method: The gross parameters, alpha and beta, have been used for screening surveillance of drinking water sources indeed for potable purposes in order to identify those that could exceed the total indicative dose of 0.1 mSv/year. The food surveillance was focused on the main foodstuffs including milk, meat, fish, eggs, bread, potatoes, root vegetables (mainly carrots), leafy vegetables (mainly cabbage), fruits, and canteen menu, controlled for presence and level of radioactivity for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 210 Po and 40 K. Nuclear facility related monitoring for areas as nuclear power plant Cernavoda (type HWR-CANDU) and for regions with activities of extraction and fabrication of uranium fuel includes monitoring of radioactivity for: environmental deposit levels, surface waters, spontaneous vegetation, drinking water and foodstuffs. Results: 1) The water radioactivity surveillance results, mapped by administrative borders of the national territory, reveal that parameters of drinking water complies both with Drinking Water Directive 98/83 EC and WHO recommandation/2004; 2) For food stuff radioactivity: a) Mean registered values fully comply with reference for

  3. Evaluation of the New World Health Organization Case Definition of Severe Acute Respiratory Infection for Influenza Surveillance During the Peak Weeks of Two Influenza Seasons in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, R; Gilca, R; Douville-Fradet, M; Boulianne, N; De Serres, G

    2017-09-01

    During the peak of the 2012-2013 and 2014-2015 influenza seasons in Quebec, Canada, the sensitivity of the new World Health Organization (WHO) case definition of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in definition for influenza surveillance in children should be interpreted with caution according to the specific surveillance goals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor

  5. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, K.C.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil area of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor. 2 figs.

  6. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  7. Practical experience with a local verification system for containment and surveillance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauppe, W.D.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.

    1984-01-01

    With the growing number of nuclear facilities and a number of large commercial bulk handling facilities steadily coming into operation the International Atomic Energy Agency is faced with increasing requirements as to reducing its inspection efforts. One means of meeting these requirements will be to deploy facility based remote interrogation methods for its containment and surveillance instrumentation. Such a technical concept of remote interrogation was realized through the so-called LOVER system development, a local verification system for electronic safeguards seal systems. In the present investigations the application was extended to radiation monitoring by introducing an electronic interface between the electronic safeguards seal and the neutron detector electronics of a waste monitoring system. The paper discusses the safeguards motivation and background, the experimental setup of the safeguards system and the performance characteristics of this LOVER system. First conclusions can be drawn from the performance results with respect to the applicability in international safeguards. This comprises in particular the definition of design specifications for an integrated remote interrogation system for various types of containment and surveillance instruments and the specifications of safeguards applications employing such a system

  8. A Behavior Based Control System for Surveillance UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekan, John; Lu, Bowen; Li, Bo; Gu, Dongbing; Hu, Huosheng

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is required to carry out duties such as surveillance, reconnaissance, search and rescue and security patrol missions. Autonomous operation of UAVs is a key to the success of these missions. In this chapter, we propose to use a behavior based control architecture to implement autonomous operation for UAV surveillance missions. This control architecture consists of two layers: a low level control layer and a behavior layer. The low level control layer decomposes 3D motion of UAVs into several atomic actions, such as yaw, roll, pitch, altitude, and 2D position control. These atomic actions together serve as a basis for the behavior layer. The behavior layer consists of a number of necessary behaviors used for surveillance missions, including take-off, object tracking, hovering, landing, trajectory following, obstacle avoidance amongst other behaviors. These behaviors can be instantiated individually or collectively to fulfill the required missions issued by human operators. To evaluate the proposed control architecture, the commercially available DraganFlyer QuadRotor was used as the UAV platform. With the aid of an indoor positioning system, several atomic actions and a group of behaviors were developed for the DraganFlyer. Real testing experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system.

  9. Sustainable Monitoring and Surveillance Systems to Improve HIV Programs: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-Beer, Daniel; Mahy, Mary; Renaud, Francoise; Calleja, Txema

    2018-04-24

    HIV programs have provided a major impetus for investments in surveillance data, with 5-10% of HIV program budgets recommended to support data. However there are questions concerning the sustainability of these investments. The Sustainable Development Goals have consolidated health into one goal and communicable diseases into one target (Target 3.3). Sustainable Development Goals now introduce targets focused specifically on data (Targets 17.18 and 17.19). Data are seen as one of the three systemic issues (in Goal 17) for implementing Sustainable Development Goals, alongside policies and partnerships. This paper reviews the surveillance priorities in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and highlights the shift from periodic measurement towards sustainable disaggregated, real-time, case, and patient data, which are used routinely to improve programs. Finally, the key directions in developing person-centered monitoring systems are assessed with country examples. The directions contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal focus on people-centered development applied to data. ©Daniel Low-Beer, Mary Mahy, Francoise Renaud, Txema Calleja. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 24.04.2018.

  10. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMakin, D.L.; Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; Smith, R.R.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 {times} 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electonically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  11. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMakin, D. L.; Sheen, D. M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, T. E.; Smith, R. R.; Droppo, J. G., Jr.

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. Metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 (times) 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  12. Autonomous mobile robotic system for supporting counterterrorist and surveillance operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marek; Bulandra, Kazimierz; Moczulski, Wojciech

    2017-10-01

    Contemporary research on mobile robots concerns applications to counterterrorist and surveillance operations. The goal is to develop systems that are capable of supporting the police and special forces by carrying out such operations. The paper deals with a dedicated robotic system for surveillance of large objects such as airports, factories, military bases, and many others. The goal is to trace unauthorised persons who try to enter to the guarded area, document the intrusion and report it to the surveillance centre, and then warn the intruder by sound messages and eventually subdue him/her by stunning through acoustic effect of great power. The system consists of several parts. An armoured four-wheeled robot assures required mobility of the system. The robot is equipped with a set of sensors including 3D mapping system, IR and video cameras, and microphones. It communicates with the central control station (CCS) by means of a wideband wireless encrypted system. A control system of the robot can operate autonomously, and under remote control. In the autonomous mode the robot follows the path planned by the CCS. Once an intruder has been detected, the robot can adopt its plan to allow tracking him/her. Furthermore, special procedures of treatment of the intruder are applied including warning about the breach of the border of the protected area, and incapacitation of an appropriately selected very loud sound until a patrol of guards arrives. Once getting stuck the robot can contact the operator who can remotely solve the problem the robot is faced with.

  13. Development of Compact Surveillance and Monitoring System 'COSMOS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hironobu; Mukaiyama, Takehiko

    1999-03-01

    The Compact Surveillance and Monitoring System (COSMOS) was developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as a safeguards surveillance system under the JASPAS (Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards) with the collaboration of the Sony Corporation. It was intended as a direct replacement to the Twin Minolta film camera system. The COSMOS system can operate with a self-contained battery, record 30,000 scenes with an 8 mm video cassette tape and operate continuously for three months without human intervention. It can also operate by AC power supply for more than three months, and record 45,000 scenes in an 8 mm video cassette tape. The COSMOS system consists of two units, one is the Recording Unit and the other is the Setup/Review Unit. The Recording Unit consists of a main frame, four modules and a tamperproof housing. The four modules are a small CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera with an auto-iris lens and a specific VTR (Video Tape Recorder), a video frame memory module, a system control module, and a DC or an AC power module. Currently, the COSMOS is the only safeguards video surveillance system without the need of external power supply for three months. In 1992 thirteen COSMOS units were successfully tested for the reliability by both the IAEA and the JAERI. None of mechanical failure was observed. On the one hand, the battery operation tests using four units were successfully carried out with 5 minutes time interval for three months. Three units were also tested in the field and no failure was observed. The COSMOS was accepted as the routine-use device for international safeguards by the IAEA in August 1993. The total of 90 units were purchased by the IAEA from the manufacturer, SONY, and also several units were purchased by the Science and Technology Agency (STA) of Japan for the STA/IAEA joint-use in Japan. (author)

  14. Interrater reliability of the injury reporting of the injury surveillance system used in international athletics championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Junge, Astrid; Kiss-Polauf, Marianna; Ramirez, Christophe; Sousa, Monica; Timpka, Toomas; Branco, Pedro

    2018-03-01

    The quality of epidemiological injury data depends on the reliability of reporting to an injury surveillance system. Ascertaining whether all physicians/physiotherapists report the same information for the same injury case is of major interest to determine data validity. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the data collection reliability through the analysis of the interrater reliability. Cross-sectional survey. During the 2016 European Athletics Advanced Athletics Medicine Course in Amsterdam, all national medical teams were asked to complete seven virtual case reports on a standardised injury report form using the same definitions and classifications of injuries as the international athletics championships injury surveillance protocol. The completeness of data and the Fleiss' kappa coefficients for the inter-rater reliability were calculated for: sex, age, event, circumstance, location, type, assumed cause and estimated time-loss. Forty-one team physicians and physiotherapists of national medical teams participated in the study (response rate 89.1%). Data completeness was 96.9%. The Fleiss' kappa coefficients were: almost perfect for sex (k=1), injury location (k=0.991), event (k=0.953), circumstance (k=0.942), and age (k=0.870), moderate for type (k=0.507), fair for assumed cause (k=0.394), and poor for estimated time-loss (k=0.155). The injury surveillance system used during international athletics championships provided reliable data for "sex", "location", "event", "circumstance", and "age". More caution should be taken for "assumed cause" and "type", and even more for "estimated time-loss". This injury surveillance system displays satisfactory data quality (reliable data and high data completeness), and thus, can be recommended as tool to collect epidemiology information on injuries during international athletics championships. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolution of an integrated public health surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Derek A; Ford, Nancy; Tlusty, Susan; Bodurtha, Joann N

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing recognition in maternal and child health of the importance of social, behavioral, biological, and genetic factors across the entire life course. Unfortunately, most state maternal and child health surveillance systems are not designed to readily address longitudinal research questions or track and follow children across multiple programs over time. The Virginia Department of Health (VDH) recently integrated its birth defects registry, newborn hearing screening tracking and management system, and electronic birth certificate (EBC) into a robust, Web-based surveillance system called the Virginia Vital Events and Screening Tracking System (VVESTS). Completely redesigning the existing birth defects and newborn hearing screening system (the Virginia Infant Screening and Infant Tracking System--VISITS I) with minimal disruption of ongoing reporting presented a number of challenges. Because VVESTS had different requirements such as required fields and data validations, extensive data preparation was required to ensure that existing VISITS I data would be included in the new system (VISITS II). Efforts included record deduplication, conversion of free text fields into discrete variables, dealing with missing/invalid data, and linkage with birth certificate data. VISITS II serves multiple program needs; improves data quality and security; automates linkages within families, across programs, and over time; and improves the ability of VDH to provide children with birth defects and their families necessary follow-up services and enhanced care coordination.

  16. Wide area surveillance real-time motion detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book describes a system for visual surveillance using intelligent cameras. The camera uses robust techniques for detecting and tracking moving objects. The real time capture of the objects is then stored int he database. The tracking data stored in the database is analysed to study the camera view, detect and track objects, and study object behavior. These set of models provide a robust framework for coordinating the tracking of objects between overlapping and non-overlapping cameras, and recording the activity of objects detected by the system.

  17. Sunglass detection method for automation of video surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikandar, Tasriva; Samsudin, Wan Nur Azhani W.; Hawari Ghazali, Kamarul; Mohd, Izzeldin I.; Fazle Rabbi, Mohammad

    2018-04-01

    Wearing sunglass to hide face from surveillance camera is a common activity in criminal incidences. Therefore, sunglass detection from surveillance video has become a demanding issue in automation of security systems. In this paper we propose an image processing method to detect sunglass from surveillance images. Specifically, a unique feature using facial height and width has been employed to identify the covered region of the face. The presence of covered area by sunglass is evaluated using facial height-width ratio. Threshold value of covered area percentage is used to classify the glass wearing face. Two different types of glasses have been considered i.e. eye glass and sunglass. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed method is able to detect sunglasses in two different illumination conditions such as, room illumination as well as in the presence of sunlight. In addition, due to the multi-level checking in facial region, this method has 100% accuracy of detecting sunglass. However, in an exceptional case where fabric surrounding the face has similar color as skin, the correct detection rate was found 93.33% for eye glass.

  18. Was the French clinical surveillance system of bovine brucellosis influenced by the occurrence and surveillance of other abortive diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Age- and influenza activity-stratified case definitions of influenza-like illness: experience from hospital-based influenza surveillance in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Un Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify clinical case definitions of influenza with higher accuracy in patients stratified by age group and influenza activity using hospital-based surveillance system. METHODS: In seven tertiary hospitals across South Korea during 2011-2012 influenza season, respiratory specimens were obtained from patients presenting an influenza-like illness (ILI, defined as having fever plus at least one of following symptoms: cough, sore throat or rhinorrhea. Influenza was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify clinical variables with better relation with laboratory-confirmed influenza, and compared the accuracy of combinations. RESULTS: Over the study period, we enrolled 1417 patients, of which 647 had laboratory-confirmed influenza. Patients with cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat or headache were more likely to have influenza (p<0.05. The most accurate criterion across the study population was the combination of cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat and headache (sensitivity 71.3%, specificity 60.1% and AUROC 0.66. The combination of rhinorrhea, sore throat and sputum during the peak influenza activity period in the young age group showed higher accuracy than that using the whole population (sensitivity 89.3%, specificity 72.1%, and AUROC 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of clinical case definitions of influenza differed across age groups and influenza activity periods. Categorizing the entire population into subgroups would improve the detection of influenza patients in the hospital-based surveillance system.

  20. Improvements for optical surveillance systems in international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Neumann, G.; Gaertner, K.J.; Whichello, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    Within the next few years, a transition from film camera systems to video surveillance systems will take place in international safeguards. In order to maintain the indispensable requirements of reliability and authentication, development and tests continued under the Federal Republic of Germany Support Programme of video components for IAEA safeguards applications. The prototype of a tamper resistant TV-link was developed under Task D.12/4/. A field test of the TV-link is in preparation using a production model suitable for multiplexed TV applications. The test will utilize an Agency owned, multiplexed TV system. An evaluation of the tamper resistant TV-link is given. After a successful field trial of the prototype Solid State Video Memory (SSVM-516) under task D.14 a production model has been developed under Task D.17. Several operating modes are envisaged, depending on whether it will be used in an on-site video surveillance system or in a video review station. The concept and technical features, including an explanation of the function of the video memory, are discussed

  1. The Health and Occupation Research Network: An Evolving Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Carder

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vital to the prevention of work-related ill-health (WRIH is the availability of good quality data regarding WRIH burden and risks. Physician-based surveillance systems such as The Health and Occupation Research (THOR network in the UK are often established in response to limitations of statutory, compensation-based systems for addressing certain epidemiological aspects of disease surveillance. However, to fulfil their purpose, THOR and others need to have methodologic rigor in capturing and ascertaining cases. This article describes how data collected by THOR and analogous systems can inform WRIH incidence, trends, and other determinants. An overview of the different strands of THOR research is provided, including methodologic advancements facilitated by increased data quantity/quality over time and the value of the research outputs for informing Government and other policy makers. In doing so, the utility of data collected by systems such as THOR to address a wide range of research questions, both in relation to WRIH and to wider issues of public and social health, is demonstrated.

  2. The Health and Occupation Research Network: An Evolving Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Melanie; Hussey, Louise; Money, Annemarie; Gittins, Matthew; McNamee, Roseanne; Stocks, Susan Jill; Sen, Dil; Agius, Raymond M

    2017-09-01

    Vital to the prevention of work-related ill-health (WRIH) is the availability of good quality data regarding WRIH burden and risks. Physician-based surveillance systems such as The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK are often established in response to limitations of statutory, compensation-based systems for addressing certain epidemiological aspects of disease surveillance. However, to fulfil their purpose, THOR and others need to have methodologic rigor in capturing and ascertaining cases. This article describes how data collected by THOR and analogous systems can inform WRIH incidence, trends, and other determinants. An overview of the different strands of THOR research is provided, including methodologic advancements facilitated by increased data quantity/quality over time and the value of the research outputs for informing Government and other policy makers. In doing so, the utility of data collected by systems such as THOR to address a wide range of research questions, both in relation to WRIH and to wider issues of public and social health, is demonstrated.

  3. SCHISTOSOMIASIS: GEOSPATIAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE SYSTEMS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  4. Schistosomiasis: Geospatial Surveillance and Response Systems in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John; Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura; Xiao-nong, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  5. Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System demonstration project. Phase 2 accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Singleterry, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase 2 efforts. the rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include further development of the data acquisition system and procurement of necessary hardware/software, options and associated costs for plutonium canning systems and gloveboxes, initiation of facility modifications, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, results from sensor system trade study, and preliminary storage configuration designs. Resources invested during Phase 1 and Phase 2 are summarized and budgetary requirements for completion of Phase 3 presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase 2 deliverables

  6. Canadian CANDU plant data systems for technical surveillance and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverno, M.; Pothier, H.; Xian, C.; Grosbois, J. De; Bosnich, M.

    1996-01-01

    Plant data systems are emerging as a critical plant support system technology. In particular, plant-wide Historical Data Systems (HDS) are pivotal to the successful implementation of technical surveillance and analysis programs supporting plant operations, maintenance, safety, and licensing activities. In partnership with Canadian CANDU utility and design organizations, AECL has conducted a review of current Canadian CANDU HDS approaches with emphasis on understanding the existing functionality and uses of plant historical data systems, their future needs and benefits. The results is a vision of a plant-wide HDS providing seamless access to both near real-time and historical data, user tool-kits for data visualization and analysis, and data management of the large volume of data acquired during the life of a plant. The successful implementation of the HDS vision will lead to higher capability and capacity factors while minimizing Operations, Maintenance, and Administration (OM and A) costs. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  7. [Quality management in regional anesthesia using the example of a Regional Anesthesia Surveillance System (RASS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Stübner, S; Czaplik, M

    2013-02-01

    Regional anesthesia and regional analgesia techniques with or without a continuous catheter are frequently utilized in all areas of modern anesthesiology. There are individual and economic benefits but also risks involved with those techniques. While the incidence of severe complications is rare and preventive action not always possible, the consequences can be detrimental especially with hematoma or abscess formation associated with central neuraxial blocks. Therefore, it is important to create national and international databases with large case numbers utilizing standardized definitions of complications in order to allow realistic risk assessment and early discovery of potential dangers and preventive actions. This article shows the integration of standardized codes from the Regional Anesthesia Surveillance System with a software tool to allow high-quality data acquisition and the building of a foundation for national and international data collection and analysis as well as for feedback of institutional data for individual process optimization as part of a quality management system.

  8. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities. The Caise environmental surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, H. de; Voelz, E.

    1995-01-01

    The Computer Aided Surveillance System for the Environment of Nuclear Installations (Caise) has been designed for permanent surveillance of the environment of nuclear installations under normal operating conditions and for unusual events on the basis of radiological and meteorological measured data. In normal operation, the data measured on line are fed to the system by way of a defined interface, while off-line data can be entered manually in the dialog mode. Subsequently, the measured data are stored, filed away, and secured. Short-time dispersion factors can be calculated permanently in the on-line mode, while the off-line mode allows short-term and long-term dispersions to be calculated for randomly selectable periods of time under the General Administrative Rule of Sec. 45 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. The corresponding dose distributions in the environment of the plant can be determined next. Under conditions of increased emissions (accidents, failures), Caise assists in quick decision-making by its capacity for real-time dispersion calculations including current on-line and off-line emission sample measurements. In this way, the contributions by various different exposure pathways to the calculated dose can be determined more accurately. (orig.) [de

  9. Weather-enabled future onboard surveillance and navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutuel, L.; Baillon, B.; Barnetche, B.; Delpy, P.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing traffic and the development of business trajectories, there is a widespread need to anticipate any adverse weather conditions that could impact the performance of the flight or to use of atmospheric parameters to optimize trajectories. Current sensors onboard air transport are challenged to provide the required service, while new products for business jets and general aviation open the door to innovative assimilation of weather information in onboard surveillance and navigation. The paper aims at surveying current technology available to air transport aircraft and pointing out their shortcomings in view of the modernization proposed in SESAR and NextGen implementation plans. Foreseen innovations are then illustrated via results of ongoing research like FLYSAFE or standardization efforts, in particular meteorological datalink services and impact on Human-Machine Interface. The paper covers the operational need to avoid adverse weather like thunderstorm, icing, turbulence, windshear and volcanic ash, but also the requirement to control in 4D the trajectory through the integration of wind and temperature grids in the flight management. The former will lead to enhanced surveillance systems onboard the aircraft with new displays and new alerting schemes, ranging from targeted information supporting better re-planning to auto-escape strategies. The latter will be standard in next generation flight management systems. Finally both will rely on ATM products that will also assimilate weather information so that situational awareness is shared and decision is collaborative.

  10. Prototyping of a Situation Awareness System in the Maritime Surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayani, D O D; Shah, A; Sediono, W

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses about the design of a Situation Awareness (SA) system to support vessel crews and control room operators in improving the decision making process. The architecture of the system is ontology based. The vessel crews and control room operators may face a loss of SA. They may have limited cognitive abilities which make it difficult to make a decision in a high stress level, short time availability and continuously evolving situation with incomplete information. In this work, we describe the application of Semantic Web Rule Language to represent corresponding knowledge in the maritime surveillance domain. The result of this research will demonstrate that an ontology based system can be used to remodel the information into a meaningful and valuable form to predict the future states of SA and improve the decision making process

  11. FCA containment and surveillance (C/S) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hironobu; Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Yokota, Yasuhiro.

    1994-11-01

    The Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (JAERI) is internationally recognized as one of the most sensitive facility in the world from the viewpoint of international safeguards, because the facility possesses a large amount of metallic uranium and metallic plutonium, which are needed to perform various physical experiments. These material are subject to frequent verifications by the inspectorate, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the domestic authority (Science and Technology Agency of Japan, STA). Those verifications require inspectors to access to these materials for measurements and applications of seals. Human resources increase of irradiations and restrictions on the freedom of physical experiments, that are inevitably associated with these inspection activities, have been a serious problem that causes significant burdens for all relating parties. To decrease these burdens without any confliction with the inspection goals, an advanced comprehensive system of containment and surveillance has been developed. The FCA Containment and Surveillance (C/S) System consists of tow independent subsystems, i. e. Portal Monitor (P/M) and Penetration Monitor(PN/M). In this system the internal wall of the reactor building is used as a part of containment for the safeguards purpose, which enables the portal, that is installed at the internal wall of the reactor building, to be used as an area for monitoring of any removal of nuclear material. A metal detector of high sensitivity has been selected for the system since all nuclear materials possessed by the FCA has metallic forms. The internal wall has several penetrations for utility purposes, which should also be monitored for the purpose of detecting any removal of nuclear material from the reactor core area. A penetration monitor system has been developed for this purpose. This report describes functions of the system and their operation procedures. (author)

  12. Surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China: From 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Liping; Lai, Shengjie; Li, Zhongjie; Sun, Qiao; Zhang, Peng

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases have very useful roles in disease control and prevention. In 2004, China established the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System and the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System to report disease surveillance and events on the basis of data sources from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System, China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System in this country. This study provided a descriptive summary and a data analysis, from 2012 to 2014, of these 3 key surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China with the intent to provide suggestions for system improvement and perfection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Developing a new syndromic surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, S E; Fletcher, J; Loveridge, P; Bains, A; Morbey, R; Yeates, A; McCloskey, B; Smyth, B; Ibbotson, S; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2012-12-01

    Syndromic surveillance is vital for monitoring public health during mass gatherings. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a major challenge to health protection services and community surveillance. In response to this challenge the Health Protection Agency has developed a new syndromic surveillance system that monitors daily general practitioner out-of-hours and unscheduled care attendances. This new national system will fill a gap identified in the existing general practice-based syndromic surveillance systems by providing surveillance capability of general practice activity during evenings/nights, over weekends and public holidays. The system will complement and supplement the existing tele-health phone line, general practitioner and emergency department syndromic surveillance systems. This new national system will contribute to improving public health reassurance, especially to meet the challenges of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  14. Estimating Concussion Incidence Using Sports Injury Surveillance Systems: Complexities and Potential Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Zuckerman, Scott L; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Wasserman, Erin B; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Dompier, Thomas P; Comstock, R Dawn; Marshall, Stephen W

    2017-08-01

    Numerous sports injury surveillance systems exist with the capability of tracking concussion incidence data. It is important for the consumers of sport-related concussion data, be they researchers or the public, to have a comprehensive understanding of the strengths and limitations of sports injury surveillance systems. This article discusses issues of system design and analysis that affect the interpretation and understanding of sport-related concussion incidence data from sports injury surveillance systems. Such understanding will help inform the design of sports injury surveillance systems and research studies that aim to identify risk factors, develop prevention strategies, and evaluate prevention mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The evolving definition of systemic arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, C Venkata S; Giles, Thomas D

    2010-05-01

    Systemic hypertension is an important risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease. Hypertension also contributes to excessive morbidity and mortality. Whereas excellent therapeutic options are available to treat hypertension, there is an unsettled issue about the very definition of hypertension. At what level of blood pressure should we treat hypertension? Does the definition of hypertension change in the presence of co-morbid conditions? This article covers in detail the evolving concepts in the diagnosis and management of hypertension.

  16. Assessment of the infectious diseases surveillance system of the Republic of Armenia: an example of surveillance in the Republics of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Kenzie William R

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before 1991, the infectious diseases surveillance systems (IDSS of the former Soviet Union (FSU were centrally planned in Moscow. The dissolution of the FSU resulted in economic stresses on public health infrastructure. At the request of seven FSU Ministries of Health, we performed assessments of the IDSS designed to guide reform. The assessment of the Armenian infectious diseases surveillance system (AIDSS is presented here as a prototype. Discussion We performed qualitative assessments using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Until 1996, the AIDSS collected aggregate and case-based data on 64 infectious diseases. It collected information on diseases of low pathogenicity (e.g., pediculosis and those with no public health intervention (e.g., infectious mononucleosis. The specificity was poor because of the lack of case definitions. Most cases were investigated using a lengthy, non-disease-specific case-report form Armenian public health officials analyzed data descriptively and reported data upward from the local to national level, with little feedback. Information was not shared across vertical programs. Reform should focus on enhancing usefulness, efficiency, and effectiveness by reducing the quantity of data collected and revising reporting procedures and information types; improving the quality, analyses, and use of data at different levels; reducing system operations costs; and improving communications to reporting sources. These recommendations are generalizable to other FSU republics. Summary The AIDSS was complex and sensitive, yet costly and inefficient. The flexibility, representativeness, and timeliness were good because of a comprehensive health-care system and compulsory reporting. Some data were questionable and some had no utility.

  17. Epidemiology of malignant mesothelioma in Italy: surveillance systems, territorial clusters and occupations involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Binazzi, Alessandra; Bonafede, Michela; Di Marzio, Davide; Scarselli, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    As a legacy of the large asbestos consumption until the definitive ban in 1992, Italy is currently suffering a severe epidemic of asbestos related diseases. The aim of this paper is to describe the surveillance system for mesothelioma incidence and to provide evidences regarding the occurrence of the disease in Italy and the circumstances of asbestos exposure. Italian National Register of Malignant Mesotheliomas (ReNaM) is a permanent surveillance system of mesothelioma incidence, with Regional Operating Centres (CORs) active in each Italian region, identifying incident malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases from health care structures. Occupational history, lifestyle habits and residential history are obtained using a standardised questionnaire, administered by a trained interviewer, to the subject or to the next of kin. Descriptive epidemiological figures, occupations involved in exposures and territorial maps of MM cases have been produced. At December 2016, ReNaM has collected 27,356 MM cases for the incidence period between 1993 and 2015. The modalities of exposure to asbestos have been investigated for 21,387 (78%) and an occupational exposure has been defined for around 70% of interviewed cases (14,818). Non-occupational exposure is still relevant with 4.9% and 4.4% of cases for which respectively a familial exposure (due to the cohabitation with an occupational exposed subject) and an environmental exposure (due to the residence near a contaminated site) has been detected. The epidemiological surveillance of MM incident cases, by the means of a national register for estimating the occurrence of the disease and identifying the circumstances of asbestos exposure, is a relevant tool for preventing asbestos exposure, for supporting the effectiveness of insurance system and for estimating reliable epidemiological figures.

  18. [An evaluation of the surveillance system of mandatory disease reporting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas Ruiz, J A; Manrique Blázquez, R R; Diestro Contreras, A; Pastor Ortega, M C; Leal Fernández, A

    1998-06-30

    Study of the exhaustibility and reliability of the recording of obligatory notifiable diseases (EDO) and the accumulated incidence of the EDO in a health area. Descriptive study. Community setting. Epidemiological surveillance. People who have suffered in 1996 some EDO (excluded measles, rubella, mumps, chickenpox and influenza). They have been selected a total of 205 EDO-disease cases starting from the two recording systems: laboratory and obligatory surveillance diseases system. The exhaustibility of the laboratory has been 82%, 95% confidence interval (76-87%) and that of the EDO system 45%, 95% confidence interval (38-52%). The rate kappa for the diseases global is 0.42 95%, confidence interval (0.4-0.43) and the specific accordance proportion 0.27, 95% confidence interval (0.21-0.34). The cases search in the recording of the laboratory increases the incidence declared to the EDO system in all the diseases. The diseases with greater incidence are the hepatitis (73.59 x 10(5)), the pulmonary tuberculosis (27.07 x 10(5)) and the syphilis (18.05 x 10(5)). The EDO system presents a clear understatement, variable according to the different diseases and being maximum for the hepatitis B and C. The laboratory quantifies a high exhaustibility, and it can increase between 55 and 30% the EDO recording cases, increasing the knowledge of the morbidity caused by EDO in the Area 11. The valuation of the EDO in addition to improving the information for the assumptions of decisions in sanitary planning, optimizes the necessary elements when it is compared the EDO incidence among different geographical areas or within a same area at a different time.

  19. Complement: a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklin, Daniel; Hajishengallis, George; Yang, Kun; Lambris, John D

    2010-09-01

    Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized, we have come to realize that its functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris and infectious microbes, orchestrating immune responses and sending 'danger' signals, complement contributes substantially to homeostasis, but it can also take action against healthy cells if not properly controlled. This review describes our updated view of the function, structure and dynamics of the complement network, highlights its interconnection with immunity at large and with other endogenous pathways, and illustrates its multiple roles in homeostasis and disease.

  20. Information management in Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Karimi, Afsaneh; Erfannia, Leila

    2017-07-01

    Maternal mortality is preventable by proper information management and is the main target of the Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (MMSS). This study aimed to determine the status of information management in the Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (IMMSS). The population of this descriptive and analytical study, which was conducted in 2016, included 96 administrative staff of health and treatment deputies of universities of medical sciences and the Ministry of Health in Iran. Data were gathered by a five-part questionnaire with confirmed validity and reliability. A total of 76 questionnaires were completed, and data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19, by descriptive and inferential statistics. The relationship between variables "organizational unit" and the four studied axes was studied using Kendall's correlation coefficient test. The status of information management in IMMSS was desirable. Data gathering and storage axis and data processing and compilation axis achieved the highest (2.7±0.46) and the lowest (2.4±0.49) mean scores, respectively. The data-gathering method, control of a sample of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences, use of international classification of disease, and use of this system information by management teams to set resources allocation achieved the lowest mean scores in studied axes. Treatment deputy staff had a more positive attitude toward the status of information management of IMMSS than the health deputy staff (p=0.004). Although the status of information management in IMMSS was desirable, it could be improved by modification of the data-gathering method; creating communication links between different data resources; a periodic sample control of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences; and implementing ICD-MM and integration of its rules on a unified system of death.

  1. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart diseases in Fiji: a review from the surveillance system (1996 -2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuboni, Hien D; Finau, Sitaleki A; Cuboni, Giuseppe

    2006-09-01

    The Surveillance System for many Notifiable Diseases in Fiji is described by many as inadequate. This system includes the reporting and recording of Acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF) and Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD). Prominent amongst the inadequacies of this system is the under reporting and the diagnostic dilemma and classification of he cases. Under-reporting was estimated at about 40% in Viti Levu, 44% in Vanua Levu, and 66% in the outer islands. This paper reviews the Surveillance System pertaining to ARF and RHD and describes the trends and demographic distribution of ARF and RHD in Fiji during the period 1996-2000 while highlighting the problem of the system A retrospective review of admission records of the Pediatric Ward, Colonial War Memorial Hospital (PW/CWMH), Suva, Fiji, from 1996 to 2000 was undertaken. Admission books were cross-checked with patient folders, when required, to avoid inaccurate counting of cases. Data obtained were analyzed and compared with those obtained from the Ministry of Health (MoH) during the same period. Under-reporting of ARF was documented with fewer ARF cases reported less than the actual number of ARF cases admitted to PW/CWMH in 1998 to 2000. On average, 18 ARF cases were reported each year for a cumulative incidence of 2.3 per 100,000 population; 173 RHD cases were reported each year for a cumulative incidence of about 21 per 100,000 population during this 5-year period. The problems seemed to be more prevalent among the Fijians compared to Indians; children in the 5-9 age group were more affected by ARF and those in the 10-14 age group were more affected by RHD. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean age between Fijian and Indian cases for both ARF and RHD. Under-reporting was apparent in the surveillance of ARF and RHD in Fiji. The cumulative incidence of ARF in Fiji appeared much lower than that reported from other Pacific countries. There is a definite need to improve the Disease Surveillance System

  2. Development and implementation of a health surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, W B; Phillips, C F

    1983-09-01

    With the formation of Shell Oil Company's Health, Safety and Environment Organization in 1976, an expanded employee health surveillance program was started. A computerized system was developed to facilitate collecting, storing, retrieving, and analyzing employee medical, exposure and work history records. System requirements included large storage capacity, confidentiality, operability, flexibility, quality assurance, and minimum impact on user locations. A key element of the system is the Job Exposure Profile (JEP). A JEP describes the work tasks and identifies the chemical and physical agents associated with individual jobs at a location. Employee work history data are collected by utilizing existing payroll systems in conjunction with the JEP. Successful implementation of the system within our manufacturing (refineries, chemical plants and complexes) and products distribution locations has been completed. This was done by obtaining top management support and commitment at each location. A team consisting of corporate industrial hygienists, computer experts, and location staff was responsible for developing JEP's and setting up a system to collect data on the work histories. The system can now be used to prepare reports for location or corporate use, conduct statistical analysis of exposure data and maintain an exposure/work history record for epidemiologic studies.

  3. The integrated disease surveillance and response system in northern Ghana: challenges to the core and support functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adokiya, Martin N; Awoonor-Williams, John K; Beiersmann, Claudia; Müller, Olaf

    2015-07-28

    The integrated disease surveillance and response (IDSR) strategy was adopted in Ghana over a decade ago, yet gaps still remain in its proper functioning. The objective of this study was to assess the core and support functions of the IDSR system at the periphery level of the health system in northern Ghana. A qualitative study has been conducted among 18 key informants in two districts of Upper East Region. The respondents were from 9 health facilities considered representative of the health system (public, private and mission). A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. case detection, confirmation, reporting, analysis, investigation, response, training, supervision and resources) of the IDSR system was administered to the respondents. The responses were recorded according to specific themes. The majority (7/9) of health facilities had designated disease surveillance officers. Some informants were of the opinion that the core and support functions of the IDSR system had improved over time. In particular, mobile phone reporting was mentioned to have made IDSR report submission easier. However, none of the health facilities had copies of the IDSR Technical Guidelines for standard case definitions, laboratories were ill-equipped, supervision was largely absent and feedback occurred rather irregular. Informants also reported, that the community perceived diagnostic testing at the health facilities to be unreliable (e.g. tuberculosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus). In addition, disease surveillance activities were of low priority for nurses, doctors, administrators and laboratory workers. Although the IDSR system was associated with some benefits to the system such as reporting and accessibility of surveillance reports, there remain major challenges to the functioning and the quality of IDSR in Ghana. Disease surveillance needs to be much strengthened in West Africa to cope with outbreaks such as the recent Ebola epidemic.

  4. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011. Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children <15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared. PMID:25483546

  5. Rule-based versus probabilistic selection for active surveillance using three definitions of insignificant prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); C.H. Bangma (Chris); R.C.N. van den Bergh (Roderick); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); D. Nieboer (Daan); Godtman, R; J. Hugosson (Jonas); van der Kwast, T; E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo study whether probabilistic selection by the use of a nomogram could improve patient selection for active surveillance (AS) compared to the various sets of rule-based AS inclusion criteria currently used. We studied Dutch and Swedish patients participating in the European Randomized

  6. The impact of injury definition on injury surveillance in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Verhagen, Evert; Hartgens, Fred; Huisstede, Bionka; Diercks, Ron; van der Worp, Henk

    Objectives: Despite several consensus statements, different injury definitions are used in the literature. This study aimed to identify the impact of different injury definitions on the nature and incidence of complaints captured during a short-term running program for novice runners. Design:

  7. The impact of injury definition on injury surveillance in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Verhagen, Evert; Hartgens, Fred; Huisstede, Bionka; Diercks, Ron; van der Worp, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite several consensus statements, different injury definitions are used in the literature. This study aimed to identify the impact of different injury definitions on the nature and incidence of complaints captured during a short-term running program for novice runners. Design:

  8. Smart Telerobotic Surveillance System via Internet with Reduced Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashesh Vasalya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work provides an imperial solution to the problems faced by man while enduring hazardous tasks like handling and disposal of nuclear wastes, monitoring nuclear power plants, mining operations etc .which have to be aborted if expertise group running it is unavailable or on a run. This paper presents a distributed platform that allows the special group of user to control a gadget (possibly a robot through internet as a medium. An advanced version of this technology is capable of transmitting graphic images and other surrounding information as required, via internet back to the user to facilitate the effective monitoring of the existent situation using appropriate software tools. The project uses the SRV-1 Mobile Surveillance Robot which is a fully integrated system standard designed and other related technology for surveillance purposes. It is driven via web browser using JAVA based control applications with live video feeds. Specialised user group will be given separate account from where they can control and monitor the system even when they are not present at the site. End user will be connected to the gadget (robot through a central server which acts as a single channel for both sending and receiving information. But the subject of remote control over the internet has some possible anomalies namely network freezing, delay between host and recipient, congested network and many others. This system enables asynchronous object passing so that network bandwidth is used effectively and such parameters as the network condition and server states have less effect on the system. To resolve this issue, a fuzzy logic controller is used to control the robot’s motion along a predefined path with the necessary manipulation of the normal course. The robot was first modelled in Matlab Simulink and the fuzzy logic rules were optimized for the best results possible. In accordance with the fuzzy rules developed the fuzzy interference system generates the

  9. Parallel Computational Intelligence-Based Multi-Camera Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Orts-Escolano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a multi-camera surveillance system based on the use of self-organizing neural networks to represent events on video. The system processes several tasks in parallel using GPUs (graphic processor units. It addresses multiple vision tasks at various levels, such as segmentation, representation or characterization, analysis and monitoring of the movement. These features allow the construction of a robust representation of the environment and interpret the behavior of mobile agents in the scene. It is also necessary to integrate the vision module into a global system that operates in a complex environment by receiving images from multiple acquisition devices at video frequency. Offering relevant information to higher level systems, monitoring and making decisions in real time, it must accomplish a set of requirements, such as: time constraints, high availability, robustness, high processing speed and re-configurability. We have built a system able to represent and analyze the motion in video acquired by a multi-camera network and to process multi-source data in parallel on a multi-GPU architecture.

  10. Integrated Surveillance for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Final Report of the Integrated Surveillance Study Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    Charles A. Leader, JPDO Director November 21, 2008 i FINAL REPORT OF THE INTEGRATED SURVEILLANCE STUDY TEAM ii TABLE... eam stration ation S ding System e ittee on System EP ion Program RS tine Weather Reports formance Standards C D DO Domestic Outreach...Col John Anderson ODNI Mark Andrews DOC/NOAA and JPDO Weather Working Group (ISST L ad) es Ray r Division ric Operations Division

  11. Commercial-off-the-shelf digital surveillance systems for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufing, C.; Tschritter, C.; Meylemans, P.; Vandaele, R.; Heppleston, M.; Chare, P.; Kloeckner, W.

    2001-01-01

    The reasons why safeguards authorities are from time to time looking for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (C.O.T.S.) equipment for safeguards purposes are for the following reasons: Equipment that is designed from scratch to satisfy specific safeguards requirements is very likely to go through a period of teething problems. If these problems are only discovered once the equipment is deployed for routine use, this will be accompanied with large overhead costs for the safeguards authorities to maintain and repair such equipment. The overhead costs are much higher if unattended equipment is concerned that is permanently installed on-site. In that case an extra mission has to be organised to return the faulty equipment to our headquarters before it can be repaired. Using C.O.T.S. equipment that is also used by others reduces the risk of teething problems. At least the burden of going through such kind of problem period is shared with other customers of the concerned equipment. It is clear that safeguards is not a big market on its own. The non-negligible cost of the development of equipment that only fits safeguards requirements will therefore have to be recovered on the expected sales. If the market is small, if the expected number of units that can be sold is small, a large part of the unit cost will depend on the initial development costs. Going for C.O.T.S. equipment that is also sold in other markets, would in that respect lower the equipment cost. That not any safeguards equipment can be obtained commercially off the shelf is clear, but in certain domains like digital surveillance, the functionality of C.O.T.S. equipment has been approaching the one needed for safeguards. That is why in 1998 the Euratom Safeguards Office published an open call for tender for the purchase of a digital surveillance system that is able to support up to 64 colour camera channels. In response to a successful bid for this call for tender a contract for the delivery of 3 prototype systems and 6

  12. Application of robust face recognition in video surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-xin; An, Peng; Zhang, Hao-xiang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a video searching system that utilizes face recognition as searching indexing feature. As the applications of video cameras have great increase in recent years, face recognition makes a perfect fit for searching targeted individuals within the vast amount of video data. However, the performance of such searching depends on the quality of face images recorded in the video signals. Since the surveillance video cameras record videos without fixed postures for the object, face occlusion is very common in everyday video. The proposed system builds a model for occluded faces using fuzzy principal component analysis (FPCA), and reconstructs the human faces with the available information. Experimental results show that the system has very high efficiency in processing the real life videos, and it is very robust to various kinds of face occlusions. Hence it can relieve people reviewers from the front of the monitors and greatly enhances the efficiency as well. The proposed system has been installed and applied in various environments and has already demonstrated its power by helping solving real cases.

  13. Evaluation of a surveillance case definition for anogenital warts, Kaiser Permanente northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naleway, Allison L; Weinmann, Sheila; Crane, Brad; Gee, Julianne; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F

    2014-08-01

    Most studies of anogenital wart (AGW) epidemiology have used large clinical or administrative databases and unconfirmed case definitions based on combinations of diagnosis and procedure codes. We developed and validated an AGW case definition using a combination of diagnosis codes and other information available in the electronic medical record (provider type, laboratory testing). We calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) of this case definition compared with manual medical record review in a random sample of 250 cases. Using this case definition, we calculated the annual age- and sex-stratified prevalence of AGW among individuals 11 through 30 years of age from 2000 through 2005. We identified 2730 individuals who met the case definition. The PPV of the case definition was 82%, and the average annual prevalence was 4.16 per 1000. Prevalence of AGW was higher in females compared with males in every age group, with the exception of the 27- to 30-year-olds. Among females, prevalence peaked in the 19- to 22-year-olds, and among males, the peak was observed in 23- to 26-year-olds. The case definition developed in this study is the first to be validated with medical record review and has a good PPV for the detection of AGW. The prevalence rates observed in this study were higher than other published rates, but the age- and sex-specific patterns observed were consistent with previous reports.

  14. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ziemann

    Full Text Available Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors.We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events.We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness.We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  15. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  16. Why do farmers and veterinarians not report all bovine abortions, as requested by the clinical brucellosis surveillance system in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Fortané, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier

    2014-04-24

    Since 2005, France has been officially free of brucellosis, an infectious disease that causes abortion in cattle and can be transmitted from cattle to humans. Recent animal and human cases have drawn attention to the need to prevent infection of humans and animals from any primary outbreaks. In order to detect any new outbreaks as soon as possible, a clinical surveillance system requires farmers and veterinarians to report each abortion and to test the aborting cow for brucellosis. However, under-reporting limits the sensitivity of this system. Our objective was to identify the barriers and motivations influencing field actors in their decision to report or not to report bovine abortions. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews of 12 cattle farmers and their eight veterinarians. Our analysis showed that four main themes influence the decision-making process of farmers and veterinarians: 1) the perceived risk of brucellosis and other abortive diseases; 2) the definition of a suspected case of brucellosis and other abortive diseases adopted by field actors, which is less sensitive than the mandatory definition; 3) the cost-benefit analysis conducted by actors, taking into account regulatory and health aspects, economic and financial losses, technical and practical factors; 4) the level of cooperation within the socio-technical network. We discussed how early detection may be improved by revising the definition of abortion, extending the time frame for notification and generalising the differential diagnosis of the causes of abortion. In contrast to quantitative approaches, qualitative studies can identify the factors (including unknown factors) influencing the decision-making process of field actors and reveal why they take those factors into consideration. Our qualitative study sheds light on the factors underlying the poor sensitivity of clinical brucellosis surveillance system for cattle in France, and suggests that early detection may be

  17. Digitized video subject positioning and surveillance system for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Y.; Thompson, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Head motion is a significant contribution to the degradation of image quality of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies. Images from different studies must also be realigned digitally to be correlated when the subject position has changed. These constraints could be eliminated if the subject's head position could be monitored accurately. The authors have developed a video camera-based surveillance system to monitor the head position and motion of subjects undergoing PET studies. The system consists of two CCD (charge-coupled device) cameras placed orthogonally such that both face and profile views of the subject's head are displayed side by side on an RGB video monitor. Digitized images overlay the live images in contrasting colors on the monitor. Such a system can be used to (1) position the subject in the field of view (FOV) by displaying the position of the scanner's slices on the monitor along with the current subject position, (2) monitor head motion and alert the operator of any motion during the study and (3) reposition the subject accurately for subsequent studies by displaying the previous position along with the current position in a contrasting color

  18. Public Health Surveillance Systems: Recent Advances in Their Use and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Samuel L; Buckeridge, David L

    2017-03-20

    Surveillance is critical for improving population health. Public health surveillance systems generate information that drives action, and the data must be of sufficient quality and with a resolution and timeliness that matches objectives. In the context of scientific advances in public health surveillance, changing health care and public health environments, and rapidly evolving technologies, the aim of this article is to review public health surveillance systems. We consider their current use to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the public health system, the role of system stakeholders, the analysis and interpretation of surveillance data, approaches to system monitoring and evaluation, and opportunities for future advances in terms of increased scientific rigor, outcomes-focused research, and health informatics.

  19. How to: Surveillance of Clostridium difficile infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutova, M; Kinross, P; Barbut, F; Hajdu, A; Wilcox, M H; Kuijper, E J

    2017-12-20

    The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in healthcare settings in Europe since 2003 has affected both patients and healthcare systems. The implementation of effective CDI surveillance is key to enable monitoring of the occurrence and spread of C. difficile in healthcare and the timely detection of outbreaks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of key components of effective CDI surveillance and to provide some practical recommendations. We also summarize the recent and current national CDI surveillance activities, to illustrate strengths and weaknesses of CDI surveillance in Europe. For the definition of key components of CDI surveillance, we consulted the current European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) CDI-related guidance documents and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) protocol for CDI surveillance in acute care hospitals. To summarize the recent and current national CDI surveillance activities, we discussed international multicentre CDI surveillance studies performed in 2005-13. In 2017, we also performed a new survey of existing CDI surveillance systems in 33 European countries. Key components for CDI surveillance are appropriate case definitions of CDI, standardized CDI diagnostics, agreement on CDI case origin definition, and the presentation of CDI rates with well-defined numerators and denominators. Incorporation of microbiological data is required to provide information on prevailing PCR ribotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility to first-line CDI treatment drugs. In 2017, 20 European countries had a national CDI surveillance system and 21 countries participated in ECDC-coordinated CDI surveillance. Since 2014, the number of centres with capacity for C. difficile typing has increased to 35 reference or central laboratories in 26 European countries. Incidence rates of CDI, obtained from a standardized CDI surveillance system, can be used as an important

  20. The Definition of Novelty in Recommendation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of information technology and application of the Internet, People gradually entered the time of information overload from information scarcity. User satisfaction with recommender systems is related not only to how accurately the system recommends but also to how much it supports the user’s decision making. Novelty is one of the important metrics of customer satisfaction. There is an increasing realization in the Recommender Systems (RS field that novelty is fundamental qualities of recommendation effectiveness and added-value. This paper combed research results about definition and algorithm of novel recommendation, and starting from the meaning of "novel", defined novelty of item in recommendation system. Experiment proved using the definition of novelty to recommend can effectively recognize the item that the user is familiar with and ensure certain accuracy.

  1. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  2. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. van den Hurk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  3. Medical Surveillance System & Medical Effect Modeling Thrust Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Angel A; Chotani, Rashid A

    2007-01-01

    .... The main objective is to combine modeling/simulation, medical surveillance, early warning detection and real-time epidemiology by not only embarking on novel technologies but also by evaluating...

  4. Surveillance system using the CCTV at the fuel transfer pond in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, T.; Fukuhara, J.; Ochiai, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Ogata, Y.; Okamoto, H.

    1991-01-01

    The Fuel Transfer Pond (FTP) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) is a strategic point for safeguards. Spent fuels, therefore, in the FTP have been surveyed by the surveillance system using the underwater CCTV. This system was developed through the improvement of devices composed of cameras and VCRs and the provision of tamper resistance function as one of the JASPAS (Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards) program. The purpose of this program is to realize the continuous surveillance of the slanted tunnel through which the spent fuel on the conveyor is moved from the FTP to the Mechanical Processing Cell (MPC). This paper reports that, when this surveillance system is applied to an inspection device, the following requirements are needed: To have the ability of continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel on the conveyor path from the FTP to the MPC; To have the tamper resistance function for continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel

  5. Description and validation of a new automated surveillance system for Clostridium difficile in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaine, M.; Gubbels, S.; Voldstedlund, M.

    2017-01-01

    The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). M...

  6. Comparison of five influenza surveillance systems during the 2009 pandemic and their association with media attention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.M.A. de; Meijer, A.; Friesema, I.H.M.; Donker, G.A.; Koppeschaar, C.E.; Hooiveld, M.; Ruigrok, N.; Hoek, W. van der

    2013-01-01

    Background: During the 2009 influenza pandemic period, routine surveillance of influenza-like-illness (ILI) was conducted in The Netherlands by a network of sentinel general practitioners (GPs). In addition during the pandemic period, four other ILI/influenza surveillance systems existed. For

  7. Designing a Low-Resolution Face Recognition System for Long-Range Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Y.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Most face recognition systems deal well with high-resolution facial images, but perform much worse on low-resolution facial images. In low-resolution face recognition, there is a specific but realistic surveillance scenario: a surveillance camera monitoring a large area. In this scenario, usually

  8. Functions and Requirements and Specifications for Replacement of the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCAIEF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This functions, requirements and specifications document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of the system to replace the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS) alarm monitoring

  9. Innovation of high-risk infants follow-up surveillance system in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Jodeiry

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: We designed and piloted HRIFs surveillance system, so this system was institutionalized in Alzahra Hospital, finally. It can be prepared to apply in the whole country, after detecting the quantitative outcomes and developing the program in East Azarbijan.

  10. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  11. Implementation of nuclear material surveillance system based on the digital video capture card and counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Song, Dae Yong; Ko, Won Il; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-07-01

    In this paper, the implementation techniques of nuclear material surveillance system based on the digital video capture board and digital counter was described. The surveillance system that is to be developed is consist of CCD cameras, neutron monitors, and PC for data acquisition. To develop the system, the properties of the PCI based capture board and counter was investigated, and the characteristics of related SDK library was summarized. This report could be used for the developers who want to develop the surveillance system for various experimental environments based on the DVR and sensors using Borland C++ Builder

  12. Next Generation Surveillance System (NGSS): Field Implementation & Associated Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadfi, G.; John, M.; Liguori, C.; Moeslinger, M.; Murray, J.; Rocchi, S.

    2015-01-01

    The NGSS is the product of more than five years of development between the IAEA, other Inspectorates, Member State Support Programmes, and commercial vendors. The product of these efforts has now matured into the field implementation stage. This paper details the goals, achievements and challenges experienced during the implementation phase and associated developments of the project. NGSS procurement was subject to the IAEA's stringent procurement policies involving independent third party assessments to assure supplier reliability and competitive pricing controls. More than 1200 surveillance cameras currently installed in facilities worldwide will be replaced by NGSS within the next 4 to 5 years. Joint use procedures have been established taking advantage of the technical capabilities integrated within the design of the NGSS which allow for multiple inspectorates and States to securely and independently share and review data. Utilization of outdated facility infrastructure poses many challenges to implementation efforts; these were met with innovative technical solutions to take advantage of cost benefits allowed in its re-utilization. New partnerships were established with Member States, regulatory bodies and nuclear power plant operators for new nuclear facilities under construction, to address infrastructural requirements spanning the next half century. The utilization of the IAEA's well-established PKI infrastructure enhances data security features and usability with regard to data sharing, key management and joint use of the NGSS system data. Embedded inventory reporting capability aids electronic inventory verification of safeguards equipment, simplifying accountability, configuration control and troubleshooting of installed systems. Current developments ongoing within the project include the design of hardware and software components for use of the system in special applications (e.g., underwater and outdoor installations, mechanism to

  13. Evaluation Of Malaria Surveillance System In Department Of Health District Sumbawa Besar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainuddin Zainuddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Malaria is a public health problem that can affect infant mortality, under five, pregnant women and can reduce productivity. The annual parasite incidence from 2008 antil 2011showed malaria morbidity in Sumbawa district remain high. The Purpose of this study was to describe the implementation of Malaria Surveillance System at the District Health Office Lombok Sumbawa Besar. This study used a descriptive survey method. Subjects were malaria surveillance officer in district Health office, health centers, and hospitals. Research object is a document epidemiological surveillance report of malaria in 2013. Variables of this study is the implementation of malaria surveillance system (input, process, output and surveillance system attributes. Data obtained from interviews and observations were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the data type on input stage was not yet complete, the quantity of labor was complete but insufficient quality of human resources, facilities and sufficient funds were available. At stage of the data collection process employed W2 weekly report format and monthly report format, report formats and reporting lines were simple, completeness and monthly reports 100% W2, W2 reporting time liness was > 80% and monthly reports was > 90%, Analysis and interpretation of the data was done However the analysis of relationshif was conducted by 20% of primary health care. The resulting output is a description of endemicity areas, API and SPR are presented in tabular form, graph and maps. Dissemination of information is done in the form of reports, workshops and profiles. Feedback is done each month through coordination meeting, regular meetings and regular supervision. Surveillance evaluation system based on attributed surveillance showed its simplicity and acceptability, however sensitivity can not be assessed yet, low NPP 1.75%, report punctuality was > 80%. It is necessary the existence of expert epidemiologists (S2

  14. Methodology of the Norwegian Surveillance System for Healthcare-Associated Infections: the value of a mandatory system, automated data collection, and active postdischarge surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løwer, Hege Line; Eriksen, Hanne-Merete; Aavitsland, Preben; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2013-07-01

    Surveillance is a primary component of systems for the prevention of health care-associated infections (HCAI). Feedback to surgeons from these surveillance systems may reduce rates of surgical site infections (SSIs) by approximately 20%. Our objective was to describe the Norwegian Surveillance System for Healthcare-Associated Infections' (NOIS) module for SSI (NOIS-SSI) and to evaluate the completeness of hospital participation, the effectiveness of automated data collection, and the added value of follow-up after hospital discharge during 2005 to 2009. NOIS was introduced by regulation in 2005. Hospital participation is described through adherence to the mandatory requirements and participation in the voluntary aspects of the system. Automated data collection is evaluated through the completeness of reporting of explanatory and administrative variables. The impact of active postdischarge surveillance is assessed through the completeness of follow-up and the proportion of infections detected after hospital discharge. The system has achieved 95% (52/55) hospital participation, with 65% (34/52) of the hospitals submitting more data than the required minimum. The completeness of patient and procedure-related background data is satisfactory, with 23.3% (5,079/21,772) of the records having at least 1 missing value. The completeness of 30-day follow-up of patients is 90.7% (19,747/21,772), and 81% (765/948) of the infections were detected after discharge from hospital. Implementation of a new surveillance system for SSI has been successful evaluated through hospital participation, the completeness of reporting of explanatory and administrative variables, and the completeness of postdischarge follow-up. Important success factors are a mandatory system, automated data-harvesting systems in hospitals, and active postdischarge surveillance. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  15. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Big Data Era: Towards Faster and Locally Relevant Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lone; Viboud, Cecile; Gog, Julia

    2016-01-01

    While big data have proven immensely useful in fields such as marketing and earth sciences, public health is still relying on more traditional surveillance systems and awaiting the fruits of a big data revolution. A new generation of big data surveillance systems is needed to achieve rapid...... on clinical and laboratory reports. We then examine how large-volume medical claims data can, with great spatiotemporal resolution, help elucidate local disease patterns. Finally, we review efforts to develop surveillance systems based on digital and social data streams, including the recent rise and fall...

  16. A video imaging system and related control hardware for nuclear safeguards surveillance applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whichello, J.V.

    1987-03-01

    A novel video surveillance system has been developed for safeguards applications in nuclear installations. The hardware was tested at a small experimental enrichment facility located at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The system uses digital video techniques to store, encode and transmit still television pictures over the public telephone network to a receiver located in the Australian Safeguards Office at Kings Cross, Sydney. A decoded, reconstructed picture is then obtained using a second video frame store. A computer-controlled video cassette recorder is used automatically to archive the surveillance pictures. The design of the surveillance system is described with examples of its operation

  17. Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; Grøntved, Anders; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2015-01-01

    prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA1c was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42·8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41·6%; in the other 15·6%, the two definitions provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA1c......BACKGROUND: Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA1c. We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes...... of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA1c (HbA1c ≥6·5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG ≥7·0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT ≥11·1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin...

  18. Volume definition system for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakuijala, Jyrki; Pekkarinen, Ari; Puurunen, Harri

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Volume definition is a difficult and time consuming task in 3D treatment planning. We have studied a systems approach for constructing an efficient and reliable set of tools for volume definition. Our intent is to automate body outline, air cavities and bone volume definition and accelerate definition of other anatomical structures. An additional focus is on assisting in definition of CTV and PTV. The primary goals of this work are to cut down the time used in contouring and to improve the accuracy of volume definition. Methods: We used the following tool categories: manual, semi-automatic, automatic, structure management, target volume definition, and visualization tools. The manual tools include mouse contouring tools with contour editing possibilities and painting tools with a scaleable circular brush and an intelligent brush. The intelligent brush adapts its shape to CT value boundaries. The semi-automatic tools consist of edge point chaining, classical 3D region growing of single segment and competitive volume growing of multiple segments. We tuned the volume growing function to take into account both local and global region image values, local volume homogeneity, and distance. Heuristic seeding followed with competitive volume growing finds the body outline, couch and air automatically. The structure management tool stores ICD-O coded structures in a database. The codes have predefined volume growing parameters and thus are able to accommodate the volume growing dissimilarity function for different volume types. The target definition tools include elliptical 3D automargin for CTV to PTV transformation and target volume interpolation and extrapolation by distance transform. Both the CTV and the PTV can overlap with anatomical structures. Visualization tools show the volumes as contours or color wash overlaid on an image and displays voxel rendering or translucent triangle mesh rendering in 3D. Results: The competitive volume growing speeds up the

  19. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, C M; Vijayaraghavan, M; Salazar-Bolaños, H M; Bolaños-Acuña, H M; Ruiz-González, A I; Barrantes-Solis, T; Fernández-Vargas, I; Panero, M S; de Oliveira, L H; Hyde, T B

    2013-07-02

    Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and investigation. Our findings will be valuable for

  20. Surveillance and Measurement System (SAMS). Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs) to identify and demonstrate technologies that will be safer and more cost-effective. At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects as well as others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased cost of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of need statements defining specific needs or problems where improved technologies could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. Advances in characterization technologies are continuously being sought to decrease the cost of sampling and increase the speed of obtaining results. Currently it can take as long as 90 days to receive isotopic analysis of radioactive samples from laboratories on soil, liquid, and paint samples. The cost to analyze these types of samples for radionuclides is about $150 per sample. This demonstration investigated the feasibility of using the Surveillance and Measurement System (SAMS) (innovative technology) to make in situ isotopic radiation measurements in paint and soil. Sample collection and on-site laboratory analysis (baseline technology) is currently being used on D and D sampling activities. Benefits expected from using the innovative technology include: Significant decrease in time to receive results on radiological samples; Decrease in cost associated with sample collection, preparation, analysis, and disposal; Equivalent data quality to laboratory analysis; and Fewer

  1. Surveillance and Datalink Communication Performance Analysis for Distributed Separation Assurance System Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, William W.; Linse, Dennis J.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Ifarraguerri, Carlos; Seifert, Scott C.; Salvano, Dan; Calender, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two technical enablers: Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and digital datalink communication, of the Federal Aviation Administration s Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under two separation assurance (SA) system architectures: ground-based SA and airborne SA, on overall separation assurance performance. Datalink performance such as successful reception probability in both surveillance and communication messages, and surveillance accuracy are examined in various operational conditions. Required SA performance is evaluated as a function of subsystem performance, using availability, continuity, and integrity metrics to establish overall required separation assurance performance, under normal and off-nominal conditions.

  2. Formalization of Database Systems -- and a Formal Definition of {IMS}

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    1982-01-01

    Drawing upon an analogy between Programming Language Systems and Database Systems we outline the requirements that architectural specifications of database systems must futfitl, and argue that only formal, mathematical definitions may 6atisfy these. Then we illustrate home aspects and touch upon...... come ueee of formal definitions of data models and databaee management systems. A formal model of INS will carry this discussion. Finally we survey some of the exkting literature on formal definitions of database systems. The emphasis will be on constructive definitions in the denotationul semantics...... style of the VCM: Vienna Development Nethd. The role of formal definitions in international standardiaation efforts is briefly mentioned....

  3. Formalization of Database Systems -- and a Formal Definition of {IMS}

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines; Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    1982-01-01

    come ueee of formal definitions of data models and databaee management systems. A formal model of INS will carry this discussion. Finally we survey some of the exkting literature on formal definitions of database systems. The emphasis will be on constructive definitions in the denotationul semantics......Drawing upon an analogy between Programming Language Systems and Database Systems we outline the requirements that architectural specifications of database systems must futfitl, and argue that only formal, mathematical definitions may 6atisfy these. Then we illustrate home aspects and touch upon...... style of the VCM: Vienna Development Nethd. The role of formal definitions in international standardiaation efforts is briefly mentioned....

  4. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone prevalence data. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about...

  5. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2010. BRFSS land line only prevalence data. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about modifiable risk factors for...

  6. Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance System (eWoRLD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A surveillance system that provides morbidity, mortality, and workplace exposure data on work-related respiratory diseases by geographic region, industry and...

  7. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School – Excluding Sexual Orientation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  8. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School – Including Sexual Orientation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — High School Dataset – Including Sexual Orientation. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among...

  9. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School – Excluding Sexual Orientation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  10. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School - Excluding Sexual Identity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  11. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Age-Adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone age-adjusted prevalence data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects...

  12. Evaluation of an Electronic Smart-Card Based School Absenteeism Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    So, HC; Lam, CK; Tam, YH; Cowling, BJ; Leung, GM; Lau, EHY; Ip, DKM

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of an electronic smart-card based school absenteeism surveillance system which was initiated in 2008 in Hong Kong. The result demonstrated the feasibility and potential benefit of employing electronic school absenteeism data as captured automatically by a smart card system as an alternative data stream for monitoring influenza activities, and flexibility in establishing surveillance for emerging diseases. The increasing popularity of usage of smart card technology...

  13. A unifying definition of synchronization for dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Reggie; Kocarev, Ljupco

    1998-01-01

    We propose a unified definition for synchronization. By example we show that the synchronization phenomena discussed in the dynamical systems literature can be described within the framework of this definition.

  14. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Big Data Era: Towards Faster and Locally Relevant Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Lone; Gog, Julia R; Olson, Don; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-12-01

    While big data have proven immensely useful in fields such as marketing and earth sciences, public health is still relying on more traditional surveillance systems and awaiting the fruits of a big data revolution. A new generation of big data surveillance systems is needed to achieve rapid, flexible, and local tracking of infectious diseases, especially for emerging pathogens. In this opinion piece, we reflect on the long and distinguished history of disease surveillance and discuss recent developments related to use of big data. We start with a brief review of traditional systems relying on clinical and laboratory reports. We then examine how large-volume medical claims data can, with great spatiotemporal resolution, help elucidate local disease patterns. Finally, we review efforts to develop surveillance systems based on digital and social data streams, including the recent rise and fall of Google Flu Trends. We conclude by advocating for increased use of hybrid systems combining information from traditional surveillance and big data sources, which seems the most promising option moving forward. Throughout the article, we use influenza as an exemplar of an emerging and reemerging infection which has traditionally been considered a model system for surveillance and modeling. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Impact of a change in surveillance definition on performance assessment of a catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention program at a tertiary care medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopirala, Madhuri M; Syed, Asma; Jandarov, Roman; Lewis, Margaret

    2018-03-16

    In January 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Health Safety Network (NHSN) changed the definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). We evaluated the outcomes of a robust CAUTI prevention program when we performed surveillance using the old definition (before 2015) versus the new definition (after 2015). This is the first study to evaluate how the change in CDC/NHSN definitions affected the outcomes of a CAUTI reduction program. Baseline was from January 2012 to September 2014; the intervention period was from October 2014 to February 2016. Staff nurses were trained to be liaisons of infection prevention (Link Nurses) with clearly defined CAUTI prevention goals and with ongoing monthly activities. CAUTI incidence per 1000 catheter days was compared between the baseline and intervention periods, using the 2 definitions. With the new definition, CAUTIs decreased by 33%, from 2.69 to 1.81 cases per 1000 catheter days (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-0.93; P definition, CAUTIs increased by 12%, from 3.38 to 3.80 cases per 1000 catheter days (IRR = 1.12; 95% CI: 0.88-1.43; P = .348). We aggressively targeted CAUTI prevention, but a reduction was observed only with the new definition. Our findings stress the importance of having a reasonably accurate surveillance definition to monitor infection prevention initiatives. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental Surveillance System To Track Wild Poliovirus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Jagadish M.; Shetty, Sushmitha J.; Siddiqui, Zaeem A.

    2003-01-01

    Eradication of poliomyelitis from large metropolis cities in India has been difficult due to high population density and the presence of large urban slums. Three paralytic poliomyelitis cases were reported in Mumbai, India, in 1999 and 2000 in spite of high immunization coverage and good-quality supplementary immunization activities. We therefore established a systematic environmental surveillance study by weekly screening of sewage samples from three high-risk slum areas to detect the silent transmission of wild poliovirus. In 2001, from among the 137 sewage samples tested, wild poliovirus type 1 was isolated from 35 and wild poliovirus type 3 was isolated from 1. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance indicated one case of paralytic poliomyelitis from the city. Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP1 sequences revealed that the isolates from environmental samples belonged to four lineages of wild polioviruses recently isolated from poliomyelitis cases in Uttar Pradesh and not to those previously isolated from AFP cases in Mumbai. Wild poliovirus thus introduced caused one case of paralytic poliomyelitis. The virus was detected in environmental samples 3 months before. It was found that wild polioviruses introduced several times during the year circulated in Mumbai for a limited period before being eliminated. Environmental surveillance was found to be sensitive for the detection of wild poliovirus silent transmission. Nucleotide sequence analysis helped identify wild poliovirus reservoir areas. PMID:12732567

  17. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W

    2016-05-01

    Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled "Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program" is attached as supplementary material. This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  18. Effectiveness of Implementation of Electronic Malaria Information System as the National Malaria Surveillance System in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background In moving toward malaria elimination, one strategy is to implement an active surveillance system for effective case management. Thailand has developed and implemented the electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS) capturing individualized electronic records of suspected or confirmed malaria cases. Objective The main purpose of this study was to determine how well the eMIS improves the quality of Thailand’s malaria surveillance system. In particular, the focus of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the eMIS in terms of the system users’ perception and the system outcomes (ie, quality of data) regarding the management of malaria patients. Methods A mixed-methods technique was used with the framework based on system effectiveness attributes: data quality, timeliness, simplicity, acceptability, flexibility, stability, and usefulness. Three methods were utilized: data records review, survey of system users, and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. From the two highest endemic provinces, paper forms matching electronic records of 4455 noninfected and 784 malaria-infected cases were reviewed. Web-based anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all 129 eMIS data entry staff throughout Thailand, and semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 management-level officers. Results The eMIS is well accepted by system users at both management and operational levels. The data quality has enabled malaria personnel to perform more effective prevention and control activities. There is evidence of practices resulting in inconsistencies and logical errors in data reporting. Critical data elements were mostly completed, except for a few related to certain dates and area classifications. Timeliness in reporting a case to the system was acceptable with a delay of 3-4 days. The evaluation of quantitative and qualitative data confirmed that the eMIS has high levels of simplicity, acceptability, stability, and flexibility. Conclusions Overall, the

  19. Using a spatial filter and a geographic information system to improve rabies surveillance data.

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, A.

    1999-01-01

    The design and coordination of antirabies measures (e.g., oral vaccine and disease awareness campaigns) often depend on surveillance data. In Kentucky, health officials are concerned that the raccoon rabies epizootic that has spread throughout the east coast since the late 1970s could enter the state. The quality of surveillance data from Kentucky's 120 counties, however, may not be consistent. This article presents a geographic model that can be used with a geographic information system (GIS...

  20. Fission Surface Power System Initial Concept Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Under the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) and in partnership with the Department of Energy (DOE), NASA has embarked on a project to develop Fission Surface Power (FSP) technology. The primary goals of the project are to 1) develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options, 2) establish a hardwarebased technical foundation for FSP design concepts and reduce overall development risk, 3) reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates, and 4) generate the key products to allow NASA decision-makers to consider FSP as a preferred option for flight development. The FSP project was initiated in 2006 as the Prometheus Program and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission were phased-out. As a first step, NASA Headquarters commissioned the Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study to evaluate the potential for an affordable FSP development approach. With a cost-effective FSP strategy identified, the FSP team evaluated design options and selected a Preliminary Reference Concept to guide technology development. Since then, the FSP Preliminary Reference Concept has served as a point-of-departure for several NASA mission architecture studies examining the use of nuclear power and has provided the foundation for a series of "Pathfinder" hardware tests. The long-term technology goal is a Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) integrated system test using full-scale components and a non-nuclear reactor simulator. The FSP team consists of Glenn Research Center (GRC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the DOE National Laboratories at Los Alamos (LANL), Idaho (INL), Oak Ridge (ORNL), and Sandia (SNL). The project is organized into two main elements: Concept Definition and Risk Reduction. Under Concept Definition, the team performs trade studies, develops analytical tools, and formulates system concepts. Under Risk

  1. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. METHODS: ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP, combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1 work group and communication group; 2 data source and collection; 3 data visualization; and 4 outbreak detection and alerting. RESULTS: As of Jan. 31(st 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  2. Why do farmers and veterinarians not report all bovine abortions, as requested by the clinical brucellosis surveillance system in France?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2005, France has been officially free of brucellosis, an infectious disease that causes abortion in cattle and can be transmitted from cattle to humans. Recent animal and human cases have drawn attention to the need to prevent infection of humans and animals from any primary outbreaks. In order to detect any new outbreaks as soon as possible, a clinical surveillance system requires farmers and veterinarians to report each abortion and to test the aborting cow for brucellosis. However, under-reporting limits the sensitivity of this system. Our objective was to identify the barriers and motivations influencing field actors in their decision to report or not to report bovine abortions. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews of 12 cattle farmers and their eight veterinarians. Results Our analysis showed that four main themes influence the decision-making process of farmers and veterinarians: 1) the perceived risk of brucellosis and other abortive diseases; 2) the definition of a suspected case of brucellosis and other abortive diseases adopted by field actors, which is less sensitive than the mandatory definition; 3) the cost-benefit analysis conducted by actors, taking into account regulatory and health aspects, economic and financial losses, technical and practical factors; 4) the level of cooperation within the socio-technical network. We discussed how early detection may be improved by revising the definition of abortion, extending the time frame for notification and generalising the differential diagnosis of the causes of abortion. Conclusions In contrast to quantitative approaches, qualitative studies can identify the factors (including unknown factors) influencing the decision-making process of field actors and reveal why they take those factors into consideration. Our qualitative study sheds light on the factors underlying the poor sensitivity of clinical brucellosis surveillance system for cattle in France, and suggests

  3. Application of digital compression techniques to optical surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    There are many benefits to handling video images electronically, however, the amount of digital data in a normal video image is a major obstacle. The solution is to remove the high frequency and redundant information in a process that is referred to as compression. Compression allows the number of digital bits required for a given image to be reduced for more efficient storage or transmission of images. The next question is how much compression can be done without impairing the image quality beyond its usefulness for a given application. This paper discusses image compression that might be applied to provide useful images in unattended nuclear facility surveillance applications

  4. Challenges with the implementation of an Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system: systematic review of the lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Revati K; Yamamoto, Shelby; Awate, Pradip; Marx, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Despite a realistic strategy and availability of resources, multiple challenges still overwhelm countries grappling with the challenges of communicable disease surveillance. The Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy is by far the most pragmatic strategy in resource-poor settings. The objective of this study was to systematically review and document the lessons learned and the challenges identified with the implementation of the IDSR in low- and middle-income countries and to identify the main barriers that contribute to its sub-optimal functioning. A systematic review of literature published in English using Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and databases of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) between 1998 and 2012 was undertaken. Additionally, manual reference and grey literature searches were conducted. Citations describing core and support functions or the quality attributes of the IDSR as described by WHO and CDC were included in the review. Thirty-three assessment studies met the inclusion criteria. IDSR strategy has been best adopted and implemented in the WHO-AFRO region. Although significant progress is made in overcoming the challenges identified with vertical disease surveillance strategies, gaps still exist. Mixed challenges with core and support IDSR functions were observed across countries. Main issues identified include non-sustainable financial resources, lack of co-ordination, inadequate training and turnover of peripheral staff, erratic feedback, inadequate supervision from the next level, weak laboratory capacities coupled with unavailability of job aids (case definitions/reporting formats), and poor availability of communication and transport systems particularly at the periphery. Best outcomes in core functions and system attributes were reported when support surveillance functions performed optimally. Apart from technical and technological issues, human resources and the health care

  5. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents’ obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data. The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have. This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries’ needs and priorities. The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries’ Health Services for monitoring adolescents’ obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  6. NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Atlanta Demonstration: Surveillance Systems Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Hicok, Dan; Lee, Derrick

    1999-01-01

    NASA conducted a series of flight experiments at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport as part of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Program. LVLASO is one of the subelements of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program, which is focused on providing technology and operating procedures for achieving clear-weather airport capacity in instrument-weather conditions, while also improving safety. LVLASO is investigating various technologies to be applied to airport surface operations, including advanced flight deck displays and surveillance systems. The purpose of this report is to document the performance of the surveillance systems tested as part of the LVLASO flight experiment. There were three surveillance sensors tested: primary radar using Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), Multilateration using the Airport Surface Target Identification System (ATIDS), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) operating at 1090 MHz. The performance was compared to the draft requirements of the ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). Performance parameters evaluated included coverage, position accuracy, and update rate. Each of the sensors was evaluated as a stand alone surveillance system.

  7. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  8. The role of surveillance systems in confronting the global crisis of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Federico; Villegas, Maria Virginia

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that infection control, advanced diagnostics, and novel therapeutics are crucial to mitigate the impact of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The role of global, national, and regional surveillance systems as part of the response to the challenge posed by antibiotic resistance is not sufficiently highlighted. We provide an overview of contemporary surveillance programs, with emphasis on gram-negative bacteria. The WHO and public health agencies in Europe and the United States recently published comprehensive surveillance reports. These highlight the emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and other multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria. In Israel, public health action to control carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae, has advanced together with a better understanding of its epidemiology. Surveillance models adapted to the requirements and capacities of each country are in development. Robust surveillance systems are essential to combat antibiotic resistance, and need to emphasize a 'one health' approach. Refinements in surveillance will come from advances in bioinformatics and genomics that permit the integration of global and local information about antibiotic consumption in humans and animals, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and bacterial genotyping.

  9. Big data for population-based cancer research: the integrated cancer information and surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Olshan, Andrew F; Green, Laura; Meyer, Adrian; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Basch, Ethan; Carpenter, William R

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Cancer Information and Surveillance System (ICISS) facilitates population-based cancer research by developing extensive information technology systems that can link and manage large data sets. Taking an interdisciplinary 'team science' approach, ICISS has developed data, systems, and methods that allow researchers to better leverage the power of big data to improve population health.

  10. The installation and performance test of the surveillance system for DUPIC facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Ho Dong; Cha, Hong Ryul

    2000-07-01

    We have developed the real time surveillance system, named by DSSS, for DUPIC test facility. The system acquires data from He-3 neutron monitors(DSNM) and CCD cameras to automatically diagnose the transportation status of nuclear material. This technical report shortly illustrates important features of hardware and software of the system

  11. The installation and performance test of the surveillance system for DUPIC facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Ho Dong; Cha, Hong Ryul

    2000-07-01

    We have developed the real time surveillance system, named by DSSS, for DUPIC test facility. The system acquires data from He-3 neutron monitors(DSNM) and CCD cameras to automatically diagnose the transportation status of nuclear material. This technical report shortly illustrates important features of hardware and software of the system.

  12. Advanced Integrated Multi-Sensor Surveillance (AIMS. Operator Machine Interface (OMI) Definition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    unique jusqu’à cinq capteurs, y compris des capacités de déclenchement actif et d’imagerie thermique . Il peut ainsi servir à une multitude de...waypoint number, and the relative position information is transferred to the navigation system where a geographic position is calculated. The waypoint also

  13. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data-based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved.

  14. Is hospital information system relevant to detect surgical site infection? Findings from a prospective surveillance study in posterior instrumented spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boetto, J; Chan-Seng, E; Lonjon, G; Pech, J; Lotthé, A; Lonjon, N

    2015-11-01

    Spinal instrumentation has a high rate of surgical site infection (SSI), but results greatly vary depending on surveillance methodology, surgical procedures, or quality of follow-up. Our aim was to study true incidence of SSI in spinal surgery by significant data collection, and to compare it with the results obtained through the hospital information system. This work is a single center prospective cohort study that included all patients consecutively operated on for spinal instrumentation by posterior approach over a six-month period regardless the etiology. For all patients, a "high definition" prospective method of surveillance was performed by the infection control (IC) department during at least 12 months after surgery. Results were then compared with findings from automatic surveillance though the hospital information system (HIS). One hundred and fifty-four patients were included. We found no hardly difference between "high definition" and automatic surveillance through the HIS, even if HIS tended to under-estimate the infection rate: rate of surgical site infection was 2.60% and gross SSI incidence rate via the hospital information system was 1.95%. Smoking and alcohol consumption were significantly related to a SSI. Our SSI rates to reflect the true incidence of infectious complications in posterior instrumented adult spinal surgery in our hospital and these results were consistent with the lower levels of published infection rate. In-house surveillance by surgeons only is insufficiently sensitive. Further studies with more patients and a longer inclusion time are needed to conclude if SSI case detection through the HIS could be a relevant and effective alternative method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Methodological quality of the injury surveillance system used in international athletics championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Pascal; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Junge, Astrid

    2016-12-01

    Incidence and prevalence data obtained from injury surveillance studies could be biased by the response rate as well as by the completeness and quality of the reports. It therefore appears crucial to analyse the quality of the injury surveillance system itself and thereby validate the quality of the data. This study aimed to analyse the quality of and compliance with the injury surveillance system implemented during international athletics championships. Prospective, epidemiological study. The national medical teams and the local organising committee physicians daily reported all injuries on a standardised injury report form during 14 international athletics championships from 2007 to 2015. The quality of the injury surveillance system was analysed following the guidelines laid down by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. On average 41.7±17.4% (mean±standard deviation) of all registered countries participated in the injury surveillance project, accounting for a coverage of athletes of 79.5±10.2% of all registered athletes. Their medical staff returned 89.2±8.4% of the expected injury report forms (information is missing for one championship). The completeness of injury data provided by medical teams and local organising committee physicians averaged 95.8±6.5%. National medical teams reported 60.6±16.6% of all injuries, and local organising committee physicians 28.7±15.0% whereas 10.6±6.5% of injuries were reported by both. The injury surveillance system used during international athletics championships provided good national medical team participation, coverage of athletes, response rate, and completeness of reports. These parameters should be systematically reported for injury surveillance studies to show the quality of the study. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. On-line surveillance system for Borssele nuclear power plant monitoring and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerkcan, E.; Ciftcioglu, Oe.

    1993-08-01

    An operating on-line surveillance and diagnostic system is described where information processing for monitoring and fault diagnosis and plant maintenance are addressed. The surveillance system by means of its realtime multiprocessing, multitasking execution capabilities can perform plant-wide and wide-range monitoring for enhanced plant safety and operational reliability as well as enhanced maintenance. At the same time the system provides the possibilities for goal-oriented research and development such as estimation, filtering, verification and validation and neural networks. (orig./HP)

  17. Extracting foreground ensemble features to detect abnormal crowd behavior in intelligent video-surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yi-Tung; Wang, Shuenn-Jyi; Tsai, Chung-Hsien

    2017-09-01

    Public safety is a matter of national security and people's livelihoods. In recent years, intelligent video-surveillance systems have become important active-protection systems. A surveillance system that provides early detection and threat assessment could protect people from crowd-related disasters and ensure public safety. Image processing is commonly used to extract features, e.g., people, from a surveillance video. However, little research has been conducted on the relationship between foreground detection and feature extraction. Most current video-surveillance research has been developed for restricted environments, in which the extracted features are limited by having information from a single foreground; they do not effectively represent the diversity of crowd behavior. This paper presents a general framework based on extracting ensemble features from the foreground of a surveillance video to analyze a crowd. The proposed method can flexibly integrate different foreground-detection technologies to adapt to various monitored environments. Furthermore, the extractable representative features depend on the heterogeneous foreground data. Finally, a classification algorithm is applied to these features to automatically model crowd behavior and distinguish an abnormal event from normal patterns. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method's performance is both comparable to that of state-of-the-art methods and satisfies the requirements of real-time applications.

  18. Remote-Reading Safety and Safeguards Surveillance System for 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechelt, W. M.; Skorpik, J. R.; Silvers, K. L.; Szempruch, R. W.; Douglas, D. G.; Fein, K. O.

    2002-01-01

    At Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), plutonium oxide is being loaded into stainless steel containers for long-term storage on the Hanford Site. These containers consist of two weld-sealed stainless steel cylinders nested one within the other. A third container holds the plutonium within the inner cylinder. This design meets the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) storage standard, DOE-STD- 3013-2000, which anticipates a 50-year storage lifetime. The 3013 standard also requires a container surveillance program to continuously monitor pressure and to assure safeguards are adequate. However, the configuration of the container system makes using conventional measurement and monitoring methods difficult. To better meet the 3013 monitoring requirements, a team from Fluor Hanford (who manages the PFP), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC, developed a safer, cost-efficient, remote PFP 3013 container surveillance system. This new surveillance system is a combination of two successfully deployed technologies: (1) a magnetically coupled pressure gauge developed by Vista Engineering and (2) a radio frequency (RF) tagging device developed by PNNL. This system provides continuous, 100% monitoring of critical parameters with the containers in place, as well as inventory controls. The 3013 container surveillance system consists of three main elements: (1) an internal magnetic pressure sensor package, (2) an instrument pod (external electronics package), and (3) a data acquisition storage and display computer. The surveillance system described in this paper has many benefits for PFP and DOE in terms of cost savings and reduced personnel exposure. In addition, continuous safety monitoring (i.e., internal container pressure and temperature) of every container is responsible nuclear material stewardship and fully meets and exceeds DOE's Integrated Surveillance Program requirements

  19. Birth defects surveillance· A pilot system in the Cape Peninsula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other population- based, utilising ...

  20. 75 FR 81512 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... units. This proposed AD would require upgrading software. This proposed AD results from reports of anomalies with TCAS units during a flight test over a high density airport. The TCAS units dropped several... & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) units during a flight test over...

  1. Euratom multi-camera optical surveillance system (EMOSS) - a digital solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, P.; Wagner, H.G.; Taillade, B.; Pryck, C. de.

    1991-01-01

    In 1989 the Euratom Safeguards Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities drew up functional and draft technical specifications for a new fully digital multi-camera optical surveillance system. HYMATOM of Castries designed and built a prototype unit for laboratory and field tests. This paper reports and system design and first test results

  2. [Surveillance system for adverse events following immunization against yellow fever in Burkina Faso in 2008. Good practice recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaméogo, T M; Breugelmans, J G; Kambou, J L; Badolo, O; Tiendrebéogo, S; Traoré, E; Avokey, F; Yactayo, S

    2009-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a public health problem in Africa. In 2007 and 2008, Togo, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso became the first countries to implement mass YF immunization campaigns within the framework of the Yellow Fever Initiative. The goal of this initiative led by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) with the support of The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) is to organize mass YF immunization campaigns in 12 African countries at high risk forYF transmission between 2006 and 2013. A total of 290 million USD have been allocated for vaccination of 180 million people with the highly effective attenuated 17DYF vaccine. Working in partnership with the WHO, the 12 member states are to identify and target high risk areas with the dual aim of preventing epidemics and increasing immunization coverage. Surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) is a mandatory component for organization of these campaigns. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to describe the AEFI surveillance system implemented in Burkina Faso in 2008. Methods. The strategy used in Burkina Faso was based on a combination of regular passive surveillance and active surveillance. General guidelines and related operational processes were established including reporting forms, investigation forms, and procedures for collection, storage and transport of biological specimens. Classification of cases was based on clearly defined criteria. Any patient meeting the defined criteria and requiring hospitalization was considered as a serious case. In addition to case definition criteria, serious cases were tracked according to presented signs and symptoms using a line-listing form at two university hospital centers in Ouagadougou and one regional hospital center. Emergency room admission records and patient charts were examined during the surveillance period (30 days after the end of the immunization campaign) and on

  3. R and D study on on-line criticality surveillance system (V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Sumasu

    2001-02-01

    In view of necessity and importance of criticality surveillance systems for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel manufacturing and reprocessing plants, 5-year basic studies and 4 year R and D studies on an on-line criticality surveillance system were carried out since 1991. This report is a summary of these series of studies. Noticing that the signal from a neutron detector is random in principle, these series of studies aimed to accumulate knowledge for developing an inexpensive criticality surveillance system with quick response based on the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model identification algorithm. During five-year basic studies on criticality surveillance system since 1991, we obtained knowledge required for developing a criticality surveillance system based on the ARMA model identification algorithm through 1) studies on recursive ARMA model identification algorithms most appropriate for estimating subcriticality form time series data under a steady state condition, 2) studies on pre-processing of signal from neutron detectors, 3) developing a new recursive ARMA model identification algorithm with small time delay to estimate time-dependent subcriticality, 4) proposing a basic concept for the elements required for an on-line criticality surveillance system, and 5) numerical analysis of data from the DCA experiments. During next four-year R and D studies on a criticality surveillance system since 1996, we 1) proposed modules required for a no-line criticality surveillance system, 2) revealed effectiveness of a adaptive digital filter (ADF) algorithm, as an important redundancy to the recursive ARMA model identification algorithm to be used in the signal processing module through numerical analysis of real data, 3) proposed a module of the Feynman-α method over γ ray signal and a fast signal processing module for γ ray signal, 4) developed a line-noise removal filter(Notch filter) and revealed its effectiveness for the DCA data corrupted with power

  4. Evaluation of the enterovirus laboratory surveillance system in Denmark, 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Condell, Orla; Midgley, Sofie; Christiansen, C B

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus-transmission......The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus...

  5. A Systems Definition of Educational Technology in Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppicini, Rocci

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual development in the field of Educational Technology provides crucial theoretical grounding for ongoing research and practice. This essay draws from theoretical developments both within and external to the field of Educational Technology to articulate a systems definition of Educational Technology in Society. A systems definition of…

  6. Evaluation of temporal surveillance system sensitivity and freedom from bovine viral diarrhea in Danish dairy herds using scenario tree modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Stockmarr, Anders; Boklund, Anette

    2016-01-01

    The temporal sensitivity of the surveillance system (TemSSe) for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in Danish dairy herds was evaluated. Currently, the Danish antibody blocking ELISA is used to test quarterly bulk tank milk (BTM). To optimize the surveillance system as an early warning system, we...

  7. Data quality shortcomings with the US HIV/AIDS surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Benjamin K; Harrington, Brenna; Porcher, Eloni N; Wamai, Richard G

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates some of the data quality challenges facing the HIV surveillance system in the United States. Using the content analysis method, Center for Disease Control annual HIV surveillance reports (1982-2014) are systematically reviewed and evaluated against relevant data quality metrics from previous literature. Center for Disease Control HIV surveillance system has made several key achievements in the last decade. However, there are several outstanding challenges that need to be addressed. The data are unrepresentative, incomplete, inaccurate, and lacks the required granularity limiting its usage. These shortcomings weaken the country's ability to track, report, and respond to the new HIV epidemiological trends. Furthermore, the problems deter the country from properly identifying and targeting the key subpopulations that need the highest resources by virtue of being at the highest risk of HIV infection. Several recommendations are suggested to address these issues.

  8. The step from a voluntary to a mandatory national nosocomial infection surveillance system: the influence on infection rates and surveillance effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The German national nosocomial infection surveillance system, KISS, has a component for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (called NEO-KISS) which changed from a system with voluntary participation and confidential data feedback to a system with mandatory participation and confidential feedback. Methods In order to compare voluntary and mandatory surveillance data, two groups were defined by the surveillance start date. Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) parameters and infection rates of the NICUs in both groups were compared. In order to analyze the surveillance effect on primary bloodstream infection rates (BSI), all VLBW infants within the first three years of participation in both groups were considered. The adjusted effect measures for the year of participation were calculated. Results An increase from 49 NICUs participating in 2005 to 152 in 2006 was observed after the introduction of mandatory participation. A total of 4280 VLBW infants was included in this analysis. Healthcare-associated incidence densities rates were similar in both groups. Using multivariate analysis with the endpoint primary BSI rate and comparing the first and third year of participation lead to an adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.78 (CI95 0.66-0.93) for old (voluntary) and 0.81 (CI95 0.68-0.97) for new (mandatory) participants. Conclusions The step from a voluntary to a mandatory HCAI surveillance system alone may lead to substantial improvements on a countrywide scale. PMID:22958509

  9. A Radiation-Triggered Surveillance System for UF6 Cylinder Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Myjak, Mitchell J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    This report provides background information and representative scenarios for testing a prototype radiation-triggered surveillance system at an operating facility that handles uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The safeguards objective is to trigger cameras using radiation, or radiation and motion, rather than motion alone, to reduce significantly the number of image files generated by a motion-triggered system. The authors recommend the use of radiation-triggered surveillance at all facilities where cylinder paths are heavily traversed by personnel. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has begun using surveillance cameras in the feed and withdrawal areas of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The cameras generate imagery using elapsed time or motion, but this creates problems in areas occupied 24/7 by personnel. Either motion-or-interval-based triggering generates thousands of review files over the course of a month. Since inspectors must review the files to verify operator material-flow-declarations, a plethora of files significantly extends the review process. The primary advantage of radiation-triggered surveillance is the opportunity to obtain full-time cylinder throughput verification versus what presently amounts to part-time verification. Cost savings should be substantial, as the IAEA presently uses frequent unannounced inspections to verify cylinder-throughput declarations. The use of radiation-triggered surveillance allows the IAEA to implement less frequent unannounced inspections for the purpose of flow verification, but its principal advantage is significantly shorter and more effective inspector video reviews.

  10. Monitoring influenza activity in the United States: a comparison of traditional surveillance systems with Google Flu Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R Ortiz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections.Influenza activity data from 2003-04 through 2007-08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance, and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79. The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89. Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003-04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87 or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90.This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003-04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior.

  11. Monitoring influenza activity in the United States: a comparison of traditional surveillance systems with Google Flu Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Fowlkes, Ashley L; Goss, Christopher H

    2011-04-27

    Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Influenza activity data from 2003-04 through 2007-08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003-04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003-04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior.

  12. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  13. Experiences with the Twitter Health Surveillance (THS) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Social media has become an important platform to gauge public opinion on topics related to our daily lives. In practice, processing these posts requires big data analytics tools since the volume of data and the speed of production overwhelm single-server solutions. Building an application to capture and analyze posts from social media can be a challenge simply because it requires combining a set of complex software tools that often times are tricky to configure, tune, and maintain. In many instances, the application ends up being an assorted collection of Java/Scala programs or Python scripts that developers cobble together to generate the data products they need. In this paper, we present the Twitter Health Surveillance (THS) application framework. THS is designed as a platform to allow end-users to monitor a stream of tweets, and process the stream with a combination of built-in functionality and their own user-defined functions. We discuss the architecture of THS, and describe its implementation atop the Apache Hadoop Ecosystem. We also present several lessons learned while developing our current prototype.

  14. Tooth loss and stroke: results from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R Constance

    2014-10-01

    Strokes are common events of significant morbidity and mortality. Poor oral conditions may share or exacerbate pathways that lead to stroke. This study was a cross-sectional study of 410,939 participants from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Stroke was defined as the participant's response (yes/no) to the survey's question, "Has a doctor, nurse or other health professional ever told you that you had a stroke?" The definition for tooth loss was based upon participant's response to the survey's question, "How many of your permanent teeth have been removed because of tooth decay or gum disease?" Descriptive, Chi Square and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Other variables that are known etiologic factors were also included in the analysis. The participants with increasing numbers of teeth lost had increasing adjusted odds ratios for stroke independent of the other factors. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, the participants who had 1 to 5 missing teeth had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 1.29 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.17, 1.42), participants who had 6 or more, but not all missing teeth had an AOR of 1.68 (95% CI: 1.50, 1.88), and participants who were edentulous had an AOR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.63, 2.11). Evidence from this cross-sectional study indicates that tooth loss had a potential, although weak positive association as an independent factor in multivariable analysis with stroke. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  15. Integrated Human Surveillance Systems of West Nile Virus Infections in Italy: The 2012 Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, a West Nile virus (WNV surveillance plan was firstly implemented in 2008 and 2009 in two affected regions and, since 2010, according to a national plan, a WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND surveillance has to be carried out each year during the period 15 June–30 November, in those regions where WNV circulation has been demonstrated among humans, animals or vectors. Moreover, since WNV can be transmitted to humans even by blood transfusions and organ transplants obtained from infected donors, the national surveillance integrates the blood transfusions and organs transplant surveillances too. The paper describes the results of this integrated human surveillance in Italy in 2012. Overall, in 2012, 28 autochthonous confirmed cases of WNND were reported, 14 blood donations were found WNV positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test and no solid organ donors tested positive for WNV. Moreover, 17 cases of WNV fever were confirmed in Veneto region. When comparing the number of WNND cases reported to the surveillance system in previous 4 years (43 cases during the period 2008–2011, with those reported in 2012 an important increase was observed in 2012. The geographic distribution of human cases was consistent with the WNV circulation among animals and vectors. Moreover, the implementation of preventive measures for WNV transmission through blood components allowed the detection of blood donors positive for WNV, avoiding the further spread of the disease. Since surveillance strategies and preventive measures are based on the integration among human, animal and vector control activities, the Italian experience could be considered a good example of collaboration among different sectors of public health in a “one health” perspective.

  16. Evaluation of the influenza sentinel surveillance system in Madagascar, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoarisoa, Alain; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Tempia, Stefano; Guillebaud, Julia; Razanajatovo, Norosoa; Randriamampionona, Lea; Piola, Patrice; Halm, Ariane; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of influenza surveillance systems is poor, especially in Africa. In 2007, the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar and the Malagasy Ministry of Public Health implemented a countrywide system for the prospective syndromic and virological surveillance of influenza-like illnesses. In assessing this system's performance, we identified gaps and ways to promote the best use of resources. We investigated acceptability, data quality, flexibility, representativeness, simplicity, stability, timeliness and usefulness and developed qualitative and/or quantitative indicators for each of these attributes. Until 2007, the influenza surveillance system in Madagascar was only operational in Antananarivo and the observations made could not be extrapolated to the entire country. By 2014, the system covered 34 sentinel sites across the country. At 12 sites, nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples were collected and tested for influenza virus. Between 2009 and 2014, 177 718 fever cases were detected, 25 809 (14.5%) of these fever cases were classified as cases of influenza-like illness. Of the 9192 samples from patients with influenza-like illness that were tested for influenza viruses, 3573 (38.9%) tested positive. Data quality for all evaluated indicators was categorized as above 90% and the system also appeared to be strong in terms of its acceptability, simplicity and stability. However, sample collection needed improvement. The influenza surveillance system in Madagascar performed well and provided reliable and timely data for public health interventions. Given its flexibility and overall moderate cost, this system may become a useful platform for syndromic and laboratory-based surveillance in other low-resource settings.

  17. [Design and implementation of an epidemiological surveillance system for mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Judith Scharager; Contreras Escudero, Lorena

    2002-02-01

    To design and test a surveillance system to detect and rank the most significant mental health problems in a community and to establish their association with the living conditions in that community. The system was designed and tested at a primary health care center in the community of La Florida, which is in the metropolitan region of Santiago, the capital of Chile. The health problems that were under surveillance, with monthly monitoring, were: addiction (to alcohol, tobacco, and benzodiazepines or other drugs), violence (domestic violence and sexual abuse, real or suspected), and disorders in children (attention deficit and behavioral disorders). By means of a computerized geographical information system (GIS), those surveillance data were combined with other data. These other data included sociodemographic information on the persons who went to the health center for care as well as data on local risk factors and protective factors for health problems, some of which are indicators of the local residents' living conditions. The proposed epidemiological surveillance system, which takes into account local living conditions and environmental variables, is a good tool for health action. The proposed system also complements the incomplete perspective of monitoring systems, which do not include variables describing the local context and that focus only on health problems. The information synthesized in the GIS maps makes it possible to simultaneously display different layers of information on factors related to the health problems studied, linked to a specific area and all its environmental variables, in an easy-to-read, self-explanatory format. These results and the concurring opinions of the participating physicians show that the experimental system effectively met the basic requirements of an epidemiological surveillance system of this kind.

  18. Culture counts--sustainable inpatient computerized surveillance across Duke University Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozart, Heidi; Horvath, Monica M; Long, Andrea; Whitehurst, Julie; Eckstrand, Julie; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the managerial and logistical details of deploying a computerized adverse drug event surveillance system that was at first a grant-funded research project and ultimately was changed to a sustained safety-monitoring application serving 3 different hospitals. Surveillance was deployed in 3 phases to 2 community-based hospitals and an academic medical center. A logic-based rules engine surveyed electronic records for laboratory, medication, and demographic information indicative of safety concerns. Potential adverse events triggered manual chart review by pharmacists to verify patient harm. During Phase 1, the research team created trigger rules for each hospital. In Phase 2, the trigger review was transitioned to hospital personnel and rule sets were reshaped for specific hospital needs. In Phase 3, surveillance was integrated into daily work flows and organizational balanced scorecards where it was accepted as a quantitative measure of medication safety performance. Computerized surveillance helps detect potentially harmful events regardless of hospital size. Active leadership, change-tolerant culture, and hospital pharmacy practice models significantly impact successful adoption. Entrenched cultural issues impeded sustainability at the academic center but not at the 2 community hospitals. Tailoring surveillance to the needs of different inpatient settings is crucial to developing a sustainable model.

  19. The Components of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF Surveillance System in Health Department of Kediri City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binti Mahfudhoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF was the dangerous infectious disease because it could cause fatality. Kediri City was the DHF endemic area. The Incident Rate in 2013 was about 99,28 per 100.000 population and CFR 0,73%. Effort to overcome DHF in Kediri City was implementing the better epidemiology surveillance system that able to monitor the desease regularly and continuously. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the implementation of DHF surveillance in Health Department of Kediri City. This research used the descriptive method with cross sectional design. Respondent was the functionary of DHF surveillance programme in Health Departement. Data resources consist of primer data and secondary data. The result of the research shown that data collection of DHF surveillance were routine and non-routine data, manpower and tools were sufficient, data collection method were active and passive, the frequency of data collection were monthly, quarterly, and incidentally. Punctuality was uncountable, the completeness of data were 47,9%, and the DHF form were sufficient. Data compilation based on people, time, place, and endemic area. Data analysis based on morbidity, mortality, and area stratification. Data interpretation consist of comparative analysis, coverage analysis, and kecenderungan analysis. The epidemiology information were the general information of DHF. Information dissemination were reporting of the DHF data to Health Department of East Java province and feedback to the public health center. Keywords: DHF, evaluation, surveillance, Kediri City

  20. A novel framework for intelligent surveillance system based on abnormal human activity detection in academic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nawashi, Malek; Al-Hazaimeh, Obaida M; Saraee, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal activity detection plays a crucial role in surveillance applications, and a surveillance system that can perform robustly in an academic environment has become an urgent need. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for an automatic real-time video-based surveillance system which can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment. To develop our system, we have divided the work into three phases: preprocessing phase, abnormal human activity detection phase, and content-based image retrieval phase. For motion object detection, we used the temporal-differencing algorithm and then located the motions region using the Gaussian function. Furthermore, the shape model based on OMEGA equation was used as a filter for the detected objects (i.e., human and non-human). For object activities analysis, we evaluated and analyzed the human activities of the detected objects. We classified the human activities into two groups: normal activities and abnormal activities based on the support vector machine. The machine then provides an automatic warning in case of abnormal human activities. It also embeds a method to retrieve the detected object from the database for object recognition and identification using content-based image retrieval. Finally, a software-based simulation using MATLAB was performed and the results of the conducted experiments showed an excellent surveillance system that can simultaneously perform the tracking, semantic scene learning, and abnormality detection in an academic environment with no human intervention.

  1. Cost Analysis of Various Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Surveillance Systems in the Dutch Egg Layer Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N.; Gonzales, J.L.; Elbers, A.R.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background As low pathogenic avian influenza viruses can mutate into high pathogenic viruses the Dutch poultry sector implemented a surveillance system for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) based on blood samples. It has been suggested that egg yolk samples could be sampled instead of blood

  2. Consensus statement with recommendations on active surveillance inclusion criteria and definition of progression in men with localized prostate cancer: the critical role of the pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montironi, Rodolfo; Hammond, Elizabeth H; Lin, Daniel W; Gore, John L; Srigley, John R; Samaratunga, Hema; Egevad, Lars; Rubin, Mark A; Nacey, John; Klotz, Laurence; Sandler, Howard; Zietman, Anthony L; Holden, Stuart; Humphrey, Peter A; Evans, Andrew J; Delahunt, Brett; McKenney, Jesse K; Berney, Daniel; Wheeler, Thomas M; Chinnaiyan, Arul; True, Lawrence; Knudsen, Beatrice; Epstein, Jonathan I; Amin, Mahul B

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is an important management option for men with low-risk, clinically localized prostate cancer. The clinical parameters for patient selection and definition of progression for AS protocols are evolving as data from several large cohorts matures. Vital to this process is the critical role pathologic parameters play in identifying appropriate candidates for AS. These findings need to be reproducible and consistently reported by surgical pathologists. This report highlights the importance of accurate pathology reporting as a critical component of these protocols.

  3. Performance Assessment of a Communicable Disease Surveillance System in Response to the Twin Earthquakes of East Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Following the twin earthquakes on August 11, 2012, in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran, the provincial health center set up a surveillance system to monitor communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess the performance of this surveillance system. In this quantitative-qualitative study, performance of the communicable diseases surveillance system was assessed by using the updated guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Qualitative data were collected through interviews with the surveillance system participants, and quantitative data were obtained from the surveillance system. The surveillance system was useful, simple, representative, timely, and flexible. The data quality, acceptability, and stability of the surveillance system were 65.6%, 10.63%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive value were not calculated owing to the absence of a gold standard. The surveillance system satisfactorily met the goals expected for its setup. The data obtained led to the control of communicable diseases in the affected areas. Required interventions based on the incidence of communicable disease were designed and implemented. The results also reassured health authorities and the public. However, data quality and acceptability should be taken into consideration and reviewed for implementation in future disasters.

  4. Developing Agent-Oriented Video Surveillance System through Agent-Oriented Methodology (AOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheah Wai Shiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-oriented methodology (AOM is a comprehensive and unified agent methodology for agent-oriented software development. Although AOM is claimed to be able to cope with a complex system development, it is still not yet determined up to what extent this may be true. Therefore, it is vital to conduct an investigation to validate this methodology. This paper presents the adoption of AOM in developing an agent-oriented video surveillance system (VSS. An intruder handling scenario is designed and implemented through AOM. AOM provides an alternative method to engineer a distributed security system in a systematic manner. It presents the security system at a holistic view; provides a better conceptualization of agent-oriented security system and supports rapid prototyping as well as simulation of video surveillance system.

  5. Effectiveness of community participation in a surveillance system initiative to prevent drowning in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansiritaweesook, Getsara; Muangsom, Niramon; Kanato, Manop; Ratanasiri, Amornrat

    2015-03-01

    This study had a 2-group pre-post quasiexperimental design and was conducted in 2 selected areas of Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. The objective was to evaluate the extent to which the surveillance system that was developed helped in drowning prevention. The development process involved extensive participation from the community. System efficiency was evaluated, and the drowning rates were compared. The system demonstrated 82.8% system sensitivity and 87% positive-predictive value. There were 90.0% rescues with no injury during the study period. The relative risk of drowning injury suggests that the control area was at 5.6 times more at risk for drowning injury than the intervention area (95% CI = 1.58, 20.12). Local knowledge and participation from the community were found to be key issues in the success of the surveillance system, and such systems can be applied to other areas with similar problems. © 2013 APJPH.

  6. Innovation of High-risk Infants Follow-up Surveillance System in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodeiry, Behzad; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Heidarabadi, Seifoallah; Ebadi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood development is one of the most social determinants of health that must be notified in order to reducing social gap and inequity. In spite of increasingly developing intensive neonatal care wards and decreasing neonatal mortality rate, there is no follow-up surveillance system to identify high-risk infants (HRI) and their health problems for timely intervention after discharge. This study was carried out to design and pilot high-risk infant follow-ups (HRIFs) surveillance system, in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS), in 2012-2013. In this qualitative research after studying international documents, consensus about criteria of HRIs accomplished by focus group discussion. Then, Delphi agreement technique was used to finalizing assessment timetable. In the second phase, we piloted the designed surveillance system in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of TUOMS. Pilot study was implemented by follow-up team organized in designed model at the first phase of the study. Then, the findings of the pilot study were being assessed by an expert panel. If the members agreed on made decisions, they were being placed on the agenda of the national committee of development care of newborns for final approval. High-risk infants follow-up surveillance system was designed in following steps: Defining of evidence-based criteria of HRIs, organizing the follow-up team, regulating the organs and neurodevelopment assessment timetable, publishing a health certificate notebook for HRIs, and designing Access database software for data collection, report and evaluation. We designed and piloted HRIFs surveillance system, so this system was institutionalized in Alzahra Hospital, finally. It can be prepared to apply in the whole country, after detecting the quantitative outcomes and developing the program in East Azarbijan.

  7. Space rescue system definition (system performance analysis and trades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housten, Sam; Elsner, Tim; Redler, Ken; Svendsen, Hal; Wenzel, Sheri

    This paper addresses key technical issues involved in the system definition of the Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV). The perspective on these issues is that of a prospective ACRV contractor, performing system analysis and trade studies. The objective of these analyses and trade studies is to develop the recovery vehicle system concept and top level requirements. The starting point for this work is the definition of the set of design missions for the ACRV. This set of missions encompasses three classes of contingency/emergency (crew illness/injury, space station catastrophe/failure, transportation element catastrophe/failure). The need is to provide a system to return Space Station crew to Earth quickly (less than 24 hours) in response to randomly occurring contingency events over an extended period of time (30 years of planned Space Station life). The main topics addressed and characterized in this paper include the following: Key Recovery (Rescue) Site Access Considerations; Rescue Site Locations and Distribution; Vehicle Cross Range vs Site Access; On-orbit Loiter Capability and Vehicle Design; and Water vs. Land Recovery.

  8. Implementing a second-generation HIV surveillance system in Romania: experiences and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejars, Marc; Pitigoi, Daniela; Teleman, Monica; Nicolaiciuc, Dan; Reintjes, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    Romania is a low prevalence country for HIV. Nevertheless, a special epidemiological situation is evolving because of the high percentage of children who were infected by nosocomial transmission between 1986 and 1991 and the consequent increasing number of sexually transmitted cases in adults, in addition to new cases among injecting drug users. In this particular context and with regard to Romania's accession to EU membership, second-generation surveillance (SGS) systems were to be implemented. Following a SWOT analysis of the existing surveillance system, a National conference, monthly working groups and a workshop for training were organized with concerned people from central level and from six pilot districts. Specialists in epidemiology, infectious diseases, dermatovenerology and health promotion were involved in the process of developing the survey methodologies, which were based on standard protocols. Methods of testing and legal and ethical issues were discussed, especially for illegal or stigmatized behaviours. Based on the specific HIV epidemiology of each district and also for practical reasons, the surveys developed and implemented were: serological and behavioural surveillance at dermatovenerology clinics in two of the selected districts, serological surveillance among patients aged 15-24 admitted to general hospitals in four districts, and behavioural surveillance among high school pupils aged 15-19 in five districts. While implementing SGS, financial and human resource constraints encountered in the development and implementation of the surveys at each location need to be taken into account. One of the most important lessons learnt during this project was the importance of teamwork and co-operation between the epidemiologists and clinicians involved in HIV/AIDS surveillance. The lessons learned in Romania could be valuable for many regions in Europe.

  9. Health system and law enforcement synergies for injury surveillance, control and prevention: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Sara F; Kollar, Laura M Mercer; Ridgeway, Greg; Sumner, Steven A

    2017-09-29

    Healthcare providers and law enforcement (LE) officers are among the most common first responders to injuring events. Despite frequent interface between the health system (HS) and LE sectors, the published evidence that supports their collaboration in injury surveillance, control and prevention has not been comprehensively reviewed. We conducted a scoping review of literature published from 1990 to 2016 that focused on local and regional HS and LE collaborations in injury surveillance, control and prevention. Our aim was to describe what is known and what remains unexplored about these cross-sector efforts. 128 articles were included in the final review. These were categorised by their focus on either surveillance activities or partnerships in injury control and prevention programmes. The majority of surveillance articles focused on road traffic injuries. Conversely, articles describing partnerships and programme evaluations primarily targeted the prevention of interpersonal violence. This review yielded two major findings: overall, the combination of HS and LE injury data added value to surveillance systems, especially as HS data augmented LE data; and HS and LE partnerships have been developed to improve injury control and prevention. However, there are few studies that have evaluated the impact and sustainability of these partnerships. The current evidence to support HS and LE collaboration in injury surveillance and control and prevention programmes is heterogeneous. Notable gaps suggest ample opportunity for further research and programme evaluation across all types of injury. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. An Expert System And Simulation Approach For Sensor Management & Control In A Distributed Surveillance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Barbara D.; Heller, Paul R.

    1987-05-01

    A surveillance network is a group of multiplatform sensors cooperating to improve network performance. Network control is distributed as a measure to decrease vulnerability to enemy threat. The network may contain diverse sensor types such as radar, ESM (Electronic Support Measures), IRST (Infrared search and track) and E-0 (Electro-Optical). Each platform may contain a single sensor or suite of sensors. In a surveillance network it is desirable to control sensors to make the overall system more effective. This problem has come to be known as sensor management and control (SM&C). Two major facets of network performance are surveillance and survivability. In a netted environment, surveillance can be enhanced if information from all sensors is combined and sensor operating conditions are controlled to provide a synergistic effect. In contrast, when survivability is the main concern for the network, the best operating status for all sensors would be passive or off. Of course, improving survivability tends to degrade surveillance. Hence, the objective of SM&C is to optimize surveillance and survivability of the network. Too voluminous data of various formats and the quick response time are two characteristics of this problem which make it an ideal application for Artificial Intelligence. A solution to the SM&C problem, presented as a computer simulation, will be presented in this paper. The simulation is a hybrid production written in LISP and FORTRAN. It combines the latest conventional computer programming methods with Artificial Intelligence techniques to produce a flexible state-of-the-art tool to evaluate network performance. The event-driven simulation contains environment models coupled with an expert system. These environment models include sensor (track-while-scan and agile beam) and target models, local tracking, and system tracking. These models are used to generate the environment for the sensor management and control expert system. The expert system

  11. Wisconsin’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: Information Systems Design for Childhood Cancer Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Anderson, Henry A.; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin’s Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health–based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure–outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure–disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case–control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology. PMID:15471739

  12. Establishing an emergency department syndromic surveillance system to support the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Alex J; Hughes, Helen E; Hughes, Thomas C; Locker, Thomas E; Shannon, Tony; Heyworth, John; Wapling, Andy; Catchpole, Mike; Ibbotson, Sue; McCloskey, Brian; Smith, Gillian E

    2012-12-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is a mass gathering event that will present a major public health challenge. The Health Protection Agency, in collaboration with the College of Emergency Medicine, has established the Emergency Department Sentinel Syndromic Surveillance System (EDSSS) to support the public health surveillance requirements of the Games. This feasibility study assesses the usefulness of EDSSS in monitoring indicators of disease in the community. Daily counts of anonymised attendance data from six emergency departments across England were analysed by patient demographics (age, gender, partial postcode), triage coding and diagnosis codes. Generic and specific syndromic indicators were developed using aggregations of diagnosis codes recorded during each attendance. Over 339,000 attendances were recorded (26 July 2010 to 25 July 2011). The highest attendances recorded on weekdays between 10:00 and 11:00 and on weekends between 12:00 and 13:00. The mean daily attendance per emergency department was 257 (range 38-435). Syndromic indicators were developed including: respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiac, acute respiratory infection, gastroenteritis and myocardial ischaemia. Respiratory and acute respiratory infection indicators peaked during December 2010, concomitant with national influenza activity, as monitored through other influenza surveillance systems. The EDSSS has been established to provide an enhanced surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympics. Further validation of the data will be required; however, the results from this initial descriptive study demonstrate the potential for identifying unusual and/or severe outbreaks of infectious disease, or other incidents with public health impact, within the community.

  13. Wisconsin's environmental public health tracking network: information systems design for childhood cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P; Anderson, Henry A; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-10-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin's Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health-based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure-outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure-disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case-control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology.

  14. Social media and internet-based data in global systems for public health surveillance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Edward; Agheneza, Tumacha; Denecke, Kerstin; Kirchner, Göran; Eckmanns, Tim

    2014-03-01

    The exchange of health information on the Internet has been heralded as an opportunity to improve public health surveillance. In a field that has traditionally relied on an established system of mandatory and voluntary reporting of known infectious diseases by doctors and laboratories to governmental agencies, innovations in social media and so-called user-generated information could lead to faster recognition of cases of infectious disease. More direct access to such data could enable surveillance epidemiologists to detect potential public health threats such as rare, new diseases or early-level warnings for epidemics. But how useful are data from social media and the Internet, and what is the potential to enhance surveillance? The challenges of using these emerging surveillance systems for infectious disease epidemiology, including the specific resources needed, technical requirements, and acceptability to public health practitioners and policymakers, have wide-reaching implications for public health surveillance in the 21st century. This article divides public health surveillance into indicator-based surveillance and event-based surveillance and provides an overview of each. We did an exhaustive review of published articles indexed in the databases PubMed, Scopus, and Scirus between 1990 and 2011 covering contemporary event-based systems for infectious disease surveillance. Our literature review uncovered no event-based surveillance systems currently used in national surveillance programs. While much has been done to develop event-based surveillance, the existing systems have limitations. Accordingly, there is a need for further development of automated technologies that monitor health-related information on the Internet, especially to handle large amounts of data and to prevent information overload. The dissemination to health authorities of new information about health events is not always efficient and could be improved. No comprehensive evaluations show

  15. Comparison of different configurations of a future European Space Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhaus, Johannes; Flegel, Sven Kevin; Moeckel, Marek; Wiedemann, Carsten; Krag, Holger; Klinkrad, Heiner; Voersmann, Peter

    In the year 1957 the first artificial object made by mankind was placed into an Earth orbit. This was the beginning of space flight and also of space surveillance. During the 53 years up to now the leading nations of space flight -the United States of America and Russia (former Soviet Union) -established their own surveillance networks to be aware of the objects in space. However, the access to the resulting data was or still is restricted so that Europe intends to build up its own surveillance network in the next couple of years. Different sensor systems shall be part of the European Space Surveillance System (ESSS). Radar systems will be used for the detection of objects in low earth orbits (LEO) while traditional optical systems will be used to cover the population in the upper medium earth orbit (MEO) and the geostationary earth orbit (GEO). Modern optical satellite surveillance systems shall also be able to detect objects in the upper LEO region up to GEO. To evaluate the best setup for a future ESSS possible sensor systems have to be combined in different configurations and their performance has to be analysed. For this purpose the PROOF-2009 software will be utilized. As a base population the MASTER-2009 population for the epoch May 1st , 2040 will be used. This population includes nearly one million objects larger than one centimeter in all orbital regions from LEO to GEO and is used in upcoming studies as reference population. The comparison will be split into three parts. In the first part different radar setups will be compared while the second part deals with the comparison of different setups for optical systems to cover the population of high altitudes. The configurations for optical systems will consist of ground based or space based telescopes. Results of an analysis of the modern optical satellite surveillance systems will be shown in the third part and compared with the results of part one and two. Finally an example for an ESSS configuration

  16. Replicas Strategy and Cache Optimization of Video Surveillance Systems Based on Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongheng Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of video surveillance technology, especially the popularity of cloud-based video surveillance applications, video data begins to grow explosively. However, in the cloud-based video surveillance system, replicas occupy an amount of storage space. Also, the slow response to video playback constrains the performance of the system. In this paper, considering the characteristics of video data comprehensively, we propose a dynamic redundant replicas mechanism based on security levels that can dynamically adjust the number of replicas. Based on the location correlation between cameras, this paper also proposes a data cache strategy to improve the response speed of data reading. Experiments illustrate that: (1 our dynamic redundant replicas mechanism can save storage space while ensuring data security; (2 the cache mechanism can predict the playback behaviors of the users in advance and improve the response speed of data reading according to the location and time correlation of the front-end cameras; and (3 in terms of cloud-based video surveillance, our proposed approaches significantly outperform existing methods.

  17. Capacity of the national influenza surveillance system in Afghanistan, a chronic conflict setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, M H; Sahak, M N; Saeed, K I; Krishnan, S K; Khan, W; Hassounah, S

    2016-10-02

    Influenza surveillance is needed to monitor potential public health threats from the emergence of novel influenza viruses. This study assessed the capacity and performance of the national influenza surveillance system in Afghanistan from 2007 to 2014. Data were collected by review of hospital registers and the National Influenza Centre (NIC) database, interviews with influenza focal points at 9 influenza sentinel surveillance sites and the Centre staff, and observation of the sites. Out of 6900 specimens collected, influenza virus was detected in 253 (3.6%), predominantly H1N1 (63%); most of these cases were detected during the 2009 pandemic. The NIC had the capacity for virus isolation and PCR identification and performed reasonably until 2011 when support of the Naval American Medical Research Unit 3 was withdrawn. The limitations identified in the system indicated the need for: more complete data, improved technical competence and trained human resources, updating of the infrastructure/facilities, and the presence of standard operating procedures throughout surveillance.

  18. MORTICIA, a statistical analysis software package for determining optical surveillance system effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkilowan, A.; Griffith, D. J.

    2017-10-01

    Surveillance modelling in terms of the standard Detect, Recognise and Identify (DRI) thresholds remains a key requirement for determining the effectiveness of surveillance sensors. With readily available computational resources it has become feasible to perform statistically representative evaluations of the effectiveness of these sensors. A new capability for performing this Monte-Carlo type analysis is demonstrated in the MORTICIA (Monte- Carlo Optical Rendering for Theatre Investigations of Capability under the Influence of the Atmosphere) software package developed at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). This first generation, python-based open-source integrated software package, currently in the alpha stage of development aims to provide all the functionality required to perform statistical investigations of the effectiveness of optical surveillance systems in specific or generic deployment theatres. This includes modelling of the mathematical and physical processes that govern amongst other components of a surveillance system; a sensor's detector and optical components, a target and its background as well as the intervening atmospheric influences. In this paper we discuss integral aspects of the bespoke framework that are critical to the longevity of all subsequent modelling efforts. Additionally, some preliminary results are presented.

  19. A Master-Slave Surveillance System to Acquire Panoramic and Multiscale Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a master-slave visual surveillance system that uses stationary-dynamic camera assemblies to achieve wide field of view and selective focus of interest. In this system, the fish-eye panoramic camera is capable of monitoring a large area, and the PTZ dome camera has high mobility and zoom ability. In order to achieve the precise interaction, preprocessing spatial calibration between these two cameras is required. This paper introduces a novel calibration approach to automatically calculate a transformation matrix model between two coordinate systems by matching feature points. In addition, a distortion correction method based on Midpoint Circle Algorithm is proposed to handle obvious horizontal distortion in the captured panoramic image. Experimental results using realistic scenes have demonstrated the efficiency and applicability of the system with real-time surveillance.

  20. National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) - National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000 forward. NVSS is a secure, web-based data management system that collects and disseminates the Nation's official vital statistics. Indicators from this data...

  1. R and D study on on-line criticality surveillance system (IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Sumasu

    2000-02-01

    Developing an inexpensive on-line criticality surveillance system is required for ensuring the safety of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Based on the series of researches for five years, R and D study on On-line Criticality Surveillance system has been carried out since 1996. The concept of this Criticality Surveillance System is based on the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) model identification algorithms to the time series of signal fluctuation of a neutron detector. We have proposed several new ideas of modification to the original design of the Criticality Surveillance System, and also reported some results of numerical analysis over the DCA experiments. In those days, DOS/V personal computers with Microsoft Windows have came into wide use instead of those based on the MS-DOS, which have been popular in Japan. NEC, a major maker of MS-DOS computers, stopped the production of MS-DOS computers and changed their management policy toward production of DOS/V personal computers. Our researches have been developed using MS-DOS computers. For the effective use of these important results, it became an urgent theme to transplant all programs developed on MS-DOS computers into computers with the OS, which is not easily affected by commercialism. Since the design concept should be based on high reliability, electromagnetic disturbance-free and high expandability, and also computers have achieved remarkably high performance as well as low price in these days, these computers should be used not only as a simple signal processing unit but also a totally integrated signal analyzing system along with conventional signal analyzing software in stead of IC chips with analyzing soft wares. This configuration enables us to easily introduce newly developed techniques and to provide supplement information. Then, this approach can enhance the reliability of the Criticality Surveillance System without addition of any special devices, and also provide the flexibility of the system

  2. An immersive system for browsing and visualizing surveillance video

    OpenAIRE

    DeCamp, Philip James; Shaw, George Macaulay; Kubat, Rony Daniel; Roy, Deb K.

    2010-01-01

    HouseFly is an interactive data browsing and visualization system that synthesizes audio-visual recordings from multiple sensors, as well as the meta-data derived from those recordings, into a unified viewing experience. The system is being applied to study human behavior in both domestic and retail situations grounded in longitudinal video recordings. HouseFly uses an immersive video technique to display multiple streams of high resolution video using a realtime warping procedure that projec...

  3. An automated system for public health surveillance of school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Atar; Rodriguez, Carla V; Duchin, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    Public Health-Seattle & King County established an automated system for monitoring school absenteeism data from 18 of 19 public school districts in King County, Washington. The system receives a daily aggregate count of the number of students enrolled and absent, stratified by school district, school name, and grade. A name and unique identifier are provided for each school and district, as well as the level (eg, elementary, middle, high, alternative, other) and zip code of each school. Files are transmitted to the health department daily and include data from the previous school day. Public Health-Seattle & King County developed a series of visualizations that summarize the data by day, week, and month for each level of stratification. The automated system for collecting and monitoring school absenteeism data was more acceptable, simple, timely, complete, and useful relative to traditional manual data collection methods.

  4. Experiences From Developing and Upgrading a Web-Based Surveillance System for Malaria Elimination in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Clementine; Lopes, Sérgio; Mellor, Steve; Aryal, Siddhi; Sovannaroth, Siv; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa

    2017-06-14

    Strengthening the surveillance component is key toward achieving country-wide malaria elimination in Cambodia. A Web-based upgraded malaria information system (MIS) was deemed to essentially act as the central component for surveillance strengthening. New functionality (eg, data visualization) and operational (eg, data quality) attributes of the system received particular attention. However, building from the lessons learned in previous systems' developments, other aspects unique to Cambodia were considered to be equally important; for instance, feasibility issues, particularly at the field level (eg, user acceptability at various health levels), and sustainability needs (eg, long-term system flexibility). The Cambodian process of identifying the essential changes and critical attributes for this new information system can provide a model for other countries at various stages of the disease control and elimination continuum. Sharing these experiences not only facilitates the establishment of "best practices" but also accelerates global and regional malaria elimination efforts. In this article, Cambodia's experience in developing and upgrading its MIS to remain responsive to country-specific needs demonstrates the necessity for considering functionality, operationalization, feasibility, and sustainability of an information system in the context of malaria elimination. ©Clementine Fu, Sérgio Lopes, Steve Mellor, Siddhi Aryal, Siv Sovannaroth, Arantxa Roca-Feltrer. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 14.06.2017.

  5. APPLICATION OF BINARY DESCRIPTORS TO MULTIPLE FACE TRACKING IN VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Oleinik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problem of multiple face tracking in a video stream. The primary application of the implemented tracking system is the automatic video surveillance. The particular operating conditions of surveillance cameras are taken into account in order to increase the efficiency of the system in comparison to existing general-purpose analogs. Method. The developed system is comprised of two subsystems: detector and tracker. The tracking subsystem does not depend on the detector, and thus various face detection methods can be used. Furthermore, only a small portion of frames is processed by the detector in this structure, substantially improving the operation rate. The tracking algorithm is based on BRIEF binary descriptors that are computed very efficiently on modern processor architectures. Main Results. The system is implemented in C++ and the experiments on the processing rate and quality evaluation are carried out. MOTA and MOTP metrics are used for tracking quality measurement. The experiments demonstrated the four-fold processing rate gain in comparison to the baseline implementation that processes every video frame with the detector. The tracking quality is on the adequate level when compared to the baseline. Practical Relevance. The developed system can be used with various face detectors (including slow ones to create a fully functional high-speed multiple face tracking solution. The algorithm is easy to implement and optimize, so it may be applied not only in full-scale video surveillance systems, but also in embedded solutions integrated directly into cameras.

  6. Strengthening health security at the Hajj mass gatherings: characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems operational during the 2015 Hajj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Badriah M; Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdul-Aziz A; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Alawam, Amnah H; Bieh, Kingsley L

    2017-05-01

    Hajj is one of the largest and the most ethnically and culturally diverse mass gatherings worldwide. The use of appropriate surveillance systems ensures timely information management for effective planning and response to infectious diseases threats during the pilgrimage. The literature describes infectious diseases prevention and control strategies for Hajj but with limited information on the operations and characteristics of the existing Hajj infectious diseases surveillance systems. We reviewed documents, including guidelines and reports from the Saudi Ministry of Health's database, to describe the characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems that were operational during the 2015 Hajj, highlighting best practices and gaps and proposing strategies for strengthening and improvement. Using Pubmed and Embase online search engines and a combination of search terms including, 'mass gatherings' 'Olympics' 'surveillance' 'Hajj' 'health security', we explored the existing literature and highlighted some lessons learnt from other international mass gatherings. A regular indicator-based infectious disease surveillance system generates routine reports from health facilities within the Kingdom to the regional and central public health directorates all year round. During Hajj, enhanced indicator-based notifiable diseases surveillance systems complement the existing surveillance tool to ensure timely reporting of event information for appropriate action by public health officials. There is need to integrate the existing Hajj surveillance data management systems and to implement syndromic surveillance as an early warning system for infectious disease control during Hajj. International engagement is important to strengthen Hajj infectious diseases surveillance and to prevent disease transmission and globalization of infectious agents which could undermine global health security. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University

  7. TENTACLE Multi-Camera Immersive Surveillance System Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-16

    in a request and sent a hard disk to receive an additional set of UAV test data (CSUAV - Columbus Surrogate Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) from SDMS ...Business Innovation Research SDK Software Development Kit SDMS Sensor Data Management System SIFT Scale-Invariant Feature Transform SPIE

  8. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  9. Strengthening systems for communicable disease surveillance: creating a laboratory network in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndihokubwayo Jean B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent emergence of a novel strain of influenza virus with pandemic potential underscores the need for quality surveillance and laboratory services to contribute to the timely detection and confirmation of public health threats. To provide a framework for strengthening disease surveillance and response capacities in African countries, the World Health Organization Regional Headquarters for Africa (AFRO developed Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR aimed at improving national surveillance and laboratory systems. IDSR emphasizes the linkage of information provided by public health laboratories to the selection of relevant, appropriate and effective public health responses to disease outbreaks. Methods We reviewed the development of Rwanda's National Reference Laboratory (NRL to understand essential structures involved in creating a national public health laboratory network. We reviewed documents describing the NRL's organization and record of test results, conducted site visits, and interviewed health staff in the Ministry of Health and in partner agencies. Findings were developed by organizing thematic categories and grouping examples within them. We purposefully sought to identify success factors as well as challenges inherent in developing a national public health laboratory system. Results Among the identified success factors were: a structured governing framework for public health surveillance; political commitment to promote leadership for stronger laboratory capacities in Rwanda; defined roles and responsibilities for each level; coordinated approaches between technical and funding partners; collaboration with external laboratories; and use of performance results in advocacy with national stakeholders. Major challenges involved general infrastructure, human resources, and budgetary constraints. Conclusions Rwanda's experience with collaborative partnerships contributed to creation of a functional

  10. Design and Implementation of Integrated Surveillance and Modeling Systems for Climate-Sensitive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Davis, J. K.; Liu, Y.; Henebry, G. M.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Climatic variations have a multitude of effects on human health, ranging from the direct impacts of extreme heat events to indirect effects on the vectors and hosts that transmit infectious diseases. Disease surveillance has traditionally focused on monitoring human cases, and in some instances tracking populations sizes and infection rates of arthropod vectors and zoonotic hosts. For climate-sensitive diseases, there is a potential to strengthen surveillance and obtain early indicators of future outbreaks by monitoring environmental risk factors using broad-scale sensor networks that include earth-observing satellites as well as ground stations. We highlight the opportunities and challenges of this integration by presenting modeling results and discussing lessons learned from two projects focused on surveillance and forecasting of mosquito-borne diseases. The Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessement (EPIDEMIA) project integrates malaria case surveillance with remotely-sensed environmental data for early detection of malaria epidemics in the Amhara region of Ethiopia and has been producing weekly forecast reports since 2015. The South Dakota Mosquito Information System (SDMIS) project similarly combines entomological surveillance with environmental monitoring to generate weekly maps for West Nile virus (WNV) in the north-central United States. We are currently implementing a new disease forecasting and risk reporting framework for the state of South Dakota during the 2016 WNV transmission season. Despite important differences in disease ecology and geographic setting, our experiences with these projects highlight several important lessons learned that can inform future efforts at disease early warning based on climatic predictors. These include the need to engage end users in system design from the outset, the critical role of automated workflows to facilitate the timely integration of multiple data streams

  11. A survey of core and support activities of communicable disease surveillance systems at operating-level CDCs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weiyi; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2010-11-17

    In recent years, problems like insufficient coordination, low efficiency, and heavy working load in national communicable disease surveillance systems in China have been pointed out by many researchers. To strengthen the national communicable disease surveillance systems becomes an immediate concern. Since the World Health Organization has recommended that a structured approach to strengthen national communicable disease surveillance must include an evaluation to existing systems which usually begins with a systematic description, we conducted the first survey for communicable disease surveillance systems in China, in order to understand the situation of core and support surveillance activities at province-level and county-level centers for disease control and prevention (CDCs). A nationwide survey was conducted by mail between May and October 2006 to investigate the implementation of core and support activities of the Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and disease-specific surveillance systems in all of the 31 province-level and selected 14 county-level CDCs in Mainland China The comments on the performance of communicable disease surveillance systems were also collected from the directors of CDCs in this survey. The core activities of NDRS such as confirmation, reporting and analysis and some support activities such as supervision and staff training were found sufficient in both province-level and county-level surveyed CDCs, but other support activities including information feedback, equipment and financial support need to be strengthened in most of the investigated CDCs. A total of 47 communicable diseases or syndromes were under surveillance at province level, and 20 diseases or syndromes at county level. The activities among different disease-specific surveillance systems varied widely. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), measles and tuberculosis (TB) surveillance systems got relatively high recognition both at province level and county level. China has

  12. Web-Based Surveillance Systems for Human, Animal, and Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoff, Lawrence C; Li, Annie

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases, caused by novel pathogens or the spread of existing ones to new populations and regions, represents a continuous threat to humans and other species. The early detection of emerging human, animal, and plant diseases is critical to preventing the spread of infection and protecting the health of our species and environment. Today, more than 75% of emerging infectious diseases are estimated to be zoonotic and capable of crossing species barriers and diminishing food supplies. Traditionally, surveillance of diseases has relied on a hierarchy of health professionals that can be costly to build and maintain, leading to a delay or interruption in reporting. However, Internet-based surveillance systems bring another dimension to epidemiology by utilizing technology to collect, organize, and disseminate information in a more timely manner. Partially and fully automated systems allow for earlier detection of disease outbreaks by searching for information from both formal sources (e.g., World Health Organization and government ministry reports) and informal sources (e.g., blogs, online media sources, and social networks). Web-based applications display disparate information online or disperse it through e-mail to subscribers or the general public. Web-based early warning systems, such as ProMED-mail, the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), and Health Map, have been able to recognize emerging infectious diseases earlier than traditional surveillance systems. These systems, which are continuing to evolve, are now widely utilized by individuals, humanitarian organizations, and government health ministries.

  13. Drug overdose surveillance using hospital discharge data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavova, Svetla; Bunn, Terry L; Talbert, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    We compared three methods for identifying drug overdose cases in inpatient hospital discharge data on their ability to classify drug overdoses by intent and drug type(s) involved. We compared three International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code-based case definitions using Kentucky hospital discharge data for 2000-2011. The first definition (Definition 1) was based on the external-cause-of-injury (E-code) matrix. The other two definitions were based on the Injury Surveillance Workgroup on Poisoning (ISW7) consensus recommendations for national and state poisoning surveillance using the principal diagnosis or first E-code (Definition 2) or any diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3). Definition 3 identified almost 50% more drug overdose cases than did Definition 1. The increase was largely due to cases with a first-listed E-code describing a drug overdose but a principal diagnosis that was different from drug overdose (e.g., mental disorders, or respiratory or circulatory system failure). Regardless of the definition, more than 53% of the hospitalizations were self-inflicted drug overdoses; benzodiazepines were involved in about 30% of the hospitalizations. The 2011 age-adjusted drug overdose hospitalization rate in Kentucky was 146/100,000 population using Definition 3 and 107/100,000 population using Definition 1. The ISW7 drug overdose definition using any drug poisoning diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3) is potentially the highest sensitivity definition for counting drug overdose hospitalizations, including by intent and drug type(s) involved. As the states enact policies and plan for adequate treatment resources, standardized drug overdose definitions are critical for accurate reporting, trend analysis, policy evaluation, and state-to-state comparison.

  14. Energy Efficient Engine: Control system preliminary definition report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.

    1986-01-01

    The object of the Control Preliminary Definition Program was to define a preliminary control system concept as a part of the Energy Efficient Engine program. The program was limited to a conceptual definition of a full authority digital electronic control system. System requirements were determined and a control system was conceptually defined to these requirements. Areas requiring technological development were identified and a plan was established for implementing the identified technological features, including a control technology demonstration. A significant element of this program was a study of the potential benefits of closed-loop active clearance control, along with laboratory tests of candidate clearance sensor elements for a closed loop system.

  15. Injuries in community-level Australian football: Results from a club-based injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Donaldson, Alex; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-11-01

    Far fewer injury surveillance systems exist within community sport than elite sport. As a result, most epidemiological data on sports injuries have limited relevance to community-level sporting populations. There is potential for data from community club-based injury surveillance systems to provide a better understanding of community sports injuries. This study aimed to describe the incidence and profile of community-level Australian football injuries reported using a club-based injury surveillance system. Prospective, epidemiological study. Sports trainers from five community-level Australian football leagues recorded injury data during two football seasons using the club-based system. An online surveillance tool developed by Sports Medicine Australia ('Sports Injury Tracker') was used for data collection. The injury incidence, profile and match injury rate were reported. Injury data for 1205 players were recorded in season one and for 823 players in season two. There was significant variability in injury incidence across clubs. However, aggregated data were consistent across football seasons, with an average of 0.7 injuries per player per season and 38-39 match injuries per 1000 h match exposure. A large proportion of injuries occurred during matches, involved the lower limb and resulted from contact. Data from the club-based system provided a profile of injuries consistent with previous studies in community-level Australian football. Moreover, injury incidence was consistent with other studies using similar personnel to record data. However, injury incidence was lower than that reported in studies using player self-report or healthcare professionals and may be an underestimate of true values. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the integrated disease surveillance and response system for infectious diseases control in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adokiya, Martin Nyaaba; Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Barau, Inuwa Yau; Beiersmann, Claudia; Mueller, Olaf

    2015-02-04

    Well-functioning surveillance systems are crucial for effective disease control programs. The Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy was developed and adopted in 1998 for Africa as a comprehensive public health approach and subsequently, Ghana adopted the IDSR technical guidelines in 2002. Since 2012, the IDSR data is reported through the new District Health Information Management System II (DHIMS2) network. The objective was to evaluate the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system in northern Ghana. This was an observational study using mixed methods. Weekly and monthly IDSR data on selected infectious diseases were downloaded and analyzed for 2011, 2012 and 2013 (the years before, of and after DHIMS2 implementation) from the DHIMS2 databank for the Upper East Region (UER) and for two districts of UER. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted among local and regional health officers on the functioning of the IDSR. Clinically diagnosed malaria was the most prevalent disease in UER, with an annual incidence rate close to 1. Around 500 suspected HIV/AIDS cases were reported each year. The highest incidence of cholera and meningitis was reported in 2012 (257 and 392 cases respectively). Three suspected cases of polio and one suspected case of guinea worm were reported in 2013. None of the polio and guinea worm cases and only a fraction of the reported cases of the other diseases were confirmed. A major observation was the large and inconclusive difference in reported cases when comparing weekly and monthly reports. This can be explained by the different reporting practice for the sub-systems. Other challenges were low priority for surveillance, ill-equipped laboratories, rare supervision and missing feedback. The DHIMS2 has improved the availability of IDSR reports, but the quality of data reported is not sufficient. Particularly the inconsistencies between weekly and monthly data need to be addressed. Moreover

  17. A semantic based video indexing and retrieval system for maritime surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu T.; Ramu, Prakash; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wei, Hai; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Content-based video retrieval from archived image/video is a very attractive capability of modern intelligent video surveillance systems. This paper presents an innovative Semantic-Based Video Indexing and Retrieval (SBVIR) software toolkit to help users of intelligent video surveillance to easily and rapidly search the content of large video archives to conduct video-based forensic and image intelligence. Tailored for maritime environment, SBVIR is suited for surveillance applications in harbor, sea shores, or around ships. The system comprises two major modules: a video analytic module that performs automatic target detection, tracking, classification, activities recognition, and a retrieval module that performs data indexing, and information retrieval. SBVIR is capable of detecting and tracking objects from multiple cameras robustly in condition of dynamic water background and illumination changes. The system provides hierarchical target classification among a large ontology of watercraft classes, and is capable of recognizing a variety of boat activities. Video retrieval is achieved with both query-by-keyword and query-by-example. Users can query video content using semantic concepts selected from a large dictionary of objects and activities, display the history linked to a given target/activity, and search for anomalies. The user can interact with the system and provide feedbacks to tune the system for improved accuracy and relevance of retrieved data. SBVIR has been tested for real maritime surveillance scenarios and shown to be able to generate highly-semantic metadata tags that can be used during the retrieval to provide user with relevant and accurate data in real-time.

  18. Information extraction approaches to unconventional data sources for "Injury Surveillance System": the case of newspapers clippings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchialla, Paola; Scarinzi, Cecilia; Snidero, Silvia; Rahim, Yousif; Gregori, Dario

    2012-04-01

    Injury Surveillance Systems based on traditional hospital records or clinical data have the advantage of being a well established, highly reliable source of information for making an active surveillance on specific injuries, like choking in children. However, they suffer the drawback of delays in making data available to the analysis, due to inefficiencies in data collection procedures. In this sense, the integration of clinical based registries with unconventional data sources like newspaper articles has the advantage of making the system more useful for early alerting. Usage of such sources is difficult since information is only available in the form of free natural-language documents rather than structured databases as required by traditional data mining techniques. Information Extraction (IE) addresses the problem of transforming a corpus of textual documents into a more structured database. In this paper, on a corpora of Italian newspapers articles related to choking in children due to ingestion/inhalation of foreign body we compared the performance of three IE algorithms- (a) a classical rule based system which requires a manual annotation of the rules; (ii) a rule based system which allows for the automatic building of rules; (b) a machine learning method based on Support Vector Machine. Although some useful indications are extracted from the newspaper clippings, this approach is at the time far from being routinely implemented for injury surveillance purposes.

  19. [Implementation of a community tele-epidemiological surveillance system using information and communication technologies in Paraguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Pedro; Cane, Virgilio; Samudio, Margarita; Cabello, Agueda; Cabral, Margarita; Basogain, Xavier; Rivas, Ronald; Hilario, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Report preliminary results of the application of the BONIS system in community tele-epidemiological surveillance in Paraguay. A study of viability and implementation carried out in the Family Health Unit located in Bañado Sur in the city of Asunción by the Paraguay River. The system automatically records personal data and symptoms of individuals who make telephone reports, and suspected cases of dengue are classified and prioritized. This information goes to community agents for follow-up and to specialists in charge of epidemiological surveillance. From April 2010 to August 2011, 1 028 calls to the system were logged. Of 157 reported cases of fever, home visits were made to 140 (89.2%); of these, fever and headache or body ache were confirmed in 52 (37.1%) cases, and headache or body ache without fever in 58 (41.4%) cases. Community agents referred 49 (35.0%) of them for medical consultation and blood tests, and they took blood samples in the homes of 19; of these, 56 (82.3%) were positive for dengue and 12 (17.4%) for influenza. Paraguay has a low-cost community tele-epidemiological surveillance system based on information and communication technologies and open-source software, which is scalable to other health symptoms and disorders of interest. To enable its acceptance and application, education programs should be developed to strengthen the management and promotion of community health.

  20. Developing a Formal Specification for the Mission Systems of a Maritime Surveillance Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucci, Laure; Billington, Jonathan; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2003-01-01

    The mission system of an aircraft is a complex real-time distributed system consisting of a mission control computer, different kinds of devices interconnected by a number of serial data buses. The complexity and real-time requirements of mission systems have motivated research into the applicati...... system with Coloured Petri Nets and analysed the model using state spaces. Here, we describe how this model was refined and modified to obtain a Coloured Petri Net model for the AP-3C Orion maritime surveillance aircraft....

  1. Users manual data base MATSURV. Reactor pressure vessel material surveillance data management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, L.D.; Tether, C.D.

    1980-02-01

    This Users Guide to the data management system MATSURV has been prepared to assist the user in all facets of the task of processing data related to reactor pressure vessel materials surveillance; preparation of raw data for input, input of data, modification of existing data, retrieval and display of data, and the creation of data reports. MATSURV is structured upon the System 2000 data base management system which is maintained on the IBM 370/168 computer at National Institutes of Health. An overview of System 2000 is provided

  2. Combining Surveillance Systems: Effective Merging of U.S. Veteran and Military Health Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    was classified similarly as moderately severe by the CDC [8]; however, the burden of morbidity was unusually high among children and young adults [9...among young adults , the delays are more clearly skewed towards earlier alerting within the DoD system. Combined Veteran and Military Health Surveillance...data from October 2006 through September 2010 to demonstrate geographic and demographic coverage, timeliness of influenza epidemic awareness, and impact

  3. Cell Phone-Based System (Chaak) for Surveillance of Immatures of Dengue Virus Mosquito Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOZANO–FUENTES, SAUL; WEDYAN, FADI; HERNANDEZ–GARCIA, EDGAR; SADHU, DEVADATTA; GHOSH, SUDIPTO; BIEMAN, JAMES M.; TEP-CHEL, DIANA; GARCÍA–REJÓN, JULIÁN E.; EISEN, LARS

    2014-01-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, México, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

  4. LOW-COMPLEXITY BIG VIDEO DATA RECORDING ALGORITHMS FOR URBAN SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Hu and Qiang Ni

    2016-01-01

    Big Video data analytics and processing are becoming increasingly important research areas because ofinfinite generation of massive video data volumes all over the world. In this paper, by utilizing Bayesianbased importance analysis, we propose a set of novel, simple but effective video recording methodologies and intelligent algorithms to solve the so-called big video data volume problem in urban surveillance systems. The complexity of our proposed algorithms are only O(n), hence they can be...

  5. Comparison of 2 Disability Measures, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Alissa C.; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A.; Okoro, Catherine A.; Carroll, Dianna D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beginning in 2013, in addition to the 2-item disability question set asked since 2001, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) began using 5 of the 6 items from the US Department of Health and Human Services?recommended disability question set. We assess and compare disability prevalence using the 2-question and 5-question sets and describe characteristics of respondents who identified as having a disability using each question set. Methods We used data from the 2013 B...

  6. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system

    OpenAIRE

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho; José Ricardo Soares Pontes

    2012-01-01

    The integration of environmental monitoring activities in the Unified Health System (SUS) shows some characteristics that differentiate it from the practice of epidemiological surveillance. This occurs mainly because much data on exposure to environmental factors is obtained outside the health sector and the adoption of actions that seek to control and/or prevent requires, in most cases, an intra andintersectoral understanding and articulation, since the health sector is not able, by itself, ...

  7. Development and piloting of the Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals System (TRIP Project-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainiqolo, I; Kafoa, B; McCaig, E; Kool, B; McIntyre, R; Ameratunga, S

    2013-01-01

    Whilst more than 90% of injury related deaths are estimated to occur in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs), the epidemiology of fatal and hospitalised injuries in Pacific Island Countries has received scant attention. This study describes the development and piloting of a population-based trauma registry in Fiji to address this gap in knowledge. The Fiji Injury Surveillance in Hospitals (FISH) system was an active surveillance system designed to identify injuries resulting in death or a hospital admission in Viti Levu, Fiji. During the pilot conducted over five months in 2005, Accident and Emergency registers, admission folders and morgue registers from 8 of Viti Levu's 12 hospitals, and an additional 3 hospitals in other parts of the country were reviewed by hospital staff and medical students to identify cases and extract a minimum data set that included demographic factors; the mechanism, nature and context of injury; substance use; and discharge outcomes. The system was audited to identify and redress difficulties with data quality in a manner that also supported local capacity development and training in injury surveillance and data management. This pilot study demonstrated the potential to collect high quality data on injuries that can pose a significant threat to life in Fiji using a mechanism that also increased the capability of health professionals to recognise the significance of injury as a public health issue. The injury surveillance system piloted provides the opportunity to inform national injury control strategies in Fiji and increase the capacity for injury prevention and more focused research addressing risk factors in the local context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Insights from a Systematic Search for Information on Designs, Costs, and Effectiveness of Poliovirus Environmental Surveillance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J; Zimmermann, Marita; Pallansch, Mark A; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2017-12-01

    Poliovirus surveillance plays a critical role in achieving and certifying eradication and will play a key role in the polio endgame. Environmental surveillance can provide an opportunity to detect circulating polioviruses prior to the observation of any acute flaccid paralysis cases. We completed a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications on environmental surveillance for polio including the search terms "environmental surveillance" or "sewage," and "polio," "poliovirus," or "poliomyelitis," and compared characteristics of the resulting studies. The review included 146 studies representing 101 environmental surveillance activities from 48 countries published between 1975 and 2016. Studies reported taking samples from sewage treatment facilities, surface waters, and various other environmental sources, although they generally did not present sufficient details to thoroughly evaluate the sewage systems and catchment areas. When reported, catchment areas varied from 50 to over 7.3 million people (median of 500,000 for the 25% of activities that reported catchment areas, notably with 60% of the studies not reporting this information and 16% reporting insufficient information to estimate the catchment area population size). While numerous studies reported the ability of environmental surveillance to detect polioviruses in the absence of clinical cases, the review revealed very limited information about the costs and limited information to support quantitative population effectiveness of conducting environmental surveillance. This review motivates future studies to better characterize poliovirus environmental surveillance systems and the potential value of information that they may provide in the polio endgame.

  9. Confirmed clinical case of chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes in agricultural communities in Central America: a case definition for surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ferreiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty. In response to a resolution approved by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO in 2013, PAHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH organized a consultation process in order to expand knowledge on the epidemic of CKDnT and to develop appropriate surveillance instruments. The Clinical Working Group from SLANH was put in charge of finding a consensus definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT. The resulting definition establishes mandatory criteria and exclusion criteria necessary for classifying a case of CKDnT. The definition includes a combination of universally accepted definitions of CKD and the main clinical manifestations of CKDnT. Based on the best available evidence, the Clinical Working Group also formulated general recommendations about clinical management that apply to any patient with CKDnT. Adhering to the definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT and implementing it appropriately is expected to be a powerful instrument for understanding the prevalence of the epidemic, evaluating the results of interventions, and promoting appropriate advocacy and planning efforts.

  10. Confirmed clinical case of chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes in agricultural communities in Central America: a case definition for surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Alejandro; Álvarez-Estévez, Guillermo; Cerdas-Calderón, Manuel; Cruz-Trujillo, Zulma; Mena, Elio; Reyes, Marina; Sandoval-Diaz, Mabel; Sánchez-Polo, Vicente; Valdés, Régulo; Ordúnez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty. In response to a resolution approved by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 2013, PAHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) organized a consultation process in order to expand knowledge on the epidemic of CKDnT and to develop appropriate surveillance instruments. The Clinical Working Group from SLANH was put in charge of finding a consensus definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT. The resulting definition establishes mandatory criteria and exclusion criteria necessary for classifying a case of CKDnT. The definition includes a combination of universally accepted definitions of CKD and the main clinical manifestations of CKDnT. Based on the best available evidence, the Clinical Working Group also formulated general recommendations about clinical management that apply to any patient with CKDnT. Adhering to the definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT and implementing it appropriately is expected to be a powerful instrument for understanding the prevalence of the epidemic, evaluating the results of interventions, and promoting appropriate advocacy and planning efforts.

  11. Exploring novel diabetes surveillance methods: a comparison of administrative, laboratory and pharmacy data case definitions using THIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Bushra; Quan, Hude; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Butalia, Sonia; Rabi, Doreen

    2017-07-28

    The objective of this study was to identify patients with diabetes in a comprehensive primary care electronic medical records database using a number of different case definitions (clinical, pharmacy, laboratory definitions and a combination thereof) and understand the differences in patient populations being captured by each definition. Data for this population-based retrospective cohort study was obtained from The Health Information Network (THIN). THIN is a longitudinal, primary care medical records database of over 9 million patients in UK. Primary outcome was a diagnosis of diabetes, defined by the presence of a diabetes read code, or an abnormal laboratory result, or a prescription for an Oral Anti-diabetic drug or insulin. A 2-year washout period was applied prior to the index of diabetes to avoid inclusion of prevalent cases for each case definition. This study demonstrated that different case definitions of diabetes identify different sub-populations of patients. When the cohorts were observed based on any measure of central tendency, each of the cohorts were reasonably comparable to each other. However, the distribution of each of the cohorts when grouped by age categories and sex, reveal differences. For example, using pharmacy case definition results in a bimodal distribution among women, one between 1-19 year and 35-39 age categories, and then again between 60-64 and 85 years-however, the histogram becomes more normally distributed when metformin was removed from the case definition. Our results suggest that clinical, pharmacy, laboratory case definitions identify different sub-populations and using multiple case definitions is likely required to optimally identify the entire diabetes population within THIN. Our study also suggests that age and sex of patients may affect the indexing of diabetes in THIN and is critical to better understand these variations.

  12. Architectural conceptual definition of the CAREM-25 reactor's control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.C.; Santome, D.; Drexler, J.; Escudero, S.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents the conceptual definition of the CAREM 25 reactor's digital and monitoring control system structure. The requirements of the system are analyzed and different implementation alternatives are studied where possible basic architectures of the system and its topology are considered and evaluated. (Author) [es

  13. Pervasive surveillance-agent system based on wireless sensor networks: design and deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, José F; Bravo, Sury; García, Ana B; Corredor, Iván; Familiar, Miguel S; López, Lourdes; Hernández, Vicente; Da Silva, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, proliferation of embedded systems is enhancing the possibilities of gathering information by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Flexibility and ease of installation make these kinds of pervasive networks suitable for security and surveillance environments. Moreover, the risk for humans to be exposed to these functions is minimized when using these networks. In this paper, a virtual perimeter surveillance agent, which has been designed to detect any person crossing an invisible barrier around a marked perimeter and send an alarm notification to the security staff, is presented. This agent works in a state of 'low power consumption' until there is a crossing on the perimeter. In our approach, the 'intelligence' of the agent has been distributed by using mobile nodes in order to discern the cause of the event of presence. This feature contributes to saving both processing resources and power consumption since the required code that detects presence is the only system installed. The research work described in this paper illustrates our experience in the development of a surveillance system using WNSs for a practical application as well as its evaluation in real-world deployments. This mechanism plays an important role in providing confidence in ensuring safety to our environment

  14. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School-Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessaram, Tara; McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease and injury in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICT). This paper examines drinking patterns across 20 PICTs. We synthesised published data from the STEPwise approach to surveillance or similar surveys for adults 25-64 years, and from the Global School-Based Student Health surveys and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) for youth. We examined current and heavy drinking, and for adults also frequency of consumption. Using YRBSS, we studied trends in youth alcohol use in US-affiliated PICTs between 2001 and 2013. Alcohol consumption in adults and youth varied considerably across PICTs. In eight PICT populations, over 60% of male adults were current drinkers. Male adults consumed alcohol more frequently and engaged in heavy drinking more than female adults. Similar gender differences occurred in current and heavy drinking among youth. Across 10 PICTs, current drinking prevalence in males 13-15 years ranged from 10% to over 40%. Declines in alcohol use among grade 9-12 students were observed in YRBSS, although the magnitude differed by island and sex. Alcohol consumption varies widely between PICTs. There are marked gender differences in use and abstention. There is scope in PICTs for implementation of best practice strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm. These need to be gender responsive and cognisant of concerning patterns of youth drinking. Strengthening surveillance of alcohol use and its consequences is vital to inform and monitor the impact of national and regional policies. [Kessaram T, McKenzie J, Girin N, Roth A, Vivili P, Williams G, Hoy D. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School-Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:412-423]. © 2015 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on

  15. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Ifakara Rural and Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Ifakara HDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geubbels, Eveline; Amri, Shamte; Levira, Francis; Schellenberg, Joanna; Masanja, Honorati; Nathan, Rose

    2015-06-01

    The Ifakara Rural HDSS (125,000 people) was set up in 1996 for a trial of the effectiveness of social marketing of bed nets on morbidity and mortality of children aged under 5 years, whereas the Ifakara Urban HDSS (45,000 people) since 2007 has provided demographic indicators for a typical small urban centre setting. Jointly they form the Ifakara HDSS (IHDSS), located in the Kilombero valley in south-east Tanzania. Socio-demographic data are collected twice a year. Current malaria work focuses on phase IV studies for antimalarials and on determinants of fine-scale variation of pathogen transmission risk, to inform malaria elimination strategies. The IHDSS is also used to describe the epidemiology and health system aspects of maternal, neonatal and child health and for intervention trials at individual and health systems levels. More recently, IHDSS researchers have studied epidemiology, health-seeking and national programme effectiveness for chronic health problems of adults and older people, including for HIV, tuberculosis and non-communicable diseases. A focus on understanding vulnerability and designing methods to enhance equity in access to services are cross-cutting themes in our work. Unrestricted access to core IHDSS data is in preparation, through INDEPTH iSHARE [www.indepth-ishare.org] and the IHI data portal [http://data.ihi.or.tz/index.php/catalog/central]. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  16. Evaluation of the national Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for dengue fever in Taiwan, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerr, Caoimhe; Lo, Yi-Chun; Edeghere, Obaghe; Bracebridge, Sam

    2015-03-01

    In Taiwan, around 1,500 cases of dengue fever are reported annually and incidence has been increasing over time. A national web-based Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NDSS) has been in operation since 1997 to monitor incidence and trends and support case and outbreak management. We present the findings of an evaluation of the NDSS to ascertain the extent to which dengue fever surveillance objectives are being achieved. We extracted the NDSS data on all laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012 to assess and describe key system attributes based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance evaluation guidelines. The system's structure and processes were delineated and operational staff interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated and key demographic variables were summarised to describe reporting activity. Data completeness and validity were described across several variables. Of 5,072 laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 2010-2012, 4,740 (93%) were reported during July to December. The system was judged to be simple due to its minimal reporting steps. Data collected on key variables were correctly formatted and usable in > 90% of cases, demonstrating good data completeness and validity. The information collected was considered relevant by users with high acceptability. Adherence to guidelines for 24-hour reporting was 99%. Of 720 cases (14%) recorded as travel-related, 111 (15%) had an onset >14 days after return, highlighting the potential for misclassification. Information on hospitalization was missing for 22% of cases. The calculated PVP was 43%. The NDSS for dengue fever surveillance is a robust, well maintained and acceptable system that supports the collection of complete and valid data needed to achieve the surveillance objectives. The simplicity of the system engenders compliance leading to timely and

  17. Evaluation of the national Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for dengue fever in Taiwan, 2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caoimhe McKerr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, around 1,500 cases of dengue fever are reported annually and incidence has been increasing over time. A national web-based Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NDSS has been in operation since 1997 to monitor incidence and trends and support case and outbreak management. We present the findings of an evaluation of the NDSS to ascertain the extent to which dengue fever surveillance objectives are being achieved.We extracted the NDSS data on all laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012 to assess and describe key system attributes based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance evaluation guidelines. The system's structure and processes were delineated and operational staff interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated and key demographic variables were summarised to describe reporting activity. Data completeness and validity were described across several variables.Of 5,072 laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 2010-2012, 4,740 (93% were reported during July to December. The system was judged to be simple due to its minimal reporting steps. Data collected on key variables were correctly formatted and usable in > 90% of cases, demonstrating good data completeness and validity. The information collected was considered relevant by users with high acceptability. Adherence to guidelines for 24-hour reporting was 99%. Of 720 cases (14% recorded as travel-related, 111 (15% had an onset >14 days after return, highlighting the potential for misclassification. Information on hospitalization was missing for 22% of cases. The calculated PVP was 43%.The NDSS for dengue fever surveillance is a robust, well maintained and acceptable system that supports the collection of complete and valid data needed to achieve the surveillance objectives. The simplicity of the system engenders compliance leading to

  18. Timeliness of national notifiable diseases surveillance system in Korea: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Hyo-Soon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increase of international travels, infectious disease control is gaining a greater importance across regional borders. Adequate surveillance system function is crucial to prevent a global spread of infectious disease at the earliest stage. There have been limited reports on the characteristics of infectious disease surveillance in Asia. The authors studied the timeliness of the Korean National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System with regard to major notifiable diseases from 2001 to 2006. Methods Six notifiable infectious diseases reported relatively frequently were included in this study. Five diseases were selected by the criteria of reported cases > 100 per year: typhoid fever, shigellosis, mumps, scrub typhus, and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. In addition, dengue fever was also included to represent an emerging disease, despite its low number of cases. The diseases were compared for the proportion notified within the recommended time limits, median time lags, and for the cumulative distribution of time lags at each surveillance step between symptom onset and date of notification to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC. Results The proportion of cases reported in time was lower for disease groups with a recommended time limit of 1 day compared with 7 days (60%–70% vs. > 80%. The median time from disease onset to notification to KCDC ranged between 6 and 20 days. The median time from onset to registration at the local level ranged between 2 and 15 days. Distribution of time lags showed that main delays arose in the time from onset to diagnosis. There were variations in timeliness by disease categories and surveillance steps. Conclusion Time from disease onset to diagnosis generally contributed most to the delay in reporting. It is needed to promote public education and to improve clinical guidelines. Rapid reporting by doctors should be encouraged, and unification of recommended

  19. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies

  20. A multi-function public health surveillance system and the lessons learned in its development: the Alberta Real Time Syndromic Surveillance Net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shihe; Blair, Corinne; Brown, Angela; Gabos, Stephan; Honish, Lance; Hughes, Trina; Jaipaul, Joy; Johnson, Marcia; Lo, Eric; Lubchenko, Anna; Mashinter, Laura; Meurer, David P; Nardelli, Vanessa; Predy, Gerry; Shewchuk, Liz; Sosin, Daniel; Wicentowich, Bryan; Talbot, James

    2010-01-01

    We describe a centralized automated multi-function detection and reporting system for public health surveillance--the Alberta Real Time Syndromic Surveillance Net (ARTSSN). This improves upon traditional paper-based systems which are often fragmented, limited by incomplete data collection and inadequate analytical capacity, and incapable of providing timely information for public health action. ARTSSN concurrently analyzes multiple electronic data sources in real time to describe results in tables, charts and maps. Detected anomalies are immediately disseminated via alerts to decision-makers for action. ARTSSN provides richly integrated information on a variety of health conditions for early detection of and prompt action on abnormal events such as clusters, outbreaks and trends. Examples of such health conditions include chronic and communicable disease, injury and environment-mediated adverse incidents. Key advantages of ARTSSN over traditional paper-based methods are its timeliness, comprehensiveness and automation. Public health surveillance of communicable disease, injury, environmental hazard exposure and chronic disease now occurs in a single system in real time year round. Examples are given to demonstrate the public health value of this system, particularly during Pandemic (H1N1) 2009.

  1. Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Anthony; Li, Heng; Zhao, Yang; Trumper, Isaac; Gandara-Montano, Gustavo A.; Xu, Di; Nikolov, Daniel K.; Chen, Changchen; Brown, Nicolas S.; Guevara-Torres, Andres; Jung, Hae Won; Reimers, Jacob; Bentley, Julie

    2015-09-01

    *avella@ur.rochester.edu Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera Anthony Vella*, Heng Li, Yang Zhao, Isaac Trumper, Gustavo A. Gandara-Montano, Di Xu, Daniel K. Nikolov, Changchen Chen, Nicolas S. Brown, Andres Guevara-Torres, Hae Won Jung, Jacob Reimers, Julie Bentley The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchison Rd, Rochester, NY, USA 14627-0186 ABSTRACT High zoom ratio zoom lenses have extensive applications in broadcasting, cinema, and surveillance. Here, we present a design study on a 16x zoom lens with 4 groups (including two internal moving groups), designed for, but not limited to, a visible spectrum surveillance camera. Fifteen different solutions were discovered with nearly diffraction limited performance, using PNPX or PNNP design forms with the stop located in either the third or fourth group. Some interesting patterns and trends in the summarized results include the following: (a) in designs with such a large zoom ratio, the potential of locating the aperture stop in the front half of the system is limited, with ray height variations through zoom necessitating a very large lens diameter; (b) in many cases, the lens zoom motion has significant freedom to vary due to near zero total power in the middle two groups; and (c) we discuss the trade-offs between zoom configuration, stop location, packaging factors, and zoom group aberration sensitivity.

  2. Evaluation of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System for Dengue Fever in Taiwan, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKerr, Caoimhe; Lo, Yi-Chun; Edeghere, Obaghe; Bracebridge, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Background In Taiwan, around 1,500 cases of dengue fever are reported annually and incidence has been increasing over time. A national web-based Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NDSS) has been in operation since 1997 to monitor incidence and trends and support case and outbreak management. We present the findings of an evaluation of the NDSS to ascertain the extent to which dengue fever surveillance objectives are being achieved. Methodology We extracted the NDSS data on all laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012 to assess and describe key system attributes based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance evaluation guidelines. The system’s structure and processes were delineated and operational staff interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Crude and age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated and key demographic variables were summarised to describe reporting activity. Data completeness and validity were described across several variables. Principal Findings Of 5,072 laboratory-confirmed dengue fever cases reported during 2010–2012, 4,740 (93%) were reported during July to December. The system was judged to be simple due to its minimal reporting steps. Data collected on key variables were correctly formatted and usable in > 90% of cases, demonstrating good data completeness and validity. The information collected was considered relevant by users with high acceptability. Adherence to guidelines for 24-hour reporting was 99%. Of 720 cases (14%) recorded as travel-related, 111 (15%) had an onset >14 days after return, highlighting the potential for misclassification. Information on hospitalization was missing for 22% of cases. The calculated PVP was 43%. Conclusions/Significance The NDSS for dengue fever surveillance is a robust, well maintained and acceptable system that supports the collection of complete and valid data needed to achieve the surveillance objectives. The

  3. R and D study on on-line criticality surveillance system (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Sumasu

    1999-02-01

    The Criticality Surveillance System should have high reliability and high expandability enable to apply new approaches. Under this basic concept, a basic design of the Criticality Surveillance System has been proposed in 1997. We propose here several new ideas of modification to the original design of the Criticality Surveillance System, and also reports some results of numerical analysis over the DCA experiments in 1996. In this report, first, we proposed the modification of the Criticality Surveillance System by adding a series of modules for the usage of the Feynman-α method over the γ-ray signal, because recent studies revealed that the statistical analysis of the γ-ray signal in time domain can provide very good information of the reactor decay constant even in the case of low count rate. This modification could increase the reliability of the Criticality Surveillance System over the wide range of amount of the reprocessed fuel in the tank. Last year we have developed an executable ADF program based on the Least Mean Squares, as the redundancy to the recursive ARMA model identification algorithm. However, this algorithm has a property that the convergence rate of parameter estimation becomes very slow when input data is corrupted with colored noise. To cope with this problem, we introduced a new ADF algorithm called Block ADF algorithm, which is developed to improve the convergence rate with less computational load to the computer. In Chapter 2, we showed the basic theory and a fast adaptive filter algorithm using eigenvalue reciprocals as stepsizes in Chapter 3. This new algorithm provides a stable parameter estimates with less computation as fast as the Recursive Least Squares Method. Thirdly, we introduced a notch filter for power line noise and a software. This filter has to be developed for each specific sampling frequency and specific power line frequency, however, this filter can remove not only the line spectrum of the power line frequency but also

  4. Meeting the International Health Regulations (2005) surveillance core capacity requirements at the subnational level in Europe: the added value of syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo; Fischer, Matthias; Krämer, Alexander; Lippert, Freddy K; Vergeiner, Gernot; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-02-07

    The revised World Health Organization's International Health Regulations (2005) request a timely and all-hazard approach towards surveillance, especially at the subnational level. We discuss three questions of syndromic surveillance application in the European context for assessing public health emergencies of international concern: (i) can syndromic surveillance support countries, especially the subnational level, to meet the International Health Regulations (2005) core surveillance capacity requirements, (ii) are European syndromic surveillance systems comparable to enable cross-border surveillance, and (iii) at which administrative level should syndromic surveillance best be applied? Despite the ongoing criticism on the usefulness of syndromic surveillance which is related to its clinically nonspecific output, we demonstrate that it was a suitable supplement for timely assessment of the impact of three different public health emergencies affecting Europe. Subnational syndromic surveillance analysis in some cases proved to be of advantage for detecting an event earlier compared to national level analysis. However, in many cases, syndromic surveillance did not detect local events with only a small number of cases. The European Commission envisions comparability of surveillance output to enable cross-border surveillance. Evaluated against European infectious disease case definitions, syndromic surveillance can contribute to identify cases that might fulfil the clinical case definition but the approach is too unspecific to comply to complete clinical definitions. Syndromic surveillance results still seem feasible for comparable cross-border surveillance as similarly defined syndromes are analysed. We suggest a new model of implementing syndromic surveillance at the subnational level. In this model, syndromic surveillance systems are fine-tuned to their local context and integrated into the existing subnational surveillance and reporting structure. By enhancing

  5. A WiMAX Networked UAV Telemetry System for Net-Centric Remote Sensing and Range Surveillance, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A WiMAX networked UAV Telemetry System (WNUTS) is designed for net-centric remote sensing and launch range surveillance applications. WNUTS integrates a MIMO powered...

  6. The Air Force Needs to Improve Cost-Effectiveness and Availability of the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    the Freedom of Information Act. The Air Force Needs to Improve Cost -Effectiveness and Availability of the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar... Target Attack Radar System Objective We determined whether the Air Force made cost -effective purchases on the performance-based logistics contract to...0263.000) Results in Brief The Air Force Needs to Improve Cost -Effectiveness and Availability of the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System

  7. The metastatic potential of renal tumors: Influence of histologic subtypes on definition of small renal masses, risk stratification, and future active surveillance protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael; Sedaghatpour, Dillon; Shapiro, Oleg; Vourganti, Srinivas; Kutikov, Alexander; Bratslavsky, Gennady

    2017-04-01

    The influence of histology in metastatic potential is often overlooked when discussing the management options of small renal masses (SRM), with size or growth rate often serving as the triggers for the intervention. We aim to re-examine the definition of a SRM by evaluating the metastatic potential of renal masses incorporating tumor size and histology to create metastatic risk tables. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-18 registries database was queried for all cases of clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) diagnosed between 2004 and 2012. There were 55,478 cases identified that included 43,783, 8,587, and 3,208 cases of clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe, respectively. Tumors were stratified using 1-cm increments to determine the metastatic potential by calculating the metastatic rate at presentation for different size intervals in histologic categories. For all 3 histologies, tumors measuring 5cm or less had a rate of metastatic RCC at presentation of less than 4%. The metastatic potential was highest for clear cell, followed by papillary and then chromophobe tumors. Setting a cutoff of no more than 3% for metastatic potential to be called a SRM, makes clear cell carcinoma and papillary carcinoma a SRM up to 4cm, whereas the chromophobe RCC would be considered a SRM up to 7cm. Although clinical staging and tumor size have been the key determinants in decision-making of patients with solid renal tumors, the histology-specific risks of metastatic potential are different for each mass. The definition of a SRM should be based on the metastatic potential and not on tumor size alone. This information could be helpful for counseling and managing patients with SRMs as well as for modifying active surveillance protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Surveillance for safety after immunization: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)--United States, 1991-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weigong; Pool, Vitali; Iskander, John K; English-Bullard, Roseanne; Ball, Robert; Wise, Robert P; Haber, Penina; Pless, Robert P; Mootrey, Gina; Ellenberg, Susan S; Braun, M Miles; Chen, Robert T

    2003-01-24

    public by accessing http://www.vaers.org. The objectives of VAERS are to 1) detect new, unusual, or rare vaccine adverse events; 2) monitor increases in known adverse events; 3) determine patient risk factors for particular types of adverse events; 4) identify vaccine lots with increased numbers or types of reported adverse events; and 5) assess the safety of newly licensed vaccines. During 1991-2001, VAERS received 128,717 reports, whereas >1.9 billion net doses of human vaccines were distributed. The overall dose-based reporting rate for the 27 frequently reported vaccine types was 11.4 reports per 100,000 net doses distributed. The proportions of reports in the age groups /= years were 18.1%, 26.7%, 8.0%, 32.6%, and 4.9%, respectively. In all of the adult age groups, a predominance among the number of women reporting was observed, but the difference in sex was minimal among children. Overall, the most commonly reported adverse event was fever, which appeared in 25.8% of all reports, followed by injection-site hypersensitivity (15.8%), rash (unspecified) (11.0%), injection-site edema (10.8%), and vasodilatation (10.8%). A total of 14.2% of all reports described serious adverse events, which by regulatory definition include death, life-threatening illness, hospitalization or prolongation of hospitalization, or permanent disability. Examples of the uses of VAERS data for vaccine safety surveillance are included in this report. As a national public health surveillance system, VAERS is a key component in ensuring the safety of vaccines. VAERS data are used by CDC, FDA, and other organizations to monitor and study vaccine safety. CDC and FDA use VAERS data to respond to public inquiries regarding vaccine safety, and both organizations have published and presented vaccine safety studies based on VAERS data. VAERS data are also used by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and the Vaccine and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee to evaluate possible

  9. Licensing experience of the evaluation of surveillance test for digital I and C systems important to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, S. H.; Kim, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of digital systems in nuclear power plants becomes inevitable nowadays. This trend applies not only to the newly constructed plants but also to the operating plants which are to be upgraded. But the existing code and standards for I and C systems important to safety do not appropriately incorporate the characteristics of digital systems yet. This paper presents licensing experience of the evaluation of surveillance test for the Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS) of Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant unit 5 and 6. As a standard for surveillance test, IEEE Std 338-2006 is almost same as 1987 edition except the risk based guidance for the determination of test intervals. It does not incorporate the design features of digital system regarding the surveillance test method. But IEC 60671 published in 2007 strengthens the role of computer self supervision as an alternative to periodic surveillance testing. We have evaluated the change of surveillance test methodology for DPPS according to IEC 60671. We have reviewed the characteristics of self diagnostic programs, self test programs, their test coverage and the integrity of checking algorithms. And we have reviewed the failure mode and effect analysis of DPPS to verify the acceptability of new test methodology. In this paper, we discuss the major issues related to the surveillance test for digital systems important to safety. And we describe our approach and evaluation results for the change of test methodology for DPPS. (authors)

  10. Implementation of global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system (GLASS in patients with bacteremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujipas Sirijatuphat

    Full Text Available The global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system (GLASS was launched by the World Health Organization (WHO in 2015. GLASS is a surveillance system for clinical specimens that are sent to microbiology laboratory for clinical purposes. The unique feature of GLASS is that clinical data is combined with microbiological data, and deduplication of the microbiological results is performed. The objective of the study was to determine feasibility and benefit of GLASS for surveillance of blood culture specimens. GLASS was implemented at Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand using a locally developed web application program (app to transfer blood culture specimen data, and to enter clinical data of patients with positive blood culture by infection control nurses and physicians via the app installed in their smart phones. The rate of positive blood culture specimens with true infection was 15.2%. Escherichia coli was the most common cause of bacteremia. Secondary bacteremia, primary bacteremia, and central line-associated blood stream infection was observed in 61.8%, 30.6%, and 12.6% of cases, respectively. Sepsis was observed in 56.9% of patients. E.coli was significantly more common in community-acquired bacteremia, whereas Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii were significantly more common in hospital-acquired bacteremia. Hospital-acquired isolates of E.coli, K.pneumoniae, A.baumannii, P.aeruginosa, S.aureus and Enterococcus faecium were more resistant to antibiotics than community-acquired isolates. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher in patients with antibiotic-resistant bacteremia than in patients with antibiotic non-resistant bacteremia (40.5% vs. 28.5%, p<0.001. The patients with antibiotic-resistant bacteremia consumed more resources than those with antibiotic non-resistant bacteremia. Blood culture results combined with patient clinical data were

  11. Requirements and concepts for a nuclear plant surveillance and diagnostic system (NPSDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, P.J.; Lanning, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    An advanced plant surveillance and diagnostic system has been postulated for the purpose of aiding operator response to unanticipated plant upsets. The plant operator is described as an information processor that needs plant status information represented by symbolic outputs. These will be compatible with modern visual processing techniques, such as CRTs. Preferrred methods of estimating the state-of-the-plant and verifying measurements require on-line real-time models which are simple dynamical relationships based on energy and mass conservation laws. Implementation of on-line state estimation techniques using such models probably requires a distributed microcomputer system whose features are described. (auth)

  12. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  13. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Di Sabatino, Daria; Martini, Vanessa; Santucci, Vincenzo Ugo; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND) is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response. PMID:25874224

  14. Using a spatial filter and a geographic information system to improve rabies surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, A

    1999-01-01

    The design and coordination of antirabies measures (e.g., oral vaccine and disease awareness campaigns) often depend on surveillance data. In Kentucky, health officials are concerned that the raccoon rabies epizootic that has spread throughout the east coast since the late 1970s could enter the state. The quality of surveillance data from Kentucky's 120 counties, however, may not be consistent. This article presents a geographic model that can be used with a geographic information system (GIS) to assess whether a county has a lower number of animals submitted for rabies testing than surrounding counties. This technique can be used as a first step in identifying areas needing improvement in their surveillance scheme. This model is a variant of a spatial filter that uses points within an area of analysis (usually a circle) to estimate the value of a central point. The spatial filter is an easy-to-use method of identifying point patterns, such as clusters or holes, at various geographic scales (county, intraurban), by using the traditional circle as an area of analysis or a GIS to incorporate a political shape (county boundary).

  15. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  16. Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Hayley R; Kuang, Brandon; Gadoth, Adva; Alfonso, Vivian H; Mukadi, Patrick; Doshi, Reena H; Hoff, Nicole A; Sinai, Cyrus; Mossoko, Mathias; Kebela, Benoit Ilunga; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response. Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR. With official case counts from active surveillance of EVD outbreaks, we assessed accuracy of reporting through the IDSR passive surveillance system. Although the active and passive surveillance represent distinct sets of data, the two were correlated, suggesting that passive surveillance based only on clinical evaluation may be a useful predictor of true cases prior to laboratory confirmation. There were 438 suspect VHF cases reported through the IDSR system and 416 EVD cases officially recorded across the outbreaks examined. Although collected prior to official active surveillance cases, case reporting through the IDSR during the 2007, 2008 and 2012 outbreaks coincided with official EVD epidemic curves. Additionally, all outbreak areas experienced increases in suspected cases for both malaria and typhoid fever during EVD outbreaks, underscoring the importance of training health care workers in recognising EVD differential diagnoses and the potential for co-morbidities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. EpiScanGIS: an online geographic surveillance system for meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance of infectious diseases increasingly relies on Geographic Information Systems (GIS. The integration of pathogen fine typing data in dynamic systems and visualization of spatio-temporal clusters are a technical challenge for system development. Results An online geographic information system (EpiScanGIS based on open source components has been launched in Germany in May 2006 for real time provision of meningococcal typing data in conjunction with demographic information (age, incidence, population density. Spatio-temporal clusters of disease detected by computer assisted cluster analysis (SaTScan™ are visualized on maps. EpiScanGIS enables dynamic generation of animated maps. The system is based on open source components; its architecture is open for other infectious agents and geographic regions. EpiScanGIS is available at http://www.episcangis.org, and currently has 80 registered users, mostly from the public health service in Germany. At present more than 2,900 cases of invasive meningococcal disease are stored in the database (data as of June 3, 2008. Conclusion EpiScanGIS exemplifies GIS applications and early-warning systems in laboratory surveillance of infectious diseases.

  18. Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system: coordinating national data on antimicrobial use and resistance for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnidge, John D; Meleady, Kathy T

    2017-06-22

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the process of establishment and coordination of the national Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system. Methods Existing surveillance programs conducted by health organisations at state or multi-jurisdictional levels were reviewed, and gaps and opportunities identified for the development of a national system. In view of the time frame available as part of the Australian Government Department of Health funding agreement, the strategy used by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care was to commence work with existing surveillance programs, expanding and enhancing them and developing new systems where gaps were identified. Using the specifications of the AURA national system, the data from each of these elements were then analysed and reported. The system provides coverage for the acute and community sectors for antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance. Results The AURA surveillance system integrates eight streams of surveillance activities, including passive and targeted surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance from hospitals (public and private) and the community (general practitioners and aged care homes). A gap was identified in timely surveillance of critical antimicrobial resistances (CARs), which resulted in the development of the national CARAlert system. The first comprehensive analyses of data across the surveillance programs was published in June 2016, providing baseline data for future reports to build on. Conclusion The AURA surveillance system has established the framework and foundation systems for an integrated and comprehensive picture of both antimicrobial use and resistance in Australia over time. National coordination and support will improve data collection, standardisation and analysis, and will facilitate collaboration across the states and territories, the Australian Government and the private sector. AURA publications

  19. Containment and surveillance devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.; Johnson, C.S.; Stieff, L.R.

    The growing acceptance of containment and surveillance as a means to increase safeguards effectiveness has provided impetus to the development of improved surveillance and containment devices. Five recently developed devices are described. The devices include one photographic and two television surveillance systems and two high security seals that can be verified while installed

  20. Engineering Systems Thinking: Definition, Assessing and Correlation with Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Engineering  Systems  Thinking:  Definition, Assessing and Correlation with  Project Success Moti Frank – HIT,  Holon  Institute of Technology, Israel...Arik Sadeh – HIT   Holon  Institute of Technology  Israel, , Sharon Ashkenazi – IMI, Israel Military Industries Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Engineering Systems Thinking: Definition, Assessing and Correlation with Project Success 5a

  1. Proposal of a framework for evaluating military surveillance systems for early detection of outbreaks on duty areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Daniel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years a wide variety of epidemiological surveillance systems have been developed to provide early identification of outbreaks of infectious disease. Each system has had its own strengths and weaknesses. In 2002 a Working Group of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC produced a framework for evaluation, which proved suitable for many public health surveillance systems. However this did not easily adapt to the military setting, where by necessity a variety of different parameters are assessed, different constraints placed on the systems, and different objectives required. This paper describes a proposed framework for evaluation of military syndromic surveillance systems designed to detect outbreaks of disease on operational deployments. Methods The new framework described in this paper was developed from the cumulative experience of British and French military syndromic surveillance systems. The methods included a general assessment framework (CDC, followed by more specific methods of conducting evaluation. These included Knowledge/Attitude/Practice surveys (KAP surveys, technical audits, ergonomic studies, simulations and multi-national exercises. A variety of military constraints required integration into the evaluation. Examples of these include the variability of geographical conditions in the field, deployment to areas without prior knowledge of naturally-occurring disease patterns, the differences in field sanitation between locations and over the length of deployment, the mobility of military forces, turnover of personnel, continuity of surveillance across different locations, integration with surveillance systems from other nations working alongside each other, compatibility with non-medical information systems, and security. Results A framework for evaluation has been developed that can be used for military surveillance systems in a staged manner consisting of initial, intermediate and final

  2. Strengthening public health surveillance and response using the health systems strengthening agenda in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukanga David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is increased interest in strengthening health systems for developing countries. However, at present, there is common uncertainty about how to accomplish this task. Specifically, several nations are faced with an immense challenge of revamping an entire system. To accomplish this, it is essential to first identify the components of the system that require modification. The World Health Organization (WHO has proposed health system building blocks, which are now widely recognized as essential components of health systems strengthening. With increased travel and urbanization, the threat of emerging diseases of pandemic potential is increasing alongside endemic diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, tuberculosis (TB, malaria, and hepatitis virus infections. At the same time, the epidemiologic patterns are shifting, giving rise to a concurrent increase in disease burden due to non-communicable diseases. These diseases can be addressed by public health surveillance and response systems that are operated by competent public health workers in core public health positions at national and sub-national levels with a focus on disease prevention. We describe two ways that health ministries in developing countries could leverage President Obama’s Global Health Initiative (GHI to build public health surveillance and response systems using proven models for public health systems strengthening and to create the public health workforce to operate those systems. We also offer suggestions for how health ministries could strengthen public health systems within the broad health systems strengthening agenda. Existing programs (e.g., the Global Vaccine Alliance [GAVI] and the Global Fund Against Tuberculosis, AIDS, and Malaria [GFTAM] can also adapt their current health systems strengthening programs to build sustainable public health systems.

  3. Nosocomial infections in a Dutch neonatal intensive care unit: surveillance study with definitions for infection specifically adapted for neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwet, W. C.; Kaiser, A. M.; van Elburg, R. M.; Berkhof, J.; Fetter, W. P. F.; Parlevliet, G. A.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is high compared with other wards. However, no definitions for hospital-acquired infection are available for NICUs. The aim of this study was to measure the incidence of such infections and to identify risk factors in the

  4. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Strathdee, Steffanie; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2013-09-30

    Illegal drug use continues to be a major threat to community health and safety. We used international drug surveillance databases to assess the relationship between multiple long-term estimates of illegal drug price and purity. We systematically searched for longitudinal measures of illegal drug supply indicators to assess the long-term impact of enforcement-based supply reduction interventions. Data from identified illegal drug surveillance systems were analysed using an a priori defined protocol in which we sought to present annual estimates beginning in 1990. Data were then subjected to trend analyses. Data were obtained from government surveillance systems assessing price, purity and/or seizure quantities of illegal drugs; systems with at least 10 years of longitudinal data assessing price, purity/potency or seizures were included. We identified seven regional/international metasurveillance systems with longitudinal measures of price or purity/potency that met eligibility criteria. In the USA, the average inflation-adjusted and purity-adjusted prices of heroin, cocaine and cannabis decreased by 81%, 80% and 86%, respectively, between 1990 and 2007, whereas average purity increased by 60%, 11% and 161%, respectively. Similar trends were observed in Europe, where during the same period the average inflation-adjusted price of opiates and cocaine decreased by 74% and 51%, respectively. In Australia, the average inflation-adjusted price of cocaine decreased 14%, while the inflation-adjusted price of heroin and cannabis both decreased 49% between 2000 and 2010. During this time, seizures of these drugs in major production regions and major domestic markets generally increased. With few exceptions and despite increasing investments in enforcement-based supply reduction efforts aimed at disrupting global drug supply, illegal drug prices have generally decreased while drug purity has generally increased since 1990. These findings suggest that expanding efforts at

  5. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Strathdee, Steffanie; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Illegal drug use continues to be a major threat to community health and safety. We used international drug surveillance databases to assess the relationship between multiple long-term estimates of illegal drug price and purity. Design We systematically searched for longitudinal measures of illegal drug supply indicators to assess the long-term impact of enforcement-based supply reduction interventions. Setting Data from identified illegal drug surveillance systems were analysed using an a priori defined protocol in which we sought to present annual estimates beginning in 1990. Data were then subjected to trend analyses. Main outcome measures Data were obtained from government surveillance systems assessing price, purity and/or seizure quantities of illegal drugs; systems with at least 10 years of longitudinal data assessing price, purity/potency or seizures were included. Results We identified seven regional/international metasurveillance systems with longitudinal measures of price or purity/potency that met eligibility criteria. In the USA, the average inflation-adjusted and purity-adjusted prices of heroin, cocaine and cannabis decreased by 81%, 80% and 86%, respectively, between 1990 and 2007, whereas average purity increased by 60%, 11% and 161%, respectively. Similar trends were observed in Europe, where during the same period the average inflation-adjusted price of opiates and cocaine decreased by 74% and 51%, respectively. In Australia, the average inflation-adjusted price of cocaine decreased 14%, while the inflation-adjusted price of heroin and cannabis both decreased 49% between 2000 and 2010. During this time, seizures of these drugs in major production regions and major domestic markets generally increased. Conclusions With few exceptions and despite increasing investments in enforcement-based supply reduction efforts aimed at disrupting global drug supply, illegal drug prices have generally decreased while drug purity has generally

  6. Integration of artificial intelligence systems for nuclear power plants surveillance and diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetry, Moon K.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this program is to design, construct operate, test, and evaluate a prototype integrated monitoring and diagnostic system for a nuclear power plant. It is anticipated that this technology will have wide application to other complex systems (e.g., fossil power plants, chemical processing plants, and possibly air traffic control systems). Over the past decade, the University of Tennessee (UT) and others have carried out many projects utilizing various methodologies of artificial intelligence (expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms) to enhance the performance (safety, efficiency, reliability, and availability) of nuclear power plants. Investigations and studies have included a) instrumentation surveillance and calibration validation, b) inferential sensing to calibration of feed water venture flow during fouling, c) thermodynamic performance modeling with iterative improvement of plant heat rate, d) diagnosis of nuclear power plant transients

  7. Mandatory HIV surveillance system could be implemented in the next year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    A nationwide mandatory HIV reporting system could be in place as early as the summer of 1998, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The issue of whether the system tracks names or unique identification numbers is in contention. The CDC plans to publish an evaluation of the results of two pilot programs that used alternative reporting programs rather than names, and also plans to publish a best practices document in the Federal Register. Many people are opposed to using unique identifiers because such systems are unreliable and unwieldy, and are not readily linked to other systems that track sexually-transmitted diseases and tuberculosis. Others, however, are concerned that using names will breach confidentiality, will link the surveillance reporting system to other controversial programs such as partner notification, and could possibly lead to deportation for illegal immigrants who test HIV positive.

  8. Sandia photovoltaic systems definition and application experiment projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.

    1983-04-01

    A compilation is given of the abstracts and visual material used in presentation at the Fourth Photovoltaic Systems Definition and Applications Projects Integration Meeting held at the Marriott Hotel, April 12-14, 1983, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting provided a forum for detailed analyses on recently completed and current activities. These activities include systems research, balance-of-system technology development, residential experimentation, and evaluation of intermediate-sized applications.

  9. Evaluating the feasibility and participants' representativeness of an online nationwide surveillance system for influenza in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debin, Marion; Turbelin, Clément; Blanchon, Thierry; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Falchi, Alessandra; Hanslik, Thomas; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Poletto, Chiara; Colizza, Vittoria

    2013-01-01

    The increasing Internet coverage and the widespread use of digital devices offer the possibility to develop new digital surveillance systems potentially capable to provide important aid to epidemiological and public health monitoring and research. In France, a new nationwide surveillance system for influenza-like illness, GrippeNet.fr, was introduced since the 2011/2012 season based on an online participatory mechanism and open to the general population. We evaluate the recruitment and participation of users to the first pilot season with respect to similar efforts in Europe to assess the feasibility of establishing a participative network of surveillance in France. We further investigate the representativeness of the GrippeNet.fr population along a set of indicators on geographical, demographic, socio-economic and health aspects. Participation was widespread in the country and with rates comparable to other European countries with partnered projects running since a longer time. It was not representative of the general population in terms of age and gender, however all age classes were represented, including the older classes (65+ years old), generally less familiar with the digital world, but considered at high risk for influenza complications. Once adjusted on demographic indicators, the GrippeNet.fr population is found to be more frequently employed, with a higher education level and vaccination rate with respect to the general population. A similar propensity to commute for work to different regions was observed, and no significant difference was found for asthma and diabetes. Results show the feasibility of the system, provide indications to inform adjusted epidemic analyses, and highlight the presence of specific population groups that need to be addressed by targeted communication strategies to achieve a higher representativeness in the following seasons.

  10. Insights From Flutracking: Thirteen Tips to Growing a Web-Based Participatory Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Craig; Carlson, Sandra; Butler, Michelle; Cassano, Daniel; Clarke, Stephen; Fejsa, John; Durrheim, David

    2017-08-17

    Flutracking is a weekly Web-based survey of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Australia that has grown from 400 participants in 2006 to over 26,000 participants every week in 2016. Flutracking monitors both the transmission and severity of ILI across Australia by documenting symptoms (cough, fever, and sore throat), time off work or normal duties, influenza vaccination status, laboratory testing for influenza, and health seeking behavior. Recruitment of Flutrackers commenced via health department and other organizational email systems, and then gradually incorporated social media promotion and invitations from existing Flutrackers to friends to enhance participation. Invitations from existing participants typically contribute to over 1000 new participants each year. The Flutracking survey link was emailed every Monday morning in winter and took less than 10 seconds to complete. To reduce the burden on respondents, we collected only a minimal amount of demographic and weekly data. Additionally, to optimize users' experiences, we maintained a strong focus on "obvious design" and repeated usability testing of naïve and current participants of the survey. In this paper, we share these and other insights on recruitment methods and user experience principles that have enabled Flutracking to become one of the largest online participatory surveillance systems in the world. There is still much that could be enhanced in Flutracking; however, we believe these principles could benefit others developing similar online surveillance systems. ©Craig Dalton, Sandra Carlson, Michelle Butler, Daniel Cassano, Stephen Clarke, John Fejsa, David Durrheim. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 17.08.2017.

  11. The Italian National Seismic Network and the earthquake and tsunami monitoring and surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Michelini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV is an Italian research institution, with focus on Earth Sciences. INGV runs the Italian National Seismic Network (Rete Sismica Nazionale, RSN and other networks at national scale for monitoring earthquakes and tsunami as a part of the National Civil Protection System coordinated by the Italian Department of Civil Protection (Dipartimento di Protezione Civile, DPC. RSN is composed of about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions; about 110 stations feature also co-located strong motion instruments, and about 180 have GPS receivers and belong to the National GPS network (Rete Integrata Nazionale GPS, RING. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection, hypocenter and magnitude determination, moment tensors, shake maps and other products of interest for DPC. Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment and surveillance procedures. INGV is one of the primary nodes of ORFEUS (Observatories & Research Facilities for European Seismology EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive for the archiving and distribution of continuous, quality checked seismic data. The strong motion network data are archived and distributed both in EIDA and in event based archives; GPS data, from the RING network are also archived, analyzed and distributed at INGV. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters to the DPC. These are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Italian Seismic Bulletin (Bollettino Sismico Italiano, BSI. The results are published on the web, these are available to both the scientific community and the general public. The INGV surveillance includes a pre-operational tsunami alert service since INGV is one of the Tsunami Service providers of

  12. An Operational System for Surveillance and Ecological Forecasting of West Nile Virus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Davis, J. K.; Vincent, G.; Hess, A.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Mosquito-borne disease surveillance has traditionally focused on tracking human cases along with the abundance and infection status of mosquito vectors. For many of these diseases, vector and host population dynamics are also sensitive to climatic factors, including temperature fluctuations and the availability of surface water for mosquito breeding. Thus, there is a potential to strengthen surveillance and predict future outbreaks by monitoring environmental risk factors using broad-scale sensor networks that include earth-observing satellites. The South Dakota Mosquito Information System (SDMIS) project combines entomological surveillance with gridded meteorological data from NASA's North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) to generate weekly risk maps for West Nile virus (WNV) in the north-central United States. Critical components include a mosquito infection model that smooths the noisy infection rate and compensates for unbalanced sampling, and a human infection model that combines the entomological risk estimates with lagged effects of meteorological variables from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Two types of forecasts are generated: long-term forecasts of statewide risk extending through the entire WNV season, and short-term forecasts of the geographic pattern of WNV risk in the upcoming week. Model forecasts are connected to public health actions through decision support matrices that link predicted risk levels to a set of phased responses. In 2016, the SDMIS successfully forecast an early start to the WNV season and a large outbreak of WNV cases following several years of low transmission. An evaluation of the 2017 forecasts will also be presented. Our experiences with the SDMIS highlight several important lessons that can inform future efforts at disease early warning. These include the value of integrating climatic models with recent observations of infection, the critical role of automated workflows to facilitate

  13. A practical indoor context-aware surveillance system with multi-Kinect sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lili; You, Ying; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Shun

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we develop a novel practical application, which give scalable services to the end users when abnormal actives are happening. Architecture of the application has been presented consisting of network infrared cameras and a communication module. In this intelligent surveillance system we use Kinect sensors as the input cameras. Kinect is an infrared laser camera which its user can access the raw infrared sensor stream. We install several Kinect sensors in one room to track the human skeletons. Each sensor returns the body positions with 15 coordinates in its own coordinate system. We use calibration algorithms to calibrate all the body positions points into one unified coordinate system. With the body positions points, we can infer the surveillance context. Furthermore, the messages from the metadata index matrix will be sent to mobile phone through communication module. User will instantly be aware of an abnormal case happened in the room without having to check the website. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. And the application method introduced in this paper is not only to discourage the criminals and assist police in the apprehension of suspects, but also can enabled the end-users monitor the indoor environments anywhere and anytime by their phones.

  14. Sentinel surveillance systems with special focus on vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racloz, V; Griot, C; Stärk, K D C

    2006-01-01

    In the past few decades, vector-borne diseases have been spreading into countries previously free of these agents. It is necessary for a surveillance method to be tailored to the biology of these agents in order to detect their incursion. Using a sentinel herd system, it is possible to target high-risk areas where occurrence is most probably due to vector presence. Since the 1970s, diseases such as Akabane, vesicular stomatitis and Bluetongue disease have successfully been monitored using cattle herds as sentinels in many countries such as Saudi Arabia, Australia, China, Indonesia, Sultanate of Oman and most recently in countries in Western Europe. This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of sentinel herd surveillance systems in general. In order to determine their efficacy, the following criteria were found to be essential: the choice of sentinel locations, sentinel animal, seasonality of sampling and diagnostic testing methods. We conclude that due to its ability to focus on a specific disease, sentinel herd systems have been successful in the early detection of the spread of a targeted agent. This review is used as a basis for recommendations for the development of future sentinel herd systems.

  15. Development and Significance of the E-surveillance System for Contact Allergies in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugonik, Aleksandra; Kalač Pandurovič, Maja; Vok, Marko; Dugonik, Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the development and significance of online systems for the collection and analysis of medical data (patch test results) with a web application. Modern digital tools greatly aid in collecting, combining, and preserving the data in a way that is friendly, undemanding and time-efficient for the dermatologist. Creating a central database for the results of patch testing provides a better picture of contact sensitivity and characteristics of allergic contact dermatitis in Slovenia. An electronic database and connected network was started in Slovenia in 2010. Data from skin allergy units since 2000 has also been included retrospectively. At present (Oct 2016), the database contains the data of 19,772 patch tests performed by seven skin allergy units. Creating a central database of the results of patch testing provides a larger and therefore more credible collection of data. Immediate integration and data processing enable a current overview of contact sensitivity for each participating center as well as at the national level. Data can be easily transferred to other databases or edited with other software tools. This on-line register has worked flawlessly for more than five years. We have contributed data to the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA) network database since 2012, which, along with the Deutsche Kontaktallergie-Gruppe system of collecting patch test data for German-speaking countries, represents the only multicenter surveillance system of patch test results in Europe.

  16. Challenges and Specifications for Robust Face and Gait Recognition Systems for Surveillance Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCIU Ioan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Automated person recognition (APR based on biometric signals addresses the process of automatically recognize a person according to his physiological traits (face, voice, iris, fingerprint, ear shape, body odor, electroencephalogram – EEG, electrocardiogram, or hand geometry, or behavioural patterns (gait, signature, hand-grip, lip movement. The paper aims at briefly presenting the current challenges for two specific non-cooperative biometric approaches, namely face and gait biometrics as well as approaches that consider combination of the two in the attempt of a more robust system for accurate APR, in the context of surveillance application. Open problems from both sides are also pointed out.

  17. Five-year decreased incidence of surgical site infections following gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement surgery through active surveillance by the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H J; Adiyani, L; Sung, J; Choi, J Y; Kim, H B; Kim, Y K; Kwak, Y G; Yoo, H; Lee, Sang-Oh; Han, S H; Kim, S R; Kim, T H; Lee, H M; Chun, H K; Kim, J-S; Yoo, J D; Koo, H-S; Cho, E H; Lee, K W

    2016-08-01

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection has been associated with a reduction in surgical site infection (SSI). To evaluate the Korean Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (KONIS) in order to assess its effects on SSI since it was introduced. SSI data after gastrectomy, total hip arthroplasty (THA), and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) between 2008 and 2012 were analysed. The pooled incidence of SSI was calculated for each year; the same analyses were also conducted from hospitals that had participated in KONIS for at least three consecutive years. Standardized SSI rates for each year were calculated by adjusting for SSI risk factors. SSI trends were analysed using the Cochran-Armitage test. The SSI rate following gastrectomy was 3.12% (522/16,918). There was a significant trend of decreased crude SSI rates over five years. This trend was also evident in analysis of hospitals that had participated for more than three years. The SSI rate for THA was 2.05% (157/7656), which decreased significantly from 2008 to 2012. The risk factors for SSI after THA included the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance risk index, trauma, reoperation, and age (60-69 years). The SSI rate for TKA was 1.90% (152/7648), which also decreased significantly during a period of five years. However, the risk-adjusted analysis of SSI did not show a significant decrease for all surgical procedures. The SSI incidence of gastrectomy and prosthetic joint replacement declined over five years as a result of active surveillance by KONIS. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the novel respiratory virus surveillance program: Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Patricia A; Nguyen, Linh M; Lutman, Michelle L; Middaugh, John P

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by respiratory viruses are associated with recurrent epidemics and widespread morbidity and mortality. Routine surveillance of these pathogens is necessary to determine virus activity, monitor for changes in circulating strains, and plan for public health preparedness. The Southern Nevada Health District in Las Vegas, Nevada, recruited five pediatric medical practices to serve as sentinel sites for the Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS) program. Sentinel staff collected specimens throughout the year from ill children who met the influenza-like illness case definition and submitted specimens to the Southern Nevada Public Health Laboratory for molecular testing for influenza and six non-influenza viruses. Laboratory results were analyzed and reported to the medical and general communities in weekly bulletins year-round. PEWSS data were also used to establish viral respiratory seasonal baselines and in influenza vaccination campaigns. The surveillance program was evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. PEWSS met three of six program usefulness criteria and seven of nine surveillance system attributes, which exceeded the CDC Guidelines evaluation criteria for a useful and complete public health surveillance program. We found that PEWSS is a useful and complete public health surveillance system that is simple, flexible, accessible, and stable.

  19. Assessment of timeliness, representativeness and quality of data reported to Italy's national integrated surveillance system for acute viral hepatitis (SEIEVA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, M E; Longhi, S; de Waure, C; Mele, A; Franco, E; Ricciardi, W; Filia, A

    2015-05-01

    Periodic assessment of surveillance systems is recommended to verify whether they are appropriately monitoring the public health problem under surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate timeliness, data quality and representativeness of data reported to the Italian Integrated Epidemiological System for Acute Viral Hepatitis (SEIEVA). Cross-sectional analysis of surveillance data. Quantitative indicators were used to evaluate representativeness of reported cases, data quality, and timeliness between surveillance steps, for reports of acute viral hepatitis cases with date of onset of symptoms from 2009 to 2012 (N = 4516). Representativeness was 75%. Over 95% of records reported information on age, sex, city of residence, risk factors for hepatitis A and vaccination status. Information on risk factors for hepatitis B and C were reported less consistently (83%), as was information on early outcome (60%). Wide delays were found between surveillance steps. The system collects high quality data on acute viral hepatitis cases in Italy. Timeliness was found to be the main limit and needs to be improved by optimizing web-based reporting procedures, increasing communication with participating centres, improving feedback and increasing dissemination of surveillance results. The study highlights the importance of reporting timeliness to detect outbreaks of acute viral hepatitis. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional Systems Biology: Definitions and Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Nielsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    waiting for a predictive knowledge of genetic variation. It is widely recognized that systems and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how nutrition influences metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this regulation is disturbed in a diet-related disease, and to what extent...... individual genotypes contribute to such diseases....

  1. A Petri Net Definition of a System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1979-01-01

    This paper introduces a language for the description of systems with concurrency, and presents a formal definition of its semantics. The language is based on Delta and the semantic model is an extension of Petri nets with a data part and with expressions attached to transitions and to places....

  2. Urban and Rural Differences of Acute Cardiovascular Disease Events: A Study from the Population-Based Real-Time Surveillance System in Zhejiang, China in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weiwei; Wei, Xiaolin; Liang, Yujia; Zou, Guanyang; Hu, Ruying; Deng, Simin; Zhang, Zhitong; Pan, Jing; Choi, Bernard C K; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Zhejiang province, China, has implemented a population based, real-time surveillance system that tracks acute cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) events since 2001. This study aimed to describe the system and report CVD incidence, mortality and case-fatality between urban and rural areas in Zhejiang in 2012. The surveillance system employs a stratified random sampling method covering all permanent residents of 30 counties/districts in Zhejiang. Acute CVD events such as coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were defined, registered and reviewed based on the adapted MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) definitions. Data were collected from health facilities, vital registries, supplementary surveys, and additional investigations, and were checked for data quality before input in the system. We calculated the rates and compared them by gender, age and region. In 2012, the incidence, mortality and case-fatality of total acute CVD events were 367.0 (CHD 59.1, stroke 307.9), 127.1 (CHD 43.3, stroke 83.8) per 100,000 and 34.6% (CHD 73.2%, stroke 27.2%), respectively. Compared with rural areas, urban areas reported higher incidence and mortality but lower case-fatality rates for CHD (Pcase-fatality rates for stroke (P<0.001). We found significant differences on CHD and stroke epidemics between urban and rural areas in Zhejiang. Special attentions need to be given to stroke control, especially in rural areas.

  3. Adequacy of two ambulatory care surveillance systems for tracking childhood obesity practice patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Keast, Debra R; Rappley, Marsha D; Camargo, Carlos A

    2008-07-01

    The National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NAMCS) and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NHAMCS) are surveillance systems in the USA that track provider practice patterns at ambulatory care visits. This study investigated the adequacy of the NAMCS/NHAMCS for surveillance of childhood obesity practice patterns. The frequency of obesity visits in the 1997-2000 NAMCS/NHAMCS (outpatient component) was compared with obesity prevalence among children who reported a physician visit in the preceding 12 months in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000. Obesity was identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9th revision clinical modification code ICD-9-278.0 in the NAMCS/NHAMCS. For the NHANES, age- and gender-specific body mass index >95th percentile was used. Between 1997 and 2000, obesity was identified in 4.1 million (0.8%) of 516 million ambulatory care visits. With an obesity prevalence of 14.2% from the NHANES survey, NAMCS/NHAMCS only identified 5.6% of all children aged 2-17 years >95th percentile. Of those identified, the rate of obesity visits in the NAMCS/NHAMCS was lowest for non-Hispanic Whites (3.9%) compared with non-Hispanic Blacks (6.9%) and Hispanics (10.2%). The very infrequent reporting of obesity in the NAMCS/NHAMCS suggests that these surveillance systems do not reflect how healthcare providers identify and care for overweight children. Collecting weight and height measures would improve their utility in tracking identification and management of overweight children.

  4. Demonstration of an automated on-line surveillance system at a commercial nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.M.; Sweeney, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a first step in demonstrating the practicality of performing continuous on-line surveillance of the performance of nuclear steam supply systems using noise related techniques, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is operating a computerized noise signal data acquisition and processing system at the Sequoyah Unit 1 Nuclear Plant, an 1148 MWe four-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) located near Chattanooga, Tennessee. The principal objective is to establish, with a degree of continuity and completeness not previously achieved, the long-term characteristics of signals from neutron detectors and process sensors in order to evaluate the feasibility of detecting and diagnosing anomalous reactor conditions by means of changes in these signals. The system is designed to automatically screen the gathered data, using a number of descriptors derived from the power spectra of the monitored signals, and thereby select for the noise analyst's perusal only those data which differ statistically from norms which the system has previously established

  5. A semantic autonomous video surveillance system for dense camera networks in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network.

  6. Adaptive Array Antenna Control Methods with Delay Tolerant Networking for the Winter Road Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriki Uchida

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that the road condition in the winter is one of the significant issues for the safety driving by tourists or residents. However, there are many difficulties of the V2V networks such as the transmission range of wireless networks and the noises from the automobilefs bodies. Thus, this paper introduces the Adaptive Array Antenna (AAA controls for the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V networks based the Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN in the road surveillance system. In the proposed system, the vehicles equip the AAA control systems with IEEE802.11a/b/g based the DTN, and the wireless directions are controlled by the visual recognitions with Kalman filter algorithm to make the longer and stable wireless connections for the efficiency of the DTN. The porotype system is introduced in this paper, and the results are discussed for the future studies.

  7. A Semantic Autonomous Video Surveillance System for Dense Camera Networks in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez-Esguevillas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network.

  8. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Sarah

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005] offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s Cooperative Biologica Engagement Program (CBEP works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  9. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboy, Celine H; Chapman, Will; Albetkova, Adilya; Kennedy, Sarah; Rayfield, Mark A

    2010-12-03

    The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  10. Historical Trends in Ground-Based Optical Space Surveillance System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, M.; Shroyer, L.

    In the spirit of the 50th anniversary of the launch of the first man-made satellite, an historical overview of ground-based optical space surveillance systems is provided. Specific emphasis is given on gathering metrics to analyze design trends. The subject of space surveillance spans the history of spaceflight: from the early tracking cameras at missile ranges, the first observations of Sputnik, to the evolution towards highly capable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems, and much in between. Whereas previous reviews in the literature have been limited in scope to specific time periods, operational programs, countries, etc., a broad overview of a wide range of sources is presented. This review is focused on systems whose primary design purpose can be classified as Space Object Identification (SOI) or Orbit Determination (OD). SOI systems are those that capture images or data to determine information about the satellite itself, such as attitude, features, and material composition. OD systems are those that produce estimates of the satellite position, usually in the form of orbital elements or a time history of tracking angles. Systems are also categorized based on the orbital regime in which their targets reside, which has been simplified in this study to either Low Earth Orbit (LEO) or Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). The systems are further classified depending on the industry segment (government/commercial or academic), and whether the program is foreign or domestic. In addition to gathering metrics on systems designed solely for man-made satellite observations, it is interesting to find examples of other systems being similarly used. Examples include large astronomical telescopes being used for GEO debris surveys and anomaly resolution for deep-space probes. Another interesting development is the increase in number and capability of COTS systems, some of which are specifically marketed to consumers as satellite trackers. After describing the results of the

  11. Integrating malaria surveillance with climate data for outbreak detection and forecasting: the EPIDEMIA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkord, Christopher L; Liu, Yi; Mihretie, Abere; Gebrehiwot, Teklehaymanot; Awoke, Worku; Bayabil, Estifanos; Henebry, Geoffrey M; Kassa, Gebeyaw T; Lake, Mastewal; Wimberly, Michael C

    2017-02-23

    Early indication of an emerging malaria epidemic can provide an opportunity for proactive interventions. Challenges to the identification of nascent malaria epidemics include obtaining recent epidemiological surveillance data, spatially and temporally harmonizing this information with timely data on environmental precursors, applying models for early detection and early warning, and communicating results to public health officials. Automated web-based informatics systems can provide a solution to these problems, but their implementation in real-world settings has been limited. The Epidemic Prognosis Incorporating Disease and Environmental Monitoring for Integrated Assessment (EPIDEMIA) computer system was designed and implemented to integrate disease surveillance with environmental monitoring in support of operational malaria forecasting in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. A co-design workshop was held with computer scientists, epidemiological modelers, and public health partners to develop an initial list of system requirements. Subsequent updates to the system were based on feedback obtained from system evaluation workshops and assessments conducted by a steering committee of users in the public health sector. The system integrated epidemiological data uploaded weekly by the Amhara Regional Health Bureau with remotely-sensed environmental data freely available from online archives. Environmental data were acquired and processed automatically by the EASTWeb software program. Additional software was developed to implement a public health interface for data upload and download, harmonize the epidemiological and environmental data into a unified database, automatically update time series forecasting models, and generate formatted reports. Reporting features included district-level control charts and maps summarizing epidemiological indicators of emerging malaria outbreaks, environmental risk factors, and forecasts of future malaria risk. Successful implementation and

  12. An enhanced Enterovirus surveillance system allows identification and characterization of rare and emerging respiratory enteroviruses in Denmark, 2015-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnadas, Céline; Midgley, Sofie E; Skov, Marianne N; Jensen, Lotte; Poulsen, Mille W; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2017-08-01

    The potential for outbreaks due to Enteroviruses (EV) with respiratory tropism, such as EV-D68, and the detection of new and rare EV species C is a concern. These EVs are typically not detected in stool specimens and may therefore be missed by standard EV surveillance systems. Following the North American outbreak of EV-D68 in 2014, Denmark piloted an enhanced EV surveillance system that included the screening of respiratory samples. We aim to report clinical manifestations and phylogenetic descriptions from the rare and emerging EVs identified thereby demonstrating the usefulness of this system. Positive EV samples received through the enhanced non-polio EV pilot surveillance system were characterized by sequencing fragments of VP1, VP2 and VP4 capsid proteins and clinical observations were compiled. Between January 2015 and October 2016, six cases of rare genotypes EV-C104, C105 and C109 and nine cases of EV-D68 were identified. Patients presented with mild to moderately severe respiratory illness; no paralysis occurred. Distinct EV-C104, EV-C109 and EV-D68 sequences argue against a common source of introduction of these genotypes in the Danish population. The enhanced EV surveillance system enabled detection and characterization of rare EVs in Denmark. In order to improve our knowledge of and our preparedness against emerging EVs, public health laboratories should consider expanding their EV surveillance system to include respiratory specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A review of definitions and measures of system resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyedmohsen; Barker, Kash; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and evaluating the resilience of systems, potentially complex and large-scale in nature, has recently raised significant interest among both practitioners and researchers. This recent interest has resulted in several definitions of the concept of resilience and several approaches to measuring this concept, across several application domains. As such, this paper presents a review of recent research articles related to defining and quantifying resilience in various disciplines, with a focus on engineering systems. We provide a classification scheme to the approaches in the literature, focusing on qualitative and quantitative approaches and their subcategories. Addressed in this review are: an extensive coverage of the literature, an exploration of current gaps and challenges, and several directions for future research. - Highlights: • A comprehensive review of definitions and measures of system resilience. • Focus given to resilience in engineering systems is provided. • Nearly 150 articles across several domains are reviewed. • Future directions in resilience research are discussed.

  14. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Definitions, Contexts, Conflicts, Enigmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekvig, Ole Petter

    2018-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inadequately defined syndrome. Etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. SLE is on the other hand a seminal syndrome that has challenged immunologists, biologists, genetics, and clinicians to solve its nature. The syndrome is characterized by multiple, etiologically unlinked manifestations. Unexpectedly, they seem to occur in different stochastically linked clusters, although single gene defects may promote a smaller spectrum of symptoms/criteria typical for SLE. There is no known inner coherence of parameters (criteria) making up the disease. These parameters are, nevertheless, implemented in The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and The Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria to classify SLE. Still, SLE is an abstraction since the ACR or SLICC criteria allow us to define hundreds of different clinical SLE phenotypes. This is a major point of the present discussion and uses “The anti-dsDNA antibody” as an example related to the problematic search for biomarkers for SLE. The following discussion will show how problematic this is: the disease is defined through non-coherent classification criteria, its complexity is recognized and accepted, its pathogenesis is plural and poorly understood. Therapy is focused on dominant symptoms or organ manifestations, and not on the syndrome itself. From basic scientific evidences, we can add substantial amount of data that are not sufficiently considered in clinical medicine, which may change the paradigms linked to what “The Anti-DNA antibody” is—and is not—in context of the imperfectly defined syndrome SLE. PMID:29545801

  15. Predictors of guideline concordance for surveillance colonoscopy recommendations in patients at a safety-net health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ben; Freeland, Zachary; Gopal, Purva; Agrawal, Deepak; Mayorga, Christian A; Mithani, Rozina; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Halm, Ethan A; Singal, Amit G

    2015-11-01

    Appropriate surveillance intervals for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is one of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services 2014 physician quality reporting system measures. Appropriateness of surveillance intervals will continue to be monitored closely, particularly as reimbursements become tied to quality measures. Quantify and identify predictors for guideline-concordant surveillance recommendations after adenoma polypectomy. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who had colonoscopy with polypectomy at a safety-net health system between June 2011 and December 2013. Surveillance recommendations shorter and longer than guideline recommendations were defined as potential overuse and underuse. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of guideline-concordant surveillance recommendations, overuse, and underuse. Among 1,822 patients with polypectomy, 1,329 had ≥1 adenoma. Surveillance interval recommendations were guideline-concordant in 1,410 (77.4%) patients, potential overuse in 263 (14.4%), potential underuse in 85 (4.7%), and missing in 64 (3.5%) patients. Predictors of guideline-concordant recommendations in multivariate analyses included age >65 years (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02-1.80), incomplete resection (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.41-9.09), and good/excellent prep quality (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.72-2.86). Underuse recommendations were more likely in patients with ≥3 adenomas; overuse recommendations were more likely in patients with high-grade dysplasia or fair prep quality and less likely in those with piecemeal resection, ≥3 adenomas, age >65, or Hispanic ethnicity. Surveillance recommendations are not concordant with guidelines in one of four cases. Interventions to improve prep quality and guideline concordance of surveillance recommendations can improve cost-effectiveness of CRC screening.

  16. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Definitions, Contexts, Conflicts, Enigmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Petter Rekvig

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an inadequately defined syndrome. Etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. SLE is on the other hand a seminal syndrome that has challenged immunologists, biologists, genetics, and clinicians to solve its nature. The syndrome is characterized by multiple, etiologically unlinked manifestations. Unexpectedly, they seem to occur in different stochastically linked clusters, although single gene defects may promote a smaller spectrum of symptoms/criteria typical for SLE. There is no known inner coherence of parameters (criteria making up the disease. These parameters are, nevertheless, implemented in The American College of Rheumatology (ACR and The Systemic Lupus Collaborating Clinics (SLICC criteria to classify SLE. Still, SLE is an abstraction since the ACR or SLICC criteria allow us to define hundreds of different clinical SLE phenotypes. This is a major point of the present discussion and uses “The anti-dsDNA antibody” as an example related to the problematic search for biomarkers for SLE. The following discussion will show how problematic this is: the disease is defined through non-coherent classification criteria, its complexity is recognized and accepted, its pathogenesis is plural and poorly understood. Therapy is focused on dominant symptoms or organ manifestations, and not on the syndrome itself. From basic scientific evidences, we can add substantial amount of data that are not sufficiently considered in clinical medicine, which may change the paradigms linked to what “The Anti-DNA antibody” is—and is not—in context of the imperfectly defined syndrome SLE.

  17. What is the optimal definition of misclassification in patients with very low-risk prostate cancer eligible for active surveillance? Results from a multi-institutional series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandaglia, Giorgio; Ploussard, Guillaume; Isbarn, Hendrik; Suardi, Nazareno; De Visschere, Peter J L; Futterer, Jurgen J; Ghadjar, Pirus; Massard, Christophe; Ost, Piet; Sooriakumaran, Prasanna; Surcel, Christian I; van der Bergh, Roderick C N; Montorsi, Francesco; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Giannarini, Gianluca; Briganti, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    The risk of unfavorable prostate cancer in active surveillance (AS) candidates is nonnegligible. However, what represents an adverse pathologic outcome in this setting is unknown. We aimed at assessing the optimal definition of misclassification and its effect on recurrence in AS candidates treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). Overall, 1,710 patients eligible for AS according to Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance criteria treated with RP between 2000 and 2013 at 3 centers were evaluated. Patients were stratified according to pathology results at RP: organ-confined disease and pathologic Gleason score ≤ 6 (group 1); organ-confined disease and Gleason score 3+4 (group 2); and non-organ-confined disease, Gleason score ≥ 4+3, and nodal invasion (group 3). Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was defined as 2 consecutive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥ 0.2 ng/ml. Kaplan-Meier curves assessed time to BCR. Multivariable Cox regression analyses tested the association between pathologic features and BCR. Multivariable logistic regression analyses identified the predictors of adverse pathologic characteristics. Overall, 926 (54.2%), 653 (33.0%), and 220 (12.9%) patients were categorized in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Median follow-up was 32.2 months. The 5-year BCR-free survival rate was 94.2%. Patients in group 3 had lower BCR-free survival rates compared with those in group 1 (79.1% vs. 97.0%, Prisk of unfavorable pathologic characteristics (i.e., inclusion in group 3; all Prisk of BCR. These individuals represent the real misclassified AS patients, who can be predicted based on older age and higher PSA density. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-time monitoring of school absenteeism to enhance disease surveillance: a pilot study of a mobile electronic reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Liulark, Wongwat; Taweeseneepitch, Komchaluch; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Thongprarong, Wiraporn; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap

    2014-05-12

    School absenteeism is a common source of data used in syndromic surveillance, which can eventually be used for early outbreak detection. However, the absenteeism reporting system in most schools, especially in developing countries, relies on a paper-based method that limits its use for disease surveillance or outbreak detection. The objective of this study was to develop an electronic real-time reporting system on school absenteeism for syndromic surveillance. An electronic (Web-based) school absenteeism reporting system was developed to embed it within the normal routine process of absenteeism reporting. This electronic system allowed teachers to update students' attendance status via mobile tablets. The data from all classes and schools were then automatically sent to a centralized database for further analysis and presentation, and for monitoring temporal and spatial patterns of absent students. In addition, the system also had a disease investigation module, which provided a link between absenteeism data from schools and local health centers, to investigate causes of fever among sick students. The electronic school absenteeism reporting system was implemented in 7 primary schools in Bangkok, Thailand, with total participation of approximately 5000 students. During May-October 2012 (first semester), the percentage of absentees varied between 1% and 10%. The peak of school absenteeism (sick leave) was observed between July and September 2012, which coincided with the peak of dengue cases in children aged 6-12 years being reported to the disease surveillance system. The timeliness of a reporting system is a critical function in any surveillance system. Web-based application and mobile technology can potentially enhance the use of school absenteeism data for syndromic surveillance and outbreak detection. This study presents the factors that determine the implementation success of this reporting system.

  19. Do microbial interactions and cultivation media decrease the accuracy of Salmonella surveillance systems and outbreak investigations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Randall S; Mayer, Anne E; Hanson, Timothy E; Isaacson, Richard E

    2009-04-01

    Cultivation methods are commonly used in Salmonella surveillance systems and outbreak investigations, and consequently, conclusions about Salmonella evolution and transmission are highly dependent on the performance characteristics of these methods. Past studies have shown that Salmonella serotypes can exhibit different growth characteristics in the same enrichment and selective media. This could lead not only to biased conclusions about the dominant strain present in a sample with mixed Salmonella populations, but also to a low sensitivity for detecting a Salmonella strain in a sample with only a single strain present. The objective of this study was to determine whether cultivation media select preferentially for specific strains of Salmonella in heterogeneous cultures. In this study, four different Salmonella strains (one Salmonella Newport, two Salmonella Typhimurium, and one Salmonella Enteritidis) were competed in a broth-based experiment and a bovine fecal experiment with varied combinations and concentrations of each strain. In all experiments, the strain of Salmonella Newport was the most competitive, regardless of the starting concentration and cultivation protocol. One strain of Salmonella Typhimurium was rarely detected in competition, even when it was the only strain present in bovine feces. Overall, the probability of detecting a specific Salmonella strain had little to do with its starting concentration in the sample. The bias introduced by culture could be dramatically biasing Salmonella surveillance systems and hindering traceback investigations during Salmonella outbreaks. Future studies should focus on the microbiological explanations for this Salmonella interstrain variability, approaches for minimizing the bias, and estimations of the public health significance of this bias.

  20. Integrated measurement and information system for surveillance of environmental radioactivity in F.R.G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehling, A.; Wehner, G.; Gadow, A. von; Edelhaeuser, H.; Bayer, A.; Dehos, R.; Kaul, A.

    1988-01-01

    On December 19, 1986, The German Bundestag (Federal Parliament) passed an Act for the precautionary protection of the population against radiation exposure (Precautionary Radiological Protection Act; Strahlenschutzvorsorgegesetz StrVG). This Act has been assigned the purpose of surveying environmental radioactivity and to keep both radiation exposure of man and radioactive contamination of the environment as low as possible by appropriate measures to be taken in the event of an incident involving radiological impacts. In order to effect the above protection, the Act has laid the foundation of the 'Integrated Measurement and Information System for the Surveillance of the Environmental Radioactivity' (IMIS) which has to be established. The establishment of the integrated measurement and information system for the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity will in future ensure that an event with radiological impacts on the population of the Federal Republic of Germany will be detected in due time and that the information flow between the measurement agencies and those agencies which are responsible for the evaluation of the situation will be punctual and complete so that measures appropriate to the situation can be introduced. 1 fig

  1. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enki, Doyo G; Garthwaite, Paul H; Farrington, C Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace.

  2. SurvNet Electronic Surveillance System for Infectious Disease Outbreaks, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Doris; Faensen, Daniel; Porten, Klaudia; Benzler, Justus; Pfoch, Thomas; Ammon, Andrea; Kramer, Michael H.; Claus, Hermann

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) implemented a new electronic surveillance system (SurvNet) for infectious disease outbreaks in Germany. SurvNet has captured 30,578 outbreak reports in 2001–2005. The size of the outbreaks ranged from 2 to 527 cases. For outbreaks reported in 2002–2005, the median duration from notification of the first case to the local health department until receipt of the outbreak report at RKI was 7 days. Median outbreak duration ranged from 1 day (caused by Campylobacter) up to 73 days (caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis). The most common settings among the 10,008 entries for 9,946 outbreaks in 2004 and 2005 were households (5,262; 53%), nursing homes (1,218; 12%), and hospitals (1,248; 12%). SurvNet may be a useful tool for other outbreak surveillance systems because it minimizes the workload of local health departments and captures outbreaks even when causative pathogens have not yet been identified. PMID:18258005

  3. First Use of Multiple Imputation with the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vinnard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The purpose of this study was to compare methods for handling missing data in analysis of the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Because of the high rate of missing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection status in this dataset, we used multiple imputation methods to minimize the bias that may result from less sophisticated methods. Methods. We compared analysis based on multiple imputation methods with analysis based on deleting subjects with missing covariate data from regression analysis (case exclusion, and determined whether the use of increasing numbers of imputed datasets would lead to changes in the estimated association between isoniazid resistance and death. Results. Following multiple imputation, the odds ratio for initial isoniazid resistance and death was 2.07 (95% CI 1.30, 3.29; with case exclusion, this odds ratio decreased to 1.53 (95% CI 0.83, 2.83. The use of more than 5 imputed datasets did not substantively change the results. Conclusions. Our experience with the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System dataset supports the use of multiple imputation methods in epidemiologic analysis, but also demonstrates that close attention should be paid to the potential impact of missing covariates at each step of the analysis.

  4. Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandotra V.K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasibility of establishing water testing facility in the science laboratories of schools. 2. To study the impact of preventive measures in the community if immediate steps for household purification of water and treatment of diarrhoea cases are taken. Study design: Interventional study. Setting: A rural block. Participants: Science teachers of high schools and field workers. Interventions: 1. Training of schoolteachers for water testing and field workers for collection of water samples and diarrhoea control measures. 2. Establishing of water testing laboratories in schools. 3. In case of detection of water contamination, corrective action at different levels. 4. Propagation of ORS for management of diarrhoeas. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Paired ‘t’ test, Chi square test. Results: Reduction in diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality was observed. Conclusions: It is feasible to develop a water surveillance system in rural areas utilizing local resources. If combined with educational measures, it will significantly reduce diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality.

  5. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, C. Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J.; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  6. Turkish meteor surveillance systems and network: Impact craters and meteorites database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsalan, O.; Ozel, M. E.; Derman, I. E.; Terzioglu, Z.; Kaygisiz, E.; Temel, T.; Topoyan, D.; Solmaz, A.; Yilmaz Kocahan, O.; Esenoglu, H. H.; Emrahoglu, N.; Yilmaz, A.; Yalcinkaya, B. O.

    2014-07-01

    In our project, we aim toward constructing Turkish Meteor Surveillance Systems and Network in Turkey. For this goal, video observational systems from SonotaCo (Japan) were chosen. Meteors are going to be observed with the specific cameras, their orbits will be calculated by the software from SonotaCo, and the places where they will be falling / impacting will be examined by field trips. The collected meteorites will be investigated by IR-Raman Spectroscopic techniques and SEM-EDX analyses in order to setup a database. On the other hand, according to our Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives, there are huge amounts of reports of falls for the past centuries. In order to treat these data properly, it is obvious that processing systems should be constructed and developed.

  7. Mathematical models used to inform study design or surveillance systems in infectious diseases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sereina A; Blaizot, Stéphanie; Hens, Niel

    2017-12-18

    Mathematical models offer the possibility to investigate the infectious disease dynamics over time and may help in informing design of studies. A systematic review was performed in order to determine to what extent mathematical models have been incorporated into the process of planning studies and hence inform study design for infectious diseases transmitted between humans and/or animals. We searched Ovid Medline and two trial registry platforms (Cochrane, WHO) using search terms related to infection, mathematical model, and study design from the earliest dates to October 2016. Eligible publications and registered trials included mathematical models (compartmental, individual-based, or Markov) which were described and used to inform the design of infectious disease studies. We extracted information about the investigated infection, population, model characteristics, and study design. We identified 28 unique publications but no registered trials. Focusing on compartmental and individual-based models we found 12 observational/surveillance studies and 11 clinical trials. Infections studied were equally animal and human infectious diseases for the observational/surveillance studies, while all but one between humans for clinical trials. The mathematical models were used to inform, amongst other things, the required sample size (n = 16), the statistical power (n = 9), the frequency at which samples should be taken (n = 6), and from whom (n = 6). Despite the fact that mathematical models have been advocated to be used at the planning stage of studies or surveillance systems, they are used scarcely. With only one exception, the publications described theoretical studies, hence, not being utilised in real studies.

  8. Injury in community-level soccer: development of an injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNoe, Bronwen M; Chalmers, David J

    2010-12-01

    Few descriptive epidemiologic studies of injury in soccer are of community-level players. Although many sports injury surveillance systems have been described in the scientific literature, only 1 has been implemented in community-level soccer and that was restricted to adolescent players in a single club. The objective of this study was to develop a method for undertaking routine surveillance of injury in community-level soccer. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A cohort of 880 community-level players aged 13 years and over was followed over 1 winter competitive season. Each week, each player was contacted by telephone and an interview conducted to collect data on participation in matches and training sessions, injuries, and adherence to injury prevention measures. Seventy-five percent (n = 510) of the cohort was male and the median age was 16 years. Data were collected on 11 268 player-matches totaling 13 483 player-match hours and 11 540 player-training sessions totaling 16 031 player-training hours. A total of 677 match injury events were reported, giving overall incidence rates of 50.2 injury events per 1000 player-match hours and 6.0 injury events per 100 player-matches. The incidence rate for match injury events was significantly higher for females than for males (63.9 vs 46.9). A total of 145 training injury events were reported, giving overall incidence rates of 9.0 injury events per 1000 player-training hours and 1.3 injury events per 100 player-training sessions. The most common injuries were sprains and strains of the lower limb, and tackling was the most common cause of injury. This study has shown that routine injury surveillance, using a cohort design with exposure measurement, can be successfully implemented in community-level soccer.

  9. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M.

    2011-11-01

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm 3 in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  10. LoRaWAN-Based Energy-Efficient Surveillance by Drones for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sharma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban networks aim at facilitating users for better experience and services through smart platforms such as the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. ITS focuses on information acquisition, sensing, contrivance control, data processing and forwarding to ground devices via user-specific application-interfaces. The utility of ITS is further improved via the Internet of Things (IoT, which supports “Connectivity to All”. One of the key applications of IoT-ITS is urban surveillance. Current surveillance in IoT-ITS is performed via fixed infrastructure-based sensing applications which consume an excessive amount of energy leading to several overheads and failures in the network. Such issues can be overcome by the utilization of on-demand nodes, such as drones, etc. However, drones-assisted surveillance requires efficient communication setup as drones are battery operated and any extemporaneous maneuver during monitoring may result in loss of drone or complete failure of the network. The novelty in terms of network layout can be procured by the utilization of drones with LoRaWAN, which is the protocol designated for Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN. However, even this architectural novelty alone cannot ascertain the formation of fail-safe, highly resilient, low-overhead, and non-redundant network, which is additionally the problem considered in this paper. To resolve such problem, this paper uses drones as LoRaWAN gateway and proposes a communication strategy based on the area stress, resilient factor, and energy consumption that avail in the efficient localization, improved coverage and energy-efficient surveillance with lower overheads, lower redundancy, and almost zero-isolations. The proposed approach is numerically simulated and the results show that the proposed approach can conserve a maximum of 39.2% and a minimum of 12.6% of the total network energy along with an improvement in the area stress between 89.7% and 53.0% for varying

  11. [The ideation of the Emilia-Romagna surveillance system for arbovirosis following the experience from the Chikungunya outbreak 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Paola; Mattivi, Andrea; Cagarelli, Roberto; Bellini, Romeo; Finarelli, Alba Carola

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008 the Emilia-Romagna Regional public health authority activated a regional Plan for arbovirosis surveillance and control, focused on Chikungunya, Dengue and West Nile. The Plan integrates sanitary, entomological and veterinary surveillance allowing a prompt adoption of efficient measures, aiming at the prevention and reduction of arbovirosis transmission risk. Following the 2007 Chikungunya outbreak, no autochthonous Chikungunya or Dengue cases has been registered, while an increase of confirmed imported cases of Dengue and Chikungunya has been observed. The integrated surveillance system allowed a prompt, appropriate and efficient intervention in 98.2% of imported suspected cases. The humanWNND (West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease) surveillance reported confirmed cases in 2008, 2009 and then in 2013 and 2014. In all cases the entomological and ornithological surveillance detected WNV circulation well in advance respect to the appearance of the first human case. The integration of information provided by different surveillance sources allows to evaluate, even through the vector index (VI) calculation, the risk of transmission, to optimize preventive measures on blood, tissues and organs donation and to implement further measures of vector fight.

  12. Poison control centers' role in glow product-related outbreak detection: implications for comprehensive surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Alvin F; Marcus, Steven M; Ruck, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The development of syndromic surveillance systems to detect bioterrorist attacks and emerging infectious diseases has become an important and challenging goal to many governmental agencies and healthcare authorities. This study utilized the sharp increase of glow product-related calls to demonstrate the utility of poison control data for early detection of potential outbreaks during the week of Halloween in 2007. A review was conducted of the electronic records of exposures reported to the New Jersey Poison Information and Education System (NJPIES) Poison Control Hotline from 2002 through 2007 with generic code number 0201027 (glow products) set by the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC). Key information such as age, gender, time of the call, exposure reason, clinical effects, and medical outcomes along with telephone number, zip code, and county location were used in the analyses to determine the extent of the outbreak. Analyses included a total of 139 glow product-related calls during the week of Halloween in 2007 with a single-day high of 59 calls on Halloween Day. More than 90% of the glow product exposures were in children 1-10 years of age. The glow product-related calls on Halloween Day increased from 14 calls in 2002 to 59 calls in 2007, a 321% increase during a six-year period. Poison control centers in the United States are equipped with a unique and uniform input data collection system -- the National Poison Data System -- that provides an important data source in the development of a comprehensive surveillance system for early outbreak detection.

  13. Expanding veterinary biosurveillance in Washington, DC: The creation and utilization of an electronic-based online veterinary surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennenfent, Andrew; DelVento, Vito; Davies-Cole, John; Johnson-Clarke, Fern

    2017-03-01

    To enhance the early detection of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism events using companion animal-based surveillance. Washington, DC, small animal veterinary facilities (n=17) were surveyed to determine interest in conducting infectious disease surveillance. Using these results, an electronic-based online reporting system was developed and launched in August 2015 to monitor rates of canine influenza, canine leptospirosis, antibiotic resistant infections, canine parvovirus, and syndromic disease trends. Nine of the 10 facilities that responded expressed interest conducting surveillance. In September 2015, 17 canine parvovirus cases were reported. In response, a campaign encouraging regular veterinary preventative care was launched and featured on local media platforms. Additionally, during the system's first year of operation it detected 5 canine leptospirosis cases and 2 antibiotic resistant infections. No canine influenza cases were reported and syndromic surveillance compliance varied, peaking during National Special Security Events. Small animal veterinarians and the general public are interested in companion animal disease surveillance. The system described can serve as a model for establishing similar systems to monitor disease trends of public health importance in pet populations and enhance biosurveillance capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Firearm suicide: use of a firearm injury and death surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streib, Erik W; Hackworth, Jodi; Hayward, Thomas Z; Jacobson, Lewis E; Simons, Clark J; Falimirski, Mark E; O'Neil, Joseph; Bull, Marilyn J; Gomez, Gerardo A

    2007-03-01

    Suicide is an important public health concern. Firearms are the most common mechanism of suicide death. This study describes the epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal firearm suicide injuries (FSI) in one metropolitan area from 2002 through 2004 using a firearm injury surveillance system. Records were obtained of all victims of firearm injuries from hospitals, police, and the coroner. All injuries categorized as suicide were included. Local age adjusted suicide rates were significantly higher than state or national rates for ages 15 to 24, and significantly higher than national rates for ages 25 to 44. Men were FSI victims more than five times as often as women were. There was no seasonal pattern identified. Handguns were used nearly three out of four times. Eighty-six percent of FSI victims died, two-thirds at the scene. Most wounds were in the head or chest. Mental illness or relationship problems were common. Most suicides occurred in a residence. Community level firearm injury surveillance effectively identifies local trends that may differ from national statistics. Collaboration among various groups is used to support injury prevention programs. These data can both complement and contribute to national statistics.

  15. Digital Pharmacovigilance and Disease Surveillance: Combining Traditional and Big-Data Systems for Better Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salathé, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    The digital revolution has contributed to very large data sets (ie, big data) relevant for public health. The two major data sources are electronic health records from traditional health systems and patient-generated data. As the two data sources have complementary strengths—high veracity in the data from traditional sources and high velocity and variety in patient-generated data—they can be combined to build more-robust public health systems. However, they also have unique challenges. Patient-generated data in particular are often completely unstructured and highly context dependent, posing essentially a machine-learning challenge. Some recent examples from infectious disease surveillance and adverse drug event monitoring demonstrate that the technical challenges can be solved. Despite these advances, the problem of verification remains, and unless traditional and digital epidemiologic approaches are combined, these data sources will be constrained by their intrinsic limits. PMID:28830106

  16. Development of the integrated core on-line monitoring and protection aid surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Oh; In, Wang Kee; Song, Jae Seung; Zee, Sung Quun

    1998-01-01

    The integrated Core On-line Monitoring and Protection Aid Surveillance System (COMPASS) is developed for the purpose of supporting the reactor operation, based on the three-dimensional nodal design code, MASTER. The heart of COMPASS is an adaptive nodal core simulator for the on-line calculation of three-dimensional assembly and pin power distributions which are used for the evaluation of the thermal margins and for the guide in operation. In this paper, the overall structures and the solution methods of COMPASS are described. The uncertainty of COMPASS for SMART core was also evaluated by comparing that of MASTER. The results showed that COMPASS uncertainty in power shape prediction is identical to that of the design code system, MASTER. The application of COMPASS to the analysis of peaking factor for SMART core resulted with about 4% gain in peaking factor margin when compared to COLSS

  17. A Retrieval Optimized Surveillance Video Storage System for Campus Application Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengcheng Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates and analyzes the characteristics of video data and puts forward a campus surveillance video storage system with the university campus as the specific application environment. Aiming at the challenge that the content-based video retrieval response time is too long, the key-frame index subsystem is designed. The key frame of the video can reflect the main content of the video. Extracted from the video, key frames are associated with the metadata information to establish the storage index. The key-frame index is used in lookup operations while querying. This method can greatly reduce the amount of video data reading and effectively improves the query’s efficiency. From the above, we model the storage system by a stochastic Petri net (SPN and verify the promotion of query performance by quantitative analysis.

  18. Road traffic related mortality in Vietnam: Evidence for policy from a national sample mortality surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Anh D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are among the leading causes of mortality in Vietnam. However, mortality data collection systems in Vietnam in general and for RTIs in particular, remain inconsistent and incomplete. Underlying distributions of external causes and body injuries are not available from routine data collection systems or from studies till date. This paper presents characteristics, user type pattern, seasonal distribution, and causes of 1,061 deaths attributable to road crashes ascertained from a national sample mortality surveillance system in Vietnam over a two-year period (2008 and 2009. Methods A sample mortality surveillance system was designed for Vietnam, comprising 192 communes in 16 provinces, accounting for approximately 3% of the Vietnamese population. Deaths were identified from commune level data sources, and followed up by verbal autopsy (VA based ascertainment of cause of death. Age-standardised mortality rates from RTIs were computed. VA questionnaires were analysed in depth to derive descriptive characteristics of RTI deaths in the sample. Results The age-standardized mortality rates from RTIs were 33.5 and 8.5 per 100,000 for males and females respectively. Majority of deaths were males (79%. Seventy three percent of all deaths were aged from 15 to 49 years and 58% were motorcycle users. As high as 80% of deaths occurred on the day of injury, 42% occurred prior to arrival at hospital, and a further 29% occurred on-site. Direct causes of death were identified for 446 deaths (42% with head injuries being the most common cause attributable to road traffic injuries overall (79% and to motorcycle crashes in particular (78%. Conclusion The VA method can provide a useful data source to analyse RTI mortality. The observed considerable mortality from head injuries among motorcycle users highlights the need to evaluate current practice and effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use in Vietnam. The high number of

  19. Monitoring the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into West Africa: design and implementation of a population-based surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant A Mackenzie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs in developing countries is expected to lead to a significant reduction in childhood deaths. However, PCVs have been associated with replacement disease with non-vaccine serotypes. We established a population-based surveillance system to document the direct and indirect impact of PCVs on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD and radiological pneumonia in those aged 2 months and older in The Gambia, and to monitor changes in serotype-specific IPD. Here we describe how this surveillance system was set up and is being operated as a partnership between the Medical Research Council Unit and the Gambian Government. This surveillance system is expected to provide crucial information for immunisation policy and serves as a potential model for those introducing routine PCV vaccination in diverse settings.

  20. A mobile field-work data collection system for the wireless era of health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Marianne; Sjögren, Petteri; Renard, Matthew; Johansson, Olle

    2011-03-01

    In many countries or regions the capacity of health care resources is below the needs of the population and new approaches for health surveillance are needed. Innovative projects, utilizing wireless communication technology, contribute to reliable methods for field-work data collection and reporting to databases. The objective was to describe a new version of a wireless IT-support system for field-work data collection and administration. The system requirements were drawn from the design objective and translated to system functions. The system architecture was based on fieldwork experiences and administrative requirements. The Smartphone devices were HTC Touch Diamond2s, while the system was based on a platform with Microsoft .NET components, and a SQL Server 2005 with Microsoft Windows Server 2003 operating system. The user interfaces were based on .NET programming, and Microsoft Windows Mobile operating system. A synchronization module enabled download of field data to the database, via a General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) to a Local Area Network (LAN) interface. The field-workers considered the here-described applications user-friendly and almost self-instructing. The office administrators considered that the back-office interface facilitated retrieval of health reports and invoice distribution. The current IT-support system facilitates short lead times from fieldwork data registration to analysis, and is suitable for various applications. The advantages of wireless technology, and paper-free data administration need to be increasingly emphasized in development programs, in order to facilitate reliable and transparent use of limited resources.

  1. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program system definition technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The results of the system definition studies conducted by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program are summarized. The purpose of the system definition efforts was to identify and define candidate SPS concepts and to evaluate the concepts in terms of technical and cost factors. Although the system definition efforts consisted primarily of evaluation and assessment of alternative technical approaches, a reference system was also defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. This reference system was designed to deliver 5 GW of electrical power to the utility grid. Topics covered include system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  2. Assessment of the French National Health Insurance Information System as a tool for epidemiological surveillance of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delon, François; Mayet, Aurélie; Thellier, Marc; Kendjo, Eric; Michel, Rémy; Ollivier, Lénaïck; Chatellier, Gilles; Desjeux, Guillaume

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological surveillance of malaria in France is based on a hospital laboratory sentinel surveillance network. There is no comprehensive population surveillance. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of the French National Health Insurance Information System to support nationwide malaria surveillance in continental France. A case identification algorithm was built in a 2-step process. First, inclusion rules giving priority to sensitivity were defined. Then, based on data description, exclusion rules to increase specificity were applied. To validate our results, we compared them to data from the French National Reference Center for Malaria on case counts, distribution within subgroups, and disease onset date trends. We built a reusable automatized tool. From July 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014, we identified 4077 incident malaria cases that occurred in continental France. Our algorithm provided data for hospitalized patients, patients treated by private physicians, and outpatients for the entire population. Our results were similar to those of the National Reference Center for Malaria for each of the outcome criteria. We provided a reliable algorithm for implementing epidemiological surveillance of malaria based on the French National Health Insurance Information System. Our method allowed us to work on the entire population living in continental France, including subpopulations poorly covered by existing surveillance methods. Traditional epidemiological surveillance and the approach presented in this paper are complementary, but a formal validation framework for case identification algorithms is necessary. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. The insertion of the environmental health surveillance in the unified health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenilo Baltazar Barreira Filho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The integration of environmental monitoring activities in the Unified Health System (SUS shows some characteristics that differentiate it from the practice of epidemiological surveillance. This occurs mainly because much data on exposure to environmental factors is obtained outside the health sector and the adoption of actions that seek to control and/or prevent requires, in most cases, an intra andintersectoral understanding and articulation, since the health sector is not able, by itself, to provide answers to environmental health issues.In recent years, there has been an increasingly consolidation of the field of environmental health, which includes the area of public health, accustomed to scientific knowledge, to the formulation of public policies and the corresponding interventions (actions related to the interaction between human health and both natural and anthropic environmental factors, which determine, modulate and influence such interaction, in order to improve the quality of human life from the point of view of sustainability(1.As agreed at the Ist Seminar of the National Environmental Health, held in October 2005 and consolidated in the first National Conference on Environmental Health, held in December 2009, it is understood as an area of intersectoral and interdisciplinarypractice focused on the outcomes, in human health, of ecogeossocialrelations between man and environment(1.Accordingly, the Ministry of Health has been implementing, throughout the country, a Surveillance System in Environmental Health (SINVISA, seeking the improvement of this “model” of activities, establishing expertise into the three levels of government, aiming to consolidate the practice of Environmental Health within the SUS.Normative Instruction No. 1, March 7, 2005, creates SINVISA, establishes the area of action, the scope of the three levels of management within SUS and defines the Environmental Health Surveillance as a set of actions and services

  4. NTP system definition and comparison process for SEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corban, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    The concept definition, trade-offs, and ultimate selection of a nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) system that will enable the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to Mars will require a rigorous systems engineering approach. A systems engineering process to provide a consistent comparison has been established to allow for evolving SEI mission requirements, level of concept definition and changing ''customer'' requirements, while continuing to improve the process as more data becomes available. All concepts will be evaluated against an established baseline NTP system to compare system benefits and merits. Establishing the evaluation criteria is extremely challenging and critical to the evaluation and selection process. Quality function deployment (QFD) will be utilized to provide structure and focus in obtaining the critical needs and attributes of the NTP system. System performance, cost, and risk analysis tools will be integrated into the process to provide the quantitative data required to allow for an informative decision on concept and technology decisions. This process will initiate the framework for design and development of a robust, reliable, cost effective NTP engine within NASA's philosophy for space systems to be developed ''faster, better, and cheaper.''

  5. Implementing a Childhood Cancer Outcomes Surveillance System Within a Population-Based Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ramirez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Approximately 80% of cases of childhood cancer occur in low- and middle-income countries and are associated with high mortality rates. Assessing outcomes is essential for designing effective strategies to improve outcomes equally worldwide. We implemented a real-time surveillance system, VIGICANCER, embedded in a population-based cancer registry (PBCR to assess childhood cancer outcomes. Methods: VIGICANCER was established in 2009 as an integral part of Cali’s PBCR to collect real-time data on outcomes of patients (age < 19 years with a new diagnosis of cancer treated in pediatric oncology units in Cali, Colombia. Baseline and follow-up data (death, relapse, treatment abandonment, second neoplasms were collected from medical records, hospital discharge logs, pathology reports, death certificates, and the National Public Health Insurance database. A quality assurance process was implemented for the system. Results: From 2009 to 2013, data from 1,242 patients were included in VIGICANCER: 32% of patients were younger than 5 years, 55% were male, and 15% were Afro-descendants. International Classification of Childhood Cancer group I diagnoses predominated in all age groups except children younger than 1 year old, in whom CNS tumors predominated. Five-year overall survival for all cancers was 51.7% (95% CI, 47.9% to 55.4% for children (< 15 years, and 39.4% (95% CI, 29.8% to 50.5% for adolescents (15 to 18.9 years. Five-year overall survival for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 55.6% (95% CI, 48.5% to 62.2%. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a real-time childhood cancer outcomes surveillance system embedded in a PBCR that can guide interventions to improve clinical outcomes in low- and middle-income countries.

  6. [Surveillance system on drug abuse: Interest of the French national OPPIDUM program of French addictovigilance network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Pochard, Liselotte; Boucherie, Quentin; Giocanti, Adeline; Chevallier, Cécile; Daveluy, Amélie; Gibaja, Valérie; Caous, Anne-Sylvie; Eiden, Céline; Authier, Nicolas; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Guerlais, Marylène; Jouanjus, Émilie; Lepelley, Marion; Pizzoglio, Véronique; Pain, Stéphanie; Richard, Nathalie; Micallef, Joëlle

    2017-09-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. OPPIDUM ('Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications') surveillance system anonymously collects information on drug abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the utility of OPPIDUM system using 2015 data. OPPIDUM is a cross-sectional survey repeated each year since 1995. In 2015, 5003 patients described the modality of use of 10,159 psychoactive drugs. Among them, 77% received an opiate maintenance treatment: 68% methadone (half of them consumed capsule form) and 27% buprenorphine (39% consumed generic form). Brand-name buprenorphine is more often injected than generic buprenorphine (10% vs. 2%) and among methadone consumers 7% of methadone capsule consumers have illegally obtained methadone (vs. 9% for syrup form). The proportion of medications among psychoactive drugs injected is important (42%), with morphine representing 21% of the total psychoactive drugs injected and buprenorphine, 16%. OPPIDUM highlighted emergent behaviors of abuse with some analgesic opioids (like tramadol, oxycodone or fentanyl), pregabalin, or quetiapine. OPPIDUM highlighted variations of drugs use regarding geographic approaches or by drug dependence care centers (like in harm reduction centers). OPPIDUM clearly demonstrated that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible, these data have an interest at regional, national and international levels. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining surveillance systems: effective merging of U.S. Veteran and military health data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Pavlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA and Department of Defense (DoD had more than 18 million healthcare beneficiaries in 2011. Both Departments conduct individual surveillance for disease events and health threats. METHODS: We performed joint and separate analyses of VA and DoD outpatient visit data from October 2006 through September 2010 to demonstrate geographic and demographic coverage, timeliness of influenza epidemic awareness, and impact on spatial cluster detection achieved from a joint VA and DoD biosurveillance platform. RESULTS: Although VA coverage is greater, DoD visit volume is comparable or greater. Detection of outbreaks was better in DoD data for 58% and 75% of geographic areas surveyed for seasonal and pandemic influenza, respectively, and better in VA data for 34% and 15%. The VA system tended to alert earlier with a typical H3N2 seasonal influenza affecting older patients, and the DoD performed better during the H1N1 pandemic which affected younger patients more than normal influenza seasons. Retrospective analysis of known outbreaks demonstrated clustering evidence found in separate DoD and VA runs, which persisted with combined data sets. CONCLUSION: The analyses demonstrate two complementary surveillance systems with evident benefits for the national health picture. Relative timeliness of reporting could be improved in 92% of geographic areas with access to both systems, and more information provided in areas where only one type of facility exists. Combining DoD and VA data enhances geographic cluster detection capability without loss of sensitivity to events isolated in either population and has a manageable effect on customary alert rates.

  8. Intercomparison of auto- and cross-power spectral density surveillance systems for sodium boiling detection in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on detection systems for small narrow-band components in noise signals were conducted. These detectionn systems are based on the continuous surveillance of the power spectral density for characteristic peaks. Detection sensitivity for auto- and cross-correlation measurements was computed for signals with normally distributed amplitudes in dependence of signal coherence. The derived detection criteria allowed the comparison of auto- and cross-power spectral density surveillance. Theoretical results were confirmed in a number of experimental parameter studies. Special theoretical investigations were done for the optimal detection of local sodium boiling in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors

  9. Classification systems of communication for use in epidemiological surveillance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virella, Daniel; Pennington, Lindsay; Andersen, Guro L; Andrada, Maria da Graça; Greitane, Andra; Himmelmann, Kate; Prasauskiene, Audrone; Rackauskaite, Gija; De La Cruz, Javier; Colver, Allan

    2016-03-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often experience communication difficulties. We aimed to identify a classification system for communication of children with CP suitable for epidemiological surveillance. Systems to classify the communication of children with CP were identified. The Communication Function Classification System (CFCS), Functional Communication Classification System (FCCS), and Viking Speech Scale (VSS) were chosen for further investigation and translated. They were administered to 155 children aged 4 to 13 years with CP (across all motor severity levels) from eight European countries. Children's parents/carers, speech therapists, and other health professionals applied the systems through direct observation. Other professionals applied them from case notes only. The systems were assessed for agreement, stability, ease, and feasibility of application. Test-retest stability was moderate-to-high for VSS (k=0.66-0.88), CFCS (k=uncomputed-0.91), and FCCS (k=0.52-0.91). Overall interrater agreement was fair to very good for every classification system. VSS achieved the best agreement between parents/carers and speech therapists. VSS was considered the easiest instrument to apply. Because of its ease of use by a range of healthcare professionals, the VSS should be considered for CP registers which intend to survey speech intelligibility. For a wider assessment of communication, the CFCS or FCC should be considered. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  10. [Provincial representativeness assessment of China Non-communicable and Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z P; Wang, L M; Li, Y C; Jiang, Y; Zhang, M; Huang, Z J; Zhang, X; Li, C; Zhou, M G

    2018-02-06

    Objective: To evaluate the provincial representativeness of China Non-communicable and Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2013. Methods: The Sixth National Population Census data which was collected by National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China was used to calculate proportion of population who aged 65 and above, mortality rate, the proportion of non-agriculture population, the illiteracy rate and urbanization rate in order to evaluate the surveillance system in each province. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the statistically differences between the surveillance system and corresponding general population. Results: Among the 298 disease surveillance points (DSPs) in China Non-communicable and Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance System, there were 111, 85, and 102 DSPs located in the east, middle, and west area of China, which covering 13.90%, 11.48%, and 12.28% of the total population, respectively. The surveillance system covered 169 million of the population of China, accounting for 12.70% of Chinese population. The number of DSPs by provinces ranges from 6 (Hainan, Qinghai, and Ningxia) to 14 (Shandong, Guangdong and Henan). It indicated that mortality rate (DSP: 0.238%; Province: 0.482%) and the illiteracy rate (DSP: 15.54%; Province: 26.22%) among DSPs in Tibet were significantly lower than the provincial level, on the other hand, the proportion of non-agriculture population among DSPs (40.6%) was significantly higher than the provincial level (18.8%). The urbanization rate among Jiangxi DSPs (43.4%) was significantly lower than the provincial level (59.9%). The proportion of non-agriculture population among Shandong DSPs (32.8%) was significantly higher than the provincial level (24.2%), however, the illiteracy rate among Shandong DSPs (3.86%) was significantly lower than the provincial level (5.25%). Other than the provinces mentioned above, there was no statistical differences ( P> 0.05) among proportions of

  11. Surveillance of HIV in the army of the Republic of Cyprus (SHARC); rationale, design, and implementation of an inexpensive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, T; Eleftheriou, A; Michaelides, N; Papantoniou, L

    2002-02-01

    To design and implement an HIV surveillance system using periodic cross sectional prevalence surveys in National Guard recruits of the Republic of Cyprus. HIV infection surveillance used unlinked anonymous screening (UAS) methodology, which tested residual blood originally collected for other purposes. Residual blood from samples collected for ABO blood group typing at intake and samples from blood collected for hepatitis testing at discharge was used. Screening was unlinked and anonymous. The system operated for four semiannual recruitment seasons: summer 1998 to the end of winter 2000. No recruits screened at entry into the ranks tested positive. This was the first large scale HIV surveillance project in Cyprus. Without nationwide HIV surveys, periodic measurements of prevalence could lead to estimates of HIV incidence and provide insights on temporal changes in HIV infection rates. The prevalence data collected provide useful epidemiological information about the status of the HIV epidemic in this segment of the population in Cyprus.

  12. Assessment of an automated surveillance system for detection of initial ventilator-associated events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckchady, Dooshanveer; Heckman, Michael G; Diehl, Nancy N; Creech, Tara; Carey, Darlene; Domnick, Robert; Hellinger, Walter C

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance for initial ventilator-associated events (VAEs) was automated and compared with nonautomated review of episodes of mechanical ventilation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of automated surveillance were very high (>93%), and automated surveillance reduced the time spent on detection of VAEs by >90%. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. System Analysis of Dengue Virus Surveillance in BBTKL PP Surabaya Year 2012–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Atina Husnayain; Kurnia Dwi Artanti; Acub Zaenal

    2015-01-01

    Changing the distribution of dengue virus serotypes has occurred in Indonesia. This condition should be monitored continuously through the Dengue Virus Surveillance. Implementation of Dengue Virus Surveillance also conducted by BBTKL PP Surabaya. The purpose of this study was to determine the workflow, identify problems, set priority problem, find the cause of the problem, and provide the alternative solution related to problems of Dengue Virus Surveillance in BBTKL PP Surabaya. This is a ope...

  14. The modular integrated video system (MIVS): A new generation of video surveillance equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaertner, K.J.; Dawes, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    Over the years, one of the ''workhorses'' of the IAEA's safeguards system has been an 8-mm film camera used for surveillance purposes at many safeguarded nuclear facilities around the world. Recently, however, the Agency has been moving away from the use of these units in favour of advanced video systems that today have taken over the market. Production of 8-mm film and cameras has been virtually discontinued worldwide. The Agency's transition to modern video systems, and the replacement of aging 8-mm cameras in some 290 nuclear facilities, has proven to be a challenging and difficult effort in terms of technology, quality assurance, cost effectiveness, and scheduling. This article describes the development of three alternate video systems to replace the 8-mm film camera being developed through IAEA safeguards support programmes with Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the United States. It reviews the progress made in various areas, and describes the features and advantages of one system - the modular integrated video system (MIVS) - which is going to be deployed as a primary safeguards tool through the 1990s

  15. Assessment of the performance of a conceptual acoustic surveillance system for anomalous events in LMFBRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R.D.; Carey, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method is developed for calculating the detectability of anomalous acoustic events. The example used is the sodium vapor bubble collapse in the subcooled regions of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). This method provides a range of estimates for detection and false alarm probabilities in acoustic surveillance systems for sodium boiling and voiding detection, as well as any other impulsive events such as loose-parts monitoring. The signal excess at the receiver array from an impulsive source is computed by an extension of methods introduced by W. Carey. Assuming an exponential pulse form for the signal (or its envelope) the equivalent source level is determined from the energy flux spectral density for inclusion in the sonar equation. The signal excess (SE) is then given by the source level (SL) minus the noise level (NL) minus the transmission loss (TL) minus the detection threshold (DT) plus the receiving array gain (AG).

  16. [Monitoring respiratory syncytial virus through the Spanish influenza surveillance system, 2006-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Jorge, Silvia; Delgado-Sanz, Concepción; de Mateo, Salvador; Pozo, Francisco; Casas, Inmaculada; Larrauri, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the information on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) obtained through the Spanish Influenza Surveillance System (SISS) and to study its usefulness as supplementary information for the characterization of influenza epidemics. The temporal patterns of both RSV and influenza viruses were analyzed by patterns comparing the weekly viral detection rates from 2006 to 2014. In general, the RSV circulation was characterized by showing a peak between 52-1 weeks, and circulated from 2 to 8 weeks before/prior to influenza viruses. RSV information obtained from the SISS is useful for the characterization of influenza epidemics in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of Smoking and Associated Factors: Evidence From the CHILILAB Demographic Surveillance System in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Thanh Huong, Le; Khanh Long, Tran; Xuan Son, Phung; Thi Tuyet-Hanh, Tran

    2017-07-01

    This study analyzed secondary data from Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB) database to identify smoking prevalence and associated demographic factors. Data were extracted from the database of the CHILILAB 2016, which included information on individual smoking behaviors, as well as individual and household demographic data. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were performed with significance level of 0.05. The smoking prevalences were 34.7%, 0.9%, and 16.1% for men, women, and both genders, respectively. A total of 78.2% of current smokers smoked daily inside their houses. Lower smoking status was associated with younger age, being student, rich, and/or single. Future efforts should not only spend on further reduction of smoking rate in Chi Linh Town but should also pay special attention on reducing the prevalence of in-home smoking. This will help to decrease the risk of nonsmokers being exposed to secondhand smoke in their home environment.

  18. Social and behavioral determinants of perceived insufficient sleep: analysis of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Grandner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insufficient sleep is associated with cardiometabolic disease and poor health. However, few studies have assessed its determinants in a nationally-representative sample. Methods: Data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS was used (N=323,047 adults. Insufficient sleep was assessed as insufficient rest/sleep over 30 days. This was evaluated relative to sociodemographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, region, socioeconomics (education, income, employment, insurance, health behaviors (diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, and health/functioning (emotional support, BMI, mental/physical health. Results: Overall, insufficient sleep was associated with being female, White or Black/African-American, unemployed, without health insurance, and not married; decreased age, income, education, physical activity; worse diet and overall health; and increased household size, alcohol, and smoking. Conclusion: These factors should be considered risk factors for insufficient sleep.

  19. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehoon Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii object depth estimation; and (iii detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems.

  20. A training manual for event history data management using Health and Demographic Surveillance System data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, Philippe; Ginsburg, Carren; Herbst, Kobus; Sankoh, Osman; Collinson, Mark A

    2017-06-26

    The objective of this research note is to introduce a training manual for event history data management. The manual provides a first comprehensive guide to longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data management that allows for a step-by-step description of the process of structuring and preparing a dataset for the calculation of demographic rates and event history analysis. The research note provides some background information on the INDEPTH Network, and the iShare data repository and describes the need for a manual to guide users as to how to correctly handle HDSS datasets. The approach outlined in the manual is flexible and can be applied to other longitudinal data sources. It facilitates the development of standardised longitudinal data management and harmonization of datasets to produce a comparative set of results.

  1. Recall bias in a case-control surveillance system on the use of medicine during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rockenbauer, M.; Olsen, Jørn; Czeizel, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    It is important to study possible teratogenic effects of drugs used during pregnancy. Many studies of this type rely upon case-control designs in which drug intake is recalled by the mothers after having given birth. Recall bias in this situation may lead to spurious associations. We looked...... for indicators of recall bias by comparing self-reported drug intake with medically notified intake for specific diseases in the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, which includes 22,865 cases with congenital abnormalities and 39,151 controls. Recall error was present......, especially for drugs used for a short time period. Furthermore, the timing of drug intake was reported slightly closer to the time of interview for cases compared than for controls. Severe or visible congenital abnormalities did not appear to be more conducive to recall bias than other abnormalities under...

  2. Patient compliance with surveillance colonoscopy: patient factors and the use of a graded recall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauci, Chahaya; Lendzion, Rebecca; Phan-Thien, Kim-Chi; King, Denis; Perera, Dayashan S

    2018-04-01

    Surveillance colonoscopy allows for the early detection and improved treatment outcomes in colorectal neoplasms but compliance rates and factors require further investigation. This is a retrospective cohort study examining 816 patients recalled for surveillance colonoscopy at an Australian colorectal practice over a 6-month period. Primary outcome was compliance with colonoscopy within 12 months of recall. The secondary outcome of this study was to identify factors affecting compliance including patient factors and the practices' graded recall system. A total of 715 patients (87.6%) were compliant with recall requests for repeat colonoscopy. Significantly higher compliance rates were noted with a personal history of adenomatous polyps (90.9% versus 85.6%, P = 0.025). Those with private insurance or Department of Veterans Affairs were more likely to be compliant than those publicly funded (89.0% versus 93.3% versus 79.0%, P = 0.007). No statistically significant difference in compliance was shown with a personal history of colorectal cancer, diverticular disease, perianal disease, National Health and Medical Research Council risk category, gender, time associated with the practice or the clinician. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of letters sent and compliance with recall, with 61.8% being compliant after a single letter, and a final cumulative compliance after five letters of 87.6% (R = 0.882, P = 0.048). A graded recall system can achieve compliance rates as high as 87.6% compared to a single letter only achieving 61.8% compliance. A history of adenomatous polyps and insurance status were the only factors shown to result in higher recall compliance. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. Syndromic Surveillance System for Korea-US Joint Biosurveillance Portal: Design and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chulwoo; Burkom, Howard; Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Stewart, Miles; Elbert, Yevgeniy; Katz, Aaron; Tak, Sangwoo

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the growing importance of situational awareness of bioterrorism threats, the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the United States have constructed a joint military capability, called the Biosurveillance Portal (BSP), to enhance biosecurity. As one component of the BSP, we developed the Military Active Real-time Syndromic Surveillance (MARSS) system to detect and track natural and deliberate disease outbreaks. This article describes the ROK military health data infrastructure and explains how syndromic data are derived and made available to epidemiologists. Queries corresponding to 8 syndromes, based on published clinical effects of weaponized pathogens, were used to classify military hospital patient records to form aggregated daily syndromic counts. A set of ICD-10 codes for each syndrome was defined through literature review and expert panel discussion. A study set of time series of national daily counts for each syndrome was extracted from the Defense Medical Statistical Information System between January 1, 2011, and May 31, 2014. A stratified, adjusted cumulative summation algorithm was implemented for each syndrome group to signal alerts prompting investigation. The algorithm was developed by calculating sensitivity to sets of 1,000 artificial outbreak signals randomly injected in the dataset, with each signal injected in a separate trial. Queries and visualizations were adapted from the Suite for Automated Global bioSurveillance. Findings indicated that early warning of outbreaks affecting fewer than 50 patients will require analysis at subnational levels, especially for common syndrome groups. Developing MARSS to improve sensitivity will require modification of underlying syndromic diagnosis codes, engineering to coordinate alerts among subdivisions, and enhanced algorithms. The bioterrorist threat in the Korean peninsula mandates these efforts.

  4. Public health efforts to build a surveillance system for child maltreatment mortality: lessons learned for stakeholder engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucia Rojas; Gibbs, Deborah; Wetterhall, Scott; Schnitzer, Patricia G; Farris, Tonya; Crosby, Alex E; Leeb, Rebecca T

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the number of largely preventable and tragic deaths due to child maltreatment (CM) requires an understanding of the magnitude of and risk factors for fatal CM and targeted research, policy, and prevention efforts. Public health surveillance offers an opportunity to improve our understanding of the problem of CM. In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded state public health agencies in California, Michigan, and Oregon to implement a model approach for routine and sustainable CM surveillance and evaluated the experience of those efforts. We describe the experiences of 3 state health agencies in building collaborations and partnerships with multiple stakeholders for CM surveillance. Qualitative, structured key informant interviews were carried out during site visits as part of an evaluation of a CDC-funded project to implement a model approach to CM surveillance. Key informants included system stakeholders from state health agencies, law enforcement, child protective services, the medical community, and child welfare advocacy groups in the 3 funded states. Factors that facilitated stakeholder engagement for CM surveillance included the following: streamlining and coordinating the work of Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs); demonstrating the value of surveillance to non-public health partners; codifying relationships with participating agencies; and securing the commitment of decision-makers. Legislative mandates were helpful in bringing key stakeholders together, but it was not sufficient to ensure sustained engagement. The engagement process yielded multiple benefits for the stakeholders including a deeper appreciation of the complexity of defining CM; a greater understanding of risk factors for CM; and enhanced guidance for prevention and control efforts. States considering or currently undertaking CM surveillance can glean useful insights from the experiences of these 3 states and apply them to their own efforts to engage

  5. Comparing Boltzmann and Gibbs definitions of entropy in small systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Loris

    2017-11-01

    The long-standing contrast between Boltzmann's and Gibbs' approach to statistical thermodynamics has been recently rekindled by Dunkel and Hilbert, who criticize the notion of negative absolute temperature (NAT) as a misleading consequence of Boltzmann's definition of entropy. A different definition, due to Gibbs, has been proposed, which forbids NAT and makes the energy equipartition rigorous in arbitrarily sized systems. The two approaches, however, are shown to converge to the same results in the thermodynamical limit. A vigorous debate followed Dunkel and Hilbert's work, with arguments against and in favor of Gibbs' entropy. In an attempt to leave the speculative level and give the discussion some deal of concreteness, we analyze the practical consequences of Gibbs' definition in two finite-size systems: a non-interacting gas of N atoms with two-level internal spectrum, and an Ising model of N interacting spins. It is shown that, for certain measurable quantities, the difference resulting from Boltzmann's and Gibbs' approach vanishes as N -1/2 , much less rapidly than the 1/ N slope expected. As shown by numerical estimates, this makes the experimental solution of the controversy a feasible task.

  6. Lessons From the Implementation of Mo-Buzz, a Mobile Pandemic Surveillance System for Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, May Oo; Jayasundar, Karthikayen; Sheldenkar, Anita; Wijayamuni, Ruwan; Wimalaratne, Prasad; Ernst, Kacey C; Foo, Schubert

    2017-10-02

    Approximately 128 countries and 3.9 billion people are at risk of dengue infection. Incidence of dengue has increased over the past decades, becoming a growing public health concern for countries with populations that are increasingly susceptible to this vector-borne disease, such as Sri Lanka. Almost 55,150 dengue cases were reported in Sri Lanka in 2016, with more than 30.40% of cases (n=16,767) originating from Colombo, which struggles with an outdated manual paper-based dengue outbreak management system. Community education and outreach about dengue are also executed using paper-based media channels such as pamphlets and brochures. Yet, Sri Lanka is one of the countries with the most affordable rates of mobile services in the world, with penetration rates higher than most developing countries. To combat the issues of an exhausted dengue management system and to make use of new technology, in 2015, a mobile participatory system for dengue surveillance called Mo-Buzz was developed and launched in Colombo, Sri Lanka. This paper describes the system's components and uptake, along with other similar disease surveillance systems. We developed Mo-Buzz and tested its feasibility for dengue. Two versions of the app were developed. The first was for use by public health inspectors (PHIs) to digitize form filling and recording of site visit information, and track dengue outbreaks on a real-time dengue hotspot map using the global positioning system technology. The system also provides updated dengue infographics and educational materials for the PHIs to educate the general public. The second version of Mo-Buzz was created for use by the general public. This system uses dynamic mapping to help educate and inform the general public about potential outbreak regions and allow them to report dengue symptoms and post pictures of potential dengue mosquito-breeding sites, which are automatically sent to the health authorities. Targeted alerts can be sent to users depending on

  7. Experience from development and operation of the core surveillance systems SCORPIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, O.; Porsmyr, J.; Adlandsvik, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The main motivation behind the development of SCORPIO is to make a practical tool for reactor operators which can increase the quality and quantity of information presented on core status and dynamic behaviour. This can first of all improve plant safety as undesired core conditions are detected and prevented. Secondly, more flexible and efficient plant operation is made possible. These improvements are obtained by better surveillance of core instrumentation and through detailed calculations of core behaviour using on-line simulators. The SCORPIO system has two parallel modes of operation: the Core Follow Mode and the Predictive Mode. The system has been in operation at the Ringhals PWR unit 2 in Sweden since the end of 1987 where it runs on Norsk Data mini-computers. Recently, there has been a renewed interest for SCORPIO mainly determined by the utilities' desire to obtain more economical and flexible plant operation. The SCORPIO system has been transferred to Unix based workstations and integrated with the Picasso-2 graphics system. In addition to Ringhals the new system is currently being installed at Nuclear Electri's Sizewell B PWR in UK and Duke Power's Catawba Unit 1,2 and McGuire Unit 1,2, USA. (author). 7 refs, 5 figs

  8. Safeguards evolution towards unattended c/s (containment and surveillance) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentino, Lucia I.; Saavedra, Analia D.; Castro, Laura B.; Maceiras, Elena; Llacer, Carlos D.; Vicens, Hugo E.; Mairal, Maria L.; Fernandez Moreno, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    This paper shows the development and evolution of safeguards towards the use of different containment and surveillance (C/S) systems, which involve the possibility of working unattended. They are designed to transmit safeguards relevant data remotely. It is believed that they would increase safeguards efficiency while maintaining or even enhancing their effectiveness. At present, unattended C/S systems with or without remote transmission are in place at several installations. In addition, some other possible applications are being tested. One of these is the Remote Monitoring Systems (RMS) field trial at Embalse nuclear power plant to cover the transfers of spent fuel from the ponds to the dry storage. Some of the matters to be addressed are of general nature (i.e. applicable to any unattended/remote system) while others depend on the specific application in a nuclear installation. Among others, the following are particularly important: -) Sharing of data with the SSAC; -) Impact of a failure of the RMS on the operator, IAEA and the SSAC; -) Provision of relevant operational and accounting information; -) Review of the current safeguard approach for the selected installation; -) RMS cost-effectiveness assessment. This paper describes the status of the RMS field trial as well as the current C/S system in place at Embalse nuclear power plant. (authors)

  9. Early detection and response for measles and rubella cases through the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System in Ibaraki Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Kurita, Junko; Takagi, Takeshi; Nagata, Noriko; Nagasu, Natsuki; Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Ibaraki Prefecture, all (nursery) schools have joined the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System (hereafter denoted as (N)SASSy), which is operated by the Japan School Health Association to monitor the prevalence of infectious diseases, the early detection and response for outbreaks, and prevention of large outbreaks. Prefectural government officers also utilize it as a control measure for infectious diseases. In particular, when cases of measles or rubella are registered, (N)SASSy sends e-mails automatically to prefectural government officers to activate control measures. This paper summarizes administrative responses by prefectural government officers for measles or rubella cases using (N)SASSy and discusses the future challenges.Methods We summarized registration, detection, and first response data for measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy and compared the number of detected and reported cases enforced by the Infectious Diseases Control Law from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014.Results The public health center questioned hospitals/clinics and (nursery) schools about all registered measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy on the same day to check the entered information. In the past 2 years, there were 5 measles and 56 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 measles and 19 rubella cases in 2014 registered with (N)SASSy. All cases were checked and investigated by the public health center. Of all cases detected by (N)SASSy, 7 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 rubella case in 2014 were reported based on the law. No measles cases were reported in the 2 years. The results of investigations and laboratory tests were given as feedback to the (nursery) schools. If the case did not case definition determined by the law, we changed the status in (N)SASSy to suspected or discarded cases.Conclusion Since (N)SASSy assists prefectural government officers with earlier detection of and response for infectious diseases, it definitely contributes to infection control

  10. Alternative definitions of kinetic parameters for accelerator driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New definition of kinetic parameters for accelerator driven systems. ► Difference between effective and average delayed neutron fraction. ► Difference between effective and average prompt neutron lifetime. ► Effect of the neutron source (Cf, D–D, D–T) on k src . ► Effect of the (n, xn) reactions and source energy-angle distribution on k src . - Abstract: This study introduces a new formulation of kinetic parameters for accelerator driven systems and it is structured into two parts. The first part is dedicated to the classic definition of the kinetic parameters and compares different calculation methodologies. The second part considers a new definition of the kinetic parameters for subcritical assemblies, with particular emphasis on the delayed neutron fraction and the prompt neutron lifetime. This new definition takes into account neutrons from the external neutron source and (n, xn) reactions, which increase the fraction of prompt neutrons. The developed theoretical framework has been applied by Monte Carlo and deterministic calculations to the YALINA Thermal subcritical assembly located in Belarus. This facility can be driven by californium, deuterium–deuterium (D–D), or deuterium–tritium (D–T) external neutron sources. For the D–T neutron source, (n, xn) reactions must be taken into account in order to produce accurate results because the average energy of D–T source neutrons is 14.1 MeV, a value which is much higher than the threshold energy of the (n, 2n) cross section of uranium isotopes.

  11. Establishing a web-based integrated surveillance system for early detection of infectious disease epidemic in rural China: a field experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei-rong; Nie, Shao-fa; Xu, Biao; Dong, Heng-jin; Palm, Lars; Diwan, Vinod K

    2012-02-03

    A crucial goal of infectious disease surveillance is the early detection of epidemics, which is essential for disease control. In China, the current surveillance system is based on confirmed case reports. In rural China, it is not practical for health units to perform laboratory tests to confirm disease and people are more likely to get 'old' and emerging infectious diseases due to poor living conditions and closer contacts with wild animals and poultry. Syndromic surveillance, which collects non-specific syndromes before diagnosis, has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation. It will be especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. This is a field experimental study. The experimental tool is an innovative electronic surveillance system, combining syndromic surveillance with the existing case report surveillance in four selected counties in China. In the added syndromic surveillance, three types of data are collected including patients' major symptoms from health clinics, pharmaceutical sales from pharmacies and absenteeism information from primary school. In order to evaluate the early warning capability of the new added syndromic surveillance, the timelines and validity of the alert signals will be analyzed in comparison with the traditional case reporting system. The acceptability, feasibility and economic evaluation of the whole integrated surveillance system will be conducted in a before and after study design. Although syndromic surveillance system has mostly been established in developed areas, there are opportunities and advantages of developing it in rural China. The project will contribute to knowledge, experience and evidence on the establishment of an integrated surveillance system, which aims to provide early warning of disease epidemics in developing countries.

  12. Establishing a web-based integrated surveillance system for early detection of infectious disease epidemic in rural China: a field experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei-rong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A crucial goal of infectious disease surveillance is the early detection of epidemics, which is essential for disease control. In China, the current surveillance system is based on confirmed case reports. In rural China, it is not practical for health units to perform laboratory tests to confirm disease and people are more likely to get 'old' and emerging infectious diseases due to poor living conditions and closer contacts with wild animals and poultry. Syndromic surveillance, which collects non-specific syndromes before diagnosis, has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation. It will be especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. Methods/Design This is a field experimental study. The experimental tool is an innovative electronic surveillance system, combining syndromic surveillance with the existing case report surveillance in four selected counties in China. In the added syndromic surveillance, three types of data are collected including patients' major symptoms from health clinics, pharmaceutical sales from pharmacies and absenteeism information from primary school. In order to evaluate the early warning capability of the new added syndromic surveillance, the timelines and validity of the alert signals will be analyzed in comparison with the traditional case reporting system. The acceptability, feasibility and economic evaluation of the whole integrated surveillance system will be conducted in a before and after study design. Discussions Although syndromic surveillance system has mostly been established in developed areas, there are opportunities and advantages of developing it in rural China. The project will contribute to knowledge, experience and evidence on the establishment of an integrated surveillance system, which aims to provide early warning of disease epidemics in developing countries.

  13. The implantation of the Surveillance System for Non-communicable Diseases in Brazil, 2003 to 2015: successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Moura, Lenildo de; Morais, Otaliba Libânio de

    2017-01-01

    To describe the implantation of the Surveillance System for Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) in the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde) and the challenges in maintaining it. A literature review was carried out the information contained in federal government directives between 2003 and 2015 was consulted. A comprehensive risk and protection factor surveillance system was implemented. It is capable of producing information and providing evidence to monitor changes in the health behavior of the population. Among the advances cited are the organization of epidemiological surveys, such as the Surveillance System for Risk Factors and Protection for NCD (Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para DCNT - Vigitel), the National School Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar - PeNSE), and the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saude) from 2013, which enabled the most extensive health diagnosis of the Brazilian population. In 2011, the NCD National Plan 2011-2022 established targets for reducing risk factors and NCD mortality. The information gathered from the NCD surveillance system can support the implementation of sectoral and intersectorial strategies, which will result in the implementation of the Brazilian Strategic Action Plan for the prevention and control of NCDs, as well as the monitoring and evaluation of their results periodically. Finally, it can be a very important tool to help Brazil achieve the goals proposed by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Global Plan to Tackling NCDs.

  14. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Junior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Health surveillance (HS is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS. This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years.

  15. A Smart Card-Based Electronic School Absenteeism System for Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance in Hong Kong: Design, Implementation, and Feasibility Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Dennis Km; Lau, Eric Hy; So, Hau Chi; Xiao, Jingyi; Lam, Chi Kin; Fang, Vicky J; Tam, Yat Hung; Leung, Gabriel M; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2017-10-06

    School-aged children have the highest incidence of respiratory virus infections each year, and transmission of respiratory viruses such as influenza virus can be a major concern in school settings. School absenteeism data have been employed as a component of influenza surveillance systems in some locations. Data timeliness and system acceptance remain as key determinants affecting the usefulness of a prospective surveillance system. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing an electronic school absenteeism surveillance system using smart card-based technology for influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance among a representative network of local primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. We designed and implemented a surveillance system according to the Protocol for a Standardized information infrastructure for Pandemic and Emerging infectious disease Response (PROSPER). We employed an existing smart card-based education and school administration platform for data capture, customized the user interface, and used additional back end systems built for other downstream surveillance steps. We invited local schools to participate and collected absenteeism data by the implemented system. We compared temporal trend of the absenteeism data with data from existing community sentinel and laboratory surveillance data. We designed and implemented an ILI surveillance system utilizing smart card-based attendance tracking approach for data capture. We implemented the surveillance system in a total of 107 schools (including 66 primary schools and 41 secondary schools), covering a total of 75,052 children. The system successfully captured information on absences for 2 consecutive academic years (2012-2013 and 2013-2014). The absenteeism data we collected from the system reflected ILI activity in the community, with an upsurge in disease activity detected up to 1 to 2 weeks preceding other existing surveillance systems. We designed and implemented a novel

  16. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Generation System Definition: Concept Definition and Capital Cost Estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, Larry [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Galluzzo, Geoff [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Andrew, Daniel [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Adams, Shannon [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    generating approximately 10MWe. This report addresses the concept definition of the sCO2 power generation system, a sub-set of items 2 and 3 above. Other reports address the balance of items 1 to 3 above as well as the MS/sCO2 integrated 10MWe facility, Item 2.

  17. Implementation of Syndromic Surveillance Systems in Two Rural Villages in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abat, Cédric; Colson, Philippe; Chaudet, Hervé; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Bassene, Hubert; Diallo, Aldiouma; Mediannikov, Oleg; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2016-12-01

    Infectious diseases still represent a major challenge for humanity. In this context, their surveillance is critical. From 2010 to 2016, two Point-Of-Care (POC) laboratories have been successfully implemented in the rural Saloum region of Senegal. In parallel, a homemade syndromic surveillance system called EPIMIC was implemented to monitor infectious diseases using data produced by the POC laboratory of the Timone hospital in Marseille, France. The aim of this study is to describe the steps necessary for implementing EPIMIC using data routinely produced by two POC laboratories (POC-L) established in rural Senegal villages. After improving EPIMIC, we started to monitor the 15 pathogens routinely diagnosed in the two POC-L using the same methodology we used in France. In 5 years, 2,577 deduplicated patients-samples couples from 775 different patients have been tested in the Dielmo and Ndiop POC-L. 739 deduplicated patients-samples couples were found to be positive to at least one of the tested pathogens. The retrospective analysis of the Dielmo and Ndiop POC data with EPIMIC allowed to generate 443 alarms. Since January 2016, 316 deduplicated patients-samples couples collected from 298 different patients were processed in the Niakhar POC laboratory. 56 deduplicated patients-samples couples were found to be positive to at least one of the tested pathogens. The retrospective analysis of the data of the Niakhar POC laboratory with EPIMIC allowed to generate 14 alarms. Although some improvements are still needed, EPIMIC has been successfully spread using data routinely produced by two rural POC-L in Senegal, West Africa.

  18. Surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) for 7 years using a computerised vaccination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil-Ramos, A M; Muelas-Tirado, J; Garrigues-Pelufo, T M; Portero-Alonso, A; Diez-Domingo, J; Pastor-Villalba, E; Lluch-Rodrigo, J A

    2016-06-01

    The surveillance of vaccine safety is an essential requirement in vaccination programmes. Computerized immunization registries such as the Vaccination Information System (SIV) of Valencian Community (Spain) offer the opportunity to estimate the incidence of adverse events according to individual information. The aim of the study was to analyze adverse events following immunization reported through SIV from 2005 to 2011 by age, sex, type of vaccine and dose, and adverse event, and highlight the advantages of this type of reporting. A retrospective cohort study of subjects vaccinated in the Valencian Community using population health databases was carried out. Analysis of vaccinations and reported AEFI via SIV in Valencian Community was carried out. More than 13 million vaccines doses were administered during 2005 through 2011, the reporting rate of adverse events was 12.4/100,000 doses administered with the highest value in 2009 (27.4), with differences by age and sex. DTaP vaccine had the highest reporting in children (96.6/100,000) while influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in adults (87.7/100,000). An increased reporting of adverse events was seen with DTaP in children 5-6 years of age, detected in real time, drove to swap this vaccine to a low dose Tdap which was followed by a decrease in administration site events. SIV demonstrates advantages for passive surveillance. Reporting rates by individual characteristics are calculated accurately and it also allows detecting shifts in reporting rate on real time for specific vaccines. The study shows that vaccines included in the routine vaccination schedule for children and adult vaccination programs are safe. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Malaria mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kim Streatfield

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria continues to be a major cause of infectious disease mortality in tropical regions. However, deaths from malaria are most often not individually documented, and as a result overall understanding of malaria epidemiology is inadequate. INDEPTH Network members maintain population surveillance in Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites across Africa and Asia, in which individual deaths are followed up with verbal autopsies. Objective: To present patterns of malaria mortality determined by verbal autopsy from INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia, comparing these findings with other relevant information on malaria in the same regions. Design: From a database covering 111,910 deaths over 12,204,043 person-years in 22 sites, in which verbal autopsy data were handled according to the WHO 2012 standard and processed using the InterVA-4 model, over 6,000 deaths were attributed to malaria. The overall period covered was 1992–2012, but two-thirds of the observations related to 2006–2012. These deaths were analysed by site, time period, age group and sex to investigate epidemiological differences in malaria mortality. Results: Rates of malaria mortality varied by 1:10,000 across the sites, with generally low rates in Asia (one site recording no malaria deaths over 0.5 million person-years and some of the highest rates in West Africa (Nouna, Burkina Faso: 2.47 per 1,000 person-years. Childhood malaria mortality rates were strongly correlated with Malaria Atlas Project estimates of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rates for the same locations. Adult malaria mortality rates, while lower than corresponding childhood rates, were strongly correlated with childhood rates at the site level. Conclusions: The wide variations observed in malaria mortality, which were nevertheless consistent with various other estimates, suggest that population-based registration of deaths using verbal autopsy is a useful approach to understanding the

  20. Rapid establishment of an internally displaced persons disease surveillance system after an earthquake --- Haiti, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake in Haiti disrupted infrastructure and displaced approximately 2 million persons, causing increased risk for communicable diseases from overcrowding and poor living conditions. Hundreds of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) established health-care clinics in camps of internally displaced persons (IDPs). To monitor conditions of outbreak potential identified at NGO camp clinics, on February 18, the Haiti Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), and CDC implemented the IDP Surveillance System (IDPSS). The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) "cluster approach" was used to coordinate the Haiti humanitarian response. One of 11 clusters, the Global Health Cluster (GHC), builds global capacity, whereas the country-level cluster (in this case, the Haitian Health Cluster [HHC], led by PAHO) responds locally. During the Haiti response, HHC engaged NGOs serving large camps, established IDPSS, followed trends of reportable conditions, undertook epidemiologic and laboratory investigations, and fostered implementation of control measures. This report describes the design and implementation of IDPSS in the post-earthquake period. The primary challenges to implementing IDPSS were communication difficulties with an ever-changing group of NGO partners and limitations to the utility of IDPSS data because of lack of reliable camp population denominator estimates. The IDPSS experience reinforces the need to improve local communication and coordination strategies. Improving future humanitarian response requires advance development and distribution of easily adaptable standard surveillance tools, development of an interdisciplinary strategy for an early and reliable population census, and development of communication strategies using locally available Internet and cellular networks.

  1. Progress in the Development of the Consulting Core Surveillance System COCOSS for KNK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.

    1990-10-01

    A very flexible data collecting and evaluation system is necessary to develop and test methods for detection and localization of fuel subassembly cladding failures in LMFBR's and to make predictions on their further development. For this purpose a new version of COCOSS (Consulting Core Surveillance System) has been developed and installed at KNK II. The new features of COCOSS are described in this report. The measuring system consists of two components, a data acquisition system in the experimenter room of the KNK II and a data evaluation computer in the IRE. The data acquisition computer at the KNK II is connected via a modem line to the evaluation computer. Several I/O-devices for monitoring the evaluation computer and for output of measuring results are connected from the KNK II to IRE with further modem lines. An 'emergency program' for evaluating the measured data is started automatically at the acquisition computer if the data line or the computer at the IRE is not available. By this way continuous data acquisition and evaluation is assured

  2. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool: A Web Based, Dynamic, and Interoperable System for Postmarketing Drug Surveillance Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anil Sinaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmarketing drug surveillance is a crucial aspect of the clinical research activities in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology. Successful utilization of available Electronic Health Record (EHR data can complement and strengthen postmarketing safety studies. In terms of the secondary use of EHRs, access and analysis of patient data across different domains are a critical factor; we address this data interoperability problem between EHR systems and clinical research systems in this paper. We demonstrate that this problem can be solved in an upper level with the use of common data elements in a standardized fashion so that clinical researchers can work with different EHR systems independently of the underlying information model. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool lets the clinical researchers extract data from different EHR systems by designing data collection set schemas through common data elements. The tool interacts with a semantic metadata registry through IHE data element exchange profile. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool and its supporting components have been implemented and deployed on the central data warehouse of the Lombardy region, Italy, which contains anonymized records of about 16 million patients with over 10-year longitudinal data on average. Clinical researchers in Roche validate the tool with real life use cases.

  3. Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking with the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Eleanor F.; Pravdo, Steven H.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Hicks, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last year the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program has made significant progress and now consists of two simultaneously-operating, autonomous search systems on the 1.2-m (48") telescopes: on the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) and NEAT/Palomar on the Palomar Observatory's Oschin telescope. This paper will focus exclusively on the NEAT/MSSS system. NEAT/MSSS is operated as a partnership between NASA/JPL and the United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), utilizing the AFRL 1.2-m telescope on the 3000-m summit of Haleakala, Maui, The USAF Space Command (SPCMD) contributed financial support to build and install the 'NEAT focal reducer' on the MSSS 1.2-m telescope giving it a large field of view (2.5 square degrees), suitable for the near-earth object (NEO),both asteroids and comets, survey. This work was completed in February 2000. AFRL has made a commitment to NEAT/MSSS that allows NEAT to operate full time with the understanding that AFRL participate as partners in NEAT/MSSS and have use of the NEAT camera system for high priority satellite observations during bright time (parts of 12 nights each month). Currently, NEAT has discovered 42 NEAs including 12 larger than 1-km, 5 Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs), 6 comets, and nearly 25,000 asteroid detections since March 2000.

  4. SCORPIO-VVER core monitoring and surveillance system with advanced capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, J.; Vocka, R.

    2009-01-01

    The SCORPIO-VVER system includes following features: 1) Validation of plant measurements and identification of sensor failures. 2) Optimum combination of measurements and calculations to obtain precise values of important parameters. 3) On-line 3D power distribution calculation with pin power reconstruction. 4) Limit checking and thermal margin calculation allowing for surveillance of VVER core limits such as DNBR, Sub-cooling margin, FdH and FQ peeking factors. 5) Integrated modules for monitoring fuel performance and coolant activity for identification of fuel failures. 6) Predictive capabilities and strategy planning, offering the possibility to check the consequences of operational manoeuvres in advance, prediction of critical parameters, etc. 7) Convenient monitoring of approach to criticality during reactor start-up. 8) Automated transition between cycles (fuel reload). The SCORPIO-VVER core monitoring system with its flexible and modular framework successfully responses to the plant operating needs and advances in nuclear fuel cycle strategies and fuel design. Modular framework allows for easy modifications of the system and implementation of new methods in physical modules. Even if the system is installed only on VVER-440 reactors, it could be adapted for VVER-1000 needs

  5. Probabilistic approaches to LCO's and surveillance requirements for standby safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.; Varcolik, F.

    1982-11-01

    Results are presented for a comprehensive analysis of risk-based methods for establishing Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) and surveillance requirements for on-line test and repair of nuclear power plant safety system components. Limiting Conditions for Operation refers to the legal constraint on safety system component outage times that are imposed by the NRC as part of the reactor operating license. Generally, when a safety system component is removed for repair or test for a period of time there is a period of increased vulnerability concerning the probability that the affected safety system will be available to mitigate an accident. This period of increased vulnerability exists until the component is restored to service. The constraint on the duration of this period, the allowed outage time (AOT), is the aspect of LCOs that is of interest here. In particular, methods are reviewed and developed that relate measures of risk to the AOT. Only by explicitly relating risk to AOT can outage times be constrained by placing limits on risk. Methods developed for relating risk measures to outage times are presented. The review and analysis of risk related methods for establishing LCOs are described

  6. AUTONOMOUS AERIAL SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM MOVEMENT MONITORING BY USING STRAP-DOWN INERTIAL TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE JULA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an inertial navigation algorithm used for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV boarding an optical detection system for the detection of the Corona discharge in high voltage power lines. The developed algorithm may be used both on real-time positioning, but also in the debriefing process after the flight test, when the in-flight acquired acceleration and angular speed data are processed together with the captured video streams, received by the Ground Mission Analysis System (GMAS. The integrated system was developed in a research project aiming the reduction of the losses in the transport of strategic interest utilities by using an advanced monitoring system based on IT&C infrastructure and autonomous aerial surveillance. In the paper are successively shown: 1 a short description of the research project; 2 the architecture of the strap-down inertial navigator and the associated mathematical model; 3 the software implementation of the navigator for the debriefing process, and 4 some positioning evaluation results based on the developed navigation algorithm.

  7. Analysis of surveillance systems in place in European Mediterranean countries for West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever (RVF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cito, F; Narcisi, V; Danzetta, M L; Iannetti, S; Sabatino, D D; Bruno, R; Carvelli, A; Atzeni, M; Sauro, F; Calistri, P

    2013-11-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) represent an important group of viral agents responsible for vector-borne zoonotic diseases constituting an emerging sanitary threat for the Mediterranean Basin and the neighbouring countries. WNV infection is present in several Mediterranean countries, whereas RVF has never been introduced into Europe, but it is considered a major threat for North African countries. Being vector-borne diseases, they cannot be prevented only through an animal trade control policy. Several approaches are used for the surveillance of WNV and RVFV. With the aim of assessing the surveillance systems in place in Mediterranean countries, two disease-specific questionnaires (WNV, RVFV) have been prepared and submitted to Public Health and Veterinary Authorities of six EU countries. This study presents the information gathered through the questionnaires and describes some critical points in the prevention and surveillance of these diseases as emerged by the answers received. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven

    Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards.

    Background

    As a follow-up to the European Ministerial Conference on

  9. Contact allergy to ingredients of topical medications : results of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), 2009-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Cooper, Susan M.; Wilkinson, Mark; Sanchez Perez, Javier; Schnuch, Axel; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to give an overview of the prevalence of contact allergy to active ingredients and excipients of topical medications across Europe. MethodsRetrospective analysis of data collected by the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies () with substances applied to

  10. Trends in screening mammograms for women 50 years of age and older - behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    To assess whether the media attention to breast cancer screening and the promotional efforts in 1987 were paralleled by increases in screening of women greater than or equal to 50 years of age, CDC analyzed data from 33 states that participated in the 1987 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

  11. Nutritional status and food consumption in 10-11 year old Dutch boys (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppel, G.van.; Schneijder, P.; Löwik, M.R.H.; Schrijver, J.; Kok, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System, cardiovascular risk factors and food consumption (24 h recall) as well as haematological, Fe and vitamin status (A, B6, C) were assessed in 126 Dutch boys aged 10-11 years (response 71%). Body mass index (BMI) and the sum of four skinfolds were

  12. Mapping HIV/STI behavioural surveillance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lert France

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Used in conjunction with biological surveillance, behavioural surveillance provides data allowing for a more precise definition of HIV/STI prevention strategies. In 2008, mapping of behavioural surveillance in EU/EFTA countries was performed on behalf of the European Centre for Disease prevention and Control. Method Nine questionnaires were sent to all 31 member States and EEE/EFTA countries requesting data on the overall behavioural and second generation surveillance system and on surveillance in the general population, youth, men having sex with men (MSM, injecting drug users (IDU, sex workers (SW, migrants, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics patients. Requested data included information on system organisation (e.g. sustainability, funding, institutionalisation, topics covered in surveys and main indicators. Results Twenty-eight of the 31 countries contacted supplied data. Sixteen countries reported an established behavioural surveillance system, and 13 a second generation surveillance system (combination of biological surveillance of HIV/AIDS and STI with behavioural surveillance. There were wide differences as regards the year of survey initiation, number of populations surveyed, data collection methods used, organisation of surveillance and coordination with biological surveillance. The populations most regularly surveyed are the general population, youth, MSM and IDU. SW, patients of STI clinics and PLWHA are surveyed less regularly and in only a small number of countries, and few countries have undertaken behavioural surveys among migrant or ethnic minorities populations. In many cases, the identification of populations with risk behaviour and the selection of populations to be included in a BS system have not been formally conducted, or are incomplete. Topics most frequently covered are similar across countries, although many different indicators are used. In most

  13. National laboratory-based surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance : a successful tool to support the control of antimicrobial resistance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Schoffelen, Annelot F.; de Greeff, Sabine C; Thijsen, Steven Ft; Alblas, H Jeroen; Notermans, Daan W; Vlek, Anne Lm; van der Sande, Marianne Ab; Leenstra, Tjalling

    2017-01-01

    An important cornerstone in the control of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a well-designed quantitative system for the surveillance of spread and temporal trends in AMR. Since 2008, the Dutch national AMR surveillance system, based on routine data from medical microbiological laboratories (MMLs),

  14. National laboratory-based surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance: a successful tool to support the control of antimicrobial resistance in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Schoffelen, Annelot F; de Greeff, Sabine C; Thijsen, Steven Ft; Alblas, H Jeroen; Notermans, Daan W; Vlek, Anne Lm; van der Sande, Marianne Ab; Leenstra, Tjalling

    2017-01-01

    An important cornerstone in the control of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a well-designed quantitative system for the surveillance of spread and temporal trends in AMR. Since 2008, the Dutch national AMR surveillance system, based on routine data from medical microbiological laboratories (MMLs),

  15. Experience gained with the development of a performance test program for the monitoring and surveillance systems in the Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arestin, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The monitoring and surveillance system for Embalse nuclear power plant are presented. The reactor, the nuclear fuel management, the equipments from monitoring and surveillance system, the activities developed by the AIEA experts in each mission of this test program and the management of the components for this test program in Argentine are described. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Assessment of continuous acoustic respiratory rate monitoring as an addition to a pulse oximetry-based patient surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Susan P; Pyke, Joshua; Taenzer, Andreas H

    2017-06-01

    Technology advances make it possible to consider continuous acoustic respiratory rate monitoring as an integral component of physiologic surveillance systems. This study explores technical and logistical aspects of augmenting pulse oximetry-based patient surveillance systems with continuous respiratory rate monitoring and offers some insight into the impact on patient deterioration detection that may result. Acoustic respiratory rate sensors were introduced to a general care pulse oximetry-based surveillance system with respiratory rate alarms deactivated. Simulation was used after 4324 patient days to determine appropriate alarm thresholds for respiratory rate, which were then activated. Data were collected for an additional 4382 patient days. Physiologic parameters, alarm data, sensor utilization and patient/staff feedback were collected throughout the study and analyzed. No notable technical or workflow issues were observed. Sensor utilization was 57 %, with patient refusal leading reasons for nonuse (22.7 %). With respiratory rate alarm thresholds set to 6 and 40 breaths/min., the majority of nurse pager clinical notifications were triggered by low oxygen saturation values (43 %), followed by low respiratory rate values (21 %) and low pulse rate values (13 %). Mean respiratory rate collected was 16.6 ± 3.8 breaths/min. The vast majority (82 %) of low oxygen saturation states coincided with normal respiration rates of 12-20 breaths/min. Continuous respiratory rate monitoring can be successfully added to a pulse oximetry-based surveillance system without significant technical, logistical or workflow issues and is moderately well-tolerated by patients. Respiratory rate sensor alarms did not significantly impact overall system alarm burden. Respiratory rate and oxygen saturation distributions suggest adding continuous respiratory rate monitoring to a pulse oximetry-based surveillance system may not significantly improve patient deterioration detection.

  17. A mobile field-work data collection system for the wireless era of health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Forsell

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In many countries or regions the capacity of health care resources is below the needs of the population and new approaches for health surveillance are needed. Innovative projects, utilizing wireless communication technology, contribute to reliable methods for field-work data collection and reporting to databases. The objective was to describe a new version of a wireless IT-support system for field-work data collection and administration. The system requirements were drawn from the design objective and translated to system functions. The system architecture was based on field-work experiences and administrative requirements. The Smartphone devices were HTC Touch Diamond2s, while the system was based on a platform with Microsoft .NET components, and a SQL Server 2005 with Microsoft Windows Server 2003 operating system. The user interfaces were based on .NET programming, and Microsoft Windows Mobile operating system. A synchronization module enabled download of field data to the database, via a General Packet Radio Services (GPRS to a Local Area Network (LAN interface. The field-workers considered the here-described applications user-friendly and almost self-instructing. The office administrators considered that the back-office interface facilitated retrieval of health reports and invoice distribution. The current IT-support system facilitates short lead times from field-work data registration to analysis, and is suitable for various applications. The advantages of wireless technology, and paper-free data administration need to be increasingly emphasized in development programs, in order to facilitate reliable and transparent use of limited resources.

  18. GENDER DEFINITION OF MUSICAL ART IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Poliuha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article interprets the gender issues and their interconnection of musical art that leads to analyzis of music pedagogy and educational system in general. The purpose of the study is the selection and analysis of such gender definitions of music as ender dimension, gender roles, gender approach, the gender component in the system of music education. Methodology of the study is based on the interdisciplinary approach that involves the use of scientific methods of analysis, synthesis and synthesis. Also, there is the method of comparative analysis and analogy applied in understanding the problems related to the study of gender influence in art and education. Originality is reflected in modern educational concept that appeals to the understanding of gender issues as a way of more thorough understanding of individuals, their role status of the individual, which in turn defines social opportunities in educational activities. Accordingly, the modern science can not remain uninvolved into the problems of modern times. Conclusions. Studies of gender in musical art education leads to selection, analyzis and understanding of such definitions as: gender dimension, which is focused on the understanding of the principle of obtaining polysynthetic, gender sensation from a musical work; gender roles, which distinguish representation of women in different kinds of music; gender approach, which establishes the availability of gender imbalance in the system of music education; gender component, which distinguishes the importance of understanding and practical implementation of gender equality in the system of music education.

  19. Desain dan Implementasi Aplikasi Video Surveillance System Berbasis Web-SIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I M.O. Widyantara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance system (VSS is an monitoring system based-on IP-camera. VSS implemented in live streaming and serves to observe and monitor a site remotely. Typically, IP- camera in the VSS has a management software application. However, for ad hoc applications, where the user wants to manage VSS independently, application management software has become ineffective. In the IP-camera installation spread over a large area, an administrator would be difficult to describe the location of the IP-camera. In addition, monitoring an area of IP- Camera will also become more difficult. By looking at some of the flaws in VSS, this paper has proposed a VSS application for easy monitoring of each IP Camera. Applications that have been proposed to integrate the concept of web-based geographical information system with the Google Maps API (Web-GIS. VSS applications built with smart features include maps ip-camera, live streaming of events, information on the info window and marker cluster. Test results showed that the application is able to display all the features built well

  20. An advanced maintenance advisory and surveillance system for boiler tubes - AMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, A.B. [ERA Technology Ltd, Leatherhead (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    In a recently completed European collaborative project, the aim was to address the issue of boiler tube failures and thereby plant availability. The reduction of forced outages due to component failures and the reduction of planned outages for preventative maintenance can both contribute in this respect. It has been possible to assess tube degradation due to erosion, corrosion and overheating through the use of on-line techniques (thin layer activation, corrosion probes and novel temperature sensors) and off-line techniques (cold air velocity measurements, laser shearography and measurements of steam side oxide) which have been developed in the project. These techniques have been demonstrated on an oil fired boiler in Portugal and a coal fired unit in Spain. The output from the monitoring techniques has been integrated in the AMASS maintenance advisory and surveillance system. This is a computerised system comprising a spatial database with add-on tools designed to assess data from individual monitors and to provide the user with information on tube life utilisation rates and the probability of tube failure occurring. A description of the monitoring techniques will be described along with some of the results of demonstrating them in the field. Also an overview of the computerized system and the way in which it works will be given along with examples of how it can be used to assist with preventative maintenance and to help avoid unplanned outages. (orig.) 10 refs.

  1. Adaptation of a malaria surveillance system for use in a visceral leishmaniasis elimination programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Geraldine M; Dunkley, Sophie; Deb, Rinki M; Thomsen, Edward; Coleman, Marlize; Dhariwal, A C; Das Gupta, R K; Srikantiah, Sridhar; Das, Pradeep; Coleman, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Successful public practice relies on generation and use of high-quality data. A data surveillance system (the Disease Data Management System [DDMS]) in use for malaria was adapted for use in the Indian visceral leishmaniasis elimination programme. A situational analysis identified the data flows in current use. Taxonomic trees for the vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India, Phlebotomus argentipes, were incorporated into the DDMS to allow entry of quality assurance and insecticide susceptibility data. A new quality assurance module was created to collate the concentration of DDT that was applied to walls during the indoor residual spraying (IRS) vector control programme. The DDMS was implemented in Bihar State and used to collate and manage data from sentinel sites in eight districts. Quality assurance data showed that DDT was under-applied to walls during IRS; this, combined with insecticide susceptibility data showing widespread vector resistance to DDT prompted a national policy change to using compression pumps and alpha-cypermethrin insecticide for IRS. The adapted DDMS centralises programmatic data and enhances evidence-based decision making and active policy change. Moving forward, further modules of the system will be implemented, allowing extended data capture and streamlined transmission of key information to decision makers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. A Coded Aperture Compressive Imaging Array and Its Visual Detection and Tracking Algorithms for Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanxiao Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an application of a compressive imaging system to the problem of wide-area video surveillance systems. A parallel coded aperture compressive imaging system is proposed to reduce the needed high resolution coded mask requirements and facilitate the storage of the projection matrix. Random Gaussian, Toeplitz and binary phase coded masks are utilized to obtain the compressive sensing images. The corresponding motion targets detection and tracking algorithms directly using the compressive sampling images are developed. A mixture of Gaussian distribution is applied in the compressive image space to model the background image and for foreground detection. For each motion target in the compressive sampling domain, a compressive feature dictionary spanned by target templates and noises templates is sparsely represented. An l1 optimization algorithm is used to solve the sparse coefficient of templates. Experimental results demonstrate that low dimensional compressed imaging representation is sufficient to determine spatial motion targets. Compared with the random Gaussian and Toeplitz phase mask, motion detection algorithms using a random binary phase mask can yield better detection results. However using random Gaussian and Toeplitz phase mask can achieve high resolution reconstructed image. Our tracking algorithm can achieve a real time speed that is up to 10 times faster than that of the l1 tracker without any optimization.

  3. Completeness of reporting of race and ethnicity data in the nationally notifiable diseases surveillance system, United States, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekoya, Nelson; Truman, Benedict I; Ajani, Umed A

    2015-01-01

    During 1994-1997, approximately 70% and 60% of the cases of conditions reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System included persons of known race and ethnicity, respectively. A major goal of the Healthy People 2020 initiative is to eliminate health disparities. To describe trends in the completeness of race and ethnicity in case reports of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System during 2006-2010. The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System is a public health surveillance system that aggregates case reports of infectious diseases and conditions that are designated nationally notifiable and are collected by US states and territories. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Georgia) maintains this surveillance system in collaboration with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. We used Cochran-Armitage Trend Test (SAS, version 9.2) to test the hypothesis that the percentage of case reports with the completeness of race and ethnicity data increased or decreased linearly during 2006-2010. Completeness of race and ethnicity variables. The 32 conditions reviewed included 1 030 804 case records. Seventy percent of records included a known value for race, and 49% of records included ethnicity during 2006-2010. During 2006-2010, race was known in 70% or more of records in 24 of 32 conditions and in 23 of 51 jurisdictions. During 2006-2010, the systemwide reporting of race remained at the same level of completeness (70%) but the reporting of ethnicity increased slightly from 48% in 2006 to 53% in 2010. In comparison with race, the proportions of records coded to ethnicity were less among all conditions. Significant change has occurred in the completeness of reporting of ethnicity but not race during 2006-2010. However, the reporting of ethnicity still lags substantially behind the reporting of race. Jurisdictions that identify conditions with lower rates of completeness of race and ethnicity can assess

  4. Reporting and Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States CDC's Vessel Sanitation Program CDC Feature: Surveillance for Norovirus Outbreaks Top ...

  5. Estimation of the sensitivity of the surveillance system for avian influenza in the western region of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Edyniesky; Calistri, Paolo; Fonseca, Osvaldo; Ippoliti, Carla; Alfonso, Pastor; Iannetti, Simona; Abeledo, María A; Fernández, Octavio; Percedo, María I; Pérez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Although avian influenza (AI) virus of H5 and H7 subtypes has the potential to mutate to a highly pathogenic form and cause very high mortalities in some poultry species, most AI infections in poultry are due to low pathogenic AI (LPAI). Hence serological surveys, coupled with passive surveillance activities, are essential to detect sub-clinical infections by LPAI viruses, H5 and H7 subtypes. However the proper planning of an active surveillance system should be based on a careful estimation of its performance. Therefore, the sensitivity of the active surveillance system for AI in the western region of Cuba was assessed by a stochastic model quantifying the probability of revealing at least one animal infected by H5 or H7 subtype. The diagnostic sensitivity of the haemagglutination inhibition assay and different levels of within-flock prevalence (5%, 12% and 30%) were considered. The sensitivity of the surveillance system was then assessed under five different samples size scenarios: testing 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 animals in each flock. Poultry flock sites in the western region of Cuba with a size ranging from 10,000 to 335,000 birds were included in the study.

  6. Clinical Correlates of Surveillance Events Detected by National Healthcare Safety Network Pneumonia and Lower Respiratory Infection Definitions-Pennsylvania, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Isaac; Chang, Julia; Gualandi, Nicole; Buser, Genevieve L; Rohrbach, Pamela; Smeltz, Debra A; Bellush, Mary Jo; Coffin, Susan E; Gould, Jane M; Hess, Debra; Hennessey, Patricia; Hubbard, Sydney; Kiernan, Andrea; O'Donnell, Judith; Pegues, David A; Miller, Jeffrey R; Magill, Shelley S

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical diagnoses associated with the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) pneumonia (PNEU) or lower respiratory infection (LRI) surveillance events DESIGN Retrospective chart review SETTING A convenience sample of 8 acute-care hospitals in Pennsylvania PATIENTS All patients hospitalized during 2011-2012 METHODS Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients reported to the NHSN to have PNEU or LRI, excluding adults with ventilator-associated PNEU. Documented clinical diagnoses corresponding temporally to the PNEU and LRI events were recorded. RESULTS We reviewed 250 (30%) of 838 eligible PNEU and LRI events reported to the NHSN; 29 reported events (12%) fulfilled neither PNEU nor LRI case criteria. Differences interpreting radiology reports accounted for most misclassifications. Of 81 PNEU events in adults not on mechanical ventilation, 84% had clinician-diagnosed pneumonia; of these, 25% were attributed to aspiration. Of 43 adult LRI, 88% were in mechanically ventilated patients and 35% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis (infectious or noninfectious) documented at the time of LRI. Of 36 pediatric PNEU events, 72% were ventilator associated, and 70% corresponded to a clinical pneumonia diagnosis. Of 61 pediatric LRI patients, 84% were mechanically ventilated and 21% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis documented. CONCLUSIONS In adults not on mechanical ventilation and in children, most NHSN-defined PNEU events corresponded with compatible clinical conditions documented in the medical record. In contrast, NHSN LRI events often did not. As a result, substantial modifications to the LRI definitions were implemented in 2015. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:818-824.

  7. Systems definition space based power conversion systems: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Potential space-located systems for the generation of electrical power for use on earth were investigated. These systems were of three basic types: (1) systems producing electrical power from solar energy; (2) systems producing electrical power from nuclear reactors; (3) systems for augmenting ground-based solar power plants by orbital sunlight reflectors. Configurations implementing these concepts were developed through an optimization process intended to yield the lowest cost for each. A complete program was developed for each concept, identifying required production rates, quantities of launches, required facilities, etc. Each program was costed in order to provide the electric power cost appropriate to each concept.

  8. Operator role definition and human-system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses operator role definition and human-system integration from a perspective of systems engineering and allocation of functions. Current and traditional allocation of tasks/functions can no longer by applied to systems that are significantly more sophisticated and dynamic than current system designs. For such advanced and automated designs, explicit attention must be given to the role of the operator in order to facilitate efficient system performance. Furthermore, such systems will include intelligent automated systems which will support the cognitive activities of the operator. If such systems share responsibility and control with the human operator, these computer-based assistants/associates should be viewed as intelligent team members. As such, factors such as trust, intentions, and expectancies, among team members must be considered by the systems designer. Such design considerations are discussed in this paper. This paper also discusses the area of dynamic allocation of functions, and the need for models of the human operator in support of machine forecast of human performance. The Integrated Reactor Operator/System (INTEROPS) model is discussed as an example of a cognitive model capable of functioning beyond a rule-based behavioral structure

  9. Tetanus Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Surveillance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reported tetanus ... date on their 10-year booster shots. National surveillance for tetanus is monitored by the National Notifiable ...

  10. Guidelines for a national epidemiological surveillance system of thyroid cancer in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    At the request of the French Department of Health, a multidisciplinary Thyroid Cancer Committee, coordinated by the French Public Health Agency analysed the observed increase of thyroid cancer incidence in France and outlined the limits of the present case registration system. This Committee set up guidelines to improve the national surveillance system of thyroid cancer. The Committee analysed 4 models for the incidence survey, 3 of which have been excluded: a poor cost-benefit ratio precludes the constitution of a national registry dedicated to thyroid cancer; however, the Committee has recommended this model that still exists for thyroid cancer of the youth(under 19 years old), a national system base exclusively on pathological data would only be relevant after significant improvement of data collection, obligatory of all cases of thyroid cancer is inappropriate considering the fit prognosis of this cancer. A two level system is proposed with continuous registration of incident caes through the National Hospital Discharge survey, specific focused analysis of clinical and pathological data in case of a cluster alert in any given area. Whatever the system, it seems necessary to in general: propose a unique health registration number per patient, improve access to medical data, organize a national standardised collection of pathological findings, follow up the diagnosis practices related to thyroid cancer that have an impact on incidence rates. In conclusion, a reliable incidence survey and a follow up of diagnostic practices and of risk factors may provide a relevant model of epidemiological survey of thyroid cancers in France but such a system requires a long lasting strategic and financial involvement. (author)

  11. Attempt to find optimal selections of EO systems for good results of imaging in real environment surveillance process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcan, Octavia; Ursu, Danut; Marin, Constantin; Toma, Alexandru; Beldiceanu, Anca

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the authors try to determine a procedure for the best choice in selecting one or other type of sensors as a function of the object under observation, background and environmental conditions. In surveillance activities related with different missions and scenarios occurred in day and/or night time, the proper choice and use of video surveillance sensors is of huge importance. Starting from specific scenarios of surveillance, as for example the surveillance of the sky to detect drones, or surveillance of the ground area to detect some manmade objects or intruders, this paper approaches the problem of the image appearance in VIS, SWIR and LWIR spectral ranges, using different passive technologies of surveillance. Relevant images are comparative presented in relation with some theoretical quantifications made through mathematical models or through software simulations. Starting from a few targets and backgrounds with known spectral reflectivity or emissivity, the contrast was used to show its influence on the signal strength reaching the surface of the video detector (imager) in similar environment conditions. Finally, the authors seek certain characteristics of the electro-optical system itself that can influence most the strength and quality of the optical signal with respect to influences on observation distances of the target. The possibility of using an active technology instead of a passive one, by introducing a pulsed laser illuminator, is also analyzed. The use of some polarizing filters is also considered but in this stage only in laboratory conditions, in order to improve the observability of an object in some special environmental circumstances.

  12. Operational experiences on the Borssele nuclear power plant using computer based surveillance and diagnostic system on-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkcan, E.; Quaadvliet, W.H.J.; Peeters, T.T.J.M.; Verhoef, J.P

    1991-06-01

    The on-line monitoring and diagnostics system of Borssele nuclear power plant (NPP), designed and established by the ECN Energy Research Foundation, has been operating continuously since 1983. The system is extended in form of multiprocessing, multi-tasking structure performing real-time monitoring, on-line reactor parameters' calculation, data-base preparation for expert systems and providing early information on possible malfunctions even in the incipient stage making alert by passive alarms. The system realized has already been operating in the course of 7 fuel cycles of the reactor starting from start-up through normal power operation. An expert system operating on the VAX work station is added to the surveillance and diagnostics system for data base management of the observed physical parameters relevant to the NPP under supervision. The paper highlights the surveillance and diagnostic modules involved, in their actual hierarchical form in use, presents theoretical considerations applied to the design of the surveillance system together with the results obtained through the 12th to 17th fuel cycles of the NPP including start-ups and shut-downs and reveals the experience thus gained by both utility and ECN through the application of the system described. (author). 19 refs.; 4 figs

  13. Urban and Rural Differences of Acute Cardiovascular Disease Events: A Study from the Population-Based Real-Time Surveillance System in Zhejiang, China in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Gong

    Full Text Available Zhejiang province, China, has implemented a population based, real-time surveillance system that tracks acute cardiovascular diseases (CVDs events since 2001. This study aimed to describe the system and report CVD incidence, mortality and case-fatality between urban and rural areas in Zhejiang in 2012. The surveillance system employs a stratified random sampling method covering all permanent residents of 30 counties/districts in Zhejiang. Acute CVD events such as coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke were defined, registered and reviewed based on the adapted MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease definitions. Data were collected from health facilities, vital registries, supplementary surveys, and additional investigations, and were checked for data quality before input in the system. We calculated the rates and compared them by gender, age and region. In 2012, the incidence, mortality and case-fatality of total acute CVD events were 367.0 (CHD 59.1, stroke 307.9, 127.1 (CHD 43.3, stroke 83.8 per 100,000 and 34.6% (CHD 73.2%, stroke 27.2%, respectively. Compared with rural areas, urban areas reported higher incidence and mortality but lower case-fatality rates for CHD (P<0.001, while lower incidence but higher mortality and case-fatality rates for stroke (P<0.001. We found significant differences on CHD and stroke epidemics between urban and rural areas in Zhejiang. Special attentions need to be given to stroke control, especially in rural areas.

  14. HIV test offers and acceptance: New York State findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system and the National HIV behavioral surveillance, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Leung, Shu-Yin; Sinclair, Amber H; Battles, Haven B; Swain, Carol-Ann E; French, Patrick Tyler; Anderson, Bridget J; Sowizral, Mycroft J; Ruberto, Rachael; Brissette, Ian; Lillquist, Patricia; Smith, Lou C

    2015-01-01

    The New York State HIV testing law requires that patients aged 13-64 years be offered HIV testing in health care settings. We investigated the extent to which HIV testing was offered and accepted during the 24 months after law enactment. We added local questions to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) surveys asking respondents aged 18-64 years whether they were offered an HIV test in health care settings, and whether they had accepted testing. Statewide prevalence estimates of test offers and acceptance were obtained from a combined 2011-2012 BRFSS sample (N = 6,223). Local estimates for 2 high-risk populations were obtained from NHBS 2011 men who have sex with men (N = 329) and 2012 injection drug users (N = 188) samples. BRFSS data showed that 73% of New Yorkers received care in any health care setting in the past 12 months, of whom 25% were offered an HIV test. Sixty percent accepted the test when offered. The levels of test offer increased from 20% to 29% over time, whereas acceptance levels decreased from 68% to 53%. NHBS data showed that 81% of men who have sex with men received care, of whom 43% were offered an HIV test. Eighty-eight percent accepted the test when offered. Eighty-five percent of injection drug users received care, of whom 63% were offered an HIV test, and 63% accepted the test when offered. We found evidence of partial and increasing implementation of the HIV testing law. Importantly, these studies demonstrated New Yorkers' willingness to accept an offered HIV test as part of routine care in health care settings.

  15. Insurance claims data: a possible solution for a national sports injury surveillance system? An evaluation of data information against ASIDD and consensus statements on sports injury surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Malin; Forssblad, Magnus; Henriksson-Larsén, Karin

    2014-06-12

    Before preventive actions can be suggested for sports injuries at the national level, a solid surveillance system is required in order to study their epidemiology, risk factors and mechanisms. There are guidelines for sports injury data collection and classifications in the literature for that purpose. In Sweden, 90% of all athletes (57/70 sports federations) are insured with the same insurance company and data from their database could be a foundation for studies on acute sports injuries at the national level. To evaluate the usefulness of sports injury insurance claims data in sports injury surveillance at the national level. A database with 27 947 injuries was exported to an Excel file. Access to the corresponding text files was also obtained. Data were reviewed on available information, missing information and dropouts. Comparison with ASIDD (Australian Sports Injury Data Dictionary) and existing consensus statements in the literature (football (soccer), rugby union, tennis, cricket and thoroughbred horse racing) was performed in a structured manner. Comparison with ASIDD showed that 93% of the suggested data items were present in the database to at least some extent. Compliance with the consensus statements was generally high (13/18). Almost all claims (83%) contained text information concerning the injury. Relatively high-quality sports injury data can be obtained from a specific insurance company at the national level in Sweden. The database has the potential to be a solid base for research on acute sports injuries in different sports at the national level. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS in Nouna, Burkina Faso, 1993–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sié

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nouna1 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS is located in rural Burkina Faso and has existed since 1992. Currently, it has about 78,000 inhabitants. It is a member of the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH, a global network of memberswho conducts longitudinal health and demographic evaluation of populations in low- and middle-income countries. The health facilities consist of one hospital and 13 basic health centres (locally known as CSPS. The Nouna HDSS has been used as a sampling frame for numerous studies in the fields of clinical research, epidemiology, health economics, and health systems research. In this paper we review some of the main findings, and we describe the effects that almost 20 years of health research activities have shown in the population in general and in terms of the perception, economic implications, and other indicators. Longitudinal data analyses show that childhood, as well as overall mortality, has significantly decreased over the observation period 1993–2007. The under-five mortality rate dropped from about 40 per 1,000 person-years in the mid-1990s to below 30 per 1,000 in 2007. Further efforts are needed to meet goal four of the Millennium Development Goals, which is to reduce the under-five mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015.

  17. SMART VIDEO