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Sample records for surveillance study electronic

  1. Real-time monitoring of school absenteeism to enhance disease surveillance: a pilot study of a mobile electronic reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Liulark, Wongwat; Taweeseneepitch, Komchaluch; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Thongprarong, Wiraporn; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap

    2014-05-12

    School absenteeism is a common source of data used in syndromic surveillance, which can eventually be used for early outbreak detection. However, the absenteeism reporting system in most schools, especially in developing countries, relies on a paper-based method that limits its use for disease surveillance or outbreak detection. The objective of this study was to develop an electronic real-time reporting system on school absenteeism for syndromic surveillance. An electronic (Web-based) school absenteeism reporting system was developed to embed it within the normal routine process of absenteeism reporting. This electronic system allowed teachers to update students' attendance status via mobile tablets. The data from all classes and schools were then automatically sent to a centralized database for further analysis and presentation, and for monitoring temporal and spatial patterns of absent students. In addition, the system also had a disease investigation module, which provided a link between absenteeism data from schools and local health centers, to investigate causes of fever among sick students. The electronic school absenteeism reporting system was implemented in 7 primary schools in Bangkok, Thailand, with total participation of approximately 5000 students. During May-October 2012 (first semester), the percentage of absentees varied between 1% and 10%. The peak of school absenteeism (sick leave) was observed between July and September 2012, which coincided with the peak of dengue cases in children aged 6-12 years being reported to the disease surveillance system. The timeliness of a reporting system is a critical function in any surveillance system. Web-based application and mobile technology can potentially enhance the use of school absenteeism data for syndromic surveillance and outbreak detection. This study presents the factors that determine the implementation success of this reporting system.

  2. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  3. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  4. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  5. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  6. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  7. New perspectives in electronic fetal surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Emily F; Warrick, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    Despite its recognized limitations, fetal heart rate monitoring is a mainstay of intrapartum care. Although the basic technology in standard electronic fetal monitors has changed little in recent decades, clinical behavior in response to heart rate monitoring has changed considerably. In addition to clearly defined nomenclature and clinical guidelines, there is an increased awareness that environmental and human factors can impair clinical judgment, resulting in delayed intervention and, consequently, birth-related injury. This review examines three essential steps that affect clinical outcome: (1) signal acquisition, (2) associations with physiological outcome, and (3) clinical intervention. Only the third step is directly responsible for changing clinical outcome. However, timely initiation of interventions is dependent upon the second step, which is dependent upon the fi rst step. Thus, deficiencies at each step tend to accumulate and contribute to the worsening of overall clinical outcome. This review article summarizes advances occurring at each step. The synergy and convergence of innovations in engineering, mathematics, and behavioral science shows considerable promise in intrapartum fetal surveillance.

  8. CPSC’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC’s National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a national probability sample of hospitals in the U.S. and its territories. Patient information is...

  9. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  10. Electronic Surveillance of Testicular Cancer: Understanding Patient Perspectives on Access to Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Ryan J.; Leonard, Kevin J.; Eakin, Joan; Warde, Padraig; Bender, Jackie; Jewett, Michael A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To understand patient perceptions and attitudes regarding online access to testicular cancer surveillance test results, and to identify factors that may be important in maximizing referencing of electronic medical records (EMRs) by patients for these results. Methods: In this qualitative study, seven focus groups were conducted with a total of 22 patients undergoing surveillance for testicular cancer. Transcript data were analyzed iteratively using combined manual and computerized coding by two independent coders to generate a theoretic framework grounded in the data. Results: Practicality, meaning of information, patient-physician relationship, risk of recurrence, and role of technology were identified as interrelated factors that frame how patients regard potential surveillance technology. The influence of each factor hinged on its relationship with reassurance—the central predominant factor. Additionally, time since start of surveillance seemed to affect the relative importance of all other factors. Conclusion: Prevailing models of technology acceptance understate the complexity of the situation of the patient user and the implications of online access to health information. Surveillance for testicular cancer seems to be a suitable context for patient access to EMR information if patient perspectives are to be understood and considered. Reassurance is the overriding element influencing attitudes. PMID:20856632

  11. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B.; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. SETTING: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study...... (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases...... hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. CONCLUSION: The studied obstetric complications are rare...

  12. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  13. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and Pathogen Asset Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G. Wahl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA.

  14. Surveillance studies about "rear-window ethics"%Surveillance studies about"rear-window ethics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷婷

    2016-01-01

    It can be said that people now live in a surveillance society. Some forms of surveillance have always existed as people watch over each other for mutual care, for moral caution and to discover information under the table. Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window is a typical fi lm for surveillance studies.What is happening on the screen is merely a projection of our own anxieties, our own existence, and our self-ambiguity as portrayed by the characters in this wonderful film.

  15. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. METHODS: ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP, combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1 work group and communication group; 2 data source and collection; 3 data visualization; and 4 outbreak detection and alerting. RESULTS: As of Jan. 31(st 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  16. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Weirong; Palm, Lars; Lu, Xin; Nie, Shaofa; Xu, Biao; Zhao, Qi; Tao, Tao; Cheng, Liwei; Tan, Li; Dong, Hengjin; Diwan, Vinod K

    2013-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS) for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP), combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1) work group and communication group; 2) data source and collection; 3) data visualization; and 4) outbreak detection and alerting. As of Jan. 31(st) 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  17. Readiness of the Belgian network of sentinel general practitioners to deliver electronic health record data for surveillance purposes: results of survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanthomme Katrien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to proceed from a paper based registration to a surveillance system that is based on extraction of electronic health records (EHR, knowledge is needed on the number and representativeness of sentinel GPs using a government-certified EHR system and the quality of EHR data for research, expressed in the compliance rate with three criteria: recording of home visits, use of prescription module and diagnostic subject headings. Methods Data were collected by annual postal surveys between 2005 and 2009 among all sentinel GPs. We tested relations between four key GP characteristics (age, gender, language community, practice organisation and use of a certified EHR system by multivariable logistic regression. The relation between EHR software package, GP characteristics and compliance with three quality criteria was equally measured by multivariable logistic regression. Results A response rate of 99% was obtained. Of 221 sentinel GPs, 55% participated in the surveillance without interruption from 2005 onwards, i.e. all five years, and 78% were participants in 2009. Sixteen certified EHR systems were used among 91% of the Dutch and 63% of the French speaking sentinel GPs. The EHR software package was strongly related to the community and only one EHR system was used by a comparable number of sentinel GPs in both communities. Overall, the prescription module was always used and home visits were usually recorded. Uniform subject headings were only sometimes used and the compliance with this quality criterion was almost exclusively related to the EHR software package in use. Conclusions The challenge is to progress towards a sentinel network of GPs delivering care-based data that are (partly extracted from well performing EHR systems and still representative for Belgian general practice.

  18. Comparison of electronic laboratory reports, administrative claims, and electronic health record data for acute viral hepatitis surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Dicker, Joshua; Klompas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Public health surveillance systems for acute hepatitis are limited: clinician reporting is insensitive and electronic laboratory reporting is nonspecific. Insurance claims and electronic health records are potential alternative sources. To compare the utility of laboratory data, diagnosis codes, and electronic health record combination data (current and prior viral hepatitis studies, liver function tests, and diagnosis codes) for acute hepatitis A and B surveillance. Retrospective chart review. Massachusetts ambulatory practice serving 350 000 patients per year. All patients seen between 1990 and 2008. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of immunoglobulin M (IgM), International Classification of Disease-Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes, and combination electronic health record data for acute hepatitis A and B. During the study period, there were 111 patients with positive hepatitis A IgMs, 154 with acute hepatitis A ICD-9 codes, and 77 with positive IgM and elevated liver function tests. On review, 79 cases were confirmed. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were 100% and 71% (95% confidence interval, 62%-79%) for IgM, 94% (92%-100%) and 48% (40%-56%) for ICD-9 codes and 97% (92%-100%) and 100% (96%-100%) for combination electronic health record data. There were 14 patients with positive hepatitis B core IgMs, 2564 with acute hepatitis B ICD-9 codes, and 125 with suggestive combinations of electronic health record data. Acute hepatitis B was confirmed in 122 patients. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were 9.4% (5.2%-16%) and 86% (60%-98%) for hepatitis B core IgM, 73% (65%-80%) and 3.6% (2.9%-4.4%) for ICD-9 codes, and 96% (91%-99%) and 98% (94%-99%) for electronic health record data. Laboratory surveillance using IgM tests overestimates the burden of acute hepatitis A and underestimates the burden of acute hepatitis B. Claims data are subject to many false positives. Electronic health record data are both sensitive and predictive

  19. Secondary Analysis of an Electronic Surveillance System Combined with Multi-focal Interventions for Early Detection of Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Bonnie L; Landman, Sean; Yadav, Pranjul; Steinbach, Michael

    2017-01-18

    To conduct an independent secondary analysis of a multi-focal intervention for early detection of sepsis that included implementation of change management strategies, electronic surveillance for sepsis, and evidence based point of care alerting using the POC AdvisorTM application. Propensity score matching was used to select subsets of the cohorts with balanced covariates. Bootstrapping was performed to build distributions of the measured difference in rates/means. The effect of the sepsis intervention was evaluated for all patients, and High and Low Risk subgroups for illness severity. A separate analysis was performed patients on the intervention and non-intervention units (without the electronic surveillance). Sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive values were calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the alerting system for detecting sepsis or severe sepsis/ septic shock. There was positive effect on the intervention units with sepsis electronic surveillance with an adjusted mortality rate of -6.6%. Mortality rates for non-intervention units also improved, but at a lower rate of -2.9%. Additional outcomes improved for patients on both intervention and non-intervention units for home discharge (7.5% vs 1.1%), total length of hospital stay (-0.9% vs -0.3%), and 30 day readmissions (-6.6% vs -1.6%). Patients on the intervention units showed better outcomes compared with non-intervention unit patients, and even more so for High Risk patients. The sensitivity was 95.2%, specificity of 82.0% and PPV of 50.6% for the electronic surveillance alerts. There was improvement over time across the hospital for patients on the intervention and non-intervention units with more improvement for sicker patients. Patients on intervention units with electronic surveillance have better outcomes; however, due to differences in exclusion criteria and types of units, further study is needed to draw a direct relationship between the electronic surveillance system and

  20. The impact of electronic healthcare associated infection surveillance software on infection prevention resources: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Shaban, Ramon Z; MacBeth, Deborough; Carter, Abigail; Mitchell, Brett G

    2017-09-08

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is fundamental for infection prevention. The methods and practices for surveillance have evolved as technology becomes more advanced. The availability of electronic surveillance software (ESS) has increased, and yet adoption of ESS is slow. It is argued that ESS deliver savings through automation, particularly in terms of human resourcing and infection prevention (IP) staff time. This paper describes the findings of a systematic review on the impact of ESS on IP resources. A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature published between 1st January 2006 and 31(st) December 2016 with analysis using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 2832 articles were reviewed of which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. IP resources were identified as time undertaken on surveillance. A reduction in IP staff time to undertake surveillance was demonstrated in 13 studies. The reduction proportion ranged from 12.5% - 98.4% (mean 73.9%). The remaining three did not allow for any estimation of the effect in terms of IP staff time. None of the studies demonstrated an increase in IP staff time. The results of this review demonstrate that adopting ESS yield considerable dividends in IP staff time relating to data collection and case ascertainment whilst maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This has the potential to enable reinvestment into other components of IP to maximise efficient use of scare IP resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Use of an Electronic Medication Administration Record (eMAR) for Surveillance of Medication Omissions: Results of a One Year Study of Antimicrobials in the Inpatient Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bruce R.; Sabuda, Deana M.; Bresee, Lauren C.; Conly, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medication administration omissions (MAO) are usually considered medication errors but not all MAO are clinically relevant. We determined the frequency of clinically relevant MAO of antimicrobial drugs in adult hospitals in Calgary, Alberta, Canada based on electronic medication administration record (eMAR). Methods We examined 2011 data from eMAR records on medical wards and developed a reproducible assessment scheme to categorize and determine clinical relevance of MAO. We applied this scheme to records from 2012 in a retrospective cohort study to quantify clinically relevant MAO. Significant predictors of clinically relevant MAO were identified. Results A total of 294,718 dose records were assessed of which 10,282 (3.49%) were for doses not administered. Among these 4903 (1.66% of total); 47.68% of MAO were considered clinically relevant. Significant positive predictors of clinically relevant MAO included inhaled (OR 4.90, 95% CI 3.54-6.94) and liquid oral (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18-1.47) route of medication compared to solid oral and irregular dose schedules. Evening nursing shift compared to night shift (OR 0.77 95% CI 0.70-0.85) and parenteral (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.46-0.54) were negative predictors, The commonest reasons for relevant MAO were patient preference, unspecified reason, administration access issues, drug not available or patient condition. Conclusion Assessment of MAO by review of computer records provides a greater scope and sample size than directly observed medication administration assessments without “observer” effect. We found that MAO of antimicrobials in inpatients were uncommon but were seen more frequently with orally administered antimicrobials which may have significance to antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. PMID:25856373

  2. Use of an electronic medication administration record (eMAR for surveillance of medication omissions: results of a one year study of antimicrobials in the inpatient setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R Dalton

    Full Text Available Medication administration omissions (MAO are usually considered medication errors but not all MAO are clinically relevant. We determined the frequency of clinically relevant MAO of antimicrobial drugs in adult hospitals in Calgary, Alberta, Canada based on electronic medication administration record (eMAR.We examined 2011 data from eMAR records on medical wards and developed a reproducible assessment scheme to categorize and determine clinical relevance of MAO. We applied this scheme to records from 2012 in a retrospective cohort study to quantify clinically relevant MAO. Significant predictors of clinically relevant MAO were identified.A total of 294,718 dose records were assessed of which 10,282 (3.49% were for doses not administered. Among these 4903 (1.66% of total; 47.68% of MAO were considered clinically relevant. Significant positive predictors of clinically relevant MAO included inhaled (OR 4.90, 95% CI 3.54-6.94 and liquid oral (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18-1.47 route of medication compared to solid oral and irregular dose schedules. Evening nursing shift compared to night shift (OR 0.77 95% CI 0.70-0.85 and parenteral (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.46-0.54 were negative predictors, The commonest reasons for relevant MAO were patient preference, unspecified reason, administration access issues, drug not available or patient condition.Assessment of MAO by review of computer records provides a greater scope and sample size than directly observed medication administration assessments without "observer" effect. We found that MAO of antimicrobials in inpatients were uncommon but were seen more frequently with orally administered antimicrobials which may have significance to antimicrobial stewardship initiatives.

  3. Evaluation of Electronic Healthcare Databases for Post-Marketing Drug Safety Surveillance and Pharmacoepidemiology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Gao, Shuangqing; Lin, Hongbo; Xie, Yanming; Feng, Yuji; Huang, Kui; Zhan, Siyan

    2017-08-16

    Electronic healthcare databases (EHDs) are used increasingly for post-marketing drug safety surveillance and pharmacoepidemiology in Europe and North America. However, few studies have examined the potential of these data sources in China. Three major types of EHDs in China (i.e., a regional community-based database, a national claims database, and an electronic medical records [EMR] database) were selected for evaluation. Forty core variables were derived based on the US Mini-Sentinel (MS) Common Data Model (CDM) as well as the data features in China that would be desirable to support drug safety surveillance. An email survey of these core variables and eight general questions as well as follow-up inquiries on additional variables was conducted. These 40 core variables across the three EHDs and all variables in each EHD along with those in the US MS CDM and Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) CDM were compared for availability and labeled based on specific standards. All of the EHDs' custodians confirmed their willingness to share their databases with academic institutions after appropriate approval was obtained. The regional community-based database contained 1.19 million people in 2015 with 85% of core variables. Resampled annually nationwide, the national claims database included 5.4 million people in 2014 with 55% of core variables, and the EMR database included 3 million inpatients from 60 hospitals in 2015 with 80% of core variables. Compared with MS CDM or OMOP CDM, the proportion of variables across the three EHDs available or able to be transformed/derived from the original sources are 24-83% or 45-73%, respectively. These EHDs provide potential value to post-marketing drug safety surveillance and pharmacoepidemiology in China. Future research is warranted to assess the quality and completeness of these EHDs or additional data sources in China.

  4. Electronic Outbreak Surveillance in Germany: A First Evaluation for Nosocomial Norovirus Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, Anja M.; Westbrock, Hans-Jürgen; Claus, Herman; Geis, Steffen; Giernat, Siegfried; Forβbohm, Michael; Uphoff, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Background In Germany, surveillance for infectious disease outbreaks is integrated into an electronic surveillance system. For 2007, the national surveillance database contains case-based information on 201,224 norovirus cases, three-quarters of which are linked to outbreaks. We evaluated the data quality of the national database in reflecting nosocomial norovirus outbreak (NNO) data available in 19 Hessian local public health authorities (LPHAs) and the influence of differences between LPHA's follow-up procedures for laboratory notifications of Norovirus positive stool samples on outbreak underascertainment. Methods Data on NNO beginning in 2007 and notified to the 19 LPHAs were extracted from the national database, investigated regarding internal validity and compared to data collected from LPHAs for a study on NNO control. LPHAs were questioned whether they routinely contacted all persons for whom a laboratory diagnosis of norovirus infection was notified. The number of outbreaks per 1,000 hospital beds and the number of cases within NNOs for acute care and rehabilitation hospitals were compared between counties with and without complete follow-up. Results The national database contained information on 155 NNOs, including 3,115 cases. Cases were missed in the national database in 58 (37%) of the outbreaks. Information on hospitalisation was incorrect for an estimated 47% of NNO cases. Information on county of infection was incorrect for 24% (199/820) of cases being forwarded between LPHAs for data entry. Reported NNO incidence and number of NNO cases in acute care hospitals was higher in counties with complete follow-up (incidence-rate ratio (IRR) 2.7, 95% CI 1.4–5.7, p-value 0.002 and IRR 2.1, 95% CI 1.9–2.4, p-value 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Many NNOs are not notified by hospitals and differences in LPHA procedures have an impact on the number of outbreaks captured in the surveillance system. Forwarding of case-by-case data on Norovirus outbreak

  5. Exploring the Frontier of Electronic Health Record Surveillance: The Case of Post-Operative Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzHenry, Fern; Murff, Harvey J.; Matheny, Michael E.; Gentry, Nancy; Fielstein, Elliot M.; Brown, Steven H; Reeves, Ruth M; Aronsky, Dominik; Elkin, Peter L.; Messina, Vincent P.; Speroff, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to build electronic algorithms using a combination of structured data and natural language processing (NLP) of text notes for potential safety surveillance of nine post-operative complications. Methods Post-operative complications from six medical centers in the Southeastern United States were obtained from the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) registry. Development and test datasets were constructed using stratification by facility and date of procedure for patients with and without complication. Algorithms were developed from VASQIP outcome definitions using NLP coded concepts, regular expressions, and structured data. The VASQIP nurse reviewer served as the reference standard for evaluating sensitivity and specificity. The algorithms were designed in the development and evaluated in the test dataset. Results Sensitivity and specificity in the test set were 85% and 92% for acute renal failure, 80% and 93% for sepsis, 56% and 94% for deep vein thrombosis, 80% and 97% for pulmonary embolism, 88% and 89% for acute myocardial infarction, 88% and 92% for cardiac arrest, 80% and 90% for pneumonia, 95% and 80% for urinary tract infection, and 80% and 93% for wound infection, respectively. A third of the complications occurred outside of the hospital setting. Conclusions Computer algorithms on data extracted from the electronic health record produced respectable sensitivity and specificity across a large sample of patients seen in six different medical centers. This study demonstrates the utility of combining natural language processing with structured data for mining the information contained within the electronic health record. PMID:23673394

  6. Exploring the frontier of electronic health record surveillance: the case of postoperative complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzHenry, Fern; Murff, Harvey J; Matheny, Michael E; Gentry, Nancy; Fielstein, Elliot M; Brown, Steven H; Reeves, Ruth M; Aronsky, Dominik; Elkin, Peter L; Messina, Vincent P; Speroff, Theodore

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to build electronic algorithms using a combination of structured data and natural language processing (NLP) of text notes for potential safety surveillance of 9 postoperative complications. Postoperative complications from 6 medical centers in the Southeastern United States were obtained from the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) registry. Development and test datasets were constructed using stratification by facility and date of procedure for patients with and without complications. Algorithms were developed from VASQIP outcome definitions using NLP-coded concepts, regular expressions, and structured data. The VASQIP nurse reviewer served as the reference standard for evaluating sensitivity and specificity. The algorithms were designed in the development and evaluated in the test dataset. Sensitivity and specificity in the test set were 85% and 92% for acute renal failure, 80% and 93% for sepsis, 56% and 94% for deep vein thrombosis, 80% and 97% for pulmonary embolism, 88% and 89% for acute myocardial infarction, 88% and 92% for cardiac arrest, 80% and 90% for pneumonia, 95% and 80% for urinary tract infection, and 77% and 63% for wound infection, respectively. A third of the complications occurred outside of the hospital setting. Computer algorithms on data extracted from the electronic health record produced respectable sensitivity and specificity across a large sample of patients seen in 6 different medical centers. This study demonstrates the utility of combining NLP with structured data for mining the information contained within the electronic health record.

  7. State and Local Chronic Disease Surveillance Using Electronic Health Record Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompas, Michael; Cocoros, Noelle M; Menchaca, John T; Erani, Diana; Hafer, Ellen; Herrick, Brian; Josephson, Mark; Lee, Michael; Payne Weiss, Michelle D; Zambarano, Bob; Eberhardt, Karen R; Malenfant, Jessica; Nasuti, Laura; Land, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    To assess the feasibility of chronic disease surveillance using distributed analysis of electronic health records and to compare results with Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) state and small-area estimates. We queried the electronic health records of 3 independent Massachusetts-based practice groups using a distributed analysis tool called MDPHnet to measure the prevalence of diabetes, asthma, smoking, hypertension, and obesity in adults for the state and 13 cities. We adjusted observed rates for age, gender, and race/ethnicity relative to census data and compared them with BRFSS state and small-area estimates. The MDPHnet population under surveillance included 1 073 545 adults (21.8% of the state adult population). MDPHnet and BRFSS state-level estimates were similar: 9.4% versus 9.7% for diabetes, 10.0% versus 12.0% for asthma, 13.5% versus 14.7% for smoking, 26.3% versus 29.6% for hypertension, and 22.8% versus 23.8% for obesity. Correlation coefficients for MDPHnet versus BRFSS small-area estimates ranged from 0.890 for diabetes to 0.646 for obesity. Chronic disease surveillance using electronic health record data is feasible and generates estimates comparable with BRFSS state and small-area estimates.

  8. Improving national surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis in Denmark through electronic reporting of specific antibody index testing from 2010 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram Benny; Espenhain, L; Mølbak, K

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the results of automated surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in Denmark using the national microbiology database (MiBa), and to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed LNB at a national level. MiBa-based surveillance includes electronic transfer of labora......Our aim was to evaluate the results of automated surveillance of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in Denmark using the national microbiology database (MiBa), and to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed LNB at a national level. MiBa-based surveillance includes electronic transfer...

  9. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Development, Implementation and Use of Electronic Surveillance for Ventilator-Associated Events (VAE) in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetar, Ervina; McMullen, Kathleen M; Russo, Anthony J; Doherty, Joshua A; Gase, Kathleen A; Woeltje, Keith F

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation provides an important, life-saving therapy for severely ill patients, but ventilated patients are at an increased risk for complications, poor outcomes, and death during hospitalization.1 The timely measurement of negative outcomes is important in order to identify potential issues and to minimize the risk to patients. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created an algorithm for identifying Ventilator-Associated Events (VAE) in adult patients for reporting to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Currently, the primarily manual surveillance tools require a significant amount of time from hospital infection prevention (IP) staff to apply and interpret. This paper describes the implementation of an electronic VAE tool using an internal clinical data repository and an internally developed electronic surveillance system that resulted in a reduction of labor efforts involved in identifying VAE at Barnes Jewish Hospital (BJH).

  11. Postdischarge surveillance for infection following cesarean section: A prospective cohort study comparing methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Muhammad A; Turnbull, Alison E; Harris, Meredith; Witter, Frank; Perl, Trish M

    2016-04-01

    To assess how enhanced postdischarge telephone follow-up calls would improve case finding for surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance after cesarean section. We conducted a prospective cohort study of all patients who delivered by cesarean section between April 22 and August 22, 2010. In addition to our routine surveillance, using clinical databases and electronic patient records, we also made follow-up calls to the patients at 7, 14, and 30 days postoperation. A standard questionnaire with questions about symptoms of SSI, health-seeking behaviors, and treatment received was administered. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were performed to assess the effect of the enhanced surveillance. One hundred ninety-three patients underwent cesarean section during this study period. Standard surveillance identified 14 infections with telephone follow-ups identifying an additional 5 infections. Using the call as a gold standard, the sensitivity of the standard methodology to capture SSI was 73.3%. The duration of the calls ranged from 1 to 5 minutes and were well received by the patients. Results suggest that follow-up telephone calls to patients following cesarean section identifies 26.3% of the total SSIs. Enhanced surveillance can provide more informed data to enhance performance and avoid underestimation of rates. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever in wild boar – a comprehensive evaluation study to ensure powerful surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Katja; Peyre, Marisa; Staubach, Christoph; Schauer, Birgit; Schulz, Jana; Calba, Clémentine; Häsler, Barbara; Conraths, Franz J.

    2017-01-01

    Surveillance of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) should not only focus on livestock, but must also include wild boar. To prevent disease transmission into commercial pig herds, it is therefore vital to have knowledge about the disease status in wild boar. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of alternative surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever (CSF) in wild boar and compared them with the currently implemented conventional approach. The evaluation protocol was designed using the EVA tool, a decision support tool to help in the development of an economic and epidemiological evaluation protocol for surveillance. To evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance strategies, we investigated their sensitivity and timeliness. Acceptability was analysed and finally, the cost-effectiveness of the surveillance strategies was determined. We developed 69 surveillance strategies for comparative evaluation between the existing approach and the novel proposed strategies. Sampling only within sub-adults resulted in a better acceptability and timeliness than the currently implemented strategy. Strategies that were completely based on passive surveillance performance did not achieve the desired detection probability of 95%. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that risk-based approaches can be an option to design more effective CSF surveillance strategies in wild boar. PMID:28266576

  13. Surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever in wild boar - a comprehensive evaluation study to ensure powerful surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Katja; Peyre, Marisa; Staubach, Christoph; Schauer, Birgit; Schulz, Jana; Calba, Clémentine; Häsler, Barbara; Conraths, Franz J

    2017-03-07

    Surveillance of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) should not only focus on livestock, but must also include wild boar. To prevent disease transmission into commercial pig herds, it is therefore vital to have knowledge about the disease status in wild boar. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of alternative surveillance strategies for Classical Swine Fever (CSF) in wild boar and compared them with the currently implemented conventional approach. The evaluation protocol was designed using the EVA tool, a decision support tool to help in the development of an economic and epidemiological evaluation protocol for surveillance. To evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance strategies, we investigated their sensitivity and timeliness. Acceptability was analysed and finally, the cost-effectiveness of the surveillance strategies was determined. We developed 69 surveillance strategies for comparative evaluation between the existing approach and the novel proposed strategies. Sampling only within sub-adults resulted in a better acceptability and timeliness than the currently implemented strategy. Strategies that were completely based on passive surveillance performance did not achieve the desired detection probability of 95%. In conclusion, the results of the study suggest that risk-based approaches can be an option to design more effective CSF surveillance strategies in wild boar.

  14. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  15. The study of parasite sharing for surveillance of zoonotic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Maxwell J.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    Determining the factors that influence the transmission of parasites among hosts is important for directing surveillance of animal parasites before they successfully emerge in humans, and increasing the efficacy of programs for the control and management of zoonotic diseases. Here we present a review of recent advances in the study of parasite sharing, wildlife ecology, and epidemiology that could be extended and incorporated into proactive surveillance frameworks for multi-host infectious diseases. These methods reflect emerging interdisciplinary techniques with significant promise for the identification of future zoonotic parasites and unknown reservoirs of current zoonoses, strategies for the reduction of parasite prevalence and transmission among hosts, and decreasing the burden of infectious diseases.

  16. State synergies and disease surveillance: creating an electronic health data communication model for cancer reporting and comparative effectiveness research in kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Christopher; Powell, Mallory; Edwards, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes the collaboration between a state public health department, a major research university, and a health extension service funded as part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act to establish an interoperable health information system for disease surveillance through electronic reporting of systemic therapy data from numerous oncology practices in Kentucky. The experience of the Kentucky cancer surveillance system can help local and state entities achieve greater effectiveness in designing communication efforts to increase usage of electronic health records (EHRs) and health information exchanges (HIEs), help eligible clinicians meet these new standards in patient care, and conduct disease surveillance in a learning health system. We document and assess the statewide efforts of early health information technology (HIT) adopters in Kentucky to facilitate the nation's first electronic transmission of a clinical document architecture (CDA) from a physician office to a state cancer surveillance registry in November 2012. Successful transmission of the CDA not only represented a landmark for technology innovators, informaticists, and clinicians, but it also set in motion a new communication mechanism by which state and federal agencies can capture and trade vital cancer statistics in a way that is safe, secure, and timely. The corresponding impact this has on cancer surveillance and comparative effective research is immense. With guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR), the Kentucky Health Information Exchange (KHIE), and the Kentucky Regional Extension Center (KREC) have moved one step further in transforming the interoperable health environment for improved disease surveillance. This case study describes the efforts of established and reputable agencies, including the KCR, the state department of health, state and federal governmental

  17. Syndromic surveillance in Vanuatu since Cyclone Pam: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Worwor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, Vanuatu designed and implemented a syndromic surveillance system based on the guidelines developed by the Pacific Community and the World Health Organization to provide early warning of outbreaks and other important public health events. Four core syndromes were endorsed for surveillance: acute fever and rash, prolonged fever, influenza-like illness and acute watery diarrhoea. In March 2015, Vanuatu was struck by Cyclone Pam, after which several important changes and improvements to the country's syndromic surveillance were made. To date, there has been no formal evaluation of whether regular reports are occurring or that core syndromes are being documented. We therefore carried out a descriptive study in the 11 sentinel sites in Vanuatu conducting syndromic surveillance between July and December 2015. There was a total of 53 822 consultations which were higher in the first 13 weeks (n = 29 622 compared with the last 13 weeks (n = 24 200. During the six months, there were no cases of acute fever and rash or prolonged fever. There were cases with influenza-like illness from week 27 to 35, but no case was reported after week 35. Acute watery diarrhoea occurred in one or two cases per week during the whole study period. For these two core syndromes, there were generally more females than males, and about one third were children aged under 5 years. In conclusion, Vanuatu implemented changes to its new syndromic surveillance system from July to December 2015, although laboratory components had not yet been incorporated. The laboratory components are working in 2016 and will be the subject of a further report.

  18. A data-capture system for post-marketing surveillance of drugs that integrates with hospital electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Keiichi Yamamoto1, Shigemi Matsumoto2, Kazuhiro Yanagihara2, Satoshi Teramukai1, Masanori Fukushima1,2,31Department of Clinical Trial Design and Management, Translational Research Center, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; 2Outpatient Oncology Unit, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; 3Translational Research Informatics Center, Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, JapanPurpose: In conventional clinical studies, the cost of data management for the purposes of quality control tend to be high and collecting paper-based case report forms (CRFs can be burdensome, because paper-based CRFs must be developed and filled out for each clinical study protocol. Use of electronic health records (EHRs for this purpose could reduce costs and improve data quality in clinical studies. Kyoto University Hospital launched an EHR system in January 2005. At the same time, a replicate of that database was established for other purposes. At the Outpatient Oncology Unit of Kyoto University Hospital we developed a data-capture system that includes a cancer clinical database system and a data warehouse for outcomes studies. This system allows us to accumulate data at low cost and apply it to various uses in clinical or outcomes studies. Here we report on the application of this system to the post-marketing surveillance of drugs.Methods: We evaluated the availability of this system and identified problems for future development. With this system investigators can register cases for post-marketing surveillance, and the registered cases are listed on a screen. When CRFs for a particular case are required, data can be extracted from the list and CRFs are produced in PDF format.Results and conclusion: In this study we confirmed the applicability of our new system to post-marketing surveillance in providing prompt and efficient data exchange. We expect it to reduce the cost of data management and analysis and to improve the quality of data in post

  19. A simulation study comparing aberration detection algorithms for syndromic surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter Ian

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The usefulness of syndromic surveillance for early outbreak detection depends in part on effective statistical aberration detection. However, few published studies have compared different detection algorithms on identical data. In the largest simulation study conducted to date, we compared the performance of six aberration detection algorithms on simulated outbreaks superimposed on authentic syndromic surveillance data. Methods We compared three control-chart-based statistics, two exponential weighted moving averages, and a generalized linear model. We simulated 310 unique outbreak signals, and added these to actual daily counts of four syndromes monitored by Public Health – Seattle and King County's syndromic surveillance system. We compared the sensitivity of the six algorithms at detecting these simulated outbreaks at a fixed alert rate of 0.01. Results Stratified by baseline or by outbreak distribution, duration, or size, the generalized linear model was more sensitive than the other algorithms and detected 54% (95% CI = 52%–56% of the simulated epidemics when run at an alert rate of 0.01. However, all of the algorithms had poor sensitivity, particularly for outbreaks that did not begin with a surge of cases. Conclusion When tested on county-level data aggregated across age groups, these algorithms often did not perform well in detecting signals other than large, rapid increases in case counts relative to baseline levels.

  20. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  1. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  2. A qualitative study of state-level zoonotic disease surveillance in new England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotch, M; Mattocks, K; Rabinowitz, P; Brandt, C

    2011-03-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases transmittable between animals and humans and outbreaks of these diseases in animals can signify that humans are also infected (or vice versa). Thus, communication between animal and human health agencies is critical for surveillance. Understanding how these agencies conduct surveillance and share information is important for the development of successful automated zoonotic monitoring systems. Individual interviews were conducted with 13 professionals who perform animal or human zoonotic disease surveillance in one of the New England states. Questions centred on existing surveillance methods, collaborations between animal and human health agencies, and technological and data needs. The results showed that agencies routinely communicate over suspected zoonotic disease cases, yet there are barriers preventing automated electronic linking of health data of animals and humans. These include technological barriers and barriers due to sensitivity and confidentiality of information. Addressing these will facilitate the development of electronic systems for integrating animal and human zoonotic disease surveillance data.

  3. Resistance surveillance studies: a multifaceted problem--the fluoroquinolone example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhoff, A

    2012-06-01

    This review summarizes data on the fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology published in the previous 5 years. The data reviewed are stratified according to the different prescription patterns by either primary- or tertiary-care givers and by indication. Global surveillance studies demonstrate that fluoroquinolone- resistance rates increased in the past several years in almost all bacterial species except Staphylococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs), as well as Enterobacteriaceae causing community-acquired urinary tract infections. Geographically and quantitatively varying fluoroquinolone resistance rates were recorded among Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens causing healthcare-associated respiratory tract infections. One- to two-thirds of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were fluoroquinolone resistant too, thus, limiting the fluoroquinolone use in the treatment of community- as well as healthcare-acquired urinary tract and intra-abdominal infections. The remaining ESBL-producing or plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance mechanisms harboring Enterobacteriaceae were low-level quinolone resistant. Furthermore, 10-30 % of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae causing CARTIs harbored first-step quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) mutations. These mutants pass susceptibility testing unnoticed and are primed to acquire high-level fluoroquinolone resistance rapidly, thus, putting the patient at risk. The continued increase in fluoroquinolone resistance affects patient management and necessitates changes in some current guidelines for the treatment of intra-abdominal infections or even precludes the use of fluoroquinolones in certain indications like gonorrhea and pelvic inflammatory diseases in those geographic areas in which fluoroquinolone resistance rates and/or ESBL production is high. Fluoroquinolone resistance has been selected among the commensal

  4. Establishing a web-based integrated surveillance system for early detection of infectious disease epidemic in rural China: a field experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei-rong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A crucial goal of infectious disease surveillance is the early detection of epidemics, which is essential for disease control. In China, the current surveillance system is based on confirmed case reports. In rural China, it is not practical for health units to perform laboratory tests to confirm disease and people are more likely to get 'old' and emerging infectious diseases due to poor living conditions and closer contacts with wild animals and poultry. Syndromic surveillance, which collects non-specific syndromes before diagnosis, has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation. It will be especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. Methods/Design This is a field experimental study. The experimental tool is an innovative electronic surveillance system, combining syndromic surveillance with the existing case report surveillance in four selected counties in China. In the added syndromic surveillance, three types of data are collected including patients' major symptoms from health clinics, pharmaceutical sales from pharmacies and absenteeism information from primary school. In order to evaluate the early warning capability of the new added syndromic surveillance, the timelines and validity of the alert signals will be analyzed in comparison with the traditional case reporting system. The acceptability, feasibility and economic evaluation of the whole integrated surveillance system will be conducted in a before and after study design. Discussions Although syndromic surveillance system has mostly been established in developed areas, there are opportunities and advantages of developing it in rural China. The project will contribute to knowledge, experience and evidence on the establishment of an integrated surveillance system, which aims to provide early warning of disease epidemics in developing countries.

  5. Expanding veterinary biosurveillance in Washington, DC: The creation and utilization of an electronic-based online veterinary surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennenfent, Andrew; DelVento, Vito; Davies-Cole, John; Johnson-Clarke, Fern

    2017-03-01

    To enhance the early detection of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism events using companion animal-based surveillance. Washington, DC, small animal veterinary facilities (n=17) were surveyed to determine interest in conducting infectious disease surveillance. Using these results, an electronic-based online reporting system was developed and launched in August 2015 to monitor rates of canine influenza, canine leptospirosis, antibiotic resistant infections, canine parvovirus, and syndromic disease trends. Nine of the 10 facilities that responded expressed interest conducting surveillance. In September 2015, 17 canine parvovirus cases were reported. In response, a campaign encouraging regular veterinary preventative care was launched and featured on local media platforms. Additionally, during the system's first year of operation it detected 5 canine leptospirosis cases and 2 antibiotic resistant infections. No canine influenza cases were reported and syndromic surveillance compliance varied, peaking during National Special Security Events. Small animal veterinarians and the general public are interested in companion animal disease surveillance. The system described can serve as a model for establishing similar systems to monitor disease trends of public health importance in pet populations and enhance biosurveillance capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemic surveillance using an electronic medical record: an empiric approach to performance improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhang Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: Electronic medical records (EMR form a rich repository of information that could benefit public health. We asked how structured and free-text narrative EMR data should be combined to improve epidemic surveillance for acute respiratory infections (ARI. METHODS: Eight previously characterized ARI case detection algorithms (CDA were applied to historical EMR entries to create authentic time series of daily ARI case counts (background. An epidemic model simulated influenza cases (injection. From the time of the injection, cluster-detection statistics were applied daily on paired background+injection (combined and background-only time series. This cycle was then repeated with the injection shifted to each week of the evaluation year. We computed: a the time from injection to the first statistical alarm uniquely found in the combined dataset (Detection Delay; b how often alarms originated in the background-only dataset (false-alarm rate, or FAR; and c the number of cases found within these false alarms (Caseload. For each CDA, we plotted the Detection Delay as a function of FAR or Caseload, over a broad range of alarm thresholds. RESULTS: CDAs that combined text analyses seeking ARI symptoms in clinical notes with provider-assigned diagnostic codes in order to maximize the precision rather than the sensitivity of case-detection lowered Detection Delay at any given FAR or Caseload. CONCLUSION: An empiric approach can guide the integration of EMR data into case-detection methods that improve both the timeliness and efficiency of epidemic detection.

  7. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1990-08-01

    Our laboratory has made significant progress this year in devising improved electron-optical systems, in studying invertebrate hemoglobins with the STEM, and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. Our goal in electron optics is to improve resolution by producing spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients with signs opposite those of magnetic lenses. We have progressed toward this goal through calculations that explore the addition of electrodes to electron mirrors to reduce these two geometric aberrations and by devising a beam separation system that won't introduce asymmetrical aberrations. Some promising new designs of magnetic lenses for SEM applications have also been investigated. We have continued our exploration of the quaternary structure of the invertebrate hemoglobins and are now among the top laboratories in this area of expertise. In addition, we have overcome many of our electronic difficulties on the sub-angstrom STEM and have made significant progress toward achieving an operational system. The addition of an IBM RISC-6000 workstation to our lab has significantly increased our image processing capabilities.

  8. Syndromic surveillance in companion animals utilizing electronic medical records data: development and proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip H. Kass

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to recognize and address communicable and point-source epidemics in dog and cat populations, this project created a near real-time syndromic surveillance system devoted to companion animal health in the United States. With over 150 million owned pets in the US, the development of such a system is timely in light of previous epidemics due to various causes that were only recognized in retrospect. The goal of this study was to develop epidemiologic and statistical methods for veterinary hospital-based surveillance, and to demonstrate its efficacy by detection of simulated foodborne outbreaks using a database of over 700 hospitals. Data transfer protocols were established via a secure file transfer protocol site, and a data repository was constructed predominantly utilizing open-source software. The daily proportion of patients with a given clinical or laboratory finding was contrasted with an equivalent average proportion from a historical comparison period, allowing construction of the proportionate diagnostic outcome ratio and its confidence interval for recognizing aberrant heath events. A five-tiered alert system was used to facilitate daily assessment of almost 2,000 statistical analyses. Two simulated outbreak scenarios were created by independent experts, blinded to study investigators, and embedded in the 2010 medical records. Both outbreaks were detected almost immediately by the alert system, accurately detecting species affected using relevant clinical and laboratory findings, and ages involved. Besides demonstrating proof-in-concept of using veterinary hospital databases to detect aberrant events in space and time, this research can be extended to conducting post-detection etiologic investigations utilizing exposure information in the medical record.

  9. Understanding the data-action cycle of surveillance: a qualitative study of federal and state stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sussner, Katarina M; Greaney, Mary L; Mierzwa, Sharon; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Wiecha, Jean; Peterson, Karen

    2010-03-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand how personnel in state and federal agencies view surveillance systems and the extent to which systematically collected data inform nutrition and physical activity policies and interventions addressing obesity. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 respondents purposively sampled from state health departments, federal public health agencies, and prevention research centers. All informants acknowledged the importance of surveillance systems and influence of the data-action cycle for monitoring trends and increasing obesity awareness. However, state-level respondents believed surveillance systems should be designed for programmatic purposes, whereas federal participants thought they should be designed for monitoring. Respondents held differing opinions about the flexibility, timeliness, accessibility, and usefulness of existing national surveillance systems, highlighting significant differences in state and federal agencies' perceptions and utilization of surveillance systems. Such discrepancies call for increased communication surrounding purposes and uses of surveillance data, enabling stronger partnerships between state and federal agencies.

  10. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  11. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system.

  12. Short-term outcomes of the prospective multicentre 'Prostate Cancer Research International : Active Surveillance' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; Vasarainen, Hanna; van der Poel, Henk G.; Vis-Maters, Jenneke J.; Rietbergen, John B.; Pickles, Tom; Cornel, Erik B.; Valdagni, Riccardo; Jaspars, Joris J.; van der Hoeven, John; Staerman, Frederic; Oomens, Eric H. G. M.; Rannikko, Antti; Roemeling, Stijn; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Bangma, Chris H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short-term outcomes of the prospective international Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance ('PRIAS') study (Dutch Trial Register NTR1718), as active surveillance (AS) for early prostate cancer might provide a partial solution to the current overtreatme

  13. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool: A Web Based, Dynamic, and Interoperable System for Postmarketing Drug Surveillance Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anil Sinaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmarketing drug surveillance is a crucial aspect of the clinical research activities in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology. Successful utilization of available Electronic Health Record (EHR data can complement and strengthen postmarketing safety studies. In terms of the secondary use of EHRs, access and analysis of patient data across different domains are a critical factor; we address this data interoperability problem between EHR systems and clinical research systems in this paper. We demonstrate that this problem can be solved in an upper level with the use of common data elements in a standardized fashion so that clinical researchers can work with different EHR systems independently of the underlying information model. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool lets the clinical researchers extract data from different EHR systems by designing data collection set schemas through common data elements. The tool interacts with a semantic metadata registry through IHE data element exchange profile. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool and its supporting components have been implemented and deployed on the central data warehouse of the Lombardy region, Italy, which contains anonymized records of about 16 million patients with over 10-year longitudinal data on average. Clinical researchers in Roche validate the tool with real life use cases.

  14. Comparison of SAR and induced current densities in adults and children exposed to electromagnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M.; Sanchis, A.; Martín, A.; Villar, R.

    2010-02-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices are widely used in most stores as anti-theft systems. In this work, the compliance with international guidelines in the human exposure to these devices is analysed by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Two sets of high resolution numerical phantoms of different size (REMCOM/Hershey and Virtual Family), simulating adult and child bodies, are exposed to a 10 MHz pass-by panel-type EAS consisting of two overlapping current-carrying coils. Two different relative positions between the EAS and the body (frontal and lateral exposures), which imply the exposure of different parts of the body at different distances, have been considered. In all cases, induced current densities in tissues of the central nervous system and specific absorption rates (SARs) are calculated to be compared with the limits from the guidelines. Results show that induced current densities are lower in the case of adult models as compared with those of children in both lateral and frontal exposures. Maximum SAR values calculated in lateral exposure are significantly lower than those calculated in frontal exposure, where the EAS-body distance is shorter. Nevertheless, in all studied cases, with an EAS driving current of 4 A rms, maximum induced current and SAR values are below basic restrictions.

  15. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  16. Workers’ health surveillance: a study of major accidents at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karini da Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Work accidents are the biggest health problem of Brazilian workers, thus, the objective of the study is to characterize sociodemographic and occupational data affected by serious accidents workers work in the municipality of Santa Cruz do Sul/RS. Method: this is a field study, documental, retrospective, with data collection in epidemiological report forms of the Municipal Unit Worker Health Reference (UMREST in the period of 2008 to 2010. Results: We conducted data collection in 1263 patient notification forms of the UMREST, and found 986 cases of serious work accident, and 78.59% of cases with male workers aged 20 to 29 years. In 2008 there were more cases reported in the information systems of Occupational Health. The occupations with the highest occurrence were the production line feeders (13,48%, tobacco processing assistant (8.0%, workers in the maintenance and conservation of buildings and public parks (7.0%. Among the types of accidents, 66.63% were typical accidents and 31.23% of commuting accidents. It identified the central area of the city as the most frequent cases with 47.2%, followed by the Industrial District neighborhood with 27.1% of cases. Final Thoughts: it was found that the accidents occurred more often on male workers, young, from labor institutions located in the central area of the city. Thus, we emphasize the need for prevention and care actions that meet the profile of the workers studied. KEYWORDS: Accidents at work. Occupational health surveillance. Occupational health

  17. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaphupha, Kingsley R; Kok, Maryse C; Nyirenda, Lot; Namakhoma, Ireen; Theobald, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of HSAs. A qualitative study capturing the perspectives of purposively selected participants was conducted in two districts: Salima and Mchinji. Participants included HSAs, health managers, and various community members. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 16) and in-depth interviews (n = 44). The study sample was comprised of 112 women and 65 men. Qualitative data analysis was informed by existing frameworks on factors influencing health worker motivation. Our analysis identified five key themes shaping HSA motivation: salary, accommodation, human resource management, supplies and logistics, and community links. Each of these played out at different levels-individual, family, community, and organisational-with either positive or negative effects. Demotivating factors related primarily to the organisational level, while motivating factors were more often related to individual, family, and community levels. A lack of financial incentives and shortages of basic supplies and materials were key factors demotivating HSAs. Supervision was generally perceived as unsupportive, uncoordinated, and top-down. Most HSAs complained of heavy workload. Many HSAs felt further recognition and support from the Ministry of Health, and the development of a clear career pathway would improve their motivation. Factors shaping motivation of HSAs are complex and multilayered; experiences at one level will impact other levels. Interventions are required to enhance HSA motivation, including strengthening the supervision system, developing career progression pathways, and ensuring clear and transparent incentives. HSAs have unique experiences, and there is need to hear

  18. Tracking Dabbing Using Search Query Surveillance: A Case Study in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhu; Zeng, Daniel Dajun; Leischow, Scott J

    2016-01-01

    Background Dabbing is an emerging method of marijuana ingestion. However, little is known about dabbing owing to limited surveillance data on dabbing. Objective The aim of the study was to analyze Google search data to assess the scope and breadth of information seeking on dabbing. Methods Google Trends data about dabbing and related topics (eg, electronic nicotine delivery system [ENDS], also known as e-cigarettes) in the United States between January 2004 and December 2015 were collected by using relevant search terms such as “dab rig.” The correlation between dabbing (including topics: dab and hash oil) and ENDS (including topics: vaping and e-cigarette) searches, the regional distribution of dabbing searches, and the impact of cannabis legalization policies on geographical location in 2015 were analyzed. Results Searches regarding dabbing increased in the United States over time, with 1,526,280 estimated searches during 2015. Searches for dab and vaping have very similar temporal patterns, where the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) is .992 (Poil and e-cigarette, in which the corresponding PCC is .931 (Pcannabis surveillance, and these findings can help enhance the understanding of the popularity of dabbing and provide insights for future research and informed policy making on dabbing. PMID:27637361

  19. 76 FR 66211 - Enhancement of Electricity Market Surveillance and Analysis Through Ongoing Electronic Delivery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Enhancement of Electricity Market Surveillance and Analysis...). I. Background 2. Wholesale electricity markets have witnessed tremendous change in recent years. In... facilities ] and sold electricity to their own wholesale and retail customers. During this time, the...

  20. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1991-06-01

    This year our laboratory has continued to make progress in the design of electron-optical systems, in the study of structure-function relationships of large multi-subunit proteins, in the development of new image processing software and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. We present an algebraic approach to the symmetrical Einzel (unipotential) lens wherein we simplify the analysis by specifying a field shape that meets some preferred set of boundary or other conditions and then calculate the fields. In a second study we generalize this approach to study of three element electrostatic lenses of which the symmetrical Einzel lens is a particular form. The purpose is to develop a method for assisting in the design of a lens for a particular purpose. In our biological work we study a stable and functional dodecameric complex of globin chains from the hemoglobin of Lumbricus terrestris. This is a complex lacking the linker'' subunit first imaged in this lab and required for maintenance of the native structure. In addition, we do a complete work-up on the hemoglobin of the marine polychaete Eudistylia vancouverii demonstrating the presence of a hierarchy of globin complexes. We demonstrate stable field-emission in the sub-angstrom STEM and the preliminary alignment of the beam. We continue our exploration of a algorithms for alignment of sequences of protein and DNA. Our computer facilities now include four second generation RISC workstations and we continue to take increasing advantage of the floating-point and graphical performance of these devices.

  1. Development of an electronic emergency department-based geo-information injury surveillance system in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C B; Leung, M; Lai, Adela; Chow, Y H; Chung, Joanne; Tong, K M; Lit, Albert

    2012-06-01

    To describe the experience in the development of an electronic emergency department (ED)-based injury surveillance (IS) system in Hong Kong using data-mining and geo-spatial information technology (IT) for a Safe Community setup. This paper described the phased development of an emergency department-based IS system based on World Health Organization (WHO) injury surveillance Guideline to support safety promotion and injury prevention in a Safe Community in Hong Kong starting 2002. The initial ED data-based only collected data on name, sex, age, address, eight general categories of injury types (traffic, domestic, common assault, indecent assault, batter, industrial, self-harm and sports) and disposal from ED. Phase 1--manual data collection on International Classification of External Causes of Injury pre-event data; Phase 2--manual form was converted to electronic format using web-based data mining technology with built in data quality monitoring mechanism; Phase 3--integration of injury surveillance-data with in-patient hospital information; and Phase 4--geo-spatial information and body mapping were introduced to geo-code exact place of injury in an electronic map and site of injury on body map. It was feasible to develop a geo-spatial IS system at busy ED to collect valuable information for safety promotion and injury prevention at Safe Community setting. The keys for successful development and implementation involves engagement of all stakeholders at design and implementation of the system with injury prevention as ultimate goal, detail workflow planning at front end, support from the management, building on exiting system and appropriate utilisation of modern technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrated production surveillance: a case study in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Joao Otavio L.; Soffried, Klaus; Silva, Ricardo L. [Halliburton/Landmark Division, Houston, TX (United States); Milanez, Raphael F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the field experience with an integrated production surveillance pilot project, deployed for PETROBRAS, in the Rio de Janeiro Business Unit, in the Marlim Sul Production Asset. The Marlim Sul field, located in the Campos Basin, is one of the biggest fields of PETROBRAS. As part of the scope of this project, dynamic links were created connecting to various Geology, Drilling and Production Databases. All information coming from these distinct data sources was simultaneously visualized and analyzed within one common application interface. A secondary application was developed to transfer operational data from a current spreadsheet format to the commercial database of the new production surveillance system. SQL views were created to allow the connection among these databases and the system. The system proved to be very agile, making the otherwise time consuming task of field surveillance easier, faster and more efficient. Additional benefits were the ability to quickly detect any anomalies in the field and provide for a more efficient work over planning, thereby avoiding costly well downtimes. (author)

  3. Occupational exposure to intermediate frequency and extremely low frequency magnetic fields among personnel working near electronic article surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Päivi; Eskelinen, Tuomo; Jokela, Kari; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2014-05-01

    Cashiers are potentially exposed to intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic fields at their workplaces because of the electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems used in stores to protect merchandise against theft. This study aimed at investigating occupational exposure of cashiers to IF magnetic fields in Finnish stores. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields was also evaluated because cashiers work near various devices operating with 50 Hz electric power. The peak magnetic flux density was measured for IF magnetic fields, and was found to vary from 0.2 to 4 µT at the cashier's seat. ELF magnetic fields from 0.03 to 4.5 µT were found at the cashier's seat. These values are much lower than exposure limits. However, according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) occupational reference levels for IF magnetic fields (141 µT for the peak field) were exceeded in some cases (maximum 189 µT) for short periods of time when cashiers walked through the EAS gates. As the ICNIRP reference levels do not define any minimum time for exposure, additional investigations are recommended to determine compliance with basic restrictions. Even if the basic restrictions are not exceeded, persons working near EAS devices represent an exceptional group of workers with respect to exposure to electromagnetic fields. This group could serve as a basis for epidemiological studies addressing possible health effects of IF magnetic fields. Compliance with the reference levels for IF fields was evaluated using both broadband measurement of peak fields and the ICNIRP summation rule for multiple frequencies. The latter was generally more conservative, and the difference between the two methods was large (>10-fold) for EAS systems using a 58 kHz signal with complex waveform. This indicates that the ICNIRP multiple frequency rule can be unnecessarily conservative when measuring complex waveforms.

  4. Social Studies by Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Hugh

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that electronic mail provides opportunities to engage students actively in cross-cultural contact with students in other nations. Discusses advantages and problems with using electronic mail in the social studies classroom. Describes electronic mail projects that link students in New Zealand, England, and the United States. (CFR)

  5. Electronics Industry Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    which has reduced the use and allure of stock options . Another electronics industry official captured this problem saying, “It’s not that the talent...capital gains tax. China reduces its 17% nominal value-added tax to 3% for domestically manufactured semiconductors. China also taxes stock ... options at par value and has no capital gains tax. New fabs in Singapore receive a ten year tax exemption followed by a five year period of reduced tax

  6. Construction of a multisite DataLink using electronic health records for the identification, surveillance, prevention, and management of diabetes mellitus: the SUPREME-DM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Gregory A; Desai, Jay; Elston Lafata, Jennifer; Lawrence, Jean M; O'Connor, Patrick J; Pathak, Ram D; Raebel, Marsha A; Reid, Robert J; Selby, Joseph V; Silverman, Barbara G; Steiner, John F; Stewart, W F; Vupputuri, Suma; Waitzfelder, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) data enhance opportunities for conducting surveillance of diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify the number of people with diabetes from a diabetes DataLink developed as part of the SUPREME-DM (SUrveillance, PREvention, and ManagEment of Diabetes Mellitus) project, a consortium of 11 integrated health systems that use comprehensive EHR data for research. We identified all members of 11 health care systems who had any enrollment from January 2005 through December 2009. For these members, we searched inpatient and outpatient diagnosis codes, laboratory test results, and pharmaceutical dispensings from January 2000 through December 2009 to create indicator variables that could potentially identify a person with diabetes. Using this information, we estimated the number of people with diabetes and among them, the number of incident cases, defined as indication of diabetes after at least 2 years of continuous health system enrollment. The 11 health systems contributed 15,765,529 unique members, of whom 1,085,947 (6.9%) met 1 or more study criteria for diabetes. The nonstandardized proportion meeting study criteria for diabetes ranged from 4.2% to 12.4% across sites. Most members with diabetes (88%) met multiple criteria. Of the members with diabetes, 428,349 (39.4%) were incident cases. The SUPREME-DM DataLink is a unique resource that provides an opportunity to conduct comparative effectiveness research, epidemiologic surveillance including longitudinal analyses, and population-based care management studies of people with diabetes. It also provides a useful data source for pragmatic clinical trials of prevention or treatment interventions.

  7. RISUS study: Rugby Injury Surveillance in Ulster Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, H A P; Rankin, A T; Webb, M; Nicholas, R; Eames, N W A; Wilson, R K; Henderson, L A; Heyes, G J; Bleakley, C M

    2017-04-01

    To examine injury patterns in adolescent rugby players and determine factors associated with injury risk. Prospective injury surveillance study. N=28 Grammar Schools in Ulster, Ireland (2014-2015 playing season). 825 adolescent rugby players, across in 28 school first XV rugby squads; mean age 16.9 years. Injuries were classified by body part and diagnosis, and injury incidence using injuries per 1000 match hours of exposure. HRs for injury were calculated through Cox proportional hazard regression after correction for influential covariates. A total of n=426 injuries were reported across the playing season. Over 50% of injuries occurred in the tackle situation or during collisions (270/426), with few reported during set plays. The 3 most common injury sites were head/face (n=102, 23.9%), clavicle/shoulder (n=65, 15.3%) and the knee (n=56, 13.1%). Sprain (n=133, 31.2%), concussion (n=81, 19%) and muscle injury (n=65, 15.3%) were the most common diagnoses. Injury incidence is calculated at 29.06 injuries per 1000 match hours. There were no catastrophic injuries. A large percentage of injuries (208/424) resulted in absence from play for more than 28 days. Concussion carried the most significant time out from play (n=33; 15.9%), followed by dislocations of the shoulder (n=22; 10.6%), knee sprains (n=19, 9.1%), ankle sprains (n=14, 6.7%), hand/finger/thumb (n=11; 5.3%). 36.8% of participants in the study (304/825) suffered at least one injury during the playing season. Multivariate models found higher risk of injury (adjusted HR (AHR); 95% CI) with: higher age (AHR 1.45; 1.14 to 1.83), heavier weight (AHR 1.32; 1.04 to 1.69), playing representative rugby (AHR 1.42; 1.06 to 1.90) and undertaking regular strength training (AHR 1.65; 1.11 to 2.46). Playing for a lower ranked team (AHR 0.67; 0.49 to 0.90) and wearing a mouthguard (AHR 0.70; 0.54 to 0.92) were associated with lower risk of injury. There was a high incidence of severe injuries, with concussion, ankle and

  8. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance: A 6 years study, Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Emami Naeini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poliomyelitis is still an endemic disease in many areas of the world including Africa and South Asia. Iran is polio free since 2001. However, due to endemicity of polio in neighboring countries of Iran, the risk of polio importation and re-emergence of wild polio virus is high. Case definition through surveillance system is a well-defined method for maintenance of polio eradication in polio free countries. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey from 2007 to 2013, we reviewed all the records of under 15 years old patients reported to Acute Flaccid Paralysis Committee (AFPC in Isfahan province, Iran. All cases were visited by members of the AFPC. Three stool samples were collected from each reported case within 2 weeks of onset of paralysis and sent to National Polio Laboratory in Tehran, Iran, for poliovirus isolation. Data were analyzed by SSPS software (version 22. Student′s t-test and Chi-square was used to compare variables. Statistical significance level was set at P 94%, with six doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV. Accurate surveillance for poliomyelitis is essential for continuing eradication.

  9. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-07-01

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations.

  10. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanmoy, Arif Mohammad; Ahmed, Asm Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Hossain, Belal; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H; Black, Robert E; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n=297) of eligible cases (n=375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance.

  11. Beam Studies with Electron Columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiltsev, V.; Valishev, A.; Kuznetsov, G.; /Fermilab; Kamerdzhiev, V.; /Julich, Forschungszentrum; Romanov, A.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2009-04-01

    We report preliminary results of experimental studies of 'electron columns' in the Tevatron and in a specialized test setup. In the Tevatron, a beam of 150 GeV protons ionizes residual gas and ionization electrons are stored in an electrostatic trap immersed into strong longitudinal magnetic field. Shifts of proton betatron frequencies are observed. In the test setup, we observe effects pointing to accumulation and escape of ionization electrons.

  12. [Planning, realization and evaluation of post-marketing surveillance studies. Recommendations of the Society for Phytotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, K; Loew, D; Schneider, B; Kemper, F H

    1997-08-01

    Post-marketing-surveillance studies with herbal drugs usually are prospective prescription-epidemiological studies, which should allow statements on quality, efficacy and safety. Until now neither laws nor concrete normative guidelines for the methodology and the evaluation of post-marketing-surveillance studies are existing which could be used for pharmacovigilance. In the present paper guidelines for planning, realisation and evaluation are presented which should allow studies of high quality. The essential components required for the investigational plan are focussed. Also recommendations on the obligatory, optional and special components of the study protocols are made. Additionally statistical methods which allow the evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy are presented.

  13. A nationwide cohort study of stage I seminoma patients followed on a surveillance program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Lauritsen, Jakob; Gundgaard, Maria Gry

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing concerns about late effects after adjuvant treatment for stage I seminoma have made surveillance an attractive alternative. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surveillance strategy in a nationwide cohort study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective, population-based st......BACKGROUND: Increasing concerns about late effects after adjuvant treatment for stage I seminoma have made surveillance an attractive alternative. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surveillance strategy in a nationwide cohort study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective, population......-based study of Danish patients diagnosed with stage I seminoma between 1984 and 2008 and followed for 5 yr (n=1954). Patient data were linked with national registries on November 30, 2012, to obtain information on late relapse, vital status, and cause of death. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS...... factor was excluded from analysis. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study and the number of missing values in analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In the world's largest study of stage I seminoma patients, we found surveillance to be a safe alternative to adjuvant therapies. Tumor size...

  14. A 24-hour remote surveillance system for terrestrial wildlife studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W.; Ryman, W.E.; Kepler, C.B.; Hardy, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The configuration, components, specifications and costs of a state-of-the-art closed-circuit television system with wide application for wildlife research and management are described. The principal system components consist of color CCTV camera with zoom lens, pan/tilt system, infrared illuminator, heavy duty tripod, coaxial cable, coaxitron system, half-duplex equalizing video/control amplifier, timelapse video cassette recorder, color video monitor, VHS video cassettes, portable generator, fuel tank and power cable. This system was developed and used in a study of Mississippi sandhiIl Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) behaviors during incubation, hatching and fledging. The main advantages of the system are minimal downtime where a complete record of every event, its time of occurrence and duration, are permanently recorded and can be replayed as many times as necessary thereafter to retrieve the data. The system is particularly applicable for studies of behavior and predation, for counting individuals, or recording difficult to observe activities. The system can be run continuously for several weeks by two people, reducing personnel costs. This paper is intended to provide biologists who have litte knowledge of electronics with a system that might be useful to their specific needs. The disadvantages of this system are the initial costs (about $9800 basic, 1990-1991 U.S. dollars) and the time required to playback video cassette tapes for data retrieval, but the playback can be sped up when litte or no activity of interest is taking place. In our study, the positive aspects of the system far outweighed the negative.

  15. Evaluating a surveillance system: live-bird market surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza, a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ike; Kabir, Junaidu; Okolocha, Emmanuel; Tseggai, Tesfai; Joannis, Tony; Okewole, Phillip; Kumbish, Peterside; Ahmed, Mohammed; Lombin, Lami; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 was first reported in poultry in Nigeria in February 2006. The only human case that occurred was linked to contact with poultry in a live bird market (LBM). LBM surveillance was instituted to assess the degree of threat of human exposure to H5N1. The key indicator was detection of H5N1 in LBMs. We evaluated the surveillance system to assess its operations and attributes. We used the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. We reviewed and analyzed passive surveillance data for HPAI (January 2006-March 2009) from the Avian Influenza National Reference Laboratory, and live bird market surveillance data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nigeria. We interviewed key stakeholders and reviewed reports of live bird market surveillance to obtain additional information on the operations of the system. We assessed the key system attributes. A total of 299 cases occurred in 25 (72%) states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The system detected HPAI H5N1 virus in 7 (9.5%) LBMs; 2 (29%) of which were from 2 (18.2%) states with no previous case. A total of 17,852 (91.5%) of samples arrived at the laboratory within 24 hours but laboratory analysis took over 7 days. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 15.4% and 66.7% respectively. The system is useful, flexible, complex and not timely, but appears to be meeting its objectives. The isolation of HPAI H5N1 virus in some of these markets is an indication that the markets are possible reservoirs of the virus in Nigeria. We recommend that the Federal Government of Nigeria should dedicate more funds for surveillance for HPAI as this will aid early warning and reduce the risk of a pandemic.

  16. European active surveillance study of women taking HRT (EURAS-HRT: study protocol [NCT00214903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinemann Lothar AJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The post marketing safety surveillance program for a drug containing a new chemical entity should assess both, the safety outcomes that relate specifically to the targeted population, as well as those that could potentially be related to special pharmacological characteristics of the drug. Active safety surveillance using valid epidemiological study designs has been proven to be a pertinent and reliable method to approach this endeavor. Methods/design The primary objective of the study is to compare incidence rates of serious adverse events in users of all types of newly prescribed oral HRT products. This active surveillance study will assess pertinent cardiovascular outcomes - in particular venous and arterial thromboembolism - and other serious adverse events (SAEs in new HRT users over a period of several years. One product under surveillance is Angeliq®, which contains the novel progestagen drospirenone (DRSP combined with estradiol. In addition, all other oral combined HRT products with a novel progestagen or estrogen that will be newly marketed during the study period will be studied. These new HRT products will be compared with established HRT products. The combined cohort will include at least 30,000 women recruited in several European countries. At least 90,000 years of observation are expected from the field work which started in early 2002 and will end around 2008. The participating women will complete a baseline survey using a self-administered questionnaire to describe the baseline risk. After 6 months, 12 months, and then on an annual basis, they will fill out a questionnaire in which they record complaints and events during the use of the prescribed HRTs. All adverse outcomes occurring during the observational period will be evaluated. Discussion A complete lifetime medical history, individually validated SAEs over time, and a low loss to follow-up rate are essential for a robust safety assessment. Therefore

  17. Initial Experience with Electronic Tracking of Specific Tumor Sites in Men Undergoing Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonn, Geoffrey A.; Filson, Christopher P.; Chang, Edward; Natarajan, Shyam; Margolis, Daniel J.; Macairan, Malu; Lieu, Patricia; Huang, Jiaoti; Dorey, Frederick J.; Reiter, Robert E.; Marks, Leonard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Targeted biopsy, using magnetic resonance (MR) – ultrasound (US) fusion, may allow tracking of specific cancer sites in the prostate. We aimed to evaluate initial use of the technique to follow tumor sites in men on active surveillance of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials Fifty-three men with prostate cancer (all T1c) underwent re-biopsy of 74 positive biopsy sites, which were tracked and targeted using the Artemis MR-US fusion device (Eigen, Grass Valley, CA, USA) from March 2010 through January 2013. The initial biopsy included 12 cores from a standard template (mapped by software) and directed biopsies from regions of interest seen on MRI. In the repeat biopsy, samples were taken from sites containing cancer at the initial biopsy. Outcomes of interest at second MR-US biopsy included (a) presence of any cancer and (b) presence of clinically significant cancer. Results All cancers on initial biopsy were either Gleason score 3+3=6 (N=63) or 3+4=7 (N=11). At initial biopsy, 23 cancers were within an MRI target, and 51 were found on systematic biopsy. Cancer detection rate on repeat biopsy (29/74, 39%) was independent of Gleason score on initial biopsy (p=NS) but directly related to initial cancer core length (CCL) (pbiopsies were positive. An increase of Gleason score was uncommon (9/74, 12%). Conclusions Monitoring of specific prostate cancer-containing sites may be achieved in some men using an electronic tracking system. The chances of finding tumor on repeat specific-site sampling was directly related to the length of tumor in the initial biopsy core and presence of tumor within an MRI target; upgrading of Gleason score was uncommon. Further research is required to evaluate the potential utility of site-specific biopsy tracking for prostate cancer patients on active surveillance. PMID:25027689

  18. The value of community participation in disease surveillance: a case study from Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Serigne M; Quick, Linda; Sanda, Ousmane; Niandou, Seydou

    2003-06-01

    A team of researchers, including one behavioral scientist (S.M.N.) and three epidemiologists (L.Q., O.S. and S.N.) conducted community analyses to assess the social and cultural factors that affect the detection and reporting of disease cases in a surveillance system, using acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Niger as a case study. Over a 60-day period in the country, the research team reviewed written field reports and interviewed epidemiologists, nurses, community members and persons in governmental and non-governmental organizations. Overall, we found that the logistical difficulties of travel and communication, which are common in developing countries, constrain the conventional surveillance system that relies on epidemiologists visiting sites to discover and investigate cases, particularly in rural areas. Other challenges include: community members' lack of knowledge about the possible link between a case of paralysis and a dangerous, communicable disease; lack of access to health care, including the low number of clinics and health care workers; cultural beliefs that favor seeking a local healer before consulting a nurse or physician; and health workers' lack of training in AFP surveillance. The quality of surveillance in developing countries can improve if a community-based approach is adopted. Such a system has been used successfully in Niger during smallpox-eradication and guinea worm-control campaigns. In a community-based system, community members receive basic education or more extensive training to motivate and enable them to notify health care staff about possible cases of disease in a timely fashion. Local organizations, local projects and local leaders must be included to ensure the success of such a program. In Niger we found sufficient quantities of this type of social capital, along with enough local experience of past health campaigns, to suggest that a community-based approach can improve the level of comprehensiveness and sensitivity

  19. Five years of Kawasaki disease in the Netherlands a national surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacke, C.E.; Breunis, W.B.; Pereira, R.R.; Breur, J.M.; Kuipers, I.M.; Kuijpers, T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, disease presentation, treatment and cardiac outcome of Kawasaki disease (KD) in The Netherlands. Methods: The national Dutch Pediatric Surveillance Unit was used to prospectively register new KD cases from 2008 through 2012.

  20. Fluoxetine and infantile hypertrophic pylorus stenosis : a signal from a birth defects drug exposure surveillance study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.K.; de Walle, H.E.K.; Wilffert, B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We report an association found in a surveillance study which systematically evaluated combinations of specific birth defects and drugs used in the first trimester of pregnancy. Method The database of a population-based birth defects registry (birth years 1997-2007) was systematically screene

  1. Evaluating Social Media Networks in Medicines Safety Surveillance: Two Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Coloma (Preciosa); B. Becker (Benedikt); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); E.M. Van Mulligen (Erik M.); J.A. Kors (Jan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: There is growing interest in whether social media can capture patient-generated information relevant for medicines safety surveillance that cannot be found in traditional sources. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential contribution of mining social m

  2. Results of a market surveillance study in The Netherlands on break-mark tablets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barends, D.M.; Groot, D.W.; van der Steen, J.C.; de Kaste, D.; Frijlink, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    A representative market surveillance study on break-mark tablets for human use, having a marketing authorization (MA) in The Netherlands (NL), was carried out. The uniformity of mass of subdivided break-mark tablets into halves was assessed according to Ph.Eur.5.5, now current; and for comparison al

  3. Cloud-based Electronic Health Records for Real-time, Region-specific Influenza Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillana, M; Nguyen, A T; Louie, T; Zink, A; Gray, J; Sung, I; Brownstein, J S

    2016-05-11

    Accurate real-time monitoring systems of influenza outbreaks help public health officials make informed decisions that may help save lives. We show that information extracted from cloud-based electronic health records databases, in combination with machine learning techniques and historical epidemiological information, have the potential to accurately and reliably provide near real-time regional estimates of flu outbreaks in the United States.

  4. Characteristics of national and statewide health care-associated infection surveillance programs: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Havers, Sally M; Cheng, Allen C; Richards, Michael; Graves, Nicholas; Hall, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    There are many well-established national health care-associated infection surveillance programs (HAISPs). Although validation studies have described data quality, there is little research describing important characteristics of large HAISPs. The aim of this study was to broaden our understanding and identify key characteristics of large HAISPs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively selected leaders from national and state-based HAISPs. Interview data were analyzed following an interpretive description process. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted over a 6-month period during 2014-2015. Analysis of the data generated 5 distinct characteristics of large HAISPs: (1) triggers: surveillance was initiated by government or a cooperative of like-minded people, (2) purpose: a clear purpose is needed and determines other surveillance mechanisms, (3) data measures: consistency is more important than accuracy, (4) processes: a balance exists between the volume of data collected and resources, and (5) implementation and maintenance: a central coordinating body is crucial for uniformity and support. National HAISPs are complex and affect a broad range of stakeholders. Although the overall goal of health care-associated infection surveillance is to reduce the incidence of health care-associated infection, there are many crucial factors to be considered in attaining this goal. The findings from this study will assist the development of new HAISPs and could be used as an adjunct to evaluate existing programs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Implementation of a Multimodal Mobile System for Point-of-Sale Surveillance: Lessons Learned From Case Studies in Washington, DC, and New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Ganz, Ollie; Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Tacelosky, Michael; Kreslake, Jennifer; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Aidala, Angela; Vallone, Donna; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    In tobacco control and other fields, point-of-sale surveillance of the retail environment is critical for understanding industry marketing of products and informing public health practice. Innovations in mobile technology can improve existing, paper-based surveillance methods, yet few studies describe in detail how to operationalize the use of technology in public health surveillance. The aims of this paper are to share implementation strategies and lessons learned from 2 tobacco, point-of-sale surveillance projects to inform and prepare public health researchers and practitioners to implement new mobile technologies in retail point-of-sale surveillance systems. From 2011 to 2013, 2 point-of-sale surveillance pilot projects were conducted in Washington, DC, and New York, New York, to capture information about the tobacco retail environment and test the feasibility of a multimodal mobile data collection system, which included capabilities for audio or video recording data, electronic photographs, electronic location data, and a centralized back-end server and dashboard. We established a preimplementation field testing process for both projects, which involved a series of rapid and iterative tests to inform decisions and establish protocols around key components of the project. Important components of field testing included choosing a mobile phone that met project criteria, establishing an efficient workflow and accessible user interfaces for each component of the system, training and providing technical support to fieldworkers, and developing processes to integrate data from multiple sources into back-end systems that can be utilized in real-time. A well-planned implementation process is critical for successful use and performance of multimodal mobile surveillance systems. Guidelines for implementation include (1) the need to establish and allow time for an iterative testing framework for resolving technical and logistical challenges; (2) developing a streamlined

  6. Quality of life of nursing-home residents with dementia subject to surveillance technology versus physical restraints: an explorative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhorst, S. te; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Francke, A.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Zwijsen, S.A.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: As physical restraints should only be used in exceptional cases, there is an urgent need for alternatives to restraint use. Surveillance technology could be such an alternative. This study explored whether nursing-home residents with dementia subjected to surveillance technology had

  7. Syndromic surveillance and heat wave morbidity: a pilot study based on emergency departments in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filleul Laurent

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health impacts of heat waves are serious and have prompted the development of heat wave response plans. Even when they are efficient, these plans are developed to limit the health effects of heat waves. This study was designed to determine relevant indicators related to health effects of heat waves and to evaluate the ability of a syndromic surveillance system to monitor variations in the activity of emergency departments over time. The study uses data collected during the summer 2006 when a new heat wave occurred in France. Methods Data recorded from 49 emergency departments since July 2004, were transmitted daily via the Internet to the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Items collected on patients included diagnosis (ICD10 codes, outcome, and age. Statistical t-tests were used to compare, for several health conditions, the daily averages of patients within different age groups and periods (whether 'on alert' or 'off alert'. Results A limited number of adverse health conditions occurred more frequently during hot period: dehydration, hyperthermia, malaise, hyponatremia, renal colic, and renal failure. Over all health conditions, the total number of patients per day remained equal between the 'on alert' and 'off alert' periods (4,557.7/day vs. 4,511.2/day, but the number of elderly patients increased significantly during the 'on alert' period relative to the 'off alert' period (476.7/day vs. 446.2/day p Conclusion Our results show the interest to monitor specific indicators during hot periods and to focus surveillance efforts on the elderly. Syndromic surveillance allowed the collection of data in real time and the subsequent optimization of the response by public health agencies. This method of surveillance should therefore be considered as an essential part of efforts to prevent the health effects of heat waves.

  8. Georgia's collaborative approach to expanding mosquito surveillance in response to Zika virus: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustin, R Christopher; Martin, Deonte; Sevilimedu, Varadan; Pandeya, Sarbesh; Rochani, Haresh; Kelly, Rosmarie

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) was declared an international public health emergency by the World Health Organization on February 1, 2016. Due to the known and estimated range of the ZIKV mosquito vectors, southern and central US states faced increased risk of ZIKV transmission. With the state of Georgia hosting the world's busiest international airport, a climate that supports the ZIKV vectors, and limited surveillance (13 counties) and response capacity, the Department of Public Health (DPH) was challenged to respond and prevent ZIKV transmission. This case study describes and evaluates the state's surveillance capacity before and after the declaration of ZIKV as a public health emergency. We analyzed surveillance data from the DPH to compare the geographical distribution of counties conducting surveillance, total number, and overall percentage of mosquito species trapped in 2015 to 2016. Counties conducting surveillance before and after the identification of the ZIKV risk were mapped using ArcMap 10.4.1. Using SAS (version 9.2) (SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC), we performed the independent 2 sample t test to test for differences in prevalence in both years, and a χ² analysis to test for differences between numbers of species across the 13 counties. In addition, weighted frequency counts of mosquitoes were used to test (χ²) an association between major mosquito vector species and 7 urban counties. Lastly, using data from 2012-2016, a time-trend analysis was conducted to evaluate temporal trends in species prevalence. From 2015 to 2016, surveillance increased from 13 to 57 (338% increase) counties geographically dispersed across Georgia. A total of 76,052 mosquitoes were trapped and identified in 2015 compared to 144,731 (90.3% increase) in 2016. Significant differences between species (Psurveillance footprint. Existing and new partnerships were developed with the military and local health departments to expand and share data. This additional surveillance data allowed DPH to

  9. Occupational injury surveillance: A study in a metal smelting industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Asim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of occupational injury was undertaken in a metal smelting industry to examine the occurrence and nature of occupational accidents where analysis of occupational injury records was carried out. At the same time, all the workers were interviewed to collect data in relation to personal and occupational characteristics. With this information, the study aimed to examine the role of different factors in the causation of occupational accidents. High incidence of superficial injuries of limbs due mostly to stepping / striking against objects and overexertion / wrong movements of the workers and the frequent association of handling of small tools with work injuries, observed in this study indicated the role of human error in these accidents and highlighted the necessity of proper safety training of the workers. This study also highlighted the need of elevated safety status during summer months and in evening and night shifts (more so in the second half. Moreover, this study could categorize some high-risk groups e.g. young workers, less-experienced workers, obese workers, workers having smoking / chewing habits etc, who need special attention so far as workplace safety is concerned.

  10. A nationwide cohort study of stage I seminoma patients followed on a surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Lauritsen, Jakob; Gundgaard, Maria Gry; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Christensen, Ib Jarle; von der Maase, Hans; Daugaard, Gedske

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concerns about late effects after adjuvant treatment for stage I seminoma have made surveillance an attractive alternative. To evaluate the surveillance strategy in a nationwide cohort study. A retrospective, population-based study of Danish patients diagnosed with stage I seminoma between 1984 and 2008 and followed for 5 yr (n=1954). Patient data were linked with national registries on November 30, 2012, to obtain information on late relapse, vital status, and cause of death. Disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival, relapse rates, time to relapse, detection of relapse, and prognostic factors for relapse were described for the cohort. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine survival probabilities. A Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis of prognostic factors. Median follow-up time was 15.1 yr. In total, 369 patients relapsed after a median 13.7 mo. DSS after 15 yr was 99.3%. Tumor size was a significant factor for relapse. Either vascular invasion or invasion of epididymis was significant if the other factor was excluded from analysis. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study and the number of missing values in analysis. In the world's largest study of stage I seminoma patients, we found surveillance to be a safe alternative to adjuvant therapies. Tumor size was a significant factor for relapse, together with either invasion of epididymis or vascular invasion. In this nationwide study, we looked at the outcomes of patients with stage I seminoma followed for 5 yr. We found that surveillance is a safe alternative to adjuvant treatment. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rugby World Cup 2015: World Rugby injury surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Kemp, Simon P T; Raftery, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To determine the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2015 together with the inciting events leading to the injuries. A prospective, whole population study. 639 international rugby players representing 20 countries. The study protocol followed the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; output measures included players' age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg) and playing position, and the group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), mean and median severity (days-absence), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) for match and training injuries. Incidence of injury was 90.1 match injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 100.4; forwards: 81.1) and 1.0 training injuries/1000 player-training-hours (backs: 0.9; forwards: 1.2). The mean severity of injuries was 29.8 days-absence (backs: 30.4; forwards: 29.1) during matches and 14.4 days-absence (backs: 6.3; forwards: 19.8) during training. During matches, head/face (22.0%), knee (16.2%), muscle-strain (23.1%) and ligament-sprain (23.1%) and, during training, lower limb (80.0%) and muscle-strain (60.0%) injuries were the most common locations and types of injury. Being-tackled (24.7%) was the most common inciting event for injury during matches and rugby-skills-contact activities (70.0%) the most common during training. While the incidence, nature and inciting events associated with match injuries at RWC 2015 were similar to those reported previously for RWCs 2007 and 2011, there were increasing trends in the mean severity and total days-absence through injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Provocative dietary factors in geriatric hypertension: A surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Madhavi V; Deole, Yogesh S; Chandola, Harimohan; Ravishankar, B

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide being more prevalent in old age. The present survey of hypertensive patients fulfilling the standard diagnostic criteria of WHO/ISH (2004) is carried out in geriatric age group from the Saurashtra region of Gujarat in India to observe the dietary pattern and provocative factors. Total 120 patients of 50 to 80 years of age having systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and ≤180 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg and ≤110 mm Hg irrespective of gender and religion were selected for the present study. They were interviewed for list of provocative factors enlisted in Ayurveda. As observed, the study supported the facts described in Ayurveda that dietary etiological factors, such as excess intake of Lavana (salty), Amla (sour), Katu (pungent), Tikshna, Ushna (hot), Vidahi (producing burning sensation), Viruddha (incompatible), Snigdha (unctuous), Abhishyandi (leading to obstruction), Madhura (sweet), Guru (heavy to digest) dietary articles, Ajirnashana (taking diet before complete digestion of previous meal), Adhyashana (repeated eating at short intervals), will vitiate Rakta dhatu as well as Pitta dosha in the body leading to disorders like hypertension. Hypertension in old age is found to be a disease of Vata-Pitta dominant vitiation with the involvement of Rasa, Rakta, Meda as main Dushya (vitiated factors) and dietary factors can contribute to worsening of the disease. The etiological factors having role in the pathogenesis can also be applied for preventive guidelines for the management of hypertension.

  13. Assessing electronic death registration and american red cross systems for mortality surveillance during Hurricane Sandy, October 29-November 10, 2012, New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Renata E; Madsen, Ann M; Nicaj, Leze; Noe, Rebecca S; Casey-Lockyer, Mary; Begier, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    We briefly describe 2 systems that provided disaster-related mortality surveillance during and after Hurricane Sandy in New York City, namely, the New York City Health Department Electronic Death Registration System (EDRS) and the American Red Cross paper-based tracking system. Red Cross fatality data were linked with New York City EDRS records by using decedent name and date of birth. We analyzed cases identified by both systems for completeness and agreement across selected variables and the time interval between death and reporting in the system. Red Cross captured 93% (41/44) of all Sandy-related deaths; the completeness and quality varied by item, and timeliness was difficult to determine. The circumstances leading to death captured by Red Cross were particularly useful for identifying reasons individuals stayed in evacuation zones. EDRS variables were nearly 100% complete, and the median interval between date of death and reporting was 6 days (range: 0-43 days). Our findings indicate that a number of steps have the potential to improve disaster-related mortality surveillance, including updating Red Cross surveillance forms and electronic databases to enhance timeliness assessments, greater collaboration across agencies to share and use data for public health preparedness, and continued expansion of electronic death registration systems.

  14. [Poliomyelitis surveillance: seroepidemiologic study on a Piedmont population sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiello, A; Ossola, O; Guidetti, A; Zotti, C; Moiraghi Ruggenini, A

    1995-01-01

    In order to assess the immunity/receptivity towards the three poliovirus strains, a sample representative of the sex and age composition of the resident population in Piedmont at census 1981, was examined. For each subject data were collected in order to identify the population from social-ambient point of view. For the evaluation of antibodie's title to poliovirus 1, 2, 3, the serums were analyzed with the neutralization method using the microtitolation plates and epithelial larynx cancer cells (HEp-2), like revealing system. The samples with > or = 2 title were considered positives for specific antibodies. To determine the relation between presence/absence of specific poliovirus antibodies and the other variables, a multiple logistic regression was fitted and the odds ratio was calculated. The results of our study show an immunity in all age groups, underlying a herd immunity condition. Furthermore the incomplete antibodies response to the three poliovirus strains seems to be influenced by age only.

  15. Association between the location of colon polyps at baseline and surveillance colonoscopy: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors are used to stratify the probability of polyp recurrence. However, there are no studies correlating the location of the initial polyps and the recurrent ones. The aim of this study was to verify whether the polyp location at the surveillance colonoscopy was correlated with the location of the previously excised polyps at the baseline colonoscopy. Methods: A retrospective study of patients submitted to colonoscopy with presence and excision of all polyps, followed by a surveillance colonoscopy. Polyp location was divided into proximal/distal to splenic flexure and rectum. Characteristics and recurrent rates at the same colon location were also evaluated. Results: Out of the 346 patients who underwent repeated colonoscopy, 268 (77.4% had at least 1 polyp detected. For all the segments there was an increased risk of recurrent polyps in the same location and it was about four times higher in proximal (OR 3.5; CI 2.1-6.0 and distal colon segments (OR 3.8; CI 2.1-6.8, followed by three times higher in the rectum (OR 2.6; CI 1.5-4.6. No difference was found between the rates of recurrence at the same segment, taking into consideration the polyp morphology, size, polypectomy technique employed and histological classification. Conclusion: There seems to be a significant association between polyp location at baseline and surveillance colonoscopy.

  16. Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Anthony; Li, Heng; Zhao, Yang; Trumper, Isaac; Gandara-Montano, Gustavo A.; Xu, Di; Nikolov, Daniel K.; Chen, Changchen; Brown, Nicolas S.; Guevara-Torres, Andres; Jung, Hae Won; Reimers, Jacob; Bentley, Julie

    2015-09-01

    *avella@ur.rochester.edu Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera Anthony Vella*, Heng Li, Yang Zhao, Isaac Trumper, Gustavo A. Gandara-Montano, Di Xu, Daniel K. Nikolov, Changchen Chen, Nicolas S. Brown, Andres Guevara-Torres, Hae Won Jung, Jacob Reimers, Julie Bentley The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchison Rd, Rochester, NY, USA 14627-0186 ABSTRACT High zoom ratio zoom lenses have extensive applications in broadcasting, cinema, and surveillance. Here, we present a design study on a 16x zoom lens with 4 groups (including two internal moving groups), designed for, but not limited to, a visible spectrum surveillance camera. Fifteen different solutions were discovered with nearly diffraction limited performance, using PNPX or PNNP design forms with the stop located in either the third or fourth group. Some interesting patterns and trends in the summarized results include the following: (a) in designs with such a large zoom ratio, the potential of locating the aperture stop in the front half of the system is limited, with ray height variations through zoom necessitating a very large lens diameter; (b) in many cases, the lens zoom motion has significant freedom to vary due to near zero total power in the middle two groups; and (c) we discuss the trade-offs between zoom configuration, stop location, packaging factors, and zoom group aberration sensitivity.

  17. Low Emittance Electron Beam Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhoplav, Rodion [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the properties of a low emittance electron beam produced by laser pulses incident onto an rf gun photocathode. The experiments were carried out at the A0 photoinjector at Fermilab. Such beam studies are necessary for fixing the design of new Linear Colliders as well as for the development of Free Electron Lasers. An overview of the A0 photoinjector is given in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 we describe the A0 photoinjector laser system. A stable laser system is imperative for reliable photoinjector operation. After the recent upgrade, we have been able to reach a new level of stability in the pulse-to-pulse fluctuations of the pulse amplitude, and of the temporal and transverse profiles. In Chapter 3 we present a study of transverse emittance versus the shape of the photo-cathode drive-laser pulse. For that purpose a special temporal profile laser shaping device called a pulse-stacker was developed. In Chapter 4 we discuss longitudinal beam dynamics studies using a two macro-particle bunch; this technique is helpful in analyzing pulse compression in the magnetic chicane, as well as velocity bunching effects in the rf-gun and the 9-cell accelerating cavity. In Chapter 5 we introduce a proposal for laser acceleration of electrons. We have developed a laser functioning on the TEM*01 mode, a mode with a longitudinal electric field component which is suitable for such a process. Using this technique at energies above 40 MeV, one would be able to observe laser-based acceleration.

  18. A focused ethnographic study of Sri Lankan government field veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sawford

    Full Text Available The global public health community is facing the challenge of emerging infectious diseases. Historically, the majority of these diseases have arisen from animal populations at lower latitudes where many nations experience marked resource constraints. In order to minimize the impact of future events, surveillance of animal populations will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Many surveillance systems targeting animals rely on veterinarians to submit cases to a diagnostic laboratory or input clinical case data. Therefore understanding veterinarians' decision-making process that guides laboratory case submission and their perceptions of infectious disease surveillance is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance initiatives. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with twelve field veterinary surgeons that participated in a mobile phone-based surveillance pilot project in Sri Lanka. Each participant agreed to an individual in-depth interview that was recorded and later transcribed to enable thematic analysis of the interview content. Results found that field veterinarians in Sri Lanka infrequently submit cases to laboratories--so infrequently that common case selection principles could not be described. Field veterinarians in Sri Lanka have a diagnostic process that operates independently of laboratories. Participants indicated a willingness to take part in surveillance initiatives, though they highlighted a need for incentives that satisfy a range of motivations that vary among field veterinarians. This study has implications for the future of animal health surveillance, including interpretation of disease patterns reported, system design and implementation, and engagement of data providers.

  19. A focused ethnographic study of Sri Lankan government field veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The global public health community is facing the challenge of emerging infectious diseases. Historically, the majority of these diseases have arisen from animal populations at lower latitudes where many nations experience marked resource constraints. In order to minimize the impact of future events, surveillance of animal populations will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Many surveillance systems targeting animals rely on veterinarians to submit cases to a diagnostic laboratory or input clinical case data. Therefore understanding veterinarians' decision-making process that guides laboratory case submission and their perceptions of infectious disease surveillance is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance initiatives. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with twelve field veterinary surgeons that participated in a mobile phone-based surveillance pilot project in Sri Lanka. Each participant agreed to an individual in-depth interview that was recorded and later transcribed to enable thematic analysis of the interview content. Results found that field veterinarians in Sri Lanka infrequently submit cases to laboratories--so infrequently that common case selection principles could not be described. Field veterinarians in Sri Lanka have a diagnostic process that operates independently of laboratories. Participants indicated a willingness to take part in surveillance initiatives, though they highlighted a need for incentives that satisfy a range of motivations that vary among field veterinarians. This study has implications for the future of animal health surveillance, including interpretation of disease patterns reported, system design and implementation, and engagement of data providers.

  20. A Focused Ethnographic Study of Sri Lankan Government Field Veterinarians’ Decision Making about Diagnostic Laboratory Submissions and Perceptions of Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The global public health community is facing the challenge of emerging infectious diseases. Historically, the majority of these diseases have arisen from animal populations at lower latitudes where many nations experience marked resource constraints. In order to minimize the impact of future events, surveillance of animal populations will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Many surveillance systems targeting animals rely on veterinarians to submit cases to a diagnostic laboratory or input clinical case data. Therefore understanding veterinarians’ decision-making process that guides laboratory case submission and their perceptions of infectious disease surveillance is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance initiatives. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with twelve field veterinary surgeons that participated in a mobile phone-based surveillance pilot project in Sri Lanka. Each participant agreed to an individual in-depth interview that was recorded and later transcribed to enable thematic analysis of the interview content. Results found that field veterinarians in Sri Lanka infrequently submit cases to laboratories – so infrequently that common case selection principles could not be described. Field veterinarians in Sri Lanka have a diagnostic process that operates independently of laboratories. Participants indicated a willingness to take part in surveillance initiatives, though they highlighted a need for incentives that satisfy a range of motivations that vary among field veterinarians. This study has implications for the future of animal health surveillance, including interpretation of disease patterns reported, system design and implementation, and engagement of data providers. PMID:23133542

  1. Drug-induced acute myocardial infarction: identifying 'prime suspects' from electronic healthcare records-based surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preciosa M Coloma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drug-related adverse events remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality and impose huge burden on healthcare costs. Routinely collected electronic healthcare data give a good snapshot of how drugs are being used in 'real-world' settings. OBJECTIVE: To describe a strategy that identifies potentially drug-induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI from a large international healthcare data network. METHODS: Post-marketing safety surveillance was conducted in seven population-based healthcare databases in three countries (Denmark, Italy, and the Netherlands using anonymised demographic, clinical, and prescription/dispensing data representing 21,171,291 individuals with 154,474,063 person-years of follow-up in the period 1996-2010. Primary care physicians' medical records and administrative claims containing reimbursements for filled prescriptions, laboratory tests, and hospitalisations were evaluated using a three-tier triage system of detection, filtering, and substantiation that generated a list of drugs potentially associated with AMI. Outcome of interest was statistically significant increased risk of AMI during drug exposure that has not been previously described in current literature and is biologically plausible. RESULTS: Overall, 163 drugs were identified to be associated with increased risk of AMI during preliminary screening. Of these, 124 drugs were eliminated after adjustment for possible bias and confounding. With subsequent application of criteria for novelty and biological plausibility, association with AMI remained for nine drugs ('prime suspects': azithromycin; erythromycin; roxithromycin; metoclopramide; cisapride; domperidone; betamethasone; fluconazole; and megestrol acetate. LIMITATIONS: Although global health status, co-morbidities, and time-invariant factors were adjusted for, residual confounding cannot be ruled out. CONCLUSION: A strategy to identify potentially drug-induced AMI from electronic healthcare

  2. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamira Pereira da Silva Reichert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care.Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated.Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development.Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care.

  3. Child development surveillance: intervention study with nurses of the Family Health Strategy1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Collet, Neusa; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marília de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care. Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated. Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development. Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care. PMID:26487147

  4. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and allowed outage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, Moo Seong; Cheong, Chang Hyeon; Lee, Byeong Cheol [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1996-07-15

    The objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assessing the optimizes Surveillance Test Interval(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korea nuclear power plants safety. In the first year of this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modeling and results performed by domestic and international researches is performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method.

  5. A national surveillance project on chronic kidney disease management in Canadian primary care: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Aminu K; Ronksley, Paul E; Tangri, Navdeep; Singer, Alexander; Grill, Allan; Nitsch, Dorothea; Queenan, John A; Lindeman, Cliff; Soos, Boglarka; Freiheit, Elizabeth; Tuot, Delphine; Mangin, Dee; Drummond, Neil

    2017-08-04

    Effective chronic disease care is dependent on well-organised quality improvement (QI) strategies that monitor processes of care and outcomes for optimal care delivery. Although healthcare is provincially/territorially structured in Canada, there are national networks such as the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) as important facilitators for national QI-based studies to improve chronic disease care. The goal of our study is to improve the understanding of how patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are managed in primary care and the variation across practices and provinces and territories to drive improvements in care delivery. The CPCSSN database contains anonymised health information from the electronic medical records for patients of participating primary care practices (PCPs) across Canada (n=1200). The dataset includes information on patient sociodemographics, medications, laboratory results and comorbidities. Leveraging validated algorithms, case definitions and guidelines will help define CKD and the related processes of care, and these enable us to: (1) determine prevalent CKD burden; (2) ascertain the current practice pattern on risk identification and management of CKD and (3) study variation in care indicators (eg, achievement of blood pressure and proteinuria targets) and referral pattern for specialist kidney care. The process of care outcomes will be stratified across patients' demographics as well as provider and regional (provincial/territorial) characteristics. The prevalence of CKD stages 3-5 will be presented as age-sex standardised prevalence estimates stratified by province and as weighted averages for population rates with 95% CIs using census data. For each PCP, age-sex standardised prevalence will be calculated and compared with expected standardised prevalence estimates. The process-based outcomes will be defined using established methods. The CPCSSN is committed to high ethical standards when dealing with

  6. Surveillance of infection severity: a registry study of laboratory diagnosed Clostridium difficile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Schlackow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changing clinical impact, as virulent clones replace less virulent ones, is a feature of many pathogenic bacterial species and can be difficult to detect. Consequently, innovative techniques monitoring infection severity are of potential clinical value. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We studied 5,551 toxin-positive and 20,098 persistently toxin-negative patients tested for Clostridium difficile infection between February 1998 and July 2009 in a group of hospitals based in Oxford, UK, and investigated 28-day mortality and biomarkers of inflammation (blood neutrophil count, urea, and creatinine concentrations collected at diagnosis using iterative sequential regression (ISR, a novel joinpoint-based regression technique suitable for serial monitoring of continuous or dichotomous outcomes. Among C. difficile toxin-positive patients in the Oxford hospitals, mean neutrophil counts on diagnosis increased from 2003, peaked in 2006-2007, and then declined; 28-day mortality increased from early 2006, peaked in late 2006-2007, and then declined. Molecular typing confirmed these changes were likely due to the ingress of the globally distributed severe C. difficile strain, ST1. We assessed the generalizability of ISR-based severity monitoring in three ways. First, we assessed and found strong (p<0.0001 associations between isolation of the ST1 severe strain and higher neutrophil counts at diagnosis in two unrelated large multi-centre studies, suggesting the technique described might be useful elsewhere. Second, we assessed and found similar trends in a second group of hospitals in Birmingham, UK, from which 5,399 cases were analysed. Third, we used simulation to assess the performance of this surveillance system given the ingress of future severe strains under a variety of assumptions. ISR-based severity monitoring allowed the detection of the severity change years earlier than mortality monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: Automated electronic systems providing

  7. Implementation and utilisation of community-based mortality surveillance: a case study from Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowden Sarah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective surveillance is a recognised approach for measuring death rates in humanitarian emergencies. However, there is limited evidence on how such surveillance should optimally be implemented and on how data are actually used by agencies. This case study investigates the implementation and utilisation of mortality surveillance data by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF in eastern Chad. We aimed to describe and analyse the community-based mortality surveillance system, trends in mortality data and the utilisation of these data to guide MSF’s operational response. Methods The case study included 5 MSF sites including 2 refugee camps and 3 camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs. Data were obtained through key informant interviews and systematic review of MSF operational reports from 2004–2008. Results Mortality data were collected using community health workers (CHWs. Mortality generally decreased progressively. In Farchana and Breidjing refugee camps, crude death rates (CDR decreased from 0.9 deaths per 10,000 person-days in 2004 to 0.2 in 2008 and from 0.7 to 0.1, respectively. In Gassire, Ade and Kerfi IDP camps, CDR decreased from 0.4 to 0.04, 0.3 to 0.04 and 1.0 to 0.3. Death rates among children under 5 years (U5DR followed similar trends. CDR and U5DR crossed emergency thresholds in one site, Kerfi, where CDR rapidly rose to 2.1 and U5DR to 7.9 in July 2008 before rapidly decreasing to below emergency levels by September 2008. Discussion Mortality data were used regularly to monitor population health status and on two occasions as a tool for advocacy. Lessons learned included the need for improved population estimates and standardized reporting procedures for improved data quality and dissemination; the importance of a simple and flexible model for data collection; and greater investment in supervising CHWs. Conclusions This model of community based mortality surveillance can be adapted and used by

  8. A focused ethnographic study of Alberta cattle veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sawford

    Full Text Available The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance.

  9. A focused ethnographic study of Alberta cattle veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance.

  10. A Focused Ethnographic Study of Alberta Cattle Veterinarians’ Decision Making about Diagnostic Laboratory Submissions and Perceptions of Surveillance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance. PMID:23741397

  11. [Integration of health surveillance and women's health care: a study on comprehensiveness in the Unified National Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Christiane; Guilhem, Dirce; Lucchese, Geraldo

    2010-04-01

    Comprehensiveness is a key principle in Brazil's Unified National Health System (SUS), approached from various perspectives, including linkage between services. The debate on this principle appears in health care, especially in the area of Women's Health, and in Health Surveillance guidelines. Since both areas target quality of health services, the aim of this study is to analyze the integration between Health Surveillance and Women's Health Care. This is a qualitative case study that interviewed Health Surveillance staff in health services and coordinators of Women's Health services. The findings point to the isolation of Health Surveillance within the health secretariats. The importance of integrating the two areas is cited by Women's Health administrators, but it is difficult to implement. Collaborative relations only occur in emergency situations. The Health Surveillance professionals believe that this lack of integration is due to the fact that women's health issues do not require their participation, and that at any rate they collaborate with the area through health inspections and talks. The study detected difficulties in achieving integration between the two areas, with the persistent challenge of linking health actions, especially with Health Surveillance.

  12. Potential use of school absenteeism record for disease surveillance in developing countries, case study in rural Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin K Y Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes, and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3-6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons <16 y (maximum cross-correlation coefficient = 0.231 at lag = -1 week. CONCLUSIONS: School absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data.

  13. Potential use of school absenteeism record for disease surveillance in developing countries, case study in rural Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin K Y; Channarith, Hing; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    Disease surveillance allows prospective monitoring of patterns in disease incidence in the general community, specific institutions (e.g. hospitals, elderly care homes), and other important population subgroups. Surveillance activities are now routinely conducted in many developed countries and in certain easy-to-reach areas of the developing ones. However due to limited health resources, population in rural area that consisted of the most the vulnerable groups are not under surveillance. Cheaper alternative ways for disease surveillance were needed in resource-limited settings. In this study, a syndromic surveillance system using disease specific absenteeism rates was established in 47 pre-schools with 1,417 students 3-6 y of age in a rural area of Kampot province, Cambodia. School absenteeism data were collected via short message service. Data collected between 1st January and 31st December 2012 was used for system evaluation for future potential use in larger scale. The system appeared to be feasible and acceptable in the rural study setting. Moderate correlation was found between rates of school absenteeism due to illness and the reference data on rates of attendance at health centers in persons absenteeism data is pre-existing, easily accessible and requires minimum time and resources after initial development, and our results suggest that this system may be able to provide complementary data for disease surveillance, especially in resource limited settings where there is very little information on illnesses in the community and traditional surveillance systems are difficult to implement. An important next step is to validate the syndromic data with other forms of surveillance including laboratory data.

  14. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  15. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Sexual Dysfunction in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane M. Pearce, MD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Men on AS experienced a gradual decline in sexual function during the first 24 months of enrollment. Older age, PSA × time, and diabetes were all independent predictors of diminished sexual function over time. Anxiety, AUA‐SI, the number of cores and the number of biopsies were not predictors of reduced sexual function in men in AS. Pearce SM, Wang CHE, Victorson DE, Helfand BT, Novakovic KR, Brendler CB, and Albaugh JA. A longitudinal study of predictors of sexual dysfunction in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. Sex Med 2015;3:156–164.

  17. Perceived usefulness of a distributed community-based syndromic surveillance system: a pilot qualitative evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Donald R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted a pilot utility evaluation and information needs assessment of the Distribute Project at the 2010 Washington State Public Health Association (WSPHA Joint Conference. Distribute is a distributed community-based syndromic surveillance system and network for detection of influenza-like illness (ILI. Using qualitative methods, we assessed the perceived usefulness of the Distribute system and explored areas for improvement. Nine state and local public health professionals participated in a focus group (n = 6 and in semi-structured interviews (n = 3. Field notes were taken, summarized and analyzed. Findings Several emergent themes that contribute to the perceived usefulness of system data and the Distribute system were identified: 1 Standardization: a common ILI syndrome definition; 2 Regional Comparability: views that support county-by-county comparisons of syndromic surveillance data; 3 Completeness: complete data for all expected data at a given time; 4 Coverage: data coverage of all jurisdictions in WA state; 5 Context: metadata incorporated into the views to provide context for graphed data; 6 Trusted Data: verification that information is valid and timely; and 7 Customization: the ability to customize views as necessary. As a result of the focus group, a new county level health jurisdiction expressed interest in contributing data to the Distribute system. Conclusion The resulting themes from this study can be used to guide future information design efforts for the Distribute system and other syndromic surveillance systems. In addition, this study demonstrates the benefits of conducting a low cost, qualitative evaluation at a professional conference.

  18. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  19. CARRS Surveillance study: design and methods to assess burdens from multiple perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Manisha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs are a growing public health problem, but data on incidence, trends, and costs in developing countries is scarce. Comprehensive and standardised surveillance for non-communicable diseases was recommended at the United Nations High-level meeting in 2011. Aims: To develop a model surveillance system for CMDs and risk factors that could be adopted for continued assessment of burdens from multiple perspectives in South-Asian countries. Methods Design: Hybrid model with two cross-sectional serial surveys three years apart to monitor trend, with a three-year prospective follow-up of the first cohort. Sites: Three urban settings (Chennai and New Delhi in India; Karachi in Pakistan, 4000 participants in each site stratified by gender and age. Sampling methodology: Multi-stage cluster random sampling; followed by within-household participant selection through a combination of Health Information National Trends Study (HINTS and Kish methods. Culturally-appropriate and methodologically-relevant data collection instruments were developed to gather information on CMDs and their risk factors; quality of life, health-care utilisation and costs, along with objective measures of anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters. The cohort follow-up is designed as a pilot study to understand the feasibility of estimating incidence of risk factors, disease events, morbidity, and mortality. Results The overall participant response rate in the first cross-sectional survey was 94.1% (Chennai 92.4%, n = 4943; Delhi 95.7%, n = 4425; Karachi 94.3%, n = 4016. 51.8% of the participants were females, 61.6% 60 years. Discussion This surveillance model will generate data on prevalence and trends; help study the complex life-course patterns of CMDs, and provide a platform for developing and testing interventions and tools for prevention and control of CMDs in South-Asia. It will also help understanding the

  20. Optimizing A syndromic surveillance text classifier for influenza-like illness: Does document source matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Brett R; South, Brett Ray; Chapman, Wendy W; Chapman, Wendy; Delisle, Sylvain; Shen, Shuying; Kalp, Ericka; Perl, Trish; Samore, Matthew H; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2008-11-06

    Syndromic surveillance systems that incorporate electronic free-text data have primarily focused on extracting concepts of interest from chief complaint text, emergency department visit notes, and nurse triage notes. Due to availability and access, there has been limited work in the area of surveilling the full text of all electronic note documents compared with more specific document sources. This study provides an evaluation of the performance of a text classifier for detection of influenza-like illness (ILI) by document sources that are commonly used for biosurveillance by comparing them to routine visit notes, and a full electronic note corpus approach. Evaluating the performance of an automated text classifier for syndromic surveillance by source document will inform decisions regarding electronic textual data sources for potential use by automated biosurveillance systems. Even when a full electronic medical record is available, commonly available surveillance source documents provide acceptable statistical performance for automated ILI surveillance.

  1. The effects of synoptic weather on influenza infection incidences: a retrospective study utilizing digital disease surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng; Vanos, Jennifer K.; Vecellio, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    The environmental drivers and mechanisms of influenza dynamics remain unclear. The recent development of influenza surveillance-particularly the emergence of digital epidemiology-provides an opportunity to further understand this puzzle as an area within applied human biometeorology. This paper investigates the short-term weather effects on human influenza activity at a synoptic scale during cold seasons. Using 10 years (2005-2014) of municipal level influenza surveillance data (an adjustment of the Google Flu Trends estimation from the Centers for Disease Control's virologic surveillance data) and daily spatial synoptic classification weather types, we explore and compare the effects of weather exposure on the influenza infection incidences in 79 cities across the USA. We find that during the cold seasons the presence of the polar [i.e., dry polar (DP) and moist polar (MP)] weather types is significantly associated with increasing influenza likelihood in 62 and 68% of the studied cities, respectively, while the presence of tropical [i.e., dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)] weather types is associated with a significantly decreasing occurrence of influenza in 56 and 43% of the cities, respectively. The MP and the DP weather types exhibit similar close positive correlations with influenza infection incidences, indicating that both cold-dry and cold-moist air provide favorable conditions for the occurrence of influenza in the cold seasons. Additionally, when tropical weather types are present, the humid (MT) and the dry (DT) weather types have similar strong impacts to inhibit the occurrence of influenza. These findings suggest that temperature is a more dominating atmospheric factor than moisture that impacts the occurrences of influenza in cold seasons.

  2. A pilot study for targeted surveillance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankiti, O O; Ikeh, E I; Asala, O; Seuberlich, T

    2013-06-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), popularly known as 'mad cow disease', led to an epidemic in Europe that peaked in the mid-1990s. Its impact on developing countries, such as Nigeria, has not been fully established as information on livestock and surveillance has eluded those in charge of this task. The BSE risk to Nigeria's cattle population currently remains undetermined, which has resulted in international trade restrictions on commodities from the cattle population. This is mainly because of a lack of updated BSE risk assessments and disease surveillance data. To evaluate the feasibility of BSE surveillance in Nigeria, we carried out a pilot study targeting cattle that were presented for emergency or casualty slaughter. In total, 1551 cattle of local breeds, aged 24 months and above were clinically examined. Ataxia, recumbency and other neurological signs were topmost on our list of criteria. A total of 96 cattle, which correspond to 6.2%, presented clinical signs that supported a suspect of BSE. The caudal brainstem tissues of these animals were collected post-mortem and analysed for the disease-specific form of the prion protein using a rapid test approved by the International Animal Health Organization (OIE). None of the samples were positive for BSE. Although our findings do not exclude the presence of BSE in Nigeria, they do demonstrate that targeted sampling of clinically suspected cases of BSE is feasible in developing countries. In addition, these findings point to the possibility of implementing clinical monitoring schemes for BSE and potentially other diseases with grave economic and public health consequences.

  3. Experience and lessons from surveillance and studies of the 2009 pandemic in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, A; Ammon, A; Amato Gauci, A; Amato, A; Ciancio, B; Zucs, P; Devaux, I; Plata, F; Mazick, A; Mølbak, K; Asikainen, T; Kramarz, P

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance and studies in a pandemic is a complex topic including four distinct components: (1) early detection and investigation; (2) comprehensive early assessment; (3) monitoring; and (4) rapid investigation of the effectiveness and impact of countermeasures, including monitoring the safety of pharmaceutical countermeasures. In the 2009 pandemic, the prime early detection and investigation took place in the Americas, but Europe needed to undertake the other three components while remaining vigilant to new phenomenon such as the emergence of antiviral resistance and important viral mutation. Laboratory-based surveillance was essential and also integral to epidemiological and clinical surveillance. Early assessment was especially vital because of the many important strategic parameters of the pandemic that could not be anticipated (the 'known unknowns'). Such assessment did not need to be undertaken in every country, and was done by the earliest affected European countries, particularly those with stronger surveillance. This was more successful than requiring countries to forward primary data for central analysis. However, it sometimes proved difficult to get even those analyses from European counties, and information from Southern hemisphere countries and North America proved equally valuable. These analyses informed which public health and clinical measures were most likely to be successful, and were summarized in a European risk assessment that was updated repeatedly. The estimate of the severity of the pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), and more detailed description by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in the risk assessment along with revised planning assumptions were essential, as most national European plans envisaged triggering more disruptive interventions in the event of a severe pandemic. Setting up new surveillance systems in the midst of the pandemic and getting information from them was generally less successful

  4. Electronic Study Books and learning style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Diana, I.P.F.; Heiden, van der G.

    1994-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to the concepts of Electronic Books and Electronic Study Books. Several publications have discussed some main ideas (paradigms) for both concepts. For the Electronic Study Book as a learning environment, it is essential to consider individual modes of learning, usually terme

  5. Electronic study books and learning style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Diana, I.P.F.; van der Heiden, G.

    1994-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to the concepts of Electronic Books and Electronic Study Books. Several publications have discussed some main ideas (paradigms) for both concepts. For the Electronic Study Book as a learning environment, it is essential to consider individual modes of learning, usually

  6. Electronic study books and learning style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Diana, I.P.F.; van der Heiden, G.

    1994-01-01

    Attention has been drawn to the concepts of Electronic Books and Electronic Study Books. Several publications have discussed some main ideas (paradigms) for both concepts. For the Electronic Study Book as a learning environment, it is essential to consider individual modes of learning, usually terme

  7. Postmarketing Safety Surveillance and Reevaluation of Danhong Injection: Clinical Study of 30888 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Lin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMIs have played an irreplaceable role for treating some clinical emergency, severe illness, and infectious diseases in China. In recent years, the incidence rates of adverse drug reactions (ADRs of TCMIs have increased year by year. Danhong injection (DHI is one representative TCMI comprised of Danshen and Honghua for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in clinic. In present study, the postmarketing safety surveillance and reevaluation of DHI were reported. Total 30888 patients in 37 hospitals from 6 provinces participated in the study. The results showed that the ADR incidence rate of DHI was 3.50‰. Seventeen kinds of new adverse reactions of DHI were found. The main type of ADRs of DHI was type A (including sweating, dizziness, headache, flushing, vasodilation, eye hemorrhage, faintness, chest pain, palpitations, breathlessness, anxious, nausea, flatulence, vomiting, hypotension, hypertension, local numbness, dyspnea, joint disease, and tinnitus accounting for 57.75%. The severities of most ADRs of DHI were mild and moderate reactions accounting for 25.93% and 66.67%, respectively. The main disposition of ADRs of DHI was drug withdrawal and without any treatments. The results can provide basis for amendment and improvement of the instructions of DHI, as well as demonstration and reference for the postmarketing safety surveillance and reevaluation of other TCMIs. And the rationality, scientificity, and safety of clinical applications of TCMIs could be improved.

  8. Postmarketing Safety Surveillance and Reevaluation of Danhong Injection: Clinical Study of 30888 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Lin; Tang, Jin-Fa; Li, Wei-Xia; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhao, Tao; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xiao-Fei; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMIs) have played an irreplaceable role for treating some clinical emergency, severe illness, and infectious diseases in China. In recent years, the incidence rates of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of TCMIs have increased year by year. Danhong injection (DHI) is one representative TCMI comprised of Danshen and Honghua for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in clinic. In present study, the postmarketing safety surveillance and reevaluation of DHI were reported. Total 30888 patients in 37 hospitals from 6 provinces participated in the study. The results showed that the ADR incidence rate of DHI was 3.50‰. Seventeen kinds of new adverse reactions of DHI were found. The main type of ADRs of DHI was type A (including sweating, dizziness, headache, flushing, vasodilation, eye hemorrhage, faintness, chest pain, palpitations, breathlessness, anxious, nausea, flatulence, vomiting, hypotension, hypertension, local numbness, dyspnea, joint disease, and tinnitus) accounting for 57.75%. The severities of most ADRs of DHI were mild and moderate reactions accounting for 25.93% and 66.67%, respectively. The main disposition of ADRs of DHI was drug withdrawal and without any treatments. The results can provide basis for amendment and improvement of the instructions of DHI, as well as demonstration and reference for the postmarketing safety surveillance and reevaluation of other TCMIs. And the rationality, scientificity, and safety of clinical applications of TCMIs could be improved.

  9. Syndromic surveillance and heat wave morbidity: a pilot study based on emergency departments in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josseran, Loïc; Caillère, Nadège; Brun-Ney, Dominique; Rottner, Jean; Filleul, Laurent; Brucker, Gilles; Astagneau, Pascal

    2009-02-20

    The health impacts of heat waves are serious and have prompted the development of heat wave response plans. Even when they are efficient, these plans are developed to limit the health effects of heat waves. This study was designed to determine relevant indicators related to health effects of heat waves and to evaluate the ability of a syndromic surveillance system to monitor variations in the activity of emergency departments over time. The study uses data collected during the summer 2006 when a new heat wave occurred in France. Data recorded from 49 emergency departments since July 2004, were transmitted daily via the Internet to the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Items collected on patients included diagnosis (ICD10 codes), outcome, and age. Statistical t-tests were used to compare, for several health conditions, the daily averages of patients within different age groups and periods (whether 'on alert' or 'off alert'). A limited number of adverse health conditions occurred more frequently during hot period: dehydration, hyperthermia, malaise, hyponatremia, renal colic, and renal failure. Over all health conditions, the total number of patients per day remained equal between the 'on alert' and 'off alert' periods (4,557.7/day vs. 4,511.2/day), but the number of elderly patients increased significantly during the 'on alert' period relative to the 'off alert' period (476.7/day vs. 446.2/day p waves.

  10. Surveillance of Australian Hajj pilgrims for carriage of potentially pathogenic bacteria: Data from two pilot studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Mohammad Irfan; Tashani, Mohamed; Badahdah, Al-Mamoon; Heron, Leon; Pedersen, Kristen; Jeoffreys, Neisha; Kok, Jen; Haworth, Elizabeth; Dwyer, Dominic E; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

    2017-01-01

    AIM To estimate the pharyngeal carriage rate of Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis), Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) among Australian Hajj pilgrims. METHODS In 2014, surveillance was conducted in two phases among Australian Hajj pilgrims: The first phase during Hajj in Mina, and the second phase soon after returning home to Australia. Nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swabs were taken from participants then tested, firstly by nucleic acid testing, and also by standard culture. RESULTS Of 183 participants recruited in the first phase, 26 (14.2%) tested positive for S. pneumoniae; 4 had received pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Only one tested positive for N. meningitidis (W). Of 93 2nd phase samples cultured, 17 (18.3%) grew S. aureus, all methicillin sensitive, 2 (2.2%) grew N. meningitidis (on subculture; one serotype B, one negative), and 1 (1%), from an unvaccinated pilgrim, grew S. pneumoniae. CONCLUSION Relatively high carriage of S. pneumoniae and little meningococcal carriage was found. This indicates the importance of a larger study for improved infection surveillance and possible vaccine evaluation. PMID:28352634

  11. Surveillance of dengue and chikungunya infection in Dong Thap, Vietnam:A 13-month study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pham Thi Kim Lien; Phan Thi Nga; Laurence Briant; Truong Ba Tang; Bui Minh Trang; Laurent Gavotte; Emmanuel Cornillot; Vu Trong Duoc; Tran Nhu Duong; Roger Frutos

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish a surveillance in Dong Thap, at the border with Cambodia by assessing the presence of DENV serotypes and CHIKV among patients hospitalized at Dong Thap general hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive analysis was conducted on a cohort of 131 patients hospitalized with acute fever and symptoms compatible with dengue or chikungunya. The study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2013. The full clinical picture was established as well as serological and molecular detection. Serological analysis was sequentially performed on blood samples collected on admission and an average of seven days after admission. The detection of IgM antibody to DENV was performed by IgM capture ELISA and the detection of DENV and CHIKV RNA was done by reverse-transcription multiplex PCR. Results: 101 patients out of 131 (77%) were confirmed with dengue. All four dengue serotypes were detected with a predominance of DENV2 and DENV4. No chikungunya infection was detected although reported in neighboring Cambodia. A differential efficiency of serological dengue detection was observed. Efficiency was 29% upon admission and 53% after seven days on the same patients. 30 patients out of 131 (23%) were negative with both DENV and CHIKV. Conclusions: Dengue is at risk of being underestimated and chikungunya is not systematically detected. Changes in detection and surveillance procedures are therefore discussed to increase efficiency of dengue detection and continue the monitoring the emergence of CHIKV in Dong Thap province and in Vietnam.

  12. Intraclass correlation coefficients in the Brazilian network for surveillance of severe maternal morbidity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Samira M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC of variables concerning personal characteristics, structure, outcome and process in the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity study conducted to identify severe maternal morbidity/near miss cases using the World Health Organization criteria. Method It was a cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 27 hospitals providing care for pregnant women in Brazil. Cluster size and the mean size of the primary sampling unit were described. Estimated prevalence rates, ICC, their respective 95% confidence intervals, the design effect and the mean cluster size were presented for each variable. Results Overall, 9,555 cases of severe maternal morbidity (woman admitted with potentially life-threatening conditions, near miss events or death were included in the study. ICC ranged from Conclusions These results may be used to design new cluster trials in maternal and perinatal health and to help calculate sample sizes.

  13. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  14. Can a general health surveillance between birth and 10 months identify children with mental disorder at 1(1/2) year? A case-control study nested in cohort CCC 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Houmann, Tine; Christiansen, Eva Storgaard;

    2008-01-01

    Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome.......Mental health surveillance in infancy was studied in an existing child health surveillance programme with child psychiatric disorder at 1(1/2) year as the outcome....

  15. Experimental Approaches to Studying Biological Electron Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Provides an overview on biological electron-transfer reactions, summarizing what is known about how distance, spatial organization, medium, and other factors affect electron transfer. Experimental approaches, including studies of bimolecular electron transfer reactions (electrostatic effects and precursor complexes), are considered. (JN)

  16. Family history and stroke outcome in a bi-ethnic, population-based stroke surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchino Ken

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The genetic epidemiology of ischemic stroke remains relatively unstudied, and information about the genetic epidemiology of ischemic stroke in populations with significant minority representation is currently unavailable. Methods The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project (BASIC is a population-based stroke surveillance study conducted in the bi-ethnic community of Nueces County, Texas, USA. Completed ischemic strokes were identified among patients 45 years or older seen at hospitals in the county between January 1, 2000 – December 31, 2002. A random sample of ischemic stroke patients underwent an in-person interview and detailed medical record abstraction (n = 400. Outcomes, including initial stroke severity (NIH stroke scale, age at stroke onset, 90-day mortality and functional outcome (modified Rankin scale ≥2, were studied for their association with family history of stroke among a first degree relative using multivariable logistic and linear regression. A chi-square test was used to test the association between family history of stroke and ischemic stroke subtype. Results The study population was 53.0% Mexican American and 58.4% female. Median age was 73.2 years. Forty percent reported a family history of stroke among a first degree relative. Family history of stroke was borderline significantly associated with stroke subtype (p = 0.0563. Family history was associated with poor functional outcome in the multivariable model (OR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.14–3.09. Family history was not significantly related to initial stroke severity, age at stroke onset, or 90-day mortality. Conclusion Family history of stroke was related to ischemic stroke subtype and to functional status at discharge. More research is needed to understand whether stroke subtype would be a useful selection criterion for genetic association studies and to hypothesize about a possible genetic link to recovery following ischemic stroke.

  17. Surveillance of febrile patients in a district and evaluation of their spatiotemporal associations: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Lap-yip

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is an undifferentiated clinical feature that may enhance the sensitivity of syndromic surveillance systems. By studying the spatiotemporal associations of febrile patients, it may allow early detection of case clustering that indicates imminent threat of infectious disease outbreaks in the community. Methods We captured consecutive emergency department visits that led to hospitalization in a district hospital in Hong Kong during the period of 12 Sep 2005 to 14 Oct 2005. We recorded demographic data, provisional diagnoses, temperature on presentation and residential location for each patient-episode, and geocoded the residential addresses. We applied Geographical Information System technology to study the geographical distribution these cases, and their associations within a 50-m buffer zone spatially. A case cluster was defined by three or more spatially associated febrile patients within each three consecutive days. Results One thousand and sixty six patient-episodes were eligible for analysis; 42% of them had fever (>37°C; oral temperature on presentation. Two hundred and four patient-episodes (19.1% came from residential care homes for elderly (RCHE. We detected a total of 40 case clusters during the study period. Clustered cases were of older age; 57 (33.3% were residents of RCHE. We found a median of 3 patients (range: 3 - 8 and time span of 3 days (range: 2 - 8 days in each cluster. Twenty five clusters had 2 or more patients living in the same building block; 18 of them were from RCHE. Conclusions It is technically feasible to perform surveillance on febrile patients and studying their spatiotemporal associations. The information is potentially useful for early detection of impending infectious disease threats.

  18. Potential metal impurities in active pharmaceutical substances and finished medicinal products - A market surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollein, Uwe; Bauer, Bettina; Habernegg, Renate; Schramek, Nicholas

    2015-09-18

    A market surveillance study has been established by using different atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of selected elemental impurities of particular interest, to gain an overview about the quality of presently marketed drug products and their bulk drug substances. The limit tests were carried out with respect to the existing EMA guideline on the specification limits for residuals of metal catalysts or metal reagents. Also attention was given to the future implementation of two new chapters of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) stating limit concentrations of elemental impurities. The methods used for determination of metal residues were inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and atomic absorption spectrometry technologies (GFAAS, CVAAS, HGAAS). This article presents the development and validation of the methods used for the determination of 21 selected metals in 113 samples from drug products and their active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  19. The importance of gender-stratified antibiotic resistance surveillance of unselected uropathogens: a Dutch nationwide extramural surveillance study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, C.D.J. den; Penders, J.; Donker, G.A.; Bruggeman, C.A.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have been performed on urinary tract infections (UTIs) in men. In the present study, general practitioners (n = 42) from the Dutch Sentinel General Practice Network collected urinary samples from 560 male patients (≥18 years) suspected of UTI and recorded prescribed antibiotic treatment.

  20. Lasting treatment effects in a postmarketing surveillance study of prolonged-release melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajak, Göran; Lemme, Kathrin; Zisapel, Nava

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance studies are useful to evaluate how a new medicinal product performs in everyday treatment and how the patient who takes it feels and functions, thereby determining the benefit/risk ratio of the drug under real-life conditions. Prolonged-release melatonin (PRM; Circadin) was approved in Europe for the management of primary insomnia patients age 55 years or older suffering from poor quality of sleep. With traditional hypnotics (e.g. benzodiazepine-receptor agonists), there are concerns about rebound insomnia and/or withdrawal symptoms. We report data from a postmarketing surveillance study in Germany on the effects of 3 weeks of treatment with PRM on sleep in patients with insomnia during treatment and at early (1-2 days) and late (around 2 weeks) withdrawal. In total, 653 patients (597 evaluable) were recruited at 204 sites (mean age 62.7 years, 68% previously treated with hypnotics, 65% women). With PRM treatment, the mean sleep quality (on a scale of 1-5 on which 1 is very good and 5 is very bad) improved from 4.2 to 2.6 and morning alertness improved from 4.0 to 2.5. The improvements persisted over the post-treatment observation period. Rebound insomnia, defined as a one-point deterioration in sleep quality below baseline values, was found in 3.2% (early withdrawal) and 2.0% (late withdrawal). Most of the patients (77%) who used traditional hypnotics before PRM treatment had stopped using them and only 5.6% of naive patients started such drugs after PRM discontinuation. PRM was well tolerated during treatment and the most frequently reported adverse events were nausea (10 patients, 1.5%), dizziness, restlessness and headache (five patients each, insomnia.

  1. Study on the post-closure surveillance methods at low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Joo Ho; Shin, Jin Seong; Lee, Jae Min; Choi, Won Cheol; Cheon, Tae Hoon [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-15

    Presidential decree, of atomic energy act of Korea, number 233.3.9 requires that the repository, after closure, of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste be controlled and monitored an Ministry of Science and Technology decides. This study emphasizes on establishing a direction of technical guides, considering rock cavern disposal as a domestic project. Other types of repositories will also be referred to for their technical matter. Review of domestic and foreign requirements, review of the objectives of post-closure surveillance, suggestion of surveillance methods and technical guides.

  2. STUDY OF MICROBIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE AND ANTIBIOTIC STEWARDSHIP IN VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP continues to be a major problem in critically ill patients. The objective of this research was to know the burden of ventilator-associated pneumonia and effectiveness of antibiotic stewardship in Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU of our institution. METHODS This prospective observational study was carried out for one year at our institution. It included all patients more than 18 years of age admitted to MICU who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. Among these, patients who developed VAP as per the CPIS score were identified. Laboratory results were correlated with the patient’s clinical condition and adjunct investigations. The presumptive therapy for treatment of hospital acquired pneumonia was based on surveillance by hospital infection control unit. All patients who received empiric antimicrobial therapy were analysed against bacterial sensitivity. RESULTS The VAP rate was 67 cases per 1000 ventilator days. The incidence of early VAP was 47.5% and incidence of late VAP was 52.5%. Gram negative isolates in particular Acinetobacter baumannii were more frequent than the Gram positive isolates in early and late VAP; 95% Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were resistant to Carbapenem and sensitive to only Colistin in 67.6% cases, Colistin and Tigecycline in 24.3% cases and to other antibiotics in 8.1% cases. There were inappropriate empirical antibiotic prescriptions in 80% of instances and required a change of antibiotics after the culture and sensitivity report. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, this work demonstrates the importance of an active surveillance program in multi-drug resistance outbreak recognition in our ICU and review of antimicrobial use to prevent emergence of antibiotic resistance strains and to preserve existing therapeutic option for caring for such infections.

  3. Guidelines to site selection for population surveillance and mosquito control trials: a case study from Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyaloo, Diana P; Elahee, Khouaildi B; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Lees, Rosemary Susan

    2014-04-01

    Many novel approaches to controlling mosquito vectors through the release of sterile and mass reared males are being developed in the face of increasing insecticide resistance and other limitations of current methods. Before full scale release programmes can be undertaken there is a need for surveillance of the target population, and investigation of parameters such as dispersal and longevity of released, as compared to wild males through mark-release-recapture (MRR) and other experiments, before small scale pilot trials can be conducted. The nature of the sites used for this field work is crucial to ensure that a trial can feasibly collect sufficient and relevant information, given the available resources and practical limitations, and having secured the correct regulatory, community and ethical approvals and support. Mauritius is considering the inclusion of the sterile insect technique (SIT), for population reduction of Aedes albopictus, as a component of the Ministry of Health and Quality of Life's 'Operational Plan for Prevention and Control of Chikungunya and Dengue'. As part of an investigation into the feasibility of integrating the SIT into the Integrated Vector Management (IVM) scheme in Mauritius a pilot trial is planned. Two potential sites have been selected for this purpose, Pointe des Lascars and Panchvati, villages in the North East of the country, and population surveillance has commenced. This case study will here be used to explore the considerations which go into determining the most appropriate sites for mosquito field research. Although each situation is unique, and an ideal site may not be available, this discussion aims to help researchers to consider and balance the important factors and select field sites that will meet their needs.

  4. The rationale for integrated childhood meningoencephalitis surveillance: a case study from Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touch, Sok; Hills, Susan; Rani, Manju; Samnang, Chham; Khalakdina, Asheena; Jacobson, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Problem Recent progress in vaccine availability and affordability has raised prospects for reducing death and disability from neurological infections in children. In many Asian countries, however, the epidemiology and public health burden of neurological diseases such as Japanese encephalitis and bacterial meningitis are poorly understood. Approach A sentinel surveillance system for Japanese encephalitis was developed and embedded within the routine meningoencephalitis syndromic surveillance system in Cambodia in 2006. The sentinel surveillance system was designed so surveillance and laboratory testing for other etiologies of neurological infection could be incorporated. Local setting The Communicable Disease Control department of the Ministry of Health in Cambodia worked with partners to establish the sentinel surveillance system. Relevant changes The sentinel surveillance system has provided important information on the disease burden of Japanese encephalitis in Cambodia and is now providing a platform for expansion to incorporate laboratory testing for other vaccine-preventable neurological infections in children. Lessons learned Sentinel surveillance systems, when linked to syndromic reporting systems, can characterize the epidemiology of meningoencephalitis and identify the proportion of hospital-based neurological infection in children that is vaccine preventable. Integrated systems enable consistency in data collection, analysis and information dissemination, and they enhance the capacity of public health managers to provide more credible and integrated information to policy-makers. This will assist decision-making about the potential role of immunization in reducing the incidence of childhood neurological infections. PMID:19551241

  5. Card - Electronic Money. Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodica TIRLEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This type of coin and appeared as a result of the needs for a proper management of the financial resources available in the market, but also to improve the payments system in our country. The card is an alternative to the conventional instruments of payment is a payment instrument with and without cash by means of which the holder disposes of the current account. It is a standardized, secure information and individualized, through which you can perform operations of cash withdrawal, payment for the goods or services purchased, payment obligations by the public administration authorities and funds transfers between accounts, other than those ordered and executed by financial institutions, carried out through the electronic payment instrument.

  6. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and Allowed Outage Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, Moo Seong; Cheong, Chang Hyeon; Ryu, Yeong Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Heo, Chang Wook; Kim, Do Hyeong; Kim, Joo Yeol; Kim, Yun Ik; Yang, Hei Chang [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    Objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assesses the optimization of Surveillance Test Interval(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korean nuclear power plants safety. In the first year of this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modeling and results performed by domestic and international researches are performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method. In the second year of this study, the sensitivity analyses about the failure factors of the components are performed in the bases of the assessment methodologies of the first study, the interaction modeling of the STI and AOT is quantified. And the reliability assessment methodology about the diesel generator is reviewed and applied to the PSA code.

  7. A qualitative approach to measure the effectiveness of active avian influenza virus surveillance with respect to its cost: a case study from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, B; Howe, K S; Hauser, R; Stärk, K D C

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the project was to apply cost-effectiveness analysis to the economic appraisal of avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance, using the implemented surveillance programme in Switzerland as a case study. First a qualitative risk assessment approach was used to assess the expected impact of surveillance on the transmission and spread of AIV. The effectiveness of surveillance was expressed as the difference in defined probabilities between a scenario with surveillance and a scenario without surveillance. The following probabilities were modelled (i) transmission of highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) from wild birds to poultry, (ii) mutation from low pathogenic AIV (LPAIV) into HPAIV in poultry, and (iii) transmission of HPAIV to other poultry holdings given a primary outbreak. The cost-effectiveness ratio was defined conventionally as the difference in surveillance costs (ΔC) divided by the change in probability (ΔP), the technical objective, on the presumption that surveillance diminishes the respective probabilities. However, results indicated that surveillance in both wild birds and poultry was not expected to change the probabilities of primary and secondary AIV outbreaks in Switzerland. The overall surveillance costs incurred were estimated at 31,000 €/year, which, to be a rational investment of resources, must still reflect the value policy makers attribute to other benefits from having surveillance (e.g. peace of mind). The advantage of the approach adopted is that it is practical, transparent, and thus able to clarify for policy makers the key variables to be taken into account when evaluating the economic efficiency of resources invested in surveillance, prevention and intervention to exclude AIV.

  8. A study on assessment methodology of surveillance test interval and allowed outage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Cho, Jae Seon; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Do Hyoung; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Park, Kang Min [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The objectives of this study is the development of methodology by which assesses the optimization of Surveillance Test Internal(STI) and Allowed Outage Time(AOT) using PSA method that can supplement the current deterministic methods and the improvement of Korean nuclear power plant safety. In this study, the survey about the assessment methodologies, modelings and results performed by domestic and international researches are performed as the basic step before developing the assessment methodology of this study. The assessment methodology that supplement the revealed problems in many other studies is presented and the application of new methodology into the example system assures the feasibility of this method. The sensitivity analyses about the failure factors of the components are performed in the bases of the and AOT is quantified. And the reliability assessment methodology about the diesel generator is reviewed and applied to the PSA code. The qualitative assessment for the STI/AOR of RPS/ESFAS assured safety the most important system in the nuclear power plant are performed.

  9. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

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    Antonios Douros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb-induced liver injury (HILI has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once. Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed.

  10. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  11. Collective resistance to HPAI H5N1 surveillance in the Thai cockfighting community: Insights from a social anthropology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathilde C; Figuié, Muriel; Kovitvadhi, Attawit; Valeix, Sophie; Wongnarkpet, Sirichai; Poolkhet, Chaithep; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Ducrot, Christian; Roger, François; Binot, Aurélie

    2015-06-01

    Farmers may organize themselves to collectively manage risks such as animal diseases. Our study shows some evidence of such organization among fighting cock owners in Thailand. Fighting cocks were specifically targeted by HPAI (Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza) H5N1 surveillance and control measures in Thailand because they were thought to pose a high risk of spreading diseases. In this work, we used a social-anthropological approach to gain an inside view of the issues associated with HPAI H5N1 surveillance in the cockfighting community in Thailand. Based on a qualitative analysis of data collected through in-depth interviews and observation of cockfighters' practices, we found that fighting cock owners share a sense of belonging to the same community based on a common culture, values, interests, practices, and internal rules, including rules to manage poultry diseases. During the HPAI H5N1 outbreaks, these rules may have contributed to mitigating the potential risk associated with the intense movements of fighting cocks inside the country. Nevertheless, this community, despite the high awareness and know-how of its members regarding poultry diseases, has shown a strong reluctance to comply with HPAI surveillance programs. We suggest that this reluctance is due to important gaps between the logic and rationales underlying surveillance and those associated with cockfighting activities. Our study highlights the need for multi and trans-disciplinary research involving the social sciences to analyze interactions between stakeholders and the collective actions implemented by communities to face risks.

  12. Invasive pneumococcal disease in children aged younger than 5 years in India: a surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Anand; Manchanda, Vikas; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Lalwani, Sanjay; Modak, Meera; Bai, Sushama; Vijayan, Ajith; Shet, Anita; Nagaraj, Savitha; Karande, Sunil; Nataraj, Gita; Yewale, Vijay N; Joshi, Shrikrishna A; Iyer, Ranganathan N; Santosham, Mathuram; Kahn, Geoffrey D; Knoll, Maria Deloria

    2017-03-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years of age in India. We aimed to provide nationally representative data for the pattern of disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, trends in the serotype of invasive pneumococci, and invasive pneumococci antimicrobial resistance patterns, in India. In this prospective hospital-based and retrospective laboratory-based surveillance study, we prospectively enrolled children aged younger than 5 years with suspected or proven invasive pneumococcal disease from 18 hospitals or institutional centres and retrospectively included laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal isolates from ten sentinel laboratories, together representing 11 states in India. Eligibility criteria were fever higher than 38°C without localising symptoms, clinical presentation of suspected meningitis or pneumonia, and evidence of radiographic pneumonia. We cultured blood and other normally sterile body fluids, reconfirmed and serotyped pneumococcal isolates, and established antimicrobial susceptibility using standard study protocols. Between Jan 1, 2011, and June 30, 2015, we enrolled 4377 patients. Among 361 (8%) patients with culture-proven pneumococcal disease, all clinical data were known for 226 (63%); among these patients, 132 (58%) presented with pneumonia, 78 (35%) presented with meningitis, and 16 (7%) had other clinical conditions. 131 (3%) died overall and 29 (8%) patients with invasive pneumococcal disease died. Serotypes 14 (52 [14%] of 361), 1 (49 [14%]), 5 (37 [10%]), and 19F (33 [9%]) were the most common. Penicillin non-susceptibility occurred in isolates from 29 (8%) patients, co-trimoxazole resistance occurred in 239 (66%), erythromycin resistance occurred in 132 (37%), and chloramphenicol resistance occurred in 33 (9%). We found multidrug resistance in 33 (9%) of 361 patients. The proportion of positive blood cultures, number of isolates, geographical representation

  13. Colorectal cancer surveillance in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors at increased risk of therapy-related colorectal cancer: study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigter, Lisanne S; Spaander, Manon C W; Moons, Leon M; Bisseling, Tanya M; Aleman, Berthe M P; de Boer, Jan Paul; Lugtenburg, Pieternella J; Janus, Cecile P M; Petersen, Eefke J; Roesink, Judith M; Raemaekers, John M M; van der Maazen, Richard W M; Cats, Annemieke; Bleiker, Eveline M A; Snaebjornsson, Petur; Carvalho, Beatriz; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Jóźwiak, Katarzyna; Te Riele, Hein; Meijer, Gerrit A; van Leeuwen, Flora E; van Leerdam, Monique E

    2017-02-07

    Second primary malignancies are a major cause of excess morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. Hodgkin lymphoma survivors who were treated with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy and/or high-dose procarbazine have an increased risk to develop colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy surveillance plays an important role in colorectal cancer prevention by removal of the precursor lesions (adenomas) and early detection of cancer, resulting in improved survival rates. Therefore, Hodgkin lymphoma survivors treated with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy and/or high-dose procarbazine could benefit from colonoscopy, or other surveillance modalities, which are expected to reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. Current knowledge on clinicopathological and molecular characteristics of therapy-related colorectal cancer is limited. The pathogenesis of such colorectal cancers might be different from the pathogenesis in the general population and therefore these patients might require a different clinical approach. We designed a study with the primary aim to assess the diagnostic yield of a first surveillance colonoscopy among Hodgkin lymphoma survivors at increased risk of colorectal cancer and to compare these results with different screening modalities in the general population. Secondary aims include assessment of the test characteristics of stool tests and evaluation of burden, acceptance and satisfaction of CRC surveillance through two questionnaires. This prospective multicenter cohort study will include Hodgkin lymphoma survivors who survived ≥8 years after treatment with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy and/or procarbazine (planned inclusion of 259 participants). Study procedures will consist of a surveillance colonoscopy with removal of precursor lesions (adenomas) and 6-8 normal colonic tissue biopsies, a fecal immunochemical test and a stool DNA test. All neoplastic lesions encountered will be classified using relevant histomorphological, immunohistochemical and

  14. A description of malaria sentinel surveillance: a case study in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua O; Butts, Jessica; Miles, Melody; Berhane, Yemane; Nahusenay, Honelgn; Malone, Joseph L; Dissanayake, Gunawardena; Reithinger, Richard; Keating, Joseph

    2014-03-11

    In the context of the massive scale up of malaria interventions, there is increasing recognition that the current capacity of routine malaria surveillance conducted in most African countries through integrated health management information systems is inadequate. The timeliness of reporting to higher levels of the health system through health management information systems is often too slow for rapid action on focal infectious diseases such as malaria. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) describe the implementation of a malaria sentinel surveillance system in Ethiopia to help fill this gap; 2) describe data use for epidemic detection and response as well as programmatic decision making; and 3) discuss lessons learned in the context of creating and running this system. As part of a comprehensive strategy to monitor malaria trends in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia, a system of ten malaria sentinel sites was established to collect data on key malaria morbidity and mortality indicators. To ensure the sentinel surveillance system provides timely, actionable data, the sentinel facilities send aggregate data weekly through short message service (SMS) to a central database server. Bland-Altman plots and Poisson regression models were used to investigate concordance of malaria indicator reports and malaria trends over time, respectively. This paper describes three implementation challenges that impacted system performance in terms of: 1) ensuring a timely and accurate data reporting process; 2) capturing complete and accurate patient-level data; and 3) expanding the usefulness and generalizability of the system's data to monitor progress towards the national malaria control goals of reducing malaria deaths and eventual elimination of transmission. The use of SMS for reporting surveillance data was identified as a promising practice for accurately tracking malaria trends in Oromia. The rapid spread of this technology across Africa offers promising opportunities to collect

  15. A 6-year surveillance study of "Stingers" in NCAA American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James; Zuckerman, Scott L; Dalton, Sara L; Djoko, Aristarque; Folger, Dustin; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of "stinger" injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Men's Football. About 57 NCAA Men's Football programmes provided 153 team-seasons of injury data to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Programme (NCAA-ISP) during the 2009/2010-2014/2015 academic years. In the study period, 229 "stingers" were reported for an injury rate of 2.04/10,000 athlete-exposures (AE). Most "stingers" were reported during competitions (55.5%) and the preseason (80.3%) and resulted in time loss less than 24 hours (63.8%). One in five (18.8%) were recurrent. Most "stingers" were due to player contact (93.0%), particularly while tackling (36.7%) and blocking (25.8%) and occurred to defensive ends/linebackers (25.8%) and offensive linemen (23.6%). Although previous research reports a large prevalence of "stingers" among football players, the NCAA-ISP reported a relatively low injury rate. The transient nature of pain associated with "stingers" may have contributed to under-reporting, highlighting the need to deduce manners to increase reporting.

  16. Surveillance of hantaviruses in Poland: a study of animal reservoirs and human hantavirus disease in Subcarpathia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Aleksander; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Nowakowska, Anna; Gaweł, Jerzy; Pitucha, Grzegorz; Joniec, Justyna; Zielonka, Katarzyna; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Kocik, Janusz

    2014-07-01

    The first cluster of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Poland was identified in 2007 in the Subcarpathian region. The natural environment of this area is a key habitat for hantavirus vectors. The animal reservoir of existing human HFRS clusters was studied to assess the occurrence of viruses (including Tula virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) among rodents. We examined 70 suspected human cases with symptoms corresponding to the clinical picture of HFRS. Serological analysis (indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblot) confirmed the presence of anti-hantavirus antibodies in 18 patients, which were surveyed with regard to developed symptoms and presumed rodent contact. Seroepidemiological analysis of newly confirmed human cases was performed, putative areas of human exposure were studied, and 194 rodents were subsequently captured from identified areas. Internal organs (lungs, heart, spleen, bladder, and kidneys) were collected from 64 Apodemus flavicollis, 55 Apodemus agrarius, 40 Myodes glareolus, 21 Mus musculus, and 14 Microtus arvalis and tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription and subsequent real-time PCR. Positive samples were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Animal reservoir surveillance enabled the first detection of Puumala virus and Dobrava-Belgrade virus among animals in Poland. Furthermore, some places where rodents were captured correlated with areas of residence of laboratory-confirmed human cases and likely detected virus species. Moreover, three species of hantaviruses coexisting in a relatively small area were identified.

  17. Tuberculosis among Healthcare Workers in Southeastern China: A Retrospective Study of 7-Year Surveillance Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The baseline prevalence and characteristics of tuberculosis (TB among general healthcare workers (HCWs in southeastern China remains unknown. We conducted a retrospective study based on the TB surveillance data in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2011, which were extracted from the national Tuberculosis Information Management System (TIMS. We calculated and compared annual notification rates of different occupational groups and analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics. The annual TB notification rates among general HCWs declined steadily from 2005 to 2011. On average, HCWs showed annual TB notification rates lower than the general population but higher than teachers. Recorded HCW TB patients averaged 35.5 years of age, with females outnumbering males (58.0% > 42.0%. The proportion of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB was higher among male than in the female patients (88.5% > 83.4%, P = 0.031. Our study suggested that general HCWs run a higher occupational risk than teachers although the two groups are socioeconomically comparable and that the priority should be given to the young female HCWs for TB prevention in healthcare institutions.

  18. Use of wildlife rehabilitation centres in pathogen surveillance: A case study in white storks (Ciconia ciconia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, MariaCruz; Hernández, Jose Manuel; Lima-Barbero, Jose Francisco; Höfle, Ursula

    2016-08-01

    More than 70% of new human pathogens are zoonotic and many originate from the wildlife reservoir. Wildlife rehabilitation centres (WRC) are an easily accessible source for sample and data collection for preventive surveillance, but data collected this way may be biased. We use white storks (Ciconia ciconia) as a model to compare pathogen prevalence obtained in the field and WRC. We address factors that may affect disease prevalence data like origin, the age group and the "diseased" state of WRC admissions. In this study we compared prevalence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in the digestive tract; antibodies against West Nile virus, avian influenza and Newcastle disease virus, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of E. coli between nestling and adult wild storks established in different habitats (n=90) and storks admitted to two different WRC (n=30) in the same region. When age groups and colonies of origin were disregarded, the mean enterobacteria (E. coli, Salmonella) and viral antibody prevalence of the wild population (n=90) were similar to prevalence observed in the individuals admitted to WRC (n=30). However, in fledgling juvenile storks admitted to WRC, the prevalence of Salmonella spp. (13.3%), E. coli showing resistance to cefotaxime (37.9%) and against two antimicrobials at once (41.4%) were more similar to the prevalence in stork nestlings from landfill-associated colonies (7.9%, 37.1% and 48.6%, respectively for prevalence of Salmonella spp. and E. coli displaying, cefotaxime resistance and resistance against two antimicrobials), and significantly higher than in colonies located in natural habitats (0%; 10.5% and 15.8%, respectively). Thus, pathogen surveillance in individuals from an abundant species admitted to WRC is useful to monitor overall mean prevalence, but for certain pathogens may not be sufficient to detect differences between local populations. In addition, the ecology of the tested species and the specific temporal, spatial and

  19. Murder followed by suicide: a newspaper surveillance study using the New York Times Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Gordon, Kiesha; Byers, Bryan D; Brodt, Stephen J; Wartak, Melissa; Biskupski, Brian

    2010-11-01

    Murder–suicide is a relatively uncommon event but as reported by the New York Times, it has occurred and continues to occur yearly. Previous research has indicated that those who commit murder–suicides tend to be men, are in or have been in an intimate relationship with the victim, victims tend to be women, and a firearm is most likely to be used. This study uses a newspaper surveillance methodology to examine such cases. Articles from the New York Times as found in the New York Times Index were coded, analyzed, and examined. The cases, 166 in total, support the findings from prior research. The trend data was examined by cross tabulations and chi-square analysis. The findings suggest that murder–suicides are rare events and when they occur they usually involve a male perpetrator and an intimate partner victim who is either a wife or girlfriend with the event occurring in a private home. A firearm is the most commonly used method for both murders and suicides, particularly if there was more than one murder victim. The authors conclude by suggesting that future research should focus on using the forthcoming data resource in the CDC’s National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) to examine the occurrence of murder–suicide.

  20. The effect of surveillance and appreciative inquiry on puerperal infections: a longitudinal cohort study in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hussein

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of an intervention comprising surveillance and an organisational change called Appreciative Inquiry on puerperal infections in hospitals in Gujarat state, India. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study with a control group was conducted over 16 months between 2010 and 2012. Women who delivered in six hospitals were followed-up. After a five month pre-intervention period, the intervention was introduced in three hospitals. Monthly incidence of puerperal infection was recorded throughout the study in all six hospitals. A chi-square test and logistic regression were used to examine for associations, trends and interactions between the intervention and control groups. FINDINGS: Of the 8,124 women followed up, puerperal infections were reported in 319 women (3.9% over the course of the study. Puerperal sepsis/genital tract infections and urinary tract infections were the two most common puerperal infections. At the end of the study, infection incidence in the control group halved from 7.4% to 3.5%. Levels in the intervention group reduced proportionately even more, from 4.3% to 1.7%. A chi-square test for trend confirmed the reduction of infection in the intervention and control groups (p<0.0001 but the trends were not statistically different from one another. There was an overall reduction of infection by month (OR = 0.94 95% CI 0.91-0.97. Risk factors like delivery type, complications or delivery attendant showed no association with infection. CONCLUSION: Interruption of resource flows in the health system occurred during the intervention phase, which may have affected the findings. The incidence of infection fell in both control and intervention groups during the course of the study. It is not clear if appreciative inquiry contributed to the reductions observed. A number of practical and methodological limitations were faced. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN03513186.

  1. RHINO–an autonomous interactive surveillance robot for the needed ones: design and study case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa Michel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare services are in need of new tools and gadgets that could provide surveillance and people interaction of the needed ones with their surrounding environment. In order to address this problematic, an autonomous-interactive surveillance robot system is proposed in this research. RHINO (Robotic-Human Interface for the Needed Ones was designed under particular normative and will provide commonly needed features in the healthcare field. One of the principal aspects of the device is its particular design which allows the patient to have some privacy under a surveilled environment and without causing any interference in their daily lives. Another main factor is the ability of notifying the care provider or the family of the patient with e-mail or text-sms notifications in case of abnormal activities; so that video access by provider or Skype calls by family relatives could be performed throughout RHINO.

  2. Utilizing harmonization and common surveillance methods to consolidate 4 cohorts: the Western Alaska Tribal Collaborative for Health (WATCH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn R. Koller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. According to health status reports, chronic disease prevalence appears to be rising in western Alaska Native (AN people, and accurate population-based data are needed. Four cohort studies of western AN people were conducted in the Norton Sound and Yukon-Kuskokwim regions, but none have been large enough to allow reliable estimates of rates of chronic diseases and evaluate their risk factors. Objective. In this article, the methods used to combine 4 major cohort studies of rural western AN people are described and the benefits and challenges encountered in combining data and standardizing surveillance methods for these studies are discussed. Design. Tribal permission was obtained for each cohort study and the consolidated study. Data from baseline exams were directly combined or harmonized into new variables. Common surveillance methods were developed and implemented to identify incidence and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD events and type 2 diabetes. Results. A cohort of 4,569 western AN participants (2,116 men and 2,453 women, aged 18–95 years, was established to study CVD and diabetes prevalence. Prospective surveillance data over an average 6.7-year follow-up can now be used to study CVD and diabetes incidence and associated risk factors in a subset of 2,754 western AN participants (1,218 men and 1,536 women who consented to initial surveillance. Conclusions. The combined cohort provides statistical power to examine incidence rates and risk factors for CVD and diabetes and allows for analyses by geographic region. The data can be used to develop intervention programmes in these populations and others.

  3. Implementing maternal death surveillance and response: a review of lessons from country case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen; Ameh, Charles; Roos, Natalie; Mathai, Matthews; Broek, Nynke van den

    2017-07-17

    Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) implementation is monitored globally, but not much is known about what works well, where and why in scaling up. We reviewed a series of country case studies in order to determine whether and to what extent these countries have implemented the four essential components of MDSR and identify lessons for improving implementation. A secondary analysis of ten case studies from countries at different stages of MDSR implementation, using a policy analysis framework to draw out lessons learnt and opportunities for improvement. We identify the consistent drivers of success in countries with well-established systems for MDSR, and common barriers in countries were Maternal Death Review (MDR) systems have been less successful. MDR is accepted and ongoing at subnational level in many countries, but it is not adequately institutionalised and the shift from facility based MDR to continuous MDSR that informs the wider health system still needs to be made. Our secondary analysis of country experiences highlights the need for a) social and team processes at facility level, for example the existence of a 'no shame, no blame' culture, and the ability to reflect on practice and manage change as a team for recommendations to be acted upon, b) health system inputs including adequate funding and reliable health information systems to enable identification and analysis of cases c) national level coordination of dissemination, and monitoring implementation of recommendations at all levels and d) mandatory notification of maternal deaths (and enforcement of this) and a professional requirement to participate in MDRs. Case studies from countries with established MDSR systems can provide valuable guidance on ways to set up the processes and overcome some of the barriers; but the challenge, as with many health system interventions, is to find a way to provide catalytic assistance and strengthen capacity for MDSR such that this becomes embedded in

  4. A Qualitative Study Investigating Experiences, Perceptions, and Healthcare System Performance in Relation to the Surveillance of Typhoid Fever in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pach, Alfred; Warren, Michelle; Chang, Irene; Im, Justin; Nichols, Chelsea; Meyer, Christian G; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Baker, Stephen; Rabezanahary, Henintsoa; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Raminosoa, Tiana Mirana; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    The burden of typhoid fever (TF) in sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown but is increasingly thought to be high, given that water and sanitary conditions remain unimproved in many countries. To address this gap in information, the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) founded a surveillance system for TF in 10 African countries. This study was a component of the TSAP surveillance project in Madagascar. The study entailed a qualitative assessment of patients' experiences and perceptions of services for febrile symptoms at the studies' rural and urban sentinel public health clinics. The study examined influences on the use of these facilities, alternative sources of care, and providers' descriptions of medical consultations and challenges in providing services. Data were collected through semistructured and open-ended individual interviews and a focus group with patients, caregivers, and medical personnel. Thirty-three patients and 12 healthcare providers participated in the data collection across the 2 healthcare facilities. The quality of services, cost, and travel distance were key factors that enabled access to and use of these clinics. Divergent healthcare-seeking patterns were related to variability in the care utilized, socioeconomic status, and potential distance from the facilities : These factors influenced delivery of care, patient access, and the health facilities' capacity to identify cases of febrile illness such as TF. This approach provided an in-depth investigation and understanding of healthcare-seeking behavior at the study facilities, and factors that facilitated or acted as barriers to their use. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of these public health clinics as sites for the surveillance of TF in their role as central healthcare sources for families and communities within these rural and urban areas of Madagascar. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All

  5. Think regionally, act locally: metals in honeybee workers in the Netherlands (surveillance study 2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, J J M; Cornelissen, B; Blacquière, T; Pijnenburg, J E M L; Severijnen, M

    2016-08-01

    In June 2008, a surveillance study for metals in honeybees was performed in the Netherlands. Randomly, 150 apiaries were selected. In each apiary, five colonies were sampled. Per apiary, the hive samples were pooled. The apiary sample was analysed for Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn. All metals could be detected in all apiaries. As, Li, Sb, Sn and V were detected in part of the apiaries. The overall picture showed a regional pattern. In apiaries in the east of the Netherlands, Al, Ba, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Ti are found in higher concentrations compared to the west. In-region variation was demonstrated, indicating local effects. The vicinity of the apiaries was mapped afterwards and characterised as land uses of >50 % agricultural area, >50 % wooded area, >50 % urban area and mixed land use within a circle of 28 km(2) around the apiary. The results indicated that in apiaries located in >50 % wooded areas, significantly higher concentrations of Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sr, Ti and Zn were found compared to agricultural, urban and mixed land use areas. We conclude that (1) the ratio between metal concentrations varies per region, demonstrating spatial differences, and (2) there is in-region local variation per metal. The results indicate the impact of land use on metal concentrations in honeybees. For qualitative bioindication studies, regional, local and land use effects should be taken into account.

  6. Liminal Surveillance. An ethnographic control room study during a local event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    This article is about the targeted, temporarily intensified use of an already existing, permanently installed surveillance system for the safety and security management during a local event at the campus of the University of Illinois, USA. In particular it is the CCTV system that is analyzed after

  7. Salmonella surveillance and control for finisher pigs and pork in Denmark — A case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Baptista, F.M.; Møgelmose, V.

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella can either be controlled pre-harvest, post-harvest or by a combination of both approaches. This paper describes the lessons learned in Danish Salmonella surveillance and control programme for finisher pigs and pork. Initially, main focus was on pre-harvest initiatives and correct ident...

  8. Computerized surveillance of opioid-related adverse drug events in perioperative care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattis Katherine G

    2009-08-01

    events. Conclusion A small investment of resources into a pharmacist-driven surveillance model gave great gains in organizational adverse drug event detection. The patients who experienced multiple events are particularly relevant to future studies seeking risk factors for opioid induced respiratory depression. Computerized surveillance is an efficient, impactful, and sustainable model for ongoing capture and analysis of these rare, but potentially serious events.

  9. The experimental study of neutralized electron beams for electron cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques; MacCaferri, R; Molinari, G; Tranquille, G; Varenne, F; Korotaev, Yu V; Meshkov, I N; Polyakov, V A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M

    1996-01-01

    In this report we present the latest experimental results on electron beam neutralization. These experiments have been made at LEAR and on the JINR test bench. The main difficulty in obtaining neutralized beams resides in an instability which is dependent on the electron beam current. A number of methods have been developed in order to overcome this instability and have enabled us to further investigate the possibility of generating intense low energy electron beams for the cooling of Pb ions.

  10. Post-marketing surveillance study with iodixanol in 20 185 Chinese patients from routine clinical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B-C; Hou, L; Lv, B; Xu, Y-W

    2014-02-01

    To determine the incidence of immediate and delayed adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and to assess patient discomfort following administration of iodixanol during imaging examinations in routine clinical practice. A total of 20 185 patients across 95 clinical centres were enrolled in a prospective post-marketing surveillance registry with iodixanol. Patients were monitored for occurrence of ADRs immediately following iodixanol administration and for up to 7 days after administration. The overall rate of ADRs was 1.52%, of which 0.58% was immediate and 0.97% was delayed onset. Two patients had non-fatal serious ADRs (0.01%). The ADRs were significantly more common in patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT/coronary CT angiography vs others (p Multivariate analysis showed that female gender, intravenous route of contrast injection, body weight ≥ 80 kg, age less than 65 years, contrast flow rate ≥ 4 ml s⁻¹ and prior reaction to iodinated contrast medium were all significant and independent contributors to ADRs. Pre-treatment contrast volume and history of cardiac disease, gout, hypertension, diabetes mellitus or asthma did not affect the rate of ADRs. Discomfort was generally mild, with 94.8% of patients reporting a composite score of 0-3. The safety of iodixanol in routine clinical practice was shown to be similar to the published safety profiles of other non-ionic iodinated contrast agents. Patient discomfort during administration was mild or absent in most patients. The major strength of this study is that it included 20 185 patients enrolled in various types of imaging examinations. The safety profile of iodixanol was comparable to previously published work.

  11. Surveillance of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  12. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  13. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  14. Dissociative electron attachment studies on acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S., E-mail: vaibhav@tifr.res.in; Tadsare, Vishvesh; Ghosh, Sanat; Gope, Krishnendu; Davis, Daly; Krishnakumar, E. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2014-10-28

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to acetone is studied in terms of the absolute cross section for various fragment channels in the electron energy range of 0–20 eV. H{sup −} is found to be the most dominant fragment followed by O{sup −} and OH{sup −} with only one resonance peak between 8 and 9 eV. The DEA dynamics is studied by measuring the angular distribution and kinetic energy distribution of fragment anions using Velocity Slice Imaging technique. The kinetic energy and angular distribution of H{sup −} and O{sup −} fragments suggest a many body break-up for the lone resonance observed. The ab initio calculations show that electron is captured in the multi-centered anti-bonding molecular orbital which would lead to a many body break-up of the resonance.

  15. Surveillance of healthcare acquired infections in hospital and community: a retrospective study in Local Healthcare Organization of Rovigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ronzani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are associated with higher incidences of mortality, morbidity, prolonged hospital stay and increase of costs. Surveillance of alert organism/conditions and bacterial resistance to antimicrobials is a systematic and dynamic system of data collection that analyses and monitors trends of bacterial resistance. This study was conducted to detect antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in order to inform treatment choices and generate hospital-wide baseline data.Methods: the Local Healtcare Oganization of Rovigo has started a program of surveillance on antimicrobial resistance in hospital and community. In this work some results of the surveillance of microorganism isolated and related antimicrobial resistance are reported, collected in the period 2009-2010 in Rovigo and Trecenta Hospitals, Territorial Nursing Homes (TNH and community from patients’ blood, urine and respiratory samples.Results: data show a significant difference in the level of antibiotic resistance between the two Hospitals. High rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing organisms are detected and carbapenems are the only reliable agents for the treatment of many infections in the Hospital of Trecenta and TNH.Conclusions: because ESBL producing bacteria are emerging pathogens in the community, the rational use of available antibiotics or the appropriate antimicrobial prescribing are imperative. Local surveillance is a powerful tool to detect and monitor hospital and community infections and provides information useful as a guide to medical practice, including therapeutics and disease-control activities.

  16. Estimation of hand hygiene opportunities on an adult medical ward using 24-hour camera surveillance: validation of the HOW2 Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Thomas; Kelly, J William; Blackhurst, Dawn; Steed, Connie; Boeker, Sue; McElveen, Danielle C

    2014-06-01

    We previously published a formula to estimate the number of hand hygiene opportunities (HHOs) per patient-day using the World Health Organization's "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology (HOW2 Benchmark Study). HHOs can be used as a denominator for calculating hand hygiene compliance rates when product utilization data are available. This study validates the previously derived HHO estimate using 24-hour video surveillance of health care worker hand hygiene activity. The validation study utilized 24-hour video surveillance recordings of 26 patients' hospital stays to measure the actual number of HHOs per patient-day on a medicine ward in a large teaching hospital. Statistical methods were used to compare these results to those obtained by episodic observation of patient activity in the original derivation study. Total hours of data collection were 81.3 and 1,510.8, resulting in 1,740 and 4,522 HHOs in the derivation and validation studies, respectively. Comparisons of the mean and median HHOs per 24-hour period did not differ significantly. HHOs were 71.6 (95% confidence interval: 64.9-78.3) and 73.9 (95% confidence interval: 69.1-84.1), respectively. This study validates the HOW2 Benchmark Study and confirms that expected numbers of HHOs can be estimated from the unit's patient census and patient-to-nurse ratio. These data can be used as denominators in calculations of hand hygiene compliance rates from electronic monitoring using the "Five Moments for Hand Hygiene" methodology. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative study on the effectiveness of different mosquito traps in arbovirus surveillance with a focus on WNV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzin, Alex; Sy, Victoria; Puggioli, Arianna; Veronesi, Rodolfo; Carrieri, Marco; Maccagnani, Bettina; Bellini, Romeo

    2016-01-01

    The selection of the ideal trap for arbovirus surveillance is an issue of primary importance to increase the sensitivity of virus detection and the cost-effectiveness of the entomological surveillance. During the summer 2011, the effectiveness of five types of mosquito traps (CDC gravid trap, CO2(-)baited trap, BG-Sentinel™ and two experimental prototypes) to attract females potentially infected with West Nile virus were assessed. The study was carried out in three natural wetland sites located in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy), using a Latin square scheme. Single night collections of adult females were performed and determination of species and physiological state (gravid, nulliparous or parous) was made upon return to the laboratory. The species most frequently collected in the gravid trap was Culex pipiens sl. L., being gravid females the large majority of the individuals. Species diversity was much higher in CO2(-)baited traps, which may therefore enable a more comprehensive description of the vector species composition and their role in arboviruses circulation. Our findings indicate that gravid traps can be a valid tool and should be integrated in the West Nile virus surveillance system in the Emilia-Romagna region, mainly based on collections made with CO2-baited traps.

  18. Femtosecond Studies of Electrons at Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charles

    2000-03-01

    Binding energies and ultrafast relaxation dynamics of image electrons reflect the nature of the electronic interaction with both the substrate and the adsorbed layer[1,2]. We demonstrate that a positive(attractive) affinity materials, such as Xe overlayers, lead to quantum well states at the interface. Negative(repulsive) affinity materials, such a n-alkane overlayers, present a tunneling barrier that dominates the energies and lifetimes of the image electrons. With the time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission technique(TPPE), it is possible to directly observe the dynamics of interfacial electrons with specific energy and parallel momentum. Oscillation in the lifetime of image state electrons as a function of Xe layer thickness is attributed to a quantum size effect and the formation of quantum wells at the Xe/Ag(111) interface[3]. Binding energy measurements as a function of Xe layer thickness in combination with parallel dispersion measurements allow the mapping of the three dimensional electronic structure of bulk Xe. At the n-alkane/Ag(111) interface, image electrons become spatially localized and self-trap into a small polaron state within a few hundred femtosecond[4]. The energy dependence of the self-trapping rate has been modeled with a theory analogous to electron transfer theory. Finally, the immediate extension of this research to study other electron dynamic processes, such as two dimensional electron solvation at interfaces, will be discussed. [1] Fauster, T.; Steinmann, W. Two-Photon Photoemission Spectroscopy of Image States. In Photonic Probes of Surfaces; Halevi, P., Ed.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, 1995; pp. 346-411. [2] Harris, C.B.; Ge, N.-H.; Lingle, Jr., R.L.; McNeill, J.D.; Wong, C.M. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 1997, 48, 711. [3] McNeill, J.D.; Lingle, R.L.,Jr.; Ge, N.-H.; Wong, C.M.; Jordan, R.E.; Harris, C.B. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1997, 79, 4645. [4] Ge, N.-H.; Wong, C.M.; Lingle, R.L., Jr.; McNeill, J.D.; Gaffney, K.J.; Harris, C.B. Science 1998

  19. In Vitro Activity of Cefepime against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli, Viridans Group Streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae from a Cross-Canada Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E Low

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vitro activity of cefepime against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli and Gram-positive cocci obtained from an ongoing cross-Canada surveillance study.

  20. Levodopa therapy with entacapone in daily clinical practice: results of a post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupsch, Andreas; Trottenberg, Thomas; Bremen, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor entacapone is given in combination with levodopa/dopa decarboxylase inhibitor for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experiencing end-of-dose wearing-off. This 4-week post-marketing surveillance study was undertaken to assess patients' responses to levodopa combined with entacapone in a real clinical practice setting. Overall, 466 patients with idiopathic PD treated with levodopa and experiencing symptoms of wearing-off were recruited. Both physicians and patients recorded the response to therapy, including improvements and side-effects. Following initiation of entacapone treatment, the average daily levodopa dose was reduced from 510 to 453 mg. Physician assessment of entacapone efficacy was judged to be "very good" or "good" in 77.6% of the patients, and tolerability was considered to be "very good" or "good" in 92.4% of patients, with only 12 patients (2.6%) withdrawing from the study. Compared with baseline, there was a decrease in the mean duration of daily 'off' time from 3.0 to 1.3 h per day during the treatment period. Adverse events were in line with those previously reported, with diarrhoea being the most frequent event. The percentage of patients suffering from dyskinesia decreased from 46 to 34%, and of those patients still suffering from dyskinesia, the average daily duration of dyskinesia was reduced from 2.2 to 1.7 h. The use of adjunct dopamine agonists decreased from 67 to 59%. At study end, the percentage of patients who rated their quality of life (QoL) as "very good" or "good" increased from 12.1 to 51.7% and the percentage of patients who rated their QoL as "bad" or "very bad" decreased from 40 to 10.7%. In summary, the results of this survey conducted in real clinical practice support the findings of previous clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy and tolerability of entacapone, as well as the benefits of improved QoL, for patients achieved with entacapone.

  1. A Post-Marketing Surveillance Study to Evaluate Performance of the EXIMO™ Blood Glucose Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandnani, Sonia R; Ramakrishna, C D; Dave, Bhargav A; Kothavade, Pankaj S; Thakkar, Ashok S

    2017-05-01

    The performance of Blood Glucose Monitoring System (BGMS) is critical as the information provided by the system guide the patient or health care professional in making treatment decisions. However, besides evaluating accuracy of the BGMS in laboratory setting, it is equally important that the intended users (healthcare professionals and patients) should be able to achieve blood glucose measurements with similar level of high accuracy. To assess the performance of EXIMO™ (Meril Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd., Vapi, Gujarat, India) BGMS as per International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 section 8 user performance criteria. This was a non-randomized and post-marketing study conducted at a tertiary care centre of India. A total of 1005 patients with diabetes themselves performed fingertip blood glucose measurement using EXIMO™ BGMS. Immediately after capillary blood glucose measurement using the blood glucose monitoring system, venous blood sample from each patient was obtained by a trained technician which was assessed by reference laboratory method- Cobas Integra 400 plus (Roche Instrument Centre, Rotkreuz, Switzerland). All the blood glucose measurements assessed by EXIMO™ were compared with laboratory results. Performance of the system was assessed as per ISO 15197:2013 criteria using Bland-Altman plot, Parkes-Consensus Error Grid (CEG) and Surveillance Error Grid analyses (SEG). A total of 1005 patients participated in the study. Average age of the patients was 44.93±14.65 years. Evaluation of capillary fingertip blood glucose measurements demonstrated that 95.82% measurements fulfilled ISO 15197:2013 section 8 user performance criteria. All the results lie within clinically non-critical zones; Zone A (99.47%; n=1000) and Zone B (0.53%; n=05) of the CEG analysis. As per SEG analysis, majority of the results fell within "no-risk" zone (risk score 0 to 0.5; 90.42%). The result of the study confirmed that intended users are able to obtain accurate

  2. Annual Assessment of Longitudinal Studies and Injury Surveillance for Gender Integration in the Army, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    health problems. This annual assessment meets the requirement described in Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA) Execution Order (EXORD) 097-16...AUTHOR(S) Keith Hauret and Dr. Bruce Jones (Army Public Health Center) Cindy Bush, Steve Rossi, and Melissa Richardson (contractors for the Armed Forces... Health Surveillance Branch, Defense Health Agency) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER WBS 0047783 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING

  3. Next generation syndromic surveillance: molecular epidemiology, electronic health records and the pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadan, Raul; Calman, Neil; Hripcsak, George

    2009-08-22

    In the early phase of the 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic a marked increase in severity and a shift in the age distribution toward younger persons was found, with higher severity reported in patients with pre-existing medical conditions and pregnant women. Consistent with previous pandemics, the age and clinical history of the patients play a critical role in the morbidity and mortality associated with the pandemic virus. This is the first influenza pandemic in the information era, where enormous amounts of information will be available from the pathogen and the patient. Recent advances in molecular techniques have provided an enormous amount of information about pathogens in near real time and at relatively low cost. Electronic Health Records (EHRs) provide another enormously rich set of information about patients, which include patient preconditions, previous exposures, immunization history, presenting complaints, duration and severity of illness, treatment history, and geographic location. An infectious disease is a complex interplay between host and pathogen. The morbidity and mortality of a virus depend on the virus, the patient, and the environment. To evaluate and understand the severity of the pandemic virus and to identify the populations at risk of mild or severe, life-threatening illness, it is compulsory to integrate viral and patient information in a fast and accurate way. Both advances in biomedical informatics with the creation of EHRs and molecular techniques provide the framework to achieve these aims.

  4. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Sampath K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]. Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  5. Information and communication technology in disease surveillance, India: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Lalit; Krishnan, Sampath K

    2010-12-03

    India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]). Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT) network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail.

  6. Electron profile stiffness and critical gradient studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoo, J. C.; Petty, C. C.; White, A. E.; Burrell, K. H.; Doyle, E. J.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Holland, C.; McKee, G. R.; Rhodes, T. L.; Schmitz, L.; Smith, S. P.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L.

    2012-08-01

    Electron profile stiffness was studied in DIII-D L-mode discharges by systematically varying the heat flux in a narrow region with electron cyclotron heating and measuring the local change produced in ∇Te. Electron stiffness was found to slowly increase with toroidal rotation velocity. A critical inverse temperature gradient scale length 1/LC ˜ 3 m-1 was identified at ρ =0.6 and found to be independent of rotation. Both the heat pulse diffusivity and the power balance diffusivity, the latter determined by integrating the measured dependence of the heat pulse diffusivity on -∇Te, were fit reasonably well by a model containing a critical inverse temperature gradient scale length and varying linearly with 1/LT above the threshold.

  7. A study with Paperless Electronic Medical Advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sheng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to drive the EMR’s further application and rapid expansion clinically based on the electronic medical advice as the core thereby realizing the paperless EMR. This paper has analyzed the implementation effects of electronic medical advice, followed by discussion of frequently asked questions (FAQ and development direction, and finally analyzed the solution of paperless EMR. It indicates that electronic signatures and unitrust time stamp are keys to achieve the paperless EMR. The laws and regulations, new ideas, paperless consultation sheets, all data integration and sharing, virtual printing technology, application of wireless and mobile ward-round trolley, etc. within the health care field shall be proposed to be improved. It is significantly important to save the medical costs, reduce the medical negligence, achieve the paperless EMR and build a high-quality digital hospital.

  8. The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology Study: A Long-Term, Worldwide Surveillance Study on Urological Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wagenlehner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology (GPIU study is a worldwide-performed point prevalence study intended to create surveillance data on antibiotic resistance, type of urogenital infections, risk factors and data on antibiotic consumption, specifically in patients at urological departments with healthcare-associated urogenital infections (HAUTI. Investigators registered data through a web-based application (http://gpiu.esiu.org/. Data collection includes the practice and characteristics of the hospital and urology ward. On a certain day in November, each year, all urological patients present in the urological department at 8:00 a.m. are screened for HAUTI encompassing their full hospital course from admission to discharge. Apart from the GPIU main study, several side studies are taking place, dealing with transurethral resection of the prostate, prostate biopsy, as well as urosepsis. The GPIU study has been annually performed since 2003. Eight-hundred fifty-six urology units from 70 countries have participated so far, including 27,542 patients. A proxy for antibiotic consumption is reflected by the application rates used for antibiotic prophylaxis for urological interventions. Resistance rates of most uropathogens against antibiotics were high, especially with a note of multidrug resistance. The severity of HAUTI is also increasing, 25% being urosepsis in recent years.

  9. The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology Study: A Long-Term, Worldwide Surveillance Study on Urological Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, Florian; Tandogdu, Zafer; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Cai, Tommaso; Cek, Mete; Kulchavenya, Ekaterina; Köves, Béla; Naber, Kurt; Perepanova, Tamara; Tenke, Peter; Wullt, Björn; Bogenhard, Florian; Johansen, Truls Erik Bjerklund

    2016-01-01

    The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology (GPIU) study is a worldwide-performed point prevalence study intended to create surveillance data on antibiotic resistance, type of urogenital infections, risk factors and data on antibiotic consumption, specifically in patients at urological departments with healthcare-associated urogenital infections (HAUTI). Investigators registered data through a web-based application (http://gpiu.esiu.org/). Data collection includes the practice and characteristics of the hospital and urology ward. On a certain day in November, each year, all urological patients present in the urological department at 8:00 a.m. are screened for HAUTI encompassing their full hospital course from admission to discharge. Apart from the GPIU main study, several side studies are taking place, dealing with transurethral resection of the prostate, prostate biopsy, as well as urosepsis. The GPIU study has been annually performed since 2003. Eight-hundred fifty-six urology units from 70 countries have participated so far, including 27,542 patients. A proxy for antibiotic consumption is reflected by the application rates used for antibiotic prophylaxis for urological interventions. Resistance rates of most uropathogens against antibiotics were high, especially with a note of multidrug resistance. The severity of HAUTI is also increasing, 25% being urosepsis in recent years. PMID:26797640

  10. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  11. Quantum wavepacket study of electron detachment from ? by electron impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazansky, A. K.; Taulbjerg, K.

    1996-10-01

    Electron detachment from negative hydrogen ions by low-energy electron impact is considered as an especially simple example to test the validity of a sequence of approximations that allow quantum wavepacket computations to be implemented with desktop facilities. In the present approach, the motion of the electron initially localized in the loosely bound ion state is treated quantum mechanically while the incident electron is assumed to move along a classical trajectory. In addition, the initial azimuthal symmetry is assumed to be conserved during the collision in the co-rotating frame such that the quantum motion is restricted to two degrees of freedom. The wave-dynamical approach is used directly to determine the electron detachment cross section. It also provides a valuable means to clarify physical aspects of the considered process. As examples, we show that the effective detachment rate is strongly affected by projectile-induced polarization effects and that non-adiabatic features are important for a complete account of the electron detachment process. The results of the wave-dynamic calculations are in excellent agreement with recent experimental data.

  12. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  13. Automated surveillance of healthcare-associated infections: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sips, Meander E; Bonten, Marc J M; van Mourik, Maaike S M

    2017-08-01

    This review describes recent advances in the field of automated surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), with a focus on data sources and the development of semiautomated or fully automated algorithms. The availability of high-quality data in electronic health records and a well-designed information technology (IT) infrastructure to access these data are indispensable for successful implementation of automated HAI surveillance. Previous studies have demonstrated that reliance on stand-alone administrative data is generally unsuited as sole case-finding strategy. Recent attempts to combine multiple administrative and clinical data sources in algorithms yielded more reliable results. Current surveillance practices are mostly limited to single healthcare facilities, but future linkage of multiple databases in a network may allow interfacility surveillance. Although prior surveillance algorithms were often straightforward decision trees based on structured data, recent studies have used a wide variety of techniques for case-finding, including logistic regression and various machine learning methods. In the future, natural language processing may enable the use of unstructured narrative data. Developments in healthcare IT are rapidly changing the landscape of HAI surveillance. The electronic availability and incorporation of routine care data in surveillance algorithms enhances the reliability, efficiency and standardization of surveillance practices.

  14. Treatment trends for retinopathy of prematurity in the UK: active surveillance study of infants at risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Gillian G W; Xing, Wen; Butler, Lucilla; Long, Vernon; Reddy, Aravind

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the incidence of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring treatment and describe current treatment patterns in the UK. Design Nationwide population-based case ascertainment study via the British Ophthalmic Surveillance Unit and a national collaborative ROP special interest group. Practitioners completed a standardised case report form (CRF). Setting All paediatric ophthalmologists providing screening and/or treatment for retinopathy in the UK were invited to take part. Participants Any baby with ROP treated or referred for treatment between 1 December 2013 and 30 November 2014, treated with laser, cryotherapy, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor or vitrectomy/scleral buckling, or a combination. Main outcome measure Incidence of ROP requiring treatment. Results We received 370 CRFs; 327 were included. Denominator from epidemiological data: 8112 infants with birth weight of <1500 g. The incidence of ROP requiring treatment was 4% (327/8112, 95% CI 3.6% to 4.5%). Median gestational age was 25 weeks (IQR 24.3–26.1), and median birth weight 706 g (IQR 620–821). Median age at first treatment was 80 days (IQR 71–96). 204 right eyes (62.39%) had type 1 ROP, and 27 (8.26%) had aggressive posterior ROP. Infants were also treated for milder disease: 9 (2.75%) right eyes were treated for type 2 ROP, and 74 (22.63%) for disease milder than type 1 with plus or preplus, which we defined here as ‘type 2 plus’ disease. First-line treatment was diode laser photoablation of the avascular retina in 90.5% and injection of VEGF inhibitor in 8%. Conclusions ROP treatment incidence in the UK is 2.5 times higher than previously estimated. 8% of treated infants receive intravitreal VEGF inhibitor, currently unlicensed. Research is needed urgently to establish safety and efficacy of this approach. Earlier treatment and increasing numbers of surviving premature infants require an increase in appropriate eye care facilities and

  15. Catheter-related infection in Irish intensive care units diagnosed with HELICS criteria: a multi-centre surveillance study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conrick-Martin, I

    2013-03-01

    Catheter-related infection (CRI) surveillance is advocated as a healthcare quality indicator. However, there is no national CRI surveillance programme or standardized CRI definitions in Irish intensive care units (ICUs).

  16. Future studies on electron scattering; a renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Nigel J.

    2014-12-01

    2014 is the centenary of the first announcement of the Franck-Hertz experiment [1], now regarded as one of the pivotal experiments of modern physics. The Franck-Hertz experiment is widely regarded as an experiment that provided validation of the Bohr theory of atomic structure, itself only published in 2013, however it should also be viewed as the first quantitative experiment in electron scattering and the birth of scientific study of atomic and molecular phenomena by collisions. Today we recognize that electron-atom and electron- molecule collisions are prevalent across nature, describing disparate phenomena whilst the exploitation of such collisions underpins many of the technologies upon which modern society relies. The centenary of the Franck-Hertz experiment is thus a suitable opportunity to review both our current knowledge of electron interactions and to consider the directions of future research. In this article I therefore aim to both review our current state of knowledge and look forward, proposing that recent advances are providing something of a renaissance to the field and are vital for emerging technologies as well as answering some of the greatest scientific challenges of the 21st century.

  17. Electron transport studies of chemical nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenjie

    2005-11-01

    In this thesis, I present electron transport studies of chemical nanostructures: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and single molecules. In chemical nanostructures, coulomb blockade and electronic energy level quantization dominate electron transport properties. High order correlated transport processes also play an important role in those nanostructures that are strongly coupled to electrodes. The electron transport spectra of SWNTs are investigated as a function of coupling strength of nanotube-electrode contacts. Measurements of nanotube devices at different coupling regimes showed distinct transport phenomena, including coulomb charging and electron level quantization, the experimental determination of all Hartree-Fock parameters that govern the electronic structure of metallic nanotubes and the demonstration of Fabry-Perot resonators based on the interference of electron waves. The presence of defects is important in low dimensional materials, for instance 1D SWNTs. A scanned gate microscopy (SGM) is used to locate defect center on SWNTs and study electron resonant scattering by defects. The reflection coefficient at the peak of a scattering resonance is determined to be ˜0.5 at room temperature. An intra-tube quantum-dot device formed by two defects was demonstrated by low-temperature transport measurements. Transport investigation of semiconducting SWNTs transistors shows large hysteresis effect upon gate voltage sweeping, which came from local charge redistribution around semiconducting SWNTs. A nonvolatile charge storage memory operating at room temperature was realized. Single molecule transistors incorporating different molecule (divanadium molecule [(N,N',N ″-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane)2V2(CN) 4(mu-C4N4)], ferrocene and nickelocene) molecule, were achieved utilizing electromigration-induced break junction technique. Transport spectrum of divanadium molecules showed strange Kondo resonance where individual divanadium molecule serves as

  18. Surveillance of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription in Singaporean hospitals: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xin Liew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inappropriate prescription of antibiotics may contribute towards higher levels antimicrobial resistance. A key intervention for improving appropriate antibiotic prescription is surveillance of prescription. This paper presents the results of a longitudinal surveillance of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription in 5 public-sector hospitals in Singapore from 2006 to 2010. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quarterly antibiotic prescription data were obtained and converted to defined daily doses (DDDs per 1,000 inpatient-days. The presence of significant trends in antibiotic prescription over time for both individual and combined hospitals was tested by regression analysis and corrected for autocorrelation between time-points. Excluding fluoroquinolones, there was a significant increase in prescription of all monitored antibiotics from an average of 233.12 defined daily doses (DDD/1,000 inpatient-days in 2006 to 254.38 DDD/1,000 inpatient-days in 2010 (Coefficient = 1.13, 95%CI: 0.16-2.09, p = 0.025. Increasing utilization of carbapenems, piperacillin/tazobactam, and Gram-positive agents were seen in the majority of the hospitals, while cephalosporins were less prescribed over time. The combined expenditure for 5 hospitals increased from USD9.9 million in 2006 to USD16.7 million in 2010. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rate of prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics in Singaporean hospitals is much higher compared to those of European hospitals. This may be due to high rates of antimicrobial resistance. The increase in expenditure on monitored antibiotics over the past 5 years outstripped the actual increase in DDD/1,000 inpatient-days of antibiotics prescribed. Longitudinal surveillance of antibiotic prescription on a hospital and countrywide level is important for detecting trends for formulating interventions or policies. Further research is needed to understand the causes for the various prescription trends and to act on these where

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Superconducting Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nisenhoff, Martin; Superconducting Electronics

    1989-01-01

    The genesis of the NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) upon which this volume is based, occurred during the summer of 1986 when we came to the realization that there had been significant progress during the early 1980's in the field of superconducting electronics and in applications of this technology. Despite this progress, there was a perception among many engineers and scientists that, with the possible exception of a limited number of esoteric fundamental studies and applications (e.g., the Josephson voltage standard or the SQUID magnetometer), there was no significant future for electronic systems incorporating superconducting elements. One of the major reasons for this perception was the aversion to handling liquid helium or including a closed-cycle helium liquefier. In addition, many critics felt that IBM's cancellation of its superconducting computer project in 1983 was "proof" that superconductors could not possibly compete with semiconductors in high-speed signal processing. From our persp...

  20. Internet surveillance, regulation, and chilling effects online: a comparative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon W. Penney

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With internet regulation and censorship on the rise, states increasingly engaging in online surveillance, and state cyber-policing capabilities rapidly evolving globally, concerns about regulatory “chilling effects” online—the idea that laws, regulations, or state surveillance can deter people from exercising their freedoms or engaging in legal activities on the internet have taken on greater urgency and public importance. But just as notions of “chilling effects” are not new, neither is skepticism about their legal, theoretical, and empirical basis; in fact, the concept remains largely un-interrogated with significant gaps in understanding, particularly with respect to chilling effects online. This work helps fill this void with a first-of-its-kind online survey that examines multiple dimensions of chilling effects online by comparing and analyzing responses to hypothetical scenarios involving different kinds of regulatory actions—including an anti-cyberbullying law, public/private sector surveillance, and an online regulatory scheme, based on the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA, enforced through personally received legal threats/notices. The results suggest not only the existence and significance of regulatory chilling effects online across these different scenarios but also evidence a differential impact—with personally received legal notices and government surveillance online consistently having the greatest chilling effect on people’s activities online—and certain online activities like speech, search, and personal sharing also impacted differently. The results also offer, for the first time, insights based on demographics and other similar factors about how certain people and groups may be more affected than others, including findings that younger people and women are more likely to be chilled; younger people and women are less likely to take steps to resist regulatory actions and defend themselves; and anti

  1. Electronic structure studies of topological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuyun

    Three-dimensional (3D) Dirac fermions are a new class of topological quantum materials. In 3D Dirac semimetals, the conduction and valence bands touch each other at discrete points in the momentum space and show linear dispersions along all momentum directions, forming 3D Dirac cones which are protected by the crystal symmetry. Here I will present our recent studies of the electronic structures of novel materials which host 3D Dirac fermions by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

  2. Prefer Parameters of Occupational Health Surveillance System (OSS in Expert Opinions of Occupational Staffs: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bahrami-Ahmadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Occupational Health Surveillance System (OHSS provides a critical opportunity to monitor and evaluate occupational disorders and injuries over the time. Among more than 21 million employees in Iran, 62.08% and 38.03% had been worked in the industrial and private sections respectively. Present qualitative study was designed for collection of expert opinion of staffs in this field and determined proper characters of suitable Iranian OHSS. Present qualitative study was performed on an interview based on data from occupational medicine staffs. Some questions about OHSS definition, temporary accompaniment of occupational diseases and injuries surveillance system, OHSS promoters and consumers, type of requested data for OHSS and rewarding and controlling systems to prepare qualitative and valid OHSS data. Interview answers were read, summarized and presented. Most of study participants’ staff believed that OHSS in the scientific base must cover all of essentially its parts including disorders, hazards and accidents together. They believed that this combination was made by a team working with occupational medicine staffs and other specialties such as occupational hygienist and information technologists. They emphasized that the Iranian ministry of health had the capacity to promote OHSS and organizing executive committee with all of OHSS involved as team working in this field. Occupational staff had been focused on this fact that OHSS data must cover all of needed data of Iranian working population and their relatives. Iranian occupational registry system must be change and develop as Occupational Health Surveillance system according the main parameters which were found in occupational staff interview.

  3. Improving the modeling of disease data from the government surveillance system: a case study on malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Valle

    Full Text Available The study of the effect of large-scale drivers (e.g., climate of human diseases typically relies on aggregate disease data collected by the government surveillance network. The usual approach to analyze these data, however, often ignores a changes in the total number of individuals examined, b the bias towards symptomatic individuals in routine government surveillance, and; c the influence that observations can have on disease dynamics. Here, we highlight the consequences of ignoring the problems listed above and develop a novel modeling framework to circumvent them, which is illustrated using simulations and real malaria data. Our simulations reveal that trends in the number of disease cases do not necessarily imply similar trends in infection prevalence or incidence, due to the strong influence of concurrent changes in sampling effort. We also show that ignoring decreases in the pool of infected individuals due to the treatment of part of these individuals can hamper reliable inference on infection incidence. We propose a model that avoids these problems, being a compromise between phenomenological statistical models and mechanistic disease dynamics models; in particular, a cross-validation exercise reveals that it has better out-of-sample predictive performance than both of these alternative models. Our case study in the Brazilian Amazon reveals that infection prevalence was high in 2004-2008 (prevalence of 4% with 95% CI of 3-5%, with outbreaks (prevalence up to 18% occurring during the dry season of the year. After this period, infection prevalence decreased substantially (0.9% with 95% CI of 0.8-1.1%, which is due to a large reduction in infection incidence (i.e., incidence in 2008-2010 was approximately one fifth of the incidence in 2004-2008.We believe that our approach to modeling government surveillance disease data will be useful to advance current understanding of large-scale drivers of several diseases.

  4. Towards One Health Knowledge Networks: A Southern African Centre of Infectious Disease Surveillance case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Beda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic nature of new information and/or knowledge is a big challenge for information systems. Early knowledge management systems focused entirely on technologies for storing, searching and retrieving data; these systems have proved a failure. Juirsica and Mylopoulos1 suggested that in order to build effective technologies for knowledge management, we need to further our understanding of how individuals, groups and organisations use knowledge. As the focus on knowledge management for organisations and consortia alike is moving towards a keen appreciation of how deeply knowledge is embedded in people’s experiences, there is a general realisation that knowledge cannot be stored or captured digitally. This puts more emphasis in creating enabling environments for interactions that stimulate knowledge sharing.Our work aims at developing an un-obtrusive intelligent system that glues together effective contemporary and traditional technologies to aid these interactions and manage the information captured. In addition this system will include tools to aid propagating a repository of scientific information relevant to surveillance of infectious diseases to complement knowledge shared and/or acts as a point of reference.This work is ongoing and based on experiences in developing a knowledge network management system for the Southern African Centre of Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS, A One Health consortium of southern African academic and research institutions involved with infectious diseases of humans and animals in partnership with world-renowned centres of research in industrialised countries.

  5. Utility of dried blood spots for measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides in a surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Snehi, Uma; Reddy, K Srinath

    2010-03-01

    Developing countries are facing a rise in noncommunicable diseases (NCD), which is a cause for concern. The World Health Organization has recommended a stepwise approach for NCD risk factor surveillance. Screening for risk factors in remote populations is difficult due to lack of resources and technical expertise, including standardized laboratory facilities. The collection of samples on filter paper for the assessment of risk factors circumvents the need for blood processing, storage, and shipment at ultralow temperatures. Samples were collected on 3-mm Whatman filter paper from one industry (National Thermal Power Corporation) located in the periphery of Delhi as part of a surveillance carried out in industries from different parts of India. Total cholesterol was measured in serum and dried blood by the cholesterol oxidase/p-aminophenazone method and triglycerides by the glycerophosphate oxidase-peroxidase/aminophenazone method. Values obtained by the two methods were compared using Pearson correlation, and Bland-Altman plots were prepared to assess bias. The correlation coefficient "r" was 0.78 for cholesterol and 0.94 for triglycerides between dried blood spots and serum. Bland-Altman plots suggest that differences in values obtained by the two methods were within two standard deviations for most of the samples. Blood samples dried on filter paper can be a successful option for population screening in remote areas, provided preanalytical variations arising due to the method of blood spot preparation and storage are well controlled. (c) 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Electronics Industry Study Report: Semiconductors and Defense Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Lucent Technologies, Madrid, Spain Ministry of Defense, Madrid, Spain Ministry Of Defense, Prague, Czech Republic Tesla Blatna, Blatna, Czech... Nicolas Mokhoff , “Nanotechnology Will Even Out Semi Cycles,” Electronic Engineering Times, November 25, 2002, p. 20 61 Rob Fixmer, “Moore’s Law...2001). Moad, Jeff and Vaas, Lisa, IT Job Outlook, eWeek, 10/7/02, Vol. 19, Issue 40, p. 37 Mokhoff, Nicolas . “Nanotechnology Will Even Out Semi

  7. Flight control electronics reliability/maintenance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.

  8. Electronic Nose Study of Powdered Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa E. Baby

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose was used to study the odour profile of garlic, separating the powered samples of eight cultivars and proving to be useful to discriminate garlic specimen dried by lyophilization and oven-dried and humidified specimen (before dried by both techniques for each cultivar. Pattern recognition and multivariate analysis of the electronic nose data has enabled to easily separate the garlic cultivars, to clearly discriminate the lyophilized or oven-dried specimen and the non humidified samples from the humidified powders maintaining, in every case, the cultivars identification. The humidification of lyophilized powders has shown a sharp separation of cultivars, otherwise, in the humidified oven-dried powders, their identification resulted less precise. This fact enabled to infer that lyophilized powders (either dry or humidified better retained their odour profile than oven-dried powders, maintaining the properties of each cultivar.

  9. Experimental study on helium optical electron polarimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Hai-Bing; Pang Wen-Ning; Liu Yi-Bao; Shang Ren-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Optical electron polarimetry is suitable for calibration of a spin-polarized electron source, especially for measurement of polarization of spin-polarized electron beam. In this paper, a new optical electron polarimeter is described,which is based on the circularly polarized He radiation induced by the bombarding of He atoms with spin-polarized electrons. The theoretical basis of the optical electron polarimetry and the structure of the optical electron polarimeter are discussed. The measurement of polarization of spin-polarized electrons produced from a new GaAs (100) spin-polarized electron source is carried out. The result of polarization of 30.8% for our spin-polarized electron source is obtained using the He optical electron polarimeter.

  10. Computational Study of Electron Delocalization in Hexaarylbenzenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citlalli Rios

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of hexaarylbenzene compounds were studied theoretically, in order to compare energy changes as a result of the toroidal delocalization effect that is characteristic of all these species. The energy was studied taking advantage of locally designed isodesmic reactions. Results indicate that the amount of aromaticity manifested by each substituent is a factor that should be considered when assessing the quantity of energy dissipated from each aromatic center. The influence of different substituents on electronic delocalization is also analyzed, as well as the role played by their frontier molecular orbitals.

  11. Building up a collaborative network for the surveillance of HIV genetic diversity in Italy: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Sanarico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of infection with HIV-1 non-B subtypes in Italy has been reported to raise, due to increased migration flows and travels. HIV-1 variants show different biological and immunological properties that impact on disease progression rate, response to antiretroviral therapy (ART and sensitivity of diagnostic tests with important implications for public health. Therefore, a constant surveillance of the dynamics of HIV variants in Italy should be a high public health priority. Organization of surveillance studies requires building up a platform constituted of a network of clinical centers, laboratories and institutional agencies, able to properly collect samples for the investigation of HIV subtypes heterogeneity and to provide a database with reliable demographic, clinical, immunological and virological data. AIM: We here report our experience in building up such a platform, co-ordinated by the National AIDS Center of the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, taking advantage of a pilot study aimed at evaluating HIV subtypes diversity in populations of HIV-infected migrant people in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and thirty four HIV-infected migrants were enrolled in 9 Italian clinical centers located throughout the Italian territory. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs for sample collection were provided by the National AIDS Center to each clinical center. In addition, clinical centers were required to fill up a case report form (crf for each patient, which included demographic, clinical, immunological and virological information. RESULTS: All centers properly collected and stored samples from each enrolled individual. Overall, the required information was correctly provided for more than 90% of the patients. However, some fields of the crf, particularly those including information on the last HIV-negative antibody test and presence of co-infections, were properly filled up in less than 80% of the enrolled migrants. Centers

  12. Gamma Putty dosimetric studies in electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloi, Aime M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, lead has been used for field shaping in megavoltage electron beams in radiation therapy. In this study, we analyze the dosimetric parameters of a nontoxic, high atomic number (Z = 83), bismuth-loaded material called Gamma Putty that is malleable and can be easily molded to any desired shape. First, we placed an ionization chamber at different depths in a solid water phantom under a Gamma Putty shield of thickness (t = 0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm, respectively) and measured the ionizing radiation on the central axis (CAX) for electron beam ranging in energies from 6 to 20 MeV. Next, we investigated the relationship between the relative ionization (RI) measured at a fixed depth for several Gamma Putty shield at different cutout diameters ranging from 2 to 5 cm for various beam energies and derived an exponential fitting equation for clinical purposes. The dose profiles along the CAX show that bremsstrahlung dominates for Gamma Putty thickness >15 mm. For high-energy beams (12–20 MeV) and all Gamma Putty thicknesses up to 25 mm, RI below 5% could not be achieved due to the strong bremsstrahlung component. However, Gamma Putty is a very suitable material for reducing the transmission factor below 5% and protecting underlying normal tissues for low-energy electron beams (6–9 MeV). PMID:27651563

  13. Gamma Putty dosimetric studies in electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aime M Gloi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, lead has been used for field shaping in megavoltage electron beams in radiation therapy. In this study, we analyze the dosimetric parameters of a nontoxic, high atomic number (Z = 83, bismuth-loaded material called Gamma Putty that is malleable and can be easily molded to any desired shape. First, we placed an ionization chamber at different depths in a solid water phantom under a Gamma Putty shield of thickness (t = 0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm, respectively and measured the ionizing radiation on the central axis (CAX for electron beam ranging in energies from 6 to 20 MeV. Next, we investigated the relationship between the relative ionization (RI measured at a fixed depth for several Gamma Putty shield at different cutout diameters ranging from 2 to 5 cm for various beam energies and derived an exponential fitting equation for clinical purposes. The dose profiles along the CAX show that bremsstrahlung dominates for Gamma Putty thickness >15 mm. For high-energy beams (12-20 MeV and all Gamma Putty thicknesses up to 25 mm, RI below 5% could not be achieved due to the strong bremsstrahlung component. However, Gamma Putty is a very suitable material for reducing the transmission factor below 5% and protecting underlying normal tissues for low-energy electron beams (6-9 MeV.

  14. [Pili annulati. A scanning electron microscopy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalević-Vasić, B; Polić, D

    1988-01-01

    A case of ringed hair studied by light and electron microscopy is reported. The patient, a 20-year old girl, had been presenting with the hair abnormality since birth. At naked eye examination the hairs were dry, 6 to 7 cm long, and they showed dull and shining areas giving the scalp hair a scintillating appearance (fig. 1). Several samples of hair were taken and examined by light microscopy under white and polarized light. Hair shafts and cryo-fractured surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS. 1. Light microscopy. Lesions were found in every hair examined. There were abnormal, opaque and fusiform areas alternating with normal areas all along the hair shaft (fig. 2). The abnormal areas resulted from intracortical air-filled cavities. Fractures similar to those of trichorrhexis nodosa were found in the opaque areas of the distal parts of the hairs. 2. Scanning electron microscopy. A. Hair shaft surface. The abnormal areas showed a longitudinal, "curtain-like" folding of the cuticular cells which had punctiform depressions on their surface and worn free edges (fig. 4, 5, 6); trichorrhexis-type fractures were seen in the distal parts of the hair shafts (fig. 7, 8). Normal areas regularly presented with longitudinal, superficial, short and non-systematized depressions (fig. 9); the cuticular cells were worn, and there were places where the denuded cortex showed dissociated cortical fibres (fig. 10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Influenza surveillance in the Pacific Island countries and territories during the 2009 pandemic: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kool Jacobus Leen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs have been more severely affected by influenza pandemics than any other part of the world. We herein describe the emergence and epidemiologic characteristics of pandemic influenza H1N1 in PICTs from 2009 to 2010. Methods The World Health Organization gathered reports of influenza-like-illness and laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases from all 23 Pacific island countries and territories, from April 2009 through August 2010. Data were gathered through weekly email reports from Pacific island countries and territories and through email or telephone follow-up. Results Pacific island countries and territories started detecting pandemic H1N1 cases in June 2009, firstly in French Polynesia, with the last new detection occurring in August 2009 in Tuvalu. Nineteen Pacific island countries and territories reported 1,972 confirmed cases, peaking in August 2009. No confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases were identified in Niue, Pitcairn and Tokelau; the latter instituted strict maritime quarantine. Influenza-like-illness surveillance showed trends similar to surveillance of confirmed cases. Seven Pacific island countries and territories reported 21 deaths of confirmed pandemic H1N1. Case-patients died of acute respiratory distress syndrome or multi-organ failure, or both. The most reported pre-existing conditions were obesity, lung disease, heart disease, and pregnancy. Pacific island countries and territories instituted a variety of mitigation measures, including arrival health screening. Multiple partners facilitated influenza preparedness planning and outbreak response. Conclusions Pandemic influenza spread rapidly throughout the Pacific despite enormous distances and relative isolation. Tokelau and Pitcairn may be the only jurisdictions to have remained pandemic-free. Despite being well-prepared, Pacific island countries and territories experienced significant morbidity and

  16. [Evaluation of epidemiologic surveillance systems: analysis of different approaches in a study in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, S

    2000-12-01

    Based on the experience of the assessment of public health surveillance systems, this paper explores the relationship between knowledge and action. Like research, evaluation is a cognitive process however oriented to a specific aim. Thus it is possible to compare the various approaches of evaluating these systems using the frame of paradigms in sciences (positivism, post positivism, critical theory and constructivism). In addition, evaluation aims to improve the functioning of the system, to introduce changes in it. The fourth generation evaluation, as it has been done in Ecuador, is an interesting way of acquiring understanding of the system while solving its malfunctionings. In this experience, the evaluator seeks the participation of the actors of the system at each steps of the evaluation process. He searches to involved them through three levels: intellectual, affective and ontological.

  17. Pre-harvest surveillance of Campylobacter and Salmonella in Danish broiler flocks: a 2-year study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedderkopp, A.; Gradel, K.O.; Jorgensen, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In national surveillance programmes of broiler flocks carried out in Denmark during 1998 and 1999, 89,110 samples for Campylobacter representing 8911 broiler flocks were taken at 10 different abattoirs, and 44,550 samples for Salmonella were taken from the same flocks in the broiler houses...... at the farms. Of the swabs, 42.5% were Campylobacter positive. Most positive samples were found during July, August and September, while the lowest number of positive samples were found during January, February, March and April. Of the flocks, 5.5% were Salmonella positive, but no seasonal variation...... was observed. For each flock, the presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella was recorded in order to estimate the possible correlation between colonisation with the two pathogens. In conclusion, no significant effects on intensive cleaning and disinfection procedures on Campylobacter occurrence could...

  18. A study of gas electron multiplier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Shao-Hui; LI Cheng; ZHOU Yi; XU Zi-Zong

    2004-01-01

    A new kind of gas detector based on gas electron multiplier (GEM) is studied for X-ray imaging of high luminosity. A single-GEM device is designed to test the property of GEM foil .The effective gain and counting capability of a double-GEM detector are measured by an X-ray tube with Cu target. An initial X-ray imaging experiment is carried out using a triple-GEM detector and the position resolution of less than 0.1mm is achieved. The 3D distribution of electrostatic field of GEM mesh is also presented.

  19. High dengue case capture rate in four years of a cohort study in Nicaragua compared to national surveillance data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Standish

    Full Text Available Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions; however, under-reporting of cases to national surveillance systems hinders accurate knowledge of disease burden and costs. Laboratory-confirmed dengue cases identified through the Nicaraguan Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study (PDCS were compared to those reported from other health facilities in Managua to the National Epidemiologic Surveillance (NES program of the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health. Compared to reporting among similar pediatric populations in Managua, the PDCS identified 14 to 28 (average 21.3 times more dengue cases each year per 100,000 persons than were reported to the NES. Applying these annual expansion factors to national-level data, we estimate that the incidence of confirmed pediatric dengue throughout Nicaragua ranged from 300 to 1000 cases per 100,000 persons. We have estimated a much higher incidence of dengue than reported by the Ministry of Health. A country-specific expansion factor for dengue that allows for a more accurate estimate of incidence may aid governments and other institutions calculating disease burden, costs, resource needs for prevention and treatment, and the economic benefits of drug and vaccine development.

  20. A pulse radiolysis study on electron affinity of piperonal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Jianhua; LIN; Weizhen; WANG; Wenfeng; YAO; Side

    2005-01-01

    The piperonal electron affinity was studied using pulse radiolysis technique. The electron transfer reaction process between piperonal and anthraquinone-2-sulfate was observed in the pH 7 phosphoric acid salt buffer. The transient absorption spectra of electron transfer reaction between piperonal and anthraquinone-2-sulfate were obtained, and the initial proof of the electron transfer between electron donor and acceptor was provided directly. The one-electron reduction potential of piperonal was determined to be -0.457 V.

  1. A Focused Ethnographic Study of Alberta Cattle Veterinarians’ Decision Making about Diagnostic Laboratory Submissions and Perceptions of Surveillance Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Sawford; Ardene Robinson Vollman; Craig Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemen...

  2. Electron microscopy study of refractory ceramic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, P A; Lentz, T J; Rice, C H; Lockey, J E; Lemasters, G K; Gartside, P S

    2001-10-01

    In epidemiological studies designed to identify potential health risks of exposures to synthetic vitreous fibers, the characterization of airborne fiber dimensions may be essential for assessing mechanisms of fiber toxicity. Toward this end, air sampling was conducted as part of an industry-wide study of workers potentially exposed to airborne fibrous dusts during the manufacture of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) and RCF products. Analyses of a subset of samples obtained on the sample filter as well as on the conductive sampling cowl were performed using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize dimensions of airborne fibers. Comparison was made of bivariate fiber size distributions (length and diameter) from air samples analyzed by SEM and by TEM techniques. Results of the analyses indicate that RCF size distributions include fibers small enough in diameter ( 60 microm) may go undetected by TEM, as evidenced by the proportion of fibers in this category for TEM and SEM analyses (1% and 5%, respectively). Limitations of the microscopic techniques and differences in fiber-sizing rules for each method are believed to have contributed to the variation among fiber-sizing results. It was concluded from these data that further attempts to characterize RCF exposure in manufacturing and related operations should include analysis by TEM and SEM, since the smallest diameter fibers are not resolved with SEM and the fibers of longer length are not sized by TEM.

  3. Multiple Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) for Space Surveillance: Results and Simulation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Poore, A.; Sheaff, C.; Aristoff, J.; Jah, M.

    2013-09-01

    With the anticipated installation of more accurate sensors and the increased probability of future collisions between space objects, the potential number of observable space objects is likely to increase by an order of magnitude within the next decade, thereby placing an ever-increasing burden on current operational systems. Moreover, the need to track closely-spaced objects due, for example, to breakups as illustrated by the recent Chinese ASAT test or the Iridium-Kosmos collision, requires new, robust, and autonomous methods for space surveillance to enable the development and maintenance of the present and future space catalog and to support the overall space surveillance mission. The problem of correctly associating a stream of uncorrelated tracks (UCTs) and uncorrelated optical observations (UCOs) into common objects is critical to mitigating the number of UCTs and is a prerequisite to subsequent space catalog maintenance. Presently, such association operations are mainly performed using non-statistical simple fixed-gate association logic. In this paper, we report on the salient features and the performance of a newly-developed statistically-robust system-level multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) system for advanced space surveillance. The multiple-frame assignment (MFA) formulation of MHT, together with supporting astrodynamics algorithms, provides a new joint capability for space catalog maintenance, UCT/UCO resolution, and initial orbit determination. The MFA-MHT framework incorporates multiple hypotheses for report to system track data association and uses a multi-arc construction to accommodate recently developed algorithms for multiple hypothesis filtering (e.g., AEGIS, CAR-MHF, UMAP, and MMAE). This MHT framework allows us to evaluate the benefits of many different algorithms ranging from single- and multiple-frame data association to filtering and uncertainty quantification. In this paper, it will be shown that the MHT system can provide superior

  4. Cost-effectiveness of endoscopic screening followed by surveillance for Barrett's esophagus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiere, Josephine M; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2009-12-01

    Screening interventions for Barrett's esophagus (BE) are appealing, but there is little supporting evidence. We reviewed health economics studies about BE endoscopic screening followed by, as required, endoscopic surveillance ("screening and surveillance" hereafter) to help inform the design and conduct of future research. Health economics studies about BE screening and surveillance were identified using electronic database searches and personal contact with authors of identified studies. No studies examined general population screening. Five US studies published between 2003 and 2007 examined the cost effectiveness of screening and surveillance (against no intervention) in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). There was no randomized trial evidence to inform model construction. Assumptions about prevalence and transition probabilities between BE histologic subtypes and about surveillance and treatment protocols varied substantially between studies. Parameters such as potential BE diagnosis-related reduction in quality of life or increase in health care use, diagnostic accuracy, and infrastructural costs (for quality assurance) were considered either "optimistically" or not at all. Only 2 studies considered endoscopic treatments. No study considered the recently introduced radiofrequency ablation technique, or the potential for biomarker-based risk stratification of surveillance interval or duration. Current health economics evidence is likely to have provided optimistic cost-effectiveness estimates and is not sufficient to support introduction of endoscopic BE screening programs among GERD patients. The evidence does not adequately incorporate novel (endoscopic) treatments and the potential for (clinical, endoscopic, or biomarker-based) risk stratification of surveillance. Future research should aim to encompass both these factors.

  5. Health disparities experienced by people with disabilities in the United States: a Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, Jennifer R; Bungum, Tim

    2012-09-09

    The Americans with Disabilities Act became law in 1990; since then research has shown that people with disabilities continue to experience barriers to health care. The purpose of this study was to compare utilization of preventive services, chronic disease rates, and engagement in health risk behaviors of participants with differing severities of disabilities to those without disabilities. This study was a secondary analysis of 2010 data collected in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System national survey in the United States. Rao Chi square test and logistic regression were employed. Participants with disabilities had significantly higher adjusted odds ratios for all chronic diseases, for physical inactivity, obesity and smoking. They were significantly more likely to participate in some preventive services (flu/pneumonia vaccination, HIV test) and significantly less likely to participate in other preventive services (mammogram, Pap test). Our findings suggest that people with disabilities are less able to fully participate in all preventive services offered.

  6. Malaria in pregnancy: a passive surveillance study of pregnant women in low transmission areas of Colombia, Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Perez, Mary; Pacheco, M Andreína; Buriticá, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    2011 and 2013. Trained physicians confirmed the pregnancy status and recorded clinical and epidemiological information. Haematological parameters, as well as hepatic and renal function, anti-malarial antibodies and parasite genotypes were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 582 women presented with malaria......BACKGROUND: Malaria causes a significant burden in highly endemic areas where children and pregnant women are more susceptible to severe disease and death, however, in low transmission settings malaria in pregnant women is less frequent. The aim of this study was to provide information of clinical...... profile, anti-parasite host immune responses and parasite genotyping of pregnant women with malaria in low endemic areas of Colombia. METHODS: This was a descriptive study conducted through passive surveillance in 1328 individuals from three endemic areas of Córdoba, Nariño and Chocó departments between...

  7. Qualitative study on decision-making by prostate cancer physicians during active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Stacy; Curnyn, Caitlin; Fagerlin, Angela; Braithwaite, Ronald Scott; Schwartz, Mark D; Lepor, Herbert; Carter, Herbert Ballentine; Sedlander, Erica

    2017-07-01

    To explore and identify factors that influence physicians' decisions while monitoring patients with prostate cancer on active surveillance (AS). A purposive sampling strategy was used to identify physicians treating prostate cancer from diverse clinical backgrounds and geographic areas across the USA. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews from July to December 2015, until thematic saturation was reached. The Applied Thematic Analysis framework was used to guide data collection and analysis. Interview transcripts were reviewed and coded independently by two researchers. Matrix analysis and NVivo software were used for organization and further analysis. Eight key themes emerged to explain variation in AS monitoring: (i) physician comfort with AS; (ii) protocol selection; (iii) beliefs about the utility and quality of testing; (iv) years of experience and exposure to AS during training; (v) concerns about inflicting 'harm'; (vi) patient characteristics; (vii) patient preferences; and (viii) financial incentives. These qualitative data reveal which factors influence physicians who manage patients on AS. There is tension between providing standardized care while also considering individual patients' needs and health status. Additional education on AS is needed during urology training and continuing medical education. Future research is needed to empirically understand whether any specific protocol is superior to tailored, individualized care. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Forward electron study with the HGTD

    CERN Document Server

    Mauritzsson, Nicholai

    2016-01-01

    A study of the forward region of the ATLAS detector, using $Z\\rightarrow ee$, $\\mu=200$ data, was performed with the goal of decreasing the pile-up effect and improving the reconstruction resolution for electrons using a timing detector (HGTD) in front of the end-cap calorimeters under consideration for the ATLAS upgrade at the high luminosity LHC. The report focuses on the $2.5<|\\eta|<3.5$ region with the \\emph{timing} and \\emph{pre-shower} configuration of the HGTD as well as different $p_T$-cuts. Using the HGTD data the resolution was generally improved for all configuration by 12-15\\% except with the \\emph{timing} configuration at $2.5<|\\eta|<3.0$ which remained unchanged within the statistical errors.

  9. Commercial Online Social Network Data and Statin Side-Effect Surveillance: A Pilot Observational Study of Aggregate Mentions on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesch, Marco D

    2017-07-26

    Surveillance of the safety of prescribed drugs after marketing approval has been secured remains fraught with complications. Formal ascertainment by providers and reporting to adverse-event registries, formal surveys by manufacturers, and mining of electronic medical records are all well-known approaches with varying degrees of difficulty, cost, and success. Novel approaches may be a useful adjunct, especially approaches that mine or sample internet-based methods such as online social networks. A novel commercial software-as-a-service data-mining product supplied by Sysomos from Datasift/Facebook was used to mine all mentions on Facebook of statins and stain-related side effects in the US in the 1-month period 9 January 2017 through 8 February 2017. A total of 4.3% of all 25,700 mentions of statins also mentioned typical stain-related side effects. Multiple methodological weaknesses stymie interpretation of this percentage, which is however not inconsistent with estimates that 5-20% of patients taking statins will experience typical side effects at some time. Future work on pharmacovigilance may be informed by this novel commercial tool, but the inability to mine the full text of a posting poses serious challenges to content categorization.

  10. Study of electron-positron interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Philonen, L.

    1990-09-15

    For the past seven years, this group has been interested in the study of tests of the Standard Model of Electroweak interactions. The program has centered about the AMY experiment which examines the nature of the final state products in electron-positron collisions in the center of mass energy range near 60 GeV. Results of these measurements have shown a remarkable consistency with the predictions of the minimal model of 3 quark and lepton generations and single charged and neutral intermediate bosons. No new particles or excited states have been observed nor has any evidence for departures in cross sections or angular asymmetries from expectations been observed. These conclusions have been even more firmly established by the higher energy results from the LEP and SLC colliders at center of mass energies of about 90 GeV. Our focus is shifting to the neutrino as a probe to electroweak interactions. The relative merit of attempting to observe neutrinos from point sources versus observing neutrinos generally is not easy to predict. The improved ability to interpret is offset by the probably episodic nature of the emission and irreproducibility of the results. In this phase of development, it is best to be sensitive to both sources of neutrinos. As a second phase of our program at Virginia Tech, we are studying the feasibility of detecting cosmic ray neutrinos in a proposed experiment which we have called NOVA. the results of the test setup will be instrumental in developing an optimum design. A third program we are involved in is the MEGA experiment at Los Alamos, an experiment to place a limit on the rate of muon decay to electron plus photon which is forbidden by the Standard Model.

  11. Conjoined Twins: A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; LUNA-MUÑOZ, LEONORA; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; DUTRA, MARIA DA GRAÇA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MÉTNEKI, JULIA; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMAN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; ARTEAGA-VÁZQUEZ, JAZMÍN

    2015-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32–1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. PMID:22002822

  12. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  13. New Method for Real Time Influenza Surveillance in Primary Care: A Wisconsin Research and Education Network (WREN) Supported Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temte, Jonathan L; Barlow, Shari; Schemmel, Amber; Temte, Emily; Hahn, David L; Reisdorf, Erik; Shult, Peter; Tamerius, John

    2017-01-01

    The goal of public health infectious disease surveillance systems is to provide accurate laboratory results in near-real time. When it comes to influenza surveillance, most current systems are encumbered with inherent delays encountered in the real-life chaos of medical practice. To combat this, we implemented and tested near-real-time surveillance using a rapid influenza detection test (RIDT) coupled with immediate, wireless transmission of results to public health entities. A network of 19 primary care clinics across Wisconsin were recruited, including 4 sites already involved in ongoing influenza surveillance and 15 sites that were new to surveillance activities. Each site was provided with a Quidel Sofia Influenza A+B RIDT analyzer attached to a wireless router. Influenza test results, along with patient age, were transmitted immediately to a cloud-based server, automatically compiled, and forwarded to the surveillance team daily. Weekly counts of positive influenza A and B cases were compared with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detections from an independent surveillance system within the state. Following Institutional Review Board (IRB) and institutional approvals, we recruited 19 surveillance sites, installed equipment, and trained staff within 4 months. Of the 1119 cases tested between September 15, 2013 and June 28, 2014, 316 were positive for influenza. The system provided early detection of the influenza outbreak in Wisconsin. The influenza peak between January 12 and 25, 2014, as well as the epidemic curve, closely matched that derived from the established PCR laboratory network (r = 0.927; P surveillance. Results from the initial year strongly support this approach to highly accurate and timely influenza surveillance. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  14. Dental Wear: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Levrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental wear can be differentiated into different types on the basis of morphological and etiological factors. The present research was carried out on twelve extracted human teeth with dental wear (three teeth showing each type of wear: erosion, attrition, abrasion, and abfraction studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The study aimed, through analysis of the macro- and micromorphological features of the lesions (considering the enamel, dentin, enamel prisms, dentinal tubules, and pulp, to clarify the different clinical and diagnostic presentations of dental wear and their possible significance. Our results, which confirm current knowledge, provide a complete overview of the distinctive morphology of each lesion type. It is important to identify the type of dental wear lesion in order to recognize the contributing etiological factors and, consequently, identify other more complex, nondental disorders (such as gastroesophageal reflux, eating disorders. It is clear that each type of lesion has a specific morphology and mechanism, and further clinical studies are needed to clarify the etiological processes, particularly those underlying the onset of abfraction.

  15. Study of Electron Polarization Dynamics in the JLEIC at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Fanglei [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Derbenev, Yaroslav [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Morozov, Vasiliy [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Barber, Desmond P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    The design of an electron polarization scheme in the Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) aims to attain a high longitudinal electron polarization (over 70%) at collision points as required by the nuclear physics program. Comprehensive strategies for achieving this goal have been considered and developed including injection of highly polarized electrons from CEBAF, mechanisms for manipulation and preservation of the polarization in the JLEIC collider ring and measurement of the electron polarization. In particular, maintaining a sufficiently long polarization lifetime is crucial for accumulation of adequate experimental statistics. The chosen electron polarization configuration, based on the unique figure-8 geometry of the ring, removes the electron spin-tune energy dependence. This significantly simplifies the control of the electron polarization and suppresses the synchrotron sideband resonances. This paper reports recent studies and simulations of the electron polarization dynamics in the JLEIC electron collider ring.

  16. Comparison of PCR/Electron spray Ionization-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry versus Traditional Clinical Microbiology for active surveillance of organisms contaminating high-use surfaces in a burn intensive care unit, an orthopedic ward and healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Heather C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding nosocomial pathogen transmission is restricted by culture limitations. Novel platforms, such as PCR-based electron spray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS, may be useful as investigational tools. Methods Traditional clinical microbiology (TCM and PCR/ESI-TOF-MS were used to recover and detect microorganisms from the hands and personal protective equipment of 10 burn intensive care unit (ICU healthcare workers providing clinical care at a tertiary care military referral hospital. High-use environmental surfaces were assessed in 9 burn ICU and 10 orthopedic patient rooms. Clinical cultures during the study period were reviewed for pathogen comparison with investigational molecular diagnostic methods. Results From 158 samples, 142 organisms were identified by TCM and 718 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. The molecular diagnostic method detected more organisms (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.8, p S. aureus in 13 samples vs. 21 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. Gram-negative organisms were less commonly identified than gram-positive by both methods; especially by TCM. Among all detected bacterial species, similar percentages were typical nosocomial pathogens (18-19% for TCM vs. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS also detected mecA in 112 samples, vanA in 13, and KPC-3 in 2. MecA was associated (p S. aureus. No vanA was codetected with enterococci; one KPC-3 was detected without Klebsiella spp. Conclusions In this pilot study, PCR/ESI-TOF-MS detected more organisms, especially gram-negatives, compared to TCM, but the current assay format is limited by the number of antibiotic resistance determinants it covers. Further large-scale assessments of PCR/ESI-TOF-MS for hospital surveillance are warranted.

  17. Plasmodium malariae Infection Associated with a High Burden of Anemia: A Hospital-Based Surveillance Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Langford

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium malariae is a slow-growing parasite with a wide geographic distribution. Although generally regarded as a benign cause of malaria, it has been associated with nephrotic syndrome, particularly in young children, and can persist in the host for years. Morbidity associated with P. malariae infection has received relatively little attention, and the risk of P. malariae-associated nephrotic syndrome is unknown.We used data from a very large hospital-based surveillance system incorporating information on clinical diagnoses, blood cell parameters and treatment to describe the demographic distribution, morbidity and mortality associated with P. malariae infection in southern Papua, Indonesia. Between April 2004 and December 2013 there were 1,054,674 patient presentations to Mitra Masyarakat Hospital of which 196,380 (18.6% were associated with malaria and 5,097 were with P. malariae infection (constituting 2.6% of all malaria cases. The proportion of malaria cases attributable to P. malariae increased with age from 0.9% for patients under one year old to 3.1% for patients older than 15 years. Overall, 8.5% of patients with P. malariae infection required admission to hospital and the median length of stay for these patients was 2.5 days (Interquartile Range: 2.0-4.0 days. Patients with P. malariae infection had a lower mean hemoglobin concentration (9.0 g/dL than patients with P. falciparum (9.5 g/dL, P. vivax (9.6g/dL and mixed species infections (9.3g/dL. There were four cases of nephrotic syndrome recorded in patients with P. malariae infection, three of which were in children younger than 5 years old, giving a risk in this age group of 0.47% (95% Confidence Interval; 0.10% to 1.4%. Overall, 2.4% (n = 16 of patients hospitalized with P. malariae infection subsequently died in hospital, similar to the proportions for the other endemic Plasmodium species (range: 0% for P. ovale to 1.6% for P. falciparum.Plasmodium malariae infection is

  18. A preliminary study for the development of indices and the current state of surgical site infections (SSIs) in Korea: the Korean Surgical Site Infection Surveillance (KOSSIS) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Jin; Lee, Kil Yeon; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jae Gil; Choi, Hee Jung; Chun, Hee Kyung; Kang, Jung Gu

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to develop an effective system for surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance and examine the current domestic state of SSIs for common abdominal surgeries in Korea. The Korean Surgical Site Infection Surveillance (KOSSIS) program was developed as an SSI surveillance system. A prospective multicenter study in nine university-affiliated or general hospitals was conducted for patients who underwent gastrectomy, cholecystectomy, appendectomy, colectomy, or proctectomy between August 16 and September 30 in 2012. Patients were monitored for up to 30 days by combining direct observation and a postdischarge surgeon survey. Data on SSIs were prospectively collected with KOSSIS secretarial support according to a common protocol. Operation-specific SSI rates were stratified according to risk factors and compared with data from the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS) and National Healthcare Safety Network. A focus group interview was conducted with participating hospitals for feedback. A total of 1,088 operations were monitored: 207 gastrectomies, 318 cholecystectomies, 270 appendectomies, 197 colectomies, and 96 proctectomies. Operation-specific SSI rates determined by the KOSSIS program were substantially higher than those found in KONIS (7.73% [95% confidence interval, 4.5%-12.3%] vs. 3.4% for gastrectomies, 10.15% [95% confidence interval, 6.1%-15.2%] vs. 4.0% for colectomy, and 13.5% [95% confidence interval, 7.4%-22.0%] vs. 4.2% for proctectomy). Despite a short surveillance period and heterogenous group of hospitals, our results suggest that KOSSIS could be a useful program to enhance SSI surveillance in Korea.

  19. Sirenomelia : An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orioli, Ieda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Arteaga-Vazquez, Jazmin; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Pierini, Anna; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system m

  20. Priorities for antibiotic resistance surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluit, A. C.; van der Bruggen, J. T.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies...... to the various reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as hospitalised patients, nursing homes, the community, animals and food. Two studies that could serve as examples of tailored programmes are the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS), which collects resistance data during...... of antibiotic resistance....

  1. Electronic merger of large health care data sets: cautionary notes from a study of agricultural morbidity in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Erika E; Krupa, Nicole L; Sorensen, Julie; Jenkins, Paul L

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture ranks among industries with the highest rates of occupational injury and fatality. Administrative medical data sets have long been thought to have potential for occupational injury surveillance. This research explores the feasibility of establishing an agricultural injury surveillance system in New York State that combines data from existing electronic sources. Prehospital Care Report (PCR) data containing the nature of the accident, type of injury, time and date, and patient disposition were received. Researchers also obtained both hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) records for 2007 through 2009 from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS). For SPARCS data, a computer algorithm identified all potential cases of agricultural injury using International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 codes. An attempt was then made to match PCR and SPARCS data using accident date, gender, age, and admitting hospital. Of the PCR records that were matched to SPARCS, 46.8% were found on subsequent inspection to not actually relate to the same incident. Total PCR counts for 2007 and 2008 showed considerable fluctuation, at 2,512,828 and 2,948,841, respectively. A total of 1275, 1336, and 1393 farm injuries were identified in the SPARCS records for 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively. This study demonstrates that accurate matching of PCR and SPARCS records requires the use of unique personal identifiers. Further, annual fluctuations in PCR counts preclude their current use in a surveillance system. An electronic data set consisting of SPARCS data could be used for surveillance, but would benefit from the addition of PCR data as these become more consistent.

  2. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  3. Electron Cloud Parameterization Studies in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, O; Baglin, V; Bregliozzi, G; Jimenez, J M; Metral, E; Rumolo, G; Schulte, D; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    During LHC beam commissioning with 150, 75 and 50-ns bunch spacing, important electron-cloud effects, like pressure rise, cryogenic heat load, beam instabilities or emittance growth, were observed. The main strategy to combat the LHC electron cloud, defined about ten years ago, relies on the surface conditioning arising from the chamber-surface bombardment with cloud electrons. In a standard model, the conditioning state of the beam-pipe surface is characterized by three parameters: 1. most importantly, the secondary emission yield δmax; 2. the incident electron energy at which the yield is maximum, ε_max; and 3. the probability of elastic reflection of low-energy primary electrons hitting the chamber wall, R. Since at the LHC no in-situ secondary-yield measurements are available, we compare the relative local pressure-rise measurements taken for different beam configurations against simulations in which surface parameters are scanned. This benchmarking of measurements and simulations is used to infer the s...

  4. How the surveillance system may bias the results of analytical epidemiological studies on BSE: prevalence among dairy versus beef suckler cattle breeds in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Morignat, Eric; Baron, Thierry; Calavas, Didier

    2003-01-01

    Until recently, epidemiological studies on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) were based on Mandatory Reporting Systems (MRS) of clinically suspect bovines only, but rapid diagnostic tests were validated in 1999 and are used for targeted surveillance in Switzerland, France and other countries, as a complementary and secondary tool. Data on 30491 cattle issued from a French pilot program targeted at cattle having died on the farm, subjected to euthanasia or sent for emergency slaughter, did not show any significant difference in BSE risk between dairy and beef suckler breeds. The data also revealed that part of the clinical cases of BSE escaped the MRS, which permitted to detect more dairy than beef suckler affected cattle compared to the targeted surveillance in the same period (from August to December 2000) and region (Bretagne, Pays de la Loire and Basse Normandie regions). Analyzing together the data of the targeted surveillance and mandatory reporting system programs with a non-conditional logistic regression, we found that the odds of a dead cow being a BSE case among all dead cattle was 3.2 times higher for dairy breeds compared to beef suckler breeds. This confirmed British findings but points out to the fact that considering either MRS or targeted surveillance data alone may possibly create biases in epidemiological studies on BSE.

  5. Healthcare-associated infections in pediatric cancer patients: results of a prospective surveillance study from university hospitals in Germany and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutkowski Stefan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatric cancer patients face an increased risk of healthcare-associated infection (HAI. To date, no prospective multicenter studies have been published on this topic. Methods Prospective multicenter surveillance for HAI and nosocomial fever of unknown origin (nFUO with specific case definitions and standardized surveillance methods. Results 7 pediatric oncology centers (university facilities participated from April 01, 2001 to August 31, 2005. During 54,824 days of inpatient surveillance, 727 HAIs and nFUOs were registered in 411 patients. Of these, 263 (36% were HAIs in 181 patients, for an incidence density (ID (number of events per 1,000 inpatient days of 4.8 (95% CI 4.2 to 5.4; range 2.4 to 11.7; P Conclusion Our study confirmed that pediatric cancer patients are at an increased risk for specific HAIs. The prospective surveillance of HAI and comparison with cumulative multicenter results are indispensable for targeted prevention of these adverse events of anticancer treatment.

  6. Feasability Study of Electronic Load Sensing Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Andersen, Torben O.; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2006-01-01

    to traditional LS-systems, in terms of better control and system utilization possibilities, combined with the increased acceptance and use of electronic sensors in mobile hydraulic machinery. The current work is to evaluate the suitability of an ELS concepts applied to a Sauer Danfoss Series 45 H-frame open......Electronic load sensing (ELS) systems have long been expected to start replacing traditional (hydro-mechanical) load sensing (LS) systems, which today are the standard on most medium and high-end mobile hydraulic applications. The reason for this being the potentials that ELS brings relative...

  7. Study of Short Bunches at the Free Electron Laser CLIO

    CERN Document Server

    Delerue, Nicolas; Khodnevych, Vitalii; Berthet, Jean-Paul; Glotin, Francois; Ortega, Jean-Michel; Prazeres, Rui

    2016-01-01

    CLIO is a Free Electron Laser based on a thermionic electron gun. In its normal operating mode it delivers electron 8 pulses but studies are ongoing to shorten the pulses to about 1 ps. We report on simulations showing how the pulse can be shortened and the expected signal yield from several bunch length diagnostics (Coherent Transition Radiation, Coherent Smith Purcell Radiation).

  8. Study and Demarcating of Electron Magnetic Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYe-jun; SHANYu-sheng; TAOYe-zheng; CHENGYou-jian; ZHANGHai-feng

    2003-01-01

    The principle of electron magnetic spectrometer is a moving charged particle circles a central point for the Lorenz force when it moves in a steady magnetic field, at the same time, we consider the influence of gravity excursion, magnetic grads excursion and curvature excursion. Having adopted yoke iron equalizing technology and had magnetic field and gravity field at the same line.

  9. THEORETICAL STUDY ON ELECTRONIC STRUCTURES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    method and density function theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. ... and the increase in the number of thiophene rings in the derivatives lead to the decrease ... At the same time, the first absorptions in the electronic spectra and the stretching ...

  10. Using Social Media to Perform Local Influenza Surveillance in an Inner-City Hospital: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, David Andre; Dredze, Mark; Paul, Michael J; Dugas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Public health officials and policy makers in the United States expend significant resources at the national, state, county, and city levels to measure the rate of influenza infection. These individuals rely on influenza infection rate information to make important decisions during the course of an influenza season driving vaccination campaigns, clinical guidelines, and medical staffing. Web and social media data sources have emerged as attractive alternatives to supplement existing practices. While traditional surveillance methods take 1-2 weeks, and significant labor, to produce an infection estimate in each locale, web and social media data are available in near real-time for a broad range of locations. The objective of this study was to analyze the efficacy of flu surveillance from combining data from the websites Google Flu Trends and HealthTweets at the local level. We considered both emergency department influenza-like illness cases and laboratory-confirmed influenza cases for a single hospital in the City of Baltimore. This was a retrospective observational study comparing estimates of influenza activity of Google Flu Trends and Twitter to actual counts of individuals with laboratory-confirmed influenza, and counts of individuals presenting to the emergency department with influenza-like illness cases. Data were collected from November 20, 2011 through March 16, 2014. Each parameter was evaluated on the municipal, regional, and national scale. We examined the utility of social media data for tracking actual influenza infection at the municipal, state, and national levels. Specifically, we compared the efficacy of Twitter and Google Flu Trends data. We found that municipal-level Twitter data was more effective than regional and national data when tracking actual influenza infection rates in a Baltimore inner-city hospital. When combined, national-level Twitter and Google Flu Trends data outperformed each data source individually. In addition, influenza

  11. Resurgence of Diphtheria in North Kerala, India, 2016: Laboratory Supported Case-Based Surveillance Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangal, Lucky; Joshi, Sudhir; Anandan, Shalini; Balaji, Veeraraghavan; Johnson, Jaichand; Satapathy, Asish; Haldar, Pradeep; Rayru, Ramesh; Ramamurthy, Srinath; Raghavan, Asha; Bhatnagar, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    As part of national program, laboratory supported vaccine preventable diseases surveillance was initiated in Kerala in 2015. Mechanisms have been strengthened for case investigation, reporting, and data management. Specimens collected and sent to state and reference laboratories for confirmation and molecular surveillance. The major objective of this study is to understand the epidemiological information generated through surveillance system and its utilization for action. Surveillance data captured from reporting register, case investigation forms, and laboratory reports was analyzed. Cases were allotted unique ID and no personal identifying information was used for analysis. Throat swabs were collected from investigated cases as part of surveillance system. All Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates were confirmed with standard biochemical tests, ELEK's test, and real-time PCR. Isolates were characterized using whole genome-based multi locus sequence typing method. Case investigation forms and laboratory results were recorded electronically. Public health response by government was also reviewed. A total of 533 cases were identified in 11 districts of Kerala in 2016, of which 92% occurred in 3 districts of north Kerala; Malappuram, Kozhikode, and Kannur. Almost 79% cases occurred in >10 years age group. In surveillance for providing real-time information on disease occurrence and mortality is imperative. The epidemiological data thus generated was used for targeted interventions and to formulate vaccine policies. The data on molecular surveillance have given an insight on strain variation and transmission patterns.

  12. Multi locus variable-number tandem repeat (MLVA typing tools improved the surveillance of Salmonella enteritidis: a 6 years retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Bertrand

    Full Text Available Surveillance of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is generally considered to benefit from molecular techniques like multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA, which allow early detection and confinement of outbreaks. Here, a surveillance study, including phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and MLVA on 1,535 S. Enteritidis isolates collected between 2007 and 2012, was used to evaluate the added value of MLVA for public health surveillance in Belgium. Phage types PT4, PT8, PT21, PT1, PT6, PT14b, PT28 and PT13 dominate the Belgian S. Enteritidis population. The isolates of S. Enteritidis were most frequently susceptible to all antibiotics tested. 172 different MLVA profiles were detected, of which 9 frequent profiles included 67.2% of the S. Enteritidis population. During a serial passage experiment on selected isolates to investigate the in vitro stability of the 5 MLVA loci, no variations over time were observed indicating that the MLVA profiles were stable. The MLVA profile of isolates originating from different outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC between 2010 and 2011 were distinct from any of the MLVA profiles found in Belgian isolates throughout the six year observational period and demonstrates that MLVA improves public health surveillance of S. Enteritidis. However, MLVA should be complemented with other subtyping methods when investigating outbreaks is caused by the most common MLVA profile.

  13. Multi locus variable-number tandem repeat (MLVA) typing tools improved the surveillance of Salmonella enteritidis: a 6 years retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sophie; De Lamine de Bex, Guillaume; Wildemauwe, Christa; Lunguya, Octavie; Phoba, Marie France; Ley, Benedikt; Jacobs, Jan; Vanhoof, Raymond; Mattheus, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is generally considered to benefit from molecular techniques like multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA), which allow early detection and confinement of outbreaks. Here, a surveillance study, including phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and MLVA on 1,535 S. Enteritidis isolates collected between 2007 and 2012, was used to evaluate the added value of MLVA for public health surveillance in Belgium. Phage types PT4, PT8, PT21, PT1, PT6, PT14b, PT28 and PT13 dominate the Belgian S. Enteritidis population. The isolates of S. Enteritidis were most frequently susceptible to all antibiotics tested. 172 different MLVA profiles were detected, of which 9 frequent profiles included 67.2% of the S. Enteritidis population. During a serial passage experiment on selected isolates to investigate the in vitro stability of the 5 MLVA loci, no variations over time were observed indicating that the MLVA profiles were stable. The MLVA profile of isolates originating from different outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) between 2010 and 2011 were distinct from any of the MLVA profiles found in Belgian isolates throughout the six year observational period and demonstrates that MLVA improves public health surveillance of S. Enteritidis. However, MLVA should be complemented with other subtyping methods when investigating outbreaks is caused by the most common MLVA profile.

  14. Value of Surveillance Studies for Patients With Stage I to II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Rituximab Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiniker, Susan M.; Pollom, Erqi L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Khodadoust, Michael S. [Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Kozak, Margaret M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Xu, Guofan; Quon, Andrew [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Advani, Ranjana H. [Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Hoppe, Richard T., E-mail: rhoppe@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Background: The role of surveillance studies in limited-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the rituximab era has not been well defined. We sought to evaluate the use of imaging (computed tomography [CT] and positron emission tomography [PET]-CT) scans and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in surveillance of patients with stage I to II DLBCL. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who received definitive treatment between 2000 and 2013. Results: One hundred sixty-two consecutive patients with stage I to II DLBCL were treated with chemotherapy +/− rituximab, radiation, or combined modality therapy. The 5-year rates of overall survival (OS) and freedom from progression (FFP) were 81.2% and 80.8%, respectively. Of the 162 patients, 124 (77%) were followed up with at least 1 surveillance PET scan beyond end-of-treatment scans; of those, 94 of 124 (76%) achieved a complete metabolic response on PET scan after completion of chemotherapy, and this was associated with superior FFP (P=.01, HR=0.3) and OS (P=.01, HR 0.3). Eighteen patients experienced relapse after initial response to therapy. Nine relapses were initially suspected by surveillance imaging studies (8 PET, 1 CT), and 9 were suspected clinically (5 by patient-reported symptoms and 4 by symptoms and physical examination). No relapses were detected by surveillance LDH. The median duration from initiation of treatment to relapse was 14.3 months among patients with relapses suspected by imaging, and 59.8 months among patients with relapses suspected clinically (P=.077). There was no significant difference in OS from date of first therapy or OS after relapse between patients whose relapse was suspected by imaging versus clinically. Thirteen of 18 patients underwent successful salvage therapy after relapse. Conclusions: A complete response on PET scan immediately after initial chemotherapy is associated with superior FFP and OS in stage I to II DLBCL. The use of PET scans as

  15. Evaluation of multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Frisén,Marianne; Andersson, Eva; Schiöler, Linus

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate surveillance is of interest in many areas such as industrial production, bioterrorism detection, spatial surveillance, and financial transaction strategies. Some of the suggested approaches to multivariate surveillance have been multivariate counterparts to the univariate Shewhart, EWMA, and CUSUM methods. Our emphasis is on the special challenges of evaluating multivariate surveillance methods. Some new measures are suggested and the properties of several measures are demonstrat...

  16. [HIV and syphilis coinfection in pregnancy and vertical HIV transmission: a study based on epidemiological surveillance data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Lisiane M W; Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Barcellos, Nêmora Tregnago

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the rate of HIV and syphilis coinfection among pregnant women living in Porto Alegre, Brazil, as well as the association of coinfection with vertical HIV transmission and socioeconomic variables. This analytical retrospective cross-sectional study employed data from the regular epidemiological surveillance system for the period from 2010 to 2013. Data were obtained regarding pregnant women with HIV and exposed children, syphilis in pregnancy, and congenital syphilis. The study population included 1 500 HIV-positive women with deliveries from 2010 to 2013. Of these, 155 (10.3%) were also infected with syphilis, corresponding to an HIV and syphilis coinfection rate of 10.2% (± 1.5%). The coinfected group had lower education levels, higher prevalence of black women, and greater HIV exposure related to drug use by the woman or a partner. Coinfected women had more delayed HIV diagnosis (for example, during childbirth) and greater prevalence of lacking prenatal care (44%). Crude analysis showed an association between vertical HIV transmission and HIV and syphilis co-infection (PR = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.21-3.74; P = 0.01) that persisted in the adjusted analysis. A profile of increased vulnerability was identified among pregnant women with HIV and syphilis coinfection. A positive impact of the treatment to reduce congenital syphilis and eliminate vertical transmission of HIV depends on enhanced access to qualified health care.

  17. A Seventeen-Year Epidemiological Surveillance Study of Borrelia burgdorferi Infections in Two Provinces of Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Lledó

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a 17-year seroepidemiological surveillance study of Borrelia burgdorferi infection, performed with the aim of improving our knowledge of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Serum samples (1,179 from patients (623, stratified with respect to age, sex, season, area of residence and occupation bitten by ticks in two regions of northern Spain were IFA-tested for B. burgdorferi antibodies. Positive results were confirmed by western blotting. Antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi were found in 13.3% of the patients; 7.8% were IgM positive, 9.6% were IgG positive, and 4.33% were both IgM and IgG positive. Five species of ticks were identified in the seropositive patients: Dermacentor marginatus (41.17% of such patients Dermacentor reticulatus (11.76%, Rhiphicephalus sanguineus (17.64%, Rhiphicephalus turanicus (5.88% and Ixodes ricinus (23.52%. B. burgdorferi DNA was sought by PCR in ticks when available. One tick, a D. reticulatus male, was found carrying the pathogen. The seroprevalence found was similar to the previously demonstrated in similar studies in Spain and other European countries.

  18. Safety and efficacy of adapalene gel 0.1% in acne vulgaris: Results of a post-marketing surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy S

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adapalene is a novel retinoid indicated for the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. The drug was introduced in India in 2001. Aims: A post-marketing surveillance study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of adapalene gel 0.1% when used as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-acne agents in Indian patients of acne vulgaris. Material and Methods: A 12-week, multicentre, open-label, non-comparative study involving 571 patients from 21 centers across India was conducted between January and September of 2002. Concomitant prescription of other anti-acne drugs was permitted, if needed. Results: Of the 571 patients, 441 completed the treatment as per protocol. At the end of therapy, 96.3% of patients showed an improvement in their acne from baseline, with greater than 75% improvement seen in two-thirds of patients. Adverse events were reported in 24% of the patients, none of which were serious. The tolerability of therapy was rated as excellent/good in 81% of patients by physicians and in 78% by the patients. Conclusion: Adapalene gel 0.1% is a safe and effective topical agent in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris in Indian patients. It may be safely combined with other topical and oral anti-acne agents.

  19. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    resistance surveillance, diarrhea etiology and antimicrobial resistance surveillance, sexually transmitted illness surveillance, and capacity building...vomiting, diarrhea , joint pains, general malaise. Of the samples analyzed, only 53.7% had an associated etiology: Malaria (47.0%, EBV (39.7...immunity to the disease. Many adults in those situations are reservoirs, facilitating continuing disease transmission to those without immunity. In Kenya

  20. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  1. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  2. Platforms for Persistent Communications, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Membership Study Manager Ms. Anorme Anim – ASB Communications (Comms) Team Dr. Allen Adler Dr. Pete Swan BG(Ret) Bob Wynn Ms. Madhu Beriwal Surveillance...Pete Swan BG(Ret) Bob Wynn Dr. Madhu Beriwal Surveillance & Reconnaissance (SR) Team Dr. Darrell Collier Mr. Herb Gallagher Mr. Gary Glaser Mr. Steve...ASB Communications (Comms) Team Dr. Allen Adler Dr. Pete Swan BG(Ret) Bob Wynn Ms. Madhu Beriwal Surveillance & Reconnaissance (SR) Team Dr

  3. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of Pr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tezuka, Keitaro; Hinatsu, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of tetravalent praseodymium ions doped in the cubic perovskite compound BaHfO{sub 3} have been measured at 4.2 K. A very large hyperfine interaction with the {sup 141}Pr nucleus was observed in the spectrum of Pr{sup 4+}/ BaHfO{sub 3}. The results were analyzed based on the weak field approximation, and the g value (|g|=0.619) and a hyperfine coupling constant (A=0.0589 cm{sup {minus}1}) were obtained. The measured g value is much smaller than |-10/7|, which indicates that the crystal field effect on the behavior of a 4f electron is large. These g and A values were compared with the EPR results for other f{sup 1} ions in an octahedral crystal field.

  4. Modified Monte Carlo method for study of electron transport in degenerate electron gas in the presence of electron-electron interactions, application to graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek

    2017-07-01

    Standard computational methods used to take account of the Pauli Exclusion Principle into Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of electron transport in semiconductors may give unphysical results in low field regime, where obtained electron distribution function takes values exceeding unity. Modified algorithms were already proposed and allow to correctly account for electron scattering on phonons or impurities. Present paper extends this approach and proposes improved simulation scheme allowing including Pauli exclusion principle for electron-electron (e-e) scattering into MC simulations. Simulations with significantly reduced computational cost recreate correct values of the electron distribution function. Proposed algorithm is applied to study transport properties of degenerate electrons in graphene with e-e interactions. This required adapting the treatment of e-e scattering in the case of linear band dispersion relation. Hence, this part of the simulation algorithm is described in details.

  5. Surveillance and threat detection prevention versus mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and Threat Detection offers readers a complete understanding of the terrorist/criminal cycle, and how to interrupt that cycle to prevent an attack. Terrorists and criminals often rely on pre-attack and pre-operational planning and surveillance activities that can last a period of weeks, months, or even years. Identifying and disrupting this surveillance is key to prevention of attacks. The systematic capture of suspicious events and the correlation of those events can reveal terrorist or criminal surveillance, allowing security professionals to employ appropriate countermeasures and identify the steps needed to apprehend the perpetrators. The results will dramatically increase the probability of prevention while streamlining protection assets and costs. Readers of Surveillance and Threat Detection will draw from real-world case studies that apply to their real-world security responsibilities. Ultimately, readers will come away with an understanding of how surveillance detection at a high-value, f...

  6. The Impact of Heatwaves on Community Morbidity and Healthcare Usage: A Retrospective Observational Study Using Real-Time Syndromic Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of a moderate heatwave on a range of presenting morbidities in England. Asthma, difficulty breathing, cerebrovascular accident, and cardiovascular symptoms were analysed using general practitioner in hours (GPIH, out of hours (GPOOH and emergency department (ED syndromic surveillance systems. Data were stratified by age group and compared between a heatwave year (2013 and non-heatwave years (2012, 2014. Incidence rate ratios were calculated to estimate the differential impact of heatwave compared to non-heatwave summers: there were no apparent differences for the morbidities tested between the 2013 heatwave and non-heatwave years. A subset of GPIH data were used to study individuals at higher risk from heatwaves based on their pre-existing disease. Higher risk patients were not more likely to present at GPs or ED than other individuals. Comparing GPIH consultations and ED attendances for myocardial infarction/ischaemia (MI, there was evidence of a fall in the presentation of MI during the heatwave, which was particularly noted in the 65–74 years age group (and over 75 years in ED attendances. These results indicate the difficulty in identifying individuals at risk from non-fatal health effects of heatwaves and hot weather.

  7. [Risk profiling in cancer surveillance in contaminated sites: an example from the ISS-AIRTUM collaborative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelan, Dolores; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Coviello, Enzo; Crocetti, Emanuele; Pasetto, Roberto; Pirastu, Roberta; Biggeri, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological surveillance on high risk environmental areas or areas covered by cancer registration yields long inventories of relative risks. Summaries of the results' tables must be produced to identify priorities and tailor public health actions. The aim is, therefore, to draw conclusions from each area's disease profile, or from the area signature of each disease.With this inmind, we used data on cancer incidence from 17 Cancer Registries that participated in the ISS-AIRTUM (National Institute of Health-Italian Network of Cancer Registries) study, and we produced conditional and marginal rankings of areas/diseases using a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian model. In this context, it is important to obtain an uncertainty evaluation by calculating the credibility intervals of ranks. The areas marginal ranking shows a large overlapping of credibility intervals, such that it is not possible to speak of a limited number of ISS-AIRTUM areas as being particularly affected. Every ISS-AIRTUMarea, therefore,must be considered individually and ordering themby ranking of cancer incidence wouldn't be appropriate. Instead,marginal ranking of diseases highlights the impact of asbestos exposure in all the analyzed areas.

  8. Active surveillance of visual impairment due to adverse drug reactions: findings from a national study in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, Phillippa M; Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle; Rahi, Jugnoo S

    2015-02-01

    As visual impairment (VI) due to adverse drug reactions (ADR) is rare in adults and children, there is an incomplete evidence base to inform guidance for screening and for counseling patients on the potential risks of medications. We report on suspected drugs and the eye conditions found in a national study of incidence of diagnosis of visual impairment due to suspected ADR. Case ascertainment was via the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit (BOSU), between March 2010 and February 2012, with follow-up after 6 months. any child or adult with bilateral or unilateral visual impairment due to a suspected ADR, using distance acuity worse than Snellen 6/18 (logMAR 0.48) in the better eye (bilateral) or affected eye (unilateral). Anonymized patient information on potential cases was provided by managing ophthalmologists, comprising visual status before and after suspected ADR, ophthalmic condition attributable to the ADR, preexisting eye disease and prescribed medications at the time of the ADR. Permanency and causality of the visual impairment were confirmed by the managing clinician, after 6 months, using the WHO Uppsala Monitoring Committee criteria. Over 2 years, 36 eligible cases were reported of whom 23 had permanent VI. While most cases were due to drugs known to have adverse side-effects, some were unanticipated sporadic cases. Visual impairment due to ADRs is rare. However, with for example, increasing polypharmacy in the elderly, monitoring of ocular ADRs, although challenging, is necessary.

  9. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis group in Canada in 2010-2011: CANWARD surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, James A; Walkty, Andrew J; Adam, Heather J; Baxter, Melanie R; Hoban, Daryl J; Zhanel, George G

    2012-03-01

    Clinical isolates of the Bacteroides fragilis group (n = 387) were collected from patients attending nine Canadian hospitals in 2010-2011 and tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. B. fragilis (59.9%), Bacteroides ovatus (16.3%), and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (12.7%) accounted for ~90% of isolates collected. Overall rates of percent susceptibility were as follows: 99.7%, metronidazole; 99.5%, piperacillin-tazobactam; 99.2%, imipenem; 97.7%, ertapenem; 92.0%, doripenem; 87.3%, amoxicillin-clavulanate; 80.9%, tigecycline; 65.9%, cefoxitin; 55.6%, moxifloxacin; and 52.2%, clindamycin. Percent susceptibility to cefoxitin, clindamycin, and moxifloxacin was lowest for B. thetaiotaomicron (n = 49, 24.5%), Parabacteroides distasonis/P. merdae (n = 11, 9.1%), and B. ovatus (n = 63, 31.8%), respectively. One isolate (B. thetaiotaomicron) was resistant to metronidazole, and two isolates (both B. fragilis) were resistant to both piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem. Since the last published surveillance study describing Canadian isolates of B. fragilis group almost 20 years ago (A.-M. Bourgault et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:343-347, 1992), rates of resistance have increased for amoxicillin-clavulanate, from 0.8% (1992) to 6.2% (2010-2011), and for clindamycin, from 9% (1992) to 34.1% (2010-2011).

  10. Aetiologies of central nervous system infection in Viet Nam: a prospective provincial hospital-based descriptive surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghia Ho Dang Trung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. METHODS: We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007-April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. RESULTS: We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52% of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24% and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6% adult patients and 11/624 (2% paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR during hospital admission was 73/617 (12% in adults and to 42/624 (7% in children. CONCLUSIONS: Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam.

  11. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  12. Azurin for Biomolecular Electronics: a Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramanti, Alessandro; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Maruccio, Giuseppe; Calabi, Franco; Arima, Valentina; Cingolani, Roberto; Corni, Stefano; Di Felice, Rosa; De Rienzo, Francesca; Rinaldi, Ross

    2005-09-01

    The metalloprotein azurin, used in biomolecular electronics, is investigated with respect to its resilience to high electric fields and ambient conditions, which are crucial reliability issues. Concerning the effect of electric fields, two models of different complexity agree indicating an unexpectedly high robustness. Experiments in device-like conditions confirm that no structural modifications occur, according to fluorescence spectra, even after a 40-min exposure to tens of MV/m. Ageing is then investigated experimentally, at ambient conditions and without field, over several days. Only a small conformational rearrangement is observed in the first tens of hours, followed by an equilibrium state.

  13. QTAIM electron density study of natural chalcones

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Moa, María J.; Mandado, Marcos; Cordeiro, M. Natália D. S.; Mosquera, Ricardo A.

    2007-09-01

    QTAIM atomic and bond properties, ionization potential, and O-H bond dissociation energies calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level indicate the natural chalcones bear a significant radical scavenging activity. However, their ionization potentials indicate they decrease the electron-transfer rate between antioxidant and oxygen that yields the pro-oxidative cations less than other natural antioxidants. Rings A and B display slight and similar positive charges, whereas ring B is involved in exocycle delocalization at a larger extension.

  14. Multi-Electron Coincidence Studies of Atoms and Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Egil

    2010-01-01

    This thesis concerns multi-ionization coincidence measurements of atoms and small molecules using a magnetic bottle time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer designed for multi-electron coincidence studies. Also, a time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used together with the TOF electron  spectrometer for electron-ion coincidence measurements. The multi-ionization processes have been studied by employing a pulsed discharge lamp in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region and synchrotron radiation i...

  15. Surveillance of acute respiratory infections among outpatients: A pilot study in Isfahan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Javadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering that there was not any regional survey in Isfahan, Iran regarding the epidemiology of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI in different age groups of general population, the aim of this study was to determine the epidemiologic feature of ARTIs in Isfahan using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients aged 15 years old. Rhinovirus was the most common cause of ARTI in patients aged 50 years. Influenza virus B was the most common cause of ARTI in patients aged 5-50 years. Conclusion: Our study provides baseline information on the epidemiologic and clinical feature of outpatients with ARTIs in Isfahan city. Though our findings in this pilot study could be helpful in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of ARTI, planning preventive interventional.

  16. Cross-sectional small intestinal surveillance of maintenance hemodialysis patients using video capsule endoscopy: SCHEMA study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoe, Naoki; Matsukawa, Shigeaki; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Naganuma, Makoto; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Ida, Yosuke; Tsuchiya, Yoshitsugu; Hibi, Toshifumi; Ogata, Haruhiko; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Small intestinal pathology in hemodialysis (HD) patients has been studied in only a small number of retrospective case series. One method for noninvasively surveying small intestinal disorders is video capsule endoscopy (VCE). The primary aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of small intestinal abnormalities among asymptomatic maintenance HD outpatients using VCE. The secondary aim was to assess the clinical impact of these abnormalities. Patients and methods: This study consisted of two phases. In phase I, a cross-sectional study, a cohort of patients who received maintenance HD three times weekly at an outpatient hemodialysis clinic were studied using VCE. Phase II was a prospective cohort study with follow up for 1 year after VCE. Results: Fifty-six patients were enrolled in this study, and two were excluded from analysis due to capsule retention in the stomach. The prevalence of small bowel abnormalities in HD patients was 64.8 % (35/54) (95 % confidential interval 52.1 % – 77.6 %). Of 54 patients, 21 (38.9 %) had mucosal lesions, 10 (18.5 %) had vascular lesions, and 4 (7.4 %) had both lesion types. During the 1-year follow-up period, events occurred in four patients. A small bowel-associated event was observed in one patient, who underwent laparoscopy-assisted small intestinal partial resection 3 months after diagnosis by VCE. All patients in whom events were seen had small bowel abnormalities; no events were observed in the VCE-negative group. Conclusions: Although asymptomatic maintenance HD patients had a high prevalence of small bowel abnormalities (64.8 %), they did not have a high incidence of small bowel-associated events during the 1-year follow-up. PMID:27227120

  17. Epidemiology of accidents among users of two-wheeled motor vehicles. A surveillance study in two Italian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaTorre, Giuseppe; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Zotta, Donato; van Beeck, Edward; Ricciardi, Gualtiero

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes a study on the epidemiology of accidents among users of two-wheeled motor vehicles in two Italian cities, Rome and Naples. A surveillance study was conducted, recruiting the victims of accidents among users of two-wheeled motor vehicles, visiting the emergency departments of two Italian hospitals. The registration form includes personal data of the involved person, circumstances of the accident, means of arrival at the hospital, type of vehicles involved, helmet use, and eventually third parties involved, and data on the specific injury diagnosis. 736 injured drivers of two-wheeled motor vehicles were investigated for the study (65.1% males, 34.9% females). The mean age of the victims was 22.92 years; 42.9% of the injuries were the result of a single accident. In 35.5% of the injuries cars were involved and in 8.6% of the cases there was a passenger included. Only 12% of the injured people were wearing a helmet. Most of the lesions concerns the knee or lower leg (27.5%), followed by the head (17.5%), elbow and forearm (8.8%), wrist and hand (8.6%), shoulder and upper arm (8.4%) and ankle and foot (6.9%). Helmet use has a protective effect (OR = 0.23), whereas accidents in Naples and during dark hours are associated with an increased risk of head injury (respectively OR = 1.93, and OR = 1.46). In this study the lower injury risk due to the use of the helmet on the frequency and severity of head trauma was confirmed. Moreover, the results confirm that Emergency Departments can provide essential epidemiological information, and they have already provided clear arguments in favour of extending the compulsory use of helmets to people above 18 years in Italy.

  18. Study of electron transport in hydrocarbon gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H. [Tomakomai National College of Technology, Tomakomai 059-1275 (Japan); Date, H. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

    2015-04-07

    The drift velocity and the effective ionization coefficient of electrons in the organic gases, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3}, have been measured over relatively wide ranges of density-reduced electric fields (E/N) at room temperature (around 300 K). The drift velocity was measured, based on the arrival-time spectra of electrons by using a double-shutter drift tube over the E/N range from 300 to 2800 Td, and the effective ionization coefficient (α − η) was determined by the steady-state Townsend method from 150 to 3000 Td. Whenever possible, these parameters were compared with those available in the literature. It has been shown that the swarm parameters for these gases have specific tendencies, depending on their molecular configurations.

  19. Simulation study of secondary electron images in scanning ion microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ohya, K

    2003-01-01

    The target atomic number, Z sub 2 , dependence of secondary electron yield is simulated by applying a Monte Carlo code for 17 species of metals bombarded by Ga ions and electrons in order to study the contrast difference between scanning ion microscopes (SIM) and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In addition to the remarkable reversal of the Z sub 2 dependence between the Ga ion and electron bombardment, a fine structure, which is correlated to the density of the conduction band electrons in the metal, is calculated for both. The brightness changes of the secondary electron images in SIM and SEM are simulated using Au and Al surfaces adjacent to each other. The results indicate that the image contrast in SIM is much more sensitive to the material species and is clearer than that for SEM. The origin of the difference between SIM and SEM comes from the difference in the lateral distribution of secondary electrons excited within the escape depth.

  20. Prospective Cohort Study with Active Surveillance for Fever in Four Dengue Endemic Countries in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Gustavo; Arredondo, Jose L.; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Deseda, Carmen C.; Dietze, Reynaldo; Luz, Kleber; Costa, Maria Selma N.; Cunha, Rivaldo V.; Rey, Luis C.; Morales, Javier; Reynales, Humberto; Miranda, Maria; Zambrano, Betzana; Rivas, Enrique; Garbes, Pedro; Noriega, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To prepare for a Phase III dengue vaccine efficacy trial, 20 investigational sites were selected for this observational study to identify dengue infections in a closed cohort (N = 3,000 children 9–16 years of age). Of 255 acute febrile episodes experienced by 235 children, 50 (21.3%) were considered serologically probable dengue, and 18 (7.7%) were considered virologically confirmed (i.e., dengue NS1 antigen positive) dengue cases. Considering the disease-free and at-risk period from study start to onset of symptoms, the overall incidence density of acute febrile episodes was 17.7 per 100 person-years of follow-up, ranging from 15.3 in Colombia to 22.0 in Puerto Rico. This study showed that all sites were capable of capturing and following up acute febrile episodes within a specific timeframe among the established cohort and to detect dengue cases. PMID:26013373

  1. At-a-glance, Emergency department surveillance of thermal burns and scalds, electronic Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, J; McFaull, S; Rao, D P; Do, M T; Thompson, W

    2017-01-01

    Although fatality and hospitalization rates for burns in Canada have declined over time, less serious cases still commonly present to the emergency department (ED). The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) is an injury and poisoning surveillance system administered by the Public Health Agency of Canada, operating in emergency departments of 17 hospitals. Overall, cases reported in 2013 were scalds and contact burns from hot objects. The leading direct causes of scalds were hot beverages and hot water. The leading causes of contact burns were stoves/ovens and fireplaces/accessories. While the overall proportion of burns was highest among females, males comprised a higher proportion of burns from all mechanisms except scalds.

  2. A postmarketing surveillance study of dexrabeprazole in the treatment of acid peptic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S C

    2009-02-01

    Dexrabeprazole [R(+) rabeprazole] is a novel proton-pump inhibitor which has recently become available in India for the treatment of acid peptic diseases. Experimental and clinical studies have shown superiority of dexrabeprazole (at half the recommended rabeprazole dose) over rabeprazole in terms of favourable pharmacokinetics, better efficacy and faster and greater healing activity. Results of present study in a large population of 4931 patients of acid peptic disorders, reconfirmed safety and efficacy of dexrabeprazole 10 mg once daily in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and also showed its effectiveness in the treatment of patients with peptic ulcers (gastric/duodenal).

  3. European surveillance study on antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazier, J; Chmelar, D; Dubreuil, L

    2008-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of microorganisms frequently isolated from local and systemic infections. In this study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of clinical strains isolated in 10 European countries were investigated. After identification of 299 GPAC to s...

  4. Design of the Dutch prevention of influenza, surveillance and management (PRISMA) study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E.; Loon, S. van; Buskens, E.; Essen, G.A. van; Bakker, D. de; Tacken, M.A.J.B.; Hout, B.A. van; Grobbee, D.E.; Verheij, T.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Rationale and design of a study on the cost-effectiveness of the Dutch influenza vaccination campaign are described. During two influenza epidemics, about 75,000 primary care patients recommended for influenza vaccination are included. Cases have fatal or non-fatal influenza, pneumonia, otitis media

  5. Design of the Dutch prevention of influenza, surveillance and management (PRISMA) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; van Loon, S; Buskens, E; van Essen, G A; de Bakker, D; Tacken, M A J B; van Hout, B A; Grobbee, D E; Verheij, Th J M

    2003-01-01

    Rationale and design of a study on the cost-effectiveness of the Dutch influenza vaccination campaign are described. During two influenza epidemics, about 75,000 primary care patients recommended for influenza vaccination are included. Cases have fatal or non-fatal influenza, pneumonia, otitis media

  6. Surveillance for Enteric Pathogens in a Case-Control Study of Acute Diarrhea in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    parasites, two wet mounts were prepared for each specimen (one stained with iodine ) and analyzed by two laboratory technicians. For C. parvum identification...questionnaires completed at the time of study enrollment. However, a disproportionate amount of the Table 1. Enteric pathogens in patients and controls from

  7. Design of the Dutch prevention of influenza, surveillance and management (PRISMA) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; van Loon, S; Buskens, E; van Essen, G A; de Bakker, D; Tacken, M A J B; van Hout, B A; Grobbee, D E; Verheij, Th J M

    2003-01-01

    Rationale and design of a study on the cost-effectiveness of the Dutch influenza vaccination campaign are described. During two influenza epidemics, about 75,000 primary care patients recommended for influenza vaccination are included. Cases have fatal or non-fatal influenza, pneumonia, otitis media

  8. Design of the Dutch prevention of influenza, surveillance and management (PRISMA) study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E.; Loon, S. van; Buskens, E.; Essen, G.A. van; Bakker, D. de; Tacken, M.A.J.B.; Hout, B.A. van; Grobbee, D.E.; Verheij, T.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Rationale and design of a study on the cost-effectiveness of the Dutch influenza vaccination campaign are described. During two influenza epidemics, about 75,000 primary care patients recommended for influenza vaccination are included. Cases have fatal or non-fatal influenza, pneumonia, otitis media

  9. Value of surveillance {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT in colorectal cancer:comparison with conventional imaging studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Kyoung; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Park, Hye Lim; Choi, Hyun Su; Han, Eun Ji; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Soo Kyo; O, Joo Hyun [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To assess the value of PET/CT for detecting local or distant recurrence in patients who undergo surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC)and to compare the accuracy of PET/CT to that of conventional imaging studies (CIS). Tumor surveillance PET/CT scans done between March 2005 and December 2009 of disease free patients after surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for CRC were retrospectively studied. CIS (serial enhanced CT from lung base to pelvis and plain chest radiograph)were performed within 1 month of PET/CT. We excluded patients with distant metastasis on initial staging, a known recurrent tumor, and a lack of follow up imaging. The final diagnosis was based on at least 6 months of follow up with colonoscopy, biopsy, and serial imaging studies in combination with carcinoembryonic antigen levels. A total of 262 PET/CT scans of 245 patients were included. Local and distant recurrences were detected in 27 cases (10.3%). On case based analysis, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100, 97.0, and 97.3% for PET/CT and 85.1, 97.0, and 95.8% for CIS, respectively. On lesion based analysis, PET/CT detected more lesions compared to CIS in local recurrence and lung metastasis. PET/CT and CIS detected the same number of lesions in abdominal lymph nodes, hepatic metastasis, and peritoneal carcinomatosis. PET/CT detected two more metachronous tumors than did CIS in the lung and thyroid gland. PET/CT detected more recurrences in patients who underwent surgery for CRC than did CIS and had the additional advantage of evaluating the entire body during a single scan.

  10. Efficacy and safety of oral citicoline in acute ischemic stroke: drug surveillance study in 4,191 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H-J; Kim, Y J

    2009-04-01

    Citicoline is an essential precursor in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a key cell membrane phospholipid, and is known to have neuroprotective effects in acute ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of oral citicoline in Korean patients with acute ischemic stroke. A drug surveillance study was carried out in 4,191 patients with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke. Oral citicoline (500-4000 mg/day) was administered within less than 24 h after acute ischemic stroke in 3,736 patients (early group) and later than 24 h after acute ischemic stroke in 455 patients (late group) for at least 6 weeks. For efficacy assessment, primary outcomes were patients' scores obtained with a short form of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (s-NIHSS), a short form of the Barthel Index of activities of daily living (s-BI) and a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at enrollment, after 6 weeks and at the end of therapy for those patients with extended treatment. All adverse reactions were monitored during the study period for safety assessment. All measured outcomes, including s-NIHSS, s-BI and mRS, were improved after 6 weeks of therapy (P citicoline therapy for more than 12 weeks when compared with those who ended therapy at week 6. Improvements were more significant in the higher dose group (> or = 2000 mg/day) (P Citicoline safety was excellent; 37 side effects were observed in 31 patients (0.73%). The most frequent findings were nervous system-related symptoms (8 of 37, 21.62%), followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (5 of 37, 13.5%). Oral citicoline improved neurological, functional and global outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke without significant safety concerns.

  11. Prospective cohort study with active surveillance for fever in four dengue endemic countries in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Gustavo; Arredondo, Jose L; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Deseda, Carmen C; Dietze, Reynaldo; Luz, Kleber; Costa, Maria Selma N; Cunha, Rivaldo V; Rey, Luis C; Morales, Javier; Reynales, Humberto; Miranda, Maria; Zambrano, Betzana; Rivas, Enrique; Garbes, Pedro; Noriega, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    To prepare for a Phase III dengue vaccine efficacy trial, 20 investigational sites were selected for this observational study to identify dengue infections in a closed cohort (N = 3,000 children 9-16 years of age). Of 255 acute febrile episodes experienced by 235 children, 50 (21.3%) were considered serologically probable dengue, and 18 (7.7%) were considered virologically confirmed (i.e., dengue NS1 antigen positive) dengue cases. Considering the disease-free and at-risk period from study start to onset of symptoms, the overall incidence density of acute febrile episodes was 17.7 per 100 person-years of follow-up, ranging from 15.3 in Colombia to 22.0 in Puerto Rico. This study showed that all sites were capable of capturing and following up acute febrile episodes within a specific timeframe among the established cohort and to detect dengue cases. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. [Comparative study of larval and ovitrap efficacy for surveillance of dengue and yellow fever vectors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, C C; Marques, G R; de Brito, M; dos Santos Neto, L G; Ishibashi, V de C; Gomes, F de A

    1993-08-01

    A comparative study of the efficiency of ovitraps and larval-traps was undertaken with a view to improving the entomological survey of vectors of Dengue and Yellow Fever-Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus-in S. Paulo State, Brazil. The region studied is infected only by Aedes albopictus, a species that keeps to wild habitats but colonizes artificial breeding grounds as well. The first part of the study was located in a periurban area of Tremembé county were 3 hollon trees, 23 ovitraps and 5 larval-traps were compared. The second part of these experiments took place in Lavrinhas county (Pinheiros district), where 20 ovitraps and 5 larval-traps were tested. The results showed that the ovitrap was more efficient than larval-traps and were positive even in the presence of natural breeding grounds. It was also observed un the evaluation of the results of "thermonebulization (fog)" that the ovitraps showed strong reduction in the average number of eggs, but this was not observed in the Breteau Index.

  13. Experimental Studies on Electronic Portfolios in Turkey: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Selahattin; Sünbül, Ali Murat

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a literature review was conducted about an individual's selected efforts, products stored in electronic format, and electronic portfolios that reflect the development and capacity of multimedia systems. In this context, relevant experimental studies performed in Turkey are collected to show e-portfolio application forms, their…

  14. Theoretical studies on electron delocalisation in selenourea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajnish Moudgil; Prasad V Bharatam; Ravneet Kaur; Damanjit Kaur

    2002-06-01

    Ab initio and density functional calculations have been performed on the different possible structures of selenourea (), urea () and thiourea () to understand the extent of delocalisation in selenourea in comparison to urea and thiourea. Selenourea (-1) with 2 symmetry has the minima on the potential energy surface at MP2(fu)/6-31+G* level. The C-N rotational barrier in selenourea is 8.69 kcal/mol, which is 0.29 and 0.11 kcal/mol more than that of urea and thiourea respectively at MP2(fu)/6-31+G* level. N-inversion barrier is 0.55 kcal/mol at MP2(fu)6-31+G* level. NBO analysis has been carried out to understand the nature of different interactions responsible for the electron delocalisation.

  15. Study on Calibrating of Electronic Governors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qian; HUANG Ying; ZHANG Fu-jun

    2009-01-01

    The control parameters of electronic governor that influence the transient characteristics of the engine are analyzed. An electric control unit was developed and the control parameters were calibrated on the test bench. The initial value of integral term and the maximum output of rack position proportion, integration and derivation (PID) controller affect the step and triangle response drastically. Through correcting the proportional term and integral term of speed PID controller, the dynamic speed drop and speed overshoot are improved. A property control strategy for cold starting an engine is set, and the calibration process indicates that the fuel injected into the cylinder per cycle and the desired speed ascend rate drastically affect the start transient process.

  16. Introduction of software tools for epidemiological surveillance in infection control in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoa, Gabriel; Vallejo, Marta; Blanco, Víctor M; Correa, Adriana; de la Cadena, Elsa; Villegas, María Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) are a challenge for patient safety in the hospitals. Infection control committees (ICC) should follow CDC definitions when monitoring HAI. The handmade method of epidemiological surveillance (ES) may affect the sensitivity and specificity of the monitoring system, while electronic surveillance can improve the performance, quality and traceability of recorded information. Objective: To assess the implementation of a strategy for electronic surveillance of HAI, Bacterial Resistance and Antimicrobial Consumption by the ICC of 23 high-complexity clinics and hospitals in Colombia, during the period 2012-2013. Methods: An observational study evaluating the introduction of electronic tools in the ICC was performed; we evaluated the structure and operation of the ICC, the degree of incorporation of the software HAI Solutions and the adherence to record the required information. Results: Thirty-eight percent of hospitals (8/23) had active surveillance strategies with standard criteria of the CDC, and 87% of institutions adhered to the module of identification of cases using the HAI Solutions software. In contrast, compliance with the diligence of the risk factors for device-associated HAIs was 33%. Conclusions: The introduction of ES could achieve greater adherence to a model of active surveillance, standardized and prospective, helping to improve the validity and quality of the recorded information. PMID:26309340

  17. Head lice surveillance on a deregulated OTC-sales market: a study using web query data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lindh

    Full Text Available The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is an obligate ectoparasite that causes infestations of humans. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between sales figures for over-the-counter (OTC treatment products and the number of humans with head lice. The deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market on July 1, 2009, decreased the possibility to obtain complete sale figures and thereby the possibility to obtain yearly trends of head lice infestations. In the presented study we wanted to investigate whether web queries on head lice can be used as substitute for OTC sales figures. Via Google Insights for Search and Vårdguiden medical web site, the number of queries on "huvudlöss" (head lice and "hårlöss" (lice in hair were obtained. The analysis showed that both the Vårdguiden series and the Google series were statistically significant (p<0.001 when added separately, but if the Google series were already included in the model, the Vårdguiden series were not statistically significant (p = 0.5689. In conclusion, web queries can detect if there is an increase or decrease of head lice infested humans in Sweden over a period of years, and be as reliable a proxy as the OTC-sales figures.

  18. Head lice surveillance on a deregulated OTC-sales market: a study using web query data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Johan; Magnusson, Måns; Grünewald, Maria; Hulth, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is an obligate ectoparasite that causes infestations of humans. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between sales figures for over-the-counter (OTC) treatment products and the number of humans with head lice. The deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market on July 1, 2009, decreased the possibility to obtain complete sale figures and thereby the possibility to obtain yearly trends of head lice infestations. In the presented study we wanted to investigate whether web queries on head lice can be used as substitute for OTC sales figures. Via Google Insights for Search and Vårdguiden medical web site, the number of queries on "huvudlöss" (head lice) and "hårlöss" (lice in hair) were obtained. The analysis showed that both the Vårdguiden series and the Google series were statistically significant (pGoogle series were already included in the model, the Vårdguiden series were not statistically significant (p = 0.5689). In conclusion, web queries can detect if there is an increase or decrease of head lice infested humans in Sweden over a period of years, and be as reliable a proxy as the OTC-sales figures.

  19. Biological specimens for community-based surveillance studies: Method of recruitment matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda L. Coleman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies requiring the collection of biological specimens are often difficult to perform and costly. We compare face-to-face and telephone interviews to determine which is more effective for return of self-collected rectal swabs from subjects living in rural and semi-rural areas of Ontario, Canada. People interviewed face-to-face in 2006-2007 were asked to provide a rectal swab while the interviewer waited. Those interviewed by telephone were sent a package and asked to return the swab by mail, with one follow-up reminder call. Telephone interviewing resulted in a higher response rate for the completion of household and individual-level questionnaires. However, face-to-face interviews resulted in a significantly higher proportion of interviewees who returned swabs making the participation rate higher for this mode of contact (33.7 versus 25.0 percent. Using multivariable logistic regression, higher rates of rectal swab return were associated with face-to-face interviewing while adjusting for the impact of household size and respondent age and sex. For studies requiring the submission of intimate biological samples, face-to-face interviews can be expected to provide a higher rate of return than telephone interviews.

  20. Adverse Drug Reactions in a Complementary Medicine Hospital: A Prospective, Intensified Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Süsskind

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anthroposophic medicine is one of the widely used approaches of complementary and alternative medicine. However, few prospective studies have generated safety data on its use. Objectives. We aimed to assess adverse drug reactions (ADRs caused by anthroposophical medicines (AMEDs in the anthroposophical Community Hospital Havelhoehe, GERMANY. Study Design and Methods. Between May and November 2007, patients of six medical wards were prospectively assessed for ADRs. Suspected ADRs occurring during hospitalization were documented and classified in terms of organ manifestation (WHO SOC-code, causality (according to the Uppsala Monitoring Centre WHO criteria, and severity. Only those ADRs with a severity of grade 2 and higher according to the CTCAE classification system are described here. Results. Of the 3,813 patients hospitalized, 174 patients (4.6% experienced 211 ADRs (CTCAE grade 2/3 n=191, 90.5%, CTCAE grade 4/5 n=20, 9.5% of which 57 ADRs (27.0% were serious. The median age of patients with ADRs (62.1% females was 72.0 (IQR: 61.0; 80.0. Six patients (0.2% experienced six ADRs (2.8% of ADRs caused by eight suspected AMEDs, all of which were mild reactions (grade 2. Conclusion. Our data show that ADRs caused by AMEDs occur rarely and are limited to mild symptoms.

  1. Secure surveillance videotapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pepper, S. [International Safeguards Project Office, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system`s tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal.

  2. Efficacy, tolerability and safety of nebivolol in patients with hypertension and diabetes: a post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bortel, L M

    2010-09-01

    Hypertension is a widely prevalent condition of elevated blood pressure (BP) and is the leading risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Many patients have additional risk factors such as diabetes mellitus (DM) or previous history of CVD. Nebivolol is a third-generation beta (beta)-blockers which has been shown not to influence metabolic parameters in patients with DM. This postmarketing surveillance study aimed to collect information on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of nebivolol in hypertensive patients with concomitant DM. Hypertensive patients with DM followed by 52 cardiologists, internal medicine specialists and general practitioners, between 24 August 2003 and 9 January 2007 in The Netherlands were included in this study. Physicians were asked to survey nebivolol treatment for 6 months. A total of 510 patients were enrolled. Overall, 93.3% of patients were diagnosed with essential hypertension and 6.7% with secondary hypertension. All patients were co-diagnosed with DM. Nebivolol therapy was associated with a significant reduction in both systolic blood pressure (BP) and diastolic BP versus baseline (p hypertension, resistance or intolerance to previous antihypertensive medication, or other reasons). A significant improvement in blood glucose was seen at 4 months (-0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.021). Significant reductions in total cholesterol (-1.45 mmol/L; p = 0.006), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (-1.32 mmol/L; p = 0.003) and LDL/high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio (-0.77; p = 0.011) were observed at 2 months. No significant changes were seen in HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Nebivolol treatment was associated with a significantly reduced BP, improved blood glucose and LDL cholesterol levels and was well tolerated in hypertensive patients with concomitant DM.

  3. Effects of sex on the incidence and prognosis of spinal meningiomas: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwick, Harrison J; Shamji, Mohammed F

    2015-09-01

    Most spinal meningiomas are intradural lesions in the thoracic spine that present with both local pain and myelopathy. By using the large prospective Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, the authors studied the incidence of spinal meningiomas and examined demographic and treatment factors predictive of death. Using SEER*Stat software, the authors queried the SEER database for cases of spinal meningioma between 2000 and 2010. From the results, tumor incidence and demographic statistics were computed; incidence was analyzed as a function of tumor location, pathology, age, sex, and malignancy code. Survival was analyzed by using a Cox proportional hazards ratio in SPSS for age, sex, marital status, primary site, size quartile, treatment modality, and malignancy code. In this analysis, significance was set at a p value of 0.05. The 1709 spinal meningiomas reported in the SEER database represented 30.7% of all primary intradural spinal tumors and 7.9% of all meningiomas. These meningiomas occurred at an age-adjusted incidence of 0.193 (95% CI 0.183-0.202) per 100,000 population and were closely related to sex (337 [19.7%] male patients and 1372 [80.3%] female patients). The Cox hazard function for mortality in males was higher (2.4 [95% CI1.7-3.5]) and statistically significant, despite the lower lesion incidence in males. All-cause survival was lowest in patients older than 80 years. Primary site and treatment modality were not significant predictors of mortality. Spinal meningiomas represent a significant fraction of all primary intradural spinal tumors and of all meningiomas. The results of this study establish the association of lesion incidence and survival with sex, with a less frequent incidence in but greater mortality among males.

  4. The KIzSS network, a sentinel surveillance system for infectious diseases in day care centers: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enserink Remko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Day care-associated infectious diseases are widely recognized as a public health problem but rarely studied. Insights into their dynamics and their association with the day care setting are important for effective decision making in management of infectious disease control. This paper describes the purpose, design and potential of our national multi-center, day care-based sentinel surveillance network for infectious diseases (the KIzSS network. The aim of the KIzSS network is to acquire a long-term insight into the syndromic and microbiological aspects of day care-related infectious diseases and associated disease burden and to model these aspects with day care setting characteristics. Methods/design The KIzSS network applies a prospective cohort design, following day care centers rather than individual children or staff members over time. Data on infectious disease symptoms and related morbidity (children and staff, medical consumption, absenteeism and circulating enteric pathogens (children are collected on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Every two years, a survey is performed to assess the characteristics of participating day care centers. Discussion The KIzSS network offers a unique potential to study infectious disease dynamics in the day care setting over a sustained period of time. The created (biodatabases will help us to assess day care-related disease burden of infectious diseases among attending children and staff and their relation with the day care setting. This will support the much needed development of evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines for infectious disease control in day care centers.

  5. Clinical, environmental, and serologic surveillance studies of melioidosis in Gabon, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersinga, W Joost; Birnie, Emma; Weehuizen, Tassili A F; Alabi, Abraham S; Huson, Michaëla A M; Huis in 't Veld, Robert A G; Mabala, Harry K; Adzoda, Gregoire K; Raczynski-Henk, Yannick; Esen, Meral; Lell, Bertrand; Kremsner, Peter G; Visser, Caroline E; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Peacock, Sharon J; van der Ende, Arie; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Grobusch, Martin P

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, an environmental gram-negative bacillus, is the causative agent of melioidosis and a bio-threat agent. Reports of B. pseudomallei isolation from soil and animals in East and West Africa suggest that melioidosis might be more widely distributed than previously thought. Because it has been found in equatorial areas with tropical climates, we hypothesized that B. pseudomallei could exist in Gabon. During 2012-2013, we conducted a seroprevalance study in which we set up microbiology facilities at a large clinical referral center and prospectively screened all febrile patients by conducting blood cultures and testing for B. pseudomallei and related species; we also determined whether B. pseudomallei could be isolated from soil. We discovered a novel B. pseudomallei sequence type that caused lethal septic shock and identified B. pseudomallei and B. thailandensis in the environment. Our data suggest that melioidosis is emerging in Central Africa but is unrecognized because of the lack of diagnostic microbiology facilities.

  6. Observed Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects From a Surveillance Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yali; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Correa, Adolfo; Li, Song; Feng, Xinheng; Gindler, Jacqueline; Lin, Hui; Webb, Catherine; Li, Wei; Trines, Jean; Berry, Robert J.; Yeung, Lorraine; Luo, Ying; Jiang, Meifang; Chen, Hua; Sun, Xiamei; Li, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of major and minor congenital heart defects among fetuses and neonates using sonography in a general population of 4 areas surrounding Shanghai, China. Methods Pregnant women were recruited between April 2004 and December 2005 in Jiaxing City, Suzhou City, Changshu County, and Haining County. All participants could have 3 sonographic examinations performed by specially trained physicians regardless of medical indication: a fetal sonographic screen and fetal echocardiography between 20 and 28 weeks’ gestation and neonatal echocardiography. Diagnoses of congenital heart defects were made on the basis of review of all available scans by an international group of experts in pediatric cardiology. Prevalence rates were calculated per 1000 births. Results Among 4006 scanned fetuses and neonates, there were 75 congenital heart defects, including 12 major defects. The observed prevalence for all congenital heart defects was 18.7 (95% confidence interval, 14.8–23.5) per 1000 births, and the prevalence for major defects was 3.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.6–5.2) per 1000 births. The most common defects were ventricular septal defects (n = 47 [62.7%]), atrial septal defects (n = 14 [18.7%]), tetralogy of Fallot (n = 4 [5.3%]), and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (n = 3 [4.0%]). Conclusions The prevalence of all congenital heart defects in the 4 areas of China studied was higher than that reported in other countries, with ventricular septal defects being the most frequent defects. Our data likely reflect a better estimate of the total prevalence of congenital heart defects in China than reported previously. PMID:21705732

  7. Atrial Fibrillation Screening in Nonmetropolitan Areas Using a Telehealth Surveillance System With an Embedded Cloud-Computing Algorithm: Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Hsien; Hung, Chi-Sheng; Huang, Ching-Chang; Hung, Yu-Chien; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Ho, Yi-Lwun

    2017-09-26

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common form of arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk of stroke and mortality. Detecting AF before the first complication occurs is a recognized priority. No previous studies have examined the feasibility of undertaking AF screening using a telehealth surveillance system with an embedded cloud-computing algorithm; we address this issue in this study. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of AF screening in nonmetropolitan areas using a telehealth surveillance system with an embedded cloud-computing algorithm. We conducted a prospective AF screening study in a nonmetropolitan area using a single-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) recorder. All ECG measurements were reviewed on the telehealth surveillance system and interpreted by the cloud-computing algorithm and a cardiologist. The process of AF screening was evaluated with a satisfaction questionnaire. Between March 11, 2016 and August 31, 2016, 967 ECGs were recorded from 922 residents in nonmetropolitan areas. A total of 22 (2.4%, 22/922) residents with AF were identified by the physician's ECG interpretation, and only 0.2% (2/967) of ECGs contained significant artifacts. The novel cloud-computing algorithm for AF detection had a sensitivity of 95.5% (95% CI 77.2%-99.9%) and specificity of 97.7% (95% CI 96.5%-98.5%). The overall satisfaction score for the process of AF screening was 92.1%. AF screening in nonmetropolitan areas using a telehealth surveillance system with an embedded cloud-computing algorithm is feasible.

  8. The potential of the European network of congenital anomaly registers (EUROCAT) for drug safety surveillance : a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Willemijn M.; Cornel, Martina C.; Dolk, Helen; de Walle, Hermien E. K.; Armstrong, Nicola C.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    Background European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) is a network of population-based congenital anomaly registries in Europe surveying more than I million births per year, or 25% of the births in the European Union. This paper describes the potential of the EUROCAT collaboration for

  9. Timing of Identification among Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from a Population-Based Surveillance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, Paul T.; Durkin, Maureen; Maenner, Matthew; Newschaffer, Craig; Mandell, David S.; Wiggins, Lisa; Lee, Li-Ching; Rice, Catherine; Giarelli, Ellen; Kirby, Russell; Baio, Jon; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Cuniff, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the data from Center for Disease Control's autism surveillance program found that the median age of identification of children with autism is 5.7 years. Being male, having an IQ of 70 or lower, and having developmental regression are the factors linked to a younger age of identification. There is a need for research, innovation, and…

  10. Monitoring data quality in syndromic surveillance: Learnings from a resource limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Venkatarao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is in the process of integrating all disease surveillance systems with the support of a World Bank funded program called the Integrated Disease Surveillance System. In this context the objective of the study was to evaluate the components of the Orissa Multi Disease Surveillance System. Materials and Methods: Multistage sampling was carried out, starting with four districts, followed by sequentially sampling two blocks; and in each block, two sectors and two health sub-centers were selected, all based on the best and worst performances. Two study instruments were developed for data validation, for assessing the components of the surveillance and diagnostic algorithm. The Organizational Ethics Group reviewed and approved the study. Results: In all 178 study subjects participated in the survey. The case definition of suspected meningitis in disease surveillance was found to be difficult, with only 29.94%, who could be correctly identified. Syndromic diagnosis following the diagnostic algorithm was difficult for suspected malaria (28.1%, ′unusual syndrome′ (28.1%, and simple diarrhea (62%. Only 17% could correctly answer questions on follow-up cases, but only 50% prioritized diseases. Our study showed that 54% cross-checked the data before compilation. Many (22% faltered on timeliness even during emergencies. The constraints identified were logistics (56% and telecommunication (41%. The reason for participation in surveillance was job responsibility (34.83%. Conclusions: Most of the deficiencies arose from human errors when carrying out day-to-day processes of surveillance activities, hence, should be improved by retraining. Enhanced laboratory support and electronic transmission would improve data quality and timeliness. Validity of some of the case definitions need to be rechecked. Training Programs should focus on motivating the surveillance personnel.

  11. Incidence of carbapenem-resistant gram negatives in Italian transplant recipients: a nationwide surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Lanini

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections remain a challenge to solid organ transplantation. Due to the alarming spread of carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, these organisms have been frequently recognized as cause of severe infections in solid organ transplant recipients.Between 15 May and 30 September 2012 we enrolled 887 solid organ transplant recipients in Italy with the aim to describe the epidemiology of gram negative bacteria spreading, to explore potential risk factors and to assess the effect of early isolation of gram negative bacteria on recipients' mortality during the first 90 days after transplantation. During the study period 185 clinical isolates of gram negative bacteria were reported, for an incidence of 2.39 per 1000 recipient-days. Positive cultures for gram negative bacteria occurred early after transplantation (median time 26 days; incidence rate 4.33, 1.67 and 1.14 per 1,000 recipient-days in the first, second and third month after SOT, respectively. Forty-nine of these clinical isolates were due to carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria (26.5%; incidence 0.63 per 1000 recipient-days. Carbapenems resistance was particularly frequent among Klebsiella spp. isolates (49.1%. Recipients with longer hospital stay and those who received either heart or lung graft were at the highest risk of testing positive for any gram negative bacteria. Moreover recipients with longer hospital stay, lung recipients and those admitted to hospital for more than 48h before transplantation had the highest probability to have culture(s positive for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria. Forty-four organ recipients died (0.57 per 1000 recipient-days during the study period. Recipients with at least one positive culture for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria had a 10.23-fold higher mortality rate than those who did not.The isolation of gram-negative bacteria is most frequent among recipient with hospital stays >48 hours prior to transplant

  12. Effectiveness and tolerability of parenteral testosterone undecanoate: a post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jan; Keipert, Dieter; Motazedi, Heiko; Ernst, Michael; Nettleship, Joanne; Gooren, Louis

    2017-08-16

    This observational post-marketing study of parenteral testosterone undecanoate (TU) in a non-selected population aimed to: examine the effectiveness of TU as treatment of hypogonadism; record adverse drug reactions (ADR) quantitatively particularly regarding polycythemia, prostate safety and cardiovascular-related metabolic risk factors; and verify whether recommended injection intervals apply to routine clinical practice. Eight hundred and seventy subjects from 259 outpatient units scheduled to visit the clinic six times were included. Effectiveness and tolerability of TU administration were assessed on a 4-point scale. Body weight, waist girth, blood pressure, hemoglobin levels, hematocrit, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and digital rectal prostate examination were assessed. Over 90% of subjects completed the observational duration of 52.8 ± 9.7 weeks (mean ± SD) and 56% judged effectiveness as very good, 30.8% as good. 63.1% judged tolerability as very good, and 24.4% as good. No adverse effects on indicators of cardiovascular risk were observed. Polycythemia occurred in one subject and a supranormal hematocrit in one subject. Four subjects developed supranormal PSA levels. Prostate carcinoma was found in one subject, one subject had recurrence of a previously surgically treated prostate carcinoma, and the other two showed no indication of malignancy. Parenteral TU is safe, effective, and well-tolerated in clinical practice proving a good therapeutic option for hypogonadism.

  13. A study on surveillance of environmental factors affecting the variation of indoor radon concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Shin Ae; Kim, Ok Ja; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Cho, Eun Ok; Choi, Yun Sun; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Park, Seon Hye; Han, Hyeon Sun [Hankook Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    Before the main survey, a preliminary survey was carried out to decide the most suitable type of a radon detector the most appropriate places to install such a radon detector. To this end, three types of detectors were set up in 108 locations, approximately 3% of 3,000 to measure the radon levels, and 102 detectors(94%) were collected. As a result of the preliminary survey, Radtrack was chosen as a radon detector for the main survey, and bedrooms on the first floor of houses and the first floor of public buildings were decided to be the places for the first installment of detectors. It is most desirable to survey the radon concentrations in all houses nationwide. Considering the survey period and budgets, however, 3,000 spots were targeted for the main survey at the recommendation of the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety in charge of this study. As it is important to maintain the same panels for a year to measure the radon concentrations at 3,000 locations, a total of 3,237 panels, 10% more than the target sample number, were surveyed considering the possible loss of panels during the survey period. The first radon detector was installed in each of 3,237 spots in December 1999, and collected three months later in March 2000, followed by the installment of the second detector.

  14. [Post-marketing surveillance of Tanreqing injection in children: a real world study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X X; Zhuo, L; Yang, Y H; Zhan, S Y; Zhai, S D

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To evaluate the safety of Tanreqing injection among children in the real world. Methods: A multicenter, large sample, ambispective cohort study, with registration-type clinical safety monitoring. A total of 6 188 inpatients and patients from the emergency units, aged ≤ 14 years who all had been using Tanreqing injection in 59 secondary and tertiary hospitals in China, were recruited between January, 2014 and May, 2015. The main outcomes would include incidence and severity of adverse drug reaction (ADR)/adverse drug event (ADE) of Tanreqing injection. Univariate analysis was used to explain the risk factors of ADR. Results: The overall incidence of ADE was 4.20‰ (26 cases), including 4 serious ones. The incidence of ADR was 3.07‰ (19 cases), including 17 cases of general ADR and 2 cases of new ADR. All the ADR cases were mild or moderate, mostly showing damages in skin and appendages. The onset of disease happened in 24 hours after the Tanreqing injection but all the ADR cases got improved or cured. Having histories of allergies to drugs or foods would increase the incidence of ADR. Conclusion:Tanreqing injection caused low incidence of ADR in children. Progams as stratifying high-risk patients and improving administrative management could further increase the safety level of Tanreqing injection.

  15. Nosocomial infections in a Dutch neonatal intensive care unit: surveillance study with definitions for infection specifically adapted for neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwet, W C; Kaiser, A M; van Elburg, R M; Berkhof, J; Fetter, W P F; Parlevliet, G A; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

    2005-12-01

    The incidence of nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is high compared with other wards. However, no definitions for hospital-acquired infection are available for NICUs. The aim of this study was to measure the incidence of such infections and to identify risk factors in the NICU of the VU University Medical Center, which serves as a level III regional NICU. For this purpose, a prospective surveillance was performed in 1998-2000. We designed definitions by adjusting the current definitions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for children risk factors were dichotomized. Analysis of risk factors was performed by Cox regression with time-dependent variables. The relationship between the Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) and nosocomial infection was investigated. Furthermore, for a random sample of cases, we determined whether bloodstream infection and pneumonia would also have been identified with the CDC definitions. Seven hundred and forty-two neonates were included in the study. One hundred and ninety-one neonates developed 264 infections. Bloodstream infection (N=138, 14.9/1000 patient-days) and pneumonia (N=69, 7.5/1000 patient-days) were the most common infections. Of bloodstream infections, 59% were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci; in 21% of neonates, blood cultures remained negative. In 25% of pneumonias, Enterobacteriaceae were the causative micro-organisms; 26% of cultures remained negative. Compared with the Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) of the CDC, our device utilization ratios and device-associated nosocomial infection rates were high. The main risk factors for bloodstream infection were birth weight [hazard ratio (HR) 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-2.17] and parenteral feeding with hospital-pharmacy-produced, all-in-one mixture 'Minimix' (HR 3.69, 95%CI 2.03-6.69); administration of intravenous antibiotics (HR 0.39, 95%CI 0.26-0.56) was a protective risk factor. The

  16. Design study report. Volume 2: Electronic unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The recording system discussed is required to record and reproduce wideband data from either of the two primary Earth Resources Technology Satellite sensors: Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) camera or Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS). The camera input is an analog signal with a bandwidth from dc to 3.5 MHz; this signal is accommodated through FM recording techniques which provide a recorder signal-to-noise ratio in excess of 39 db, black-to-white signal/rms noise, over the specified bandwidth. The MSS provides, as initial output, 26 narrowband channels. These channels are multiplexed prior to transmission, or recording, into a single 15 Megabit/second digital data stream. Within the recorder, the 15 Megabit/second NRZL signal is processed through the same FM electronics as the RBV signal, but the basic FM standards are modified to provide an internal, 10.5 MHz baseland response with signal-to-noise ratio of about 25 db. Following FM demodulation, however, the MSS signal is digitally re-shaped and re-clocked so that good bit stability and signal-to-noise exist at the recorder output.

  17. Electron Bernstein Wave Studies in MST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzman, Andrew; Anderson, Jay; Forest, Cary; Nonn, Paul; Thomas, Mark; Almagri, Abdulgader; Chapman, Brett; Dubois, Ami; Goetz, John; McCollam, Karsten

    2015-11-01

    The RFP plasma is inaccessible to ECRH, requiring the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) for edge localized heating and current drive. MST is capable of generating RFPs or overdense tokamaks with Bt(0) ~ 0.08-0.14T in which a 5.55 GHz RF source (450kW, 2ms pulse) can heat at fundamental and harmonic EC resonances. The design of a suitable antenna is challenging in the RFP due to a magnetic field geometry that requires a low-field-side launch. The small vacuum gap between the close-fitting conducting shell and plasma leads to substantial antenna-plasma interaction. A minimized port hole size is required to limit error fields. Even so the port hole induced magnetic field perturbation in the antenna near-field that affects the mode conversion process and introduces EC resonances. A 5cm diameter cylindrical antenna centered in 5cm and 11cm diameter portholes is used. A multi-chord time-resolved x-ray detector and GENRAY ray tracing verifies EBW heating at higher harmonics in an MST tokamak with 10-40keV detected x-ray energies. Evidence of RF-induced emission from absorption at higher harmonics (4th / 5th) in low current RFP discharges has been observed. Simultaneous reflected power changes correspond to termination of x-ray emission indicating power limits. Work supported by USDOE.

  18. Electronic Library of Embrapa Cerrados: user study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabeth Salviati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper presents the results of research conducted with Electronic Library users – website, created in 2004 by Embrapa Cerrados, that organizes, stores, and provides full text of the technical scientific production published by the Institution. Objective: To explore the user profile and to make an accurate assessment of the website. Methodology: Data collection of demographic aspects; habits; and search features: navigation, loading time of pages, help, layout and terminology by an online survey. Analysis by SPSS software - Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: The main users are students and agronomists, young people up to 30 years old, coming from the Federal District, belonging to universities and high schools wishing to update knowledge. After, appear the users of public agencies; private companies; Embrapa; agribusiness; federal government; schools; associations and non-governmental organizations; rural extension; cooperatives and syndicates. These users have no difficulties to use the service. Conclusions: The service works well, but some suggestions are useful to improve it. In addition, little demand coming from farms, ranches, rural extension services, cooperatives and syndicates indicates the need to design new products and services oriented to such public.

  19. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream fungal isolates in paediatric patients in Mexico: a nationwide surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Gloria M; Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; Palma-Nicolás, José P; Martínez, César; González, J Gerardo; Ayala, Jacobo; Caballero, Amílcar; Morfín-Otero, Rayo; Rodríguez-Noriega, E; Velarde, Fernando; Ascencio, Elba P; Tinoco, Juan C; Vázquez, Jorge A; Cano, Manuel A; León-Sicairos, Nidia; González, Rocío; Rincón, Joaquín; Elías, Miguel A; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2013-12-01

    To establish the species distribution and in vitro susceptibilities of 358 bloodstream fungal isolates from paediatric patients in Mexico. Isolates were collected during a 2 year surveillance programme in 14 medical centres in 10 Mexican states. A molecular approach was used to determine the Candida parapsilosis species complex. In vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin was determined according to CLSI procedures. Species-specific clinical breakpoints for fluconazole, voriconazole and echinocandins were applied. Candida spp. accounted for 98.33% of fungaemias, including 127 Candida albicans isolates, 127 C. parapsilosis complex isolates (121 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 4 Candida orthopsilosis and 2 Candida metapsilosis strains) and 72 Candida tropicalis isolates. C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex were the species predominant in neonates (48 cases each; 41.02%). C. parapsilosis complex was also the predominant species in patients 1 month to <2 years of age (P = 0.007). In contrast, C. albicans was the most frequent species in patients aged 2 to <12 years (P = 0.003). Antifungal resistance was rare among the subset of isolates. Candida glabrata showed the highest resistance rate to amphotericin B (1/9 isolates), fluconazole (1/9 isolates) and itraconazole (2/9 isolates). The species distribution differed with the age of the patients, with C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex being the most commonly isolated species. C. glabrata showed the highest resistance rate to amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole. This is the first study of fungaemia episodes in Mexican children.

  20. Moxonidine in the treatment of overweight and obese patients with the metabolic syndrome: a postmarketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A M; Wagner, T; Marsalek, P

    2004-09-01

    Moxonidine is a centrally active imidazoline receptor agonist that effectively lowers blood pressure and has been shown to have beneficial effects on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. We assessed the efficacy of moxonidine in a postmarketing surveillance study (CAMUS) conducted in 772 practices in Germany, documenting 4005 patients with hypertension, who were overweight and/or suffered from metabolic syndrome. Patients were treated with moxonidine (Cynt) for the first time following the baseline visit for 8 weeks. Mean blood pressure decreased from 168/97 to 141/83 mmHg for all patients and from 168/96 to 141/83 mmHg for patients with metabolic syndrome. Blood pressure reduction was particularly pronounced in patients with severe hypertension at baseline. The response rate (DBP or =10 mmHg) of antihypertensive treatment with moxonidine was 94.0% for all patients and 93.8% for patients with metabolic syndrome. The recommended targets for antihypertensive treatment of the German Diabetes Society/German Hypertension Society were reached by 30.5% of nondiabetics (goal: <140/90 mmHg) and by 3.6% of diabetics (goal: <130/80 mmHg) observed. After 8 weeks of treatment, patients achieved a mean weight loss of 1.4 kg, which was particularly pronounced in obese patients. The rate of patients receiving antihypertensive combination therapy was 81.1% for those with metabolic syndrome, and 63.3% for all other patients. Patients with metabolic syndrome were preferentially treated with ACE inhibitors and diuretics. We conclude that moxonidine effectively reduces blood pressure in patients with metabolic syndrome while simultaneously reducing body weight in obese patients.

  1. Is "Active Surveillance" an Acceptable Alternative?: A Qualitative Study of Couples' Decision Making about Early-Stage, Localized Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Chi L; McFall, Stephanie L; Byrd, Theresa L; Volk, Robert J; Cantor, Scott B; Kuban, Deborah A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to describe decision making by men and their partners regarding active surveillance (AS) or treatment for early-stage, localized prostate cancer. Fifteen couples were recruited from a cancer center multispecialty clinic, which gave full information about all options, including AS. Data were collected via individual, semi-structured telephone interviews. Most patients were white, non-Hispanic, had private insurance, had completed at least some college, and were aged 49-72 years. Ten chose AS. All partners were female, and couples reported strong marital satisfaction and cohesion. All couples described similar sequences of a highly emotional initial reaction and desire to be rid of the cancer, information seeking, and decision making. The choice of AS was built on a nuanced evaluation of the man's condition in which the couple differentiated prostate cancer from other cancers and early stage from later stages, wanted to avoid/delay side effects, and trusted the AS protocol to identify negative changes in time for successful treatment. Treated couples continued to want immediate treatment to remove the cancer. We concluded that having a partner's support for AS may help a man feel more comfortable with choosing and adhering to AS. Using decision aids that address both a man's and his partner's concerns regarding AS may increase its acceptability. Our research shows that some patients want to and do involve their partners in the decision-making process. Ethical issues are related to the tension between desire for partner involvement and the importance of the patient as autonomous decision-maker. The extended period of decision making, particularly for AS, is also an ethical issue that requires additional support for patients and couples in the making of fully informed choices that includes AS.

  2. Cyclopia: An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, Iêda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Canfield, Mark A.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclopia is characterized by the presence of a single eye, with varying degrees of doubling of the intrinsic ocular structures, located in the middle of the face. It is the severest facial expression of the holoprosencephaly (HPE) spectrum. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with cyclopia. Data originated in 20 Clearinghouse (ICBDSR) affiliated birth defect surveillance systems, reported according to a single pre-established protocol. A total of 257 infants with cyclopia were identified. Overall prevalence was 1 in 100,000 births (95%CI: 0.89–1.14), with only one program being out of range. Across sites, there was no correlation between cyclopia prevalence and number of births (r = 0.08; P=0.75) or proportion of elective termination of pregnancy (r= −0.01; P=0.97). The higher prevalence of cyclopia among older mothers (older than 34) was not statistically significant. The majority of cases were liveborn (122/200; 61%) and females predominated (male/total: 42%). A substantial proportion of cyclopias (31%) were caused by chromosomal anomalies, mainly trisomy 13. Another 31% of the cases of cyclopias were associated with defects not typically related to HPE, with more hydrocephalus, heterotaxia defects, neural tube defects, and preaxial reduction defects than the chromosomal group, suggesting the presence of ciliopathies or other unrecognized syndromes. Cyclopia is a very rare defect without much variability in prevalence by geographic location. The heterogeneous etiology with a high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities, and female predominance in HPE, were confirmed, but no effect of increased maternal age or association with twinning was observed. PMID:22006661

  3. Study of Avian Tuberculosis in a Zoo at the Bogota savannah through Tuberculin Testing and Active Epidemiologic Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Rodríguez Martínez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow of wild birds is a weakness in epidemiologic surveillance because of its unknown potential as a source of disease dissemination. The investigation focused on an epidemiological tracking of the mixed wild bird population in a zoo in the Bogota Savannah, where three birds died with a presumptive diagnosis of tuberculosis. In order to verify the presence of Mycobacterium avium and to plan the required measures to avoid risk factors, a control group of five poultry birds of the Hy Line Brown variety that had already been exposed was used, as well as a sentinel group of the poultry birds from the same batch as the control group, and an external control group of 102 birds from cages near the area of the problem. Retrospective and prospective studies were carried out through histopathological, microbiological, epidemiological and molecular analysis. One hundred percent (100% of the birds from the original cages that died were genotypically diagnosed with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium. Thirty-five percent (35.5% of the sentinel group was affected by Mycobacterium avium, 28.6% by Mycobacterium gordonae, 14.3% by Mycobacterium chelonae and 21.4% by a mycobacterium that is very difficult to classify. The other animals outside the cage showed no evidence of infection. It is concluded that the problematic enclosure is affected by avian tuberculosis, which is of high risk both for birds and for humans. The poultry used as sentinels are excellent infective agent detectors, particularly of mycobacteria present in the environment, and the tuberculin test is a good indicator of infection with this type of microorganisms in poultry.

  4. Surveillance of noncommunicable diseases by community health workers in Kerala: the epidemiology of noncommunicable diseases in rural areas (ENDIRA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Jaideep; Joseph, Jacob; Thachil, Ajit; Attacheril, Thankachan V; Banerjee, Amitava

    2014-12-01

    India carries the greatest burden of noncommunicable disease (NCD) globally. However, there are few contemporary, community-based studies of prevalence in India. Given the physician shortages in rural areas, large-scale, region-specific studies of NCD using community health workers (CHW) may offer a feasible means of NCD surveillance. This study sought to conduct a large-scale, population-based, CHW-led study of NCDs in Kerala, India. In rural Kerala, India, a population of 113,462 individuals was defined geographically by 5 panchayats (village councils). The ENDIRA (Epidemiology of Noncommunicable Diseases in Rural Areas) study was conducted via accredited social health activists (ASHA), who are CHW employed by Kerala state government. After training of ASHA, standardized questionnaires were used during 2012 in household interviews of individuals ≥18 years of age to gather sociodemographic, lifestyle, and medical data. ASHA recruited 84,456 adults who were included in the analyses (25.4% were below the poverty line). The prevalence of NCD was comparable to contemporary studies in India: myocardial infarction (MI) 1.4%; stroke 0.3%; respiratory diseases 5.0%; and cancer 1.1%. The dietary habits were as follows: 84.1% of the population was vegetarian; 15.9% ate meat/fish ≥1 day per week; 4.2% had ≥1 alcoholic drink per week; and 8.1% smoked regularly. Compared with men, women were older, had lower body mass index, more likely to be hypertensive, less likely to smoke or drink alcohol, and have diabetes or dyslipidemia (p diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, and male sex were strongly associated with MI and stroke. There were high levels of agreement between ASHA and physicians for diagnoses of MI, stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. CHW effectively conducted a large-scale prevalence study of NCD in Kerala, including prevalence of risk factors. In rural Kerala, traditional risk factors were strongly associated with MI and stroke. Copyright © 2014 World

  5. Prevalence of hip dislocation among children with cerebral palsy in regions with and without a surveillance programme: a cross sectional study in Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkamil Areej I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation is a serious complication among children with cerebral palsy (CP. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of hip dislocation among children with CP in an area providing regular care with an area providing hip surveillance services. Methods This is a cross-sectional study in seven Norwegian counties providing regular care and one Swedish healthcare region where a hip surveillance programme was introduced in 1994. Data were provided by the Norwegian Cerebral Palsy Register and the CP Register in Southern Sweden. Children born 1996 - 2003 with moderate to severe CP, defined as Gross Motor Classification System (GMFCS levels III - V, were included. In all, 119 Norwegian and 136 Swedish children fulfilled the criteria. In Norway, data on hip operations and radiographs of the hips were collected from medical records, while these data are collected routinely in the Swedish register. The hip migration percentage was measured on the recent radiographs. Hip dislocation was defined as a migration percent of 100%. Results The proportion of children at GMFCS levels III - V was 34% in the Norwegian and 38% in the Swedish population. In the Norwegian population, hip dislocation was diagnosed in 18 children (15.1%; CI: 9.8 - 22.6 compared with only one child (0.7%; 95% CI: 0.01 - 4.0 in Southern Sweden (p = Conclusions The surveillance programme reduced the number of hip dislocations and the proportion of children undergoing hip surgery was lower. However, with the surveillance programme the first operation was performed at a younger age. Our results strongly support the effectiveness of a specifically designed follow-up programme for the prevention of hip dislocation in children with CP.

  6. Fokker-Planck Study of Tokamak Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIBingren; LONGYongxing; DONGJiaqi; LIWenzhong; JIAOYiming; WANGAike

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we add a subroutine for describing the electron cyclotron resonant heating calculation to the Fokker-Planck code. By analyzing the wave-particle resonance condition in tokamak plasma and the fast motion of electrons along magnetic field lines, suitable quasi-linear diffusion coefficients are given.

  7. Ultrafast electron diffraction studies of optically excited thin bismuth films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkovic, Ivan

    2008-10-21

    This thesis contains work on the design and the realization of an experimental setup capable of providing sub-picosecond electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and performing the study of ultrafast dynamics in bismuth after optical excitation using this setup. (orig.)

  8. Counselees' Expressed Level of Understanding of the Risk Estimate and Surveillance Recommendation are Not Associated with Breast Cancer Surveillance Adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, Akke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Dijkstra, Henrietta; Wieffer, Ivette; Witkamp, Arjen; Ausems, Margreet G E M

    We studied counselees' expressed understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation in the final consultation for breast cancer genetic counseling in relation with their risk perception, worry and cancer surveillance adherence 1 year post-counseling. Consecutive counselees were

  9. Counselees' Expressed Level of Understanding of the Risk Estimate and Surveillance Recommendation are Not Associated with Breast Cancer Surveillance Adherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Dulmen, S. van; Dijkstra, H.; Wieffer, I.; Witkamp, A.; Ausems, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    We studied counselees' expressed understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation in the final consultation for breast cancer genetic counseling in relation with their risk perception, worry and cancer surveillance adherence 1 year post-counseling. Consecutive counselees were

  10. Counselees’ expressed level of understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation are not associated with breast cancer surveillance adherence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Dulmen, S. van; Dijkstra, H.; Wieffer, I.; Witkamp, A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    We studied counselees’ expressed understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation in the final consultation for breast cancer genetic counseling in relation with their risk perception, worry and cancer surveillance adherence 1 year post-counseling. Consecutive counselees were

  11. Uses of pulsed electron beam to solid-states studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Noriaki; Nakayama, Takeyoshi; Tanimura, Katsumi; Chong, Taisu; Saidoh, Masahiro

    1982-03-01

    A survey is given on the use of the pulsed electron beams to studies of solid states. Even though main emphasis is placed on the studies carried out at the Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, using the Pulsed Electron Facilities installed in 1970, the works carried out at other institutes are also included. Only the studies of crystalline solids with simple structures, such as alkali halides and aromatic hydrocarbons are covered. In the first place several instrumentations which have extended utilities of pulsed-electron beams are presented. Then we discuss the studies of the dynamic of excitons, emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages of the usage of the electron pulses. Then usages of the pulsed-electron beam for the studies of the excited states of the quasi-stable defects are described. Application of the electron pulse for studies of the excitation spectroscopy of the photochemistry is described. The dynamic studies of defects introduced by electron-pulse bombardment is discussed finally. A summary is given, which includes also the possible future experiments.

  12. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  13. Redefining syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Baker, Julia; Test, Elisa

    2011-12-01

    With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field's capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Alan P

    2015-01-01

    .... Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation...

  15. Dissipative two-electron transfer: A numerical renormalization group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Sabine; Bulla, Ralf; Anders, Frithjof B.; Nitzan, Abraham

    2008-07-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium two-electron transfer in a model redox system represented by a two-site extended Hubbard model and embedded in a dissipative environment. The influence of the electron-electron interactions and the coupling to a dissipative bosonic bath on the electron transfer is studied in different temperature regimes. At high temperatures, Marcus transfer rates are evaluated, and at low temperatures, we calculate equilibrium and nonequilibrium population probabilities of the donor and acceptor with the nonperturbative numerical renormalization group approach. We obtain the nonequilibrium dynamics of the system prepared in an initial state of two electrons at the donor site and identify conditions under which the electron transfer involves one concerted two-electron step or two sequential single-electron steps. The rates of the sequential transfer depend nonmonotonically on the difference between the intersite and on-site Coulomb interaction, which become renormalized in the presence of the bosonic bath. If this difference is much larger than the hopping matrix element, the temperature as well as the reorganization energy, simultaneous transfer of both electrons between donor and acceptor can be observed.

  16. Monte Carlo study of electron transport in monolayer silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek

    2016-11-01

    Electron mobility and diffusion coefficients in monolayer silicene are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations using simplified band structure with linear energy bands. Results demonstrate reasonable agreement with the full-band Monte Carlo method in low applied electric field conditions. Negative differential resistivity is observed and an explanation of the origin of this effect is proposed. Electron mobility and diffusion coefficients are studied in low applied electric field conditions. We demonstrate that a comparison of these parameter values can provide a good check that the calculation is correct. Low-field mobility in silicene exhibits {T}-3 temperature dependence for nondegenerate electron gas conditions and {T}-1 for higher electron concentrations, when degenerate conditions are imposed. It is demonstrated that to explain the relation between mobility and temperature in nondegenerate electron gas the linearity of the band structure has to be taken into account. It is also found that electron-electron scattering only slightly modifies low-field electron mobility in degenerate electron gas conditions.

  17. An experimental study of secondary electron emission in the limit of low electron energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V. I.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Koepke, M. E.

    2013-09-01

    Study of secondary electron emission (SEE) from solid surfaces is important for many areas of science and technology, including but not limited to the formation of electron clouds in particle accelerators, plasma measurements by electrostatic probes and operation of Hall plasma thrusters. The measurements at low incident electron energy below 2eV are very challenging. The goal of this work is to measure SEE coefficient for molybdenum surface in contact with plasmas. In this study nearly mono-energetic electrons arising in plasma-chemical reactions like pair collisions of metastable atoms have been used for the measurements. Variation of the target voltage and measurement of the corresponding electron current from the mono-energetic electrons allows us to obtain the SEE coefficient. It is experimentally demonstrated that the coefficient is close to zero (less than 0.1) for clean targets and may have much higher value for contaminated targets with some absorbed gas on the surface. This work has been supported by DoE contract No. DE-SC0001939 and SPbGU.

  18. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Tante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR, Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED. Methods: A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results: Two of 11 (18% surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45% surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91% rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7% considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27% surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6% surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion: In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other.

  19. A stepwise approach to stroke surveillance in Brazil: the EMMA (Estudo de Mortalidade e Morbidade do Acidente Vascular Cerebral) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Bustos, Iara R; Abe, Ivana M; Pereira, Alexandre C; Fedeli, Ligia M; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2010-08-01

    Stroke mortality rates in Brazil are the highest in the Americas. Deaths from cerebrovascular disease surpass coronary heart disease. To verify stroke mortality rates and morbidity in an area of São Paulo, Brazil, using the World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Stroke Surveillance. We used the World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Stroke Surveillance structure of stroke surveillance. The hospital-based data comprised fatal and nonfatal stroke (Step 1). We gathered stroke-related mortality data in the community using World Health Organization questionnaires (Step 2). The questionnaire determining stroke prevalence was activated door to door in a family-health-programme neighbourhood (Step 3). A total of 682 patients 18 years and above, including 472 incident cases, presented with cerebrovascular disease and were enrolled in Step 1 during April-May 2009. Cerebral infarction (84.3%) and first-ever stroke (85.2%) were the most frequent. In Step 2, 256 deaths from stroke were identified during 2006-2007. Forty-four per cent of deaths were classified as unspecified stroke, 1/3 as ischaemic stroke, and 1/4 due to haemorrhagic subtype. In Step 3, 577 subjects over 35 years old were evaluated at home, and 244 cases of stroke survival were diagnosed via a questionnaire, validated by a board-certified neurologist. The population demographic characteristics were similar in the three steps, except in terms of age and gender. By including data from all settings, World Health Organization stroke surveillance can provide data to help plan future resources that meet the needs of the public-health system.

  20. Impact of multiparametric endorectal coil prostate magnetic resonance imaging on disease reclassification among active surveillance candidates: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margel, David; Yap, Stanley A; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Klotz, Laurence; Haider, Masoom; Hersey, Karen; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre; Trachtenberg, John; Fleshner, Neil

    2012-04-01

    We report magnetic resonance imaging findings among unselected men with low risk prostate cancer before active surveillance. We prospectively enrolled men with low grade, low risk, localized prostate cancer. All patients underwent multiparametric endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging and were offered confirmatory biopsy within 1 year of imaging. The primary outcome was the impact of magnetic resonance imaging on identifying patients who were reclassified by confirmatory biopsy as no longer fulfilling active surveillance criteria. We further identified clinical parameters associated with reclassification. The cohort was stratified as patients with 1) normal magnetic resonance imaging, 2) cancer on magnetic resonance imaging concordant with initial biopsy (less than 1 cm) and 3) cancer on magnetic resonance imaging larger than 1 cm. We performed univariate analysis to assess differences in clinical parameters among the groups. Magnetic resonance imaging did not detect cancer in 23 cases (38%) while magnetic resonance imaging and initial biopsy were concordant in 24 (40%). Magnetic resonance imaging detected a 1 cm or larger lesion in 13 patients (22%). Of the cases 18 (32.14%) were reclassified. When no cancer was identified on magnetic resonance imaging, only 2 cases (3.5%) were reclassified. The positive and negative predictive values for magnetic resonance imaging predicting reclassification were 83% (95% CI 73-93) and 81% (95% CI 71-91), respectively. Prostate specific antigen density was increased in patients with lesions larger than 1 cm on magnetic resonance imaging compared to those with no cancer on imaging (median 0.15 vs 0.07 ng/ml/cc, p=0.016). Magnetic resonance imaging appears to have a high yield for predicting reclassification among men who elect active surveillance. Upon confirmation of our results magnetic resonance imaging may be used to better select and guide patients before active surveillance. Copyright © 2012 American Urological

  1. Ultrafast studies of electron dynamics at metal-dielectric interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Nien-Hui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Femtosecond time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission spectroscopy has been used to study fundamental aspects of excited electron dynamics at metal-dielectric interfaces, including layer-by-layer evolution of electronic structure and two-dimensional electron localization. On bare Ag(111), the lifetimes of image states are dominated by their position with respect to the projected bulk band structure. The n = 2 state has a shorter lifetime than the n = 1 state due to degeneracy with the bulk conduction band. As the parallel momentum of the n = 1 image electron increases, the lifetime decreases. With decreasing temperatures, the n = 1 image electrons, with zero or nonzero parallel momentum, all become longer lived. Adsorption of one to three layers of n-heptane results in an approximately exponential increase in lifetime as a function of layer thickness. This results from the formation of a tunneling barrier through which the interfacial electrons must decay, consistent with the repulsive bulk electron affinity of n-alkanes. The lifetimes of the higher quantum states indicate that the presence of the monolayer significantly reduces coupling of the image states to the bulk band structure. These results are compared with predictions of a dielectric continuum model. The study of electron lateral motion shows that optical excitation creates interfacial electrons in quasifree states for motion parallel to the n-heptane/Ag(111) interface. These initially delocalized electrons decay into a localized state within a few hundred femtoseconds. The localized electrons then decay back to the metal by tunneling through the adlayer potential barrier. The localization time depends strongly on the electron's initial parallel momentum and exhibits a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence. The experimental findings are consistent with a 2-D self-trapping process in which electrons become localized by interacting with the topmost plane of the alkane layer. The energy

  2. Dengue and other common causes of acute febrile illness in Asia: an active surveillance study in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosario Capeding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common causes of acute febrile illness in tropical countries have similar symptoms, which often mimic those of dengue. Accurate clinical diagnosis can be difficult without laboratory confirmation and disease burden is generally under-reported. Accurate, population-based, laboratory-confirmed incidence data on dengue and other causes of acute fever in dengue-endemic Asian countries are needed. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This prospective, multicenter, active fever surveillance, cohort study was conducted in selected centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam to determine the incidence density of acute febrile episodes (≥ 38 °C for ≥ 2 days in 1,500 healthy children aged 2-14 years, followed for a mean 237 days. Causes of fever were assessed by testing acute and convalescent sera from febrile participants for dengue, chikungunya, hepatitis A, influenza A, leptospirosis, rickettsia, and Salmonella Typhi. Overall, 289 participants had acute fever, an incidence density of 33.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 30.0; 37.8; 57% were IgM-positive for at least one of these diseases. The most common causes of fever by IgM ELISA were chikungunya (in 35.0% of in febrile participants and S. Typhi (in 29.4%. The overall incidence density of dengue per 100 person-years was 3.4 by nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 antigen positivity (95% CI: 2.4; 4.8 and 7.3 (95% CI: 5.7; 9.2 by serology. Dengue was diagnosed in 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0; 15.7 and 23.9% (95% CI: 19.1; 29.2 of febrile participants by NS1 positivity and serology, respectively. Of the febrile episodes not clinically diagnosed as dengue, 5.3% were dengue-positive by NS1 antigen testing and 16.0% were dengue-positive by serology. CONCLUSIONS: During the study period, the most common identified causes of pediatric acute febrile illness among the seven tested for were chikungunya, S. Typhi and dengue. Not all dengue cases were clinically diagnosed; laboratory confirmation

  3. Oligodendrogliomas in pediatric and adult patients: an outcome-based study from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau CSM

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Christine SM Lau,1,2 Krishnaraj Mahendraraj,1 Ronald S Chamberlain1–4 1Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Saint George’s University School of Medicine, Grenada, West Indies; 3Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, 4Department of Surgery, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, AZ, USA Introduction: Oligodendrogliomas (OGs account for <20% of all intracranial tumors and 25% of gliomas. Despite improvements in imaging techniques allowing for earlier diagnosis, OG is rare among the pediatric population. This study examines a large cohort of OG patients in an effort to define the demographic, clinical, and pathologic factors associated with clinical and survival outcomes.Methods: Data on 7,001 OG patients were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER database (1973–2013. Pediatric patients were defined as ≤19 years old, and adult patients were defined as age ≥20 years.Results: Among 7,001 OG patients, 6.5% were pediatric (mean age 12 ± 6 years, and 93.5% were adult (mean age 46 ± 15 years. Overall, OGs were more common among males, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.28:1. Overall, OGs were more common among Caucasians (76.9% and also among the African American (10.8% pediatric vs. 4.0% adult and Hispanic (12.8% pediatric vs. 11.8% adult. OGs occurred most commonly in the temporal lobe of pediatric patients and the frontal lobes of adults. Surgical resection was the primary treatment modality for both pediatric and adult populations (70.6% and 40.5%, followed by combined surgery and radiation (19.7% and 41.2%. Surgical resection was associated with significantly improved survival in both groups. Pediatric patients had a lower overall mortality (19.8% vs. 48.5% and lower cancer-specific mortality (17.6% vs. 36.8%.Conclusion: OGs most often present in Caucasian males in their fifth decade of life with tumors >4 cm in size

  4. Studying Quantum Phase-Based Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-15

    variety of different III-V material configurations, (4) and treat transient transport in silicon and germanium heterostructures. It is capable of studying...nonuniform field distribution may prevent the appearance of NDR . TRANSPORT IN ULTRA-SUBMICRON DEVICES The entire discussion of transport has been predicated...differential resistance. Indeed, the calculations .ugpt that it is the significantly reduced velocity at resonance that is resjponsible for NDR . The low

  5. A study on the Electronic SAMG Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. H.; Ahn, K. I; Jin, Y. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Since the Fukushima accident, unexpected accidents or extreme damages have become a concern. Therefore, a rapid and exact confrontation such as a computerized attempt in SAMG has been tried. To contribute to a rapid and accurate processing for a severe accident, based on the study of SAMG functional modules, the e-SAMG framework has been studied and developed. This paper describes a study on the e-SAMG framework. Through the eSAMG development, a rapid and accurate decision can be expected, and the burden of operator during a severe accident can also be reduced. In a qualitative view, eSAMG can be used to promote work skills in the field, and manage rapid work. It can also secure the efficiency and safety through an assistant system compared with severe accidents at all times. In addition, it can maximize the operator's ability through training using the eSAMG system. In a quantitative view, eSAMG can reduce the following damage through an improvement of accuracy and processing speed for a severe accident. It can also secure the PR (public relation) effect of safety and improvement of NPP perception. Moreover, it can execute systematic training against a severe accident and reduce the training cost. This system will be implemented extendedly into the entire SAMG for perfection of the complete eSAMG.

  6. In-situ studies on phase transformations under electron irradiation in a high voltage electron microscope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Banerjee

    2003-06-01

    High voltage electron microscopy (HVEM), using electron energies adequate for causing displacements of atoms from lattice sites, is a very effective technique for studying mechanisms of solid state phase transformations and for charting the path of phase evolution in real time. This has been demonstrated in studies on chemical ordering in nickel–molybdenum alloys and on the $\\beta \\to \\omega$ displacement ordering in zirconium-niobium alloys. The enhanced diffusivity due to electron irradiation makes it possible to explore a sequence of phase evolution at low enough temperatures where even some first-order transformations are driven by free energy (G) instabilities with respect to the relevant order parameter $(\\eta)$. Specific issues addressed in these studies are reviewed in this paper.

  7. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  8. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-08-28

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  9. Electron crystallography for structural and functional studies of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    Membrane proteins are important research targets for basic biological sciences and drug design, but studies of their structure and function are considered difficult to perform. Studies of membrane structures have been greatly facilitated by technological and instrumental advancements in electron microscopy together with methodological advancements in biology. Electron crystallography is especially useful in studying the structure and function of membrane proteins. Electron crystallography is now an established method of analyzing the structures of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, which resembles their natural biological environment. To better understand the neural system function from a structural point of view, we developed the cryo-electron microscope with a helium-cooled specimen stage, which allows for analysis of the structures of membrane proteins at a resolution higher than 3 Å. This review introduces recent instrumental advances in cryo-electron microscopy and presents some examples of structure analyses of membrane proteins, such as bacteriorhodopsin, water channels and gap junction channels. This review has two objectives: first, to provide a personal historical background to describe how we came to develop the cryo-electron microscope and second, to discuss some of the technology required for the structural analysis of membrane proteins based on cryo-electron microscopy.

  10. Surveillance and study of tick-borne diseases in Zhejiang province, China%浙江省蜱媒传染病监测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌锋; 龚震宇; 柴程良; 林君芬; 孙继民; 侯娟; 吴海霞; 刘起勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current situation of surveillance and study on the tick - borne diseases in Zhejiang province, China. Methods By literature research and surveillance data analysis, brief descriptive statistic analysis was performed on the literature and annual surveillance data on the tick-borne diseases in Zhejiang that have been published since 2000. Results Through ten years surveillance and study involving serological and molecular biological methods, more than 10 tick-borne diseases or pathogens, including Lyme disease, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, spotted fever, Bartonella, Rickettsia mooseri, and Boehner kirk austenite, were confirmed to exist in Zhejiang. Besides, the various tick species and tick-borne diseases were found in as many as 23 counties (county-level cities, districts) in Hangzhou, Jinhua, Lishui, Taizhou, Huzhou, Wenzhou, Quzhou, and Shaoxing in Zhejiang. Conclusion The ticks and tick-borne diseases diversified and widespread in Zhejiang province. Although some achievements have been made in the surveillance and study on tick-borne diseases, the surveillance is neither sufficient nor systematic since lack of proper planning. The related information cannot be fully integrated and utilized for risk assessment and early-waming. It is necessary to establish a platform for tick-borne disease surveillance.%目的 了解浙江省蜱媒传染病监测研究现状.方法 采用文献研究法和监测资料分析相结合,对2000年以来发表的有关浙江省蜱媒传染病的文献及其历年监测资料做简要描述性统计分析.结果 通过近10年来的监测研究,浙江省已通过血清学或分子生物学方法证实存在莱姆病、嗜吞噬细胞无形体、查菲埃立克体、斑点热、巴尔通体等10多种蜱媒传染病,且蜱种群和蜱媒传染病分布较广,涉及到浙江省杭州、金华、丽水、台州、湖州、温州、衢州和绍兴8个市的23个县(市、区).结论 浙江

  11. Young children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death: a rural South African population-based surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J Clark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence that a young child's risk of dying increases following the mother's death, but little is known about the risk when the mother becomes very ill prior to her death. We hypothesized that children would be more likely to die during the period several months before their mother's death, as well as for several months after her death. Therefore we investigated the relationship between young children's likelihood of dying and the timing of their mother's death and, in particular, the existence of a critical period of increased risk. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from a health and socio-demographic surveillance system in rural South Africa were collected on children 0-5 y of age from 1 January 1994 to 31 December 2008. Discrete time survival analysis was used to estimate children's probability of dying before and after their mother's death, accounting for moderators. 1,244 children (3% of sample died from 1994 to 2008. The probability of child death began to rise 6-11 mo prior to the mother's death and increased markedly during the 2 mo immediately before the month of her death (odds ratio [OR] 7.1 [95% CI 3.9-12.7], in the month of her death (OR 12.6 [6.2-25.3], and during the 2 mo following her death (OR 7.0 [3.2-15.6]. This increase in the probability of dying was more pronounced for children whose mothers died of AIDS or tuberculosis compared to other causes of death, but the pattern remained for causes unrelated to AIDS/tuberculosis. Infants aged 0-6 mo at the time of their mother's death were nine times more likely to die than children aged 2-5 y. The limitations of the study included the lack of knowledge about precisely when a very ill mother will die, a lack of information about child nutrition and care, and the diagnosis of AIDS deaths by verbal autopsy rather than serostatus. CONCLUSIONS: Young children in lower income settings are more likely to die not only after their mother's death but also in the months before

  12. Four sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Belgian general practice: first results (2013–2014) of a nationwide continuing surveillance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffin, N; Moreels, S; Deblonde, J; Van Casteren, V

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe and explore data from the surveillance of chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhoea and genital warts by the Belgian Network of Sentinel General Practices (SGP) over the first 2 years (2013 and 2014) and to estimate the incidence of these 4 sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A special focus is put on data quality. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting General practices from the nationwide representative SGP network. Outcome measures Agreement between data distributions by year, agreement between SGP-based incidence and incidence based on mandatory notification, missingness of patient age or gender and incompleteness of sexual risk history of patients. Results 306 new STI episodes were reported from 298 patients, corresponding with an episode-based incidence of 91.9/100 000 (95% CI 81.9 to 102.8) general practice patients, with almost half of it due to chlamydia. The incidence of chlamydia in men was significantly higher in 2014 than in 2013. Population characteristics were similarly distributed in 2013 and 2014. The SGP-based incidence of gonorrhoea and syphilis in Flanders were in agreement with the incidence based on mandatory notification of cases. Patient age or gender was missing from 35 episodes (11.4%). Independent determinants of missingness of patient age or gender were the Flemish region (OR 3.46; 95% CI 1.02 to 11.73) and genital warts infection (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.07 to 4.63). An incomplete sexual risk history was reported for 54.6% STI episodes. The odds for an incomplete sexual history were higher for older patients (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.76) and for patients infected with syphilis, gonorrhoea or co-infection(s) (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.83). Conclusions Incompleteness of reports about patients with STI sexual risk histories is important from the perspective of quality of data and of quality of care. Together with the low rates of both HIV testing and discussion of partner notification, this suggests that a

  13. Surveillance data bases, analysis, and standardization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kam, F.B.K.

    1990-09-26

    The traveler presented a paper at the Seventh ASTM-EURATOM Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry and co-chaired an oral session on Computer Codes and Methods. Papers of considerable interest to the NRC Surveillance Dosimetry Program involved statistically based adjustment procedures and uncertainties. The information exchange meetings with Czechoslovakia and Hungary were very enlightening. Lack of large computers have hindered their surveillance program. They depended very highly on information from their measurement programs which were somewhat limited because of the lack of sophisticated electronics. The Nuclear Research Institute at Rez had to rely on expensive mockups of power reactor configurations to test their fluence exposures. Computers, computer codes, and updated nuclear data would advance their technology rapidly, and they were not hesitant to admit this fact. Both eastern-bloc countries said that IBM is providing an IBM 3090 for educational purposes but research and development studies would have very limited access. They were very apologetic that their currencies were not convertible, and any exchange means that they could provide services or pay for US scientists in their respective countries, but funding for their scientists in the United States, or expenses that involved payment in dollars, must come from us.

  14. Surveillance and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagenborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is as much about surveillance as about persuasive technologies (PTs). With regard to PTs it raises the question about the ethical limits of persuasion. It will be argued that even some forms of self-imposed persuasive soft surveillance technologies may be considered unethical. Therefore,

  15. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  16. Mobile Phone-Based mHealth Approaches for Public Health Surveillance in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Brinkel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM, BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC, the Public Library of Science (PLoS and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3, tuberculosis (n = 1 and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1 as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2, maternal health (n = 1 and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1. Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

  17. Mobile phone-based mHealth approaches for public health surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkel, Johanna; Krämer, Alexander; Krumkamp, Ralf; May, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius

    2014-11-12

    Whereas mobile phone-based surveillance has the potential to provide real-time validated data for disease clustering and prompt respond and investigation, little evidence is available on current practice in sub-Sahara Africa. The objective of this review was to examine mobile phone-based mHealth interventions for Public Health surveillance in the region. We conducted electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, IEE Xplore, African Index Medicus (AIM), BioMed Central, PubMed Central (PMC), the Public Library of Science (PLoS) and IRIS for publications used in the review. In all, a total of nine studies were included which focused on infectious disease surveillance of malaria (n = 3), tuberculosis (n = 1) and influenza-like illnesses (n = 1) as well as on non-infectious disease surveillance of child malnutrition (n = 2), maternal health (n = 1) and routine surveillance of various diseases and symptoms (n = 1). Our review revealed that mobile phone-based surveillance projects in the sub-Saharan African countries are on small scale, fragmented and not well documented. We conclude by advocating for a strong drive for more research in the applied field as well as a better reporting of lessons learned in order to create an epistemic community to help build a more evidence-based field of practice in mHealth surveillance in the region.

  18. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for GI cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Meester, Reinier G S; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2016-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world. To reduce the burden of GI diseases, surveillance is recommended for some diseases, including for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, Barrett's oesophagus, precancerous gastric lesions, colorectal adenoma, and pancreatic neoplasms. This review aims to provide an overview of the evidence on cost-effectiveness of surveillance of individuals with GI conditions predisposing them to cancer, specifically focussing on the aforementioned conditions. We searched the literature and reviewed 21 studies. Despite heterogeneity of studies in terms of settings, study populations, surveillance strategies and outcomes, most reviewed studies suggested at least some surveillance of patients with these GI conditions to be cost-effective. For some high-risk conditions frequent surveillance with 3-month intervals was warranted, while for other conditions, surveillance may only be cost-effective every 10 years. Further studies based on more robust effectiveness evidence are needed to inform and optimise surveillance programmes for GI cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electron Cloud Studies and Beam Scrubbing Effect in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, J M; Collier, Paul; Ferioli, G; Henrist, Bernard; Hilleret, Noël; Jensen, L; Laurent, Jean Michel; Weiss, K; Zimmermann, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The performance of the SPS as LHC injector has been limited, with LHC-type beams, by the electron cloud multipacting for high bunch intensities (>6.0x10**10 protons/bunch). To study in detail the dependence of the electron cloud on the beam parameters (bunch intensity, filling pattern, filling factor...), three strip-detectors have been installed inside dipole corrector magnets. The measuring set-up was completed by shielded pick-ups and by an in-situ secondary electron yield detector installed in field-free regions. This paper presents the variation of the electron cloud activity as a function of the bunch intensity and bunch length, filling pattern and filling factor. The spatial and energy distributions of the electrons in the cloud were studied and the latter compared with results obtained with a conventional retarding field detector. Evidence of the scrubbing effect as a solution to reduce the electron cloud activity is shown in the SPS. Heat load estimations based on the electron cloud intensity and on ...

  20. Application of IR microbolometers in border surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakfield, David K.; Norton, Peter; Plemons, Dan; Rodriguez, Christian; Sustare, Dennis

    2007-04-01

    BAE Systems led a collaborative study with New Mexico State University to investigate a series of ground based persistent surveillance solutions for potential use along the Southwest border of the United States. This study considered a wide range of system options for mobile and fixed site applications. This paper summarizes the findings of the study including the central role of the imaging subsystems in mobile ground based surveillance solutions and the suitability of uncooled IR Microbolometers within this subsystem. The paper also provides a discussion of the benefits of real time decision support applications when fielding a persistent surveillance solution.

  1. Evaluation of Syndromic Surveillance Systems in 6 US State and Local Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mathew J; Yoon, Paula W; Collins, James M; Davidson, Arthur J; Mac Kenzie, William R

    2017-09-28

    Evaluating public health surveillance systems is critical to ensuring that conditions of public health importance are appropriately monitored. Our objectives were to qualitatively evaluate 6 state and local health departments that were early adopters of syndromic surveillance in order to (1) understand the characteristics and current uses, (2) identify the most and least useful syndromes to monitor, (3) gauge the utility for early warning and outbreak detection, and (4) assess how syndromic surveillance impacted their daily decision making. We adapted evaluation guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and gathered input from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention subject matter experts in public health surveillance to develop a questionnaire. We interviewed staff members from a convenience sample of 6 local and state health departments with syndromic surveillance programs that had been in operation for more than 10 years. Three of the 6 interviewees provided an example of using syndromic surveillance to identify an outbreak (ie, cluster of foodborne illness in 1 jurisdiction) or detect a surge in cases for seasonal conditions (eg, influenza in 2 jurisdictions) prior to traditional, disease-specific systems. Although all interviewees noted that syndromic surveillance has not been routinely useful or efficient for early outbreak detection or case finding in their jurisdictions, all agreed that the information can be used to improve their understanding of dynamic disease control environments and conditions (eg, situational awareness) in their communities. In the jurisdictions studied, syndromic surveillance may be useful for monitoring the spread and intensity of large outbreaks of disease, especially influenza; enhancing public health awareness of mass gatherings and natural disasters; and assessing new, otherwise unmonitored conditions when real-time alternatives are unavailable. Future studies should explore opportunities to

  2. Role of hot electron transport in scintillators: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Huihui [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, Key Lab. of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen Univ. (China); Li, Qi [Physical Sciences Division, IBM TJ Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Lu, Xinfu; Williams, R.T. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Qian, Yiyang [College of Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University (China); Wu, Yuntao [Scintillation Materials Research Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Despite recent intensive study on scintillators, several fundamental questions on scintillator properties are still unknown. In this work, we use ab-initio calculations to determine the energy dependent group velocity of the hot electrons from the electronic structures of several typical scintillators. Based on the calculated group velocities and optical phonon frequencies, a Monte-Carlo simulation of hot electron transport in scintillators is carried out to calculate the thermalization time and diffusion range in selected scintillators. Our simulations provide physical insights on a recent trend of improved proportionality and light yield from mixed halide scintillators. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Adherence to the breast cancer surveillance program for women at risk for familial breast and ovarian cancer versus overscreening: a monocenter study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Lisa; Keller, Monika; Bruckner, Thomas; Golatta, Michael; Eismann, Sabine; Evers, Christina; Dikow, Nicola; Sohn, Christof; Heil, Jörg; Schott, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer among women worldwide and in 5-10 % of cases is of hereditary origin, mainly due to BRCA1/2 mutations. Therefore, the German Consortium for Familial Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) with its 15 specialized academic centers offers families at high risk for familial/hereditary cancer a multimodal breast cancer surveillance program (MBCS) with regular breast MRI, mammography, ultrasound, and palpation. So far, we know a lot about the psychological effects of genetic testing, but we know little about risk-correlated adherence to MBCS or prophylactic surgery over time. The aim of this study was to investigate counselees' adherence to recommendations for MBCS in order to adjust the care supply and define predictors for incompliance. All counselees, who attended HBOC consultation at the University Hospital Heidelberg between July 01, 2009 and July 01, 2011 were eligible to participate. A tripartite questionnaire containing sociodemographic information, psychological parameters, behavioral questions, and medical data collection from the German consortium were used. A high participation rate was achieved among the study population, with 72 % returning the questionnaire. This study showed a rate of 59 % of full-adherers to the MBCS. Significant predictors for partial or full adherence were having children (p = 0.0221), younger daughters (p = 0.01795), a higher awareness of the topic HBOC (p = 0.01795, p breast cancer risk (p adherence of MBCS, prospective studies are needed to understand counselees' needs to further improve surveillance programs and adherence to them. Adherence to the breast cancer surveillance program for women at risk for familial breast and ovarian cancer versus overscreening-a monocenter study in Germany.

  4. Social networking sites in romantic relationships: attachment, uncertainty, and partner surveillance on facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Warber, Katie M

    2014-01-01

    Social networking sites serve as both a source of information and a source of tension between romantic partners. Previous studies have investigated the use of Facebook for monitoring former and current romantic partners, but why certain individuals engage in this behavior has not been fully explained. College students (N=328) participated in an online survey that examined two potential explanatory variables for interpersonal electronic surveillance (IES) of romantic partners: attachment style and relational uncertainty. Attachment style predicted both uncertainty and IES, with preoccupieds and fearfuls reporting the highest levels. Uncertainty did not predict IES, however. Future directions for research on romantic relationships and online surveillance are explored.

  5. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Summary Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Chancroid Selected STDs Appendix Appendix Interpreting STD Surveillance Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors ...

  6. Electron microscopy methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, A. L.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.

    2016-11-01

    The history of the development and application of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) in studies of cultural heritage sites is considered. In fact, investigations based on these methods began when electron microscopes became a commercial product. Currently, these methods, being developed and improved, help solve many historical enigmas. To date, electron microscopy combined with microanalysis makes it possible to investigate any object, from parchment and wooden articles to pigments, tools, and objects of art. Studies by these methods have revealed that some articles were made by ancient masters using ancient "nanotechnologies"; hence, their comprehensive analysis calls for the latest achievements in the corresponding instrumental methods and sample preparation techniques.

  7. Fault tolerant programmable digital attitude control electronics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    The attitude control electronics mechanization study to develop a fault tolerant autonomous concept for a three axis system is reported. Programmable digital electronics are compared to general purpose digital computers. The requirements, constraints, and tradeoffs are discussed. It is concluded that: (1) general fault tolerance can be achieved relatively economically, (2) recovery times of less than one second can be obtained, (3) the number of faulty behavior patterns must be limited, and (4) adjoined processes are the best indicators of faulty operation.

  8. Electronic structure of a striped nickelate studied by the exact exchange for correlated electrons (EECE) approach

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-12-01

    Motivated by a RIXS study of Wakimoto, et al.(Phys. Rev. Lett., 102 (2009) 157001) we use density functional theory to analyze the magnetic order in the nickelate La5/3Sr1/3NiO4 and the details of its crystal and electronic structure. We compare the generalized gradient approximation to the hybrid functional approach of exact exchange for correlated electrons (EECE). In contrast to the former, the latter reproduces the insulating state of the compound and the midgap states. The EECE approach, in general, appears to be appropriate for describing stripe phases in systems with orbital degrees of freedom. Copyright © EPLA, 2009.

  9. Studies on photooxidation (VIII)——Electron transfer photooxygenation mechanism of acenaphthenone as electron donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴树屏; 刘继峰; 江致勤

    1996-01-01

    The photooxidation and its electron transfer (ET) mechanism of acenaphthenone (ANO) sensitized by 9,10-dicyanoanthracence (DCA) are investigated. It has been found that the reaction with a stepwise manner led to the formation of 1,8- (3’-hydroxy)-β-naphthalene lactone and 1,8-naphthalenedicarboxylic anhydride. By cyclic voltammetry, fluorescence quenching, exciplex emission, co-sensitbation of biphenyl/DCA as well as CIDNP studies, it is verified that ANO can behave as an electron donor to undergo ET reaction with singlet DCA which is a thermodynamically-favored process.

  10. Towards an integrated food safety surveillance system: a simulation study to explore the potential of combining genomic and epidemiological metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotta, M.; Wall, B.; Good, L.; O'Brien, S. J.; Guitian, J.

    2017-01-01

    Foodborne infection is a result of exposure to complex, dynamic food systems. The efficiency of foodborne infection is driven by ongoing shifts in genetic machinery. Next-generation sequencing technologies can provide high-fidelity data about the genetics of a pathogen. However, food safety surveillance systems do not currently provide similar high-fidelity epidemiological metadata to associate with genetic data. As a consequence, it is rarely possible to transform genetic data into actionable knowledge that can be used to genuinely inform risk assessment or prevent outbreaks. Big data approaches are touted as a revolution in decision support, and pose a potentially attractive method for closing the gap between the fidelity of genetic and epidemiological metadata for food safety surveillance. We therefore developed a simple food chain model to investigate the potential benefits of combining ‘big’ data sources, including both genetic and high-fidelity epidemiological metadata. Our results suggest that, as for any surveillance system, the collected data must be relevant and characterize the important dynamics of a system if we are to properly understand risk: this suggests the need to carefully consider data curation, rather than the more ambitious claims of big data proponents that unstructured and unrelated data sources can be combined to generate consistent insight. Of interest is that the biggest influencers of foodborne infection risk were contamination load and processing temperature, not genotype. This suggests that understanding food chain dynamics would probably more effectively generate insight into foodborne risk than prescribing the hazard in ever more detail in terms of genotype.

  11. Changes in gram negative microorganisms’ resistance pattern during 4 years period in a referral teaching hospital; a surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili Hossein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Surveillance studies evaluating antimicrobial susceptibilities are of great value in preventing the spread of resistant pathogens by elucidating the trend of resistance in commonly used antibiotics and as a consequence providing information for prescribing the most appropriate agent. This study is a longitudinal antimicrobial resistance surveillance study designed to evaluate the trend in antimicrobial resistance to gram negative microorganisms from 2007 to 2010. Method During a four-year period (2007–2010 isolates derived from all patients admitted to infectious diseases ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital, the major referral center for infectious disease in Iran with the highest admission rates, were evaluated. Based on disk diffusion method and zone of inhibition size, the microorganism was regarded as to be sensitive, resistant or has intermediate susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents. Results The widest spread Gram-negative microorganism in all of isolates taken together in our study was E.coli (30% followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in 28.6% and Enterobacter spp. in 11.9%, respectively. The susceptibility to amikacin, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and nitrofurantoin was equal or above 50% for all microorganisms over four years. However, the susceptibility to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxim, and ceftriaxone was less than 50% in derived isolates during the study period. Conclusion In conclusion, the finding of the present study revealed that resistance rate to common antimicrobial agents in Iran is growing and isolates were susceptible mostly to broad-spectrum antibiotics including imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam.

  12. Methodology and early findings of the fifth survey of childhood and adolescence surveillance and prevention of adult noncommunicable disease: The caspian-v study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the methodology and early findings of the fifth survey of a school-based surveillance program in Iran. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2015 as the fifth survey of a surveillance program entitled "Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non- communicable disease" (CASPIAN-V study. The protocol was mainly based on the World Health Organization-Global School student Health Survey. We studied 14400 students, aged 7-18 years, and their parents living in 30 provinces in Iran. Fasting blood was obtained from a sub-sample of 4200 randomly selected students. Results: The participation rate for the whole study and for blood sampling were 99% and 91.5%, respectively. The mean (SD age of participants was 12.3 (3.2 years, consisting of 49.4% girls and 71.4% urban residents. Overall, 16.1% were underweight (17.4% of boys and 14.8% of girls, and 20.8% had excess weight consisting of 9.4% (8.7% of boys and 10.2% of girls of overweight and 11.4% (12.5% of boys and 10.3% of girls of obesity. Abdominal obesity was documented in 21.1% of students (21.6% of boys and 20.5% of girls. Low HDL-C was the most prevalent abnormality of the lipid profile (29.5% followed by high serum triglycerides (27.7%. Of students, 59.9% consumed whole wheat bread; and 57% reported that they never or rarely added salt to table. The reported daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, and milk was about 60%, 32% and 40%, respectively. 13.7% of participants had at least 30-min daily leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions: The current findings provide an overview of the current health status and lifestyle habits of children and adolescents. This surveillance program would help planning preventive programs at individual and community levels.

  13. Methodology and Early Findings of the Fifth Survey of Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Noncommunicable Disease: The CASPIAN-V Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ziaodini, Hasan; Qorbani, Mostafa; Taheri, Majzoubeh; Aminaei, Tahereh; Goodarzi, Azam; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Ahadi, Zeinab; Shafiee, Gita; Shahsavari, Ali; Heshmat, Ramin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the methodology and early findings of the fifth survey of a school-based surveillance program in Iran. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2015 as the fifth survey of a surveillance program entitled “Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Non- communicable disease” (CASPIAN-V) study. The protocol was mainly based on the World Health Organization-Global School student Health Survey. We studied 14400 students, aged 7-18 years, and their parents living in 30 provinces in Iran. Fasting blood was obtained from a sub-sample of 4200 randomly selected students. Results: The participation rate for the whole study and for blood sampling were 99% and 91.5%, respectively. The mean (SD) age of participants was 12.3 (3.2) years, consisting of 49.4% girls and 71.4% urban residents. Overall, 16.1% were underweight (17.4% of boys and 14.8% of girls), and 20.8% had excess weight consisting of 9.4% (8.7% of boys and 10.2% of girls) of overweight and 11.4% (12.5% of boys and 10.3% of girls) of obesity. Abdominal obesity was documented in 21.1% of students (21.6% of boys and 20.5% of girls). Low HDL-C was the most prevalent abnormality of the lipid profile (29.5%) followed by high serum triglycerides (27.7%). Of students, 59.9% consumed whole wheat bread; and 57% reported that they never or rarely added salt to table. The reported daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, and milk was about 60%, 32% and 40%, respectively. 13.7% of participants had at least 30-min daily leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions: The current findings provide an overview of the current health status and lifestyle habits of children and adolescents. This surveillance program would help planning preventive programs at individual and community levels. PMID:28217266

  14. Electron Cloud Studies for the Upgrade of the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Iadarola, G; Gilardoni, S; Rumolo, G; Sterbini, G; Yin Vallgren, C; Pivi, M; Rioja-Fuentelsaz, S

    2013-01-01

    The observation of a significant dynamic pressure rise as well as measurements with dedicated detectors indicate that an electron cloud develops in the CERN PS during the last stages of the RF manipulations for the production of LHC type beams, especially with 25 ns bunch spacing. Although presently these beams are not degraded by the interaction with the electron cloud, which develops only during few milliseconds before extraction, the question if this effect could degrade the future high intensity and high brightness beams foreseen by the LHC Injectors Upgrade project is still open. Therefore several studies are being carried out employing both simulations and measurements with the electron cloud detectors in the machine. The aim is to develop a reliable electron cloud model of the PS vacuum chambers in order to identify possible future limitations and find suitable countermeasures.

  15. Fast electron scattering as a tool to study target structure

    CERN Document Server

    Amusia, M Ya

    2006-01-01

    We concentrate on several relatively new aspects of the study of fast electron scattering by atoms and atom-like objects, namely endohedral atoms and fullerenes. We show that the corresponding cross sections, being expressed via so-called Generalized Oscillator Strengths (GOS), give information on the electronic structure of the target and on the role of electron correlations in it. We consider what sort of information became available when analyzing the dependence of GOS upon their multipolarity, transferred momentum and energy. We demonstrate the role of nondipole corrections in the small-angle fast-electron inelastic scattering. There dipole contribution dominates while non-dipole corrections can be considerably and controllably enhanced as compared to the case of low and medium energy photoionization. We show also that analyses of GOS for discrete level excitations permit to clarify their multipolarity. The results of calculations of Compton excitation and ionization cross-sections for noble gas atoms are...

  16. Scanning electron microscope studies of human metaphase chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemilt, L A; Estandarte, A K C; Yusuf, M; Robinson, I K

    2014-03-06

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to evaluate potential chromosome preparations and staining methods for application in high-resolution three-dimensional X-ray imaging. Our starting point is optical fluorescence microscopy, the standard method for chromosomes, which only gives structural detail at the 200 nm scale. In principle, with suitable sample preparation protocols, including contrast enhancing staining, the surface structure of the chromosomes can be viewed at the 1 nm level by SEM. Here, we evaluate a heavy metal nucleic-acid-specific stain, which gives strong contrast in the backscattered electron signal. This study uses SEM to examine chromosomes prepared in different ways to establish a sample preparation protocol for X-rays. Secondary electron and backscattered electron signals are compared to evaluate the effectiveness of platinum-based stains used to enhance the contrast.

  17. Study of the NWC electrons belt observed on DEMETER Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xinqiao; Wang, Ping; Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Hong; Zhang, Xuemin; Huang, Jianping; Shi, Feng; Yu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Yanbing; Meng, Xiangcheng; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Parrot, M

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the data from 2007 to 2008, which is observed by IDP onboard DEMETER satellite, during ten months of NWC working and seven months of NWC shutdown. The characteristic of the space instantaneous electron belts, which come from the influence of the VLF transmitted by NWC, is studied comprehensively. The main distribution region of the NWC electron belts and the flux change are given. We also studied the distribution characteristic of the average energy spectrum in different magnetic shell at the height of DEMETER orbit and the difference of the average energy spectrum of the electrons in the drift loss-cone between day and night. As a result, the powerful power of NWC transmitter and the 19.8 kHz narrow bandwidth VLF emission not only created a momentary electrons enhancement region, which strides 180 degree in them longitude direction and from 1.6 to 1.9 in L value, with the rise of the electrons flux reaching to 3 orders of magnitude mostly, but also induced the enhancement or loss of electrons in ...

  18. Battlefield Acoustic Sensing, Multimodal Sensing, and Networked Sensing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications by Latasha Solomon, Wesley Wang, and Miriam Häge...Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications by Latasha Solomon Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Wesley Wang...Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  19. The impact of close surveillance on pregnancy outcome among women with a prior history of antepartum complications attributed to thrombosis: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachum Zohar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence, so far, as to the optimal management of women with a prior obstetric history of antepartum complications attributed to thrombosis. We aimed to investigate the contribution of close antepartum surveillance on pregnancy outcome among women with prior antepartum complications attributed to thrombosis. Methods The study was conducted on all women who were delivered, conceived and delivered again between January 2000 and January 2006 at a university teaching hospital. Women included were managed in previous pregnancy at a low risk setting and had unpredicted antepartum complications occurring at a gestational age of 23 weeks or more. Antepartum complications considered were intrauterine fetal death, neonates who were small for gestational age, severe pre-eclampsia and placental abruption. All women were tested for the presence of thrombophilia after delivery. In the following pregnancy, only women found to have any thrombophilia (thrombophilic group were treated with enoxaparin. Both the thrombophilic group and the non-thrombophilic group (tested negatively for thrombophilia were managed and observed closely at our high-risk pregnancy clinic. Results Ninety-seven women, who conceived at least once after the diagnosis of the relevant antepartum complications, were included in this study. Forty-nine had any thrombophilia and 48 tested negatively. Composite antepartum complications (all antepartum complications considered were reduced significantly after close antepartum surveillance in both groups. Mean birth weight and mean gestational age improved significantly and were comparable between the groups. Conclusion Close antepartum surveillance may contribute to improvement in the perinatal outcomes of women with prior antepartum complications attributed to thrombosis.

  20. Pretreatment HIV-1 drug resistance in Argentina: results from a surveillance study performed according to WHO-proposed new methodology in 2014-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissio, E; Barbás, M G; Bouzas, M B; Cudolá, A; Salomón, H; Espínola, L; Fernández Giuliano, S; Kademián, S; Mammana, L; Ornani, M L Suárez; Ravasi, G; Vila, M; Zapiola, I; Falistocco, C

    2017-02-01

    In Argentina, current national guidelines recommend starting with NNRTI-based regimens. Recently, there have been some local reports regarding concerning levels of NNRTI-transmitted resistance, but surveillance has never been carried out at a national level. To determine the prevalence of HIV drug resistance in people starting ART in Argentina using a WHO-proposed methodology. This was a cross-sectional, nationally representative study. Twenty-five antiretroviral-dispensing sites throughout the country were randomly chosen to enrol at least 330 persons starting ART, to generate a point prevalence estimate of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) with a 5% CI (for the total population and for those without antiretroviral exposure). All consecutive patients older than 18 years starting or restarting ART in the chosen clinics were eligible. Samples were processed with Trugene and analysed using the Stanford algorithm. Between August 2014 and March 2015, we obtained 330 samples from people starting ART. The mean ± SD age was 35 ± 11 years, 63.4% were male, 16.6% had prior antiretroviral exposure and the median (IQR) CD4 count was 275 cells/mm(3) (106-461). The prevalence of RAMs found was 14% (±4%) for the whole population (3% NRTI-RAMs; 11% NNRTI-RAMs and 2% PI-RAMs) and 13% (±4%) for those without prior antiretroviral exposure (3%, 10% and 2%, respectively). The most common mutation was K103N. This surveillance study showed concerning levels of HIV drug resistance in Argentina, especially to NNRTIs. Due to this finding, Argentina's Ministry of Health guidelines will change, recommending performing a resistance test for everyone before starting ART. If this is taken up properly, it also might function as a continuing surveillance tool. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Fabrication and electronic transport studies of single nanocrystal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, David Louis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-05-01

    Semiconductor and metallic nanocrystals exhibit interesting electronic transport behavior as a result of electrostatic and quantum mechanical confinement effects. These effects can be studied to learn about the nature of electronic states in these systems. This thesis describes several techniques for the electronic study of nanocrystals. The primary focus is the development of novel methods to attach leads to prefabricated nanocrystals. This is because, while nanocrystals can be readily synthesized from a variety of materials with excellent size control, means to make electrical contact to these nanocrystals are limited. The first approach that will be described uses scanning probe microscopy to first image and then electrically probe surfaces. It is found that electronic investigations of nanocrystals by this technique are complicated by tip-sample interactions and environmental factors such as salvation and capillary forces. Next, an atomic force microscope technique for the catalytic patterning of the surface of a self assembled monolayer is described. In principle, this nano-fabrication technique can be used to create electronic devices which are based upon complex arrangements of nanocrystals. Finally, the fabrication and electrical characterization of a nanocrystal-based single electron transistor is presented. This device is fabricated using a hybrid scheme which combines electron beam lithography and wet chemistry to bind single nanocrystals in tunneling contact between closely spaced metallic leads. In these devices, both Au and CdSe nanocrystals show Coulomb blockade effects with characteristic energies of several tens of meV. Additional structure is seen the transport behavior of CdSe nanocrystals as a result of its electronic structure.

  2. Extended spectrum cephalosporin resistance among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in West Norway during 2006-2013; a prospective surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylvaganam, Haima; Kolstad, Helge; Breistein, Rebecca Irene; Lind, Grete; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald

    2017-01-01

    Routine surveillance of resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae and phenotypic identification of underlying mechanisms using a simple strategy was commenced in 2006 at our laboratory, serving West Norway. This report focuses on the results until 2013. The classical plasmid-mediated extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLA ) among clinically relevant Escherichia coli isolates showed an increase from 0.6% to 4.3% during the surveillance period, while prevalence for other mechanisms remained stable, below 0.7%. ESBLA in Klebsiella pneumoniae had similar prevalence in 2006 (0.6%) and 2013 (4.4%), but in between it peaked to 3.9% in 2008 and to 9.3% in 2011. Within the other species, the numbers of clinically relevant isolates and isolates-producing ESBLA were much lower. An increasing resistance due to hyperproduction of AmpC enzymes was seen in Enterobacter and Citrobacter, with prevalence increasing from 18% and 12.2% in 2006 to 27.5% and 26.1% in 2013, respectively. Hyperproduction of KOXY enzyme in Klebsiella oxytoca remained below 9.5% and did not show an increasing trend. The overall increase in the proportions of isolates-producing ESBLA in E. coli/K. pneumoniae and hyperproduction of AmpC in Enterobacter/Citrobacter necessitates measures to hinder the spread of resistant bacteria and vigilant antibiotic stewardship.

  3. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  4. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  5. Clinical and psychosocial variables associated with behavioral intentions to undergo surveillance endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, John M; Hinojosa-Lindsey, Marilyn; Sansgiry, Shubhada; El-Serag, Hashem B; Naik, Aanand D

    2014-06-10

    Many patients with Barrett's esophagus do not adhere to guideline-recommended endoscopic surveillance. Among patient factors related to cancer prevention behaviors, patients' stated behavioral intention is a strong predictor of behavior performance. Little is known about the patient factors associated with having a strong behavioral intention to pursue surveillance endoscopy. This study explores the association of clinical and psychosocial variables and behavioral intention to pursue surveillance endoscopy among patients with Barrett's Esophagus and no or low-grade dysplasia. Potential subjects were screened using electronic medical records of a regional Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a pathologically confirmed Barrett's esophagus registry. Eligible participants were recruited by a mailer or phone call and completed a questionnaire to measure six distinct psychosocial factors, their behavioral intention to undergo surveillance endoscopy, and various demographic and clinical variables. Univariate and multivariate linear regression identified the relation of behavioral intention with each of six psychosocial variables. One-hundred and one subjects consented and returned surveys. The analytical sample for this study consists of the 94% of surveys with complete responses to the behavior intention items. Three of the six psychosocial domains were statistically significant predictors of intention in both univariate and adjusted univariate analysis (salience/coherence β = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.45-0.76, P intention. This study established the validity of a scale to measure psychosocial variables associated with behavioral intentions to undergo surveillance endoscopy. Results demonstrate the importance of assessing self-efficacy, social influences, and bottom-line belief in the value of surveillance endoscopy when evaluating a patient's likelihood of completing surveillance endoscopy.

  6. Surveillance and Monitoring of Dialysis Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalathaksha Kumbar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access is the lifeline of a hemodialysis patient. Currently arteriovenous fistula and graft are considered the permanent options for vascular access. Monitoring and surveillance of vascular access are an integral part of the care of hemodialysis patient. Although different techniques and methods are available for identifying access dysfunction, the scientific evidence for the optimal methodology is lacking. A small number of randomized controlled trials have been performed evaluating different surveillance techniques. We performed a study of the recent literature published in the PUBMED, to review the scientific evidence on different methodologies currently being used for surveillance and monitoring and their impact on the care of the dialysis access. The limited randomized studies especially involving fistulae and small sample size of the published studies with conflicting results highlight the need for a larger multicentered randomized study with hard clinical end points to evaluate the optimal surveillance strategy for both fistula and graft.

  7. On Application of a Video Surveillance System in Waste Electrical and Electronic Product Processing Enterprises%浅析废弃电器电子产品处理企业视频监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦峥; 王冬梅

    2015-01-01

    The Video Surveillance System for Waste Electrical and Electronic Product Processing Enterprises in Tianjin is mainly applied to the monitoring of the city’s corresponding enterprises by the municipal environmental protection admini-stration agency. This paper gives an overview of the system and analyzes its existing problems,such as to-be-upgraded im-age quality,unstable power supply to the front camera and unstable network transmission. In the end,it presents coping measures and development suggestions.%“天津市废弃电器电子产品处理企业视频监控系统”主要用于天津市环境保护管理部门对天津市的废弃电器电子产品处理企业生产过程进行视频监控。介绍了系统概况,从图像质量有待提高、前端摄像头供电不稳、网络传输不稳定等方面分析了系统存在的问题,并提出了解决方法和发展建议。

  8. Electronic journals and scholarly communication: a citation and reference study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Harter

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The journal is fundamental to formal scholarly communication. This research reports highlights and preliminary findings from an empirical study of scholarly electronic journals. The purpose of the research is to assess the impact of electronic journals (e-journals on scholarly communication, by measuring the extent to which they are being cited in the literature, both print and electronic. The intent is to provide a snapshot of the impact e-journals were having on scholarly communication at a given point in time, roughly the end of 1995. This study provides one measure of that impact, specifically on the formal, as opposed to informal, communication process. The study also examines the forms in which scholars cite e-journals, the accuracy and completeness of citations to e-journals, and practical difficulties faced by scholars and researchers who wish to retrieve e-journals through the networks.

  9. Electron cloud studies for heavy-ion and proton machines

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, F; Weiland, Th

    2013-01-01

    Electron cloud effects are a known problem in various accelerator facilities around the world. Electron clouds cause instabilities and emittance growth in positron and proton beams as well as in heavy ion beams. Most of the hadron machines experience the build-up of EC due to the multipacting. In LHC and in positron machines production of electrons due to the synchrotron radiation becomes as important as the build-up due to the secondary emission. The main source of seed electrons in heavy ion machines is the residual gas ionization. FAIR facility in Darmstadt will operate with heavy-ion and proton beams. However, the beam parameters are such that the multipacting will start to play a role only for the unconditioned wall with the secondary emission yieldmore than 1.8. In this paperwe study the electron cloud build-up and its effect on the beam stability for FAIR heavy-ion coasting beams. These beams will be used during slow extraction. Electron scattering on the beam ions and its effect on the final neutraliz...

  10. Best Practices in Dengue Surveillance: A Report from the Asia-Pacific and Americas Dengue Prevention Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Mark E.; Stone, Amy; Fitzsimons, David W.; Hanna, Jeffrey N.; Lam, Sai Kit; Vong, Sirenda; Guzman, Maria G.; Mendez-Galvan, Jorge F.; Halstead, Scott B.; Letson, G. William; Kuritsky, Joel; Mahoney, Richard; Margolis, Harold S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a virus infection that is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito and can cause severe disease especially in children. Dengue fever is a major problem in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Methodology/Principal Findings We invited dengue experts from around the world to attend meetings to discuss dengue surveillance. We reviewed literature, heard detailed reports on surveillance programs, and shared expert opinions. Results Presentations by 22 countries were heard during the 2.5 day meetings. We describe the best methods of surveillance in general, the stakeholders in dengue surveillance, and the steps from mosquito bite to reporting of a dengue case to explore how best to carry out dengue surveillance. We also provide details and a comparison of the dengue surveillance programs by the presenting countries. Conclusions/Significance The experts provided recommendations for achieving the best possible data from dengue surveillance accepting the realities of the real world (e.g., limited funding and staff). Their recommendations included: (1) Every dengue endemic country should make reporting of dengue cases to the government mandatory; (2) electronic reporting systems should be developed and used; (3) at minimum dengue surveillance data should include incidence, hospitalization rates, deaths by age group; (4) additional studies should be completed to check the sensitivity of the system; (5) laboratories should share expertise and data; (6) tests that identify dengue virus should be used in patients with fever for four days or less and antibody tests should be used after day 4 to diagnose dengue; and (7) early detection and prediction of dengue outbreaks should be goals for national surveillance systems. PMID:21103381

  11. Health care-associated Clostridium difficile infection in adults admitted to acute care hospitals in Canada: a Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Denise; Miller, Mark; Simor, Andrew; Taylor, Geoffrey; Gardam, Michael; McGeer, Allison; Hutchinson, James; Moore, Dorothy; Kelly, Sharon; Boyd, David; Mulvey, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most frequent cause of health care-associated infectious diarrhea in industrialized countries. The only previous report describing the incidence of health care-associated CDI (HA CDI) in Canada was conducted in 1997 by the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program. We re-examined the incidence of HA CDI with an emphasis on patient outcomes. A prospective surveillance was conducted from 1 November 2004 through 30 April 2005. Basic demographic data were collected, including age, sex, type of patient ward where the patient was hospitalized on the day HA CDI was identified, and patient comorbidities. Data regarding severe outcome were collected 30 days after the diagnosis of HA CDI; severe outcome was defined as an admission to the intensive care unit because of complications of CDI, colectomy due to CDI, and/or death attributable to CDI. A total of 1430 adults with HA CDI were identified in 29 hospitals during the 6-month surveillance period. The overall incidence rate of HA CDI for adult patients admitted to these hospitals was 4.6 cases per 1000 patient admissions and 65 per 100,000 patient-days. At 30 days after onset of HA CDI, 233 patients (16.3%) had died from all causes; 31 deaths (2.2%) were a direct result of CDI, and 51 deaths (3.6%) were indirectly related to CDI, for a total attributable mortality rate of 5.7%. The rates are remarkably similar to those found in our previous study; although we found wide variations in HA CDI among the participating hospitals. However, the attributable mortality increased almost 4-fold (5.7% vs. 1.5%; P<.001).

  12. A Prospective Study of Comparing Multi-Gene Biomarker Chip and Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen in the Postoperative Surveillance for Patients with Stage I-III Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Tang; Huang, Ming-Yii; Yeh, Yung-Sung; Huang, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Hsiang-Lin; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Circulating biomarkers can predict clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of our multigene biomarker chip for detecting circulating tumor cells for postoperative surveillance of stage I-III colorectal cancer patients. In total, 298 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients were analyzed after curative resection between June 2010 and October 2014. During each follow-up, a postoperative surveillance strategy, including ESMO Guidelines Working Group recommendations and the biochip, was used. After a 28.4-month median follow-up, 48 (16.1%) patients had postoperative relapse. Univariate analysis revealed that the postoperative relapse risk factors were rectal tumor, perineural invasion, elevated preoperative and postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels, and positive biochip results (all P postoperative relapse correlated significantly with elevated postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels (odds ratio = 4.136, P = 0.008) and positive biochip results (odds ratio = 66.878, P sensitivity (P = 0.003), specificity (P = 0.003), positive (P = 0.002) and negative (P = 0.006) predictive values, and accuracy (P postoperative relapse were significantly higher than those of elevated postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels. Moreover, the median lead time between positive biochip result and postoperative relapse detection was significantly earlier than that between elevated postoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen level and postoperative relapse detection (10.7 vs. 2.8 months, P postoperative relapse during stage I-III colorectal cancer patient surveillance. In clinical practice, this biochip may facilitate early postoperative relapse diagnosis in colorectal cancer patients.

  13. Improving outpatient safety through effective electronic communication: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espadas Donna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health information technology and electronic medical records (EMRs are potentially powerful systems-based interventions to facilitate diagnosis and treatment because they ensure the delivery of key new findings and other health related information to the practitioner. However, effective communication involves more than just information transfer; despite a state of the art EMR system, communication breakdowns can still occur. 123 In this project, we will adapt a model developed by the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS to understand and improve the relationship between work systems and processes of care involved with electronic communication in EMRs. We plan to study three communication activities in the Veterans Health Administration's (VA EMR: electronic communication of abnormal imaging and laboratory test results via automated notifications (i.e., alerts; electronic referral requests; and provider-to-pharmacy communication via computerized provider order entry (CPOE. Aim Our specific aim is to propose a protocol to evaluate the systems and processes affecting outcomes of electronic communication in the computerized patient record system (related to diagnostic test results, electronic referral requests, and CPOE prescriptions using a human factors engineering approach, and hence guide the development of interventions for work system redesign. Design This research will consist of multiple qualitative methods of task analysis to identify potential sources of error related to diagnostic test result alerts, electronic referral requests, and CPOE; this will be followed by a series of focus groups to identify barriers, facilitators, and suggestions for improving the electronic communication system. Transcripts from all task analyses and focus groups will be analyzed using methods adapted from grounded theory and content analysis.

  14. From planning to practice: building the national network for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahamondes Maria V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving maternal health is one of the Millennium Development Goals for 2015. Recently some progress has been achieved in reducing mortality. On the other hand, in developed regions, maternal death is a relatively rare event compared to the number of cases of morbidity; hence studying maternal morbidity has become more relevant. Electronic surveillance systems may improve research by facilitating complete data reporting and reducing the time required for data collection and analysis. Therefore the purpose of this study was to describe the methods used in elaborating and implementing the National Network for the Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Brazil. Methods The project consisted of a multicenter, cross-sectional study for the surveillance of severe maternal morbidity including near-miss, in Brazil. Results Following the development of a conceptual framework, centers were selected for inclusion in the network, consensus meetings were held among the centers, an electronic data collection system was identified, specific software and hardware tools were developed, research material was prepared, and the implementation process was initiated and analyzed. Conclusion The conceptual framework developed for this network was based on the experience acquired in various studies carried out in the area over recent years and encompasses maternal and perinatal health. It is innovative especially in the context of a developing country. The implementation of the project represents the first step towards this planned management. The system online elaborated for this surveillance network may be used in further studies in reproductive and perinatal health.

  15. Modernization of existing VVER-1000 surveillance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V.; Erak, D.; Makhotin, D. [NRC ' Kurchatov Inst.' , 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    According to generally accepted world practice, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material behavior during operation is carried out using tests of surveillance specimens. The main objective of the surveillance program consists in insurance of safe RPV operation during the design lifetime and lifetime-extension period. At present, the approaches of pressure vessels residual life validation based on the test results of their surveillance specimens have been developed and introduced in Russia and are under consideration in other countries where vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactors- (VVER-) 1000 are in operation. In this case, it is necessary to ensure leading irradiation of surveillance specimens (as compared to the pressure vessel wall) and to provide uniformly irradiated specimen groups for mechanical testing. Standard surveillance program of VVER-1000 has several significant shortcomings and does not meet these requirements. Taking into account program of lifetime extension of VVER-1000 operating in Russia, it is necessary to carry out upgrading of the VVER-1000 surveillance program. This paper studies the conditions of a surveillance specimen's irradiation and upgrading of existing sets to provide monitoring and prognosis of RPV material properties for extension of the reactor's lifetime up to 60 years or more. (authors)

  16. Syndromic surveillance: A necessary public health tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Lateef

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Of late much has been said about emerging infectious diseases and the threat of bioterrorism. The focus has been on continuous public health surveillance for early detection of outbreaks and potential threats. Preparedness is the way forward and relevant institutions and organizations need to make the necessary investments early. Familiarity, good coordination, active participation and a change of mindset amongst personnel is crucial to make the system work. We also share a general approach to using electronic Emergency Department data for syndromic surveillance.

  17. Postponed variety creation: case study in consumer electronics retail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelqvist, Patrik; Gubi, Ebbe

    2004-01-01

    Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design/methodology/approach – Improve......Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design...

  18. Postponed variety creation: case study in consumer electronics retail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelqvist, Patrik; Gubi, Ebbe

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design/methodology/approach – Improve......Purpose – Postponement is known as a way to reduce risk and inventories while still providing high product variety and acceptable response times. The paper is a case study that uses simulation for quantifying these benefits for a consumer electronics company. Design...

  19. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  20. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  1. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  3. Electronic thermal sensor and Data Collection Platform technology: Part 5 in Thermal surveillance of active volcanoes using the Landsat-1 Data Collection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, Duane M.; Friedman, Jules D.; Frank, David

    1976-01-01

    Five Data Collection Platforms (DCP) were integrated electronically with thermall sensing systems, emplaced and operated in an analog mode at selected thermally significant volcanic and geothermal sites. The DCP's transmitted 3260 messages comprising 26,080 ambient, surface, and near-surface temperature records at an accuracy of ±1.15 °C for 1121 instrument days between November 14, 1972 and April 17, 1974. In harsh, windy, high-altitude volcanic environments the DCP functioned best with a small dipole antenna. Sixteen kg of alkaline batteries provided a viable power supply for the DCP systems, operated at a low-duty cycle, for 5 to 8 months. A proposed solar power supply system would lengthen the period of unattended operation of the system considerably. Special methods of data handling such as data storage via a proposed memory system would increase the significance of the twice-daily data reception enabling the DCP's to record full diurnal-temperature cycles at volcanic or geothermal sites. Refinements in the temperature-monitoring system designed and operated in experiment SR 251 included a backup system consisting of a multipoint temperature scanner, a servo mechanism and an analog-to-digital recorder. Improvements were made in temperature-probe design and in construction of corrosion-resistant seals by use of a hydrofluoric-acid-etching technique.

  4. The Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in the study of tissue specimens

    CERN Document Server

    Stefaniuk, Ireneusz; Skrȩt, Andrzej; Skrȩt-Magierło, Joanna; Góra, Tomasz; Szczerba, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The Electron Paramagnetic Spectroscopy (EPR) is the most direct and powerful method for the detection and identification of free radicals and other species with unpaired electrons. Statistics disorders are a common gynaecological disorder occurring in women. The condition afflicts around 15% of women to the extent of impairing the quality of living. According to scientific reports as many as 50% of women experiencing problems related to genital statistics disorders. The aim of this work was to investigate tissue taken from women with genital statistics disorders using the Electron Paramagnetic Resonance method. The studies on the tissue of women is one of the first studies in this area. In this work we observed a close relationship between the observed EPR signal and the consumption of omega 3 acids.

  5. Bladder Exstrophy: An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIFFEL, CSABA; CORREA, ADOLFO; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; CSÁKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; OLNEY, RICHARD S.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We used data from 22 participating member programs of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). All cases were reviewed and classified as isolated, syndrome, and multiple congenital anomalies. We estimated the total prevalence of BE and calculated the frequency and odds ratios for various maternal and case characteristics. A total of 546 cases with BE were identified among 26,355,094 births. The total prevalence of BE was 2.07 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.90–2.25) and varied between 0.52 and 4.63 among surveillance programs participating in the study. BE was nearly twice as common among male as among female cases. The proportion of isolated cases was 71%. Prevalence appeared to increase with increasing categories of maternal age, particularly among isolated cases. The total prevalence of BE showed some variations by geographical region, which is most likely attributable to differences in registration of cases. The higher total prevalence among male cases and older mothers, especially among isolated cases, warrants further attention. PMID:22002949

  6. How has early testicular cancer affected your life? A study of sexual function in men attending active surveillance for stage one testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Sue; Williams, Hilary; Braybrooke, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in young men, it is frequently diagnosed at key times in relationship formation. In early stage disease the vast majority of tumours will be cured by surgery alone with patients being offered active surveillance rather than adjuvant therapies. To date, research has not evaluated how surveillance alone impacts on sexual function. The aim of this quantitative longitudinal study was to ascertain the sexual function of men with stage one disease at 3 and 12 months post diagnosis and to compare with normative data. Additional data was collected on the information men sought regarding sexual function and media they used to access this. This study shows that men's sexual function is altered at diagnosis and improves by 3 months. At 12 months, whilst not statistically significant, sexual function improves but not to the same level as normative data comparison. Men appear to find verbal information useful at 3 months, however men appear to be seeking written and online information at 12 months. The intricacies of sexual function together with the low number of participants may have been best met with a qualitative approach. However, the information data indicates the importance of further research into the effects of early stage testicular cancer on sexual function. Therefore, further qualitative research is recommended to explore the effects of early stage testicular cancer in relation to sexual function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental Studies on Intelligent, Wearable and Automated Wireless Mobile Tele-Alert System for Continuous Cardiac Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Palanivel Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial malfunctioning harms human health and since most people are affected by arrhythmia. It is one of themajor causes for sudden death. The chance of occurrence of severe myocardial problem will be increased after thefirst heart block. Detecting the onset of malfunctioning is ever challenging. This paper proposes to find out how theonset of myocardial problem can be detected automatically in an early stage by an uninterrupted surveillance device.When the device detects any abnormal myocardial functions, then it automatically alerts the patient and the doctorthrough the GSM (global system for mobile mobile phones and the patient will be given first order medical attentionas soon as possible. Eventually this increases greatly the chance of survival of the victim.

  8. Experimental Studies on Intelligent, Wearable and Automated Wireless Mobile Tele-Alert System for Continuous Cardiac Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Palanivel Rajan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial malfunctioning harms human health and since most people are affected by arrhythmia. It is one of the major causes for sudden death. The chance of occurrence of severe myocardial problem will be increased after the first heart block. Detecting the onset of malfunctioning is ever challenging. This paper proposes to find out how the onset of myocardial problem can be detected automatically in an early stage by an uninterrupted surveillance device. When the device detects any abnormal myocardial functions, then it automatically alerts the patient and the doctor through the GSM (global system for mobile mobile phones and the patient will be given first order medical attention as soon as possible. Eventually this increases greatly the chance of survival of the victim.

  9. Electronic and optical properties of Fe, Pd, and Ti studied by reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, Dahlang [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia); Kraaer, Jens; Tougaard, Sven [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2014-06-28

    We have studied the electronic and optical properties of Fe, Pd, and Ti by reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS). REELS spectra recorded for primary energies in the range from 300 eV to 10 keV were corrected for multiple inelastically scattered electrons to determine the effective inelastic-scattering cross section. The dielectric functions and optical properties were determined by comparing the experimental inelastic-electron scattering cross section with a simulated cross section calculated within the semi-classical dielectric response model in which the only input is Im(−1/ε) by using the QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS software package. The complex dielectric functions ε(k,ω), in the 0–100 eV energy range, for Fe, Pd, and Ti were determined from the derived Im(−1/ε) by Kramers-Kronig transformation and then the refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. The validity of the applied model was previously tested and found to give consistent results when applied to REELS spectra at energies between 300 and 1000 eV taken at widely different experimental geometries. In the present paper, we provide, for the first time, a further test on its validity and find that the model also gives consistent results when applied to REELS spectra in the full range of primary electron energies from 300 eV to 10000 eV. This gives confidence in the validity of the applied method.

  10. Evaluation of Multiplex-Based Antibody Testing for Use in Large-Scale Surveillance for Yaws: a Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Gretchen M; Mitja, Oriol; Goodhew, Brook; Pillay, Allan; Lammie, Patrick J; Castro, Arnold; Moses, Penias; Chen, Cheng; Ye, Tun; Ballard, Ronald; Martin, Diana L

    2016-05-01

    WHO has targeted yaws for global eradication by 2020. The program goals are to interrupt the transmission in countries where yaws is endemic and to certify countries as yaws free where yaws was endemic in the past. No new rapid plasmin reagin (RPR) seroreactivity in young children is required for certification of elimination at a country level. We sought to evaluate whether antibody responses to specific treponemal antigens measured in a high-throughput multiplex bead array (MBA) assay differentiate past versus current infection and whether a nontreponemal lipoidal antigen test can be incorporated into the MBA. Serum and dried blood spot specimens collected for yaws surveillance projects in Ghana, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea (PNG) were run on MBA to measure antibodies against recombinant p17 (rp17) and treponemal membrane protein A (TmpA) treponemal antigens. Results were compared to standard treponemal laboratory (TPPA or TPHA [TPP(H)A]) and quantitative RPR test data. Of 589 specimens, 241 were TPP(H)A(+)/RPR(+), 88 were TPP(H)A(+)/RPR(-), 6 were TPP(H)A(-)/RPR(+), and 254 were negative for both tests. Compared to TPP(H)A, reactive concordance of rp17 was 93.7%, while reactive concordance of TmpA was only 81.9%. TmpA-specific reactivity showed good correlation with RPR titers (R(2) = 0.41; P RPR testing (cardiolipin) were not detected in the MBA. Our results suggest that TmpA can be used as a treponemal antigen marker for recent or active infection and potentially replace RPR in a high-throughput multiplex tool for large-scale yaws surveillance.

  11. Electron impact excitation studies of unstable atomic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellatif, Ady Kamel

    The polarization of Balmer-alpha radiation excited in collisions of electrons with atomic hydrogen is presented for an electron energy range from threshold to 1000 eV. Measurements are in good agreement with calculations carried out using either convergent-close-coupling or R-matrix with pseudo-states approaches. Cascade is demonstrated to have a significant effect. Balmer-alpha excitation function data are also presented. A previous measurement of the polarization of Balmer-alpha following dissociative excitation of H2 by electrons is confirmed and extended. The electron impact excitation spectrum of atomic and molecular nitrogen in the VUV range (800 A--1800 A) is presented. The excitation functions of the 1135 A and the 1200 A transitions are obtained. About 5% of nitrogen molecules are dissociated using a microwave discharge source and a mixture of 95% helium and 5% nitrogen gases. Other lines proved to have too small an emission cross section for the electron impact excitation process on atomic nitrogen. Thus the 1243 A, 1494 A, 1745 A N lines and the 1085 A N+ line could not be studied using the small dissociation fractions obtained in the present work. Electron impact excitation of fluorine and sulfur atoms is presented. The spectrum of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) in the VUV range from 800 A--1700 A is recorded. A 70% dissociation fraction was obtained using the microwave discharge unit with SF6 and He targets. The absolute emission cross section for the 807 A fluorine transition is found to be 2.21 +/- 1.20 x 10-19 cm 2 at 200 eV electron energy. As for sulfur, the absolute emission cross section for the 1474 A transition is 2.46 +/- 1.38 x 10-19 cm2 at 95 eV and for the 1667 A transition is 1.87 +/- 1.31 x 10-19 cm 2 at 85 eV.

  12. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting

  13. [Scanning electron microscope study of chemically disinfected endodontic files].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, G; Mateos, M; Navarro, J L; Canalda, C

    1991-01-01

    Forty stainless steel endodontic files were observed at scanning electron microscopy after being subjected to ten disinfection cycles of 10 minutes each one, immersed in different chemical disinfectants. Corrosion was not observed on the surface of the files in circumstances that this study was made.

  14. Bipolar budding in yeasts - an electron microscope study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreger-van Rij, N.J.W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1971-01-01

    Bud formation in yeasts with bipolar budding was studied by electron microscopy of thin sections. Budding in yeasts of the species Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Hanseniaspora valbyensis and Wickerhamia fluorescens resulted in concentric rings of scar ridges on the wall of the mother cell. The wall

  15. Early studies of placental ultrastructure by electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M; Enders, A C

    2016-01-01

    many other scientists to Washington University in St. Louis. Work on human placental ultrastructure was initiated at Cambridge and Kyoto whilst domestic animals were initially studied by Björkman in Stockholm and electron micrographs of bat placenta were published by Wimsatt of Cornell University...

  16. Study of an integrated electronic monitor for neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barelaud, B.; Nexon-Mokhtari, F.; Barrau, C.; Decossac, J.L.; Vareille, J.C. [Limoges Univ., 87 (France); Sarrabayrouse, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France). Lab. d`Automatique et d`Analyse des Systemes

    1994-12-31

    Many neutron beams monitors in 10 keV - 50 keV range are perturbed by gamma radiation impact. This new monitor uses two silicon (junction) diodes operating coincidence detection, combined with an electronic threshold to eliminate gamma background noise. The results and analyses presented here only concern feasibility studies. (D.L.). 11 refs.

  17. Metals on BN Studied by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, U.; Zan, R.; Ramasse, Q.; Jalil, Rashid; Riaz, Ibstam; Novoselov, K. S.

    2012-07-01

    Metal impurities, gold and nickel, have been deliberately introduced into boron-nitride (BN) sheets. The structural and topographic properties of doped BN have been studied by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Analysis revealed that metal atoms cluster preferentially in/on contaminated areas. The metal coverage on BN is almost the same for the same evaporated amount of 1 Å.

  18. Electron microscopy studies on MoS2 nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilsgaard

    Industrial-style MoS2-based hydrotreating catalysts are studied using electron microscopy. The MoS2 nanostructures are imaged with single-atom sensitivity to reveal the catalytically important edge structures. Furthermore, the in-situ formation of MoS2 crystals is imaged for the first time....

  19. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting

  20. Electron microscopy studies on MoS2 nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilsgaard

    Industrial-style MoS2-based hydrotreating catalysts are studied using electron microscopy. The MoS2 nanostructures are imaged with single-atom sensitivity to reveal the catalytically important edge structures. Furthermore, the in-situ formation of MoS2 crystals is imaged for the first time....

  1. Bipolar budding in yeasts - an electron microscope study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreger-van Rij, N.J.W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1971-01-01

    Bud formation in yeasts with bipolar budding was studied by electron microscopy of thin sections. Budding in yeasts of the species Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Hanseniaspora valbyensis and Wickerhamia fluorescens resulted in concentric rings of scar ridges on the wall of the mother cell. The wall betwe

  2. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  3. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy study of hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, N.A.; Fisher, R.F.; Asher, S.E.; Kazmerski, L.L.

    1987-07-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy is used to study hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Core-level and plasma excitations were examined as a function of hydrogen content. This technique and its interpretation reveals a consistent picture of the electron excitations within this important material. The a-Si:H thin films were fabricated by rf sputtering. Their hydrogen concentrations ranged from 0% to 15%. Hydrogen content was determined by infrared spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inspection of the silicon Auger-KLL peak confirmed the silicon core levels.

  4. Two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance and electron spin-echo study of solute dynamics in smectics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorcester, Jeff; Rananavare, Shankar B.; Freed, Jack H.

    1989-05-01

    Electron spin-echo (ESE) and two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance (2D ELDOR) experiments have been performed as a function of director orientation and temperature in the smectic A phase of the liquid crystal S2 for the spin-probe PD-tempone(2×10-3 M). Over the entire temperature range studied (288-323 K) we observe significant 2D ELDOR cross peaks only for ΔMI =±1 indicative of 14N spin-relaxation and negligible Heisenberg exchange. From the angular dependent 14N spin-relaxation rates we obtain the dipolar spectral densities at the hyperfine (hf) frequency, whereas from a combination of ESE and 2D ELDOR we obtain the dipolar and Zeeman-dipolar spectral densities at zero frequency. The angular dependent spectral densities were successfully decomposed into their basic components in accordance with theory. The angular dependent spectral densities at the hf frequency are not predicted by a model of anisotropic rotational diffusion in a nematic orienting potential, but are consistent with predictions of a model due to Moro and Nordio of solute rototranslational diffusion in a McMillan-type potential. The angular dependence also indicates that order director fluctuations in the smectic phase are suppressed at frequencies on the order of 10 MHz. An additional contribution to solute reorientation due to cooperative hydrocarbon chain fluctuations is suggested to account for the behavior of the observed spectral densities at zero frequency. An evaluation of the relevance of several other dynamical models to this experimental work is also presented.

  5. Preliminary Design Study of the Hollow Electron Lens for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Perini, Diego; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    A Hollow Electron Lens (HEL) has been proposed in order to improve performance of halo control and collimation in the Large Hadron Collider in view of its High Luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). The concept is based on a beam of electrons that travels around the protons for a few meters. The electron beam is produced by a cathode and then guided by a strong magnetic field generated by a set of superconducting solenoids. The first step of the design is the definition of the magnetic fields that drive the electron trajectories. The estimation of such trajectories by means of a dedicated MATLAB® tool is presented. The influence of the main geometrical and electrical parameters are analysed and discussed. Then, the main mechanical design choices for the solenoids, cryostats gun and collector are described. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the preliminary design of the Electron Lens for LHC. The methods used in this study also serve as examples for future mechanical and integration designs of similar ...

  6. Study of Compton Broadening Due to Electron-Photon Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of Compton broadening due to electron-photon scattering in hot stellar atmospheres. A purely electron-photon scattering media is assumed to have plane parallel geometry with an input radiation field localized on one side of the slab. The method is based on the discrete space theory of radiative transfer for the intensity of emitted radiation.The solution is developed to study the importance of scattering of radiation by free electrons in high temperature stellar atmospheres which produces a brodening and shift in spectral lines because of the Compton effect and the Doppler effect arising from mass and thermal motions of scattering electrons.It is noticed that the Comptonized spectrum depends on three parameters: the optical depth of the medium, the temperature of the thermal electrons and the viewing angle.We also showed that the Compton effect produces red shift and asymmetry in the line. These two effects increase as the optical depth increases. It is also noticed that the emergent specific intensities become completely asymmetric for higher optical depths.

  7. Charging regime of pur spinel studied by secondary electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughariou, A., E-mail: aicha_boughariou@yahoo.fr [LaMaCoP, Université de Sfax pour le sud, Faculté des Sciences, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Kallel, A. [LaMaCoP, Université de Sfax pour le sud, Faculté des Sciences, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Blaise, G. [LPS, Université Paris-Sud XI, Batiment 510, Orsay 91405 (France)

    2013-04-01

    Insulators are currently used in high technological devices. They are chosen because of their electrical properties of insulation and their thermal properties. It is well known that the presence of space charge in an insulator is correlated with an electric breakdown. Charging phenomena of insulator were studied thanks to a scanning electron microscope (SEM) which allows the injection of few electrons doses in a large domain of energies. SEM permits also the measurements of the secondary electron emission and the induced current created in the sample holder by the charges generated in the sample. The results showed that the secondary electron emission yield (SEE) σ is a very sensitive parameter to characterize the charging state of an insulator. In this work we investigate the charging effect of insulator surfaces like pur spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) during 1.1, 5 and 15 keV. The results showed that the fundamental parameter controlling the charging kinetic is the current density J{sub 0}. At low energies 1.1 and 5 keV, two different kinds of self-regulated regime (σ=1) were observed as a function of current density. At 15 keV energy, the electron emission appears to be stimulated by the current density, due to the Poole–Frenkel effect.

  8. Study of silicon strain gauges under electron irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liakh-Kaguj N. S.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of semiconductor strain gauges based on boron doped р-type silicon whiskers under high energy electron irradiation were studied. Strain gauges were irradiated at room temperature by electrons with energies 4,2—14 MeV and different doses 5·1016—1·1018 el/cm2. The main parameters of irradiated strain gauges: resistance, its temperature dependence and resistance change vs strain at –196…+100°C and –269…+20°C temperature ranges were measured. There are determined the values of electron irradiation energy and dose at which the radiation stability of strain gauges could be ensured.

  9. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Pei; Ning Li; Yunchang Guo; Xiumei Liu; Lin Yan; Ying Li; Shuran Yang; Jing Hu; Jianghui Zhu; Dajin Yang

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the na...

  10. Study of non-equilibrium electron dynamics in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Wael Mohamed Gomaa

    Thermal phenomena, such as heat propagation, lattice melting, and ablation, are the result of energy deposition in metals. A fundamental understanding of the electron dynamics leading to these thermal phenomena would benefit many laser applications, such as laser deposition of thin films and laser processing. In this work, thin metal films were prepared using the resistive heating evaporation technique. High dynamic range autocorrelators were constructed to characterize the different laser systems used in this study. The nonequilibrium electron dynamics in single layer gold films, multi-layer gold-vanadium, and gold-titanium films were studied. The time evolution of the electron temperature was monitored using femtosecond time-resolved thermoreflectivity (DeltaR/R) measurements. The validity of the Two-Temperature Model (TTM) in describing ultrafast laser heating processes was checked. The effect of the padding layer on the surface damage threshold was investigated. The experimental results revealed a reduction of the thermoreflectivity signal, DeltaRmax, for the multi-layer film that signifies a reduction in the surface electron temperature. Multi-shot damage experiments, in contrast to the thermoreflectivity measurements and the results of Qiu et al., showed no evidence of surface damage in the case of the gold sample, whereas the multi-layer sample experienced an onset of surface damage at the same experimental conditions. The suitability of the Two-Temperature Model (TTM) in describing the transport and relaxation dynamics of hot electrons accurately was verified. A new methodology for the correction of the TTM to account for the internal thermalization of the electron gas and convolution effects was achieved.

  11. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  12. C library for topological study of the electronic charge density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, David; Aray, Yosslen; Rodríguez, Jesús

    2012-12-05

    The topological study of the electronic charge density is useful to obtain information about the kinds of bonds (ionic or covalent) and the atom charges on a molecule or crystal. For this study, it is necessary to calculate, at every space point, the electronic density and its electronic density derivatives values up to second order. In this work, a grid-based method for these calculations is described. The library, implemented for three dimensions, is based on a multidimensional Lagrange interpolation in a regular grid; by differentiating the resulting polynomial, the gradient vector, the Hessian matrix and the Laplacian formulas were obtained for every space point. More complex functions such as the Newton-Raphson method (to find the critical points, where the gradient is null) and the Cash-Karp Runge-Kutta method (used to make the gradient paths) were programmed. As in some crystals, the unit cell has angles different from 90°, the described library includes linear transformations to correct the gradient and Hessian when the grid is distorted (inclined). Functions were also developed to handle grid containing files (grd from DMol® program, CUBE from Gaussian® program and CHGCAR from VASP® program). Each one of these files contains the data for a molecular or crystal electronic property (such as charge density, spin density, electrostatic potential, and others) in a three-dimensional (3D) grid. The library can be adapted to make the topological study in any regular 3D grid by modifying the code of these functions.

  13. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  14. Electronic structure study of strongly correlated Mott-insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Quan

    Strongly correlated electronic systems have presented the most challenging problems to condensed matter theorists for many years and this continues to be the case. They are complicated materials with active d or f orbitals, whose valence electrons are in the intermediate region between itinerant (band-like) and highly localized (atomic-like) limits, which demand genuine many-body treatment. Although dealing with strongly correlated systems is a notorious problem, they have drawn broad interests of both theoretical and experimental condensed matter physicists, with intensive studies carried out in the past and present. This is due to the most exotic properties associated with strongly correlated materials, such as high-temperature superconductivity, metal-insulator transition, volume collapse, Kondo effect, colossal magnetoresistance, and many others. Although density functional theory (DFT) within local density approximation (LDA) is very successful in describing a wide range of materials, it encounters difficulty in predicting strongly correlated systems. Traditionally, they have been studied by model Hamiltonians with empirical parameters. The development of dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) and its marriage to DFT have brought new hope for first-principle study of strongly correlated systems. In this work, electronic structures of select strongly correlated systems are studied using LDA+DMFT. As theoretical backgrounds, reviews of DFT and DMFT are given in the first few chapters, where we also introduce the philosophy and workflow of LDA+DMFT. In the following chapters, applications to transition metal oxides, undoped high-temperature superconductors and actinide oxides are presented, where electronic structures of these materials and other properties derived from electronic structures are calculated and compared with experiments where available. Generally good agreements have been found between theory and experiments.

  15. Electron tunneling and point contact Andreev reflection studies of superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenqing

    The energy gap is the most fundamental property of a superconductor. Electron tunneling spectroscopy and point contact spectroscopy (PCS) are powerful techniques for studying the density of states and energy gap features of superconductors. Two different superconducting systems, multiband superconductor MgB2 and proximity induced topological superconductor NbSe2/Bi 2Se3 heterostructures were studied using either quasiparticle tunneling in planar tunnel junctions or PCS in this work. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  16. Photoelectron-Auger electron coincidence study for condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefani, G. [Department of Physics and Unita' INFM, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: stefani@fis.uniroma3.it; Gotter, R. [National Laboratory TASC-INFM, Area Science Park, SS 14 Km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Ruocco, A. [Department of Physics and Unita INFM, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Offi, F. [Department of Physics and Unita INFM, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Pieve, F. Da [Department of Physics and Unita INFM, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Iacobucci, S. [IMIP-CNR Area della Ricerca di Roma, via Salaria Km 29, 3 Montelibretti (Italy); Morgante, A. [National Laboratory TASC-INFM, Area Science Park, SS 14 Km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Verdini, A. [National Laboratory TASC-INFM, Area Science Park, SS 14 Km 163.5, Basovizza, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Liscio, A. [IMIP-CNR Area della Ricerca di Roma, via Salaria Km 29, 3 Montelibretti (Italy); Yao, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory of Surface Modification, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States); Bartynski, R.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory of Surface Modification, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Advances in materials science have produced a wide array of new solid-state systems with tunable properties and previously unattainable combinations of phenomena that hold the promise of entirely new approaches to technological applications. Invariably, these new materials are increasingly complex and include a large number of constituents in a variety of chemical states. Entirely new theoretical and experimental approaches are needed to gain the insights necessary for intelligent engineering of these materials. In the past 20 years, a steadily increasing number of electron-electron coincidence experiments on atoms and molecules have demonstrated the capability of investigating complicated systems with sensitivity and specificity well beyond the limits imposed by conventional electron spectroscopies. Over the past decade or so, Auger-photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS) has emerged as a powerful technique for obtaining detailed information about complex materials systems. Moreover, the recent advent of angle-resolved (AR)-APECS has introduced a new level of discrimination in studying the distribution of electrons photoemitted from complex systems. In this review, we describe the basic ideas behind APECS and discuss a study of the SiO{sub 2} system as an example of the unique information this technique can provide. We then introduce the concept of AR-APECS, explain its novel state and angular momentum selectivity that can be used to disentangle information about complex systems that is hidden to conventional spectroscopies. Examples of AR-APECS measurements from Cu, Ge, and graphite that exemplify the capabilities of this technique are presented.

  17. Does routine child health surveillance contribute to the early detection of children with pervasive developmental disorders? – An epidemiological study in Kent, U.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritchie Jane

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently changed guidelines for child health surveillance in the United Kingdom (U.K. suggest targeted checks only, instead of the previously conducted routine or universal screening at 2 years and 3.5 years. There are concerns that these changes could lead to a delay in the detection of children with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD. Recent U.K. studies have suggested that the prevalence of PDD is much higher than previously estimated. This study establishes to which extent the routine checks contributed to the early detection and assessment of cases of PDD. Simultaneously we have evaluated the process involved and estimate the prevalence of PDD in our district. Methods Retrospective study design utilising community medical files. Headteachers of schools (n = 75 within Maidstone district (Kent were asked to report all children with an established diagnosis of autism or PDD attending year 4 (born '91 and '92 / n = 2536 in October 2000 based on educational records. Results 59 schools (78.7% took part in the study. A total of 33 children were reported. 21 fulfilled the inclusion criteria (12 falsely reported. The prevalences were (per 10,000: PDD 82.8 (male to female ratio 6:1, childhood autism 23.7, Asperger's syndrome 11.8 and autistic spectrum disorder 47.3. Co-existing medical conditions were noted in 14.3%; 52.4% were attending mainstream schools. In 63.2% of cases concerns – mainly in the area of speech and language development (SLD – had been documented at the 2 year check. At the 3.5 year check concerns were noted in 94.1% – the main area was again SLD (76.5%, although behavioural abnormalities were becoming more frequent (47.1%. A total of 13 children (68.4% were referred for further assessment as a direct result of the checks. Conclusions The prevalences for different types of PDD were similar to figures published recently, but much higher than reported a few years ago. Analysis of our

  18. Surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Widowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children worldwide. Data on the burden of disease in Indonesia is limited. Objective To provide an epidemiological profile of rotavirus infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. Methods In January - December 2006, a prospective, hospital-based surveillance was carried out in children aged less than five years, presenting with diarrhea. Stool samples were examined for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. G- and P-typing were performed on specimens confirmed to be positive by EIA. Results A total of 513 fecal specimens from 534 children were tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of the specimens, mostly of the G9 type (62.5%. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhea was highest in the 6 month to 2 years age group (60.4%. Children with rotavirus diarrhea were more likely to present with dehydration, compared to those with non-rotavirus diarrhea (94% vs 70%, respectively, P=0.03. Conclusion Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in children with diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of pediatric diarrheal specimens tested in our study. This finding warrants the use of a large-scale program to prevent disease, such as vaccination against rotavirus. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:22-7].

  19. Quantitative model studies for interfaces in organic electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, J. Michael

    2016-11-01

    In organic light-emitting diodes and similar devices, organic semiconductors are typically contacted by metal electrodes. Because the resulting metal/organic interfaces have a large impact on the performance of these devices, their quantitative understanding is indispensable for the further rational development of organic electronics. A study by Kröger et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 113022) of an important single-crystal based model interface provides detailed insight into its geometric and electronic structure and delivers valuable benchmark data for computational studies. In view of the differences between typical surface-science model systems and real devices, a ‘materials gap’ is identified that needs to be addressed by future research to make the knowledge obtained from fundamental studies even more beneficial for real-world applications.

  20. Impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on pneumonia in The Gambia: population-based surveillance and case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Grant A; Hill, Philip C; Sahito, Shah M; Jeffries, David J; Hossain, Ilias; Bottomley, Christian; Uchendu, Uchendu; Ameh, David; Ndiaye, Malick; Osuorah, Chidebereh D; Adeyemi, Oyedeji; Pathirana, Jayani; Olatunji, Yekini; Abatan, Bade; Ahameefula, Ebirim; Muhammad, Bilquees S; Fombah, Augustin E; Saha, Debasish; Mackenzie, Roslyn; Plumb, Ian; Akano, Aliu; Ebruke, Bernard; Ideh, Readon C; Kuti, Bankole; Githua, Peter; Olutunde, Emmanuel; Ofordile, Ogochukwu; Green, Edward; Usuf, Effua; Badji, Henry; Ikumapayi, Usman N A; Manjang, Ahmad; Salaudeen, Rasheed; Nsekpong, E David; Jarju, Sheikh; Antonio, Martin; Sambou, Sana; Ceesay, Lamin; Lowe-Jallow, Yamundow; Sowe, Dawda; Jasseh, Momodou; Mulholland, Kim; Knoll, Maria; Levine, Orin S; Howie, Stephen R; Adegbola, Richard A; Greenwood, Brian M; Corrah, Tumani

    2017-09-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are used in many low-income countries but their impact on the incidence of pneumonia is unclear. The Gambia introduced PCV7 in August, 2009, and PCV13 in May, 2011. We aimed to measure the impact of the introduction of these vaccines on pneumonia incidence. We did population-based surveillance and case-control studies. The primary endpoint was WHO-defined radiological pneumonia with pulmonary consolidation. Population-based surveillance was for suspected pneumonia in children aged 2-59 months (minimum age 3 months in the case-control study) between May 12, 2008, and Dec 31, 2015. Surveillance for the impact study was limited to the Basse Health and Demographic Surveillance System (BHDSS), whereas surveillance for the case-control study included both the BHDSS and Fuladu West Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Nurses screened all outpatients and inpatients at all health facilities in the surveillance area using standardised criteria for referral to clinicians in Basse and Bansang. These clinicians recorded clinical findings and applied standardised criteria to identify patients with suspected pneumonia. We compared the incidence of pneumonia during the baseline period (May 12, 2008, to May 11, 2010) and the PCV13 period (Jan 1, 2014, to Dec 31, 2015). We also investigated the effectiveness of PCV13 using case-control methods between Sept 12, 2011, and Sept 31, 2014. Controls were aged 90 days or older, and were eligible to have received at least one dose of PCV13; cases had the same eligibility criteria with the addition of having WHO-defined radiological pneumonia. We investigated 18 833 children with clinical pneumonia and identified 2156 cases of radiological pneumonia. Among children aged 2-11 months, the incidence of radiological pneumonia fell from 21·0 cases per 1000 person-years in the baseline period to 16·2 cases per 1000 person-years (23% decline, 95% CI 7-36) in 2014-15. In the 12-23 month age group

  1. Boxing injury epidemiology in the Great Britain team: a 5-year surveillance study of medically diagnosed injury incidence and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosemore, Michael; Lightfoot, Joseph; Palmer-Green, Deborah; Gatt, Ian; Bilzon, James; Beardsley, Chris

    2015-09-01

    There has been no comprehensive injury report of elite-level amateur boxers in competition and training. We reviewed injuries in training and competition in the Great Britain (GB) amateur boxing squad between 2005 and 2009. Longitudinal, prospective injury surveillance over 5 years of the GB boxing squad from 2005 to 2009. 66 boxers passed through the squad. The location, region affected, description, and the duration of each injury were recorded by the team doctor and team physiotherapist. We recorded whether the injury occurred during competition or training, and also whether it was a new or a recurrent injury. The injury rate during competition was calculated as the number of injuries per 1000 h. More injuries affected the hand than any other body location. This was the case overall, in training and competition individually, and for both new and recurrent injuries. More injuries occurred during training than during competition, and most injuries were new rather than recurrent. Total injury rate during competition was 828 per 1000 h and hand injury rate in competition was 302 injuries per 1000 h. Hand injury rate in competition was significantly higher than at the other locations. The incidence of concussion is comparatively low. Injury prevention should aim to protect the hands and wrists of elite amateur boxers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  3. The validation of a three-stage screening methodology for detecting active convulsive epilepsy in population-based studies in health and demographic surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngugi Anthony K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few studies on the epidemiology of epilepsy in large populations in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC. Most studies in these regions use two-stage population-based screening surveys, which are time-consuming and costly to implement in large populations required to generate accurate estimates. We examined the sensitivity and specificity of a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology in detecting active convulsive epilepsy (ACE, which can be embedded within on-going census of demographic surveillance systems. We validated a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology on a randomly selected sample of participants of a three-stage prevalence survey of epilepsy. Diagnosis of ACE by an experienced clinician was used as ‘gold standard’. We further compared the expenditure of this method with the standard two-stage methodology. Results We screened 4442 subjects in the validation and identified 35 cases of ACE. Of these, 18 were identified as false negatives, most of whom (15/18 were missed in the first stage and a few (3/18 in the second stage of the three-stage screening. Overall, this methodology had a sensitivity of 48.6% and a specificity of 100%. It was 37% cheaper than a two-stage survey. Conclusion This was the first study to evaluate the performance of a multi-stage screening methodology used to detect epilepsy in demographic surveillance sites. This method had poor sensitivity attributed mainly to stigma-related non-response in the first stage. This method needs to take into consideration the poor sensitivity and the savings in expenditure and time as well as validation in target populations. Our findings suggest the need for continued efforts to develop and improve case-ascertainment methods in population-based epidemiological studies of epilepsy in LMIC.

  4. Study of a laser-heated electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P. K.; Moon, A.; Mima, K.; Nakai, S.; Fujita, M.; Imasaki, K.; Yamanaka, C.; Yasuda, E.; Watanabe, T.; Ohigashi, N.; Okuda, Y.; Tsunawaki, Y.

    1996-12-01

    A method of cathode heating using a laser was studied for an electron gun. In order to observe the practicality of the heating system, the characteristics of the laser-heated gun with a dispenser and LaB6 thermionic cathodes have been experimentally investigated. The direct laser irradiation is so efficient that the gun is equipped without heat shielding, a cooling system, or an electrical circuit in the gun chamber for cathode heating. Modeling, based on the experimental data, indicates that the cathode temperature is proportional to one-fourth power of the laser power and that laser power loss and conduction loss of heat in the gun assembly are negligible. An electron beam current density 0.48 A/cm2 was measured with 26 W laser power for a dispenser cathode of 0.06 cm2 emission area. Current density 0.16 A/cm2 with 25 W was recorded for a LaB6 cathode of area 0.12 cm2. Electron beam emittance has been measured by using the typical pepper-pot technique. It was observed that the growth of electron beam emittance was very small in the laser heating.

  5. A Study on Stochastic Thermal Characterization of Electronic Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria El Haddad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Insofar as the electronics can be found now in several applications of multiple domains, we have tried to highlight in this study that, those systems must be based on unquestionable reliability and meet the needs of the external environment. Starting from the unit "°c / w" concerning the thermal resistance from the gap between junction temperature and a reference temperature, we have tried to compare the thermal performance of electronic packages taking into consideration the thermal management. Our approach is based on the Monte Carlo simulation and the stochastic characterization of the QFN. From the norm of normalization, we have obtained standardized data sheets allowing accurate comparisons of the thermal performance of electronic packages as produced by different manufacturers. Our numerical model through simulation, prototyping concerning the design involves the JEDEC recommendations, which we consider a very interesting alternative. Through the deterministic analysis, we conducted an analysis from the Matlab program parameters, which control the Ansys software, the results were processed by statistical techniques to evaluate the times of the thermal resistance of the QFN. That is why we must consider the electronic package (encapsulating the integrated circuit, through the printed circuit board (PCB to ensure the junction temperature maintenance and avoid the dissipation of the heat. Also our process was based on the union of the finite element method to the Monte Carlo simulation and stochastic characterization of the QFN

  6. Studies of electron and proton isochoric heating for fast ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Key, M; Akli, K; Beg, F; Clarke, R; Clarke, D; Chen, M; Chung, H; Chen, S; Freeman, R; Green, J; Gu, P; Gregori, G; Highbarger, K; Habara, H; Hatchett, S; Hey, D; Heathcote, R; Hill, J; King, J; Kodama, R; Koch, J; Lancaster, K; Langdon, B; Murphy, C; Norreys, P; Neely, D; Nakatsutsumi, M; Nakamura, H; Patel, N; Patel, P; Pasley, J; Snavley, R; Stephens, R; Stoeckl, C; Foord, M; Tabak, M; Theobald, W; Storm, M; Tanaka, K; Tempo, M; Toley, M; Town, R; Wilks, S; VanWoerkom, L; Weber, R; Yabuuchi, T; Zhang, B

    2006-10-02

    Isochoric heating of inertially confined fusion plasmas by laser driven MeV electrons or protons is an area of great topical interest in the inertial confinement fusion community, particularly with respect to the fast ignition (FI) proposal to use this technique to initiate burn in a fusion capsule. Experiments designed to investigate electron isochoric heating have measured heating in two limiting cases of interest to fast ignition, small planar foils and hollow cones. Data from Cu K{alpha} fluorescence, crystal x-ray spectroscopy of Cu K shell emission, and XUV imaging at 68eV and 256 eV are used to test PIC and Hybrid PIC modeling of the interaction. Isochoric heating by focused proton beams generated at the concave inside surface of a hemi-shell and from a sub hemi-shell inside a cone have been studied with the same diagnostic methods plus imaging of proton induced K{alpha}. Conversion efficiency to protons has also been measured and modeled. Conclusions from the proton and electron heating experiments will be presented. Recent advances in modeling electron transport and innovative target designs for reducing igniter energy and increasing gain curves will also be discussed.

  7. ELECTRONIC RETAILING IN MACEDONIA-CASE STUDY OF OHRID REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGARITA JANESKA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With electronic retailing that offers the possibility of direct sales, is no longer need expensive business premises, or paying high rents, or employing a number of vendors. There is also the possibility of selling to final consumers in any geographical region in different countries of the world by establishing instant communication, through presenting an interactive multimedia catalog that can offer numerous information то the customers. However, on the other hand, sales through the Internet can appear certain problems. Many potential buyers in the world still do not use the Internet, others don't have fast connections, others do not speak good English, also it requires the existence of trust between both parties, buyer and seller, as well as security in the execution of transactions. The aim of this paper is to treat electronic retailing in Macedonia which is becoming more popular as worldwide, especially in developed parts of the world like the US and Europe. Macedonian companies are increasingly applying electronic method of sale and communication with customers. The number of Internet users and on-line purchase is rapidly expanding what undoubtedly indicates that there is potential for advancement in this field. Also in this paper will be presented a case study where will be analyzed the current state for development of electronic retailing in Macedonia, especially region of Ohrid.

  8. Comparative study of depth and lateral distributions of electron excitation between scanning ion and scanning electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Kaoru; Ishitani, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the contrast difference between scanning ion microscopes (SIM) and scanning electron microscopes (SEM), the depth and lateral distributions of secondary electrons escaped from surfaces of 17 metals with atomic numbers, Z2, of 4-79 were calculated for bombardment with 30 keV Ga ions and for 10 keV electrons. For both projectiles, the excitation depth generally decreased with increasing Z2, while showing the same periodic change as the secondary-electron yield. However, an opposite trend in Z2 dependence between the Ga ion and electron bombardments was calculated with the lateral distribution of secondary electrons escaped from the surface. Except for low Z2 metals, the lateral distribution, which is much narrower for 30 keV Ga ions than for 10 keV electrons, indicates that the spatial resolution of the secondary-electron images is better for SIM than for SEM, if zero-sized probe beams are assumed. Furthermore, the present calculation reveals important effects of electron excitation by recoiled material atoms and reflected electrons on the lateral distribution, as well as the secondary-electron yield, for the Ga ion and electron bombardments, respectively.

  9. Challenges in and lessons learned during the implementation of the 1-3-7 malaria surveillance and response strategy in China: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guangyu; Liu, Yaobao; Beiersmann, Claudia; Feng, Yu; Cao, Jun; Müller, Olaf

    2016-10-05

    China has made great progress in malaria control over the last century and now aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. In 2012, the country launched its 1-3-7 surveillance and response strategy for malaria elimination. The strategy involves to case reporting within 1 day, case investigation within 3 days, and focus investigation and public health actions within 7 days. The aim of this study was to evaluate the challenges in and lessons learned during the implementation of the 1-3-7 strategy in China so far. This qualitative study was conducted in two provinces in China: Gansu province (northwestern China) and Jiangsu province (southeastern China) in 2014. Key informant interviews (n = 6) and in-depth interviews (n = 36) about the implementation aspects of the 1-3-7 strategy were conducted with malaria experts, health staff, laboratory practitioners, and village doctors at the provincial, city, county, township, and village levels. Broad themes related to the challenges in and lessons learned during the implementation of the 1-3-7 strategy were identified according to: case reporting within 1 day, case investigation within 3 days, focus investigation within 7 days, and the overall strategy. The major challenges outlined were related to respecting the timeline of surveillance procedures, the absence of or difficulties in following guidelines on conducting focus investigations, diagnostics, and the increasing number of returning migrant workers from malaria-endemic countries. Important lessons learned revolve around the importance of continuous capacity building, supervision and motivation, quality control, information technology support, applied research, governmental commitment, and intersectoral collaboration. Surveillance is a key intervention in malaria elimination programs. The Chinese 1-3-7 strategy has already proven to be successful but still needs to be improved. In particular, dealing appropriately with imported malaria cases through the screening of

  10. Study of metalloproteins using continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarelli, Serge; Maurel, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is an invaluable tool when studying systems with paramagnetic centers. It is a sensitive spectroscopic method, which can be used with dilute samples in aqueous buffer solutions. Here, we describe the basic procedure for recording an X-band EPR spectrum of a metalloprotein sample at low temperature. We also discuss basic optimization techniques to provide spectra with a high signal to noise ratio and minimum distortion.

  11. Electronics: Mott Transistor: Fundamental Studies and Device Operation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    hopping transport . It is well known that localized states exist in the forbidden gap of doped semiconductors /disordered insulators. For a semiconductor , σ... semiconductors and their response to electric fields. This is relevant to their eventual use as advanced semiconductors in microwave devices or high speed...transistors where collective effects are exploited to design switches.The report presents our progress in studying electron transport mechanisms in

  12. Positron studies of surfaces, structure and electronic properties of nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Eijt, S. W. H.; Barbiellini, B.; Houtepen, A.J.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Mijnarends, P. E.; Bansil, A.

    2007-01-01

    A brief review is given of recent positron studies of metal and semiconductor nanocrystals. The prospects offered by positron annihilation as a sensitive method to access nanocrystal (NC) properties are described and compared with other experimental methods. The tunability of the electronic structure of nanocrystals underlies their great potential for application in many areas. Owing to their large surface-to-volume ratio, the surfaces and interfaces of NCs play a crucial role in determining ...

  13. Babesiosis Surveillance - Wisconsin, 2001-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Elizabeth; Elbadawi, Lina I; Kazmierczak, James; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2017-07-07

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Babesia microti, an intraerythocytic protozoan. Babesia microti, like the causal agents for Lyme disease and anaplasmosis, is endemic to the northeastern and upper midwestern United States where it is usually transmitted by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Although babesiosis is usually a mild to moderate illness, older or immunocompromised persons can develop a serious malaria-like illness that can be fatal without prompt treatment. The most common initial clinical signs and symptoms of babesiosis (fever, fatigue, chills, and diaphoresis) are nonspecific and present diagnostic challenges that can contribute to delays in diagnosis and effective treatment with atovaquone and azithromycin (1). Results of one study revealed a mean delay of 12-14 days from symptom onset to treatment (2). Knowledge of the incidence and geographic distribution of babesiosis can raise the index of clinical suspicion and facilitate more prompt diagnosis and lifesaving treatment (1). The first known case of babesiosis in Wisconsin was detected in 1985 (3), and babesiosis became officially reportable in the state in 2001. Wisconsin babesiosis surveillance data for 2001-2015 were analyzed in 3-year intervals to compare demographic, epidemiologic, and laboratory features among patients with cases of reported babesiosis. To determine possible reasons for an increase in reported Babesia infection, trends in electronic laboratory reporting and diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction testing (PCR) were examined. Between the first and last 3-year analysis intervals, there was a 26-fold increase in the incidence of confirmed babesiosis, in addition to geographic expansion. These trends might be generalizable to other states with endemic disease, similar suburbanization and forest fragmentation patterns, and warming average temperatures (4). Accurate surveillance in states where babesiosis is endemic is necessary to estimate the

  14. Structural studies of glasses by transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashchieva, E.P. [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to present information about the applications of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction (ED) for structural investigations of glasses. TEM investigations have been carried out on some binary and on a large number of ternary borate-telluride systems where glass-forming oxides, oxides of transitional elements and modified oxides of elements from I, II and III groups in the periodic table, are used as third component. The large experimental data given by TEM method allows the fine classification of the micro-heterogeneities. A special case of micro-heterogeneous structure with technological origin occurs near the boundary between the 2 immiscible liquids obtained at macro-phase separation. TEM was also used for the direct observation of the glass structure and we have studied the nano-scale structure of borate glasses obtained at slow and fast cooling of the melts. The ED possesses advantages for analysis of amorphous thin films or micro-pastilles and it is a very useful technique for study in materials containing simultaneously light and heavy elements. A comparison between the possibilities of the 3 diffraction techniques (X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and ED) is presented.

  15. Electronic conductivity studies on oxyhalide glasses containing TMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayatha, D. [R& D Center, Bharatiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, Gurunanak Institute of Technology, Hyderabad -040 (India); Viswanatha, R. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Sujatha, B. [Department of Electronics and Communcation, MSRIT, Bangalore 560054 (India); Narayana Reddy, C., E-mail: nivetejareddy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sree Siddaganga College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Tumkur 572102 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Microwave-assisted synthesis is cleaner, more economical and much faster than conventional methods. The development of new routes for the synthesis of solid materials is an integral part of material science and technology. The electronic conductivity studies on xPbCl{sub 2} – 60 PbO – (40-x) V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (1 ≥ x ≤ 10) glass system has been carried out over a wide range of composition and temperature (300 K to 423 K). X-ray diffraction study confirms the amorphous nature of the samples. The Scanning electron microscopic studies reveal the formation of cluster like morphology in PbCl{sub 2} containing glasses. The d.c conductivity exhibits Arrhenius behaviour and increases with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentration. Analysis of the results is interpreted in view Austin-Mott’s small polaron model of electron transport. Activation energies calculated using regression analysis exhibit composition dependent trend and the variation is explained in view of the structure of lead-vanadate glass.

  16. Experimental studies of electron-phonon interactions in gallium nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Stanton, N M

    2001-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental investigation of the electron-phonon interaction in GaN. Bulk epilayers, grown by MBE, and AIGaN/GaN heterostructure grown by MOCVD, have been studied. The energy relaxation rate for hot electrons has been measured over a wide range of temperatures, allowing both acoustic and optic phonon emission to be studied in GaN epilayers. Direct phonon measurements, both studying the emission and absorption processes, have been performed. Detection of phonons emitted when hot electrons relax their excess energy complements the measurements of relaxation rates. Absorption of acoustic phonons by the epilayers, using both fixed and extended metal film phonon sources, allowed investigation into the effectiveness of the 2k sub F cutoff in the low mobility layers. The experimental findings are compared with the predictions of theory. AIGaN/GaN heterostructures were characterised and measurements of the energy relaxation rate in the temperature range 4K-40K obtained. Excellent agreement wi...

  17. Runaway electrons and mitigation studies in MST tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J. A.; Chapman, B. E.; Almagri, A. F.; Cornille, B. S.; Dubois, A.; McCollam, K. J.; Munaretto, S.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2016-10-01

    Studies of runaway electrons generated in low-density MST tokamak plasmas are being undertaken. The plasmas have Bt resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP's). An m = 3 RMP strongly suppresses the runaway electrons and initial NIMROD modeling shows that this may be due to degradation of flux surfaces. The RMP is produced by a poloidal array of 32 saddle coils at the narrow vertical insulated cut in MST's thick conducting shell, with each RMP having a single m but a broad n spectrum. While a sufficiently strong m = 3 RMP suppresses the runaway electrons, an RMP with m = 1 and comparable amplitude has little effect. The impact of the RMP's on the magnetic topology of these plasmas is being studied with the nonlinear MHD code NIMROD. With an m = 3 RMP, stochasticity is introduced in the outer third of the plasma but no such flux surface degradation is observed with an m = 1 RMP. NIMROD also predicts regularly occurring MHD activity similar to that observed in the experiment. These studies have also been done in q (a) = 2.7 plasmas and analysis and modeling is ongoing. This work supported by USDoE.

  18. INFORMATION RESEARCH: AN INTERNATIONAL ELECTRONIC JOURNAL: A BIBLIOMETRIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANISHA GAWDE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present bibliometric study is an interacting research topic in the field of library and information science. Library and information science professionals are doing bibliometric study in various fields for the collection development of different subject in their libraries. This paper examines that the Bibliometric Analysis of the Information Research: an International Electronic Journal (IRIEJ. Which is included the study of form of documents, authorship pattern, ranking of authors, year wise distribution of references and rticles, ranking of cited journals, cited publishers and research contributors of IRIEJ.

  19. The use of rapid assessment methodology to compliment existing national assessment and surveillance data: a study among injecting drug users in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicknasingam, B; Navaratnam, V

    2008-02-01

    The study explores how data collated from rapid assessment can enhance those produced by national level surveillance systems, in this case the national drug information (NADI) system in Malaysia. Qualitative data were collected in keeping with internationally accepted guidance on rapid assessment methods in the field of substance use. An inductive research strategy was employed. The rapid assessment produced multiple data on local drug use practices and how these were influenced by the contexts of use. The assessment points to the importance of collecting data not only on patterns of drug use but also on the health and social consequences of drug use. We suggest that the current national drug information system places greater emphasis on behavioural and health-related variables in order to better understand the potential relationships between drug use and health-related risk, including HIV/AIDS.

  20. Electron paramagnetic resonance study on n-type electron-irradiated 3C-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, P; Rabia, K; Son, N T; Janzen, E [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Ohshima, T; Morishita, N; Itoh, H [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Takasaki 370-1292 (Japan); Isoya, J [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8550 (Japan)], E-mail: paca@ifm.liu.se

    2008-03-15

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) was used to study defects in n-type 3C-SiC films irradiated by 3-MeV electrons at room temperature with a dose of 2x10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. After electron irradiation, two new EPR spectra with an effective spin S = 1, labeled L5 and L6, were observed. The L5 center has C{sub 3v} symmetry with g = 2.004 and a fine-structure parameter D = 436.5x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1}. The L5 spectrum was only detected under light illumination and it could not be detected after annealing at {approx}550{sup 0}C. The principal z-axis of the D tensor is parallel to the <111>-directions, indicating the location of spins along the Si-C bonds. Judging from the symmetry and the fact that the signal was detected under illumination in n-type material, the L5 center may be related to the divacancy in the neutral charge state. The L6 center has a C{sub 2v}-symmetry with an isotropic g-value of g = 2.003 and the fine structure parameters D = 547.7x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1} and E = 56.2x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1}. The L6 center disappeared after annealing at a rather low temperature ({approx}200 deg. C), which is substantially lower than the known annealing temperatures for vacancy-related defects in 3C-SiC. This highly mobile defect may be related to carbon interstitials.

  1. Active surveillance of abused and misused prescription opioids using poison center data: a pilot study and descriptive comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alice A; Bogdan, Gregory M; Dart, Richard C

    2007-01-01

    Prescription opioids are abused throughout the United States. Several monitoring programs are in existence, however, none of these systems provide up-to-date information on prescription opioid abuse. This article describes the use of poison centers as a real-time, geographically specific, surveillance system for prescription opioid abuse and compares our system with an existing prescription drug abuse monitoring program, the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). Data were collected from eight geographically dispersed poison centers for a period of twelve months. Any call involving buprenorphine, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, and oxycodone was considered a case. Any case coded as intentional exposure (abuse, intentional misuse, suicide, or intentional unknown) was regarded as misuse and abuse. Comparative data were obtained from DAWN. Poison center rates of abuse and misuse were highest for hydrocodone at 3.75 per 100,000 population, followed by oxycodone at 1.81 per 100,000 population. DAWN emergency department (ED) data illustrate a similar pattern of abuse with most mentions involving hydrocodone and oxycodone. Poison center data indicate that people aged 18 to 25 had the highest rates of abuse. DAWN reported the majority of ED mentions among 35 to 44-year-olds. Geographically, Kentucky had the uppermost rates of abuse and misuse for all opioids combined at 20.69 per 100,000 population. CONCLUSIONS. Comparing poison center data to DAWN yielded mostly comparable results, including hydrocodone as the most commonly mentioned drug. Our results suggest poison center data can be used as an indicator for prescription opioid abuse and misuse and can provide timely, geographically specific information on prescription drug abuse.

  2. Potential and actual terrestrial rabies exposures in people and domestic animals, upstate South Carolina, 1994-2004: a surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseveare, Catherine W; Goolsby, W David; Foppa, Ivo M

    2009-02-23

    Although there has been a reduction of rabies in pets and domestic animals during recent decades in the United States, rabies remains enzootic among bats and several species of terrestrial wildlife. Spillover transmission of wildlife rabies to domestic animals therefore remains a public health threat Retrospective analysis of surveillance data of reported animal incidents (bites, scratches, mucous membrane contacts) from South Carolina, 1995 to 2003, was performed to assess risk factors of potential rabies exposures among human and animal victims. Dogs and cats contributed the majority (66.7% and 26.4%, respectively) of all reported incidents, with stray dogs and cats contributing 9.0% and 15.1 respectively. Current rabies vaccination status of dogs and cats (40.2% and 13.8%, respectively) were below World Health Organization recommended levels. Owned cats were half as likely to be vaccinated for rabies as dogs (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.48, 0.58). Animal victims were primarily exposed to wildlife (83.0%), of which 27.5% were rabid. Almost 90% of confirmed rabies exposures were due to wildlife. Skunks had the highest prevalence of rabies among species of exposure animals (63.2%). Among rabid domestic animals, stray cats were the most commonly reported (47.4%). While the majority of reported potential rabies exposures are associated with dog and cat incidents, most rabies exposures derive from rabid wildlife. Stray cats were most frequently rabid among domestic animals. Our results underscore the need for improvement of wildlife rabies control and the reduction of interactions of domestic animals, including cats, with wildlife.

  3. Potential and Actual Terrestrial Rabies Exposures in People and Domestic Animals, Upstate South Carolina, 1994–2004: A Surveillance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseveare, Catherine W; Goolsby, W David; Foppa, Ivo M

    2009-01-01

    Background Although there has been a reduction of rabies in pets and domestic animals during recent decades in the United States, rabies remains enzootic among bats and several species of terrestrial wildlife. Spillover transmission of wildlife rabies to domestic animals therefore remains a public health threat Methods Retrospective analysis of surveillance data of reported animal incidents (bites, scratches, mucous membrane contacts) from South Carolina, 1995 to 2003, was performed to assess risk factors of potential rabies exposures among human and animal victims. Results Dogs and cats contributed the majority (66.7% and 26.4%, respectively) of all reported incidents, with stray dogs and cats contributing 9.0% and 15.1 respectively. Current rabies vaccination status of dogs and cats (40.2% and 13.8%, respectively) were below World Health Organization recommended levels. Owned cats were half as likely to be vaccinated for rabies as dogs (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.48, 0.58). Animal victims were primarily exposed to wildlife (83.0%), of which 27.5% were rabid. Almost 90% of confirmed rabies exposures were due to wildlife. Skunks had the highest prevalence of rabies among species of exposure animals (63.2%). Among rabid domestic animals, stray cats were the most commonly reported (47.4%). Conclusion While the majority of reported potential rabies exposures are associated with dog and cat incidents, most rabies exposures derive from rabid wildlife. Stray cats were most frequently rabid among domestic animals. Our results underscore the need for improvement of wildlife rabies control and the reduction of interactions of domestic animals, including cats, with wildlife. PMID:19236696

  4. Potential and Actual Terrestrial Rabies Exposures in People and Domestic Animals, Upstate South Carolina, 1994–2004: A Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foppa Ivo M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there has been a reduction of rabies in pets and domestic animals during recent decades in the United States, rabies remains enzootic among bats and several species of terrestrial wildlife. Spillover transmission of wildlife rabies to domestic animals therefore remains a public health threat Methods Retrospective analysis of surveillance data of reported animal incidents (bites, scratches, mucous membrane contacts from South Carolina, 1995 to 2003, was performed to assess risk factors of potential rabies exposures among human and animal victims. Results Dogs and cats contributed the majority (66.7% and 26.4%, respectively of all reported incidents, with stray dogs and cats contributing 9.0% and 15.1 respectively. Current rabies vaccination status of dogs and cats (40.2% and 13.8%, respectively were below World Health Organization recommended levels. Owned cats were half as likely to be vaccinated for rabies as dogs (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.48, 0.58. Animal victims were primarily exposed to wildlife (83.0%, of which 27.5% were rabid. Almost 90% of confirmed rabies exposures were due to wildlife. Skunks had the highest prevalence of rabies among species of exposure animals (63.2%. Among rabid domestic animals, stray cats were the most commonly reported (47.4%. Conclusion While the majority of reported potential rabies exposures are associated with dog and cat incidents, most rabies exposures derive from rabid wildlife. Stray cats were most frequently rabid among domestic animals. Our results underscore the need for improvement of wildlife rabies control and the reduction of interactions of domestic animals, including cats, with wildlife.

  5. Colorectal cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease: A critical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devendra; Desai; Nutan; Desai

    2014-01-01

    Colonoscopic surveillance is advocated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) for detection of dys-plasia. There are many issues regarding surveillance in IBD: the risk of colorectal cancer seems to be de-creasing in the majority of recently published studies, necessitating revisions of surveillance strategy; surveil-lance guidelines are not based on concrete evidence; commencement and frequency of surveillance, cost-effectiveness and adherence to surveillance have been issues that are only partly answered. The traditional technique of random biopsy is neither evidence-based nor easy to practice. Therefore, highlighting abnormal areas with newer technology and biopsy from these areas are the way forward. Of the newer technology, digital mucosal enhancement, such as high-definition white light endoscopy and chromoendoscopy(with magnification) have been incorporated in guidelines. Dyeless chromoendoscopy(narrow band imaging) has not yet shown potential, whereas some forms of digital chromoendoscopy(i-Scan more than Fujinon intelligent color enhancement) have shown promise for colonoscopic surveillance in IBD. Other techniquessuch as autofluorescence imaging, endomicroscopy and endocytoscopy need further evidence. Surveillance with genetic markers(tissue, serum or stool) is at an early stage. This article discusses changing epidemiology of colorectal cancer development in IBD and critically evaluates issues regarding colonoscopic surveillance in IBD.

  6. Sirenomelia: An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORIOLI, IÊDA M.; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; ARTEAGA-VAZQUEZ, JAZMIN; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BOTTO, LORENZO D.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; CORREA, ADOLFO; CSAKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LÓPEZ-CAMELO, JORGE S.; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.

    2015-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and were reported according to a single pre-established protocol. Cases were clinically evaluated locally and reviewed centrally. A total of 249 cases with sirenomelia were identified among 25,290,172 births, for a prevalence of 0.98 per 100,000, with higher prevalence in the Mexican registry. An increase of sirenomelia prevalence with maternal age less than 20 years was statistically significant. The proportion of twinning was 9%, higher than the 1% expected. Sex was ambiguous in 47% of cases, and no different from expectation in the rest. The proportion of cases born alive, premature, and weighting less than 2,500 g were 47%, 71.2%, and 88.2%, respectively. Half of the cases with sirenomelia also presented with genital, large bowel, and urinary defects. About 10–15% of the cases had lower spinal column defects, single or anomalous umbilical artery, upper limb, cardiac, and central nervous system defects. There was a greater than expected association of sirenomelia with other very rare defects such as bladder exstrophy, cyclopia/holoprosencephaly, and acardia-acephalus. The application of the new biological network analysis approach, including molecular results, to these associated very rare diseases is suggested for future studies. PMID:22002878

  7. Interaction between epidemiology and laboratory sciences in the study of birth defects: Design of birth defects risk factor surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynberg, M.C.; Khoury, M.J. (Dept. of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Despite years of research, the etiology of most birth defects remains largely unknown. Interview instruments have been the major tools in the search for environmental causes of birth defects. Because of respondents' problems with recognition and recall, interviews are limited in their capacity to measure certain exposures. Laboratory scientists can have a major impact on defining markers of environmental exposure and genetic susceptibility. The Centers for Disease Control is starting a case-control study of serious birth defects on the basis of a population-based surveillance system for birth defects diagnosed during the first year of life in metropolitan Atlanta, Each year, 300 infants with selected birth defects (case subjects) and 100 population-based control subjects (infants without birth defects) will be enrolled in an ongoing study that will supplement surveillance. In addition to conducting extensive maternal interviews, we will collect blood and urine specimens from case and control subjects and their mothers for laboratory testing. Eventually, some environmental sampling may be incorporated. Particular areas of emphasis are (1) nutritional factors, specifically measuring maternal folic acid levels and other micronutrients (e.g., zinc) to explore their role in the etiology of neural tube defects, (2) substance use, specifically measuring cocaine metabolites in the blood and urine to explore their role for specific vascular disruption defects, and (3) environmental factors such as pesticides and aflatoxins, to explore their potential relationships with specific defects. In addition, a DNA bank will be maintained to evaluate the role of specific candidate genes in the etiology of birth defects. The development and testing of these methods could be useful to assess the interaction between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility in the etiology of birth defects. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  9. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  10. Electron specific track fitters and Jpsi resonance studies in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cheatham, Susan

    This thesis discusses the reconstruction of J/psi to electron pairs based on fully simulated ATLAS Monte Carlo samples. A possible trigger strategy is described, taking advantage of the possible presence of a muon in the final state in bb production once one b-hadron decays into J/psi+X, followed by J/psi decay into e+e-. The tracks belonging to low-energy electrons are reconstructed using a dedicated algorithm, taking into account bremsstrahlung effects. The performance of this algorithm is compared with the other ATLAS track fitters and the potential of using this tracking algorithm to map the Inner Detector material is presented. The improvement in separation of indirect from prompt J/psi, by separately considering two kinematical configurations, `cowboys' and `sailors', is also presented, along with a feasibility study of measuring the ratio of indirect to prompt J/psi.

  11. Microscopical Studies of Structural and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The electronic and structural properties of point defects in semiconductors, e.g. radiation defects, impurities or passivating defects can excellently be studied by the hyperfine technique of Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC). The serious limitation of this method, the small number of chemically different radioactive PAC probe atoms can be widely overcome by means of ISOLDE. Providing shortliving isotopes, which represent common dopants as well as suitable PAC probe atoms, the ISOLDE facility enables a much broader application of PAC to problems in semiconductor physics.\\\\ Using the probe atom $^{111m}$ Cd , the whole class of III-V compounds becomes accessible for PAC investigations. First successful experiments in GaAs, InP and GaP have been performed, concerning impurity complex formation and plasma induced defects. In Si and Ge, the electronic properties~-~especially their influence on acceptor-donor interaction~-~could be exemplarily st...

  12. Theoretical Study of Lithium Ionic Conductors by Electronic Stress Tensor Density and Electronic Kinetic Energy Density

    CERN Document Server

    Nozaki, Hiroo; Ichikawa, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Taku; Aihara, Yuichi; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the electronic structure of lithium ionic conductors, ${\\rm Li_3PO_4}$ and ${\\rm Li_3PS_4}$, using the electronic stress tensor density and kinetic energy density with special focus on the ionic bonds among them. We find that, as long as we examine the pattern of the eigenvalues of the electronic stress tensor density, we cannot distinguish between the ionic bonds and bonds among metalloid atoms. We then show that they can be distinguished by looking at the morphology of the electronic interface, the zero surface of the electronic kinetic energy density.

  13. The applications of in situ electron energy loss spectroscopy to the study of electron beam nanofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiahn J; Howitt, David G; Gierhart, Brian C; Smith, Rosemary L; Collins, Scott D

    2009-06-01

    An in situ electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) technique has been developed to investigate the dynamic processes associated with electron-beam nanofabrication on thin membranes. In this article, practical applications germane to e-beam nanofabrication are illustrated with a case study of the drilling of nanometer-sized pores in silicon nitride membranes. This technique involves successive acquisitions of the plasmon-loss and the core-level ionization-loss spectra in real time, both of which provide the information regarding the hole-drilling kinetics, including two respective rates for total mass loss, individual nitrogen and silicon element depletion, and the change of the atomic bonding environment. In addition, the in situ EELS also provides an alternative method for endpoint detection with a potentially higher time resolution than by imaging. On the basis of the time evolution of in situ EELS spectra, a qualitative working model combining knock-on sputtering, irradiation-induced mass transport, and phase separation can be proposed.

  14. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  15. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  16. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  17. High Pressure X-ray Absorption Studies on Correlated-Electron Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, Andrew L. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-08-26

    This project used high pressure to alter the electron-electron and electron-lattice interactions in rare earth and actinide compounds. Knowledge of these properties is the starting points for a first-principles understanding of electronic and electronically related macroscopic properties. The research focused on a systematic study of x-ray absorption measurements on rare earth and actinide compounds.

  18. Fluctuation electron microscopy studies of complex structured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gongpu; Rougée, Annick; Buseck, Peter; Treacy, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Fluctuation electron microscopy (FEM) is a hybrid imaging-diffraction technique. This technique is particularly sensitive to paracrystalline structures of dimension 0.5-2 nm, which are difficult to detect by either imaging or diffraction techniques alone. It has been successfully deployed to study paracrystalline structures in amorphous silicon, germanium thin film. This technique has also been used to study metallic glasses and oxide glasses. Until now, FEM has not been used to study disordered geological materials. In this talk we present our FEM studies of shungite, a naturally occurring disordered carbonaceous material, reveal that trace quantities of tightly curved graphene structures such as C60, or fragments of C60, is present in shungite. We also present results from our study of metamict zircon, whose crystal structure is destroyed by self-radiation during naturally occurring α decay events. Work is in progress to study the structural evolution during the metamictization process.

  19. Amelia: A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; CUEVAS, LOURDES; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BIANCHI, FABRIZIO; CANFIELD, MARK A.; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all continents but Africa, from 1968 to 2006, depending on the program. Reported clinical information on cases was thoroughly reviewed to identify those strictly meeting the definition of amelia. Those with amniotic bands or limb-body wall complex were excluded. The primary epidemiological analyses focused on isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). A total of 326 amelia cases were ascertained among 23,110,591 live births, stillbirths and (for some programs) elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The overall total prevalence was 1.41 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.57). Only China Beijing and Mexico RYVEMCE had total prevalences, which were significantly higher than this overall total prevalence. Some under-registration could influence the total prevalence in some programs. Liveborn cases represented 54.6% of total. Among monomelic cases (representing 65.2% of nonsyndromic amelia cases), both sides were equally involved, and the upper limbs (53.9%) were slightly more frequently affected. One of the most interesting findings was a higher prevalence of amelia among offspring of mothers younger than 20 years. Sixty-nine percent of the cases had MCA or syndromes. The most frequent defects associated with amelia were other types of musculoskeletal defects, intestinal, some renal and genital defects, oral clefts, defects of cardiac septa, and anencephaly. PMID:22002956

  20. Phocomelia: A Worldwide Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Series of Cases From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes. PMID:22002800