WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveillance research return

  1. RETURNING THE GAZE: CULTURE AND THE POLITICS OF SURVEILLANCE IN IRELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spurgeon Thompson

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay seeks to examine the modalities of colonial state surveillance as well as severa1 ways in which they have been problematised in recent lrish literary writing, film, painting, photography and practice. Works by Ciaran Carson, Willie Doherty, Dave Fox, Teny George and Jim Sheridan, and Dermot Seymour are al1 therefore examined with the thernatic of "returning the gaze" in rnind. Further, this essay seeks to advance contemporary theories of surveillance away from an information-based or textual model to one which considers the spatial violence of surveillance and the subject positions it delimits, particularly in the context of colonialism and postcolonial theory.

  2. The return of individual research findings in paediatric genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hens, Kristien; Nys, Herman; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Dierickx, Kris

    2011-03-01

    The combination of the issue of return of individual genetic results/incidental findings and paediatric biobanks is not much discussed in ethical literature. The traditional arguments pro and con return of such findings focus on principles such as respect for persons, autonomy and solidarity. Two dimensions have been distilled from the discussion on return of individual results in a genetic research context: the respect for a participant's autonomy and the duty of the researcher. Concepts such as autonomy and solidarity do not fit easily in the discussion when paediatric biobanks are concerned. Although parents may be allowed to enrol children in minimal risk genetic research on stored tissue samples, they should not be given the option to opt out of receiving important health information. Also, children have a right to an open future: parents do not have the right to access any genetic data that a biobank holds on their children. In this respect, the guidelines on genetic testing of minors are applicable. With regard to the duty of the researcher the question of whether researchers have a more stringent duty to return important health information when their research subjects are children is more difficult to answer. A researcher's primary duty is to perform useful research, a policy to return individual results must not hamper this task. The fact that vulnerable children are concerned, is an additional factor that should be considered when a policy of returning results is laid down for a specific collection or research project.

  3. Return of spent fuel from the Portuguese research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, A.J.G.; Marques, J.G.; Cardeira, F.M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, PO-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    Thirty-nine spent MTR fuel assemblies from the Portuguese Research Reactor were recently returned to the US. Prior to the shipment all assemblies were inspected for corrosion and sipped for determination of fission product leakage. Limitations on the floor loading of the reactor building and on the capacity of the crane prevented the placement and loading of the Transnucleaire IU04 transport cask inside the containment building. The transport cask was thus placed outside, under permanent surveillance, in a support structure built around it. A small transfer cask was used to carry individually the assemblies from the storage racks to the transport cask. A forklift was used as a shuttle between the pool and the IU04. A detailed description of the procedures is given. (author)

  4. Intelligent multimedia surveillance current trends and research

    CERN Document Server

    Atrey, Pradeep K; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent multimedia surveillance concerns the analysis of multiple sensing inputs including video and audio streams, radio-frequency identification (RFID), and depth data. These data are processed for the automated detection and tracking of people, vehicles, and other objects. The goal is to locate moving targets, to understand their behavior, and to detect suspicious or abnormal activities for crime prevention. Despite its benefits, there is societal apprehension regarding the use of such technology, so an important challenge in this research area is to balance public safety and privacy.

  5. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  6. R&D returns, market structure and research joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Rabah

    2000-01-01

    (one firm endogenously exiting). Two research joint venture schemes and the noncooperative solution are compared. Due to built-in symmetry, a joint lab does not always lead to the best performance. Overall, our findings differ quite substantially from those based on strongly decreasing R&D returns...

  7. R&D returns, market structure and research joint ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Rabah

    2000-01-01

    A two-period symmetric Cournot duopoly with linear demand and costs is analyzed under linear (or more general) returns to scale in process R&D. Subgame-perfect equilibrium may call for one firm to fully innovate while the other firm remains just as before. The outcome is a polar duopoly or monopoly...... (one firm endogenously exiting). Two research joint venture schemes and the noncooperative solution are compared. Due to built-in symmetry, a joint lab does not always lead to the best performance. Overall, our findings differ quite substantially from those based on strongly decreasing R&D returns...

  8. Estimating return on investment in translational research: methods and protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Trochim, William M; Dilts, David M; Kirk, Rosalind

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSAs). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program, and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This article provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities.

  9. Surveillance of employees involved in coal-derived materials research with emphasis on the dermatologic portion of the surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.S. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Special surveillance of employees involved in coal-derived materials research was begun in February, 1975. These evaluations were in addition to the basic medical surveillance of all employees at ORNL. Included in this health assessment are laboratory studies every 18 months of all employees followed by a physical exam by a physician or P.A. for employees 45 years and older. Physician exams are performed every 36 months for employees under age 45. This presentation covers the details and findings of the special skin surveillance program. 3 refs.

  10. Surveil and Sanction: The Return of the State and Societal Regulation in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Conaghan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The return of the state in Latin America under the auspices of leftist governments is often equated with an expansion in the state’s role as a regulator of the economy and social welfare provider. This article focuses on an equally important dimension of recent state development: the rise of dense societal regulation. Analysing the case of Ecuador under the administration of Rafael Correa (2007-present, the study shows how the design of policies aimed at the media, civil society organizations, and higher education have enlarged the scope of regulation and enhanced the powers of the executive branch. Applying Daniel Brinks’ notion of analysing the ‘state-as-law’, Ecuador stands as example of politicized legalism (estado de derecho politizado.Resumen: Vigilancia y sanción: El retorno del estado y la regulación societal en el EcuadorEl retorno del estado, bajo el auspicio de los gobiernos de izquierda en América Latina, es frecuentemente asimilado con la expansión del rol del estado como regulador de la economía y la provisión de bienestar social. Este artículo trata sobre una dimensión igualmente importante en el desarrollo de esos estados: el ascenso de una densa regulación societal. Analizando el caso ecuatoriano, bajo la administración de Rafael Correa (2007-al presente, este estudio demuestra cómo el diseño de políticas para los medios de comunicación, organizaciones de la sociedad civil y, instituciones de educación superior han ampliado el alcance de la regulación y afianzado los poderes de la función ejecutiva. Aplicando la noción de ‘estado-como-ley’ de Daniel Brinks, Ecuador se ha convertido en un caso ejemplar de un estado de derecho politizado.

  11. Southern Hemisphere Influenza and Vaccine Effectiveness Research and Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiu Sue; Turner, Nikki; Baker, Michael G; Williamson, Deborah A; Wong, Conroy; Webby, Richard; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2015-07-01

    The 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic highlighted the need for improved scientific knowledge to support better pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. The Southern Hemisphere Influenza and Vaccine Effectiveness Research and Surveillance (SHIVERS) project, a 5-year (2012-2016) multiagency and multidisciplinary collaboration, aimed to measure disease burden, epidemiology, aetiology, risk factors, immunology, effectiveness of vaccination and other prevention strategies for influenza and other respiratory infectious diseases of public health importance. Two active, prospective, population-based surveillance systems were established for monitoring influenza and other respiratory pathogens among those hospitalized patients with acute respiratory illness and those enrolled patients seeking consultations at sentinel general practices. In 2015, a sero-epidemiological study will use a sample of patients from the same practices. These data will provide a full picture of the disease burden and risk factors from asymptomatic infections to severe hospitalized disease and deaths and related economic burden. The results during the first 2 years (2012-2013) provided scientific evidence to (a) support a change to NZ's vaccination policy for young children due to high influenza hospitalizations in these children; (b) contribute to the revision of the World Health Organization's case definition for severe acute respiratory illness for global influenza surveillance; and (c) contribute in part to vaccine strain selection using vaccine effectiveness assessment in the prevention of influenza-related consultations and hospitalizations. In summary, SHIVERS provides valuable international platforms for supporting seasonal influenza control and pandemic preparedness, and responding to other emerging/endemic respiratory-related infections.

  12. Worldwide Surveillance, Policy, and Research on Physical Activity and Health: The Global Observatory for Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Andrea Ramirez; Pratt, Michael; Powell, Kenneth; Lee, I-Min; Bauman, Adrian; Heath, Gregory; Martins, Rafaela Costa; Kohl, Harold; Hallal, Pedro C

    2017-09-01

    The Global Observatory for Physical Activity (GoPA!) was launched in response to the physical inactivity pandemic. The aim of this article is to present current information about surveillance, policy, and research on physical activity (PA) and health worldwide. Information was collected for 217 countries. For 139 of these nations we identified a contact who confirmed information's accuracy and completeness. Associations were calculated among surveillance, policy and research categories. Of the 139 countries, 90.6% reported having completed 1 or more PA survey, but less than one-third had 3 or more. 106 included PA on a national plan, but only one-quarter of these were PA-specific. At least 1 peer reviewed publication was identified for 63.3% of the countries. Positive associations (P < .001) were found between research and policy (ρ = 0.35), research and surveillance (ρ = 0.41), and surveillance and policy (ρ = 0.31). Countries with a standalone plan were more likely to have surveillance. Countries with more research were more likely to have a standalone plan and surveillance. Surveillance, policy, and research indicators were positively correlated, suggesting that action at multiple levels tends to stimulate progress in other areas. Efforts to expand PA-related surveillance, policy, and research in lower income countries are needed.

  13. Short-term outcomes of the prospective multicentre 'Prostate Cancer Research International : Active Surveillance' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; Vasarainen, Hanna; van der Poel, Henk G.; Vis-Maters, Jenneke J.; Rietbergen, John B.; Pickles, Tom; Cornel, Erik B.; Valdagni, Riccardo; Jaspars, Joris J.; van der Hoeven, John; Staerman, Frederic; Oomens, Eric H. G. M.; Rannikko, Antti; Roemeling, Stijn; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Bangma, Chris H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short-term outcomes of the prospective international Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance ('PRIAS') study (Dutch Trial Register NTR1718), as active surveillance (AS) for early prostate cancer might provide a partial solution to the current overtreatme

  14. Small Business Research in a World of Skewed Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Preliminary evidence of a trade-off between commercialization and basic research. Research Policy , 32(4), 605–619. Arrow, K. (1962). Economic welfare and the...Technology transfer and public policy: A review of research and theory. Research Policy , 29, 627–655. Branscomb, L. M. (2002). Between invention and...Reenen, J. V. (2000). How effective are fiscal incentives for R&D? A review of the evidence. Research Policy , 29, 449–469. Hammermesh, D. (1999). The

  15. Research on posttreatment return of claustrophobic fear, arousal, and avoidance using mock diagnostic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B S; McGlynn, F D

    2000-07-01

    Fear sometimes returns after attenuation via exposure. Return of fear is poorly understood due to conflicting results from diverse experiments. This article reports on two experiments in which claustrophobic fear during mock diagnostic imaging was attenuated and allowed to return so the experiments could be evaluated and return of fear studied. Attentional focus versus distraction during exposure was a between-subjects independent variable. Attempts were made to predict return of fear, return of heart-rate responsivity, and behavioral avoidance using levels of fear and heart-rate during initial mock diagnostic imaging as predictor variables. One third of participants displayed return of fear, heart-rate response, or avoidance 1 week after fear reduction. Heart-rate response during initial mock imaging predicted posttreatment return-of-fear classification; level of fear during initial imaging did not. Neither initial heart rate nor initial fear predicted return of heart-rate reactivity or avoidance. The experiments are offered as models for programmatic research.

  16. Pediatric Cancer Genetics Research and an Evolving Preventive Ethics Approach for Return of Results after Death of the Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollon, Sarah; Bergstrom, Katie; McCullough, Laurence B; McGuire, Amy L; Gutierrez, Stephanie; Kerstein, Robin; Parsons, D Williams; Plon, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    The return of genetic research results after death in the pediatric setting comes with unique complexities. Researchers must determine which results and through which processes results are returned. This paper discusses the experience over 15 years in pediatric cancer genetics research of returning research results after the death of a child and proposes a preventive ethics approach to protocol development in order to improve the quality of return of results in pediatric genomic settings.

  17. Finding Fault? Exploring Legal Duties to Return Incidental Findings in Genomic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Elizabeth R; Rothenberg, Karen H; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2014-01-01

    The use of whole-genome sequencing in biomedical research is expected to produce dramatic advances in human health. The increasing use of this powerful, data-rich new technology in research, however, will inevitably give rise to incidental findings (IFs)-findings with individual health or reproductive significance that are beyond the aims of the particular research-and the related questions of whether and to what extent researchers have an ethical obligation to return IFs. Many have concluded that researchers have an ethical obligation to return some findings in some circumstances but have provided vague or context-dependent approaches to determining which IFs must be returned and when. As a result, researchers have started returning IFs inconsistently, giving rise to concerns about legal liability in circumstances in which notification could have potentially prevented injury. Although it is clear that ethical guidance should not be automatically codified as law and that crafting ethical obligations around legal duties can be inappropriate, the ethical debate should not proceed unaware of the potential legal ramifications of advancing and implementing an ethical obligation to return IFs. This Article assesses the legal claims that could be brought for a researcher's failure to return IFs. The potential for researchers to be held liable in tort is still uncertain and turns largely on a number of factors-including customary practice and guidance documents-that are still in flux. Unlike medical care, which has a well-defined duty into which evolving scientific knowledge about genetics and genomics can readily be incorporated, a researcher's duty to return IFs is less well defined, making it difficult to determine at the outset whether and when legal liability will attach. This Article advocates for a clearer, ethically sound standard of requiring that researchers disclose in the informed consent document which approach to offering IFs will be taken. This approach

  18. Return on Investment in Basic Research. Exploring a Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    tempering reactions in ferrous alloys were the basis for the development of ultra-high-strength steel for aircraft landing gear. And research on ship steel...through drastic quenching, design of engineering structures, and a new approach to alloy design utilizing finely dispersed second-phase precipitates...Inorganic Organic High Voltage Res. Neutron and Gamma C.O. Corvell JO. Robserts J.G. Trump Ray Shielding Synchrotron Radioactivity and C. Goodman I.A

  19. Future Directions for NCI’s Surveillance Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the early 1970s, NCI’s SEER program has been an invaluable resource for statistics on cancer in the United States. For the past several years, SEER researchers have been working toward a much broader and comprehensive goal for providing cancer stati

  20. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  1. A Clinical Service to Support the Return of Secondary Genomic Findings in Human Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Andrew J.; Austin, Howard; Bluemke, David A.; Cannon, Richard O.; Fischbeck, Kenneth; Gahl, William; Goldman, David; Grady, Christine; Greene, Mark H.; Holland, Steven M.; Hull, Sara Chandros; Porter, Forbes D.; Resnik, David; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2016-01-01

    Human genome and exome sequencing are powerful research tools that can generate secondary findings beyond the scope of the research. Most secondary genomic findings are of low importance, but some (for a current estimate of 1%–3% of individuals) confer high risk of a serious disease that could be mitigated by timely medical intervention. The impact and scope of secondary findings in genome and exome sequencing will only increase in the future. There is considerable agreement that high-impact findings should be returned to participants, but many researchers performing genomic research studies do not have the background, skills, or resources to identify, verify, interpret, and return such variants. Here, we introduce a proposal for the formation of a secondary-genomic-findings service (SGFS) that would support researchers by enabling the return of clinically actionable sequencing results to research participants in a standardized manner. We describe a proposed structure for such a centralized service and evaluate the advantages and challenges of the approach. We suggest that such a service would be of greater benefit to all parties involved than present practice, which is highly variable. We encourage research centers to consider the adoption of a centralized SGFS. PMID:26942283

  2. Corrosion Surveillance for Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in Wet Basin Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.P.

    1998-10-16

    Foreign and domestic test and research reactor fuel is currently being shipped from locations over the world for storage in water filled basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The fuel was provided to many of the foreign countries as a part of the "Atoms for Peace" program in the early 1950's. In support of the wet storage of this fuel at the research reactor sites and at SRS, corrosion surveillance programs have been initiated. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) in 1996 on "Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminum-Clad Spent Fuel in Water" and scientists from ten countries worldwide were invited to participate. This paper presents a detailed discussion of the IAEA sponsored CRP and provides the updated results from corrosion surveillance activities at SRS. In May 1998, a number of news articles around the world reported stories that microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) was active on the aluminum-clad spent fuel stored in the RBOF basin at SRS. This assessment was found to be in error with details presented in this paper. A biofilm was found on aluminum coupons, but resulted in no corrosion. Cracks seen on the surface were not caused by corrosion, but by stresses from the volume expansion of the oxide formed during pre-conditioning autoclaving. There has been no pitting caused by MIC or any other corrosion mechanism seen in the RBOF basin since initiation of the SRS Corrosion Surveillance Program in 1993.

  3. Returning a Research Participant's Genomic Results to Relatives: Analysis and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M; Branum, Rebecca; Koenig, Barbara A; Petersen, Gloria M; Berry, Susan A; Beskow, Laura M; Daly, Mary B; Fernandez, Conrad V; Green, Robert C; LeRoy, Bonnie S; Lindor, Noralane M; O'Rourke, P Pearl; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Rothstein, Mark A; Van Ness, Brian; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    Genomic research results and incidental findings with health implications for a research participant are of potential interest not only to the participant, but also to the participant's family. Yet investigators lack guidance on return of results to relatives, including after the participant's death. In this paper, a national working group offers consensus analysis and recommendations, including an ethical framework to guide investigators in managing this challenging issue, before and after the participant's death.

  4. The importance of workforce surveillance, research evidence and political advocacy in the context of international migration of dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, M; Brennan, D S; Spencer, A J; Watkins, K; Short, S D

    2015-03-01

    The international migration of dentists is an issue of pressing significance that poses several complex policy challenges. Policy-making is mainly constrained by the lack of workforce surveillance, research evidence and political advocacy - all three are required to work together, yet with different purposes. We first discuss the inconsistencies in migrant dentist surveillance in major country-level governmental systems (immigration departments, dentist registration authorities and workforce agencies). We argue that the limitations in surveillance collections affect independent research and in turn scholarly contributions to dental workforce policy. Differences in country-level surveillance collections also hinder valid cross-country comparisons on migrant dentist data, impeding global policy efforts. Due to these limitations, advocacy, or the political process to influence health policy, suffers, but is integral to future challenges on dentist migration. Country-level advocacy is best targeted at improving migrant dentist surveillance systems. Research interest can be invigorated through targeted funding allocations for migration research and by improving the availability of dentist surveillance data for research purposes. At the global level, the WHOs global code of practice for international recruitment of health personnel (a crucial advocacy tool) needs to be strengthened. Global organisations such as the FDI World Dental Federation have an important role to play in advocating for improved migrant dentist workforce surveillance and research evidence, especially in low- and middle-income countries.

  5. Frontiers of parasitology research in the People's Republic of China: infection, diagnosis, protection and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Hu; Wang, Hen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Bergquist, Robert; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2012-10-04

    Control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response. A comprehensive effort, involving the collaboration of 188 scientists (>85% from P.R. China) from 48 different institutions and universities (80% from P.R. China), covers this collection of 29 articles published in Parasites & Vectors. The research mainly stems from a research project entitled "Surveillance and diagnostic tools for major parasitic diseases in P.R. China" (grant no. 2008ZX10004-011) and highlights the frontiers of research in parasitology. The majority of articles in this thematic series deals with the most important parasitic diseases in P.R. China, emphasizing Schistosoma japonicum, Plasmodium vivax and Clonorchis sinensis plus some parasites of emerging importance such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Significant achievements have been made through the collaborative research programme in the following three fields: (i) development of strategies for the national control programme; (ii) updating the surveillance data of parasitic infections both in human and animals; and (iii) improvement of existing, and development of novel, diagnostic tools to detect parasitic infections. The progress is considerable and warrants broad validation efforts. Combined with the development of improved tools for diagnosis and surveillance, integrated and multi-pronged control strategies should now pave the way for elimination of parasitic diseases in P.R. China. Experiences and lessons learned can stimulate control and elimination efforts of parasitic diseases in other parts of the world.

  6. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  7. Operational research to inform a sub-national surveillance intervention for malaria elimination in Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Jo-An

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reduction of malaria transmission to very low levels has made Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, a target for early elimination by 2014. High malaria transmission in neighbouring provinces and the potential for local asymptomatic infections to cause malaria resurgence highlights the need for sub-national tailoring of surveillance interventions. This study contributes to a situational analysis of malaria in Isabel Province to inform an appropriate surveillance intervention. Methods A mixed method study was carried out in Isabel Province in late 2009 and early 2010. The quantitative component was a population-based prevalence survey of 8,554 people from 129 villages, which were selected using a spatially stratified sampling approach to achieve uniform geographical coverage of populated areas. Diagnosis was initially based on Giemsa-stained blood slides followed by molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Local perceptions and practices related to management of fever and treatment-seeking that would impact a surveillance intervention were also explored using qualitative research methods. Results Approximately 33% (8,554/26,221 of the population of Isabel Province participated in the survey. Only one subject was found to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf (96 parasites/μL using Giemsa-stained blood films, giving a prevalence of 0.01%. PCR analysis detected a further 13 cases, giving an estimated malaria prevalence of 0.51%. There was a wide geographical distribution of infected subjects. None reported having travelled outside Isabel Province in the previous three months suggesting low-level indigenous malaria transmission. The qualitative findings provide warning signs that the current community vigilance approach to surveillance will not be sufficient to achieve elimination. In addition, fever severity is being used by individuals as an indicator for malaria and a trigger for timely treatment

  8. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  9. Rates of return to sorghum and millet research investments: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zereyesus, Yacob A; Dalton, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum and millet grow in some of the most heterogeneous and austere agroecologies around the world. These crops are amongst the top five cereal sources of food and feed. Yet, few studies document the impact of sorghum and millet genetic enhancement. The Internal Rate of Return (ROR) is one of the most popular metrics used to measure the economic return on investment on agricultural research and development (R&D). This study conducted a meta-analysis of 59 sorghum and millet ROR estimates obtained from 25 sources published between 1958 and 2015. The average rate of return to sorghum and millet R&D investment is between 54-76 percent per year. All studies computed social rather than private RORs because the technologies were developed using public funds originating from host country National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) and international organizations such as the INTSORMIL CRSP, ICRISAT and others. Nearly three quarter of the studies focused only on sorghum (72 percent) and around one tenth of the studies (8 percent) on millet. Regression models analyzed the determinants of variation in the reported RORs. Results show that ex-ante type and self-evaluated type of analyses are positively and significantly associated with the ROR estimates. Compared to estimates conducted by a university, results from international institutions and other mixed organizations provided significantly smaller estimates. Estimates conducted at national level also are significantly lower than those conducted at sub-national levels. The ROR is higher for studies conducted in the United States and for those conducted more recently. The study also reconstructed modified internal rate of return (MIRR) for a sub-sample of the reported RORs following recent methods from the literature. These results show that the MIRR estimates are significantly smaller than the reported ROR estimates. Both results indicate that investment in sorghum and millet research generates high social rates of

  10. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Snidaro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment.

  11. [The National Health Surveillance Agency, ANVISA, and clinical research in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Sérgio de Andrade; Sá, Paula Frassineti Guimarães de

    2006-01-01

    Conduction of clinical trials with drugs in Brazil requires prior approval by Committees for Ethics in Research (CEPs) and, in certain cases, by the National Commission for Ethics in Research (CONEP). Approval by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA), through its Office for New Drugs, Research and Clinical Trials (GEPEC), is currently required only for drugs and medical devices manufactured in other countries and therefore need permission to be imported. This article briefly reviews the history of clinical research regulation in Brazil, then presents an overview of the current regulatory role of ANVISA and its future prospective. Major points discussed are the new forthcoming ANVISA regulations, with emphasis on adverse event notifications and inspections/audits on clinical trials and their impact on clinical research in Brazil, from the standpoint of the industry, university, contract research organizations, physicians and other health professionals. It should be stressed that to decide upon the licensing of new drugs ANVISA must obtain information from clinical trials.

  12. Population studies: return of research results and incidental findings Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Deschênes, Mylène; Zawati, Ma'n H; Tassé, Anne Marie

    2013-03-01

    The Public Population Project in Genomics and Society (P³G) is a not-for profit international consortium with members from more than 40 countries. Its objective is to lead, catalyze, and co-ordinate international efforts and expertise in order to optimize the use of population studies, biobanks, research databases, and other similar health and social science research infrastructures. The year 2011-2012 witnessed a plethora of special issues of journals on the return of results but few discussed the particular situation of population studies that serve as resources for future unspecified research. P³G considers it important to propose a policy that distinguishes between the contexts of population research and disease (clinical) research involving patients and then delineates actual and future obligations. The objectives of this Policy Statement are to: (1) delineate the particular characteristics of population studies, (2) distinguish the circumstances surrounding access by researchers to such studies, and (3) develop a framework for the return of research results and incidental findings.

  13. Research on the kinetic energy ratio of return air entrainment in the form of low supply–middle return in the large space of brine experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduced in this article is a 1:15 brine model experiment rig with an actual large space building as the research object, which provides different concentration brine for a simulation of the stratified air conditioning in the steady-state flow field featured with columnar air supply in the bottom, heat source on the ground, the central air return, and air exhaust from roof in a large space. According to the similarity theory, it is concluded that the similarity criterion numbers applied here are Reynolds number (Re and Archimedes number (Ar for designation of experiment rig size, choosing device type, and confirming experiment condition. In the designation of key components of experiment rig, the application of automation control makes brine recovery and recycling in the process; designation of electrical control system makes a centralized control of experiment start–stop and the adjustment of the pipeline flow, realizing automation in the whole experiment process. Particle image velocimetry testing technology is used to get velocity vector field of air return mouth area in the model under various working conditions, and also proper orthogonal decomposition method is applied to analyze flow field structure of air return mouth area and reconstruct it. Consequently, we can get a kinetic energy ratio of return air entrainment of lower air-conditioning section and upper non-air-conditioning section in large space. Experiments show that under the conditions of same air supply, indoor environment temperature difference, and height and direction of return air inlet, fastening the speed of return air suction, the entrainment of flow field around it strengthens accordingly. The entrainment of return air inlet has more kinetic energy in the lower air-conditioning section than the upper non-air-conditioning section.

  14. [Thirty Years of Health Surveillance of Foods in Barcelona: The "ICSA" Food Quality Research Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontcuberta-Famadas, Mireia; Rodellar-Torras, Santiago; Portaña-Tudela, Samuel; Durán-Neira, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The Food Health Quality Research Program (Investigación de la Calidad Sanitaria de los Alimentos [ICSA]) of the Public Health Agency of Barcelona (Agencia de Salud Pública de Barcelona [ASPB]) was initiated in 1984 to carry out surveillance of certain chemical and microbiological parameters related to the sanitary and safety of foods sold in the city. The present article analyzes the importance of health surveillance and provides details of the uses of the ICSA program. The main aim of this program is to evaluate whether marketed foods comply with the absence and/or established tolerance levels of specific parameters. Nevertheless, the program is able to incorporate or suppress parameters or foods that pose emerging dangers or interests not represented in current legislation. Besides, the program not only obtains a view of the parameters studied at a specific time period in each report, but also accumulates data over time, allowing risk assessment, calculation of dietary intake of contaminants, analysis of tendencies, and evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations to reduce contaminants. The program can also help in the planning of food control programs. The information obtained is disseminated nationally and internationally and is included in dossiers of contaminants issued by national and European health agencies. This demonstrates that a locally-developed surveillance system can have a wider scope and broader objectives and can provide useful information for managers, administrations, economic operators and consumers.

  15. Ethics issues experienced in HBM within Portuguese health surveillance and research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In keeping with the fundamental practice of transparency in the discussion and resolution of ethics conflicts raised by research, a summary of ethics issues raised during Portuguese biomonitoring in health surveillance and research is presented and, where applicable, their resolution is described. Methods Projects underway aim to promote the surveillance of public health related to the presence of solid waste incinerators or to study associations between human exposure to environmental factors and adverse health effects. The methodological approach involves biomonitoring of heavy metals, dioxins and/or other persistent organic pollutants in tissues including blood, human milk and both scalp and pubic hair in groups such as the general population, children, pregnant women or women attempting pregnancy. As such, the projects entail the recruitment of individuals representing different demographic and health conditions, the collection of body tissues and personal data, and the processing of the data and results. Results The issue of autonomy is raised during the recruitment of participants and during the collection of samples and data. This right is protected by the requirement for prior written, informed consent from the participant or, in the case of children, from their guardian. Recruitment has been successful, among eligible participants, in spite of incentives rarely being offered. The exception has been in obtaining guardians' consent for children's participation, particularly for blood sampling. In an attempt to mitigate the harm-benefit ratio, current research efforts include alternative less invasive biomarkers. Surveys are currently being conducted under contract as independent biomonitoring actions and as such, must be explicitly disclosed as a potential conflict of interests. Communication of results to participants is in general only practised when a health issue is present and corrective action possible

  16. Ultra long range surveillance camera for critical infrastructure protection research range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szustakowski, M.; Życzkowski, M.; Karol, M.; Kastek, M.; Dulski, R.; Bareła, J.; Markowski, P.; Kowalski, M.

    2013-10-01

    Visible, LLTV and anti-fog cameras have different abilities to capture external information, and combining these abilities of the three cameras can greatly improve the environment perception ability of intruders or emergency situations. Designed specifically for professional surveillance use, multi active pixel sensor camera of this type allows targets to be monitored at long distance and tracked using the proportional pan, tilt and zoom system. In the article the research results of the camera to determine realistic and standardized parameters, e.g. range of detection, recognition and identification of humans are described. The paper presents measuring equipment, procedures and results.

  17. Returns to integrated pest management research and outreach for soybean aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feng; Swinton, Scott M

    2009-12-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major invasive pest that has caused substantial yield loss and increased insecticide use in the United States since its discovery in 2000. Using the economic surplus approach, we estimate the economic benefits of U.S. research and outreach for integrated pest management (IPM) of soybean aphid. We calculate ex ante net benefits from adoption of an IPM economic threshold (ET). The ET triggers insecticide application only if the value of predicted yield damage from pest scouting is expected to exceed the cost of pest control. Our research finds that gradual adoption of an ET for soybean aphid management will generate a projected economic net benefit of $1.3 billion, for an internal rate of return of 124%, over the 15 yr since soybean aphid IPM research began in 2003. Lower and upper bound sensitivity analysis brackets the estimated net benefit to U.S. consumers and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., growers in the range of $0.6 to $2.6 billion in 2005 dollars. If a 10% rate of return is attributed to IPM applied research and outreach on soybean aphid, that would leave nearly $800 million to compensate prior activities that contribute to the development and adoption of IPM.

  18. A bibliometric analysis of U.S.-based research on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, George M; Gotway Crawford, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    Since Alan Pritchard defined bibliometrics as "the application of statistical methods to media of communication" in 1969, bibliometric analyses have become widespread. To date, however, bibliometrics has not been used to analyze publications related to the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). To determine the most frequently cited BRFSS-related topical areas, institutions, and journals. A search of the Web of Knowledge database in 2013 identified U.S.-published studies related to BRFSS, from its start in 1984 through 2012. Search terms were BRFSS, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, or Behavioral Risk Survey. The resulting 1,387 articles were analyzed descriptively and produced data for VOSviewer, a computer program that plotted a relevance distance-based map and clustered keywords from text in titles and abstracts. Topics, journals, and publishing institutions ranged widely. Most research was clustered by content area, such as cancer screening, access to care, heart health, and quality of life. The American Journal of Preventive Medicine and American Journal of Public Health published the most BRFSS-related papers (95 and 70, respectively). Bibliometrics can help identify the most frequently published BRFSS-related topics, publishing journals, and publishing institutions. BRFSS data are widely used, particularly by CDC and academic institutions such as the University of Washington and other universities hosting top-ranked schools of public health. Bibliometric analysis and mapping provides an innovative way of quantifying and visualizing the plethora of research conducted using BRFSS data and summarizing the contribution of this surveillance system to public health. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. The Returning Indian Diaspora : Exploratory Research on Indian Return Migration Drivers and potential Effects on Firms’ Performance and Country’s Development

    OpenAIRE

    Tonial, Genny; Agnetti, Gaia

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the drivers that pushed Returned Non Resident Indians(RNRIs) to come back to their homeland and their potential contribution, through the knowledgeand competences acquired by studying and working abroad, to the Firms that hire them.We used a qualitative method pursued through semi-structured non-standardized interviews withexperts of the topic and RNRIs. Furthermore, in order to have better insights, we looked at thebackground of the top management of 8 top IT India...

  20. Active screening and surveillance in the United Kingdom for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in returning travellers and pilgrims from the Middle East: a prospective descriptive study for the period 2013–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowsan F. Atabani

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Respiratory tract infections in travellers/pilgrims returning to the UK from the Middle East are mainly due to rhinoviruses, influenza A, and influenza B. Whilst MERS-CoV was not detected in the 202 patients studied, heightened awareness of the possibility of MERS-CoV and continuous proactive surveillance are essential to rapidly identify cases of MERS-CoV and other seasonal respiratory tract viruses such as avian influenza, in patients presenting to hospital. Early identification and isolation may prevent outbreaks in nosocomial settings.

  1. Self-monitoring surveillance system for prestressing tendons. Phase I small business innovation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabai, H.

    1995-12-01

    Assured safety and operational reliability of post-tensioned concrete components of nuclear power plants are of great significance to the public, electric utilities, and regulatory agencies. Prestressing tendons provide principal reinforcement for containment and other structures. In this phase of the research effort, the feasibility of developing a passive surveillance system for identification of ruptures in tendon wires was evaluated and verified. The concept offers high potential for greatly increasing effectiveness of presently-utilized periodic tendon condition surveillance programs. A one-tenth scale ring model of the Palo Verde nuclear containment structure was built inside the Structural Laboratory. Dynamic scaling (similitude) relationships were used to relate measured sensor responses recorded during controlled wire breakages to the expected prototype containment tendon response. Strong and recognizable signatures were detected by the accelerometers used. It was concluded that the unbonded prestressing tendons provide an excellent path for transmission of stress waves resulting from wire breaks. Accelerometers placed directly on the bearing plates at the ends of tendons recorded high-intensity waveforms. Accelerometers placed elsewhere on concrete surfaces of the containment model revealed substantial attenuation and reduced intensities of captured waveforms. Locations of wire breaks could be determined accurately through measurement of differences in arrival times of the signal at the sensors. Pattern recognition systems to be utilized in conjunction with the proposed concept will provide a basis for an integrated and automated tool for identification of wire breaks.

  2. Review of influenza A virus in swine worldwide: a call for increased surveillance and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, A; Awada, L; Brown, I; Chen, H; Claes, F; Dauphin, G; Donis, R; Culhane, M; Hamilton, K; Lewis, N; Mumford, E; Nguyen, T; Parchariyanon, S; Pasick, J; Pavade, G; Pereda, A; Peiris, M; Saito, T; Swenson, S; Van Reeth, K; Webby, R; Wong, F; Ciacci-Zanella, J

    2014-02-01

    Pigs and humans have shared influenza A viruses (IAV) since at least 1918, and many interspecies transmission events have been documented since that time. However, despite this interplay, relatively little is known regarding IAV circulating in swine around the world compared with the avian and human knowledge base. This gap in knowledge impedes our understanding of how viruses adapted to swine or man impacts the ecology and evolution of IAV as a whole and the true impact of swine IAV on human health. The pandemic H1N1 that emerged in 2009 underscored the need for greater surveillance and sharing of data on IAV in swine. In this paper, we review the current state of IAV in swine around the world, highlight the collaboration between international organizations and a network of laboratories engaged in human and animal IAV surveillance and research, and emphasize the need to increase information in high-priority regions. The need for global integration and rapid sharing of data and resources to fight IAV in swine and other animal species is apparent, but this effort requires grassroots support from governments, practicing veterinarians and the swine industry and, ultimately, requires significant increases in funding and infrastructure.

  3. Fundamental Cardiovascular Research: Returns on Societal Investment: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joseph A; Ardehali, Reza; Clarke, Kimberli Taylor; Del Zoppo, Gregory J; Eckhardt, Lee L; Griendling, Kathy K; Libby, Peter; Roden, Dan M; Sadek, Hesham A; Seidman, Christine E; Vaughan, Douglas E

    2017-07-21

    Recent decades have witnessed robust successes in conquering the acutely lethal manifestations of heart and vascular diseases. Many patients who previously would have died now survive. Lifesaving successes like these provide a tremendous and easily recognized benefit to individuals and society. Although cardiovascular mortality has declined, the devastating impact of chronic heart disease and comorbidities on quality of life and healthcare resources continues unabated. Future strides, extending those made in recent decades, will require continued research into mechanisms underlying disease prevention, pathogenesis, progression, and therapeutic intervention. However, severe financial constraints currently jeopardize these efforts. To chart a path for the future, this report analyzes the challenges and opportunities we face in continuing the battle against cardiovascular disease and highlights the return on societal investment afforded by fundamental cardiovascular research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Six-Month Market Exclusivity Extensions To Promote Research Offer Substantial Returns For Many Drug Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Rome, Benjamin N; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-02-01

    To incentivize pharmaceutical manufacturers to invest in areas of unmet medical need, policy makers frequently propose extending the market exclusivity period of desired drugs. Some such proposals are modeled after the pediatric exclusivity patent extension program, which since 1997 has provided six additional months of market exclusivity for drugs studied in children. The most recent proposal would encourage rare disease research by providing six months of extended exclusivity for any existing drug that is granted subsequent FDA approval for a new rare disease indication. Yet the economic impact of such proposals is rarely addressed. We found that for the thirteen FDA-approved drugs that gained supplemental approval for a rare disease indication from 2005 through 2010, the median projected cost of clinical trials leading to approval was $29.8 million. If the exclusivity extension had been in place, the median discounted financial gain to manufacturers would have been $94.6 million. Median net returns would have been $82.4 million, with higher returns for drugs with higher annual sales. Extending market exclusivity would provide substantial compensation to many manufacturers, particularly for top-selling products, far in excess of the cost of conducting these trials. Alternative strategies to incentivize the study of approved drugs for rare diseases may offer similar benefits at a lower cost. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Victoria J.; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions. PMID:28275611

  6. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Victoria J; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions.

  7. Return glider radiosonde for in situ upper-air research measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräuchi, Andreas; Philipona, Rolf

    2016-06-01

    Upper-air balloon soundings for weather predictions have been made since the beginning of the 20th century. New radiosonde instruments for in situ humidity-, radiation- and gas-profile measurements in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, were introduced in recent years for atmospheric research and climate monitoring, but such instruments are often expensive and it is desired they be reused on multiple flights. Recovering instruments that freely descend with parachutes is time consuming, sometimes difficult and even dangerous. Here, we introduce the return glider radiosonde (RGR), which enables flying and retrieving valuable in situ upper-air instruments. The RGR is lifted with weather balloons similar to traditional radiosondes to a preset altitude, at which time a release mechanism cuts the tether string, and a built-in autopilot flies the glider autonomously back to the launch site or a desired preprogrammed location. Once the RGR reaches the landing coordinates it circles down and releases a parachute 100 m above ground for landing. The motivation for this project was to measure radiation profiles throughout the atmosphere with the same instrument multiple times and with a rapid turn-around time. The paper describes technical aspects of the return glider radiosonde and the built-in radiation instruments and shows test flights up to 24 km altitude that are analyzed in terms of flight performance and maximal distances covered. Several successive flights measuring radiation profiles demonstrate the reliability and the operational readiness of the RGR, allowing new ways for atmospheric in situ research and monitoring with payloads up to several kg depending on the specific size of the glider.

  8. Statement of principles on the return of research results and incidental findings in paediatric research: a multi-site consultative process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénécal, Karine; Rahimzadeh, Vasiliki; Knoppers, Bartha M; Fernandez, Conrad V; Avard, Denise; Sinnett, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a set of recommendations for the return of research results and incidental findings in paediatrics. The Network of Applied Genetic Medicine of Quebec spearheaded the initiative to develop the Statement of Principles on the Return of Research Results and Incidental Findings, which was the result of a consultation process with clinical and research experts in the field. To formulate the Statement of Principles, the authors (i) reviewed empirical and grey literature on the return of research results and incidental findings in Europe and Canada, (ii) conducted a qualitative study of stakeholder groups, (iii) developed, and (iv) validated the recommendations through consultations with the stakeholder groups. The Statement of Principles provides a useful disclosure tool for deciding when, and under what circumstances to return research results and incidental findings. It addresses the issue of return of results in genetic research generally, and has also specific principles for various research contexts, including paediatric research. It delineates ethical issues unique to paediatric research, and provides a framework to guide research ethics committees as well as the research community in addressing these issues.

  9. Anticipating market effects of new uses for whey and evaluating returns to research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagtas, J V; Hutchinson, F M; Krochta, J M; Sumner, D A

    2003-05-01

    As U.S. dairy farms continue to become more productive, increasing demand is a key to improved economic prospects for the dairy industry. One way to expand demand for dairy products is to find new, economically viable uses for milk. Ex ante economic analysis of new uses for agricultural products anticipates the potential market effects of innovations, and provides a basis for evaluating investment in research and development and setting research priorities. This study evaluated potential economic effects of new applications of films and coatings made from whey protein. An economic simulation model was used to predict the likely effects of the innovations on dairy markets. Cost comparisons with existing technologies and interviews with industry officials were the basis for evaluating potential for commercial adoption of the innovations. The economic simulation model traces the projected increased demand for whey through the markets for dairy products and milk. The associated increased demand for milk could result in benefits to U.S. milk producers of $123.0 million in present value terms, compared to a research cost of $ 4.9 million, with the dairy industry, consumers, and taxpayers all contributing. Interpreting the cost of the research program as an investment on behalf of milk producers, the benefits to producers from development of new whey uses represent an annual rate of return between 28 and 33%. These results are useful for evaluating further investment in the whey research program. The methods illustrated here are applicable to the evaluation of a wide range of research and promotion efforts.

  10. Academic Entrepreneurship in France: The Promotion of Economic Returns of Public Research and Its Political and Scientific Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manifet, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    Emphasising the level of the observation of university configurations and the example of academic entrepreneurship, the author analyses the drivers of economic returns of public research in France. Based on the study of national public policy in this field since 1999 and a general survey of the paths of researchers-entrepreneurs, the article…

  11. Interaction between research and diagnosis and surveillance of avian influenza within the Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Vachiéry, N; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gerbier, G; Gongora, V; Shaw, J; Trotman, M

    2010-04-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) because of predominance of the backyard poultry system, important commercial poultry production, migratory birds and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean animal health network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region: (i) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol, (ii) specific web pages for AI surveillance on http://www.caribvet.net, and (iii) a diagnostic network for the Caribbean including AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe and technology transfer. Altogether 303 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested between June 2006 and March 2009 by real time PCR either for importation purposes or following clinical suspicion. Following AI H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI through introduction of infected cocks was designed and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean veterinary services to improve fighting cock movement controls and biosecurity measures. Altogether, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthen surveillance of AI in the Caribbean region and may allow the development of research studies on AI risk analysis.

  12. Recommendations for the Return of Research Results to Study Participants and Guardians: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Conrad V.; Ruccione, Kathleen; Wells, Robert J.; Long, Jay B.; Pelletier, Wendy; Hooke, Mary C.; Pentz, Rebecca D.; Noll, Robert B.; Baker, Justin N.; O'Leary, Maura; Reaman, Gregory; Adamson, Peter C.; Joffe, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The Children's Oncology Group (COG) strongly supports the widely recognized principle that research participants should be offered a summary of study results. The mechanism by which to do so in a cooperative research group setting has not been previously described. Methods On the basis of a review of the available empirical and theoretic literature and on iterative, multidisciplinary discussion, a COG Return of Results Task Force (RRTF) offered detailed recommendations for the return of results to research study participants. Results The RRTF established guidelines for the notification of research participants and/or their parents/guardians about the availability of research results, a mechanism for and timing of sharing results via registration on the COG public Web site, the scope of the research to be shared, the target audience, and a process for creating and vetting lay summaries of study results. The RRTF recognized the challenges in adequately conveying complex scientific results to audiences with varying levels of health literacy and recommended that particularly sensitive or complex results be returned using direct personal contact. The RRTF also recommended evaluation of the cost, effectiveness, and impact of sharing results. Conclusion These recommendations provide a framework for the offering and returning of results to participants. They can be used by individual investigators, multi-investigator research collaboratives, and large cooperative groups. PMID:23109703

  13. Design and Research of Distributed Real TimeSurveillance Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Distributed real time surveillance control system is used especially in distributed computer measure and control system, mostly inwidely dispersed measure points without human surveillance. This paper describes theory、construction、control strategy, stabilityanalysis of distributed real time supervisory control and data acquisition system, implements distributed measure signals collectionand design of supervisory control system. The realization of virtual instrument based on VC++ can accomplish measurementsignals acquisition, storage, display and analysis, also the result of surveillance control system is provided, and shows thefunctional powerful agility of virtual instrument based on VC++.

  14. Research on return visit and investigation of the relapse rate of children allergic purpura after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weihong; Zhou, Yudong; Zhang, Sisen; Yang, Fang; Zhuang, Tanyue; Wu, Xinyan

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to research on return visit and investigation of the relapse rate of children allergic purpura after treatment. Children with allergic purpura were divided into two groups. The treatment group was treated with the adrenocorticotrophic hormone while the control group did not. We tracked and observed two groups of discharged children in the first month and the second month. It can be found that, at the first month, 5 cases recurred in the treatment group with 20 cases, the relapse rate was 25%, 1 case recurred in control group, the relapse rate was 5%; at the second month, 2 cases recurred in treatment group, the relapse rate was 10%, no case recurred in the control group. There were 8 cases recurred in the past two months, and there were no replace after the second time treatment. In contrast, the children, who treated with adrenocorticotrophic hormone, had higher relapse rate, while the control group had lower relapse rate. Then we can get the conclusion that, the application of adrenocorticotrophic hormone may be one of the main reasons to induce the allergic purpura and we should notice and discuss this conclusion in the clinical practice.

  15. FRAM-2012: Norwegians return to the High Arctic with a Hovercraft for Marine Geophysical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. K.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Brekke, H.; Hope, G.

    2012-12-01

    After four years of testing methods, craft reliability, and innovative equipment, the R/H SABVABAA has embarked on its first FRAM-201x expedition to the highest Arctic. Named after the Inupiaq word for 'flows swiftly over it', the 12m by 6m hovercraft has been home-based in Longyearbyen, Svalbard since June 2008. In this, its fifth summer of work on the ice pack north of 81N, the craft is supported by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) via the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC) in Bergen, and the Norwegian Scientific Academy for Polar Research. FRAM-2012 represents renewed Norwegian interest in returning to the highest Arctic some 116 years after the 1893-96 drift of Fridtjof Nansen's ship FRAM, the first serious scientific investigation of the Arctic. When replenished by air or icebreaker, the hovercraft Sabvabaa offers a hospitable scientific platform with crew of two, capable of marine geophysical, geological and oceanographic observations over long periods with relative mobility on the ice pack. FRAM-2012 is the first step towards this goal, accompanying the Swedish icebreaker ODEN to the Lomonosov Ridge, north of Greenland, as part of the LOMROG III expedition. The science plan called for an initial drive from the ice edge to Gakkel Ridge at 85N where micro-earthquakes would be monitored, and then to continue north to a geological sampling area on the Lomonosov Ridge at about 88N, 65W. The micro-earthquake monitoring is part of Gaute Hope's MSc thesis and entails five hydrophones in a WiFi-connected hydrophone array deployed over the Gakkel Rift Valley, drifting with the ice at up to 0.4 knots. On August 3 the hovercraft was refueled from icebreaker ODEN at 84-21'N and both vessels proceeded north. The progress of the hovercraft was hampered by insufficient visibility for safe driving and time consuming maneuvering in and around larger fields of rubble ice impassable by the hovercraft, but of little concern to the icebreaker. It

  16. Biospecimen Retrieval from NASA's Rodent Research-1: Maximizing Science Return from Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Chen, Y.- C.; Reyes, A.; Verma, V.; Dinh, M.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed to support long duration missions on the International Space Station. After 37 days in microgravity twenty mice were euthanized and frozen on orbit. Upon return to Earth the carcasses were dissected and yielded 32 different types of tissues from each mouse and over 3200 tissue aliquots. Many tissues were distributed to the Space Life and Physical Sciences (SLPS) Biospecimen Sharing Program (BSP) Principal Investigators (PIs) through the Ames Life Science Data Archive (ALSDA). A second round of dissections was performed to collect additional tissues from the remaining carcasses thawed for a second time for additional BSP PIs. Tissues retrieved included vaginal walls, aorta, pelvis, brown adipose tissue, tail, spine and forearms. Although the analyses are still in progress, some of the PIs have reported that the quality of the tissues was acceptable for their study. In a separate experiment we tested the RNA quality of the tissues that were dissected from frozen carcasses that were subjected to euthanasia, freezing, first and second thaw dissections. Timelines simulated the on-orbit RR-1 procedures to assess the quality of the tissues retrieved from the second thaw dissections. We analyzed the RIN values of select tissues including kidney, brain, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Overall the RIN values from the second thaw were lower compared to those from the first by about a half unit; however, the tissues yielded RNA that are acceptable quality for some quantitative gene expression assays. Interestingly, RIN values of brain tissues were 8.4+/-0.6 and 7.9+/-0.7 from first and second round dissections, respectively (n=5). Kidney and WAT yielded RIN values less than 8 but they can still be used for qPCR. BAT yielded higher quality RNA (8.2+/-0.5) than WAT (5.22+/-0.9), possibly due to the high fat content. Together, these

  17. Low-Cost Small Payload Return to Enable High Frequency ISS Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Terminal Velocity Aerospace, LLC (TVA) proposes to improve utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) by providing a system for on-demand return of...

  18. An Empirical Research on Returns to Education of Disabled People during the Process of Modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Liao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the most important ways to form human capital. Individual can get profit from investment in human capital. Although education situation of the disabled is getting better slowly during the process of modernization, the study of return to education of disabled has been largely ignored for many years. Furthermore, there are still a number of challenges need to pay more attention. This paper based on CHNS data in the economic transition period using Mincer Equation to study the returns to education in the disabled people in China. The results show that the education level has significant positive relationship with the rate of return to education; Return to education of the disabled is lower than non-disabled and male higher than female. The paper suggested more special education supply are required, female disabled people should be pay more attention especially on their education.

  19. Conclusions, Research Needs, and Recommendations of the Expert Panel: Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research for Environmental Chemicals in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proceedings of "The Technical Workshop on Human Milk Surveillance and Research on Environmental Chemicals in the United States" was organized to develop state-of-the-science protocols describing the various aspects of such a program. The 2-day workshop was held at the Mi...

  20. Mapping the Ethics of Translational Genomics: Situating Return of Results and Navigating the Research-Clinical Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M; Burke, Wylie; Koenig, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Both bioethics and law have governed human genomics by distinguishing research from clinical practice. Yet the rise of translational genomics now makes this traditional dichotomy inadequate. This paper pioneers a new approach to the ethics of translational genomics. It maps the full range of ethical approaches needed, proposes a "layered" approach to determining the ethics framework for projects combining research and clinical care, and clarifies the key role that return of results can play in advancing translation.

  1. The Australian Research Quality Framework: A Live Experiment in Capturing the Social, Economic, Environmental, and Cultural Returns of Publicly Funded Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Claire

    2008-01-01

    The author regards development of Australia's ill-fated Research Quality Framework (RQF) as a "live experiment" in determining the most appropriate approach to evaluating the extra-academic returns, or "impact," of a nation's publicly funded research. The RQF was at the forefront of an international movement toward richer qualitative,…

  2. Initiating a participatory action research process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariri, Oghenebrume; D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Twine, Rhian; Ngobeni, Sizzy; van der Merwe, Maria; Spies, Barry; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Wagner, Ryan G; Byass, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite progressive health policy, disease burdens in South Africa remain patterned by deeply entrenched social inequalities. Accounting for the relationships between context, health and risk can provide important information for equitable service delivery. The aims of the research were to initiate a participatory research process with communities in a low income setting and produce evidence of practical relevance. We initiated a participatory action research (PAR) process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north-east South Africa. Three village-based discussion groups were convened and consulted about conditions to examine, one of which was under-5 mortality. A series of discussions followed in which routine HDSS data were presented and participants' subjective perspectives were elicited and systematized into collective forms of knowledge using ranking, diagramming and participatory photography. The process concluded with a priority setting exercise. Visual and narrative data were thematically analyzed to complement the participants' analysis. A range of social and structural root causes of under-5 mortality were identified: poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing, unsafe environments and shortages of clean water. Despite these constraints, single mothers were often viewed as negligent. A series of mid-level contributory factors in clinics were also identified: overcrowding, poor staffing, delays in treatment and shortages of medications. In a similar sense, pronounced blame and negativity were directed toward clinic nurses in spite of the systems constraints identified. Actions to address these issues were prioritized as: expanding clinics, improving accountability and responsiveness of health workers, improving employment, providing clean water, and expanding community engagement for health promotion. We initiated a PAR process to gain local knowledge and prioritize actions. The process was acceptable to those

  3. Acceptance of Mobile Phone Return Programmes for Increased Resource Efficiency by Young People—Experiences from a German Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jolanta Welfens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for recycling obsolete mobile phones has significantly increased with their rapidly growing worldwide production and distribution. Return and recycling rates are quite low; people tend to keep old, unused phones at home instead of returning them for recycling or further use because of a lack of knowledge and acceptance of return programmes. Thus far, individual use and recycling behavior has not shown any trend towards more sustainable patterns. Consequently, an increased awareness is needed for the high environmental and social impact throughout the whole value chain of a mobile phone—there is simply a lack of information and knowledge regarding sustainability issues around the mobile phone. A teaching material was therefore developed in a German research project, based on the concept of the ecological rucksack, presenting comprehensive information about the value chain of a mobile phone. Its application in different schools led to an increased awareness and interest among pupils for the connection between sustainability, resources and mobile phones. Based on these research results, this paper analyses young people’s knowledge of sustainability issues linked to their mobile phones and their acceptance of more sustainable behavioral patterns regarding their mobile, including return and recycling programmes.

  4. On Return from Peacekeeping: A review of current research on psychological well-being in military personnel returning from operational deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Brounéus

    2014-03-01

    impacts of operational deployments are less clear [9, 10]. With regards to the peacekeepers themselves and the effect these missions have on psychological health and well-being, an extensive body of literature has studied returned American servicemen from Vietnam and Somalia, Iraq and Afghanistan, covering issues of psychological ill-health from alcoholism and suicide to the adverse effects of a negative homecoming experience [11, 12]. As this review will show however, less is known of soldiers from other countries as well as the long-term effects of peacekeeping on psychological well-being. With the notable exception of the US millennium cohort study[3], longitudinal studies in the field are rare but increasingly called for [13]. In the following, an overview of current research in a range of areas concerning the psychological well-being of returning peacekeepers will be presented, and some research gaps highlighted.

  5. Beyond Constructivism: A Return to Science-Based Research and Practice in Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, William

    2003-01-01

    Explores what a return to a more theory-based scientific approach to education might mean for the study and practice of educational technology. Topics include science, technology, and constructivism; knowledge construction; how to deal with complexity; and roles of educational technology, including creating virtual learning environments and…

  6. Impact of Next Generation Sequencing on the Organization and Funding of Returning Research Results: Survey of Canadian Research Ethics Boards Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Jaitovich Groisman

    Full Text Available Research Ethics Boards (REBs are expected to evaluate protocols planning the use of Next Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS, assuring that any genomic finding will be properly managed. As Canadian REBs play a central role in the disclosure of such results, we deemed it important to examine the views and experience of REB members on the return of aggregated research results, individual research results (IRRs and incidental findings (IFs in current genomic research. With this intent, we carried out a web-based survey, which showed that 59.7% of respondents viewed the change from traditional sequencing to NGS as more than a technical substitution, and that 77% of respondents agreed on the importance of returning aggregated research results, the most compelling reasons being the recognition of participants' contribution and increasing the awareness of scientific progress. As for IRRs specifically, 50% of respondents were in favour of conveying such information, even when they only indicated the probability that a condition may develop. Current regulations and risk to participants were considered equally important, and much more than financial costs, when considering the return of IRRs and IFs. Respondents indicated that the financial aspect of offering genetic counseling was the least important matter when assessing it as a requisite. Granting agencies were named as mainly responsible for funding, while the organizing and returning of IRRs and IFs belonged to researchers. However, views in these matters differ according to respondents' experience. Our results draw attention to the need for improved guidance when considering the organizational and financial aspects of returning genetic research results, so as to better fulfill the ethical and moral principles that are to guide such undertakings.

  7. Declining return migration from the United States to Mexico in the late-2000s recession: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael S; Brownell, Peter; Kups, Sarah

    2011-08-01

    Researchers in the United States and Mexico have variously asserted that return migration from the United States to Mexico increased substantially, remained unchanged, or declined slightly in response to the 2008-2009 U.S. recession and fall 2008 global financial crisis. The present study addresses this debate using microdata from 2005 through 2009 from a large-scale, quarterly Mexican household survey, the National Survey of Occupation and Employment (ENOE), after first validating the ENOE against return-migration estimates from a specialist demographic survey, the National Survey of Demographic Dynamics (ENADID). Declines in annual return-migration flows of up to a third between 2007 and 2009 were seen among the predominantly labor-migrant groups of male migrants and all 18- to 40-year-old migrants with less than a college education; and a decline in total return migration was seen in the fourth quarter of 2008 (immediately after the triggering of the global financial crisis) compared with the fourth quarter of 2007.

  8. Lightning return stroke velocities in the thunderstorm research international program (TRIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idone, Vincent P.; Orville, Richard E.

    1982-06-01

    We have used high-speed streaking photographic techniques to time-resolve the luminous components of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. Two-dimensional return stroke velocities have been measured for 63 strokes representing, we believe, the largest set of return stroke velocity measurements obtained to date. All recordings were made during our participation in the Thunderstorm Reseach International Program conducted at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during the summers of 1977 and 1978 and at the Langmuir Laboratory near Socorro, New Mexico, during the summer of 1979. The mean return stroke velocity, near ground (channel length ≤1.3 km), was found to be 11×107 m/s, with a maximum relative error estimate in most cases of 35% or less. The distribution of velocities peaks strongly at approximately 9×107 m/s. Thirty-two of the 63 values (51%) fall within the interval of 8-12 × 107 m/s. The range of observed velocities spans the interval of 2.9-24×107 m/s. Based on the presence of branches in the time-resolved recordings, 17 strokes are considered to be first return strokes, with a mean velocity, near ground, of 9.6×107 m/s. The mean velocity for subsequent strokes is 12×107 m/s. A further breakdown of the results for Florida and New Mexico, respectively, reveals mean first return stroke velocities of 6.6×107 m/s and 15 × 107 m/s as well as mean subsequent stroke velocities of 11×107 m/s and 13 × 107 m/s. Velocity variations for 17 of the best events are presented, with the return stroke velocity observed to decrease with height in every case except one. The velocity reduction can be substantial; velocities in upper channel lengths were often reduced by 25% or more relative to velocities near ground, even for subsequent strokes. The variation of velocity between strokes in multistroke flashes was found to be significant in some cases and minor in others. The results of this study are compared with the earlier major works of Schonland and of Mc

  9. Return migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmelch, G

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews the findings of the growing literature on return migration. Topics covered include typologies of return migrants, reasons for return, adaptation and readjustment of returnees, and the impact of return migration on the migrants' home societies. The focus of the study is on international return migration, migration to Northern Europe and northeastern North America, and return migration to the southern and eastern fringes of Europe and the Caribbean

  10. 症状监测的研究进展%Research progress of syndromic surveillance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代小秋; 刘民

    2009-01-01

    随着新发传染病的频频出现、旧传染病的卷土重来以及生物恐怖主义威胁的加剧,传统的传染病监测系统面临新的挑战.症状监测以其能及时发现异常或疾病暴发信号的特点而得到发展.此文系统阐述了症状监测的概念、发展、特点以及面临的问题,为开展相关研究提供参考.%The appearance of "new" infectious diseases,the reemergence of "old" infectious diseases,and the deliberate introduction of infectious diseases through bioterrorism has highlighted the need for improved and innovative infectious disease surveillance systems.Systems based on syndromic surveillance are being developed because of the sensitivity and timeliness.This paper reviews the concept,development,characteristics and problems faced of syndromic surveillance systems.

  11. A Stakeholder-Based System Dynamics Model of Return-to-Work: A Research Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Pransky, Glenn; Fish, Jon; Jeffries, Susan; Hettinger, Lawrence J

    2015-07-16

    Returning to work following a job-related injury or illness can be a complex process, influenced by a range of interrelated personal, psychosocial, and organizational components. System dynamics modelling (SDM) takes a sociotechnical systems perspective to view return-to-work (RTW) as a system made up of multiple feedback relationships between influential components. To build the RTW SDM, a mixed-method approach will be used. The first stage, that has already been completed, involved creating a baseline model using key informant interviews. Second, in two manufacturing companies, stakeholder-based models will be developed through interviews and focus groups with senior management, frontline workers, and frontline supervisors. Participants will be asked about the RTW process in general and more targeted questions regarding influential components. Participants will also be led through a reference mode exercise where they will be asked to estimate the direction, shape and magnitude of relationships between influential components. Data will be entered into the software program Vensim that provides a platform for visualizing system-structure and simulating the effects of adapting components. Finally, preliminary model validity testing will be conducted to provide insights on model generalizability and sensitivity. The proposed methodology will create a SDM of the RTW process using feedback relationships of influential components. It will also provide an important simulation tool to understand system behaviour that underlies complex RTW cases, and examine anticipated and unanticipated consequences of disability management policies. Significance for public healthWhile the incidence of occupational injuries and illnesses has declined over the past two decades, the proportion resulting in sickness absence has actually increased. Implementing strategies to address sickness absences and promote return-to-work (RTW) can significantly benefit physical and mental health, and

  12. The NEA research and environmental surveillance programme related to sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugger, B.; Templeton, W. L.; Gurbutt, P.

    1983-05-01

    Sea dumping operations of certain types of packaged low and medium level radioactive wastes have been carried out since 1967 in the North-East Atlantic under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. On the occasion of the 1980 review of the continued suitability of the North-East Atlantic site used for the disposal of radioactive waste, it was recommended that an effort should be made to increase the scientific data base relating to the oceanographic and biological characteristics of the dumping area. In particular, it was suggested that a site specific model of the transfer of radionuclides in the marine environment be developed, which would permit a better assessment of the potential radiation doses to man from the dumping of radioactive waste. To fulfill these objectives a research and environmental surveillance program related to sea disposal of radioactive waste was set up in 1981 with the participation of thirteen Member countries and the International Laboratory for Marine Radioactivity of the IAEA in Monaco. The research program is focused on five research areas which are directly relevant to the preparation of more site specific assessments in the future. They are: model development; physical oceanography; geochemistry; biology; and radiological surveillance. Promising results have already been obtained and more are anticipated in the not too distant future. An interim description of the NEA dumping site has been prepared which provides an excellent data base for this area.

  13. A stakeholder-based system dynamics model of return-to-work: a research protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Jetha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Returning to work following a job-related injury or illness can be a complex process, influenced by a range of interrelated personal, psychosocial, and organizational components. System dynamics modelling (SDM takes a sociotechnical systems perspective to view return-to-work (RTW as a system made up of multiple feedback relationships between influential components. Design and Methods. To build the RTW SDM, a mixed-method approach will be used. The first stage, that has already been completed, involved creating a baseline model using key informant interviews. Second, in two manufacturing companies, stakeholder-based models will be developed through interviews and focus groups with senior management, frontline workers, and frontline supervisors. Participants will be asked about the RTW process in general and more targeted questions regarding influential components. Participants will also be led through a reference mode exercise where they will be asked to estimate the direction, shape and magnitude of relationships between influential components. Data will be entered into the software program Vensim that provides a platform for visualizing system-structure and simulating the effects of adapting components. Finally, preliminary model validity testing will be conducted to provide insights on model generalizability and sensitivity. Expected Impact of the study for Public Health. The proposed methodology will create a SDM of the RTW process using feedback relationships of influential components. It will also provide an important simulation tool to understand system behaviour that underlies complex RTW cases, and examine anticipated and unanticipated consequences of disability management policies.

  14. State Trauma Registries as a Resource for Occupational Injury Surveillance and Research: Lessons From Washington State, 1998-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jeanne M; Bowman, Stephen M

    2016-11-01

    Work-related traumatic injury is a leading cause of death and disability among US workers. Occupational injury surveillance is necessary for effective prevention planning and assessing progress toward Healthy People 2020 objectives. Our objectives were to (1) describe the Washington State Trauma Registry (WTR) as a resource for occupational injury surveillance and research, (2) compare the WTR with 2 population-based data sources more widely used for these purposes, and (3) compare the number of injuries ascertained by the WTR with other data sources. We linked WTR records to hospital discharge records in the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System for 2009 and to workers' compensation claims from the Washington State Department of Labor and Industries for 1998 to 2008. We assessed the 3 data sources for overlap, concordance, and case ascertainment. Of 9185 work-related injuries in the WTR, 3380 (37%) did not link to workers' compensation claims. Use of payer information in hospital discharge records along with the WTR work-relatedness field identified 20% more linked injuries as work related (n = 720) than did use of payer information alone (n = 602). The WTR identified substantial numbers of work-related injuries that were not identified through workers' compensation or hospital discharge records. Workers' compensation and hospital discharge databases are important but incomplete data sources for work-related injuries; many work-related injuries are not billed to, reported to, or covered by workers' compensation. Trauma registries are well positioned to capture severe work-related injuries and should be included in comprehensive injury surveillance efforts.

  15. Sentinel surveillance of imported dengue via travellers to Europe 2012 to 2014: TropNet data from the DengueTools Research Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, Andreas; Muñoz, Jose; Schunk, Mirjam; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Cramer, Jakob; Calleri, Guido; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Angheben, Andrea; Zoller, Thomas; Visser, Leo; Serre-Delcor, Núria; Genton, Blaise; Castelli, Francesco; Van Esbroeck, Marjan; Matteelli, Alberto; Rochat, Laurence; Sulleiro, Elena; Kurth, Florian; Gobbi, Federico; Norman, Francesca; Torta, Ilaria; Clerinx, Jan; Poluda, David; Martinez, Miguel; Calvo-Cano, Antonia; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Hatz, Christoph; Franco, Leticia

    2017-01-05

    We describe the epidemiological pattern and genetic characteristics of 242 acute dengue infections imported to Europe by returning travellers from 2012 to 2014. The overall geographical pattern of imported dengue (South-east Asia > Americas > western Pacific region > Africa) remained stable compared with 1999 to 2010. We isolated the majority of dengue virus genotypes and epidemic lineages causing outbreaks and epidemics in Asia, America and Africa during the study period. Travellers acted as sentinels for four unusual dengue outbreaks (Madeira, 2012-13; Luanda, 2013; Dar es Salaam, 2014; Tokyo, 2014). We were able to characterise dengue viruses imported from regions where currently no virological surveillance data are available. Up to 36% of travellers infected with dengue while travelling returned during the acute phase of the infection (up to 7 days after symptom onset) or became symptomatic after returning to Europe, and 58% of the patients with acute dengue infection were viraemic when seeking medical care. Epidemiological and virological data from dengue-infected international travellers can add an important layer to global surveillance efforts. A considerable number of dengue-infected travellers are viraemic after arrival back home, which poses a risk for dengue introduction and autochthonous transmission in European regions where suitable mosquito vectors are prevalent. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  16. Duty to disclose what? Querying the putative obligation to return research results to participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F A; Christensen, R; Giacomini, M; Robert, J S

    2008-03-01

    Many research ethics guidelines now oblige researchers to offer research participants the results of research in which they participated. This practice is intended to uphold respect for persons and ensure that participants are not treated as mere means to an end. Yet some scholars have begun to question a generalised duty to disclose research results, highlighting the potential harms arising from disclosure and questioning the ethical justification for a duty to disclose, especially with respect to individual results. In support of this view, we argue that current rationales for a duty of disclosure do not form an adequate basis for an ethical imperative. We review policy guidance and scholarly commentary regarding the duty to communicate the results of biomedical, epidemiological and genetic research to research participants and show that there is wide variation in opinion regarding what should be disclosed and under what circumstance. Moreover, we argue that there is fundamental confusion about the notion of "research results," specifically regarding three core concepts: the distinction between aggregate and individual results, amongst different types of research, and across different degrees of result veracity. Even where policy guidance and scholarly commentary have been most forceful in support of an ethical imperative to disclose research results, ambiguity regarding what is to be disclosed confounds ethical action.

  17. The use of surveillance data and market research to promote physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridinger, Fred; Macera, Carol; Cordell, H Ken

    2002-08-01

    Using various types of data sources for assessing and monitoring physical activity behaviors on a population level adds to our ability to explain the relationships between individuals and their surrounding social and physical environments. This article presents the findings from part of a panel presentation on available data sets at the 2001 Cooper Conference on Innovative Approaches to Understanding and Influencing Physical Activity. First, an overview of large national epidemiologic and surveillance data sets is offered, followed by a discussion on the use of market segmentation data to complement more traditional sources of data by adding new dimensions to our understanding of target groups and potential intervention strategies. The relative advantages and disadvantages of using each type of data are also given, as well as recommendations for further use.

  18. Serology in Finfish for Diagnosis, Surveillance, and Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Diana; Peeler, Edmund J; Laurin, Emilie; Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J

    2017-03-01

    Historically, serological tests for finfish diseases have been underused when compared with their use in terrestrial animal health. For years the nonspecific immune response in fish was judged to make serology unreliable and inferior to the direct measurement of agent analytes. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications that reported on the development, validation, or application of serological tests for finfish diseases. A total of 168 articles met the screening criteria; most of them were focused on salmonid pathogens (e.g., Aeromonas spp. and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus). Before the 1980s, most publications reported the use of agglutination tests, but our review indicates that enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has more recently become the dominant serological test. The main application of serological tests has been in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, with few applications for surveillance or demonstration of freedom from disease, despite the advantages of serological tests over direct detection at the population level. Nonlethal sampling, low cost, and postinfection persistence of antibodies make serological assays the test of choice in surveillance, especially of valuable broodstock. However, their adoption has been constrained by poor characterization and validation. The number of publications in our review reporting diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of serological tests in finfish was small (n = 7). Foreseeing a wider use of serological tests in the future for diagnostic end purposes, we offer recommendations for mitigating deficiencies in the development and evaluation of serological tests, including optimization, control of nonspecific reactions, informed cutoff points, diagnostic accuracy, and serological baseline studies. Achieving these goals will facilitate greater international recognition of serological testing in programs supporting aquatic animal health. Received March 21, 2016; accepted September 24, 2016.

  19. Return of the "intimate outsider": current trends and issues in family nursing research revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-11-01

    This article reviews family nursing research published from 1996 to 2011. This is a follow-up to a review published in the Journal of Family Nursing in 1995. Findings from the first review are compared with this one, trends in family nursing scholarship are identified, and predictions and suggestions for future directions are offered. The latest generation of family nursing scholarship is conceptually and methodologically sound, and there is evidence of more multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research conducted by family nursing researchers. Scholars are paying more attention to issues of diversity and family context at present than in the past, although there are still aspects of diversity that need more attention. Strong research programs in family nursing exist worldwide; an international synergism has helped promote rapid expansion of family nursing research and theory development. A vigorous movement to promote research to practice initiatives and greater attention to family interventions are exciting developments.

  20. Return of the Google Game: More Fun Ideas to Transform Students into Skilled Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Katrine

    2008-01-01

    Teens are impatient and unsophisticated online researchers who are often limited by their poor reading skills. Because they are attracted to clean and simple Web interfaces, they often turn to Google--and now Wikipedia--to help meet their research needs. The Google Game, co-authored by this author, teaches kids that there is a well-thought-out…

  1. State synergies and disease surveillance: creating an electronic health data communication model for cancer reporting and comparative effectiveness research in kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Christopher; Powell, Mallory; Edwards, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes the collaboration between a state public health department, a major research university, and a health extension service funded as part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act to establish an interoperable health information system for disease surveillance through electronic reporting of systemic therapy data from numerous oncology practices in Kentucky. The experience of the Kentucky cancer surveillance system can help local and state entities achieve greater effectiveness in designing communication efforts to increase usage of electronic health records (EHRs) and health information exchanges (HIEs), help eligible clinicians meet these new standards in patient care, and conduct disease surveillance in a learning health system. We document and assess the statewide efforts of early health information technology (HIT) adopters in Kentucky to facilitate the nation's first electronic transmission of a clinical document architecture (CDA) from a physician office to a state cancer surveillance registry in November 2012. Successful transmission of the CDA not only represented a landmark for technology innovators, informaticists, and clinicians, but it also set in motion a new communication mechanism by which state and federal agencies can capture and trade vital cancer statistics in a way that is safe, secure, and timely. The corresponding impact this has on cancer surveillance and comparative effective research is immense. With guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR), the Kentucky Health Information Exchange (KHIE), and the Kentucky Regional Extension Center (KREC) have moved one step further in transforming the interoperable health environment for improved disease surveillance. This case study describes the efforts of established and reputable agencies, including the KCR, the state department of health, state and federal governmental

  2. Conjoined Twins: A Worldwide Collaborative Epidemiological Study of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; LUNA-MUÑOZ, LEONORA; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; DUTRA, MARIA DA GRAÇA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MÉTNEKI, JULIA; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMAN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; ARTEAGA-VÁZQUEZ, JAZMÍN

    2015-01-01

    Conjoined twins (CT) are a very rare developmental accident of uncertain etiology. Prevalence has been previously estimated to be 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 100,000 births. The process by which monozygotic twins do not fully separate but form CT is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to analyze diverse epidemiological aspects of CT, including the different variables listed in the Introduction Section of this issue of the Journal. The study was made possible using the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR) structure. This multicenter worldwide research includes the largest sample of CT ever studied. A total of 383 carefully reviewed sets of CT obtained from 26,138,837 births reported by 21 Clearinghouse Surveillance Programs (SP) were included in the analysis. Total prevalence was 1.47 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.32–1.62). Salient findings including an evident variation in prevalence among SPs: a marked variation in the type of pregnancy outcome, a similarity in the proportion of CT types among programs: a significant female predominance in CT: particularly of the thoracopagus type and a significant male predominance in parapagus and parasitic types: significant differences in prevalence by ethnicity and an apparent increasing prevalence trend in South American countries. No genetic, environmental or demographic significant associated factors were identified. Further work in epidemiology and molecular research is necessary to understand the etiology and pathogenesis involved in the development of this fascinating phenomenon of nature. PMID:22002822

  3. Changing perspectives in biobank research: from individual rights to concerns about public health regarding the return of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Joanna Stjernschantz; Hansson, Mats G; Eriksson, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    During the past decade, various guidelines that imply a duty for researchers to disclose information obtained through research to participants have emerged. The character and extent of this obligation have been debated extensively, with much attention devoted to the decisiveness of the validity and utility of the results in question. The aim of this paper is to argue that individual results from research on materials stored in large-scale biobanks, consisting of samples taken within the healthcare system or of altruistically donated materials, should not be returned. We will defend the thesis that medical research on these biobanks should be viewed as a collective project to improve public health, and that available resources should be utilized to pursue this goal. We argue that there is a need for a change of perspectives. Medical research should not primarily be viewed as a danger that individuals must be protected from, but rather be recognized as constituting a necessary defense against current and future diseases. Research that bears the prospect of advancing medicine and that can be carried out at no risk to individuals should be endorsed and facilitated. This calls for a shift of focus from autonomy and individual rights toward collective responsibility and solidarity.

  4. Communicable diseases prioritized for surveillance and epidemiological research: results of a standardized prioritization procedure in Germany, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Balabanova

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To establish strategic priorities for the German national public health institute (RKI and guide the institute's mid-term strategic decisions, we prioritized infectious pathogens in accordance with their importance for national surveillance and epidemiological research. METHODS: We used the Delphi process with internal (RKI and external experts and a metric-consensus approach to score pathogens according to ten three-tiered criteria. Additional experts were invited to weight each criterion, leading to the calculation of a median weight by which each score was multiplied. We ranked the pathogens according to the total weighted score and divided them into four priority groups. RESULTS: 127 pathogens were scored. Eighty-six experts participated in the weighting; "Case fatality rate" was rated as the most important criterion. Twenty-six pathogens were ranked in the highest priority group; among those were pathogens with internationally recognised importance (e.g., Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Influenza virus, Hepatitis C virus, Neisseria meningitides, pathogens frequently causing large outbreaks (e.g., Campylobacter spp., and nosocomial pathogens associated with antimicrobial resistance. Other pathogens in the highest priority group included Helicobacter pylori, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Varicella zoster virus and Hantavirus. DISCUSSION: While several pathogens from the highest priority group already have a high profile in national and international health policy documents, high scores for other pathogens (e.g., Helicobacter pylori, Respiratory syncytial virus or Hantavirus indicate a possible under-recognised importance within the current German public health framework. A process to strengthen respective surveillance systems and research has been started. The prioritization methodology has worked well; its modular structure makes it potentially useful for other settings.

  5. Resurgent Insurgents: Quantitative Research Into Jihadists Who Get Suspended but Return on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Wright

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jihadists are very active on Twitter but their accounts frequently get suspended. A substantial debate over the effectiveness of suspension has arisen; an important factor is that Jihadists quickly create new accounts, resurging back like a game of whack-a-mole. This causes biases for terrorism and intelligence analysts. Whilst widely acknowledged, little research addresses the problem. In this study we identify resurging Jihadist accounts with novel methods, and provide detailed analysis going beyond previous case-studies. We show that suspension is less disruptive to terrorists than previously thought, whilst the bias and disruption caused to terrorism research has been underestimated.

  6. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-05

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  7. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  8. Tackling malnutrition: a systematic review of 15-year research evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Samuelina S; Nyide, Bongiwe; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Kahn, Kathleen; Weston, Mark; Sankoh, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) of health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs) over a 15-year period on malnutrition, its determinants, the effects of under and over nutrition, and intervention research on malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Relevant publication titles were uploaded onto the Zotero research tool from different databases (60% from PubMed). Using the keywords 'nutrition', 'malnutrition', 'over and under nutrition', we selected publications that were based only on data generated through the longitudinal HDSS platform. All titles and abstracts were screened to determine inclusion eligibility and full articles were independently assessed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. For inclusion in this study, papers had to cover research on at least one of the following topics: the problem of malnutrition, its determinants, its effects, and intervention research on malnutrition. One hundred and forty eight papers were identified and reviewed, and 67 were selected for this study. The INDEPTH research identified rising levels of overweight and obesity, sometimes in the same settings as under-nutrition. Urbanisation appears to be protective against under-nutrition, but it heightens the risk of obesity. Appropriately timed breastfeeding interventions were protective against malnutrition. Although INDEPTH has expanded the global knowledge base on nutrition, many questions remain unresolved. There is a need for more investment in nutrition research in LMICs in order to generate evidence to inform policies in these settings.

  9. Tackling malnutrition: a systematic review of 15-year research evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuelina S. Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Objective: To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH of health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs over a 15-year period on malnutrition, its determinants, the effects of under and over nutrition, and intervention research on malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods: Relevant publication titles were uploaded onto the Zotero research tool from different databases (60% from PubMed. Using the keywords ‘nutrition’, ‘malnutrition’, ‘over and under nutrition’, we selected publications that were based only on data generated through the longitudinal HDSS platform. All titles and abstracts were screened to determine inclusion eligibility and full articles were independently assessed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. For inclusion in this study, papers had to cover research on at least one of the following topics: the problem of malnutrition, its determinants, its effects, and intervention research on malnutrition. One hundred and forty eight papers were identified and reviewed, and 67 were selected for this study. Results: The INDEPTH research identified rising levels of overweight and obesity, sometimes in the same settings as under-nutrition. Urbanisation appears to be protective against under-nutrition, but it heightens the risk of obesity. Appropriately timed breastfeeding interventions were protective against malnutrition. Conclusions: Although INDEPTH has expanded the global knowledge base on nutrition, many questions remain unresolved. There is a need for more investment in nutrition research

  10. Substantial health and economic returns from delayed aging may warrant a new focus for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana P; Cutler, David; Rowe, John W; Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Sullivan, Jeffrey; Peneva, Desi; Olshansky, S Jay

    2013-10-01

    Recent scientific advances suggest that slowing the aging process (senescence) is now a realistic goal. Yet most medical research remains focused on combating individual diseases. Using the Future Elderly Model--a microsimulation of the future health and spending of older Americans--we compared optimistic "disease specific" scenarios with a hypothetical "delayed aging" scenario in terms of the scenarios' impact on longevity, disability, and major entitlement program costs. Delayed aging could increase life expectancy by an additional 2.2 years, most of which would be spent in good health. The economic value of delayed aging is estimated to be $7.1 trillion over fifty years. In contrast, addressing heart disease and cancer separately would yield diminishing improvements in health and longevity by 2060--mainly due to competing risks. Delayed aging would greatly increase entitlement outlays, especially for Social Security. However, these changes could be offset by increasing the Medicare eligibility age and the normal retirement age for Social Security. Overall, greater investment in research to delay aging appears to be a highly efficient way to forestall disease, extend healthy life, and improve public health.

  11. Characterization of Adolescent Prescription Drug Abuse and Misuse Using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R]) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…

  12. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  13. Typical Survey and Research on Returning-home Migrant Workers’ Entrepreneurship in Jiangxi Province under Post-financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the entrepreneurship situation of Jiangxi return migrant workers after the financial crisis,we have conducted a survey on 107 entrepreneurial return migrant workers in 6 counties of Jiangxi Province.The results show that the return of migrant workers is mainly attributed to personal factors,while social factors are also very important.The major difficulties facing return migrant workers are the funding difficulties,complicated formalities to start a business,difficulty in safeguarding their rights and interests,their own low quality and so on.The support needed by the return migrant workers from the government is manifested in five aspects,say,to improve the service and management for the entrepreneurship of migrant workers,to provide financing policy support,to increase the preferential fiscal and taxation policies,to enhance the entrepreneurship training and to provide preference for the return migrant workers to use land.

  14. New Method for Real Time Influenza Surveillance in Primary Care: A Wisconsin Research and Education Network (WREN) Supported Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temte, Jonathan L; Barlow, Shari; Schemmel, Amber; Temte, Emily; Hahn, David L; Reisdorf, Erik; Shult, Peter; Tamerius, John

    2017-01-01

    The goal of public health infectious disease surveillance systems is to provide accurate laboratory results in near-real time. When it comes to influenza surveillance, most current systems are encumbered with inherent delays encountered in the real-life chaos of medical practice. To combat this, we implemented and tested near-real-time surveillance using a rapid influenza detection test (RIDT) coupled with immediate, wireless transmission of results to public health entities. A network of 19 primary care clinics across Wisconsin were recruited, including 4 sites already involved in ongoing influenza surveillance and 15 sites that were new to surveillance activities. Each site was provided with a Quidel Sofia Influenza A+B RIDT analyzer attached to a wireless router. Influenza test results, along with patient age, were transmitted immediately to a cloud-based server, automatically compiled, and forwarded to the surveillance team daily. Weekly counts of positive influenza A and B cases were compared with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detections from an independent surveillance system within the state. Following Institutional Review Board (IRB) and institutional approvals, we recruited 19 surveillance sites, installed equipment, and trained staff within 4 months. Of the 1119 cases tested between September 15, 2013 and June 28, 2014, 316 were positive for influenza. The system provided early detection of the influenza outbreak in Wisconsin. The influenza peak between January 12 and 25, 2014, as well as the epidemic curve, closely matched that derived from the established PCR laboratory network (r = 0.927; P surveillance. Results from the initial year strongly support this approach to highly accurate and timely influenza surveillance. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  15. Integrating surveillance data on water-related diseases and drinking-water quality; action-research in a Brazilian municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Ana Carolina Lanza; Cardoso, Laís Santos de Magalhães; Heller, Léo; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health proposed a research study involving municipal professional staff conducting both epidemiological and water quality surveillance to facilitate the integration of the data which they collected. It aimed to improve the intersectoral collaboration and health promotion activities in the municipalities, especially regarding drinking-water quality. We then conducted a study using the action-research approach. At its evaluation phase, a technique which we called 'the tree analogy' was applied in order to identify both possibilities and challenges related to the proposed interlinkage. Results showed that integrating the two data collection systems cannot be attained without prior institutional adjustments. It suggests therefore the necessity to unravel issues that go beyond the selection and the interrelation of indicators and compatibility of software, to include political, administrative and personal matters. The evaluation process led those involved to re-think their practice by sharing experiences encountered in everyday practice, and formulating constructive criticisms. All this inevitably unleashes a process of empowerment. From this perspective, we have certainly gathered some fruit from the Tree, but not necessarily the most visible.

  16. Bibliometric analysis of Oropouche research: impact on the surveillance of emerging arboviruses in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culquichicón, Carlos; Cardona-Ospina, Jaime A.; Patiño-Barbosa, Andrés M.; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J.

    2017-01-01

    Given the emergence and reemergence of viral diseases, particularly in Latin America, we would like to provide an analysis of the patterns of research and publication on Oropouche virus (OROV). We also discuss the implications of recent epidemics in certain areas of South America, and how more clinical and epidemiological information regarding OROV is urgently needed. PMID:28357048

  17. Are School Absences Correlated with Influenza Surveillance Data in England? Results from Decipher My Data-A Research Project Conducted through Scientific Engagement with Schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Aldridge

    Full Text Available School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza.We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13. The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP influenza like illness (ILI episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus.27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5-14 year olds, laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus.This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies in the future.

  18. Estimating the returns to UK publicly funded cancer-related research in terms of the net value of improved health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Building on an approach developed to assess the economic returns to cardiovascular research, we estimated the economic returns from UK public and charitable funded cancer-related research that arise from the net value of the improved health outcomes. Methods To assess these economic returns from cancer-related research in the UK we estimated: 1) public and charitable expenditure on cancer-related research in the UK from 1970 to 2009; 2) net monetary benefit (NMB), that is, the health benefit measured in quality adjusted life years (QALYs) valued in monetary terms (using a base-case value of a QALY of GB£25,000) minus the cost of delivering that benefit, for a prioritised list of interventions from 1991 to 2010; 3) the proportion of NMB attributable to UK research; 4) the elapsed time between research funding and health gain; and 5) the internal rate of return (IRR) from cancer-related research investments on health benefits. We analysed the uncertainties in the IRR estimate using sensitivity analyses to illustrate the effect of some key parameters. Results In 2011/12 prices, total expenditure on cancer-related research from 1970 to 2009 was £15 billion. The NMB of the 5.9 million QALYs gained from the prioritised interventions from 1991 to 2010 was £124 billion. Calculation of the IRR incorporated an estimated elapsed time of 15 years. We related 17% of the annual NMB estimated to be attributable to UK research (for each of the 20 years 1991 to 2010) to 20 years of research investment 15 years earlier (that is, for 1976 to 1995). This produced a best-estimate IRR of 10%, compared with 9% previously estimated for cardiovascular disease research. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated the importance of smoking reduction as a major source of improved cancer-related health outcomes. Conclusions We have demonstrated a substantive IRR from net health gain to public and charitable funding of cancer-related research in the UK, and further validated the

  19. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries.

  20. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Brazil: what research is needed based on trends, surveillance, and control experiences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Maria da Glória

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue epidemics account annually for several million cases and deaths worldwide. The high endemic level of dengue fever and its hemorrhagic form correlates to extensive domiciliary infestation by Aedes aegypti and multiple viral serotype human infection. This study analyzed serial case reports registered in Brazil since 1981, describing incidence evolutionary patterns and spatial distribution. Epidemic waves followed the introduction of every serotype (DEN 1 to 3, and reduction in susceptible individuals possibly accounted for decreasing case frequency. An incremental expansion of affected areas and increasing occurrence of dengue fever and its hemorrhagic form with high case fatality were noted in recent years. In contrast, efforts based solely on chemical vector control have been insufficient. Moreover, some evidence demonstrates that educational measures do not permanently modify population habits. Thus, as long as a vaccine is not available, further dengue control depends on potential results from basic interdisciplinary research and intervention evaluation studies, integrating environmental changes, community participation and education, epidemiological and virological surveillance, and strategic technological innovations aimed to stop transmission.

  1. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever epidemics in Brazil: what research is needed based on trends, surveillance, and control experiences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Glória Teixeira

    Full Text Available Dengue epidemics account annually for several million cases and deaths worldwide. The high endemic level of dengue fever and its hemorrhagic form correlates to extensive domiciliary infestation by Aedes aegypti and multiple viral serotype human infection. This study analyzed serial case reports registered in Brazil since 1981, describing incidence evolutionary patterns and spatial distribution. Epidemic waves followed the introduction of every serotype (DEN 1 to 3, and reduction in susceptible individuals possibly accounted for decreasing case frequency. An incremental expansion of affected areas and increasing occurrence of dengue fever and its hemorrhagic form with high case fatality were noted in recent years. In contrast, efforts based solely on chemical vector control have been insufficient. Moreover, some evidence demonstrates that educational measures do not permanently modify population habits. Thus, as long as a vaccine is not available, further dengue control depends on potential results from basic interdisciplinary research and intervention evaluation studies, integrating environmental changes, community participation and education, epidemiological and virological surveillance, and strategic technological innovations aimed to stop transmission.

  2. Research on the factors of return on equity: empirical analysis in Chinese port industries from 2000-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Port industries are the basic industries in the national economy. The industries have become the most modernized departments in every country. The development of the port industry is not only advantageous to promote the optimizing arrangement of social resources, but also to promote the growth of foreign trade volume through enhancing the transportation functions. Return on equity (ROE) is a direct indicator related to the maximization of company's wealth. It makes up the shortcomings of earnings per share (EPS). The aim of this paper is to prove the correlation between ROE and other financial indicators by choosing the listed port companies as the research objectives and selecting the data of these companies from 2000 to 2008 as empirical sample data with statistical analysis of the chartered figure and coefficient. The detailed analysis method used in the paper is the combination of trend analysis, comparative analysis and the ratio of the factor analysis method. This paper analyzes and compares all these factors and draws the conclusions as follows: Firstly, ROE has a positive correlation with total assets turnover, main profit margin and fixed asset ratio, while has a negative correlation with assets liabilities ratio, total assets growth rate and DOL. Secondly, main profit margin has the greatest positive effect on ROE among all these factors. The second greatest factor is total assets turnover, which shows the operation capacity is also an important indicator after the profitability. Thirdly, assets liabilities ratio has the greatest negative effect on ROE among all these factors.

  3. Experimental Research on Microscopic Indicators of Temperature's Returning-to-Zero in Deformation of Calcite and Discussions of Correlation Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Daquan; Zhai Hongtao

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the degree of returning-to-zero of temperatures of deformed calcite, a series of rock-breaking experiments were designed to test calcite-rich limestone samples under fixed confining pressures and different temperatures. The consolidated deformed samples in their initial state were observed under a microscope and the microscopic indicators in different zero-returning states were put forward, thus providing a microscopic foundation for evaluation of reliability of dating values of deformation in calcite. At last, the correction of dating values of deformation for samples whose temperature has not yet returned to zero is discussed.

  4. Improving public health training and research capacity in Africa: a replicable model for linking training to health and socio-demographic surveillance data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R. Williams

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research training for public health professionals is key to the future of public health and policy in Africa. A growing number of schools of public health are connected to health and socio-demographic surveillance system field sites in developing countries, in Africa and Asia in particular. Linking training programs with these sites provides important opportunities to improve training, build local research capacity, foreground local health priorities, and increase the relevance of research to local health policy. Objective: To increase research training capacity in public health programs by providing targeted training to students and increasing the accessibility of existing data. Design: This report is a case study of an approach to linking public health research and training at the University of the Witwatersrand. We discuss the development of a sample training database from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System in South Africa and outline a concordant transnational intensive short course on longitudinal data analysis offered by the University of the Witwatersrand and the University of Colorado-Boulder. This case study highlights ways common barriers to linking research and training can be overcome. Results and Conclusions: This collaborative effort demonstrates that linking training to ongoing data collection can improve student research, accelerate student training, and connect students to an international network of scholars. Importantly, the approach can be adapted to other partnerships between schools of public health and longitudinal research sites.

  5. Research on Supplying Mechanisms of Rural Economic Able-person in Construction of New Countryside——Based on the Phenomenon of Intelligence Returning in Under-developed Agricultural Plain Area of Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From a perspective of the discussions on researches of economic able-person by researchers at home,it can be concluded that economic able-person has become the important mode promoting rural development.The research makes a discussion on the rural intelligence returning theory and points out that as a marketing action,rural intelligence returning functions directly and effectively on the supplying to rural economic able-person.The research also makes an analysis of the supplying mechanisms of rural able-person intelligence returning of the under-developed agricultural plain in Henan province.And results show that transferring of rural surplus labors takes place among provinces;farmers accelerate in returning to hometowns to make money and returning phenomena would tend to be normal.With more and more popular the intelligence returning phenomenon in rural areas,the under-developed agricultural plain in Henan province would make enough profits.

  6. 直供方式下牵引变电所轨地回流研究%Research on Return Current to Traction Substation of TRNF Traction Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良威; 楚振宇; 邓云川

    2012-01-01

    Research purposes; The real tests and simulation analysis were made for the return current to the traction substation of TRNF traction network for passenger dedicated line to know the regulation of the traction return current to the traction substation of the TRNF traction network for guiding the design work. Research conclusions:This paper analyzes the principle of the traction return system of TRNF traction network. From the simulation calculation and analysis of the tested data of the return current to the Chongshan substation of the TRNF traction network with return wire for the Chengdu - Dujiangyan Passenger Dedicated Line, it can be seen using the TRNF traction network with return wire can significantly improve the distribution form of the return current system, reduce the proportion of the return current of the rail - earth and cut the impacts on the traction power supply equipment and communications signals equipments. Thus it can provide the design basis for selection of the equipments for the substation and communications signaling systems.%研究目的:通过对客运专线采用的带回流线的直供方式下牵引变电所轨地回流的实测和仿真分析,对牵引变电所处牵引回流规律获得认识,有利于指导设计工作.研究结论:本文分析了直供方式下牵引回流系统的原理,针对新建客运专线成都至都江堰铁路采用的带回流线的直供方式,通过对崇山变电所轨地回流系统的仿真计算和实测数据分析,得出采用带回流线的直供方式,可以明显改善回流系统的分配方式,减少轨地回流所占的比例,降低对牵引供电设备和通信信号设备的影响,并由此可以为牵引供变电和信号系统的设备选型提供设计依据.

  7. Returning home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jytte; Brøgger, Ditte

    2016-01-01

    flows. By focusing on these educational migrants, this paper explores how they connect to their rural homes. Guided by a critical reading of the migration-development scholarship, the paper examines how migrants and their relatives make sense of educational migrants’ remitting and returning practices...... and partake in important social remittance practices that represent a vision for impacting local development...

  8. How Valid Are the Rates of Down Syndrome Internationally? Findings from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Cocchi, Guido; Anneren, Goran; Bower, Carol; Halliday, Jane; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Canessa Tapia, Maria Aurora; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Dastgiri, Saeed; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Gatt, Miriam; Hirahara, Fumiki; Landau, Danielle; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa; McDonnell, Robert; Mathew, Triphti M.; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Pierini, Anna; Poetzsch, Simone; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Sipek, Antonin; Szabova, Elena; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wertelecki, Wladimir; Zhuchenko, Ludmila; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2010-01-01

    Rates of Down syndrome (DS) show considerable international variation, but a systematic assessment of this variation is lacking. The goal of this study was to develop and test a method to assess the validity of DS rates in surveillance programs, as an indicator of quality of ascertainment. The propo

  9. Global coordination for swine influenza virus surveillance and research: what are we missing from the big picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Surveillance for influenza A viruses (IAV) circulating in pigs and other non-human mammals has been chronically underfunded and virtually nonexistent in many areas of the world. This deficit continues in spite of our knowledge that influenza is a disease shared between man and pig fro...

  10. Surveillance of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  11. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  12. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  13. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  14. Preferences Regarding Return of Genomic Results to Relatives of Research Participants, Including after Participant Death: Empirical Results from a Cancer Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Petersen, Gloria M; Wolf, Susan M; Chaffee, Kari G; Robinson, Marguerite E; Gordon, Deborah R; Lindor, Noralane M; Koenig, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Data are lacking with regard to participants' perspectives on return of genetic research results to relatives, including after the participant's death. This paper reports descriptive results from 3,630 survey respondents: 464 participants in a pancreatic cancer biobank, 1,439 family registry participants, and 1,727 healthy individuals. Our findings indicate that most participants would feel obligated to share their results with blood relatives while alive and would want results to be shared with relatives after their death.

  15. Finland and the mobile phone industry: a case study of the return on investment from government-funded research and development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walwyn, D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available crisis sparked by overspending, uncontrolled deregulation of the financial sector, the collapse of lucrative trade deals with the Soviet Union, and a heavy reliance on forestry and forestry-related industries, the country adopted a pro- gramme... Technovation 27 (2007) Finland and the mobile phone industry investment from government-funde David CSIR, P.O. Box 395, Pretori –341 : A case study of the return on d research and development n a 0001, South Africa www...

  16. Operational vector-borne disease surveillance and control: closing the capabilities gap through research at overseas military laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian P; Clark, Jeffrey W; Barbara, Kathryn A; Mundal, Kirk D; Furman, Barry D; McAvin, James C; Richardson, Jason H

    2009-01-01

    Malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, leishmaniasis, and a myriad of other vector-borne diseases pose significant threats to the warfighter and to the overall combat effectiveness of units. Military preventive medicine (PM) assets must accurately evaluate the vector-borne disease threat and then implement and/or advise the commander on countermeasures to reduce a particular threat. The success of these measures is contingent upon the biology of the disease vector and on the tools or methods used to conduct vector/pathogen surveillance and vector control. There is a significant gap between the tools available and those required for operational PM assets to provide real-time, effective surveillance and control. A network of US Army and US Navy overseas laboratories is focused on closing the current capabilities gap. Their mission is to develop and field test tools and methods to enhance the combatant commander's ability to identify and mitigate the threat posed by these vector-borne diseases.

  17. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  18. The 'successful' return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2012-01-01

    Research on female migrant caregivers has tended to focus upon the emotional and social problems they encounter working abroad, given women’s traditional role as caregivers for their own families. This article analyses how Caribbean women who have returned after a period abroad as domestic workers...

  19. Methodology implementation in order to evaluate the biological risks in the Centre for Research and Rehabilitation of Hereditary Ataxias of Cuba: a biosecurity surveillance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dailín Cobos Valdes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Center for Research and Rehabilitation of Hereditary Ataxias faces biological risks. Nevertheless a Biosafety system was not yet implemented. Objective: To apply the methodology in order to evaluate these risks Materials and Methods: Interview with the researchers of the center and the use of the methodology for evaluating biological risks designed for Cobos, 2009. Results: Fifty-three biological risks were identified and evaluated, 32 as moderated, 18 as tolerable and 3 as trivial. Such classification are crucial to establish its management priorities and represent a way of surveillance in Biosafety field. Conclusion: The results of this research represent an essential factor for the Biosafety documentation development adapted to the Center and according to the legal basis in terms of biological safety in Cuba.

  20. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  1. Systematic Review of Cerebral Palsy Registries/Surveillance Groups: Relationships between Registry Characteristics and Knowledge Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Donna S; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J; Pavone, Larissa; Mutlu, Akmer; Dewald, Julius PA; Msall, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to provide a comprehensive summary of the body of research disseminated by Cerebral Palsy (CP) registries and surveillance programs from January 2009 through May 2014 in order to describe the influence their results have on our overall understanding of CP. Secondly, registries/surveillance programs and the work they produced were evaluated and grouped using standardized definitions and classification systems. Method A systematic review search in PubMed, CINAH and Embase for original articles published from 1 January 2009 to 20 May 2014 originating from or supported by population based CP registries and surveillance programs or population based national registries including CP were included. Articles were grouped by 2009 World CP Registry Congress aim, registry/surveillance program classification, geographical region, and the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) domain. Registry variables were assessed using the ICF-CY classification. Results Literature searches returned 177 articles meeting inclusion criteria. The majority (69%) of registry/surveillance program productivity was related to contributions as a Resource for CP Research. Prevention (23%) and Surveillance (22%) articles were other areas of achievement, but fewer articles were published in the areas of Planning (17%) and Raising the Profile of CP (2%). There was a range of registry/surveillance program classifications contributing to this productivity, and representation from multiple areas of the globe, although most of the articles originated in Europe, Australia, and Canada. The domains of the ICF that were primarily covered included body structures and function at the early stages of life. Encouragingly, a variety of CP registry/surveillance program initiatives included additional ICF domains of participation and environmental and personal factors. Interpretation CP registries and surveillance programs, including novel non-traditional ones

  2. Evaluation of the international standardized 24-h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet) for potential application in research and surveillance within African settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglago, Elom Kouassivi; Landais, Edwige; Nicolas, Geneviève; Margetts, Barrie; Leclercq, Catherine; Allemand, Pauline; Aderibigbe, Olaide; Agueh, Victoire Damienne; Amuna, Paul; Annor, George Amponsah; El Ati, Jalila; Coates, Jennifer; Colaiezzi, Brooke; Compaore, Ella; Delisle, Hélène; Faber, Mieke; Fungo, Robert; Gouado, Inocent; El Hamdouchi, Asmaa; Hounkpatin, Waliou Amoussa; Konan, Amoin Georgette; Labzizi, Saloua; Ledo, James; Mahachi, Carol; Maruapula, Segametsi Ditshebo; Mathe, Nonsikelelo; Mbabazi, Muniirah; Mirembe, Mandy Wilja; Mizéhoun-Adissoda, Carmelle; Nzi, Clement Diby; Pisa, Pedro Terrence; El Rhazi, Karima; Zotor, Francis; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-06-19

    Collection of reliable and comparable individual food consumption data is of primary importance to better understand, control and monitor malnutrition and its related comorbidities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including in Africa. The lack of standardised dietary tools and their related research support infrastructure remains a major obstacle to implement concerted and region-specific research and action plans worldwide. Citing the magnitude and importance of this challenge, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO) launched the "Global Nutrition Surveillance initiative" to pilot test the use of a standardized 24-h dietary recall research tool (GloboDiet), validated in Europe, in other regions. In this regard, the development of the GloboDiet-Africa can be optimised by better understanding of the local specific methodological needs, barriers and opportunities. The study aimed to evaluate the standardized 24-h dietary recall research tool (GloboDiet) as a possible common methodology for research and surveillance across Africa. A consultative panel of African and international experts in dietary assessment participated in six e-workshop sessions. They completed an in-depth e-questionnaire to evaluate the GloboDiet dietary methodology before and after participating in the e-workshop. The 29 experts expressed their satisfaction on the potential of the software to address local specific needs when evaluating the main structure of the software, the stepwise approach for data collection and standardisation concept. Nevertheless, additional information to better describe local foods and recipes, as well as particular culinary patterns (e.g. mortar pounding), were proposed. Furthermore, food quantification in shared-plates and -bowls eating situations and interviewing of populations with low literacy skills, especially in rural settings, were acknowledged as requiring further specific considerations and appropriate solutions. An overall

  3. [How to understand and facilitate return to school of high school students treated for cancer: analysis of a sociology research-action project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Zoé

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociology research-action project, this article analyses the specific issue of return to school of high school students with cancer. Three detailed cases, illustrating the global results of the study, are presented to highlight the academic trajectories of these students. This situation has a particular impact on juvenile sociability. Moreover, the education of these students does not comply with French educational standards and is very complex for professionals. Finally, social inequalities in education are reinforced by the experience of serious illness, as pedagogical negotiations are even more complex due to the fact that families are not familiar with school practices.

  4. ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    ESA astronaut (and former physicist at CERN) Christer Fuglesang returning a symbolic neutralino particle to CERN Director for research Sergio Bertolucci. Fuglesang flew the neutralino to the International Space Station on the occasion of his STS128 mission in 2009.

  5. Bladder Exstrophy: An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIFFEL, CSABA; CORREA, ADOLFO; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; CSÁKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; OLNEY, RICHARD S.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We used data from 22 participating member programs of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). All cases were reviewed and classified as isolated, syndrome, and multiple congenital anomalies. We estimated the total prevalence of BE and calculated the frequency and odds ratios for various maternal and case characteristics. A total of 546 cases with BE were identified among 26,355,094 births. The total prevalence of BE was 2.07 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.90–2.25) and varied between 0.52 and 4.63 among surveillance programs participating in the study. BE was nearly twice as common among male as among female cases. The proportion of isolated cases was 71%. Prevalence appeared to increase with increasing categories of maternal age, particularly among isolated cases. The total prevalence of BE showed some variations by geographical region, which is most likely attributable to differences in registration of cases. The higher total prevalence among male cases and older mothers, especially among isolated cases, warrants further attention. PMID:22002949

  6. Surveillance of the bioterrorist threat: a primary care response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, D M; Barley, M A; Chapman, R S

    2004-03-01

    Threats from bioterrorism are of national and international concern. We outline a system of disease surveillance covering a selection of diseases linked to potential bioterrorist threats, based on the weekly returns service of the Royal College of General Practitioners and covering a surveillance population of 650,000 in England and Wales. Practices record working diagnoses and the episode type (distinguishing new episodes of illness from ongoing consultations) on patients' computerised medical records. These are interrogated twice weekly by using automated routines. The registered population and persons consulting for each Read code (group of codes) are counted in sex and age specific groups and the data forwarded electronically to the Research Unit, where the results are consolidated by region (North, Central, South). Weekly incidence rates between October 2001 and September 2002 were compared with the weekly average over the past seven years for 13 selected conditions. Detailed data are presented for three conditions (asthma, infections of the skin, disorders of the peripheral nervous system). For asthma increased incidence was reported in weeks 31 and 32 of 2002, predominantly in the Central region. For the other two conditions no unusual peaks of incidence were observed in any region. Operational research based on disciplined recording of morbidity in general practice can deliver timely surveillance data on bioterrorist threats.

  7. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  8. Simulating the effects of acculturation and return migration on the maternal and infant health of Mexican immigrants in the United States: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Miguel

    2011-05-01

    A significant body of research on minority health shows that although Latino immigrants experience unexpectedly favorable outcomes in maternal and infant health, this advantage deteriorates with increased time of residence in the United States. This study evaluates the underlying assumptions of two competing hypotheses that explain this paradox. The first hypothesis attributes this deterioration to possible negative effects of acculturation and behavioral adjustments made by immigrants while living in the United States, and the second hypothesis attributes this deterioration to the mechanism of selective return migration. Hypothetical probabilistic models are simulated for assessing the relationship between duration and birth outcomes based on the assumptions of these two hypotheses. The results are compared with the empirical research on the maternal and infant health of first-generation, Mexican-origin immigrant women in the United States. The analysis provides evidence that a curvilinear pattern of duration and birth outcomes can be explained by the joint effects of both acculturation and selective return migration in which the former affects health status over the longer durations, and the latter affects health status at shorter durations.

  9. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  10. Rotavirus vaccination and intussusception – Science, surveillance, and safety: A review of evidence and recommendations for future research priorities in low and middle income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Catherine; Healy, Kelly; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Bines, Julie; Neuzil, Kathleen; Santosham, Mathuram; Steele, A. Duncan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As of January 2016, 80 countries have introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Many have documented significant declines in rotavirus-specific and all-cause diarrheal illnesses following vaccine introduction. Two globally licensed rotavirus vaccines have been associated with a low risk of intussusception in several studies. In July 2014, the Rotavirus Organization of Technical Allies Council convened a meeting of research and advocacy organizations, public health experts, funders, and vaccine manufacturers to discuss post-marketing intussusception surveillance and rotavirus vaccine impact data. Meeting objectives were to evaluate updated data, identify and prioritize research gaps, discuss best practices for intussusception monitoring in lower-income settings and risk communication, and provide insight to country-level stakeholders on best practices for intussusception monitoring and communication. Meeting participants agreed with statements from expert bodies that the benefits of vaccination with currently available rotavirus vaccines outweigh the low risk of vaccination-associated intussusception. However, further research is needed to better understand the relationship of intussusception to wild-type rotavirus and rotavirus vaccines and delineate potential etiologies and mechanisms of intussusception. Additionally, evidence from research and post-licensure evaluations should be presented with evidence of the benefits of vaccination to best inform policymakers deciding on vaccine introduction or vaccination program sustainability. PMID:27322835

  11. Cyclopia: An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orioli, Iêda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Canfield, Mark A.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csáky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclopia is characterized by the presence of a single eye, with varying degrees of doubling of the intrinsic ocular structures, located in the middle of the face. It is the severest facial expression of the holoprosencephaly (HPE) spectrum. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with cyclopia. Data originated in 20 Clearinghouse (ICBDSR) affiliated birth defect surveillance systems, reported according to a single pre-established protocol. A total of 257 infants with cyclopia were identified. Overall prevalence was 1 in 100,000 births (95%CI: 0.89–1.14), with only one program being out of range. Across sites, there was no correlation between cyclopia prevalence and number of births (r = 0.08; P=0.75) or proportion of elective termination of pregnancy (r= −0.01; P=0.97). The higher prevalence of cyclopia among older mothers (older than 34) was not statistically significant. The majority of cases were liveborn (122/200; 61%) and females predominated (male/total: 42%). A substantial proportion of cyclopias (31%) were caused by chromosomal anomalies, mainly trisomy 13. Another 31% of the cases of cyclopias were associated with defects not typically related to HPE, with more hydrocephalus, heterotaxia defects, neural tube defects, and preaxial reduction defects than the chromosomal group, suggesting the presence of ciliopathies or other unrecognized syndromes. Cyclopia is a very rare defect without much variability in prevalence by geographic location. The heterogeneous etiology with a high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities, and female predominance in HPE, were confirmed, but no effect of increased maternal age or association with twinning was observed. PMID:22006661

  12. The ethics of contacting family members of a subject in a genetic research study to return results for an autosomal dominant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Holly A; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2013-01-01

    This case explores the ethical landscape around recontacting a subject's relatives to return genetic research results when the informed consent form signed by the original cohort of subjects is silent on whether investigators may share new information with the research subject's family. As a result of rapid advances in genetic technology, methods to identify genetic markers can mature during the life course of a study. In this case, the investigators identified the genetic mutation responsible for the disorder after a number of their original subjects had died. The researchers now have the ability to inform relatives of the subject about their risk of developing the same disease. Mark Rothstein, JD, from the University of Louisville School of Medicine, provides an overview of the medical/scientific, legal, and ethical issues underlying this case. Lauren Milner, PhD, and colleagues at Stanford University explore how the relationship between researcher and subject affect this debate. Seema Shah, JD, and colleagues at the National Institutes of Health and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) discuss whether and how requirements of the duty to warn are applicable in this case.

  13. Amelia: A Multi-Center Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; CUEVAS, LOURDES; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BIANCHI, FABRIZIO; CANFIELD, MARK A.; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SIFFEL, CSABA; SZABOVA, ELENA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of congenital amelia (absence of limb/s), using the largest series of cases known to date. Data were gathered by 20 surveillance programs on congenital anomalies, all International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research members, from all continents but Africa, from 1968 to 2006, depending on the program. Reported clinical information on cases was thoroughly reviewed to identify those strictly meeting the definition of amelia. Those with amniotic bands or limb-body wall complex were excluded. The primary epidemiological analyses focused on isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). A total of 326 amelia cases were ascertained among 23,110,591 live births, stillbirths and (for some programs) elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. The overall total prevalence was 1.41 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.57). Only China Beijing and Mexico RYVEMCE had total prevalences, which were significantly higher than this overall total prevalence. Some under-registration could influence the total prevalence in some programs. Liveborn cases represented 54.6% of total. Among monomelic cases (representing 65.2% of nonsyndromic amelia cases), both sides were equally involved, and the upper limbs (53.9%) were slightly more frequently affected. One of the most interesting findings was a higher prevalence of amelia among offspring of mothers younger than 20 years. Sixty-nine percent of the cases had MCA or syndromes. The most frequent defects associated with amelia were other types of musculoskeletal defects, intestinal, some renal and genital defects, oral clefts, defects of cardiac septa, and anencephaly. PMID:22002956

  14. Phocomelia: A Worldwide Descriptive Epidemiologic Study in a Large Series of Cases From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes. PMID:22002800

  15. Sirenomelia: An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORIOLI, IÊDA M.; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; ARTEAGA-VAZQUEZ, JAZMIN; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; BOTTO, LORENZO D.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; CORREA, ADOLFO; CSAKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LÓPEZ-CAMELO, JORGE S.; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA; MARTÍNEZ-FRÍAS, MARÍA-LUISA; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; PIERINI, ANNA; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.

    2015-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and were reported according to a single pre-established protocol. Cases were clinically evaluated locally and reviewed centrally. A total of 249 cases with sirenomelia were identified among 25,290,172 births, for a prevalence of 0.98 per 100,000, with higher prevalence in the Mexican registry. An increase of sirenomelia prevalence with maternal age less than 20 years was statistically significant. The proportion of twinning was 9%, higher than the 1% expected. Sex was ambiguous in 47% of cases, and no different from expectation in the rest. The proportion of cases born alive, premature, and weighting less than 2,500 g were 47%, 71.2%, and 88.2%, respectively. Half of the cases with sirenomelia also presented with genital, large bowel, and urinary defects. About 10–15% of the cases had lower spinal column defects, single or anomalous umbilical artery, upper limb, cardiac, and central nervous system defects. There was a greater than expected association of sirenomelia with other very rare defects such as bladder exstrophy, cyclopia/holoprosencephaly, and acardia-acephalus. The application of the new biological network analysis approach, including molecular results, to these associated very rare diseases is suggested for future studies. PMID:22002878

  16. Prevalence and genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus species: A multicentre report of the indian council of medical research antimicrobial resistance surveillance network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sunanda; Sistla, Sujatha; Manoharan, Meerabai; Sugumar, Madhan; Nagasundaram, Niveditha; Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ray, Pallab; Bakthavatchalam, Yamuna Devi; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Kapil, Arti; Walia, Kamini; Ohri, V C

    2017-01-01

    Routine surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an essential component of measures aimed to tackle the growing threat of resistant microbes in public health. This study presents a 1-year multicentre report on AMR in Staphylococcus species as part of Indian Council of Medical Research-AMR surveillance network. Staphylococcus species was routinely collected in the nodal and regional centres of the network and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed against a panel of antimicrobials. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of vancomycin (VAN), daptomycin, tigecycline and linezolid (LNZ) against selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) isolates were determined by E-test and MIC creep, if any, was determined. Resistant genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction for those isolates showing phenotypic resistance. The prevalence of MRSA was found to be range from moderate (21%) to high (45%) among the centres with an overall prevalence of 37.3%. High prevalence of resistance was observed with commonly used antimicrobials such as ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in all the centres. Resistance to LNZ was not encountered except for a single case. Full-blown resistance to VAN in S. aureus was not observed; however, a few VAN-intermediate S. aureus isolates were documented. The most common species of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) identified was Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Resistance among CoNS was relatively higher than S. aureus. Most phenotypically resistant organisms possessed the corresponding resistance genes. There were localised differences in the prevalence of resistance between the centres. The efficacy of the anti-MRSA antimicrobials was very high; however, almost all these antimicrobials showed evidence of creeping MIC.

  17. Phocomelia: a worldwide descriptive epidemiologic study in a large series of cases from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Cuevas, Lourdes; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bianca, Sebastiano; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Botto, Lorenzo D; Canfield, Mark A; Castilla, Eduardo E; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Siffel, Csaba; Szabova, Elena; Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa

    2011-11-15

    Epidemiologic data on phocomelia are scarce. This study presents an epidemiologic analysis of the largest series of phocomelia cases known to date. Data were provided by 19 birth defect surveillance programs, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Depending on the program, data corresponded to a period from 1968 through 2006. A total of 22,740,933 live births, stillbirths and, for some programs, elective terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly (ETOPFA) were monitored. After a detailed review of clinical data, only true phocomelia cases were included. Descriptive data are presented and additional analyses compared isolated cases with those with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), excluding syndromes. We also briefly compared congenital anomalies associated with nonsyndromic phocomelia with those presented with amelia, another rare severe congenital limb defect. A total of 141 phocomelia cases registered gave an overall total prevalence of 0.62 per 100,000 births (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.73). Three programs (Australia Victoria, South America ECLAMC, Italy North East) had significantly different prevalence estimates. Most cases (53.2%) had isolated phocomelia, while 9.9% had syndromes. Most nonsyndromic cases were monomelic (55.9%), with an excess of left (64.9%) and upper limb (64.9%) involvement. Most nonsyndromic cases (66.9%) were live births; most isolated cases (57.9%) weighed more than 2,499 g; most MCA (60.7%) weighed less than 2,500 g, and were more likely stillbirths (30.8%) or ETOPFA (15.4%) than isolated cases. The most common associated defects were musculoskeletal, cardiac, and intestinal. Epidemiological differences between phocomelia and amelia highlighted possible differences in their causes.

  18. Het Nederlands signaleringscentrum kindergeneeskunde; een kwaliteitsinstrument voor preventie en onderzoek [The Dutch Paediatric Surveillance System; a quality-focused instrument for prevention and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirasing, R.A.; Rodrigues Pereira, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Dutch Paediatric Surveillance System was initiated by the Dutch Paediatric Society and is housed within the TNO Prevention and Health office. The purpose of the surveillance system is (a) to gain insight on a population level into the prevalence of rare and new diseases in youths (0-18 year),

  19. Building the Partners HealthCare Biobank at Partners Personalized Medicine: Informed Consent, Return of Research Results, Recruitment Lessons and Operational Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth W. Karlson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Partners HealthCare Biobank is a Partners HealthCare enterprise-wide initiative whose goal is to provide a foundation for the next generation of translational research studies of genotype, environment, gene-environment interaction, biomarker and family history associations with disease phenotypes. The Biobank has leveraged in-person and electronic recruitment methods to enroll >30,000 subjects as of October 2015 at two academic medical centers in Partners HealthCare since launching in 2010. Through a close collaboration with the Partners Human Research Committee, the Biobank has developed a comprehensive informed consent process that addresses key patient concerns, including privacy and the return of research results. Lessons learned include the need for careful consideration of ethical issues, attention to the educational content of electronic media, the importance of patient authentication in electronic informed consent, the need for highly secure IT infrastructure and management of communications and the importance of flexible recruitment modalities and processes dependent on the clinical setting for recruitment.

  20. REVERSE LOGISTICS RETAIL LEVEL RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Bajor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducting scientific research regarding reverse logistics systems includes certain difficulties. Developed logistics systems are aimed at analysing reverse logistics issues and tend to continuously detect differences and oscillations in the flow of returned products and their characteristics. Developing logistics systems, as Croatian, find reverse logistics issues, regarding product returns, significantly complex and very often these issues are not observed as issues of priority. As distributive flow, reverse logistics systems fundaments should be also based on detailed analysis. Analysis in this flow presents amounts, reasons, process flows and quality of returned items. Because of complex product evaluation on individual level, reverse logistics procedures should be implemented as a methodology individually developed for every supply chain subject. This paper presents a research of retail level returns on the Croatian market, where the analysis implicated that the majority of products in return for this level is directed from final consumers and presents noncurrent inventories of distribution chain. The paper will present conducted research regarding characteristics of returns and routing these products from the retail level.

  1. Long-term Observations of the Convective Boundary Layer Using Insect Radar Returns at the SGP ARM Climate Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, A S; Kollias, P; Giangrande, S E; Klein, S A

    2009-08-20

    A long-term study of the turbulent structure of the convective boundary layer (CBL) at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility is presented. Doppler velocity measurements from insects occupying the lowest 2 km of the boundary layer during summer months are used to map the vertical velocity component in the CBL. The observations cover four summer periods (2004-08) and are classified into cloudy and clear boundary layer conditions. Profiles of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and mass flux are estimated to study the daytime evolution of the convective boundary layer during these conditions. A conditional sampling method is applied to the original Doppler velocity dataset to extract coherent vertical velocity structures and to examine plume dimension and contribution to the turbulent transport. Overall, the derived turbulent statistics are consistent with previous aircraft and lidar observations. The observations provide unique insight into the daytime evolution of the convective boundary layer and the role of increased cloudiness in the turbulent budget of the subcloud layer. Coherent structures (plumes-thermals) are found to be responsible for more than 80% of the total turbulent transport resolved by the cloud radar system. The extended dataset is suitable for evaluating boundary layer parameterizations and testing large-eddy simulations (LESs) for a variety of surface and cloud conditions.

  2. Bibliometric analysis of Oropouche research: impact on the surveillance of emerging arboviruses in Latin America [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Culquichicón

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the emergence and reemergence of viral diseases, particularly in Latin America, we would like to provide an analysis of the patterns of research and publication on Oropouche virus (OROV. We also discuss the implications of recent epidemics in certain areas of South America, and how more clinical and epidemiological information regarding OROV is urgently needed.

  3. Evaluation of multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Frisén,Marianne; Andersson, Eva; Schiöler, Linus

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate surveillance is of interest in many areas such as industrial production, bioterrorism detection, spatial surveillance, and financial transaction strategies. Some of the suggested approaches to multivariate surveillance have been multivariate counterparts to the univariate Shewhart, EWMA, and CUSUM methods. Our emphasis is on the special challenges of evaluating multivariate surveillance methods. Some new measures are suggested and the properties of several measures are demonstrat...

  4. Tackling malnutrition: a systematic review of 15-year research evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, Samuelina S.; Bongiwe Nyide; Abdramane Bassiahi Soura; Kathleen Kahn; Mark Weston; Osman Sankoh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Objective: To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) of health and demographic survei...

  5. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    resistance surveillance, diarrhea etiology and antimicrobial resistance surveillance, sexually transmitted illness surveillance, and capacity building...vomiting, diarrhea , joint pains, general malaise. Of the samples analyzed, only 53.7% had an associated etiology: Malaria (47.0%, EBV (39.7...immunity to the disease. Many adults in those situations are reservoirs, facilitating continuing disease transmission to those without immunity. In Kenya

  6. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  7. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  8. RETURN MIGRATION – REASONS, CONSEQUENCES AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA PÎRVU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Return migration is probably the aspect of the migration cycle, which was granted the lowest attention, perhaps because most research resources are located in highly developed countries, while most of the returning most returnees return to developing countries. This is especially unfortunate because perceptions about the process of returning to the country of origin and attitudes towards returning migrants have a significant impact on migrants and their host communities. Rollback, sometimes called remigration, is considered by some authors as the final stage of the migration process, which further comprises the step preparation / decision to migrate and actual migration phase or installation of migrant destination country selected.

  9. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kira; Esposito, Douglas H; Han, Pauline; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Freedman, David O; Plier, D Adam; Sotir, Mark J

    2013-07-19

    probable travel-related diagnoses. Of these, 23,006 (16%) patients were evaluated in the United States, 10,032 (44%) of whom were evaluated after returning from travel outside of the United States (i.e., after-travel patients). Of the 10,032 after-travel patients, 4,977 (50%) were female, 4,856 (48%) were male, and 199 (2%) did not report sex; the median age was 34 years. Most were evaluated in outpatient settings (84%), were born in the United States (76%), and reported current U.S. residence (99%). The most common reasons for travel were tourism (38%), missionary/volunteer/research/aid work (24%), visiting friends and relatives (17%), and business (15%). The most common regions of exposure were Sub-Saharan Africa (23%), Central America (15%), and South America (12%). Fewer than half (44%) reported having had a pretravel visit with a health-care provider. Of the 13,059 diagnoses among the 10,032 after-travel patients, the most common diagnoses were acute unspecified diarrhea (8%), acute bacterial diarrhea (5%), postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (5%), giardiasis (3%), and chronic unknown diarrhea (3%). The most common diagnostic groupings were acute diarrhea (22%), nondiarrheal gastrointestinal (15%), febrile/systemic illness (14%), and dermatologic (12%). Among 1,802 patients with febrile/systemic illness diagnoses, the most common diagnosis was Plasmodium falciparum malaria (19%). The rapid communication component of the GeoSentinel network has allowed prompt responses to important health events affecting travelers; during 2010 and 2011, the notification capability of the GeoSentinel network was used in the identification and public health response to East African trypanosomiasis in Eastern Zambia and North Central Zimbabwe, P. vivax malaria in Greece, and muscular sarcocystosis on Tioman Island, Malaysia. The GeoSentinel Global Surveillance System is the largest repository of provider-based data on travel-related illness. Among ill travelers evaluated in U.S. Geo

  10. Metal Returns, Stock Returns and Stock Market Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Zevallos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Given the extensive participation of mining stocks in the Peruvian stock market, the Lima Stock Exchange (BVL provides an ideal setting for exploring both the impact of metal returns on mining stock returns and stock market volatility, and the comovements between mining stock returns and metal returns. This research is a first attempt to explore these issues using international metal prices and the prices of the most important mining stocks on the BVL and the IGBVL index. To achieve this, we use univariate GARCH models to model individual volatilities, and the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA method and multivariate GARCH models with time-varying correlations to model comovements in returns. We found that Peruvian mining stock volatilities mimic the behavior of metal volatilities and that there are important correlation levels between metals and mining stock returns. In addition, we found time-varying correlations with distinctive behavior in different periods, with rises potentially related to international and local historical events.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-12-11

    Dec 11, 2015 ... ... Dschang, Cameroon, 2Division of Health Operations Research, Ministry of Public ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... not yet been investigated but may can be explained by weakness of .... Cameroonian market and why not apply for surveillance of.

  12. [Research on the issues in the process of post-market surveillance for medical devices based on the typical case analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sumin; Zhang, Liang

    2011-11-01

    Regarding the information collected, analysis and actions that have been taken, the issues in the process of the Post-market Surveillance for Medical Device were analyzed, and some suggestions were given at the same time.

  13. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  14. Predicting return visits to the emergency department for pediatric patients: Applying supervised learning techniques to the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ya-Han; Tai, Chun-Tien; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Lee, Hai-Wei; Sung, Sheng-Feng

    2017-06-01

    Return visits (RVs) to the emergency department (ED) consume medical resources and may represent a patient safety issue. The occurrence of unexpected RVs is considered a performance indicator for ED care quality. Because children are susceptible to medical errors and utilize considerable ED resources, knowing the factors that affect RVs in pediatric patients helps improve the quality of pediatric emergency care. We collected data on visits made by patients aged ≤18years to EDs from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The outcome of interest was a RV within 3days of the initial visit. Potential factors were categorized into demographics, medical history, features of ED visits, physician characteristics, hospital characteristics, and treatment-seeking behavior. A multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of RVs. We compared the performance of various data mining techniques, including Naïve Bayes, classification and regression tree (CART), random forest, and logistic regression, in predicting RVs. Finally, we developed a decision tree to stratify the risk of RVs. Of 125,940 visits, 6,282 (5.0%) were followed by a RV within 3 days. Predictors of RVs included younger age, higher acuity, intravenous fluid, more examination types, complete blood count, consultation, lower hospital level, hospitalization within one week before the initial visit, frequent ED visits in the past one year, and visits made in Spring or on Saturdays. Patients with allergic diseases and those underwent ultrasound examination were less likely to return. Decision tree models performed better in predicting RVs in terms of area under curve. The decision tree constructed using the CART technique showed that the number of ED visits in the past one year, diagnosis category, testing of complete blood count, and age were important discriminators of risk of RVs. We identified several factors which are associated with RVs to the ED in pediatric patients

  15. The USA PATRIOT Act, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, and Information Policy Research in Libraries: Issues, Impacts, and Questions for Libraries and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo; Snead, John T.

    2004-01-01

    While the USA PATRIOT Act has altered how certain types of federal intelligence investigations affect libraries, the act also greatly alters how researchers can study information policy issues related to libraries. To date, the gravity and scope of the act's implications for researchers of library services, resources, operations, and policies have…

  16. The USA PATRIOT Act, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, and Information Policy Research in Libraries: Issues, Impacts, and Questions for Libraries and Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo; Snead, John T.

    2004-01-01

    While the USA PATRIOT Act has altered how certain types of federal intelligence investigations affect libraries, the act also greatly alters how researchers can study information policy issues related to libraries. To date, the gravity and scope of the act's implications for researchers of library services, resources, operations, and policies have…

  17. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  18. Using routinely collected health data for surveillance, quality improvement and research: Framework and key questions to assess ethics, privacy and data access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of health data for public health, surveillance, quality improvement and research is crucial to improve health systems and health care. However, bodies responsible for privacy and ethics often limit access to routinely collected health data. Ethical approvals, issues around protecting privacy and data access are often dealt with by different layers of regulations, making approval processes appear disjointed.Objective To create a comprehensive framework for defining the ethical and privacy status of a project and for providing guidance on data access.Method The framework comprises principles and related questions. The core of the framework will be built using standard terminology definitions such as ethics-related controlled vocabularies and regional directives. It is built in this way to reduce ambiguity between different definitions. The framework is extensible: principles can be retired or added to, as can their related questions. Responses to these questions should allow data processors to define ethical issues, privacy risk and other unintended consequences.Results The framework contains three steps: (1 identifying possible ethical and privacy principles relevant to the project; (2 providing ethics and privacy guidance questions that inform the type of approval needed; and (3 assessing case-specific ethics and privacy issues. The outputs from this process should inform whether the balance between public interests and privacy breach and any ethical considerations are tipped in favour of societal benefits. If they are then this should be the basis on which data access is permitted. Tightly linking ethical principles to governance and data access may help maintain public trust.

  19. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  20. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  1. Redefining syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Baker, Julia; Test, Elisa

    2011-12-01

    With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field's capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Alan P

    2015-01-01

    .... Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation...

  3. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  4. Economics of zoonoses surveillance in a 'One Health' context: an assessment of Campylobacter surveillance in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectorial surveillance and general collaboration between the animal and the public health sectors are increasingly recognized as needed to better manage the impacts of zoonoses. From 2009, the Swiss established a Campylobacter mitigation system that includes human and poultry surveillance data-sharing within a multi-sectorial platform, in a 'One Health' approach. The objective of this study was to explore the economics of this cross-sectorial approach, including surveillance and triggered interventions. Costs and benefits of the One Health and of the uni-sectorial approach to Campylobacter surveillance were identified using an economic assessment framework developed earlier. Cost information of surveillance activities and interventions was gathered and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) associated with the disease estimated for 2008 and 2013. In the first 5 years of this One Health approach to Campylobacter mitigation, surveillance contributed with information mainly used to perform risk assessments, monitor trends and shape research efforts on Campylobacter. There was an increase in costs associated with the mitigation activities following integration, due mainly to the allocation of additional resources to research and implementation of poultry surveillance. The overall burden of campylobacteriosis increased by 3·4-8·8% to 1751-2852 DALYs in 2013. In the timing of the analysis, added value associated with this cross-sectorial approach to surveillance of Campylobacter in the country was likely generated through non-measurable benefits such as intellectual capital and social capital.

  5. 菱形车回正性能分析与研究%Analysis and Research of Returnability for Rhombic Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查云飞; 钟志华; 张义

    2009-01-01

    Since the special layout of steering system,the rhombic vehicle cannot obtain the returnability by means of the steering wheel's orientation parameters.A spring returnable structure was used to turn around the revolving drum of the steering system to carry out the returnablity of the steering wheel.The analysis of steering resistance torque and returnable torque suggests that extra torque is necessary to obtain the returnability.The formula of the locus was obtained based on the analysis.The returnability test suggests the spring returnable system can ensure good returnability of the rhombic vehicles.%菱形车特殊的转向轮结构布置,导致菱形车无法通过转向轮定位参数实现回正.采用弹簧回正机构驱动菱形车转向系统的转筒回转,实现转向轮的回正.通过对菱形车的转向阻力矩和回正力矩的分析,认为要使转向轮实现回正需要施加外加力矩,并推导出了弹簧回正机构的曲线方程.通过转向回正性能试验验证了弹簧回正机构具有较好的回正性能,解决了菱形车的回正问题.

  6. The Stages of Mailed Questionnaire Returning Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Daniel C.

    1984-01-01

    Six stages are hypothesized that define the behavior of returning mailed questionnaires: receiving the questionnaire, opening the mail, forming an overall impression, answering the questions, returning the questionnaire, and dealing with nonrespondents. The researcher must provide incentives at each stage if potential respondents are to complete a…

  7. Enhanced surveillance program FY1998 accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, J

    1998-10-01

    This report highlights the accomplishments of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP), the highest-priority research and development effort in stockpile management today. This is volume one of eleven, the unclassified summary of selected program highlights. These highlights fall into the following focus areas: pits, high explosives, organics, dynamics, diagnostics, systems, secondaries, materials-aging models, non-nuclear components, and routine surveillance testing system upgrades. Principal investigators from around the DOE complex contributed to this report.

  8. Sirenomelia : An Epidemiologic Study in a Large Dataset From the International Clearinghouse of Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orioli, Ieda M.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Arteaga-Vazquez, Jazmin; Bakker, Marian K.; Bianca, Sebastiano; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Clementi, Maurizio; Correa, Adolfo; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa; Martinez-Frias, Maria-Luisa; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Pierini, Anna; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Castilla, Eduardo E.

    2011-01-01

    Sirenomelia is a very rare limb anomaly in which the normally paired lower limbs are replaced by a single midline limb. This study describes the prevalence, associated malformations, and maternal characteristics among cases with sirenomelia. Data originated from 19 birth defect surveillance system m

  9. Predictable return distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    This paper provides detailed insights into predictability of the entire stock and bond return distribution through the use of quantile regression. This allows us to examine speci…c parts of the return distribution such as the tails or the center, and for a suf…ciently …ne grid of quantiles we can...... are predictable as a function of economic state variables. The results are, however, very different for stocks and bonds. The state variables primarily predict only location shifts in the stock return distribution, while they also predict changes in higher-order moments in the bond return distribution. Out...... trace out the entire distribution. A univariate quantile regression model is used to examine stock and bond return distributions individually, while a multivariate model is used to capture their joint distribution. An empirical analysis on US data shows that certain parts of the return distributions...

  10. College Risk and Return

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Castex

    2011-01-01

    Attending college is thought of as a very profitable investment decision, as its estimated annualized return ranges from 8% to 13%. However, a large fraction of high school graduates do not enroll in college. I reconcile the observed high average returns to schooling with relatively low attendance rates when considering college as a risky investment decision. A high dropout risk has two important effects on the estimated average returns to college: selection bias and risk premium. In order to...

  11. Surveillance and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagenborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is as much about surveillance as about persuasive technologies (PTs). With regard to PTs it raises the question about the ethical limits of persuasion. It will be argued that even some forms of self-imposed persuasive soft surveillance technologies may be considered unethical. Therefore,

  12. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  13. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Summary Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Chancroid Selected STDs Appendix Appendix Interpreting STD Surveillance Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors ...

  14. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

    2012-05-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface.

  15. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  16. 铁路反恐视频监控系统方案探究%Research on video surveillance system for railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁娟

    2015-01-01

    Through the requirement analysis of the anti-terrorism surveillance system,this paper studies the performance of infrared camera and laser camera,channel capacity of railway communication network and the resources that video occupies.And then the article concludes that it can use digital laser camera to establish anti-terrorism surveillance system.%本文通过分析反恐视频监控的需求,研究了普通红外线摄像机和激光摄像机的性能、铁路通信传输网通道容量和视频占用的资源量,推荐反恐视频监控方案采用数字激光摄像机。

  17. Research on the Willingness to Accept Compensation and Compensation Sharing of Returning Land for Farming to Forestry in Zhangjiakou and Chengde Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the willingness to accept compensation and compensation sharing of returning land for farming to forestry in Zhangjiakou and Chengde region.[Method] Based on the investigation of farmers' willingness to accept ecological compensation in Zhangjiakou and Chengde region,farmers' willingness to accept compensation was quantized,and the calculation model of sharing rate of ecological compensation was established,finally the sharing rate of ecological compensation was calculated c...

  18. Returning to work after stroke: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Barbara; Grace, Marty

    2009-06-01

    This review focuses on the experiences and rehabilitation needs of working age, higher functioning stroke survivors in relation to their 'return to work'. It grew out of the poststroke experience of one of the authors and her realization of the inadequacy of services to facilitate return to work and optimal recovery from stroke. The authors' aim is to present a practice-oriented review that can provide information for future practice and research. Returning to work and sustaining employment are considered key aspects of rehabilitation and recovery by younger stroke survivors. From a psychosocial perspective, successful return to work can enhance recovery and life satisfaction by consolidating self-esteem, confidence and social identity. However, even higher functioning stroke survivors with minimal or no obvious physical disability may experience workplace challenges relating to their neurological condition. Appropriate rehabilitation would include specific preparation for return to work, education within the workplace to facilitate return to work, participation by the stroke survivor in all aspects of the management of their return to work, and an ongoing role for a stroke educator/workplace advocate. In conclusion, further research is required in this area to support stroke survivors in returning to and maintaining employment to achieve their poststroke potential. Thirteen recommendations arising from the existing literature and the lived experience of one of the authors are presented at the end of the review.

  19. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsam, G.

    operating in stations at Yarragadee, Western Australia and Mt Stromlo, Australian Capital Territory. Recently, however, Australia has also agreed to host a node of AFRL's Extended HANDS telescope network in Learmonth, Western Australia, and discussions are underway with researchers in Australian academia about also participating in this research program. In the RF regime, however, DSTO has substantial HF and microwave radar programs, elements of which could be readily adapted to surveillance of space. Proposals have already been developed internally within both programs for various forms of space surveillance systems including both broad area surveillance and imaging along with some very initial technology concept demonstrator systems. Recently proposals have also been floated to substantially increase Australia's civilian space surveillance programs including the Ionospheric Prediction Service's longstanding program to monitor the ionosphere and space weather, meteor radars and other systems. Finally Australia's bid to host the international Square Kilometre Array radio telescope has already generated concrete commitments to establish several very substantial RF arrays in Western Australia that may also provide instruments of unprecedented sensitivity and resolution for surveillance of space. The paper will survey these technology development programs and associated progress on integrating them into some sort of national program for space situational awareness.

  20. Inverse Perspective Transformation for Video Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Bouman, Charles A.; Miller, Eric L.; Pollak, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    In this research, we are considering the use of the inverse perspective transformation in video surveillance applications that observe (and possible influence) scenes consisting of moving and stationary objects; e.g., people on a parking area. In previous research, objects were detected on video str

  1. 家庭养老财务转移代际回报研究%A Research on Family Pension Financial Transfers Inter-generation Return

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张骐; 李廷豪

    2015-01-01

    针对财务转移回报动机与强度探究家庭养老的有效性。利用2011年CHARLS全国基线调查数据,计算子女给予父母的财务转移,以子女的教育程度和父母赠与的婚嫁礼物衡量父母早期付出,在交换动机的前提下,探究代际转移“回报契约”的回报强度;并通过控制父母目前健康状况,探讨子女的回报是否存在利他因素。本文建立Tobit II型( ET2T)模型,使用海克曼( Heckman)两步法进行回归,结果表明,家庭养老的水平不高,父母月均收到200元,“回报契约”的强度不高、子女回报的利他因素较小,故从财务回报角度上,本文认为现今家庭养老的保障作用有限。另外,在财务转移概率和数量上,儿子均大于女儿;农村子女给予概率更大,但数量更少;子女数量的增加不会减少财务的给予概率和数量:也就是说家庭养老的水平与子女数量成正比。%This paper aims at motivation and strength of financial transfers return to explore the validity of family pension. Using 2011 CHARLS baseline data, we calculate the financial return from children and parents early payment which is measured by children ’ s education and marriage gift received from parents. Under the exchanging motivation, we explore strength of intergenerational transfer “return contract”; and we explore whether there is altruism factor in children return by controlling the current health status of the parents. This paper establishes a Tobit type II ( ET2T) model, using Heckman two⁃step method, the results show that the family pension is in low amount, the parents receive 200 Yuan monthly in average, and the intensity of the “return contract” is not high, the altruistic factor of children return isn’ t significant. Therefore, from the view of financial return, the family pension plays a limited role in pension. In addition, the financial transfer ’ s probability and

  2. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  3. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  4. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  6. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  7. Lidar 2009 - All Returns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing classified points of all returns. We have 3 classifications Unclassified, Ground, Low points. The average Ground Sample...

  8. Returning to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when work tasks can be upgraded to full duty. What can a person returning to work do? ... to-work program that includes transitional work for employees is an important component of a company's healthy ...

  9. Advances in surveillance of periodontitis: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention periodontal disease surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Dye, Bruce; Genco, Robert

    2012-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has as one of its strategic goals to support and improve surveillance of periodontal disease. In 2003, the CDC initiated the CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology to address population-based surveillance of periodontal disease at the local, state, and national levels. This initiative has made significant advancements toward the goal of improved surveillance, including developing valid self-reported measures that can be obtained from interview-based surveys to predict prevalence of periodontitis in populations. This will allow surveillance of periodontitis at the state and local levels and in countries where clinical resources for surveillance are scarce. This work has produced standard case definitions for surveillance of periodontitis that are now widely recognized and applied in population studies and research. At the national level, this initiative has evaluated the validity of previous clinical examination protocols and tested new protocols on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), recommending and supporting funding for the gold-standard full-mouth periodontal examination in NHANES 2009 to 2012. These examinations will generate accurate estimates of the prevalence of periodontitis in the US adult population and provide a superior dataset for surveillance and research. Also, this data will be used to generate the necessary coefficients for our self-report questions for use in subsets of the total US population. The impact of these findings on population-based surveillance of periodontitis and future directions of the project are discussed along with plans for dissemination and translation efforts for broader public health use.

  10. International Society for Disease Surveillance Conference 2011: Building the Future of Public Health Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    supplement, Complete

    2011-01-01

    The International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) celebrates its 10th annual meeting with the arrival of the 2011 ISDS Annual Conference, ‘Building the Future of Public Health Surveillance’. This milestone in the Society’s history is punctuated not only by the achievements of the disease surveillance community but also by the promise of what lies ahead. The Annual Conference brings together a community of researchers and practitioners focused on monitoring, understanding and improving...

  11. Early Learning: Return on Investment. Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hite, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Today's researchers seek to determine if contemporary pre-K programs provide the strong return on investment found by researchers in the 1960's High/Scope Perry Preschool Program and 1970's North Carolina Abecedarian Project. Research then showed that these two programs created positive academic effects that accompanied their students as they…

  12. World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance White Paper on Surveillance and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Campostrini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This is not a research paper on risk factor surveillance. It is an effort by a key group of researchers and practitioners of risk factor surveillance to define the current state of the art and to identify the key issues involved in the current practice of behavioral risk factor surveillance. Those of us who are the principal authors have worked and carried out research in this area for some three decades. As a result of a series of global meetings beginning in 1999 and continuing every two years since then, a collective working group of the International Union of Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE was formed under the name World Alliance of Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS. Under this banner the organization sought to write a comprehensive statement on the importance of surveillance to health promotion and public health. This paper, which has been revised and reviewed by established peers in the field, is the result. It provides the reader with a clear summary of the major issues that need to be considered by any and all seeking to carry out behavioral risk factor surveillance.

  13. 秸秆还田培肥土壤的研究现状%Research Status of Straw Returning in Improving Soil Fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    矫丽娜; 李志洪; 殷程程

    2014-01-01

    中国秸秆总产量居世界首位,如何使秸秆资源利用合理化、经济化和环保化成为当务之急。该文从土壤有机碳、土壤酶活性、秸秆还田后腐解特征和秸秆还田对作物产量的影响这几方面,综述秸秆还田培肥土壤的效果,旨在为今后秸秆还田培肥土壤提供理论依据。%The production of straw is the highest in the world,therefore,how to rationalize the use of straw resources,economy and environmental protection,is the priority. This article from the soil organic carbon, soil enzyme activity,decomposing characteristics and the impact of staw returning on crop yield,summary the effect of straw returning in improving soil fertility to provide a theoretical basis for future.

  14. CDC Periodontal Disease Surveillance Project: background, objectives, and progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Genco, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    This supplement contains papers presented at the 2006 International Association of Dental Research (IADR) symposium entitled "Development of Self-Reported Measures for Population-Based Surveillance of Periodontitis." These papers highlight activities of an independent periodontal disease surveillance workgroup convened by the Division of Oral Health (DOH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in collaboration with the American Academy of Periodontology, to examine the feasibility of using self-reported measures for population-based surveillance of periodontal disease in the United States. This workgroup was convened in 2003 as part of a CDC periodontal disease surveillance project.

  15. Security and Privacy in Video Surveillance: Requirements and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    Use of video surveillance has substantially increased in the last few decades. Modern video surveillance systems are equipped with techniques that allow traversal of data in an effective and efficient manner, giving massive powers to operators and potentially compromising the privacy of anyone...... observed by the system. Several techniques to protect the privacy of individuals have therefore been proposed, but very little research work has focused on the specific security requirements of video surveillance data (in transit or in storage) and on authorizing access to this data. In this paper, we...... present a general model of video surveillance systems that will help identify the major security and privacy requirements for a video surveillance system and we use this model to identify practical challenges in ensuring the security of video surveillance data in all stages (in transit and at rest). Our...

  16. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  17. Agile manufacturing in Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPadua, Mark; Dalton, George

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the Agile Manufacturing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (AMISR) effort is to research, develop, design and build a prototype multi-intelligence (multi-INT), reconfigurable pod demonstrating benefits of agile manufacturing and a modular open systems approach (MOSA) to make podded intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capability more affordable and operationally flexible.

  18. Review and Reflection of the Researches on Return Migration Workers%农民工回流辨析:基于现有研究的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世海

    2014-01-01

    我国农民工回流经历了治理整顿时期、国企改革时期、国际金融危机时期以及主动回流时期,农民工对留城与回流的自主选择权在逐步扩大,主动回流的趋势已基本形成。国内学者大量借鉴推拉理论、新劳动力迁移理论、社会网理论、社会资本理论以及产业转移理论来探讨农民工回流现象,但尚未凝练出本土化的理论体系。学术领域针对农民工回流的影响、对策开展了丰富研究,但是认为农民工回流是城镇化的倒退、是一种向下流动、不利于缩小城乡差距等观点有待商榷,对策研究应主要立足于完善农民工回流的社会政策。%The return of the migrant workers has experienced the four periods of improvement and rectifi-cation,reform of state-owned enterprises,the international financial crisis,and initiative return.They are enjo-ying expanding power in terms of occupational mobility.An active homeward flow trend has been basically formed.Push-pull theory,new labor migration theory,social network theory,social capital theory and the theory of industry transfer theory are used extensively without establishing a Chinese grounded theory.Abundant re-search is being carried out in the academic fields in view of the influences and countermeasures for the return of the migrant workers.But such opinions are yet to be proved as“the return of migrant works is a downward flow,a retrogression of urbanization,thus is not conducive to narrowing the gap between urban and rural are-as”.Countermeasure research should be conducted on the basis of the social policies made to attract more mi-grant workers to return home.

  19. Research on Demonstration of Investor Sentiment and Stock Returns of Shanghai Stock Exchange%投资者情绪与上证股票市场收益的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁

    2013-01-01

      利用较新的数据,研究了投资者情绪对中国股票市场收益的影响,选择换手率和封闭式基金折价作为间接的投资者情绪指标,并利用主成分分析构造出一个综合的投资者情绪的替代变量。利用回归分析方法,研究了情绪对股票收益的影响:当期的情绪与收益显著正相关,但是没有预测能力。利用向量自回归的方法,研究了投资者情绪与股票收益的相互关系,并采用Granger因果检验进行了深入的研究。最后将样本期分为股改前与股改后,研究发现投资者情绪与股票收益在股改前显著正相关,股改后相关性却不再显著。%The paper was researched effect of investor sentiment on China's stock market returns by using new data. Then, the paper was built a comprehensive substitution variable of investor sentiment by choosing turnover rate and closed-end fund discount as an indirect indicator of investor sentiment and using principal component analysis. Using method of regression analysis, the paper was researched impact of sentiment on stock returns: Current sentiment positively correlated with income, but no predictive power. Using method of vector auto-regression, the paper was researched mutual relations of investor senti-ment and stock returns. By using Granger causality test, the paper was deeply researched the relations. Finally, the sample period was divided into before and after share-reform. The paper was found investor sentiment and stock returns in the share reform were significantly positively related to the share reform, after the share reform correlation does not reassert.

  20. To return permanently or to return temporarily?: Explaining migrants' intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilgili, Ö.; Siegel, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies migrants' intentions to return to their origin country by making the distinction between permanent return, temporary return and participation in temporary return programmes. Using survey data from first generation migrants in the Netherlands, we explore how migrants' experiences r

  1. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  2. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  3. Strategic Priorities for Physical Activity Surveillance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Janet E; Carlson, Susan A; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Berrigan, David; Carlson, Cynthia; Dorn, Joan M; Heath, Gregory W; Kohl, Harold W; Lee, I-Min; Lee, Sarah M; Másse, Louise C; Morrow, James R; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Pivarnik, James M; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Rodgers, Anne B; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F; Troiano, Richard P; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Wendel, Arthur

    2016-10-01

    Develop strategic priorities to guide future physical activity surveillance in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine convened a scientific roundtable of physical activity and measurement experts. Participants summarized the current state of aerobic physical activity surveillance for adults, focusing on practice and research needs in three areas: 1) behavior, 2) human movement, and 3) community supports. Needs and challenges for each area were identified. At the conclusion of the meeting, experts identified one overarching strategy and five strategic priorities to guide future surveillance. The identified overarching strategy was to develop a national plan for physical activity surveillance similar to the U.S. National Physical Activity Plan for promotion. The purpose of the plan would be to enhance coordination and collaboration within and between sectors, such as transportation and public health, and to address specific strategic priorities identified at the roundtable. These strategic priorities were used 1) to identify and prioritize physical activity constructs; 2) to assess the psychometric properties of instruments for physical activity surveillance; 3) to provide training and technical assistance for those collecting, analyzing, or interpreting surveillance data; 4) to explore accessing data from alternative sources; and 5) to improve communication, translation, and dissemination about estimates of physical activity from surveillance systems. This roundtable provided strategic priorities for physical activity surveillance in the United States. A first step is to develop a national plan for physical activity surveillance that would provide an operating framework from which to execute these priorities.

  4. Using Google Trends for influenza surveillance in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min; Zhong, Haojie; He, Jianfeng; Rutherford, Shannon; Yang, Fen

    2013-01-01

    Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate influenza activity in many countries; however there is currently no Google Flu Trends or other Internet search data used for influenza surveillance in China. Influenza surveillance data from 2008 through 2011 were obtained from provincial CDC influenza-like illness and virological surveillance systems of Guangdong, a province in south China. Internet search data were downloaded from the website of Google Trends. Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data and internet search trends. The correlation between CDC ILI surveillance and CDC virus surveillance was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.66). The strongest correlation was between the Google Trends term of Fever and ILI surveillance with a correlation coefficient of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.79). When compared with influenza virological surveillance, the Google Trends term of Influenza A had the strongest correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.79) in the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic period. This study shows that Google Trends in Chinese can be used as a complementary source of data for influenza surveillance in south China. More research in the future should develop new models using search trends in Chinese language to estimate local disease activity and detect early signals of outbreaks.

  5. A produção científica e grupos de pesquisa sobre vigilância sanitária no CNPq The scientific production and research groups on sanitary surveillance at CNPq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Edais Pepe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A vigilância sanitária caracteriza-se por ser prática intersetorial e multidisciplinar, utilizando-se, de longa data, do conhecimento científico produzido em diferentes áreas. Esta pesquisa objetivou descrever a produção científica sobre vigilância sanitária registrada por pesquisadores cadastrados na Plataforma Lattes do CNPq e analisar o perfil dos grupos de pesquisa que trabalham com o tema. Utilizaram-se os Censos de 2000, 2002 e 2004 do Diretório dos Grupos de Pesquisa no Brasil do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico com o termo "vigilância sanitária". A produção científica foi analisada no período de 1997 a 2003. Encontraram-se 1.194 registros, sendo 913 na categoria de produção bibliográfica e 281 em orientações concluídas, com aumento de 540% no período. A produção foi realizada por 735 grupos de pesquisa, criados principalmente entre 2000 e 2003, e 6.263 pesquisadores, concentrados na região Sudeste e na pequena área da Saúde Coletiva. Conclui-se que, pelo crescimento da produção especialmente na última década, a vigilância sanitária tem se tornado locus de produção de saber e ocupado fóruns importantes de produção científica voltados à Saúde Coletiva no Brasil, sendo ela ainda concentrada, assim como outras áreas na Saúde.Sanitary surveillance is an intersectorial and multidisciplinary practice of health regulation. The aim was to describe the scientific research on sanitary surveillance and its research groups in Brazil during the period of 1997 to 2003, through the Census of 2000, 2002 and 2004 of Directory of Research Groups of the Scientific and Technological Development National Council (CNPq. The term "sanitary surveillance" was used to search the production and the research groups in the Lattes Platform of CNPq. There were 1,194 items, 913 in bibliographic production and 281 in post-graduated production, with an increment of 540% on the period. There were

  6. Systematic Review and Classification on Video Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Falah Chamasemani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various conferences and journals have published articles related to Video Surveillance Systems, indicating researchers’ attention. The goal of this review is to examine the latest works were published in journals, propose a new classification framework of video surveillance systems and investigate each aspect of this classification framework. This paper provides a comprehensive and systematic literature review of video surveillance systems from 2010-2011, extracted from six online digital libraries using article’s title and keyword. The proposed classification framework is expanded on the basis of architecture of video surveillance systems, which is composed of six layers: Concept and Foundation Layer, Network Infrastructure Layer, Processing Layer, Communication Layer, Application Layer, and User Interaction Layer. This review shows, although many publication and research focus on real-time aspect of the challenge, only few researches have investigated the deployment of extracted and retrieved information for forensic video surveillance.

  7. Design Science Methodology Applied to a Chemical Surveillance Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhuanyi; Han, Kyungsik; Charles-Smith, Lauren E.; Henry, Michael J.

    2017-05-11

    Public health surveillance systems gain significant benefits from integrating existing early incident detection systems,supported by closed data sources, with open source data.However, identifying potential alerting incidents relies on finding accurate, reliable sources and presenting the high volume of data in a way that increases analysts work efficiency; a challenge for any system that leverages open source data. In this paper, we present the design concept and the applied design science research methodology of ChemVeillance, a chemical analyst surveillance system.Our work portrays a system design and approach that translates theoretical methodology into practice creating a powerful surveillance system built for specific use cases.Researchers, designers, developers, and related professionals in the health surveillance community can build upon the principles and methodology described here to enhance and broaden current surveillance systems leading to improved situational awareness based on a robust integrated early warning system.

  8. Returning to the Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Benedikte Møller

    This PhD thesis is about shamanism among the Duha in Mongolia. It is based on 22 months of fieldwork (1999 - 2012) among the Duha reindeer nomads in Northern Mongolia, and examines why the Duha return to their traditional livelihood as hunters and herders in the taiga has resulted in a turn to ward...

  9. Higher Education Endowments Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, David; Walda, John D.; Sedlacek, Verne O.

    2012-01-01

    A new study of endowments by the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) and the Commonfund Institute has brought good news to college and universities: While endowment returns dropped precipitously in fiscal year 2009 as a result of the financial crisis and accompanying slide in equity markets, they climbed to an…

  10. Return to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  11. Returning to the Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Benedikte Møller

    This PhD thesis is about shamanism among the Duha in Mongolia. It is based on 22 months of fieldwork (1999 - 2012) among the Duha reindeer nomads in Northern Mongolia, and examines why the Duha return to their traditional livelihood as hunters and herders in the taiga has resulted in a turn to wa...

  12. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  13. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  14. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  15. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  16. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  17. HUBUNGAN RETURN SAHAM DAN INFLASI DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Triaryati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inflation to the stock return research had been held since three decades ago based on GeneralizeFisher’s Hypotheses, but ‘how inflation influenced stock return’ had become a debate until today. In Indonesiamost of the related research used inflation as one of the variables that influenced stock return despite of others inshort period of time. This research investigated the effect of inflation to the stock return in Indonesia within fifteenyears, which was divided into 3 (three periods of time reflecting different economic growth for each of it. Thepurpose of this allotment was to see the consistency how inflation influenced the stock market. Using a secondarydata from monthly inflation and IHSG period 1998 until 2012, included three hundred and sixty observation,simple regression model analyses was applied. This research acknowledged that inflation negatively influencedstock return in a long time period, but it did not exist in the short time period, except when the level of inflationreached 10%. In conclusion, inflation influence on the stock return was not ascertained by how long the investigationwas held but if there was any inflation rate reaching 10% within the period of investigation.

  18. Research on the Video Surveillance Platform Based on Cloud Computing%基于云计算的视频监控平台的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬

    2014-01-01

    随着网格计算、虚拟化技术等的日渐成熟,以及目前各种社交类网站的大步发展对服务器的高性能、高可靠、高扩展性的需求,催生了云计算。基于云计算的智慧城市综合服务平台,以监控视频为基础,融合多种智慧城市应用业务如智慧社区、智慧家庭、智慧交通、智慧城管等。针对当前视频监控平台凸显的瓶颈,例如流媒体服务器负载过重、容灾能力弱、扩展能力弱等缺点,结合当前流行的开源分布式框架Hadoop,提出一套分布式视频存储,格式转码以及单节点隐患优化的解决方案。%With the maturation of grid computing and virtualization technology, and the current various social networking sites demand server to be high-performance, high-reliability and high-scalability, gives birth to cloud computing. The Smart City service platform which based on the cloud computing, relied on the surveillance video, is an integration of a variety of smart city applications business include smart com-munity, smart home, smart transportation and so on. Mainly introduces the bottlenecks for the current video surveillance platform, such as overloading streaming media server, weak capability of disaster recovery and weak scalability, promotes a comprehensive solution com-bined with the current popular open source distributed framework Hadoop, which can deal with distributed video storage, format transcod-ing and disaster recovery and backup.

  19. Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esron D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  20. Congenital syphilis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Marangoni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital syphilis (CS is mainly a consequence of the lack of antenatal care and control of sexually transmitted infections.The bedrock of the prevention of CS is syphilis diagnosis by serological screening during pregnancy.Current Italian guidelines suggest that all the pregnant women should be tested in the first trimester. Due to the frequently absence of specific signs of infection at birth, laboratory tests are often the only method for a correct CS diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Treponema pallidum IgM Western Blot (WB and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as an aid in the diagnosis of CS during a prospective surveillance study carried out at St. Orsola Hospital in Bologna, Italy, from November 2000 through June 2010. All pregnant women during pregnancy and at delivery were screened for syphilis by ARCHITECT® Syphilis TP, Abbott. Positive samples were further analysed by Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Test (TPHA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests, Radim.An in-house Western Blot (WB was also performed. Infants born to syphilis seropositive mothers were enrolled in a prospective follow up. At birth, tests were performed (including IgM WB. Infants with positive RPR tests at birth born to mothers not adequately treated received also a long bone radiograph as well as a complete CSF analysis, including Veneral Disease Research Laboratori (VDRL (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics and PCR testing. All seroreactive infants received careful follow up examinations and serological testing at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 months or until the tests became negative. In this study, positive syphilis serology was noted in 151 pregnant women delivering in our hospital. Fifteen women had never been adequately treated, and 9 out 15 gave birth to infected newborns.All these 9 infants had positive IgM WB results on serum samples. Two babies had characteristic long bone lesions at X-ray examination and 3 were born

  1. Phobos Sample Return mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  2. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waissmann William

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  3. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Waissmann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  4. Revisiting the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Cancer Registry and Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (SEER-MHOS) Linked Data Resource for Patient-Reported Outcomes Research in Older Adults with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Erin E; Malinoff, Rochelle; Rozjabek, Heather M; Ambs, Anita; Clauser, Steven B; Topor, Marie A; Yuan, Gigi; Burroughs, James; Rodgers, Anne B; DeMichele, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians are increasingly recognizing the value of patient-reported outcome (PRO) data to better characterize people's health and experiences with illness and care. Considering the rising prevalence of cancer in adults aged 65 and older, PRO data are particularly relevant for older adults with cancer, who often require complex cancer care and have additional comorbid conditions. A data linkage between the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry and the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (MHOS) was created through a partnership between the National Cancer Institute and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services that created the opportunity to examine PROs in Medicare Advantage enrollees with and without cancer. The December 2013 linkage of SEER-MHOS data included the linked data for 12 cohorts, bringing the number of individuals in the linked data set to 95,723 with cancer and 1,510,127 without. This article reviews the features of the resource and provides information on some descriptive characteristics of the individuals in the data set (health-related quality of life, body mass index, fall risk management, number of unhealthy days in the past month). Individuals without (n=258,108) and with (n=3,440) cancer (1,311 men with prostate cancer, 982 women with breast cancer, 689 with colorectal cancer, 458 with lung cancer) were included in the current descriptive analysis. Given increasing longevity, advances in effective therapies and earlier detection, and population growth, the number of individuals aged 65 and older with cancer is expected to reach more than 12 million by 2020. SEER-MHOS provides population-level, self-reported, cancer registry-linked data for person-centered surveillance research on this growing population.

  5. Requirements for multimedia metadata schemes in surveillance applications for security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, J.; Grootjen, F.A.; Grootjen, M.; Wijn, R.; Aarts, O.; Roelofs, M.L.; Burghouts, G.J.; Bouma, H.; Alic, L.; Kraaij, W.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance for security requires communication between systems and humans, involves behavioural and multimedia research, and demands an objective benchmarking for the performance of system components. Metadata representation schemes are extremely important to facilitate (system) interoperability a

  6. Novel Surveillance Technologies for Airport Ramp Area Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the current research is to develop the concept, algorithms and software necessary for enabling a novel surveillance system for airports ramp areas....

  7. Zizek's return to Lenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a critical discussion of the thesis about the revived philosophical and political significance of Lenin, as recently propounded by Slavoj Zizek. Analyzing Zizek's writings, the author argues that the call for a "return to Lenin" derives from Zizek's strategy of "textual provocation" and the frustrating position of the leftist, radical tradition of political thought after the collapse of communism.

  8. Managing product returns to achieve supply chain sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaharudin, Mohd Rizaimy; Govindan, Kannan; Zailani, Suhaiza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this article is to develop research propositions for product returns management using the Institutional Theory (INT) as the foundation for the study. The paper culminates with a research model based on this theoretical perspective to examine the input and output of product...... established a product returns management program to handle three types of product returns found in their organizations. This is not surprising because successful product returns management has a number of internal and external benefits to the firms. Our interviews also uncover that the abundant amount...... of product returns is pressing these companies to implement an effective product returns management program. Based on the primary and secondary data collected in this study, three propositions are developed for future research, which should be tested with a large empirical data set to strengthen...

  9. ANALISIS PENGARUH ROA, EPS, FINANCIAL LEVERAGE, PROCEED TERHADAP INITIAL RETURN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andhi Wijayanto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Riset ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ROA, EPS, Financial Leverage dan Proceed terhadap initial return. Initial return diperoleh dengan mengukur perbedaan harga pada hari pertama perdangangan di pasar sekunder dengan harga saat IPO. Penelitian ini menduga bahwa ROA, EPS, Proceed mempunyai pengaruh negatif dengan initial return, disisi lain, Financial Leverage diduga mempunyai pengaruh yang positif terhadap initial return. Data pada penelitian ini terdapat dalam prospectus perusahaan. Sampel diambil dengan menggunakan metode purposive sampling dengan dua kriteria yaitu terdiri dari perusahaan yang IPO selama periode tahun 2000-2006 dan underpriced. Dengan kriteria tersebut, 67 perusahaan dijadikan sebagai sampel. Metode analisis menggunakan regresi berganda. Hasil penelitian ini adalah Earning Per-Share (EPS, dan Proceed mempunyai pengaruh negatif dan signifikan terhadap initial return, sedangkan Return on Assets Ratio (ROA, dan Financial Leverage tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap initial return. This research aimed to examine the influence of ROA, EPS, Financial Leverage, and Proceed on initial return. Initial return was measured by the difference between the firm’s stock price on the first day in the secondary market and it’s IPO. This research expected that return on assets ratio (ROA, earning per-share (EPS, and proceed negatively associated with initial return. On other hand, financial leverage ratio expected to positively associate with initial return. Data in this study were obtained from company prospectus, ICMD. Sample had been taken by using purposive sampling method with two criterions such as conducted IPO during period 2000-2006 and underpriced. With criterions, 67 companies obtains as sample. The analytical methods used multiple regressions, the empirical result of this research indicate that EPS, and proceed significantly associated with initial returns. Whereas ROA, and financial leverage ratio not

  10. The Research of Returns Distribution of Chinese Stock Market with Tsallis Theory%基于Tsallis理论的中国股市收益分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 苟小菊

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the probability distribution of stock index returns in three different time scales by using nonextensive statistical mechanics theory proposed by Tsallis, closely associated with dynamic system described by the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations in the financial market modeling, according to the high-frequency data of Shanghai and Shenzhen stock market Index from 2004-1-1 to 2008-11-13, and suggests that Tsallis distribution can describe the characteristics of fat-tail and finite variance of the two markets, and gives the market microstructure dynamic explanation. It indicates that the stock price processes of Shanghai and Shenzhen markets is not consistent with random walk, but the anomalous diffusion process. The two markets have very similar characteristics of nonlinear dynamic systems. These results for asset allocation and pricing, risk management and institutional development in China! Financial markets are of great significance.%应用Tsallis提出的非广延统计力学理论以及与之密切相关的非线性Fokker-Planck方程所描述的动力系统,根据我国上证指数和深证指数2004年1月1日~2008年11月13日的高频数据,分析了在三种不同的时间标度下股指收益的概率分布,发现Tsallis分布可以很好地描述两市收益分布的尖峰厚尾有限方差等特征,同时也给出了市场微观动力学层面的解释.揭示出我国上海和深圳股市的价格过程并不符合随机游走,而是反常扩散过程,两市具有十分接近的非线性动力系统特征.所得结论对于研究我国金融市场的资产配置和定价、风险管理和制度建设都具有重要的意义.

  11. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  12. Childhood TB Surveillance: Bridging the Knowledge Gap to Inform Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a leading cause of death globally. Natural history studies show that young children are at particularly high risk of progression to active TB and severe, disseminated disease following infection. Despite this, high-quality regional and global surveillance data on the burden of childhood TB are lacking. We discuss the unique aspects of TB in children that make diagnosis and therefore surveillance challenging; the limitations of available surveillance data; other data which provide insights into the true burden of childhood TB. Improved surveillance is among the key research priorities identified for childhood TB, but progress to date has been slow. Recent advances in TB diagnostics, and standardized clinical diagnostic guidelines and case definitions, all provide opportunities for new strategies to improve surveillance. Better-quality data on the burden and trends of childhood TB will inform and improve both public health policy and clinical practice.

  13. EVALUATION & TRENDS OF SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM NETWORK IN UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kr Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of ubiquitous computing, whole scenario of computing has been changed. It affected many inter disciplinary fields. This paper visions the impact of ubiquitous computing on video surveillance system. With increase in population and highly specific security areas, intelligent monitoring is the major requirement of modern world .The paper describes the evolution of surveillance system from analog to multi sensor ubiquitous system. It mentions the demand of context based architectures. It draws the benefit of merging of cloud computing to boost the surveillance system and at the same time reducing cost and maintenance. It analyzes some surveillance system architectures which are made for ubiquitous deployment. It provides major challenges and opportunities for the researchers to make surveillance system highly efficient and make them seamlessly embed in our environments.

  14. [Importance of epidemiologic surveillance in contact dermatitis: Spanish surveillance system on contact allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gavín, J; Armario-Hita, J C; Fernández-Redondo, V; Fernández-Vozmediano, J M; Sánchez-Pérez, J; Silvestre, J F; Uter, W; Giménez-Arnau, A M

    2011-01-01

    The high prevalence of contact dermatitis means that this common medical problem has considerable personal, societal, and economic impact. Clinical and epidemiologic research is needed if we are to shed light on the real situation of contact dermatitis in Spain. In this article we will look at epidemiologic research from a practical point of view and analyze the role of the dermatologist in planning and designing studies. The advantages of multicenter studies are discussed, along with the roles of national and international surveillance networks. We present the Spanish Surveillance System on Contact Allergies, which serves as a bridge between Spanish dermatologists and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies. The present and future aims of the Spanish network are described.

  15. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  16. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  17. History of trichinellosis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancou J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of trichinellosis, which existed in ancient times as testified by the discovery of parasite larvae on an Egyptian mummy, unfolded in several stages: discovery of encapsulated larvae (in the 1820s, identification and scientific description of these larvae (Paget Owen, 1835, followed by experimental infestations of animals (dogs, pigs, rabbits, mice or of humans as from 1850.The main occurrences of trichinellosis were followed with particular attention in Europe (Germany, Denmark, France, etc. and in the United States of America at the end of the XIXth century. They affected numerous domestic animal species (pigs, horses, etc. or wildlife and humans. Germany paid the heaviest toll with regard to the disease in humans, between 1860 and 1880, with several thousands of patients and more than 500 deaths.Different trichinellosis surveillance systems were set up in the relevant countries in the 1860s. In humans, this surveillance was carried out on affected living patients by a biopsy of the biceps muscles and subsequently by an analysis of eosinophilia (1895. In animals, surveillance was for a long time solely based on postmortem examination of the muscles of the affected animals. This method was used for the first time in 863 in Germany, and from the 1 890s, on several hundreds of thousands of pigs in Europe or in the United States of America.

  18. 人文学科研究方法旨趣的偏离与回归%Deviation and Return of Humanities Research M ethodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭东

    2015-01-01

    The development of humanities and that of science interwine and encourage each other . Humanities focuses on human value and human spirit , but the research methods of science have great influence on humanities research . As sociology of scientific knowledge discloses the contingency and situationality of science , humanities research should transcend the science research mode . And it should be humanity‐oriented and help people to feel and experience value and meaning in life . Therefore , the research methodology of humanities should manifest value features , with problem solution as its principle , breaking the limitation of discipline logic and framework , with reflection and action , shifting the focus to inner world ,human emotions ,willpower and psychological activities .%人文学科与自然学科的发展相互砥砺。尽管人文学科以人类价值和精神表现为研究对象,但自然科学研究方法对人文学科研究产生了重要影响。随着科学知识社会学对科学的偶然性、情境性的揭示,人文学科研究要超越自然科学的研究模式,以提升人性为导向,帮助人去感悟和体验生活的价值和意义。为此,其研究方法要进一步彰显价值属性,以问题解决为旨趣,超越学科逻辑和框架的钳制,在反思和行动中将重心转到内部世界,转到对人的情感、意志及心理活动的关注上来。

  19. Changes in drug use patterns reported on the web after the introduction of ADF OxyContin: findings from the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System Web Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K; Haynes, Colleen; Besharat, Andrea; Green, Jody L

    2017-09-01

    This qualitative study summarizes information that individuals shared online about use of OxyContin following the August 2010 introduction of the abuse deterrent formulation (ADF). The primary objective was to study online posts that endorsed continued use of OxyContin or a switch from OxyContin to another formulation of oxycodone or another substance altogether following the introduction of the ADF. A secondary objective was to determine whether posts revealed that the ADF led to cessation of OxyContin use. Data were collected with the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance System Web Monitoring Program, an online surveillance system that collects and organizes posts about prescription drugs from social media websites, blogs, and forums from 3Q2009 to 4Q2014 using a commercially available web platform. Posts were categorized by whether they conveyed a switch to drugs other than reformulated OxyContin or a continuation of reformulated OxyContin abuse. "Switch posts" primarily discussed switching to immediate-release opioids. "Continue abusing" posts identified tampering strategies for alternate routes of administration, oral use, and continued use although post authors were generally unhappy with the experience. No reference to OxyContin cessation as a function of the introduction of the ADF was found; however, discontinued use was discussed. Web Monitoring data are useful for capturing cross sections of Internet conversation reflecting reactions to new drug formulations. These data support the notion that users will gravitate to non-ADFs generally, and to immediate-release non-ADF opioid formulations, specifically, as long as these options remain on the market. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Property fund flows and returns

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen L. Lee

    2000-01-01

    This study is concerned with the impacts on property returns from property fund flows, and with the possibility of a reverse transmission from property fund flows to property returns. In other words this study investigates whether property returns “cause” fund flow changes, or whether fund flow changes “cause” property returns, or causality works in both directions.\\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud

  1. Property fund flows and returns

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Stephen L.

    2000-01-01

    This study is concerned with the impacts on property returns from property fund flows, and with the possibility of a reverse transmission from property fund flows to property returns. In other words this study investigates whether property returns “cause” fund flow changes, or whether fund flow changes “cause” property returns, or causality works in both directions.\\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud

  2. Economic Model For a Return on Investment Analysis of United States Government High Performance Computing (HPC) Research and Development (R & D) Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Earl C. [IDC Research Inc., Framingham, MA (United States); Conway, Steve [IDC Research Inc., Framingham, MA (United States); Dekate, Chirag [IDC Research Inc., Framingham, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This study investigated how high-performance computing (HPC) investments can improve economic success and increase scientific innovation. This research focused on the common good and provided uses for DOE, other government agencies, industry, and academia. The study created two unique economic models and an innovation index: 1 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in economic advancements in the form of ROI in revenue (GDP), profits (and cost savings), and jobs. 2 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in basic and applied innovations, looking at variations by sector, industry, country, and organization size. A new innovation index that provides a means of measuring and comparing innovation levels. Key findings of the pilot study include: IDC collected the required data across a broad set of organizations, with enough detail to create these models and the innovation index. The research also developed an expansive list of HPC success stories.

  3. Economic Model For a Return on Investment Analysis of United States Government High Performance Computing (HPC) Research and Development (R & D) Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Earl C.; Conway, Steve; Dekate, Chirag

    2013-09-30

    This study investigated how high-performance computing (HPC) investments can improve economic success and increase scientific innovation. This research focused on the common good and provided uses for DOE, other government agencies, industry, and academia. The study created two unique economic models and an innovation index: 1 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in economic advancements in the form of ROI in revenue (GDP), profits (and cost savings), and jobs. 2 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in basic and applied innovations, looking at variations by sector, industry, country, and organization size.  A new innovation index that provides a means of measuring and comparing innovation levels. Key findings of the pilot study include: IDC collected the required data across a broad set of organizations, with enough detail to create these models and the innovation index. The research also developed an expansive list of HPC success stories.

  4. Health surveillance in Scholars and Researchers who work with ionizing radiations; Vigilancia de la salud en Becarios e Investigadores que trabajan con Radiaciones Ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Gomez, A. J.; Rubio Garlito, M. A.; Grajales Ubierna, G. M.

    2012-07-01

    Individualized study of each Department that in his research used Rl with presence of fellows or staff engaged in training is conducted. From these data the individual design of each scholar or researcher is taking into account the working environment you will find and the estimation of doses estimated.

  5. Titan Science Return Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, Charles R.; Lincoln, William

    2014-01-01

    Each proposal for a NASA mission concept includes a Science Traceability Matrix (STM), intended to show that what is being proposed would contribute to satisfying one or more of the agency's top-level science goals. But the information traditionally provided cannot be used directly to quantitatively compare anticipated science return. We added numerical elements to NASA's STM and developed a software tool to process the data. We then applied this methodology to evaluate a group of competing concepts for a proposed mission to Saturn's moon, Titan.

  6. DNA surveillance: web-based molecular identification of whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H A; Lento, G M; Dalebout, M L; Goode, M; Ewing, G; McLaren, P; Rodrigo, A G; Lavery, S; Baker, C S

    2003-01-01

    DNA Surveillance is a Web-based application that assists in the identification of the species and population of unknown specimens by aligning user-submitted DNA sequences with a validated and curated data set of reference sequences. Phylogenetic analyses are performed and results are returned in tree and table format summarizing the evolutionary distances between the query and reference sequences. DNA Surveillance is implemented with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences representing the majority of recognized cetacean species. Extensions of the system to include other gene loci and taxa are planned. The service, including instructions and sample data, is available at http://www.dna-surveillance.auckland.ac.nz.

  7. Concussion Symptoms and Return to Play Time in Youth, High School, and College American Football Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Zuckerman, Scott L; Wasserman, Erin B; Covassin, Tracey; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P

    2016-07-01

    To our knowledge, little research has examined concussion across the youth/adolescent spectrum and even less has examined concussion-related outcomes (ie, symptoms and return to play). To examine and compare sport-related concussion outcomes (symptoms and return to play) in youth, high school, and collegiate football athletes. Athletic trainers attended each practice and game during the 2012 to 2014 seasons and reported injuries. For this descriptive, epidemiological study, data were collected from youth, high school, and collegiate football teams, and the analysis of the data was conducted between July 2015 and September 2015. The Youth Football Surveillance System included more than 3000 youth football athletes aged 5 to 14 years from 118 teams, providing 310 team seasons (ie, 1 team providing 1 season of data). The National Athletic Treatment, Injury, and Outcomes Network Program included 96 secondary school football programs, providing 184 team seasons. The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program included 34 college football programs, providing 71 team seasons. We calculated the mean number of symptoms, prevalence of each symptom, and the proportion of patients with concussions that had long return-to-play time (ie, required participation restriction of at least 30 days). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences among competition levels in the mean number of reported symptoms. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of return to play at less than 24 hours and at least 30 days. Overall, 1429 sports-related concussions were reported among youth, high school, and college-level football athletes with a mean (SD) of 5.48 (3.06) symptoms. Across all levels, 15.3% resulted return to play at least 30 days after the concussion and 3.1% resulted in return to play less than 24 hours after the concussion. Compared with youth, a higher number of concussion symptoms were reported in high school athletes (β = 1.39; 95

  8. The returns to foreign R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, R.A.; Lokshin, B.; Sadowski, B.

    2015-01-01

    Extant research on R&D internationalization has not examined how effective foreign R&D investments are in generating positive returns for the investing firms, in particular in comparison and conjunction with the effects of domestic R&D investments. We examine the effectiveness of international

  9. Formative research to optimize respondent-driven sampling surveys among hard-to-reach populations in HIV behavioral and biological surveillance: lessons learned from four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Whitehead, Sara; Simic-Lawson, Milena; Kendall, Carl

    2010-06-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is widely adopted as a method to assess HIV and other sexually transmitted infection prevalence and risk factors among hard-to-reach populations. Failures to properly implement RDS in several settings could potentially have been avoided, had formative research been conducted. However, to date there is no published literature addressing the use of formative research in preparing for RDS studies. This paper uses examples from Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bangkok, Thailand; Podgorica, Montenegro; and St Vincent's and Grenadine Islands, Eastern Caribbean; among populations of men who have sex with men, female sex workers, and injecting drug users to describe how formative research was used to plan, implement, and predict outcomes of RDS surveys and to provide a template of RDS-specific questions for conducting formative research in preparation for RDS surveys. We outline case studies to illustrate how formative research may help researchers to determine whether RDS methodology is appropriate for a particular population and sociocultural context, and to decide on implementation details that lead to successful study outcomes.

  10. AIDS-case surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S; Khodakevich, L; Sengupta, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 in India, the Ministry of Health realized that the diagnostic and reporting network for AIDS cases was inadequate as AIDS cases grew and that the establishment of specialized AIDS units in hospitals was not the best strategy. It decided to integrate AIDS diagnostic and management facilities into primary health services. It would arrange training for 1 physician from each district and peripheral hospital, private hospital, and inpatient service of other medical institutions in AIDS diagnosis and management. These physicians would then train others in the clinical diagnosis and management of AIDS cases. The physicians would use the World Health Organization [WHO] case definition of AIDS supported by HIV serological test results. All AIDS cases would be transferred to the Medical College Hospitals of the States and Union Territories (UTs), regional hospitals, and perhaps some private hospitals. Between May 1986 and October 1993, India had 459 AIDS cases reported from 19 States and UTs, especially the States of Tamil Nadul and Maharashtra. This AIDS case surveillance system should motivate political will, describe the underlying and preceding HIV epidemic, and contribute to the understanding of current and future course of the epidemic. Thus, it will guide decision makers to develop sound preventive strategies, to plan health care, and to evaluate interventions. The surveillance system's target population is all outpatients and inpatients at medical institutions. During 1993-1994, 1000 hospitals should make up the network of referral institutions. AIDS case surveillance coordinators (ASCs) at each institution form the basis of the network. The individual case record of each suspected AIDS case will have details on his/her life and medical history. Records of confirmed cases will be sent to State ASCs who will compile them for the National AIDS Control Organisation. After 3-4 year of training and practice in AIDS diagnosis and reporting, AIDS reporting will be

  11. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a cor...... cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return.......We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  12. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  13. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  14. Projectbeschrijving Surveillance Ziekenhuisinfecties 1996-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg JMJ van den; Boer AS de; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Sprenger MJW; Cucic S; Pelt W van; Centraal Begeleidingsorgaan; CIE

    1996-01-01

    In the Project Surveillance Hospital Acquired Infections a surveillance system in a national network of hospitals is being developed and implemented. In the project surveillance of hospital acquired infections is implemented in components: surveillance of surgical wound infections, surveillance of i

  15. Muscular Sarcocystosis in travelers returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia — 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    In October 2011, the GeoSentinel global surveillance system for travel-related morbidity detected an unusual cluster of illnesses among travelers returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia. Complete information was received for 17 of 32 (53%) patients reported to GeoSentinel; 9 probable and 1 confirmed ...

  16. ESBL-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in traveler returning from Guatemala to Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Juan José; Piedra-Carrasco, Nuria; Salvador, Fernando; Rodríguez, Virginia; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Planes, Anna M; Molina, Israel; Larrosa, M Nieves

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of typhoid fever in a traveler returning to Spain from Guatemala that was caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi which produced an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). This finding demonstrates the presence of ESBL-producing S. enterica ser. Typhi strains in the Americas. Enhanced surveillance is necessary to prevent further spread.

  17. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  18. Linear Factor Models and the Estimation of Expected Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarisoy, Cisil; de Goeij, Peter; Werker, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Estimating expected returns on individual assets or portfolios is one of the most fundamental problems of finance research. The standard approach, using historical averages,produces noisy estimates. Linear factor models of asset pricing imply a linear relationship between expected returns and exposu

  19. Non-Returning Student Interview Study and RSC's Institutional Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Suzi; Slark, Julie

    In 1989, staff from Rancho Santiago College's (RSC's) research office conducted telephone interviews with a random sample of 255 out of the 17,359 former students who attended RSC in spring 1989 but did not return for the next semester. The study was conducted to determine why students did not return, whether they accomplished their educational…

  20. Annotated Bibliography on Return Migration to Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, Angela; Carrasquillo, Ceferino

    This paper is an annotated bibliography on return migration from the mainland United States to Puerto Rico. An introduction defines the term "return migration" in the specific context of the Puerto Rican community. The introduction is followed by the bibliography, which lists and summarizes research studies and works dealing with demographic data…

  1. Social Dynamics of Return Migration to Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cintron, Celia Fernandez; Vales, Pedro A.

    The sociological elements associated with the process of return migration such as the motivations responsible for, or associated not only with return migration but with the migration process in general, are addressed in this investigation. Among the questions that guide the research problem are the following: the meaning of migration and of return…

  2. Comparing current definitions of return to work: A measurement approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, I.A.; Lee, H.; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Busse, J.W.; Hogg-Johnson, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Return-to-work (RTW) status is an often used outcome in work and health research. In low back pain, work is regarded as a normal activity a worker should return to in order to fully recover. Comparing outcomes across studies and even jurisdictions using different definitions of RTW can

  3. Comparing current definitions of return to work: A measurement approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, I.A.; Lee, H.; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Busse, J.W.; Hogg-Johnson, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Return-to-work (RTW) status is an often used outcome in work and health research. In low back pain, work is regarded as a normal activity a worker should return to in order to fully recover. Comparing outcomes across studies and even jurisdictions using different definitions of RTW can

  4. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Yeung, Karen; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  5. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  6. An Autonomous Mobile Robotic System for Surveillance of Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Di Paola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of intelligent surveillance systems is an active research area. In this context, mobile and multi-functional robots are generally adopted as means to reduce the environment structuring and the number of devices needed to cover a given area. Nevertheless, the number of different sensors mounted on the robot, and the number of complex tasks related to exploration, monitoring, and surveillance make the design of the overall system extremely challenging. In this paper, we present our autonomous mobile robot for surveillance of indoor environments. We propose a system able to handle autonomously general-purpose tasks and complex surveillance issues simultaneously. It is shown that the proposed robotic surveillance scheme successfully addresses a number of basic problems related to environment mapping, localization and autonomous navigation, as well as surveillance tasks, like scene processing to detect abandoned or removed objects and people detection and following. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through experimental tests using a multisensor platform equipped with a monocular camera, a laser scanner, and an RFID device. Real world applications of the proposed system include surveillance of wide areas (e.g. airports and museums and buildings, and monitoring of safety equipment.

  7. DETERMINAN RETURN SAHAM SYARIAH DENGAN RISIKO SISTEMATIS SEBAGAI VARIABEL MEDIASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irman firmansyah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Islamic capital market is the investment alternatives in accordance with Islamic law. However, the purpose of investing is to obtain a high return stock. This study aimed to analyze the fundamental factors in predicting stock return of sharia with systematic risk as a mediating variable. Fundamental factors measured by DER, EPS, ROA, PER and NPM and systematic risk measured by beta. Data taken from the Islamic capital market through the Jakarta Islamic Index (JII in a span of research in 2013 and 2014. The analysis used is multiple regression analysis and Sobel test. The results showed that DER and PER positive effect on sharia stock return, beta negative effect on sharia stock return and EPS, ROA and NPM no effect on sharia stock return. Whereas in mediating variable testing, the beta did not mediate the relationship between DER, EPS, ROA, NPM and PER to sharia stock return.

  8. Description and validation of a new automated surveillance system for Clostridium difficile in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaine, Manon; Gubbels, S; Voldstedlund, M

    2017-01-01

    The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). Mi......Ba-based surveillance. Surveillance based on MiBa was superior to the current surveillance system, and the findings show that the number of CD cases in Denmark hitherto has been under-reported. There were only minor differences between local data and the MiBa-based surveillance, showing the completeness and validity...... of CD data in MiBa. This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications....

  9. Homeward bound: Yemeni return migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, N A

    1993-01-01

    The author discusses the return migration of Yemenis from Saudi Arabia during the period 1970-1989. "Through the use of original, empirical data collected in Yemen, this article sheds light on who these returning migrants are, where they have come from, and what sort of future awaits them.... The survey conducted on return migration was administered in the winter and spring of 1989 in a region of North Yemen called al-Hujariyya."

  10. Economic Assessment of Zoonoses Surveillance in a 'One Health' Context: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Martins, S; Rushton, J; Stärk, K D C

    2016-08-01

    Collaboration between animal and public health sectors has been highlighted as a means to improve the management of zoonotic threats. This includes surveillance systems for zoonoses, where enhanced cross-sectoral integration and sharing of information are seen as key to improved public health outcomes. Yet, there is a lack of evidence on the economic returns of such collaboration, particularly in the development and implementation of surveillance programmes. The economic assessment of surveillance in this context needs to be underpinned by the understanding of the links between zoonotic disease surveillance in animal populations and the wider public health disease mitigation process and how these relations impact on the costs and benefits of the surveillance activities. This study presents a conceptual framework of these links as a basis for the economic assessment of cross-sectoral zoonoses surveillance with the aim of supporting the prioritization of resource allocation to surveillance. In the proposed framework, monetary, non-monetary and intermediate or intangible cost components and benefit streams of three conceptually distinct stages of zoonotic disease mitigation are identified. In each stage, as the final disease mitigation objective varies so does the use of surveillance information generated in the animal populations for public health decision-making. Consequently, the associated cost components and benefit streams also change. Building on the proposed framework and taking into account these links, practical steps for its application are presented and future challenges are discussed.

  11. Understanding Guyton's venous return curves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beard, Daniel A; Feigl, Eric O

    2011-01-01

    ...) was experimentally increased the right atrial pressure decreased, Arthur Guyton and coworkers proposed an interpretation that right atrial pressure represents a back pressure restricting venous return...

  12. National Department of Defense Surveillance for Invasive Streptococcus Pneumoniae: Antibiotic Resistance, Serotype Distribution, and Arbitrarily Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-15

    penicillin -susceptible and peni- cillin-resistant Streptococcnspneuttmoniae serotypes in Canada. J Infect Dis Streptococcus pneumoniae Surveillance Group...Gray for the Streptococcus pneumonia Surveillance Group Report No. 00-44 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH...Defense Surveillance for Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae : Antibiotic Resistance, Serotype Distribution, and Arbitrarily Primed Polymerase Chain

  13. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    coupled with social interaction and sometimes framed as entertainment or games. Facilitated by online community and social networking sites, the possibility of collecting and sharing data is a significant feature of these self-monitoring technologies. They all include sharing features where weight, blood...... pressure, fitness activities, sleep cycles, etc. can be broadcasted, e.g. as tweets on Twitter or status updates on Facebook. Such quantification practices with monitoring technologies become co-producing when individuals constitute themselves as subjects engaging in self-tracking, self-care, and self......, and gamification modulate the enactment of selfhood? How does self-surveillance contribute to corresponding notions of self-optimization and self-cultivation such as “the good life”, “sustainable lifestyle”, “healthy living”, “good learning” and “work productivity”?...

  14. Secure surveillance videotapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pepper, S. [International Safeguards Project Office, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system`s tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal.

  15. Rope Climbing Robot with Surveillance Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanza Zafar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past different engineers and researcher developed robots capable of climbing for various purposes. In this paper we have developed a robot capable of rope climbing in both horizontal and vertical direction. Furthermore, the robot has the ability to perform surveillance using a camera mounted on top of the robot. The quality of the transmitted video from the camera to the computer is clear and stable. Hence the developed robot is a good choice for surveillance purposes. In addition, it can be used to traverse floors of a building. It uses an IR sensor to sense strips attached at each floor. Once the strips are sensed, a dropping mechanism is activated in which a specific object is dropped to the targeted floor or location. The robot can work in automatic mode or manual through RF signals from an RF transmitter. Finally the robot is cost effective compared to many other developed robots for rope climbing.

  16. [Type Code of the pharmaceutical industry for the protection of personal data in the field of clinical research and pharmaceutical surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraguas, Lourdes; Francés, Mercedes; Riesgo, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The Type Code establishes uniform criteria in the sectoral application of the Organic Law on Data Protection (LOPD) and its implementing Regulation increases the guarantee of its compliance and reduces the level of uncertainty as to its implementation. Two key activities in the pharmaceutical industry are considered, namely clinical research and pharmacovigilance, all scenarios that take place in the daily practice of these activities are developed and procedures for the use of personal data and irreversible dissociation are established, with these last being exempt from the application of data protection legislation. It develops a protocol that includes the guidelines to follow with regard to the exercise of rights of access, rectification, cancellation and opposition exercised by those affected and stipulates the supervisory functions of the Code by the Monitoring Committee.

  17. Theorizing Surveillance in the UK Crime Control Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McCahill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon the work of Pierre Bourdieu and Loic Wacquant, this paper argues that the demise of the Keynesian Welfare State (KWS and the rise of neo-liberal economic policies in the UK has placed new surveillance technologies at the centre of a reconfigured “crime control field” (Garland, 2001 designed to control the problem populations created by neo-liberal economic policies (Wacquant, 2009a. The paper also suggests that field theory could be usefully deployed in future research to explore how wider global trends or social forces, such as neo-liberalism or bio-power, are refracted through the crime control field in different national jurisdictions. We conclude by showing how this approach provides a bridge between society-wide analysis and micro-sociology by exploring how the operation of new surveillance technologies is mediated by the “habitus” of surveillance agents working in the crime control field and contested by surveillance subjects.

  18. Theorizing Surveillance in the UK Crime Control Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McCahill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon the work of Pierre Bourdieu and Loic Wacquant, this paper argues that the demise of the Keynesian Welfare State (KWS and the rise of neo-liberal economic policies in the UK has placed new surveillance technologies at the centre of a reconfigured “crime control field” (Garland, 2001 designed to control the problem populations created by neo-liberal economic policies (Wacquant, 2009a. The paper also suggests that field theory could be usefully deployed in future research to explore how wider global trends or social forces, such as neo-liberalism or bio-power, are refracted through the crime control field in different national jurisdictions. We conclude by showing how this approach provides a bridge between society-wide analysis and micro-sociology by exploring how the operation of new surveillance technologies is mediated by the “habitus” of surveillance agents working in the crime control field and contested by surveillance subjects.

  19. Using Video Surveillance Footage to Support Validity of Self-Reported Classroom Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dabae; Arthur, Ian T.; Morrone, Anastasia S.

    2017-01-01

    The use of video surveillance footage presents a new possibility in educational research as a reliable and valid source of learning and teaching activities in classrooms. However, the unique nature of surveillance footage requires different approaches and poses distinctive challenges in utilizing it in research, yet no methodological guides are…

  20. Using Video Surveillance Footage to Support Validity of Self-Reported Classroom Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dabae; Arthur, Ian T.; Morrone, Anastasia S.

    2017-01-01

    The use of video surveillance footage presents a new possibility in educational research as a reliable and valid source of learning and teaching activities in classrooms. However, the unique nature of surveillance footage requires different approaches and poses distinctive challenges in utilizing it in research, yet no methodological guides are…

  1. The return on investment of a Medicaid tobacco cessation program in Massachusetts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Richard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A high proportion of low-income people insured by the Medicaid program smoke. Earlier research concerning a comprehensive tobacco cessation program implemented by the state of Massachusetts indicated that it was successful in reducing smoking prevalence and those who received tobacco cessation benefits had lower rates of in-patient admissions for cardiovascular conditions, including acute myocardial infarction, coronary atherosclerosis and non-specific chest pain. This study estimates the costs of the tobacco cessation benefit and the short-term Medicaid savings attributable to the aversion of inpatient hospitalization for cardiovascular conditions. METHODS: A cost-benefit analysis approach was used to estimate the program's return on investment. Administrative data were used to compute annual cost per participant. Data from the 2002-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Surveys were used to estimate the costs of hospital inpatient admissions by Medicaid smokers. These were combined with earlier estimates of the rate of reduction in cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to the tobacco cessation program to calculate the return on investment. FINDINGS: Administrative data indicated that program costs including pharmacotherapy, counseling and outreach costs about $183 per program participant (2010 $. We estimated inpatient savings per participant of $571 (range $549 to $583. Every $1 in program costs was associated with $3.12 (range $3.00 to $3.25 in medical savings, for a $2.12 (range $2.00 to $2.25 return on investment to the Medicaid program for every dollar spent. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that an investment in comprehensive tobacco cessation services may result in substantial savings for Medicaid programs. Further federal and state policy actions to promote and cover comprehensive tobacco cessation services in Medicaid may be a cost-effective approach

  2. Procedures for the ethical review of public health surveillance protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present commentary is based on the following considerations: 1 for the purposes of authorisation, a distinction is drawn between "research" and "intervention". The procedures for authorising the former are more complex, the relevant controls are stricter and approval has to be granted by a Research Ethics Committee (REC; 2 although the debate is still open, it is barely credible to claim that public health surveillance is not a form of research. It should, therefore, be subject to rigorous ethical assessment; 3 when addressing specifically the issue of surveillance, it would be appropriate to shift the focus of attention from the type of procedure (research/intervention to the risk implied in that procedure; 4 much emphasis has hitherto been placed on the risks that public health surveillance may imply for the protection of personal data; 5 the emphasis on the protection of personal data is frequently excessive and the risks should be examined in a broader context.

  3. Cluster of Imported Vivax Malaria in Travelers Returning From Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Thomas; Labarca, Jaime; Cortes, Claudia P; Rosas, Reinaldo; Balcells, M Elvira; Perret, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    We report a cluster of imported vivax malaria in three of five Chilean travelers returning from Peru in March 2015. The cluster highlights the high risk of malaria in the Loreto region in northern Peru, which includes popular destinations for international nature and adventure tourism. According to local surveillance data, Plasmodium vivax is predominating, but Plasmodium falciparum is also present, and the incidence of both species has increased during recent years. Travelers visiting this region should be counseled about the prevention of malaria and the options for chemoprophylaxis.

  4. Demonstrating the robustness of population surveillance data: implications of error rates on demographic and mortality estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2008-03-01

    estimates and regression analyses to significant amounts of randomly introduced errors indicates a high level of robustness of the dataset. This apparent inertia of population parameter estimates to simulated errors is largely due to the size of the dataset. Tolerable margins of random error in DSS data may exceed 20%. While this is not an argument in favour of poor quality data, reducing the time and valuable resources spent on detecting and correcting random errors in routine DSS operations may be justifiable as the returns from such procedures diminish with increasing overall accuracy. The money and effort currently spent on endlessly correcting DSS datasets would perhaps be better spent on increasing the surveillance population size and geographic spread of DSSs and analysing and disseminating research findings.

  5. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  6. The Return to Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    different estimators and two different data sources for GDP and investment our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return on aid projects and with aggregate estimates of the rate...

  7. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  8. [Return to the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouaidou, N G

    1993-08-01

    Sahelian countries occupy an inglorious place in the global list of human development. The human development index is superior to the gross national product (GNP) at measuring the progress of a country in terms of development, because it includes income, longevity, and educational level. The highest ranked Sahelian country holds the 114th position out of a 173 countries. The low human development index scores for the Sahel reflects the socioeconomic crisis which has overcome these countries. In 1991, only 3 of 9 Sahelian countries had a mean GP equal or superior to US$500. Just 2 countries had a life expectancy greater than 50 years. In fact, the Sahel had a lower life expectancy than all of Africa (50 years) and much lower than Asia (64 years) and Latin America (67 years). The economic crisis is worse than the cold statistics show. It destabilizes the most disadvantaged populations. The pressure it exerts often leads public authorities to adopt unpopular measures. It depreciates some sociocultural values and disintegrates traditional social structures. It is accentuated by the effects of war and drought. Internal and external migration increases even as urban hope is uncertain. For most people, the family (the traditional framework of individual development) is ready to break apart, leaving only a disincarnate nuclear entity to subsist. Yet, African history is built around the extended family: the place of reproduction, production, distribution, formation, management, perpetuation of demographic behavior, and social control. Senegal and Mali have created ministries which invest in families. The Third African Conference on Population, in 1992, chose its theme to be the relationship between family, population, and sustainable development. It is important to return to the natural or primordial framework--family--as a refuge against the economic crisis.

  9. Living in Surveillance Societies: The Normalisation of Surveillance in Europe and the Threat of Britain’s Bad Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Murakami Wood

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that surveillance is becoming increasingly normalised across Europe and that this is altering the landscape of liberty and security. It identifies this normalisation as a product of the globalisation of surveillance, the domestication of security, the desire of the European Union (EU to create a distinct leading role in security, and the influence of the 'bad example' of the United Kingdom (UK. The article uses the two very different examples of video-surveillance and electronic public services in the UK to make this case and to argue for both stronger resistance to calls to make human rights more flexible in a risk and security-driven age and more detailed research into the differences between emerging surveillance societies in Europe.

  10. PROFILE OF ROMANIAN RETURNED MIGRANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria ZAMFIR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the post-communist period, migration of the Romanians became an emergent phenomenon which went through many structural transformations. Within the context of the recent economic crisis and of some unfavourable collective attitudes regarding the immigration in some countries of destination, evidences of the reverse movement, of return of some migrants in Romania have appeared. This paper aims to examine the profile of Romanian returned migrants, with a special view on the returning motivations. Results show that the family related factors have the highest influence in the returning decision among Romanian migrants. Finally, future intentions of the returned migrants confirm the model of the circulatory migration as a strategy of life of the Romanians.

  11. 不同还田方式下木薯茎秆腐解及养分释放特征研究%Research on characteristics of decomposing and nutrients releasing of cassava stalk under different ways returned to field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雨坤; 李光义; 侯宪文; 胡杨; 陈运; 张雪华; 李勤奋

    2014-01-01

    采用网袋法,研究不同还田方式下木薯茎秆腐解及养分释放特征。结果表明:不同还田方式下,木薯茎秆在30~60 d腐解速度较快,在240 d时,覆土、覆土覆膜和仅覆膜处理下木薯茎秆的质量累积减少率分别为69.9%、80.8%和73.8%,表现为覆土覆膜>覆膜>覆土。腐解过程中木薯茎秆养分的释放速率表现为K>P>N≈C。240 d,碳、氮、磷、钾的累积释放率分别为69.9%~80.8%、78.1%~94.2%、87.3%~93.5%、97.4%~98.5%。考虑木薯茎秆还田养分的释放及碳氮比变化情况,木薯茎秆还田时可以适量减少基肥中钾肥的用量,并在还田后期结合木薯的生长情况适当配施氮肥;木薯茎秆还田最好采用覆土覆膜的方式。%Net bags were employed to research characteristics of decomposing and nutrients releasing of cassava stalk under dif-ferent ways returned to field. The results showed that the decomposing speed of cassava stalk was fast during 30 to 60 days un-der different ways returned to field. Under covered with soil, covered with soil and plastic film and covered with plastic film only, the accumulated decay rate was 69. 9%, 80. 8% and 73. 8% respectively at the 240th day, and was ranked as: cov-ered with soil and plastic film >covered with plastic film only>covered with soil. Releasing speed of nutrients of cassava stalk ranked as: potassium > phosphorus >nitrogen≈carbon. The accumulated releasing rates of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were 69. 9% ~80. 8%, 78. 1% ~94. 2%, 87. 3% ~93. 5% and 97. 4% ~98. 5% respectively at 240th day. Considering both the nutrients releasing and carbon nitrogen ratio, it was suggested that the content of potassic fertilizer in base manure should be reduced and nitrogen fertilizer could be increased according to growth of cassava. The way of covered with soil and plastic film when returned cassava stalk to field could be the best choice.

  12. News Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

  13. Returns management in the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jeszka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The aim of this exploratory empirical research was to evaluate the level of cooperation in the area of reverse logistics between selected retail chains and logistics operators and suppliers; to identify and evaluate the influence the procedures of handling returns have on the relationships with customers, cost reduction, value recovery, inventory reduction and increasing profitability; as well as determining to what extent logistics operators are involved in the procedures of handling returns in the analysed chains. Methods: Based on the literature and the experience of researchers from developed countries a questionnaire was constructed which was subsequently used to conduct empirical research in selected retail chains operating in two provinces in Poland. The questionnaire survey involved the sales personnel of selected retail chains in the clothing industry. Overall, 105 questionnaires were collected and analysed. Results: Various aspects of cooperation with suppliers and logistics operators in respect of handling returns were evaluated. Most indicators of cooperation were evaluated favourably, with the exception of joint access to the database, the use of inventory data available online, and access to information from the warehouse, which received low marks from the respondents. In the case of the studied stores, some of the activities in the area of reverse logistics are outsourced; for example, obtaining products from users, logistics, and the transport of returns are typically done by an outside operator. Inspection, sorting, appraisal, repairs, as well as the sales of refurbished products are usually performed within the studied retail corporations. Conclusions: The research has shown that the retail chains developed very good programmes for handling returns in the supply chain, as evidenced by the presented and highly rated indicators of cooperation, with the exception of information exchange where there is still much

  14. Multifractal Models, Intertrade Durations and Return Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Segnon, Mawuli Kouami

    2015-01-01

    This thesis covers the application of multifractal processes in modeling financial time series. It aims to demonstrate the capacity and the robustness of the multifractal processes to better model return volatility and ultra high frequency financial data than both the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH)-type and autoregressive conditional duration (ACD) models currently used in research and practice. The thesis is comprised of four main parts that ...

  15. Vigilância sanitária e pesquisa-ação: a emergência de novas tecnologias no processo de trabalho e em pesquisa / Health surveillance and action research: the emergence of new technologies in the work process and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Guimarães Araújo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo resulta da pesquisa-ação “A experiência de implantação do Plano diretor de Vigilância Sanitária — PDVISA — em um contexto municipal”. Tem como objetivo analisar as quatro tecnologias que emergiram a partir dessa investigação, não usuais em pesquisa ou no processo de trabalho. Foram caracterizadas como tais devido a terem assumido a posição de produtos da pesquisa e de instrumentos para a coleta de informações, contribuindo para a consolidação do estudo. A primeira, denominada de Histórias da VISA real, introduziu a técnica de contar histórias baseada nas experiências vividas pelos trabalhadores. A segunda, o seminário Vigilância Sanitária, Integralidade e Mobilização Social, favoreceu a inclusão da comunidade e setor regulado em discussões sobre a integralidade e mobilização social. A terceira, o projeto VISAMAIS, buscou ações educacionais com setores da comunidade. E a quarta foi a recepção da Mostra cultural VISA e cidadania, do CECOVISA/FIOCRUZ, como uma estratégia de aproximar a comunidade das ações em VISA. Essas tecnologias infl uíram favoravelmente na transformação da realidade em VISA ao se fi rmarem na fundamentalidade da escuta das múltiplas vozes e na responsabilização dos diversos sujeitos que constituem as práticas em Vigilância Sanitária. ----------------------------------------This article results from the action research “The implantation experience of the Sani-tary Surveillance Forward Plan – in a municipal context”. The objective is to analyze the four technologies that have emerged from this inquiry, not usual in researches or in the process of work. They have been characterized as such, as they have assumed the posi-tion of research products, and instruments for information collection, contributing for the consolidation of the study. The fi rst, called Stories from ‘Real VISA’, introduced the story telling technique based on experiences lived by the

  16. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evaluation FAQs Additional Evaluation Resources Health & Academics Anti-Bullying Policies and Enumeration: An Infobrief for Local Education ... Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the ...

  17. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulford, Roberta Nancy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This lecture discusses stockpile stewardship efforts and the role surveillance plays in the process. Performance of the RTGs is described, and the question of the absence of anticipated He is addressed.

  18. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    ... river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image...

  19. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 8 -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 8 (ASR-8) is a short-range (60 nautical mile (nmi)), analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  20. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 7 -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 7 (ASR-7) is a short-range (60 nautical miles (nmi)) analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  1. Surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Widowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children worldwide. Data on the burden of disease in Indonesia is limited. Objective To provide an epidemiological profile of rotavirus infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. Methods In January - December 2006, a prospective, hospital-based surveillance was carried out in children aged less than five years, presenting with diarrhea. Stool samples were examined for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. G- and P-typing were performed on specimens confirmed to be positive by EIA. Results A total of 513 fecal specimens from 534 children were tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of the specimens, mostly of the G9 type (62.5%. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhea was highest in the 6 month to 2 years age group (60.4%. Children with rotavirus diarrhea were more likely to present with dehydration, compared to those with non-rotavirus diarrhea (94% vs 70%, respectively, P=0.03. Conclusion Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in children with diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of pediatric diarrheal specimens tested in our study. This finding warrants the use of a large-scale program to prevent disease, such as vaccination against rotavirus. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:22-7].

  2. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  3. Development of the Observational Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Rieutort, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Impact of population on the environment, and conversely, is obvious and represents a real challenge for Public Health since 2000. It has been shown an increase in cancer prevalence, respiratory disease or even reproductive disorders, for which multifactorial origins are strongly suspected. In this context, surveillance has become an essential tool to decision making in public health, and surveillance networks of health events are multiplying, giving rise to numerous databases (sometimes consi...

  4. Syndromic surveillance: A local perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The promise of syndromic surveillance extends beyond early warning for bioterrorist attacks. Even if bioterrorism is first detected by an astute clinician, syndromic surveillance can help delineate the size, location, and tempo of the epidemic or provide reassurance that a large outbreak is not occurring when a single case or a small, localized cluster of an unusual illness is detected. More broadly, however, as public health and medicine proceed in our information age, the use of existing el...

  5. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  6. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RW Hanf; TM Poston

    2000-09-20

    Environmental surveillance data are used in assessing the impact of current and past site operations on human health and the environment, demonstrating compliance with applicable local, state, and federal environmental regulations, and verifying the adequacy of containment and effluent controls. SESP sampling schedules are reviewed, revised, and published each calendar year in the Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule. Environmental samples are collected by SESP staff in accordance with the approved sample collection procedures documented in this manual.

  7. INFLUENCE OF INVESTORS’ ATTENTION ON STOCK RETURN, LIQUIDITY, AND RETURN VOLATILITY COMPARISON BETWEEN MANUFACTURE COMPANIES IN INDONESIA AND INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Puspita Sari, Noviana Icha

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to examine the influence of investors’ attention of company stock on stock return, liquidity, and return volatility comparison between manufacture companies in Indonesia and India in the year of 2011-2013. Investors’ attention is measured by a direct proxy which is Google Search Volume Index from Google trends. This research uses secondary data and processed by regression analysis. The samples are gathered from Indonesia stock exchange and India stock exchange. The result o...

  8. 返库移民的“黑户”岁月--以陆山水库伊北村返迁移民为例%Life of Illegal Residents after Returning to Reservoir Area---Research on Returning Immigrants in Yibei Village of Lushan Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阿江; 冯燕

    2016-01-01

    From 1977 ,the migrants of Lushan reservoir returned to their hometown ,and they have lived in the reservoir area without residence registration for more than 30 years .The returning immigrants didn’t have residence cards ,homestead and cultivated land because of draconian state polices .At the early time ,the returning immigrants could stay in the villages with the social support of the relationships .As they had no residence registration ,they could reclaim land without registration which did not need to pay taxes .And they were engaged in the construction or operated some small business .The returning immigrants have built a stable material base in life .When the other villagers were in the charge of one‐child policy ,on the contrary ,the returning immigrants could procreate many children .Families raising more than three children accounted for 70% .In the period of state absorbing resources from villages ,the returning immigrants lived a convenient life in reservoir area without residence registration .But when the state began to import many resources to build rural public welfare ,the returning immigrants were excluded from the policy .Legalization of identity has become a problem that must be solved .%陆山水库返迁移民自1977年返库,历经30余年的“黑户”生活。未得到政府允许的返迁移民在库区成为无户口、无宅基地、无耕地的“三无”群体。返库初期,凭借着亲缘关系网络的支持得以在库区落脚;返迁移民耕种库区的消落地、开荒地而无须缴纳税费,加之以手艺从事建筑行业或做生意,在库区逐渐稳定下来;返迁移民不受库区计划生育政策的约束,三孩及以上家庭占70%。国家对农村从“多取少予”到“多予少取”的转变时,返迁移民被排除在农村公共福利之外,身份合法化成为必须解决的问题。

  9. The Research of Impact of Returning Cultivated Land to Forests in Poverty Areas around Beijing-Tianjin on Local Economy——A Case of Shunping County in Hebei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking Shunping County of Hebei Province as an example,according to the relevant survey data in the year 2008 after returning cultivated land and data in the year 2001 before returning cultivated land, the thesis analyzes the impact of implementation of project of returning cultivated land to forests on local land use structure, three industrial added value and famers’ per capita income. The results show that returning cultivated land has played a certain positive role on the local economic development and the improvement of people’s life level.However, there are also some shortcomings: although famers’ income is increasing with low growth rate, a large portion of famers still have not shaken off poverty; the farmers depends on subsidies greatly and the compensation mechanism of returning cultivated land is not considered well. China should further perfect the ecological compensation plan, and build rational ecological compensation mechanism in order to make the areas of returning cultivated land have self-blood-producing function; Shunping County should make full use of the location advantage in areas around Beijing-Tianjin, develop deep processing based on fruit trees industry, strengthen farmers’ skill training, and increase input in the agricultural infrastructure construction to propel the sustainable development of agriculture.

  10. Estimating Marginal Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Pedro; Heckman, James J.; Vytlacil, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates marginal returns to college for individuals induced to enroll in college by different marginal policy changes. The recent instrumental variables literature seeks to estimate this parameter, but in general it does so only under strong assumptions that are tested and found wanting. We show how to utilize economic theory and local instrumental variables estimators to estimate the effect of marginal policy changes. Our empirical analysis shows that returns are higher for individuals with values of unobservables that make them more likely to attend college. We contrast our estimates with IV estimates of the return to schooling. PMID:25110355

  11. Sovereign Risk and Currently Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Corte, Pasquale; Sarno, Lucio; Schmeling, Maik

    explanatory power for currency returns which is largely driven by shocks to global credit risk. Consistent with the notion that sovereign risk is priced, we find that a country's exposure to global credit risk forecasts excess returns to trading exchange rates as well as to trading on the volatility, skewness......We empirically investigate the relation between sovereign risk and exchange rates for a broad set of currencies. An increase in the credit default swap (CDS) spread of a country is accompanied by a significant depreciation of the exchange rate. More generally, CDS spread changes have substantial......, and kurtosis of currency returns....

  12. Appropriateness Criteria for Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Michael L; Dhir, Apoorv; Auffenberg, Gregory B; Linsell, Susan; Gao, Yuqing; Rosenberg, Bradley; Jafri, S Mohammad; Klotz, Laurence; Miller, David C; Ghani, Khurshid R; Bernstein, Steven J; Montie, James E; Lane, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of active surveillance varies widely across urological communities, which suggests a need for more consistency in the counseling of patients. To address this need we used the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method to develop appropriateness criteria and counseling statements for active surveillance. Panelists were recruited from MUSIC urology practices. Combinations of parameters thought to influence decision making were used to create and score 160 theoretical clinical scenarios for appropriateness of active surveillance. Recent rates of active surveillance among real patients across the state were assessed using the MUSIC registry. Low volume Gleason 6 was deemed highly appropriate for active surveillance whereas high volume Gleason 6 and low volume Gleason 3+4 were deemed appropriate to uncertain. No scenario was deemed inappropriate or highly inappropriate. Prostate specific antigen density, race and life expectancy impacted scores for intermediate and high volume Gleason 6 and low volume Gleason 3+4. The greatest degree of score dispersion (disagreement) occurred in scenarios with long life expectancy, high volume Gleason 6 and low volume Gleason 3+4. Recent rates of active surveillance use among real patients ranged from 0% to 100% at the provider level for low or intermediate biopsy volume Gleason 6, demonstrating a clear opportunity for quality improvement. By virtue of this work urologists have the opportunity to present specific recommendations from the panel to their individual patients. Community-wide efforts aimed at increasing rates of active surveillance and reducing practice and physician level variation in the choice of active surveillance vs treatment are warranted. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The politics of surveillance policy: UK regulatory dynamics after Snowden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hintz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The revelations by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden have illustrated the scale and extent of digital surveillance carried out by different security and intelligence agencies. The publications have led to a variety of concerns, public debate, and some diplomatic fallout regarding the legality of the surveillance, the extent of state interference in civic life, and the protection of civil rights in the context of security. Debates about the policy environment of surveillance emerged quickly after the leaks began, but actual policy change is only starting. In the UK, a draft law (Investigatory Powers Bill has been proposed and is currently discussed. In this paper, we will trace the forces and dynamics that have shaped this particular policy response. Addressing surveillance policy as a site of struggle between different social forces and drawing on different fields across communication policy research, we suggest eight dynamics that, often in conflicting ways, have shaped the regulatory framework of surveillance policy in the UK since the Snowden leaks. These include the governmental context; national and international norms; court rulings; civil society advocacy; technical standards; private sector interventions; media coverage; and public opinion. We investigate how state surveillance has been met with criticism by parts of the technology industry and civil society, and that policy change was required as a result of legal challenges, review commissions and normative interventions. However a combination of specific government compositions, the strong role of security agendas and discourses, media justification and a muted reaction by the public have hindered a more fundamental review of surveillance practices so far and have moved policy debate towards the expansion, rather than the restriction, of surveillance in the aftermath of Snowden.

  14. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  15. Preventing customer defection and stimulating return of the lost customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senić Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Customers represent company's most valuable asset. Company can assure its survival, further growth and development by retaining existing, attracting new and returning lost customers. Retaining existing, loyal customers is the most profitable business activity, attracting new ones is the most expensive, while returning lost and frequently forgotten customers is a type of business activity that still generates modest interest among researchers and practitioners. So far, marketing strategies have been mainly directed towards the first two categories of customers. The objective of this paper is dedicated to customer defection and returning lost customers. Paper discusses customer relationship life-cycle and the significance of managing customer return within it, types of customer defections, the process of managing return, as well as, the reasons that led to customer defection.

  16. Curriculum of return in la Pola-Magdalena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alfredo González Monroy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article shows some research achievements got in the educational community from La Pola located in Chibolo-Magdalena. There, it is observed the return after displacement due to Colombian armed conflict. Research aims at comprehending meanings and dialogical senses returnees give to an intercultural curriculum design based on their own knowledge, sociocultural needs and life project. To do so, this research takes into account ethnography along with phenomenology, symbolic interactionism and ethnomethodology. On the other hand, this text shapes up under the principle of parsimony, a reflection on Return School and an epistemic view which will be developed with the fieldwork. Then, research contribution keeps to comprehend return and establish a starting point for other research projects leading to social change. Finally, it also pretends to engender academic discussions on the complementarity of research methods.

  17. Language Skills and Economic Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Garrouste, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns to language skills in eight countries enrolled in the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) – Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Hung...

  18. Language Skills and Economic Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Garrouste, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns to language skills in eight countries enrolled in the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) – Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Hung...

  19. Short Interest and Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Asquith; Pathak, Parag A.; Jay R. Ritter

    2004-01-01

    Using a longer time period and both NYSE-Amex and Nasdaq stocks, this paper examines short interest and stock returns in more detail than any previous study and finds that many documented patterns are not robust. While equally weighted high short interest portfolios generally underperform, value weighted portfolios do not. In addition, there is a negative correlation between market returns and short interest over our whole period. Finally, inferences from short time periods, such as 1988-1994...

  20. Black Return Migration to a Southern State: An Analysis of Motives and Parental Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzell, Odell

    1984-01-01

    Research into return migration of Blacks to four urban communities in North Carolina suggests that differences in motivation existed between older, female and younger, male return migrants. The former returned for personal social reasons mainly, the latter for economic reasons. (RDN)

  1. Understanding the data-action cycle of surveillance: a qualitative study of federal and state stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sussner, Katarina M; Greaney, Mary L; Mierzwa, Sharon; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Wiecha, Jean; Peterson, Karen

    2010-03-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand how personnel in state and federal agencies view surveillance systems and the extent to which systematically collected data inform nutrition and physical activity policies and interventions addressing obesity. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 respondents purposively sampled from state health departments, federal public health agencies, and prevention research centers. All informants acknowledged the importance of surveillance systems and influence of the data-action cycle for monitoring trends and increasing obesity awareness. However, state-level respondents believed surveillance systems should be designed for programmatic purposes, whereas federal participants thought they should be designed for monitoring. Respondents held differing opinions about the flexibility, timeliness, accessibility, and usefulness of existing national surveillance systems, highlighting significant differences in state and federal agencies' perceptions and utilization of surveillance systems. Such discrepancies call for increased communication surrounding purposes and uses of surveillance data, enabling stronger partnerships between state and federal agencies.

  2. Systems approaches to animal disease surveillance and resource allocation: methodological frameworks for behavioral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karl M; Denwood, Matthew J; Stott, Alistair W; Mellor, Dominic J; Reid, Stuart W J; Gunn, George J

    2013-01-01

    While demands for animal disease surveillance systems are growing, there has been little applied research that has examined the interactions between resource allocation, cost-effectiveness, and behavioral considerations of actors throughout the livestock supply chain in a surveillance system context. These interactions are important as feedbacks between surveillance decisions and disease evolution may be modulated by their contextual drivers, influencing the cost-effectiveness of a given surveillance system. This paper identifies a number of key behavioral aspects involved in animal health surveillance systems and reviews some novel methodologies for their analysis. A generic framework for analysis is discussed, with exemplar results provided to demonstrate the utility of such an approach in guiding better disease control and surveillance decisions.

  3. Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sherwood

    1997-12-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples, held in Milpitas, California, January 16-18, 1989. Conveners are Sherwood Chang (NASA Ames Research Center) and Larry Nyquist (NASA Johnson Space Center). Program Committee members are Thomas Ahrens (ex-officio; California Institute of Technology), Lou Allamandola (NASA Ames Research Center), David Blake (NASA Ames Research Center), Donald Brownlee (University of Washington, Seattle), Theodore E. Bunch (NASA Ames Research Center), Humberto Campins (Planetary Science Institute), Jeff Cuzzi (NASA Ames Research Center), Eberhard Griin (Max-Plank-Institut fiir Kemphysik), Martha Hanner (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Alan Harris (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), John Kerrid-e (University of Califomia, Los Angeles), Yves Langevin (University of Paris), Gerhard Schwehm (ESTEC), and Paul Weissman (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Logistics and administrative support for the workshop were provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute Projects Office.

  4. The Great East Japan Earthquake: a need to plan for post-disaster surveillance in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Partridge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available After a devastating earthquake and tsunami struck north-eastern Japan in March 2011, the public health system, including the infectious disease surveillance system, was severely compromised. While models for post-disaster surveillance exist, they focus predominantly on developing countries during the early recovery phase. Such models do not necessarily apply to developed countries, which differ considerably in their baseline surveillance systems. Furthermore, there is a need to consider the process by which a surveillance system recovers post-disaster. The event in Japan has highlighted a need to address these concerns surrounding post-disaster surveillance in developed countries.In May 2011, the World Health Organization convened a meeting where post-disaster surveillance was discussed by experts and public health practitioners. In this paper, we describe a post-disaster surveillance approach that was discussed at the meeting, based on what had actually occurred and what may have been, or would be, ideal. Briefly, we describe the evolution of a surveillance system as it returns to the pre-existing system, starting from an event-based approach during the emergency relief phase, a syndromic approach during the early recovery phase, an enhanced sentinel approach during the late recovery phase and a return to baseline during the development phase. Our aim is not to recommend a specific model but to encourage other developed countries to initiate their own discussions on post-disaster surveillance and develop plans according to their needs and capacities. As natural disasters will continue to occur, we hope that developing such plans during the “inter-disaster” period will help mitigate the surveillance challenges that will arise post-disaster.

  5. Return of ambiguity attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Scott A.

    2002-04-01

    The ambiguity attack, or invertibility attack, was described several years ago as a potential threat to digital watermarking systems. By manipulating the invertibility of watermark embedding, one could negate or subvert the meaning of a copyright mark. These attacks were easily prevented, however, with the appropriate application of one-way functions and cryptographic hashes in watermarking protocols. New research in watermarking, however, has caused the ambiguity attack to resurface as a threat, and this time it will not be as easy averted. Recent work in public-key watermarking create scenarios in which one-way functions may be ineffective against this threat. Furthermore, there are also positive uses for ambiguity attacks, as components in watermarking protocols. This paper provides an overview of the past and possible future of these unusual attacks.

  6. Experiences of occupational therapists returning to work after maternity leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcsi, Lisa; Curtin, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Returning to work after maternity leave can be a challenging, anxious and fraught experience for women, and has been portrayed in the literature as a generally negative experience. Interestingly, although occupational therapists were predominantly women, no research was found focussing on their experiences of returning to work after maternity leave. The aim of this research was to gain an insight into occupational therapists' experiences of returning to work following maternity leave. Principles of interpretive phenomenological analysis were used to explore the individual experiences of six Australian occupational therapists returning to work after a period of maternity leave. Individual semi-structured interviews lasting up to 90 minutes were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and then analysed. Two major themes emerged from the analysis of interviews: compromise and feeling valued. The experience of returning to work was a process of compromise in which women found strategies to cope with their changing roles and demands, to find a balance between home and work life. The women wanted to feel valued by their managers and co-workers, as this enabled them to feel comfortable and confident with some of the compromises they made. Occupational therapists returning to work after maternity leave will make compromises so that they can balance their home and work life. Occupational therapists value managers and co-workers who understand the compromises women make when returning to work following maternity leave and who create a supportive workplace that acknowledges and values their contribution. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  7. Department of Defense Influenza and Other Respiratory Disease Surveillance during the 2009 Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    NMRCD partnerships with Bolivia and Ecuador ; AFRIMS surveillance in Vietnam; NAMRU-3 develop- ment of a veterinary and human influenza surveillance...Korea, Microbiology Section, Unit 15244, Box 459, APO AP 96205, USA. 11Naval Medical Research Unit Number 2, Kompleks Pergudangan DEPKES R.I., JI

  8. Maximizing your return on people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Laurie; McMurrer, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Though most traditional HR performance metrics don't predict organizational performance, alternatives simply have not existed--until now. During the past ten years, researchers Laurie Bassi and Daniel McMurrer have worked to develop a system that allows executives to assess human capital management (HCM) and to use those metrics both to predict organizational performance and to guide organizations' investments in people. The new framework is based on a core set of HCM drivers that fall into five major categories: leadership practices, employee engagement, knowledge accessibility, workforce optimization, and organizational learning capacity. By employing rigorously designed surveys to score a company on the range of HCM practices across the five categories, it's possible to benchmark organizational HCM capabilities, identify HCM strengths and weaknesses, and link improvements or back-sliding in specific HCM practices with improvements or shortcomings in organizational performance. The process requires determining a "maturity" score for each practice, based on a scale of 1 (low) to 5 (high). Over time, evolving maturity scores from multiple surveys can reveal progress in each of the HCM practices and help a company decide where to focus improvement efforts that will have a direct impact on performance. The authors draw from their work with American Standard, South Carolina's Beaufort County School District, and a bevy of financial firms to show how improving HCM scores led to increased sales, safety, academic test scores, and stock returns. Bassi and McMurrer urge HR departments to move beyond the usual metrics and begin using HCM measurement tools to gauge how well people are managed and developed throughout the organization. In this new role, according to the authors, HR can take on strategic responsibility and ensure that superior human capital management becomes central to the organization's culture.

  9. Benefits of nurse teachers returning to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossop, D; Hoyles, A; Lees, S; Pollard, C

    This article outlines an action research study developed to facilitate nurse teachers returning to clinical practice. The article explores how the teachers established partnerships with clinicians through which they were able to share the experience of returning to an area of nursing that they had previously only visited. It discusses four categories: expectations of self and others; entering someone else's world; more awareness of student needs; and teaching theory and practising nursing. These categories emerged following the analysis of journals, focus group interviews and individual interviews and led to a number of recommendations concerning the implications for other teachers wishing to return to clinical practice.

  10. Sealed Planetary Return Canister (SPRC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sample return missions have primary importance in future planetary missions. A basic requirement is that samples be returned in pristine, uncontaminated condition,...

  11. Sealed Planetary Return Canister (SPRC) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sample return missions have primary importance in future planetary missions. A basic requirement is that samples be returned in pristine, uncontaminated condition,...

  12. Privacy Implications of Surveillance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model for assessing the privacy „cost‟ of a surveillance system. Surveillance systems collect and provide personal information or observations of people by means of surveillance technologies such as databases, video or location tracking. Such systems can be designed...... by analyzing a location-based system for airport passengers developed for a Copenhagen Airport, and the dimensions are used to explain user reactions to different services offered by the system....... for various purposes, even as a service for those being observed, but in any case they will to some degree invade their privacy. The model provided here can indicate how invasive any particular system may be – and be used to compare the invasiveness of different systems. Applying a functional approach...

  13. Informatics enables public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. N McNabb

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the world has radically changed. New advances in information and communication technologies (ICT connect the world in ways never imagined. Public health informatics (PHI leveraged for public health surveillance (PHS, can enable, enhance, and empower essential PHS functions (i.e., detection, reporting, confirmation, analyses, feedback, response. However, the tail doesn't wag the dog; as such, ICT cannot (should not drive public health surveillance strengthening. Rather, ICT can serve PHS to more effectively empower core functions. In this review, we explore promising ICT trends for prevention, detection, and response, laboratory reporting, push notification, analytics, predictive surveillance, and using new data sources, while recognizing that it is the people, politics, and policies that most challenge progress for implementation of solutions.

  14. Advancing the Use of Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance Data, New York City, 2012-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Ramona; Abdelnabi, Jasmine; Ngai, Stephanie; Parton, Hilary B; Saunders, Kelly; Sell, Jessica; Wahnich, Amanda; Weiss, Don; Mathes, Robert W

    The use of syndromic surveillance has expanded from its initial purpose of bioterrorism detection. We present 6 use cases from New York City that demonstrate the value of syndromic surveillance for public health response and decision making across a broad range of health outcomes: synthetic cannabinoid drug use, heat-related illness, suspected meningococcal disease, medical needs after severe weather, asthma exacerbation after a building collapse, and Ebola-like illness in travelers returning from West Africa. The New York City syndromic surveillance system receives data on patient visits from all emergency departments (EDs) in the city. The data are used to assign syndrome categories based on the chief complaint and discharge diagnosis, and analytic methods are used to monitor geographic and temporal trends and detect clusters. For all 6 use cases, syndromic surveillance using ED data provided actionable information. Syndromic surveillance helped detect a rise in synthetic cannabinoid-related ED visits, prompting a public health investigation and action. Surveillance of heat-related illness indicated increasing health effects of severe weather and led to more urgent public health messaging. Surveillance of meningitis-related ED visits helped identify unreported cases of culture-negative meningococcal disease. Syndromic surveillance also proved useful for assessing a surge of methadone-related ED visits after Superstorm Sandy, provided reassurance of no localized increases in asthma after a building collapse, and augmented traditional disease reporting during the West African Ebola outbreak. Sharing syndromic surveillance use cases can foster new ideas and build capacity for public health preparedness and response.

  15. PRICE AND RETURN MODELS--IMPERICAL TESTS OF CHINESE STOCK MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In accounting researches, price and return models are usually evaluated and compared, aiming at to select the better one. In both models, earnings response coefficient is the key variable and is paid major attentions to my most previous researches. In previous researches, price and return models as well as other models transformed from original price and return models are universally studied. The general conclusion is: proved by regression analyses, price model is outstanding in economic e...

  16. Return to work following ileostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whates, P D; Irving, M

    1984-08-01

    The experiences of 1033 members of the 51 English divisions of the Ileostomy Association of Great Britain and Ireland have been analysed in respect of their return to work after construction of an ileostomy. Although there was a fall in the number of patients returning to work after operation this was often for reasons unrelated to surgery. The majority of those returning to work resumed work with the same employer and usually in the same post. Fifty-nine (5.7 per cent) patients began work for the first time after operation, including 33 (3.2 per cent) who were previously inactive although of working age. Analysis of occupational class shows that, although a number of patients initially resumed work within a lower class, once established in employment successful career advancement was possible. Problems in the gaining or resumption of employment were reported by 56 (5.4 per cent) patients. In 22 (2.1 per cent) patients, almost all approaching or above retirement age, successful surgery resulted in a decision not to return to employment. An ileostomy is no barrier to successful return to work in nearly all occupations, and is accomplished by the majority of patients without major difficulty.

  17. Upper Bounds for Ruin Probability with Stochastic Investment Return

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lihong

    2005-01-01

    Risk models with stochastic investment return are widely held in practice, as well as in more challenging research fields. Risk theory is mainly concerned with ruin probability, and a tight bound for ruin probability is the best for practical use. This paper presents a discrete time risk model with stochastic investment return. Conditional expectation properties and martingale inequalities are used to obtain both exponential and non-exponential upper bounds for the ruin probability.

  18. Engagement in mental health treatment among veterans returning from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Stecker, Tracy; Fortney, John; Hamilton, Francis; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Ajzen, Icek

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Many veterans return from combat experiencing a variety of mental health concerns. Previous research has documented a stigma associated with seeking treatment that interferes with the decision to seek treatment. This study, conceptualized using the theory of planned behavior, assessed beliefs about mental health treatment in order to understand mental health treatment seeking behavior among a group of returning National Guard soldiers who served in the war in Iraq. Methods: Partic...

  19. Supermarket baker's asthma: how accurate is routine health surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, A; Nightingale, S; Berriman, J; Sharp, C; Welch, J; Newman, T; Cullinan, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Regular health surveillance is commonly recommended for workers exposed to occupational antigens but little is known about how effective it is in identifying cases. Aims: To report one large company's surveillance and compare its findings with those of a standard cross-sectional survey in the same workforce. Methods: A supermarket company with 324 in-store bakeries producing bread from raw ingredients conducted a three-stage health surveillance programme in around 3000 bakery employees. The first stage involved the administration of a simple respiratory questionnaire. If chest symptoms were present a second questionnaire focusing on their work relationship was administered. If positive a blood sample was requested for the measurement of specific IgE to flour and fungal α-amylase. The results were compared to an independent cross-sectional survey of employees in 20 of the company's stores. Results: Two hundred and ninety nine (92%) of the company's bakeries took part in surveillance. The overall employee response for the first stage was 77%; a quarter of those with respiratory symptoms reported that they were work related. Seventy four (61%) of those with work related chest symptoms had a measurement of specific IgE to either flour or fungal α-amylase, of whom 30 (41%) had a positive result. Surveillance estimated that 1% of bakery employees (1% bakers, 2% managers, 0.6% confectioners) had work related symptoms with specific IgE. This compared with 4% (7.5% bakers, 3.3% managers, 0% confectioners) in the cross-sectional survey (n = 166, 93% response). Conclusion: Comparison with a standard cross-sectional survey suggests that routine surveillance can underestimate the workplace burden of disease. The reasons may include technical or resource issues and uncertainties over confidentiality or the perceived consequences of participation. More research needs to be done looking into the design and efficacy of surveillance in occupational asthma. PMID

  20. Abnormal Returns and Contrarian Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dall'Agnol

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis that strategies which are long on portfolios of looser stocks and short on portfolios of winner stocks generate abnormal returns in Brazil. This type of evidence for the US stock market was interpreted by The Bondt and Thaler (1985 as reflecting systematic evaluation mistakes caused by investors overreaction to news related to the firm performance. We found evidence of contrarian strategies profitability for horizons from 3 months to 3 years in a sample of stock returns from BOVESPA and SOMA from 1986 to 2000. The strategies are more profitable for shorter horizons. Therefore, there was no trace of the momentum effect found by Jagadeesh and Titman (1993 for the same horizons with US data. There are remaing unexplained positive returns for contrarian strategies after accounting for risk, size, and liquidity. We also found that the strategy profitability is reduced after the Real Plan, which suggests that the Brazilian stock market became more efficient after inflation stabilization.

  1. Surveillance data bases, analysis, and standardization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kam, F.B.K.

    1990-09-26

    The traveler presented a paper at the Seventh ASTM-EURATOM Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry and co-chaired an oral session on Computer Codes and Methods. Papers of considerable interest to the NRC Surveillance Dosimetry Program involved statistically based adjustment procedures and uncertainties. The information exchange meetings with Czechoslovakia and Hungary were very enlightening. Lack of large computers have hindered their surveillance program. They depended very highly on information from their measurement programs which were somewhat limited because of the lack of sophisticated electronics. The Nuclear Research Institute at Rez had to rely on expensive mockups of power reactor configurations to test their fluence exposures. Computers, computer codes, and updated nuclear data would advance their technology rapidly, and they were not hesitant to admit this fact. Both eastern-bloc countries said that IBM is providing an IBM 3090 for educational purposes but research and development studies would have very limited access. They were very apologetic that their currencies were not convertible, and any exchange means that they could provide services or pay for US scientists in their respective countries, but funding for their scientists in the United States, or expenses that involved payment in dollars, must come from us.

  2. Robust Behavior Recognition in Intelligent Surveillance Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchuluun, Ganbayar; Kim, Yeong Gon; Kim, Jong Hyun; Hong, Hyung Gil; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent surveillance systems have been studied by many researchers. These systems should be operated in both daytime and nighttime, but objects are invisible in images captured by visible light camera during the night. Therefore, near infrared (NIR) cameras, thermal cameras (based on medium-wavelength infrared (MWIR), and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) light) have been considered for usage during the nighttime as an alternative. Due to the usage during both daytime and nighttime, and the limitation of requiring an additional NIR illuminator (which should illuminate a wide area over a great distance) for NIR cameras during the nighttime, a dual system of visible light and thermal cameras is used in our research, and we propose a new behavior recognition in intelligent surveillance environments. Twelve datasets were compiled by collecting data in various environments, and they were used to obtain experimental results. The recognition accuracy of our method was found to be 97.6%, thereby confirming the ability of our method to outperform previous methods. PMID:27376288

  3. Robust Behavior Recognition in Intelligent Surveillance Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganbayar Batchuluun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent surveillance systems have been studied by many researchers. These systems should be operated in both daytime and nighttime, but objects are invisible in images captured by visible light camera during the night. Therefore, near infrared (NIR cameras, thermal cameras (based on medium-wavelength infrared (MWIR, and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR light have been considered for usage during the nighttime as an alternative. Due to the usage during both daytime and nighttime, and the limitation of requiring an additional NIR illuminator (which should illuminate a wide area over a great distance for NIR cameras during the nighttime, a dual system of visible light and thermal cameras is used in our research, and we propose a new behavior recognition in intelligent surveillance environments. Twelve datasets were compiled by collecting data in various environments, and they were used to obtain experimental results. The recognition accuracy of our method was found to be 97.6%, thereby confirming the ability of our method to outperform previous methods.

  4. Approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, H.; Medlock, J.M.; Vaux, A.G.C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Bartumeus, F.; Oltra, A.; Sousa, C.A.; Chouin, S.; Werner, D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order

  5. Video surveillance in public libraries : A case of unintended consequences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Randall, David P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory qualitative research study in which we examine why two public libraries have implemented video security systems and why one of these libraries has reversed course and recently removed a previously installed surveillance system.

  6. Video surveillance in public libraries : A case of unintended consequences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Randall, David P.

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory qualitative research study in which we examine why two public libraries have implemented video security systems and why one of these libraries has reversed course and recently removed a previously installed surveillance system.

  7. Approaches to passive mosquito surveillance in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, H.; Medlock, J.M.; Vaux, A.G.C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Bartumeus, F.; Oltra, A.; Sousa, C.A.; Chouin, S.; Werner, D.

    2015-01-01

    The recent emergence in Europe of invasive mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease associated with both invasive and native mosquito species has prompted intensified mosquito vector research in most European countries. Central to the efforts are mosquito monitoring and surveillance activities in order

  8. Characteristics of the IAEA correlation monitor material for surveillance programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Kim; Valo, Matti; Rintamaa, Rauno; Toerroenen, Kari; Ahlstrand, Ralf

    1989-08-01

    Correlation monitor material developed to meet the needs of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Association) coordinated research program for optimizing reactor pressure vessel surveillance programs and their analysis is described. The material is intended to serve as a reference within the IAEA for future vessel surveillance programs throughout the world. The results of an extensive evaluation of the material in the as-received condition are presented. The mechanical properties measured at different temperatures include Charpy V notch and instrumented precracked Charpy data. Elastic-plastic fracture toughness is studied. Specimen size and geometry are varied in the tests. Correlations between different fracture properties are evaluated and discussed.

  9. [A review on the advancement of internet-based public health surveillance program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y Q; Ma, W J

    2017-02-10

    Internet data is introduced into public health arena under the features of fast updating and tremendous volume. Mining and analyzing internet data, researchers can model the internet-based surveillance system to assess the distribution of health-related events. There are two main types of internet-based surveillance systems, i.e. active and passive, which are distinguished by the sources of information. Through passive surveillance system, information is collected from search engine and social media while the active system gathers information through provision of the volunteers. Except for serving as a real-time and convenient complementary approach to traditional disease, food safety and adverse drug reaction surveillance program, Internet-based surveillance system can also play a role in health-related behavior surveillance and policy evaluation. Although several techniques have been applied to filter information, the accuracy of internet-based surveillance system is still bothered by the false positive information. In this article, we have summarized the development and application of internet-based surveillance system in public health to provide reference for a better surveillance program in China.

  10. National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database supports the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center (EPSC) staff in its function of monitoring some 11,000...

  11. Inappropriate colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keane, R A

    2011-11-15

    Colonoscopic surveillance of hyperplastic polyps alone is controversial and may be inappropriate. The colonoscopy surveillance register at a university teaching hospital was audited to determine the extent of such hyperplastic polyp surveillance. The surveillance endoscopy records were reviewed, those patients with hyperplastic polyps were identified, their clinical records were examined and contact was made with each patient. Of the 483 patients undergoing surveillance for colonic polyps 113 (23%) had hyperplastic polyps alone on last colonoscopy. 104 patients remained after exclusion of those under appropriate surveillance. 87 of the 104 patients (84%) were successfully contacted. 37 patients (8%) were under appropriate colonoscopic surveillance for a significant family history of colorectal carcinoma. 50 (10%) patients with hyperplastic polyps alone and no other clinical indication for colonoscopic surveillance were booked for follow up colonoscopy. This represents not only a budgetary but more importantly a clinical opportunity cost the removal of which could liberate valuable colonoscopy time for more appropriate indications.

  12. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  13. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  14. Long memory in the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvo Dajčman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze and compare the fractal structure of the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns. The presence of long memory components in asset returns provides evidence against the weak-form of stock market efficiency. The starting working hypothesis that there is no long memory in the Croatian and Hungarian stock market returns is tested by applying the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS (1992 test, Lo’s (1991 modified rescaled range (R/S test, and the wavelet ordinary least squares (WOLS estimator of Jensen (1999. The research showed that the WOLS estimator may lead to different conclusions regarding long memory presence in the stock returns from the KPSS and unit root tests or Lo’s R/S test. Furthermore, it proved that the fractal structure of individual stock returns may be masked in aggregated stock market returns (i.e. in returns of stock index. The main finding of the paper is that both the Croatian stock index Crobex and individual stocks in this index exhibit long memory. Long memory is identified for some stocks in the Hungarian stock market as well, but not for the stock market index BUX. Based on the results of the long memory tests, it can be concluded that while the Hungarian stock market is weakform efficient, the Croatian stock market is not.

  15. Return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Julian; Webster, Kate E

    2013-02-01

    Rates of return to pre-injury sport following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are less than might be expected from standard outcome measures and there appears to be a rapid decline in sporting participation after two to three years. There are many factors that influence whether an individual will return to sport following this type of surgery. They include not only surgical details and rehabilitation, but also social and psychological factors, as well as demographic characteristics. Age is of particular importance with older patients being less likely to resume their pre-injury sport. It is important that future research clearly identify the pre-injury characteristics of the study cohort when investigating return to sport, and also that there is consistent and precise terminology used to report rates of return to sporting activities. Little is known about how to determine when it is safe to return to sport following ACL reconstruction or how to predict whether an athlete will be able to successfully return to sport. Finally, it needs to be recognised that return to sport following ACL reconstruction is associated with a risk of further injury and the development of osteoarthritis.

  16. Colorectal cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease: The search continues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anis Ahmadi; Steven Polyak; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). Risk factors for the development of CRC in the setting of IBD include disease duration, anatomic extent of disease,age at time of diagnosis, severity of inflammation,family history of colon cancer, and concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis. The current surveillance strategy of surveillance colonoscopy with multiple random biopsies most likely reduces morbidity and mortality associated with IBD-related CRC. Unfortunately,surveillance colonoscopy also has severe limitations including high cost, sampling error at time of biopsy,and interobserver disagreement in histologically grading dysplasia. Furthermore, once dysplasia is detected there is disagreement about its management.Advances in endoscopic imaging techniques are already underway, and may potentially aid in dysplasia detection and improve overall surveillance outcomes.Management of dysplasia depends predominantly on the degree and focality of dysplasia, with the mainstay of management involving either proctocolectomy or continued colonoscopic surveillance. Lastly, continued research into additional chemopreventive agents may increase our arsenal in attempting to reduce the incidence of IBD-associated CRC.

  17. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture.......Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  18. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Raaijmakers, S.A.; Halma, A.H.R.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming

  19. Video Surveillance using Distance Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; Broek, van den Egon L.; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Laplante, Phillip A.

    2006-01-01

    Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors.

  20. Video surveillance with speckle imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, Carmen J.; Brase, James M.

    2007-07-17

    A surveillance system looks through the atmosphere along a horizontal or slant path. Turbulence along the path causes blurring. The blurring is corrected by speckle processing short exposure images recorded with a camera. The exposures are short enough to effectively freeze the atmospheric turbulence. Speckle processing is used to recover a better quality image of the scene.

  1. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Raaijmakers, S.A.; Halma, A.H.R.; Wedemeijer, H.

    2012-01-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming

  2. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  3. Video surveillance using distance maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo E.; Kuppens, Harco C.; van den Broek, Egon; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Laplante, Phillip A,

    2006-01-01

    Human vigilance is limited; hence, automatic motion and distance detection is one of the central issues in video surveillance. Hereby, many aspects are of importance, this paper specially addresses: efficiency, achieving real-time performance, accuracy, and robustness against various noise factors.

  4. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motevalian Seyed Abbas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System in order to better monitor injury conditions, improve protection ways and promote safety. Methods: At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries. Then all the available documents from World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Organization, as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed. Later a national stakeholder抯 consultation was held to collect opinions and views. A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance. Results: The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems, mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry, need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers, incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry. The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility, acceptability, simplicity, usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts. Conclusions: Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran. The following elements should be added to the questionnaire: identifier, manner of arrival to the hospital, situation of the injured patient, consumption of alcohol and opioids, other involved participants in the accident, intention, severity and site of injury, side effects of surgery and medication, as well as one month follow-up results. Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months. Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Population surveillance; Registries; Iran

  5. 物联网技术在海上监控系统中的应用%Research on marine video surveillance system based of internet of things technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志良

    2015-01-01

    In the modern ocean shipping business, the marine video surveillance system is very important for ship 's safe sail. The system can not only monitor the ships by the center platform, but also realize the cooperation between various vessels sail. The technology of internet of things is used for data acquisition and communication between objects, is fit for marine video surveillance system. This paper analyzes the video signal transmission technology and intelligent technology of marinevideo surveillance system,last proposed a new marine video surveillance system based on internet of things technology.%在现代海洋航运业务中,利用统一的视频监控系统对各类船舶运行情况进行监控已经成为海上安全领域的重要组成部分。其不仅可以有统一的中心平台对海上运输船舶进行监控,同时能够实现各船舶之间的协作运行。现有的物联网技术能够很好解决物与物之间的数据采集及通信问题,对海上监控系统的设计具有很好的适应性。本文对海上监控系统中的视频信号传输技术及编码技术进行研究,在此基础上,提出一种基于物联网架构的海上监控系统。

  6. Video Surveillance: Privacy Issues and Legal Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood Rajpoot, Qasim; Jensen, Christian D.

    2015-01-01

    . There is a need to balance the usage of video surveillance against its negative impact on privacy. This chapter aims to highlight the privacy issues in video surveillance and provides a model to help identify the privacy requirements in a video surveillance system. The authors make a step in the direction...

  7. Return of the Red Chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The mainland stock boom is drawing many profitable Hong Kong-listed Chinese companies back home September saw a wave of Hong Kong-listed Chinese companies returning to the mainland stock market,helping the Shanghai Stock Exchange surpass Hong Kong to become the sixth largest stock exchange in the world.

  8. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  9. The Return of the Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Daniel Bell's latest book,China's New Confucianism,is an in-depth look at how one of the Middle Kingdom's oldest and greatest traditions is gradually returning,and how a growing number of Chinese citizens are embracing its once-forgotten ideals.

  10. Return Migration of Foreign Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Wang, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Using administrative panel data, this paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the return of recent foreign students in the Netherlands. We focus on how individual labour market changes and marriage formation influence their decision to leave. Our model allows for correlated unobserved h

  11. Language Skills and Economic Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns…

  12. Return migration of foreign students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; Wang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Using unique administrative micro panel data, this paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the return of recent foreign students in The Netherlands. The life course experiences of these students in the host, both on the labour market and in marriage formation, impact their decision to

  13. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    albopictus); however, sexual transmis- sion and transmission through other bodily fluids have been confirmed. Approximately one out of five individuals...to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), research suggests a strong association between Zika and GBS, but the link continues...all countries and territories traveled to with ongoing ZIKV transmis- sion or possible endemic transmission that were reported by the infected person

  14. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  15. LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT PUBLIC HEALTH FROM ONLINE CROWD SURVEILLANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Shawndra; Merchant, Raina; Ungar, Lyle

    2013-09-10

    The Internet has forever changed the way people access information and make decisions about their healthcare needs. Patients now share information about their health at unprecedented rates on social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook and on medical discussion boards. In addition to explicitly shared information about health conditions through posts, patients reveal data on their inner fears and desires about health when searching for health-related keywords on search engines. Data are also generated by the use of mobile phone applications that track users' health behaviors (e.g., eating and exercise habits) as well as give medical advice. The data generated through these applications are mined and repackaged by surveillance systems developed by academics, companies, and governments alike to provide insight to patients and healthcare providers for medical decisions. Until recently, most Internet research in public health has been surveillance focused or monitoring health behaviors. Only recently have researchers used and interacted with the crowd to ask questions and collect health-related data. In the future, we expect to move from this surveillance focus to the "ideal" of Internet-based patient-level interventions where healthcare providers help patients change their health behaviors. In this article, we highlight the results of our prior research on crowd surveillance and make suggestions for the future.

  16. Scaling and memory in volatility return intervals in financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Kazuko; Muchnik, Lev; Havlin, Shlomo; Bunde, Armin; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2005-06-01

    For both stock and currency markets, we study the return intervals τ between the daily volatilities of the price changes that are above a certain threshold q. We find that the distribution function Pq(τ) scales with the mean return interval [Formula] as [Formula]. The scaling function f(x) is similar in form for all seven stocks and for all seven currency databases analyzed, and f(x) is consistent with a power-law form, f(x) ˜ x-γ with γ ≈ 2. We also quantify how the conditional distribution Pq(τ|τ0) depends on the previous return interval τ0 and find that small (or large) return intervals are more likely to be followed by small (or large) return intervals. This “clustering” of the volatility return intervals is a previously unrecognized phenomenon that we relate to the long-term correlations known to be present in the volatility. Author contributions: S.H. and H.E.S. designed research; K.Y., L.M., S.H., and H.E.S. performed research; A.B. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; A.B. analyzed data; and S.H. wrote the paper.Abbreviations: pdf, probability density function; S&P 500, Standard and Poor's 500 Index; USD, U.S. dollar; JPY, Japanese yen; SEK, Swedish krona.

  17. INDIKATOR MAKROEKONOMI DAN RETURN SAHAM SYARIAH DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utami Baroroh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to examine empirical test the long term equilibrium and simulteneous relationship between macroeconomics variables to stock return in Indonesia and to observe stock return response because shock/innovation of inflation, SBI discount rate and exchange rate Rupiah to US dollar. The data sample used in this study are monthly time series data from 2003.1 – 2010.6. Those data are SBI discount rate, inflation (CPI, exchange rate Rupiah to US dollar, money supply and stock return (IHSG. A method of analysis in this study are Granger Causality Test and Cointegration test. The empirical results shows that SBI discount rate, inflation (CPI, and exchange rate Rupiah to US dollar have causality relationship to stock return.. The cointegration test indicates that among research variables there is long term equilibrium and simultaneous relationshipDOI: 10.15408/sjie.v2i2.2421

  18. Return Wishes of Refugees in the Netherlands : The Role of Integration, Host National Identification and Perceived Discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Saint Pierre, Francesca; Martinovic, Borja; De Vroome, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined refugees' wishes to return to their home country. Previous research on return intentions among economic migrants has pointed at the relevance of three aspects of integration: employment and education (structural integration), language proficiency (cultural integration) and contac

  19. Pressure Ulcers Surveillance Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Esin Gencer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcer is a chronic wound. It reduces the quality of life of the elderly and individuals with restricted range of motion. It prolongs hospital stay and increases the risk of complications. The cost is quite high. Preventive actions for the prevention of pressure ulcers should be developed. Planning protocols and standards of care are among the main targets. Material and Method: Research was conducted in one-year period between 2012 May and 2013 May on patients who were followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital clinics and intensive care unit with pressure ulcers. The research population consisted of 569 patients. Patient data were recorded in SPSS 16 for Windows program. Statistical analyzes were performed with retrospective methods. The demographic characteristics of patients with pressure ulcers were analyzed as frequency and descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence of one year were calculated. Results: Of the patients, 58% were males, 42% were females. Of the patients, 36% were in the age range of 61-80 years, and their average length of stay was 42,9 days. Of the patients, 70% were at stage 2 and 3. In 15% of patients pressure ulcers occurred on the first day of hospitalization. Pressure ulcers were developed between days 2 and 10 in 59% of the patients. Prevalence rate was 2.5%, the incidence was 1.9%, the prevalence rate was 5.9% in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: It is easier to prevent pressure ulcers than treating.

  20. Video surveillance of pedestrians and vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutchess, Daniel; Ablavsky, Vitaly; Thangali, Ashwin; Sclaroff, Stan; Snorrason, Magnús

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we focus on the problem of automated surveillance in a parking lot scenario. We call our research system VANESSA, for Video Analysis for Nighttime Surveillance and Situational Awareness. VANESSA is capable of: 1) detecting moving objects via background modeling and false motion suppression, 2) tracking and classifying pedestrians and vehicles, and 3) detecting events such as person entering or exiting a vehicle. Moving object detection utilizes a multi-stage cascading approach to identify pixels that belong to the true objects and reject any spurious motion, (e.g., due to vehicle headlights or moving foliage). Pedestrians and vehicles are tracked using a multiple hypothesis tracker coupled with a particle filter for state estimation and prediction. The space-time trajectory of each tracked object is stored in an SQL database along with sample imagery to support video forensics applications. The detection of pedestrians entering/exiting vehicles is accomplished by first estimating the three-dimensional pose and the corresponding entry and exit points of each tracked vehicle in the scene. A pedestrian activity model is then used to probabilistically assign pedestrian tracks that appear or disappear in the vicinity of these entry/exit points. We evaluate the performance of tracking and pedestrian-vehicle association on an extensive data set collected in a challenging real-world scenario.

  1. Automatic Docking System with Recharging and Battery Replacement for Surveillance Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Meena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the applications like industrial automation, home automation, hospitals, space exploration, military, etc, the surveillance robot are widely used. For that, continuous functioning of surveillance robot is necessary. In this paper, the development of automatic docking system with recharging and battery replacement process for surveillance robot is proposed. The robot can return to the docking station for recharging operations when the battery is low. The charging duration of the battery mounted in the robot is an important issue. To overcome this problem, battery replacement is a perfect solution. The battery is automatically exchanged within 30 seconds. So the robot needs not to be turned off for long duration of time while replacing the battery.

  2. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  3. Philopatry: A return to origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.

    2007-01-01

    The word “philopatry” is a combination of the prefix philo (from the Greekphilos, “beloved”) and the Latin patria, which means “fatherland” or “homeland.” Since the first English-language use of “philopatry” in an ornithological context by Huntington (1951), the term has been applied to two types of site-faithful behavior in birds. Closest to the etymological meaning is the first, “natal philopatry,” which means not dispersing far from, or returning to, a birthplace for reproduction. The second is “breeding philopatry,” which means returning to the same breeding area each year, though that area may not be an individual’s birth place (Shields 1982, Anderson et al. 1992). Therefore, any assessment of breeding philopatry likely includes some immigrant individuals, whereas assessments of natal philopatry include only locally hatched or born individuals.

  4. The Sharper Image for Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2006-01-13

    A technique adapted by Livermore scientists to take the twinkle out of stars is now being used to improve the resolution of long-range surveillance systems trained on earthbound objects. The speckle-imaging technique involves taking tens to hundreds of pictures with short-exposure times and reconstructing a single, sharp image using image-processing software. The technique drew the interest of Livermore engineer Carmen Carrano. She developed a prototype remote-surveillance system that can produce a detailed image of a face from a couple of kilometers away. The system also helps identify vehicles tens of kilometers away and improves the viewing of large structures more than 60 kilometers away.

  5. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  6. Mining Surveillance and Maintenance Dollars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARTINEZ, R.

    2000-02-01

    Accelerating site cleanup to reduce facility risks to the workers, the public and the environment during a time of declining federal budgets represents a significant technical and economic challenge to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Operations Offices and their respective contractors. A significant portion of a facility's recurring annual expenses are associated with routine, long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities. However, ongoing S&M activities do nothing to reduce risks and basically spend money that could be reallocated towards facility deactivation. This paper discusses the background around DOE efforts to reduce surveillance and maintenance costs, one approach used to perform cost reviews, lessons learned from field implementation and what assistance is available to assist DOE sites in performing these evaluations.

  7. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  8. Tensions around risks in pregnancy: a typology of women's experiences of surveillance medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Raphaël P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    The experience of pregnancy is currently driven by the development of surveillance medicine focused on the monitoring of a wide range of risks. Research usually relies on binary categories opposing women accepting medical surveillance to those resisting it. Recent studies have however underlined the complexity of women's experiences, as well as the ambivalence of their attitudes toward medical procedures and recommendations. Based on 47 qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted in Switzerland between 2008 and 2009, this paper presents the diversity of pregnant women's experiences of surveillance medicine through the description of four contrasting groups: "endorsing surveillance medicine", "coping with risks", "striving for certainty" and "questioning surveillance medicine". Taking into account various risks related to pregnancy, these empirically-grounded groups are discussed in relation to the cultural dynamics of contemporary risk discourses.

  9. Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight; Erfahrungs- und Forschungsbericht 2009. Entwicklungen im Bereich der Grundlagen der nuklearen Aufsicht/Rapport sur la recherche et les experiences en 2009. Developpements dans les bases techniques et legales pour la surveillance nucleaire/Research and experience report 2009. Developments in the technical and legal basis of nuclear oversight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-15

    physical transport processes and the management of all radioactive waste. ENSI supports research projects into the influence of human behaviour on incident management together with the development of requirement profiles for staff in the control rooms of nuclear power stations. Incidents in nuclear facilities provide concrete data on shortcomings and the potential for improvements in all areas of design and operation. Information on incidents in Swiss nuclear facilities is included in ENSI's (separate) Surveillance Report. Some incidents in nuclear facilities outside Switzerland were analysed in order to identify any relevance for Swiss nuclear facilities. There has been increase worldwide in the number of incidents involving the transport of loads. In Switzerland also, the Interim Storage Facility of Wuerenlingen AG reported an event in 2009 involving a lifting device. ENSI has increased its surveillance of cranes and other lifting devices. The Ringhals nuclear power plant (NPP) in Sweden had been operating at power for 72 days before it was discovered that the automatic initiation of the containment isolation system was not operational: the bypasses in the reactor protection system were not correctly removed. Investigations identified the absence of a clear demarcation between the responsibilities of operating and maintenance personnel. Although very improbable, a similar incident might occur in Switzerland; however it is very likely that it would be picked up during the obligatory functionality check. Nevertheless, ENSI considered it important that facilities took note of this incident. Following heavy rain, debris blocked the cooling water intake at the Cruas 4 NPP; this caused the main water sink to fail. At the Fessenheim 2 NPP, plant residues found their way into the cooling water system after the cleaning system failed. By such an incident in a Swiss NPP, the plant could be made safe because the Swiss NPPs are fed with water from their own wells or from

  10. Returns to Tenure or Seniority?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian; Portela, Miguel; Teulings, Coen

    at the moment of separation). The LIFO rule provides a stronger bargaining position for senior workers, leading to a return to seniority in wages. Efficiency in hiring requires the workers' .bargaining power to be in line with their share in the cost of specific investment. Then, the LIFO rule is a way...... to protect their property right on the specific investment. We consider the effects of Employment Protection Legislation and risk aversion....

  11. The Consistency of Migrant Workers' Stated Preference and Revealed Preference for Returning Start Business -A Empirical Research Based on Jiangxi Province%农民工返乡创业自述偏好与现实选择的一致性——基于江西的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红根

    2012-01-01

    本文利用江西农民工返乡创业调查数据,考察了农民工返乡创业自述偏好与现实选择的一致性及其影响因素。结果显示,虽然有60%以上的农民工对返乡创业有自述偏好,但还有相当部分农民工存在自述偏好与现实选择不一致的矛盾。农民工年龄对其返乡创业自述偏好与现实选择一致性的影响存在差异;婚姻状况、风险态度、家庭人均纯收入等个体和家庭因素,话费支出、常联系朋友个数等社会资本因素,以及创业环境、创业资源和就业难度等外部环境因素,对农民工返乡创业自述偏好与现实选择的一致性有显著正影响,而外出打工年数则有负影响,但文化程度影响不显著。%At present, questions about migrant workers' retuming start business become the focus of attention of the government and the academia. Migrant workers' returning start business has a very important significance for the coordination of urban and rural development, regional economic development and carrying out the science development view. Although currently the will of migrant workers' returning start business become more and more strong, but owing to the limit of such as their own knowledge, skills, external environment and so on, they tend to be conservative during returning start business, and appear the inconformity of stated preference and revealed preference for returning start business, which lead to the data which reflect stated preference of migrant workers' returning start business is not reliable. While in order to improve the availability of data which reflect stated preference of migrant workers' returning start business, it is very important for studying the consistency of migrant workers' stated preference and revealed preference for returning start business. Nowadays, the existing research findings mainly make an on-the-spot investigation of the correlation and the consistency of

  12. Tick size and stock returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  13. Attaching Hollywood to a Surveillant Assemblage: Normalizing Discourses of Video Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy K Lippert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines video surveillance images in Hollywood film. It moves beyond previous accounts of video surveillance in relation to film by theoretically situating the use of these surveillance images in a broader “surveillant assemblage”. To this end, scenes from a sample of thirty-five (35 films of several genres are examined to discern dominant discourses and how they lend themselves to normalization of video surveillance. Four discourses are discovered and elaborated by providing examples from Hollywood films. While the films provide video surveillance with a positive associative association it is not without nuance and limitations. Thus, it is found that some forms of resistance to video surveillance are shown while its deterrent effect is not. It is ultimately argued that Hollywood film is becoming attached to a video surveillant assemblage discursively through these normalizing discourses as well as structurally to the extent actual video surveillance technology to produce the images is used.

  14. Surveillance strategies for detecting chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer and elk: results of a CWD surveillance workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Joly, Damien O.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wright, Scott D.; Otis, David L.; Werge, Rob W.; Miller, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a fatal brain disease of North American deer and elk, has recently emerged as an important wildlife management issue. Interest and concern over the spread of this disease and its potential impact on free-ranging cervid populations has increased with discovery of the disease in numerous states and provinces. Current studies suggest that CWD may adversely affect of these highly visible, socially desirable, and economically valuable species. Despite the lack of evidence that CWD affects humans or livestock, a significant concern has been the perceived risk to humans and livestock. Uncertainty about whether CWD poses a health risk to hunters and their families who consume venison has resulted in testing of free-ranging cervids for CWD. In response to many of these concerns, wildlife management agencies across the nation have undertaken surveillance programs to detect CWD in their cervid populations. The nation-wide costs for an extensive CWD surveillance program have been estimated at several million dollars. This document provides guidance on the development and conduct of scientifically sound surveillance programs to detect CWD in free-ranging deer and elk populations. These guidelines will not apply equally to all jurisdictions. In many cases local circumstances, resources, area(s) of concern, disease risk, animal and landscape ecology, political, social, and many other factors will influence the objectives, design, and conduct of CWD surveillance programs. Part I of this report discusses the importance of management goals, strategies, and disease risks in developing a surveillance program. Part II describes surveillance methods, steps in designing a sampling strategy to detect CWD, alternative collection methods, and statistical considerations. Part III describes costs (personnel, time, and money) associated with implementation of these plans that will influence program design. Part IV outlines research that is needed to further

  15. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  16. Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly, Howard R.; Shipers, Larry R.

    1999-07-14

    Long-term nuclear material storage will require in-vault data verification, sensor testing, error and alarm response, inventory, and maintenance operations. System concept development efforts for a comprehensive nuclear material management system have identified the use of a small flexible mobile automation platform to perform these surveillance and maintenance operations. In order to have near-term wide-range application in the Complex, a mobile surveillance system must be small, flexible, and adaptable enough to allow retrofit into existing special nuclear material facilities. The objective of the Mobile Surveillance and Monitoring Robot project is to satisfy these needs by development of a human scale mobile robot to monitor the state of health, physical security and safety of items in storage and process; recognize and respond to alarms, threats, and off-normal operating conditions; and perform material handling and maintenance operations. The system will integrate a tool kit of onboard sensors and monitors, maintenance equipment and capability, and SNL developed non-lethal threat response technology with the intelligence to identify threats and develop and implement first response strategies for abnormal signals and alarm conditions. System versatility will be enhanced by incorporating a robot arm, vision and force sensing, robust obstacle avoidance, and appropriate monitoring and sensing equipment.

  17. Children Moving "Home"? Everyday Experiences of Return Migration in Highly Skilled Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Madeleine E.

    2010-01-01

    Through its focus on children and return migration, this article addresses two invisibilities within migration research. It presents the experiences of children as equal movers in returning households, drawing on research with them in their domestic spaces. Exploring how children negotiate coming "home" and highlighting their experiences from…

  18. Investigating different factors influencing on return of private banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Motamedi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Return of Investment has always been an interesting area of research among academics as well as investors. Although capital asset pricing model (CAPM is capable of estimating risk of investment, many people argue that CAPM is not able to predict long-term return, properly. This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the effects of different financial figures including systematic risk (Beta, size of firm, ratio of book value to market share, volume of trade and the ratio of price/earnings (P/E on return of private banks in Iran. The study gathers the necessary information over the period 2005-2011 from private banks in Iran. The study uses multiple regression technique to find the effects of mentioned variables on return of private banks. The results indicate that there are some meaningful and positive relationship between return of banks and systematic risk (Beta, size, volume of trade and P/E. The study also finds some meaningful and reverse relationship between bank return and book value on market value.

  19. Post market surveillance in the german medical device sector - current state and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Claus; Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine

    2017-08-01

    Medical devices play a central role in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases but also bring the potential for adverse events, hazards or malfunction with serious consequences for patients and users. Medical device manufacturers are therefore required by law to monitor the performance of medical devices that have been approved by the competent authorities (post market surveillance). Conducting a nationwide online-survey in the German medical device sector in Q2/2014 in order to explore the current status of the use of post market instruments we obtained a total of 118 complete data sets, for a return rate of 36%. The survey included manufacturers of different sizes, producing medical devices of all risk classes. The post market instruments most frequently reported covered the fields of production monitoring and quality management as well as literature observation, regulatory vigilance systems, customer knowledge management and market observation while Post Market Clinical Follow-up and health services research were being used less for product monitoring. We found significant differences between the different risk classes of medical devices produced and the intensity of use of post market instruments. Differences between company size and the intensity of instruments used were hardly detected. Results may well contribute to the development of device monitoring which is a crucial element of the policy and regulatory system to identify device-related safety issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Premedication, preparation, and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G D

    2002-01-01

    The vigorous debate over whom to sedate, when to sedate, and how to sedate shows no sign of running out of steam. There is a general consensus that patients should be more involved in the decision-making process for the sedation "menu". A move away from the take-it-or-leave-it attitude of all or nothing to an "à la carte" choice is to be encouraged. A new textbook and several further guidelines have appeared. The particular problems associated with sedating the elderly are briefly presented. The pros and cons of using local pharyngeal anaesthesia are discussed. Enthusiasm for the use of intravenous propofol is gathering momentum, despite continuing worries about its safety in the hands of the nonanaesthetist. For many endoscopists, the combination of a benzodiazepine plus (or minus) an opioid with which they are most familiar is still the best compromise in terms of efficacy, cost, and safety. Fatal drug-induced cardiopulmonary complications continue to occur, despite a general trend toward using smaller doses of sedation than we did 5 - 10 years ago. Monitoring techniques that are at present considered as research tools may one day become commonplace. These include: the use of an electroencephalography parameter known as bispectral analysis; transcutaneous CO(2) measurement; and a modified continuous capnographic waveform trace to monitor ventilatory effort. Bispectral analysis may be of use in monitoring central nervous system depression and helping to distinguish between conscious sedation and deep sedation. If the measurement of CO(2) levels, either transcutaneously or in breath samples, was as easy and inexpensive as measuring SpO(2) with a pulse oximeter, then undoubtedly such technology would enhance the early detection of sedative-induced hypoventilation and apnoea. Further evidence regarding droperidol's possible role in conscious sedation is presented. Pain during colonoscopy remains a problem, and the possible role for intraluminal injection of

  1. 电子商务环境下消费者退货定价决策及协调机制%Pricing Decision and Coordination Research on Consumer Returns under E-commerce Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申成然

    2013-01-01

    The pricing problem for a supply chain system composed of a supplier and one online retailer under E-commerce environment is discussed.Two consumer returns processing modes are considered:processing returns by the manufacturer (M-mode) or by the retailer (R-mode).Based on game theory,the optimal price,the optimal return price,and optimal profits of the supply chain are analyzed.The difference of two modes is compared with numerical simulation.Results show that R-mode is better than M-mode under E-commerce environment.By the use of revenue-and-expense sharing contracts,the coordination of supply chain about consumer returns can be achieved and enhance supply chain profit and customer utility.%构建了电子商务环境下单一制造商和单一网络零售商的供应链系统,考虑两种消费者退货处理模式:制造商处理模式(M模式)和网络零售商处理模式(R模式).通过博弈理论,求得两种模式下最优销售价格、退货价格及供应链各方利润.结合数值算例,比较分析了两种退货处理模式的差异及优劣.结果表明,在电子商务环境下,网络零售商处理退货要优于制造商处理退货.最后,通过设计收益分享-费用分担契约,实现了考虑消费者退货的供应链系统的整体协调,同时提高了制造商和零售商的利润及消费者效应.

  2. Research on the International Migration Theory in Return:Review and analyse%国际移民理论中的回流研究--回顾与评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈程; 吴瑞君

    2015-01-01

    With the development of economic globalization,International migrants migrate cross-border have become increas-ingly frequent and the emergence of the phenomenon of large-scale emmigrants return migration ,which some countries attach importance to it.scholars also have conducted a positive discussion.They construct theoretical ananlysis framework from differ-ent points of view to illustrate the phenomenon of return migration.This paper gives a detailed review on a few more main-stream theories such as the Newclassical Economics ,New Economics of Labor Migration,Structuralism,Transnationalism and social networks,Though teasing out the evolutionary process and comparising features and utility of different theories.these five theories provide special enlightenment on constructing the framework of China's mainland return migration theory and promoting the localization of return theory.%国际移民跨国流动日益频繁,出现了大规模的移民回流现象,引起了相关国家的重视,学界也对此进行了积极探讨,从不同视角构建了关于移民回流理论分析框架,对回流现象进行了诠释。本文对新古典经济理论、新劳动力迁移理论、社会结构理论、跨国主义及社会网络理论等几个较为主流的理论进行了详细的回顾。通过对不同理论内在演化过程的梳理,比较了不同理论的特征及适用性,为构建我国大陆移民回流理论框架,推动国际移民回流理论本土化研究提供了启示。

  3. Empirical Research on the Relationship betweenβ, Book-to-market and Average Return Based on Different Industries%基于行业考虑的β和B/M与股票收益率关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹崇延; 姜丹君; 瞿安民

    2012-01-01

      Considering the impact of the β coefficient and book-to-market equity on average return on investment is uncertain, this paper tests the relationship between average return and the two factors ofβcoefficient and book-to-market equity through sections for the listed companies in A Share SSE from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2010. Moreover, the situation combined with different market states is also analyzed in this paper. The theoretical basic of the tests is the Fama-MacBeth method. And this paper uses the single-factor model and two-factor model to do the regression analysis. Empirical results indicate that:(1) the interpretive capacity of the relevance of theβcoefficient and book-to-market equity on average return is different among different industries;(2) the interpretive capacity of the relevance of the β coefficient and book-to-market equity on average return is impacted significantly by the environment of the bull and bear markets among different industries.%  针对β系数和账面市值比对股票收益率影响的不确定性,选取2001年1月1日~2010年12月31日上证A股的上市公司为研究对象,运用Fama-MacBeth方法进行单因素模型和双因素模型的回归分析,并结合股票市场的不同市场态势,分行业探讨了β系数和账面市值比与股票收益率之间的关系。研究结果发现:1)各行业的β系数和账面市值比对股票收益率的相关性解释能力不同;2)各行业的β系数和账面市值比对股票收益率的相关性解释能力受熊市、牛市的影响显著。

  4. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  5. 26 CFR 301.6103(i)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (including taxpayer return information) to and by officers and employees of the Department of Justice or... investigation, involving enforcement of Federal criminal statute not involving tax administration. 301.6103(i)-1...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records §...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6103(l)(2)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information to Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for purposes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for purposes of research and studies. 301.6103(l)(2)-1 Section 301....6103(l)(2)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information to Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for... 6103(b)) to officers and employees of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for purposes of, but...

  7. Analisa Korelasi Return Indeks Indeks Saham Terhadap Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan Pada Bursa Efek Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyono

    2015-08-01

    performance of stock trading. Research that is to be conducted on the correlation between return of the stock index listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange and return of Jakarta Composite Index. Return stock index listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange, namely, LQ45 Index, Jakarta Islamic Index (JII, KOMPAS100 Index, BISNIS-27 Index, PEFINDO25 Index and SRI-KEHATI Index, has a close relationship with the return Jakarta Composite Index which is a reflection of the movement of all existing stock in the market. Return of stocks index that have the highest coefficient correlation is KOMPAS100 Index, which have return index coefficient correlation is 0.949, thus KOMPAS100 Index that consisting of 100 stocks, based on the results of the study can be used as an alternative investment to get a return that is at least equal or close to the yield given by Jakarta Composite Index (IHSG that consists of 445 stocks.

  8. One Health surveillance - More than a buzz word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärk, Katharina D C; Arroyo Kuribreña, Montserrat; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Vokaty, Sandra; Ward, Michael P; Wieland, Barbara; Lindberg, Ann

    2015-06-01

    One Health surveillance describes the systematic collection, validation, analysis, interpretation of data and dissemination of information collected on humans, animals and the environment to inform decisions for more effective, evidence- and system-based health interventions. During the second International Conference on Animal Health Surveillance (ICAHS) in Havana, Cuba, a panel discussion was organised to discuss the relevance of One Health in the context of surveillance. A number of success stories were presented which generally focused on the obvious interfaces between human and veterinary medicine such as zoonoses and food safety. Activities aimed at strengthening inter-sectoral networking through technical collaboration, conferences, workshops and consultations have resulted in recommendations to advance the One Health concept. There are also several One Health educational programmes offered as Masters programmes. Continuing challenges to One Health surveillance were identified at both technical as well as organisational level. It was acknowledged that the public health sector and the environmental sector could be engaged more in One Health activities. Legal issues, hurdles to data sharing, unclear responsibilities and structural barriers between ministries prevent integrated action. Policy makers in the health sector often perceive One Health as a veterinary-driven initiative that is not particularly relevant to their priority problems. Whilst some funding schemes allow for the employment of scientists and technicians for research projects, the development of a sustainable One Health workforce has yet to be broadly demonstrated. Funding opportunities do not explicitly promote the development of One Health surveillance systems. In addition, organisational, legal and administrative barriers may prevent operational implementation. Strategies and communication across sectors need to be aligned. Whilst at the technical or local level the formal separation can be

  9. Cold Straw Returned to Research on the Effects of Quantitative Traits of Rice%寒地秸秆还田对水稻数量性状影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤艳; 隋喜友

    2016-01-01

    采用大区对比的方法研究了水稻秸秆在不同处理条件下还田对水稻数量性状的影响。结果表明,各处理秸秆还田后水稻各处理株高相近;稻瘟病、胡麻斑病、褐变穗等病害的抗性明显增强,稻瘟病发病率降低20%,抗倒伏和抗早衰能力明显增强。随着秸秆还田量的增加,穗粒数、空瘪率呈递增趋势,千粒重呈下降趋势。%Based on the regional com-parison method, this paper studied the effects of rice straw returning to field on quantitative traits under different pro-cessing conditions.The results showed that the rice height of every treatments were similar. The resistance to the dis-eases of rice blast, brown spot disease and brown panicle were enhanced sig-nificantly. And rice blast incidence rate decreased by 20%. Lodging resistance and anti-premature decrepitude ability were also significantly enhanced. With the increase of amount of straw returned, spike grain number and empty flat rate showed increasing trend, and 1000-grain weight showed a downward trend.

  10. Return to sport after muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephanie; Ning, Anne; Lee, Carlin; Feeley, Brian T

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscle injuries are among the most common sports-related injuries that result in time lost from practice and competition. The cellular response to muscle injury can often result in changes made to the muscle fibers as well as the surrounding extracellular matrix during repair. This can negatively affect the force and range of the injured muscle even after the patient's return to play. Diagnosis of skeletal muscle injury involves both history and physical examinations; imaging modalities including ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can also be used to assess the extent of injury. Current research is investigating potential methods, including clinical factors and MRI, by which to predict a patient's return to sports. Overall, function of acutely injured muscles seems to improve with time. Current treatment methods for skeletal muscle injuries include injections of steroids, anesthetics, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Other proposed methods involve inhibitors of key players in fibrotic pathways, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß and angiotensin II, as well as muscle-derived stem cells.

  11. Heterogeneity in Schooling Rates of Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Daniel J.; Polachek, Solomon W.; Wang, Le

    2011-01-01

    This paper relaxes the assumption of homogeneous rates of return to schooling by employing nonparametric kernel regression. This approach allows us to examine the differences in rates of return to education both across and within groups. Similar to previous studies we find that on average blacks have higher returns to education than whites,…

  12. The newsboy problem with resalable returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M. Mostard (Julien); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a newsboy problem with resalable returns. A single order is placed before the selling season starts. Purchased products may be returned by the customer for a full refund within a certain time interval. Returned products are resalable, provided they arrive back before the end o

  13. The Newsboy Problem with Resalable Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Mostard (Julien); R.H. Teunter (Ruud)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a newsboy problem with resalable returns. A single order is placed before the selling season starts. Purchased products may be returned by the customer for a full refund within a certain time interval. Returned products are resalable, provided they arrive back before the end o

  14. Return Predictability, Model Uncertainty, and Robust Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel

    Stock return predictability is subject to great uncertainty. In this paper we use the model confidence set approach to quantify uncertainty about expected utility from investment, accounting for potential return predictability. For monthly US data and six representative return prediction models, we...

  15. Measuring Sexual and Gender Minority Populations in Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joanne G; Jabson, Jennifer M; Bowen, Deborah J

    2017-04-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) are underrepresented and information about SGMs is difficult to locate in national health surveillance data, and this limits identification and resolution of SGM health disparities. It is also not known how measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity in health surveillance compare with best practice recommendations. This article reviews and summarizes the publicly available, English language, large-scale, rigorously sampled, national, international, and regional data sources that include sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and compares measures with best practice guidelines. A systematic review was undertaken of national, international, state, and regional health surveillance data sources. Data sources that measured sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and met seven inclusion criteria were included. Forty-three publicly accessible national, international, and regional data sources included measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity and health. For each data source, sampling design, sample characteristics, study years, survey questions, contact persons, and data access links are provided. Few data sources met best practice recommendations for SGM measurement: 14% measured all three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, behavior, attraction) as recommended by the Sexual Minority Assessment Research Team. No data sources measured transgender-inclusive gender identity according to the Gender Identity in U.S. Surveillance-recommended two-step method of measuring sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. This article provides a much needed detailed summary of extant health surveillance data sources that can be used to inform research about health risks and disparities among SGM populations. Future recommendations are for more rigorous measurement and oversampling to advance what is known about SGM health disparities

  16. Measuring Sexual and Gender Minority Populations in Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M.; Bowen, Deborah J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual and gender minorities (SGMs) are underrepresented and information about SGMs is difficult to locate in national health surveillance data, and this limits identification and resolution of SGM health disparities. It is also not known how measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity in health surveillance compare with best practice recommendations. This article reviews and summarizes the publicly available, English language, large-scale, rigorously sampled, national, international, and regional data sources that include sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and compares measures with best practice guidelines. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken of national, international, state, and regional health surveillance data sources. Data sources that measured sexual orientation or transgender-inclusive gender identity and met seven inclusion criteria were included. Results: Forty-three publicly accessible national, international, and regional data sources included measures of sexual orientation and transgender-inclusive gender identity and health. For each data source, sampling design, sample characteristics, study years, survey questions, contact persons, and data access links are provided. Few data sources met best practice recommendations for SGM measurement: 14% measured all three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, behavior, attraction) as recommended by the Sexual Minority Assessment Research Team. No data sources measured transgender-inclusive gender identity according to the Gender Identity in U.S. Surveillance-recommended two-step method of measuring sex assigned at birth and current gender identity. Conclusions: This article provides a much needed detailed summary of extant health surveillance data sources that can be used to inform research about health risks and disparities among SGM populations. Future recommendations are for more rigorous measurement and oversampling to

  17. Surveillance and threat detection prevention versus mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and Threat Detection offers readers a complete understanding of the terrorist/criminal cycle, and how to interrupt that cycle to prevent an attack. Terrorists and criminals often rely on pre-attack and pre-operational planning and surveillance activities that can last a period of weeks, months, or even years. Identifying and disrupting this surveillance is key to prevention of attacks. The systematic capture of suspicious events and the correlation of those events can reveal terrorist or criminal surveillance, allowing security professionals to employ appropriate countermeasures and identify the steps needed to apprehend the perpetrators. The results will dramatically increase the probability of prevention while streamlining protection assets and costs. Readers of Surveillance and Threat Detection will draw from real-world case studies that apply to their real-world security responsibilities. Ultimately, readers will come away with an understanding of how surveillance detection at a high-value, f...

  18. Hematospermia in a returned traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Raynell; Minion, Jessica; Wong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Hematospermia is a common complaint among patients seen in outpatient urology clinics. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, structural, systemic, and traumatic causes. The most common infectious causes are uropathogens and sexually transmitted infections. However, with increasing global travel, physicians must maintain a high clinical suspicion for pathogens not endemic to their region, including Echinococcus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Schistosoma.1 We present a case of hematospermia in a traveler returning from Eastern Africa with exposure to Lake Malawi. The patient's microscopic analysis of semen was positive for Schistosoma haematobium, revealing a rare presentation of S. haematobium infection.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of endoscopic screening followed by surveillance for Barrett's esophagus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiere, Josephine M; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2009-12-01

    Screening interventions for Barrett's esophagus (BE) are appealing, but there is little supporting evidence. We reviewed health economics studies about BE endoscopic screening followed by, as required, endoscopic surveillance ("screening and surveillance" hereafter) to help inform the design and conduct of future research. Health economics studies about BE screening and surveillance were identified using electronic database searches and personal contact with authors of identified studies. No studies examined general population screening. Five US studies published between 2003 and 2007 examined the cost effectiveness of screening and surveillance (against no intervention) in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). There was no randomized trial evidence to inform model construction. Assumptions about prevalence and transition probabilities between BE histologic subtypes and about surveillance and treatment protocols varied substantially between studies. Parameters such as potential BE diagnosis-related reduction in quality of life or increase in health care use, diagnostic accuracy, and infrastructural costs (for quality assurance) were considered either "optimistically" or not at all. Only 2 studies considered endoscopic treatments. No study considered the recently introduced radiofrequency ablation technique, or the potential for biomarker-based risk stratification of surveillance interval or duration. Current health economics evidence is likely to have provided optimistic cost-effectiveness estimates and is not sufficient to support introduction of endoscopic BE screening programs among GERD patients. The evidence does not adequately incorporate novel (endoscopic) treatments and the potential for (clinical, endoscopic, or biomarker-based) risk stratification of surveillance. Future research should aim to encompass both these factors.

  20. The Role of Hackers in Countering Surveillance and Promoting Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kubitschko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Practices related to media technologies and infrastructures (MTI are an increasingly important part of democratic constellations in general and of surveillance tactics in particular. This article does not seek to discuss surveillance per se, but instead to open a new line of inquiry by presenting qualitative research on the Chaos Computer Club (CCC—one of the world’s largest and Europe’s oldest hacker organizations. Despite the longstanding conception of hacking as infused with political significance, the scope and style of hackers’ engagement with emerging issues related to surveillance remains poorly understood. The rationale of this paper is to examine the CCC as a civil society organization that counter-acts contemporary assemblages of surveillance in two ways: first, by de-constructing existing technology and by supporting, building, maintaining and using alternative media technologies and infrastructures that enable more secure and anonymous communication; and second, by articulating their expertise related to contemporary MTI to a wide range of audiences, publics and actors. Highlighting the significance of “privacy” for the health of democracy, I argue that the hacker organization is co-determining “interstitial spaces within information processing practices” (Cohen, 2012, p. 1931, and by doing so is acting on indispensable structural features of contemporary democratic constellations.

  1. The Role of Hackers in Countering Surveillance and Promoting Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kubitschko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Practices related to media technologies and infrastructures (MTI are an increasingly important part of democratic constellations in general and of surveillance tactics in particular. This article does not seek to discuss surveillance per se, but instead to open a new line of inquiry by presenting qualitative research on the Chaos Computer Club (CCC—one of the world’s largest and Europe’s oldest hacker organizations. Despite the longstanding conception of hacking as infused with political significance, the scope and style of hackers’ engagement with emerging issues related to surveillance remains poorly understood. The rationale of this paper is to examine the CCC as a civil society organization that counter-acts contemporary assemblages of surveillance in two ways: first, by de-constructing existing technology and by supporting, building, maintaining and using alternative media technologies and infrastructures that enable more secure and anonymous communication; and second, by articulating their expertise related to contemporary MTI to a wide range of audiences, publics and actors. Highlighting the significance of “privacy” for the health of democracy, I argue that the hacker organization is co-determining “interstitial spaces within information processing practices” (Cohen, 2012, p. 1931, and by doing so is acting on indispensable structural features of contemporary democratic constellations.

  2. Clinical and psychosocial variables associated with behavioral intentions to undergo surveillance endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, John M; Hinojosa-Lindsey, Marilyn; Sansgiry, Shubhada; El-Serag, Hashem B; Naik, Aanand D

    2014-06-10

    Many patients with Barrett's esophagus do not adhere to guideline-recommended endoscopic surveillance. Among patient factors related to cancer prevention behaviors, patients' stated behavioral intention is a strong predictor of behavior performance. Little is known about the patient factors associated with having a strong behavioral intention to pursue surveillance endoscopy. This study explores the association of clinical and psychosocial variables and behavioral intention to pursue surveillance endoscopy among patients with Barrett's Esophagus and no or low-grade dysplasia. Potential subjects were screened using electronic medical records of a regional Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a pathologically confirmed Barrett's esophagus registry. Eligible participants were recruited by a mailer or phone call and completed a questionnaire to measure six distinct psychosocial factors, their behavioral intention to undergo surveillance endoscopy, and various demographic and clinical variables. Univariate and multivariate linear regression identified the relation of behavioral intention with each of six psychosocial variables. One-hundred and one subjects consented and returned surveys. The analytical sample for this study consists of the 94% of surveys with complete responses to the behavior intention items. Three of the six psychosocial domains were statistically significant predictors of intention in both univariate and adjusted univariate analysis (salience/coherence β = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.45-0.76, P intention. This study established the validity of a scale to measure psychosocial variables associated with behavioral intentions to undergo surveillance endoscopy. Results demonstrate the importance of assessing self-efficacy, social influences, and bottom-line belief in the value of surveillance endoscopy when evaluating a patient's likelihood of completing surveillance endoscopy.

  3. Platforms for Persistent Communications, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Membership Study Manager Ms. Anorme Anim – ASB Communications (Comms) Team Dr. Allen Adler Dr. Pete Swan BG(Ret) Bob Wynn Ms. Madhu Beriwal Surveillance...Pete Swan BG(Ret) Bob Wynn Dr. Madhu Beriwal Surveillance & Reconnaissance (SR) Team Dr. Darrell Collier Mr. Herb Gallagher Mr. Gary Glaser Mr. Steve...ASB Communications (Comms) Team Dr. Allen Adler Dr. Pete Swan BG(Ret) Bob Wynn Ms. Madhu Beriwal Surveillance & Reconnaissance (SR) Team Dr

  4. Priorities for antibiotic resistance surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fluit, A. C.; van der Bruggen, J. T.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global problem. Surveillance studies are needed to monitor resistance development, to guide local empirical therapy, and to implement timely and adequate countermeasures. To achieve this, surveillance studies must have standardised methodologies...... to the various reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as hospitalised patients, nursing homes, the community, animals and food. Two studies that could serve as examples of tailored programmes are the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS), which collects resistance data during...... of antibiotic resistance....

  5. The Effects of Return Migration on A Gozitan Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russell; Strachan, Alan

    1980-01-01

    A lengthy two-cycle migration pattern is typical of young males on the Maltese island of Gozo. Their typical final return to and reintegration into the natal community impacts the local population, housing development, and the visual appearance of the area. These findings closely parallel prior research results. (SB)

  6. Analisis Pengaruh Variabel-variabel Ekonomi Makro terhadap Return Saham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunaryo Sunaryo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research is to learn the effecting inflation, interest rate of Indonesian bank certificate, changes of exchange rate, and changes of outstanding money amounts variables with changes of the return Jakarta composite index. Secondary data were collected from Jakarta composite Index, annual Indonesian bank report, Jakarta daily newspaper, and preceding research by using judgment sampling until it got normal distribution data with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The results of this research described that inflation, Interest Rate of Indonesian Bank Certificate, and changes of outstanding money variables have not significant effect to the changes of return Jakarta composite index; and changes of exchange rate have significant effect to the changes return of Jakarta composite index. Inflation, interest rate of Indonesian bank certificate, changes of exchange rate, and changes of outstanding money amounts variables have simultaneous significant effect to thechanges return of Jakarta composite index. Topic of this research may continue using other countries or added more than 75.20 % of independence variables.

  7. Nana i ke kumu: Returning to Our Ancestral Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdeman, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Nana i ke kumu refers to the Hawaiian practice of returning to traditional knowledge and resources to understand the underlying cultural roots of everyday words and actions used in contemporary Hawaiian settings. In this strengths-based research project, videotaped lessons in four classrooms at a Native Hawaiian-serving school were viewed and…

  8. Negative Returns to Seniority: New Evidence in Academic Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsberg, Bernt; Ragan, James F., Jr.; Warren, John T.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of a 21-year panel of data on economics professors found only some of the negative relationship between seniority and pay was attributable to low research productivity. Accounting for the quality of the faculty/institution match reduced the inflated estimated returns to seniority. The penalty for 20 years of seniority was 16% of salary.…

  9. Automated multi-camera surveillance algorithms and practice : theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Javed, Omar

    2008-01-01

    The deployment of surveillance systems has captured the interest of both the research and the industrial worlds in recent years. The aim of this effort is to increase security and safety in several application domains such as national security, home and bank safety, traffic monitoring and navigation, tourism, and military applications. The video surveillance systems currently in use share one feature: A human operator must monitor them at all times, thus limiting the number of cameras and the area under surveillance and increasing cost. A more advantageous system would have continuous active w

  10. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-15

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  11. Remotely piloted LTA vehicle for surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, G. R.; Harris, G. L.; Brown, G. J.

    1975-01-01

    Various aspects of a remotely piloted mini-LTA vehicle for surveillance, monitoring and measurement for civilian and military applications are considered. Applications, operations and economics are discussed.

  12. Legionnaires’ disease Surveillance in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Ricci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the report presented, data on legionellosis diagnosed in the year 2003 in Italy and notified to the National Surveillance System are analysed. Overall, 617 cases were notified, of which 517 were confirmed and 46 were presumptive.

    The characteristics of the patients are very similar to those reported in the previous years in terms of male/female ratio, age–specific distribution, occupation, etc. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was responsible for approximately 90% of the cases.

  13. Return to sport following amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, D; Sukeik, M; Haddad, F

    2014-08-01

    Amputation in athletes has a substantial impact on lifestyle and sporting activity, as well as self-perception and quality of life. The impact of limb loss on athletic ability will vary depending on the cause of amputation and the anatomical location of the amputation. The use of sporting activity for rehabilitation of amputees was first introduced in 1944 at Stoke Mandeville Hospital. The first international paralympic games were founded in 1960. Following these events the opportunity to participate in sport following limb loss has increased significantly. Sport participation has been aided by the development of sporting prostheses, however multiple factors will determine the exact prosthesis used. These include the nature of the sporting activity as well as the level of the amputation. The biomechanics involved in walking and running are altered following the loss of a limb or part thereof. This can cause subsequent degenerative changes within the remaining joints on the amputated limb as well as the contralateral limb. Factors affecting return to sporting activity are multivariate and inter-related, including patient factors, surgical factors, nature and level of the sporting activity and prosthetic factors. The authors review current literature, detail predictive factors of return to sport and the physical and psychosocial impact on patients following limb amputation.

  14. A Novel Surveillance System Applied in Civil Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hua Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional security monitoring of civil airport usually uses a fixed camera to acquire images. There are several problems with performance including difficulties introduced in the information transmission, storage, and analysis of the process. Insect compound eyes offer unique advantages for moving target capture and these have attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. This paper contributes to this research by proposing a new surveillance system applied in civil airport. We discuss the finished bionic structure of the system, the development of the bionic control circuit, and introduce the proposed mathematical model of bionic compound eyes for data acquisition and image mosaic. Image matching for large view is also illustrated with different conditions. This mode and algorithm effectively achieve safety surveillance of airport with large field of view and high real-time processing.

  15. Omega-optimized portfolios: applying stochastic dominance criterion for the selection of the threshold return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaldas Vilkancas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While using asymmetric risk-return measures an important role is played by selection of the investor's required or threshold rate of return. The scientific literature usually states that every investor should define this rate according to their degree of risk aversion. In this paper, it is attempted to look at the problem from a different perspective - empirical research is aimed at determining the impact of the threshold rate of return on the investment portfolio.

  16. 扶持返乡农民工创业的对策研究——以安徽省为例%Research on the Entrepreneurship of Migrant Workers Returning Home---exemplified by Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 唐国银

    2011-01-01

    Currently, in Anhui Province, a traditional major province in exporting labor, more andmore migrant workers returning home would like to stay at their hometown, and most of them want to set up their own business. Obviously, the local government should give vigorous aid to these home-going migrant workers. Therefore, Anhui Province could draw on the successful experiences of other provinces for helping the migrant workers returning home, among which include financing, entrepreneurship training and business incubator constructing for the home-going migrant workers. In a word, the government should explore an effective way to offer practical help to the home-going migrant workers both based on the actual state of economic and social development in Anhui, and characterized by the new rural construction.%安徽省是劳务输出大省,当前,由于主客观原因的共同影响,大批农民工返乡并滞留在农村。他们之中有很多人怀有创业愿望,针对这些农民工,政府应该大力扶持。安徽省可以借鉴其他省份扶持返乡农民工创业的经验,并从融资、创业培训、打造农民工创业园等三个方面大力扶持返乡农民工创业。挖掘一条既适合我省农村经济社会发展实情,又具有社会主义新农村特色的农民工创业之路。

  17. 考虑健忘顾客行为的B2C无理由退货策略研究%Research on B2 C Unreasonable Return Policy Based on Forgetful Consumers Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林倩; 贺纯纯; 王应明

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the customer's purchase decision and the manufacturer's operating decisions,we study on B2C unreasonable return policy based on forgetful consumers.After comparing with the model only considering strategy customers,this paper reach conclusions as follows:when considering forgetful consumers,there are some differences in the manufacturer's optimal price and production,but they have the same optimal return price.In brief,the model based on forgetful consumers is closer to the actual situation and the manufacturer should adjust its operating decisions before the beginning of the selling season to conform to the fact of existing forgetful consumers.%通过分析顾客的购买决策及制造商的运营决策,研究考虑健忘顾客行为的电子商务环境下的无理由退货策略模型,并与只考虑策略顾客的无理由退货模型相比较,发现当市场中存在健忘顾客时,制造商的最优销售价格和最优生产量都有所改变,但最优退货价格保持不变。相比较而言,考虑健忘顾客的无理由退货策略模型更贴合实际,制造商在销售期初应该就市场上存在的健忘顾客适当调整其运营决策。

  18. 27 CFR 479.151 - Failure to make returns: Substitute returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to make returns: Substitute returns. 479.151 Section 479.151 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL...: Substitute returns. If any person required by this part to make returns shall fail or refuse to make any such...

  19. Limits on surveillance: frictions, fragilities and failures in the operation of camera surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.

    2004-01-01

    Public video surveillance tends to be discussed in either utopian or dystopian terms: proponents maintain that camera surveillance is the perfect tool in the fight against crime, while critics argue that the use of security cameras is central to the development of a panoptic, Orwellian surveillance

  20. Limits on surveillance: frictions, fragilities and failures in the operation of camera surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, Lynsey

    2004-01-01

    Public video surveillance tends to be discussed in either utopian or dystopian terms: proponents maintain that camera surveillance is the perfect tool in the fight against crime, while critics argue that the use of security cameras is central to the development of a panoptic, Orwellian surveillance

  1. The dynamics of health and return migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anita A; Borland, Rosilyne M; Blake, Carolyn; West, Haley E

    2011-06-01

    The increasing importance and complexity of migration globally also implies a global increase in return migration, and thus an increased interest in the health of returning migrants. The health of returning migrants is impacted by the cumulative exposure to social determinants and risk factors of health during the migration process, during the return movement, and following return. Circular migration often occurs among the diaspora, which can result in the transfer of knowledge and skills that contribute to development, including health system strengthening. Migrants with dual nationality often return to countries with better health services than their country of origin when they are sick and can not get care at home. To maintain and improve the health of returning migrants, multi-sectoral policies at global and national levels should facilitate access to appropriate and equitable health services, social services, and continuity of care across and within borders.

  2. The dynamics of health and return migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita A Davies

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance and complexity of migration globally also implies a global increase in return migration, and thus an increased interest in the health of returning migrants. The health of returning migrants is impacted by the cumulative exposure to social determinants and risk factors of health during the migration process, during the return movement, and following return. Circular migration often occurs among the diaspora, which can result in the transfer of knowledge and skills that contribute to development, including health system strengthening. Migrants with dual nationality often return to countries with better health services than their country of origin when they are sick and can not get care at home. To maintain and improve the health of returning migrants, multi-sectoral policies at global and national levels should facilitate access to appropriate and equitable health services, social services, and continuity of care across and within borders.

  3. Stock return comovement and Korean business groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Ho Cho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores whether business group affiliations affect the covariance structure of stock returns in Korea. We find that the stock returns of firms belonging to the same business group show positive and significant comovement. The strong comovement between group returns and firm returns is explained by correlated fundamentals. We find strong comovement among business group affiliate earnings. Moreover, variance decomposition of returns shows that cash flow news plays a relatively more important role in explaining group comovement than discount rate news, suggesting a link between stock return comovement and the “tunneling” and “propping” behaviors of business groups. Finally, return comovement increases when a firm joins a business group.

  4. Maximizing LSST's Scientific Return: Ensuring Participation from Smaller Institutions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Charles T; Pepper, Joshua; Rutkowski, Michael; Norman, Dara; Cruz, Kelle; Bochanski, John; Lee, Hyun-chul; Isler, Jedidah; Gizis, John; Smith, J Allyn; Moustakas, John; Wehner, Elizabeth; Alfred, Marcus; McGruder, Charles; Hoffman, Jennifer L; Kwitter, Karen; Carini, Michael; Bary, Jeff; Covey, Kevin R; Finn, Rose; Penprase, Brian; Gelderman, Richard; Schuler, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The remarkable scientific return and legacy of LSST, in the era that it will define, will not only be realized in the breakthrough science that will be achieved with catalog data. This Big Data survey will shape the way the entire astronomical community advances -- or fails to embrace -- new ways of approaching astronomical research and data. In this white paper, we address the NRC template questions 4,5,6,8 and 9, with a focus on the unique challenges for smaller, and often under-resourced, institutions, including institutions dedicated to underserved minority populations, in the efficient and effective use of LSST data products to maximize LSST's scientific return.

  5. Strengthening Injury Surveillance System in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Abbas Motevalian; Mashyaneh Haddadi; Hesam Akbari; Reza Khorramirouz; Soheil Saadat; Arash Tehrani; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To strengthen the current Injury Surveillance System (IS System) in order to better monitor injury conditions,improve protection ways and promote safety.Methods:At first we carried out a study to evaluate the frameworks of IS System in the developed countries.Then all the available documents from World Health OrganizationEastern Mediterranean Regional Organization,as well as Minister of Health and Medical Education concerning Iran were reviewed.Later a national stakeholder's consultation was held to collect opinions and views.A national workshop was also intended for provincial representatives from 41 universities to identify the barriers and limitations of the existing program and further to strengthen injury surveillance.Results:The evaluation of the current IS System revealed many problems,mainly presented as lack of accurate pre- and post-hospital death registry,need of precise injury data registry in outpatient medical centers,incomplete injury data registry in hospitals and lack of accuracy in definition of variables in injury registry.The five main characteristics of current IS System including flexibility,acceptability,simplicity,usefulness and timeliness were evaluated as moderate by experts.Contusions:Major revisions must be considered in the current IS System in Iran.The following elements should be added to the questionnaire:identifier,manner of arrival to the hospital,situation of the injured patient,consumption of alcohol and opioids,other involved participants in the accident,intention,severity and site of injury,side effects of surgery and medication,as well as one month follow-up results.Data should be collected from 10% of all hospitals in Iran and analyzed every 3 months.Simultaneously data should be online to be retrieved by researches.

  6. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 20, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Attributes of USAF MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper Pilots According to Subject Matter Experts. Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: Air Force Research Laboratory ; May...the brain caused by a sud - den external force. Surveillance of TBIs among U.S. military members is conducted by monitoring numbers and rates of TBI...signifi cant fi ndings; this result could be due in part to limited numbers of laboratory -confi rmed infl uenza infections during the periods of

  7. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  8. Scoping review on search queries and social media for disease surveillance: a chronology of innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Theresa Marie; Rajic, Andrijana; Young, Ian; Robiadek, Katie; Pham, Mai T; Funk, Julie A

    2013-07-18

    The threat of a global pandemic posed by outbreaks of influenza H5N1 (1997) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, 2002), both diseases of zoonotic origin, provoked interest in improving early warning systems and reinforced the need for combining data from different sources. It led to the use of search query data from search engines such as Google and Yahoo! as an indicator of when and where influenza was occurring. This methodology has subsequently been extended to other diseases and has led to experimentation with new types of social media for disease surveillance. The objective of this scoping review was to formally assess the current state of knowledge regarding the use of search queries and social media for disease surveillance in order to inform future work on early detection and more effective mitigation of the effects of foodborne illness. Structured scoping review methods were used to identify, characterize, and evaluate all published primary research, expert review, and commentary articles regarding the use of social media in surveillance of infectious diseases from 2002-2011. Thirty-two primary research articles and 19 reviews and case studies were identified as relevant. Most relevant citations were peer-reviewed journal articles (29/32, 91%) published in 2010-11 (28/32, 88%) and reported use of a Google program for surveillance of influenza. Only four primary research articles investigated social media in the context of foodborne disease or gastroenteritis. Most authors (21/32 articles, 66%) reported that social media-based surveillance had comparable performance when compared to an existing surveillance program. The most commonly reported strengths of social media surveillance programs included their effectiveness (21/32, 66%) and rapid detection of disease (21/32, 66%). The most commonly reported weaknesses were the potential for false positive (16/32, 50%) and false negative (11/32, 34%) results. Most authors (24/32, 75%) recommended that

  9. LWT Based Sensor Node Signal Processing in Vehicle Surveillance Distributed Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Daehyun; Hwang, Chansik

    Previous vehicle surveillance researches on distributed sensor network focused on overcoming power limitation and communication bandwidth constraints in sensor node. In spite of this constraints, vehicle surveillance sensor node must have signal compression, feature extraction, target localization, noise cancellation and collaborative signal processing with low computation and communication energy dissipation. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm for light-weight wireless sensor node signal processing based on lifting scheme wavelet analysis feature extraction in distributed sensor network.

  10. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashurano Marcellina

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is particularly harmful to infectious disease management in low-income countries since expensive second-line drugs are not readily available. The objective of this study was to implement and evaluate a computerized system for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. Methods A computerized surveillance system for antimicrobial susceptibility (WHONET was implemented at the national referral hospital in Tanzania in 1998. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of all clinical bacterial isolates received during an 18 months' period were recorded and analyzed. Results The surveillance system was successfully implemented at the hospital. This activity increased the focus on antimicrobial resistance issues and on laboratory quality assurance issues. The study identified specific nosocomial problems in the hospital and led to the initiation of other prospective studies on prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial infections. Furthermore, the study provided useful data on antimicrobial patterns in bacterial isolates from the hospital. Gram-negative bacteria displayed high rates of resistance to common inexpensive antibiotics such as ampicillin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, leaving fluoroquinolones as the only reliable oral drugs against common Gram-negative bacilli. Gentamicin and third generation cephalosporins remain useful for parenteral therapy. Conclusion The surveillance system is a low-cost tool to generate valuable information on antimicrobial resistance, which can be used to prepare locally applicable recommendations on antimicrobial use. The system pinpoints relevant nosocomial problems and can be used to efficiently plan further research. The surveillance system also functions as a quality assurance tool, bringing attention to methodological issues in identification and susceptibility testing.

  11. Triple F - A Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Michael; Keller, H. U.; Kuehrt, E.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Altwegg, K.; Bertrand, R.; Busemann, H.; Capria, M. T.; Colangeli, L.; Davidsson, B.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Triple F (Fresh From the Fridge) mission, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, has been proposed to ESA's Cosmic Vision program. A sample return from a comet enables us to reach the ultimate goal of cometary research. Since comets are the least processed bodies in the solar system, the proposal goes far beyond cometary science topics (like the explanation of cometary activity) and delivers invaluable information about the formation of the solar system and the interstellar molecular cloud from which it formed. The proposed mission would extract three sample cores of the upper 50 cm from three locations on a cometary nucleus and return them cooled to Earth for analysis in the laboratory. The simple mission concept with a touch-andgo sampling by a single spacecraft was proposed as an M-class mission in collaboration with the Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS.

  12. Melioidosis in a returning traveller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Alaa; Buckley, Adam; Dubrey, Simon William

    2013-01-01

    A 66-year-old man returned to the UK from Thailand with a 2-week history of new confusion, hallucinations, fever with rigours and productive cough. He had not responded to (unspecified) antibiotic treatment in Thailand. On examination he was afebrile, with an abbreviated mental test score of 8/10 and no other findings on systemic examination. He was treated with ceftriaxone in response to discovery of a Gram-negative organism in blood. This was converted to meropenem on the clinical suspicion of our microbiologist, on the basis of a history of contact with surface water in the Far East. A blood culture subsequently confirmed Burkholderia pseudomallei. His condition remained stable for approximately 4 days, but then deteriorated over the course of the next 2 weeks with pneumonia and subsequent formation of disseminated abscesses. Treatment was withdrawn as his condition deteriorated to the point at which survival was deemed impossible and he subsequently died. PMID:23605844

  13. 生命伦理视角下精神病患者回归社会研究%Research of the Psychopaths’Return to Society from the Perspective of Bioethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪冬泉

    2014-01-01

    精神病患者长期以来被污名化、标签化和边缘化,使其难以真正回归社会。除了精神病患者自身的原因,家庭不堪重负、医疗机构的科层体制、社区民众的排斥是精神病患者回归社会面临的主要障碍。从关爱生命、关注尊严、尊重人权的视角看,社区和家庭应对精神病患者真正实现回归社会担负起更多的社会责任与伦理责任,从而使其感受尊严、重拾自信、融入社会。在具体实践中,不仅要靠患者的自我觉醒,还需要有家属的支持、邻里的包容和医护方面的投入,构建以“去机构化”为特征的社区治疗体制,通过各种媒介宣传努力实现精神病患的去污名化,满足精神病患者“回家看看”的心理需求,使其最终能真正融入社会。%Psychopaths have long been stigmatized,labeled and marginalized,which has made it hard for them to return to the human society.In addition to the psychopaths’own problems,the family burden,the hierar-chical system of medical institutions,and the community’s rejection are the main barriers for them to return to the society.From the perspective of life loving,dignity concern and human right respect,communities and fami-lies should assume greater social and ethical responsibility to help the psychopaths to realize their desire of“re-turning to society”,thus helping the mentally-ill people regain dignity and confidence,and eventually integrate themselves into the society.In practice,the patient’s self-awareness,family to support,neighborhood tolerance and work of the medical personnel are all needed.It is essential to build a community treatment system charac-terized of deinstitutionalization,to realize the de-stigmatization of the psychopaths by multiple media publicity, to satisfy their psychological need of“returning home”,so as to make them integrate into the community.

  14. PRODUCT RETURNS MANAGEMENT IN THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jeszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to identify and define on the basis of the literature the principal external and organizational factors and check to what extent they affect the efficiency of returns management as well as any resultant savings. The author proposes a conceptual model which correlates the results of returns management as well as savings with the main determinants identified on the basis of the literature. Then, in the operationalisation phase of the model, the dependent and independent variables were defined in the form of constructs. In accordance with the adopted model, individual constructs were measured based on standardised interviews. Materials and methods:  The results of returns management and any savings generated by this process are affected by certain determinants which are described in the literature. The adopted model included external factors, such as the cooperation of retailers with logistics operators and suppliers, the exchange of information in the supply chain, and organizational behaviour (experience of employees; as well as organizational factors related to the flow of information and IT systems. Due to financial and organisational restrictions, the originally planned representative sample of retail chains was limited to the regions of Wielkopolska and Lubuskie. In the end, 105 interviews were analysed. Results:  The results obtained in the research sample confirm assumptions about the possible potential savings that can be achieved as a result of appropriately conducted corporate policies in the area of reverse logistics. A correlation was also revealed between the experience and competencies of staff and the efficiency of returns management. Conclusions: Research into the factors affecting the efficiency of returns management and any savings resulting from returns management policies have not been conducted in Poland to date. The present study contributes to the growing trend of research into the

  15. US States' Childhood Obesity Surveillance Practices and Recommendations for Improving Them, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Kelly J; Giles, Catherine M; Cradock, Angie L; Gortmaker, Steven L; Long, Michael W

    2016-07-28

    Routine collection, analysis, and reporting of data on child height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), particularly at the state and local levels, are needed to monitor the childhood obesity epidemic, plan intervention strategies, and evaluate the impact of interventions. Child BMI surveillance systems operated by the US government do not provide state or local data on children across a range of ages. The objective of this study was to describe the extent to which state governments conduct child BMI surveillance. From August through December 2014, we conducted a structured telephone survey with state government administrators to learn about state surveillance of child BMI. We also searched websites of state health and education agencies for information about state surveillance. State agency administrators in 48 states and Washington, DC, completed telephone interviews (96% response rate). Based on our interviews and Internet research, we determined that 14 states collect child BMI data in a manner consistent with standard definitions of public health surveillance. The absence of child BMI surveillance systems in most states limits the ability of public health practitioners and policymakers to develop and evaluate responses to the childhood obesity epidemic. Greater investment in surveillance is needed to identify the most effective and cost-effective childhood obesity interventions.

  16. 40 CFR 52.2030 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2030 Section 52.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2030 Source surveillance...

  17. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Reeth, Van Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M.; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S.; Brown, Ian H.; Loeffen, Willie; Meulen, Van der Karen; Schlegel, Michael; Bublot, Michel; Kellam, Paul; Watson, Simon; Lewis, Nicola S.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Webby, Richard; Chen, Hualan; Vincent, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (

  18. Rare disease surveillance: An international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, E.J.; Nicoll, A.; Lynn, R.; Marchessault, V.; Hirasing, R.A.; Ridley, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1998 and met formally for the first time in Ottawa, Ontario in June 2000. Objectives: To document the methodology and activities of existing national paediatric surveillance units; the formation of

  19. Unattended video surveillance systems for international safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    The use of unattended video surveillance systems places some unique requirements on the systems and their hardware. The systems have the traditional requirements of video imaging, video storage, and video playback but also have some special requirements such as tamper safing. The technology available to meet these requirements and how it is being applied to unattended video surveillance systems are discussed in this paper.

  20. Rare disease surveillance: An international perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, E.J.; Nicoll, A.; Lynn, R.; Marchessault, V.; Hirasing, R.A.; Ridley, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1998 and met formally for the first time in Ottawa, Ontario in June 2000. Objectives: To document the methodology and activities of existing national paediatric surveillance units; the formation of INo

  1. Video Surveillance: All Eyes Turn to IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2011-01-01

    Many university officials recognize the need to upgrade their older analog video surveillance systems. In a 2010 survey by "Campus Safety" magazine, half of university respondents expressed dissatisfaction with the quality and coverage of their current video surveillance systems. Among the limitations of analog closed-circuit television…

  2. Surveillance of environmental radiation in Finland. Annual report 2011; Ympaeristoen saeteilyvalvonta Suomessa. Vuosiraportti 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. (ed.)

    2012-08-15

    , water and soil in the Member States. In Finland, also the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) and the Defence Forces are monitoring environmental radiation at their own stations. Research and Environmental Surveillance Department (TKO) at STUK is a testing laboratory accredited by FINAS (Finnish Accreditation Service) under the registration number T167. The laboratory meets the requirements laid down in standard EN ISO / IEC 17025:2005. Almost all analyses in the radiation surveillance programme are made according to the accreditation requirements. STUK's partners in surveillance of environmental radioactivity are collecting and delivering environmental samples for laboratory analyses, or are participating in whole-body counting.

  3. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  4. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Xiaoyan; Li, Ning; Guo, Yunchang; Liu, Xiumei; Yan, Lin; Li, Ying; Yang, Shuran; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Jianghui; Yang, Dajin

    2015-08-28

    Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  5. Acquired Brain Injury and Return to Work in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasou, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A research review of 9 Australian-New Zealand (n=1,010) and 23 international (n=2,182) studies found the overall return-to-work rates after head injury were 44% and 45% respectively. Methodological issues might have inflated these numbers. Only an estimated 7-10% of persons with acquired brain injury returned to the same job. (Contains 46…

  6. Puerto Rican Migration: The Return Flow = La Migracion Puertorriquena: El Reflujo a la Isla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivo, Paquita, Comp.

    This is a guide to materials and research on Puerto Ricans who have returned to Puerto Rico after living in the United States. Part 1 is an annotated bibliography of books, journal articles, printed documents, doctoral dissertations, master's theses, journalistic accounts, and unpublished papers on characteristics of Puerto Rican return migrants;…

  7. Consent Form Return Rates for Third-Grade Urban Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.; Phil, D.; DuBois, David L.; Brechling, Vanessa; Day, Joseph; Cantillon, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To maximize active parent consent form return rates for third-grade minority, urban students enrolled in predominantly low-income elementary schools in Chicago, Ill. Methods: Research staff used a class incentive and class visits to retrieve consent forms from students. Results: Of the 811 third-grade students, 98% returned a form and …

  8. Abnormal Behavior Detection Research Based on Reference Amount of Video Surveillance%基于视频监控参考量的异常行为检测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓东; 凌捷

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the traditional algorithm is difficult to detect a human moving target in the case of dynamic scenes , this paper proposes a new human motion abnormal behavior detection method . The method combines the use of video monitoring each of the reference amount , analyzes the video sequence into the behavior , for the purpose of the abnormal behavior to detect discrepancies , specifically related to : human moving target detection, tracking and extraction, abnormal behavior detection. It elaborated the concept of abnormal behavior detection, and introduced the method of calculating the various parameters referenced to the amount of video surveillance. The algorithm combines the advantages of detection and classification of abnormal behavior and the similarity, and made reference to the amount of video-based surveillance of aberrant behavior detection algorithm, which is calculated is given, and to determine the detection process,analysising of the characteristics and advantages of this method.%为了解决传统算法难以检测一般动态场景情形下人体运动目标的问题,文中提出了一种新的人体运动异常行为的检测方法,该方法组合利用视频监控各个的参考量.文中针对视频序列中人的行为进行分析,目的是检测出入的异常行为,具体涉及:人体运动目标的检测、跟踪与提取,异常行为检测等.文中阐述了异常行为检测的相关概念,介绍了视频监控参考量各个参数的计算方法,探讨了异常行为检测与分类技术的关系.结合异常行为检测与分类的相似性,提出了基于视频监控参考量的算法的异常行为检测方法,给出了其计算方法,并确定了检测的过程,分析了该方法的特点和优势.

  9. Research on LVDT Displacement Sensor with Built-in Return Spring%一种内置复位弹簧式位移传感器的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沛剑; 蒋晓彤; 郑浩

    2014-01-01

    针对机械反馈伺服作动器测试零位输出不稳定,测得位移量与实际测量长度存在误差等问题,原有的传统LVDT式位移传感器不能满足高精度测试需求,采用内置复位弹簧设计的新型位移传感器消除了连接部位间隙,提高了测试可靠性。%For mechanical feedback servo actuator to test the zero output is unstable, the errors are existed between the measured amount of displacement and the length of actual measurement. The original traditional LVDT displacement sensor can not meet the demanding for high-accuracy test. The joints gap is eliminated when using the new displacement sensor with built-in return spring and the test reliability is improved at the same time.

  10. ANALISA DAMPAK PENGUMUMAN DIVIDEN TERHADAP RETURN, VARIABILITAS TINGKAT KEUNTUNGAN DAN AKTIVITAS VOLUME PERDAGANGAN SAHAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnawati - -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   Objective of this research is to ascertain whether the dividend announcement has impacts on return, security return variability and stock trading volume activity in the period surrounding the event. This research was conducted by using event study method with market adjusted model approach. The sample was 67 manufacturing companies announcing dividend between 2000-2001 and fulfilling sample criteria. The statistical test used is T-test: Paired Two Samples for Mean on the period before the event, at the moment of the event, and after the event. Statistical periods are applied to the extended periods (10 observation days and abridged periods (5 observation days. Results indicate that dividend announcement significantly influence return, abnormal return on the period before-after announcement, while the security return variability is significant on the period before-at the moment of announcement and after-at the moment of announcement. The results of the research for the abridged periods indicate that dividend announcement significantly influence stock return on the period before-after announcement, and the security return variability on the period at the moment-after the announcement and before-after the announcement. The variables of cumulative abnormal return (CAR, security return variability (SRV and trading volume activity (TVA on the 10 and 5 observation days do not indicate any significant difference. Cumulatively, the research provides a conclusion that there is not sufficient informational content in the dividend announcement. This can be seen from the inconsistent results gained from some variables and which indicating that the form of Indonesian capital market, especially Jakarta Stock Exchange, is not semi strong efficient yet. This is seen from the significant results gained from the tests of some variables. Keywords: Dividend Announcement, Return, Abnormal Return, SRV, TVA

  11. Understanding the multifractality in portfolio excess returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Wang, Yudong

    2017-01-01

    The multifractality in stock returns have been investigated extensively. However, whether the autocorrelations in portfolio returns are multifractal have not been considered in the literature. In this paper, we detect multifractal behavior of returns of portfolios constructed based on two popular trading rules, size and book-to-market (BM) ratio. Using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis, we find that the portfolio returns are significantly multifractal and the multifractality is mainly attributed to long-range dependence. We also investigate the multifractal cross-correlation between portfolio return and market average return using the detrended cross-correlation analysis. Our results show that the cross-correlations of small fluctuations are persistent, while those of large fluctuations are anti-persistent.

  12. Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast Verification and Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automatic Dependent Surveillance ? Broadcast (ADS-B) is an emerging Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS) technology that will vastly expand the state...

  13. The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B.; Petersen, Kathrine B; Jakobsson, Maija

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates and characteristics of women with complete uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, peripartum hysterectomy, and severe blood loss at delivery in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Prospective, Nordic collaboration. SETTING: The Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study...... (NOSS) collected cases of severe obstetric complications in the Nordic countries from April 2009 to August 2012. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Cases were reported by clinicians at the Nordic maternity units and retrieved from medical birth registers, hospital discharge registers, and transfusion databases...... hysterectomy was 3.5/10 000 deliveries. Of the women, 25% had two or more complications. Women with complications were more often >35 years old, overweight, with a higher parity, and a history of cesarean delivery compared with the total population. CONCLUSION: The studied obstetric complications are rare...

  14. Symbolic power, robotting, and surveilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsmose, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic power is discussed with reference to mathematics and formal languages. Two distinctions are crucial for establishing mechanical and formal perspectives: one between appearance and reality, and one between sense and reference. These distinctions include a nomination of what to consider...... primary and secondary. They establish the grammatical format of a mechanical and a formal world view. Such views become imposed on the domains addressed by means of mathematics and formal languages. Through such impositions symbolic power of mathematics becomes exercised. The idea that mathematics...... describes as it prioritises is discussed with reference to robotting and surveillance. In general, the symbolic power of mathematics and formal languages is summarised through the observations: that mathematics treats parts and properties as autonomous, that it dismembers what it addresses and destroys...

  15. [Ethical problems in health surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoletto, F; Briatico Vangosa, G; Panizza, C

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance of workers' health in the field of occupational medicine poses substantial ethical problems in view of occupational medicine's complex responsibilities towards workers and employers, preventive and protection services, workers' representatives, public healthcare and preventive medicine facilities, controlling agencies and judicial authorities. Potentially conflicting rights and duties often come into play in this sector. In the last few years various international and national bodies have drawn up codes of ethics or guidelines for the conduct of physicians in occupational medicine, three of which are of particular importance: 1) The International Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH, 1992); 2) The Code of Conduct of the National Association of Company Doctors (ANMA, 1997); 3) The Technical and Ethical Guidelines for workers' health (ILO, 1998). The chief purpose of all these documents is to safeguard the health of workers and to guarantee the safety of the workplace by defining programmes of health supervision to match specific risks. The methods should be non-invasive and should allow for a check or efficiency. The physician is expected to have a high degree of professionalism and up-to-date skills; to be independent and impartial; to be reserved and capable of inter-disciplinary co-operation. On the basis of the above documents, a number of problematic aspects may be appraised concerning the relationship between the occupational health physician responsible for the surveillance activities of the local health authority and the relative company physician. The documents stress the importance of keeping up to date and of quality, fields in which the dominant role played by Scientific Societies is underlined. Finally it is recommended that health supervision be arranged in such a manner as to foster the professionalism and responsibility of the physician in charge rather than the formal implementation of health

  16. Irish return migration in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, M

    1985-01-01

    This study is concerned with return migration to Ireland from the United States during the nineteenth century. The author first notes that the rate of return migration was relatively low. Reasons for returning are then considered, including inheritance and poor health. Data on 671 Irish returnees from passenger lists of ships arriving in the United Kingdom from the United States between 1858 and 1867 are analyzed with regard to sex, marital status, age, occupations, and impact of returnees.

  17. Risk/Return Performance of Diversified Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Richard A. Bettis; Vijay Mahajan

    1985-01-01

    Based on a sample of 80 firms, this paper examines the risk/return performance of related and unrelated diversified firms at the level of accounting data. The results suggest that although on the average related diversified firms outperform unrelated diversified firms, related diversification offers no guarantee of a favorable risk/return performance. (Many low performers are related diversifiers.) In fact, different diversification strategies can result in similar risk/return performance. Ho...

  18. [Epidemiologic surveillance for the prevention and control urban violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Eastman, A; Guerrero, R

    1999-01-01

    Violence prevention policies should be based on information, follow-up, research, and analysis, all of which increase the chances of success and make it easier to evaluate interventions. This implies, in turn, that there is a need to create surveillance, research, and prevention models for violence within the sphere of public health and epidemiology, a task that constitutes an integral part of the Pan American Health Organization's Regional Plan of Action Health and Violence. This article describes the objectives of epidemiologic surveillance systems and explains their purpose and scope, along with the barriers that stand in the way of their implementation. It also examines a number of variables and their definitions, the types of analyses and reports that should be generated, and the decisions that can be made on the basis of these reports. Finally, it discusses ethical criteria and describes the experiences of the program known as Desarrollo, Seguridad y Paz (DESEPAZ) in Cali and Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia, where an epidemiologic surveillance system against violence has been implemented.

  19. The Bubbles of China Stock Market Based on Return Decomposition and Cumulative Return

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-xia; WU Chong-feng

    2006-01-01

    Using Capital Asset Pricing Model Integrating both Firm and Market (CAPMIFM), we first decompose the asset return into two components. One is called the fundamental return,which is related to the intrinsic value of the asset. The other is called bubble return, which is derived from the asset bubbles. Then a stock bubble return model bused on cumulative return is proposed. The model exhibits characterizing log-periodic oscillations and a power law acceleration of the cumulative return. Empirical results suggest that the model has a good fit for the bubbles of China stock market.

  20. Bulgarian Turkish emigration and return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, D

    1992-01-01

    The main factors which determined the 1989 migration of Turks in Bulgaria back to Turkey are discussed. Background history is provided. After World War I, Turks in bulgaria comprised 10% of the total population. Bulgarian policy had been, up to the 1980s to send Rumelian Turks back, but the policy after 1980 was one of a national revival process to integrate Turks into the developed socialist society. Muslim traditions, customs, and Turkish language were interfered with. International disfavor resulted. In May 1989, the Communist Party declared, in an effort to show democratic ideals, open borders. Thus began the new emigration wave. 369,839 people fled to the Turkish border. 43% of the 9.47 ethnic Turks in bulgaria went to Turkey within 4 months. The numbers decreased in November, and soon after the communist regime ended. New laws were adopted allowing Turks to assume their original Turkish names. The huge migration was clearly political, and as such, the emigrant Turks should be determined as refugees and asylum seekers. The provocation of ethnic Turks was used by the communist regime to solve potential social conflicts. Not only did Turks flee to escape from violence or for religious, cultural, and moral reasons but also due to free market initiatives begun in Turkey in the early 1980s which improved Turkish quality of life. Food and consumer goods were cheaper and economic advantages were perceived. Emigrants were primarily peasants with lower levels of education, professional qualifications, and labor skills. 154,937 (42%) returned to bulgaria and 58% stayed in Turkey to comprise 25% of the former Turkish population. During this period, tensions between countries was high.l Bulgarians actively encouraged emigration and Turkey welcomed it. The emigrants to Turkey were seen as foreigners (muhacir or gocmen) but were received with good will and were readily accepted into menial positions. Emigrants were confronted with political, linguistic, and cultural

  1. Exploring workplace actors experiences of the social organization of return-to-work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjulin, Asa; Maceachen, Ellen; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2010-09-01

    There is a limited body of research on how the actual social exchange among workplace actors influences the practice of return-to-work. The objective of this study was to explore how workplace actors experience social relations at the workplace and how organizational dynamics in workplace-based return-to-work extends before and beyond the initial return of the sick listed worker to the workplace. An exploratory qualitative method approach was used, consisting of individual open-ended interviews with 33 workplace actors at seven worksites that had re-entering workers. The workplace actors represented in these interviews include: re-entering workers, supervisors, co-workers, and human resource managers. The analysis identified three distinct phases in the return to work process: while the worker is off work, when the worker returns back to work, and once back at work during the phase of sustainability of work ability. The two prominent themes that emerged across these phases include the theme of invisibility in relation to return-to-work effort and uncertainty, particularly, about how and when to enact return-to-work. The findings strengthen the notion that workplace-based return-to-work interventions need to take social relations amongst workplace actors into account. They also highlight the importance and relevance of the varied roles of different workplace actors during two relatively unseen or grey areas, of return-to-work: the pre-return and the post-return sustainability phase. Attention to the invisibility of return-to-work efforts of some actors and uncertainty about how and when to enact return-to-work between workplace actors can promote successful and sustainable work ability for the re-entering worker.

  2. Illness in the Returned International Traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Christopher A; Fung, Claire

    2016-03-01

    Familiarity with the distribution, mode of transmission, and risk factors for acquisition of illnesses commonly transmitted to travelers to low-income nations can help guide clinicians in their work-up of an ill returned traveler. The 3 most common categories of illness in returned international travelers are gastrointestinal illness, fever, and dermatoses. Diarrhea is the most common illness reported in returned international travelers. Fever is a marker of a potentially significant illness; work-up of the ill febrile returned traveler should be conducted promptly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 27 CFR 479.51 - Fraudulent return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Special (Occupational) Taxes Penalties and Interest § 479.51 Fraudulent return. If...

  4. Buzz Factor or Innovation Potential: What Explains Cryptocurrencies' Returns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Vergne, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular since the introduction of bitcoin in 2009. In this paper, we identify factors associated with variations in cryptocurrencies' market values. In the past, researchers argued that the "buzz" surrounding cryptocurrencies in online media explained their price variations. But this observation obfuscates the notion that cryptocurrencies, unlike fiat currencies, are technologies entailing a true innovation potential. By using, for the first time, a unique measure of innovation potential, we find that the latter is in fact the most important factor associated with increases in cryptocurrency returns. By contrast, we find that the buzz surrounding cryptocurrencies is negatively associated with returns after controlling for a variety of factors, such as supply growth and liquidity. Also interesting is our finding that a cryptocurrency's association with fraudulent activity is not negatively associated with weekly returns-a result that further qualifies the media's influence on cryptocurrencies. Finally, we find that an increase in supply is positively associated with weekly returns. Taken together, our findings show that cryptocurrencies do not behave like traditional currencies or commodities-unlike what most prior research has assumed-and depict an industry that is much more mature, and much less speculative, than has been implied by previous accounts.

  5. Big Data for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansal, Shweta; Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone

    2016-01-01

    for public health, one encompassing patient information gathered from high-volume electronic health records and participatory surveillance systems, as well as mining of digital traces such as social media, Internet searches, and cell-phone logs. We introduce nine independent contributions to this special......We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data...... issue and highlight several cross-cutting areas that require further research, including representativeness, biases, volatility, and validation, and the need for robust statistical and hypotheses-driven analyses. Overall, we are optimistic that the big-data revolution will vastly improve the granularity...

  6. Screening and surveillance approaches in familial pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Marcia Irene

    2008-07-01

    Screening and surveillance for pancreatic cancer and its precursors is a relatively new indication for endoscopic ultrasound. It provides an alternative approach to the ineffective treatment of mostly incurable symptomatic pancreatic cancer. It is currently reserved for individuals with an increased risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, such as those who have inherited genetic syndromes (eg, patients who have Peutz-Jeghers syndrome or hereditary pancreatitis, germline mutation carriers of p16 and BRCA2) and at-risk relatives of patients who have familial pancreatic cancer. This article discusses the rationale for performing screening and surveillance, the types of patients who are eligible for screening, the diagnostic modalities and technique for screening, the diagnostic yield of screening, and the ongoing research.

  7. Robust Vehicle and Traffic Information Extraction for Highway Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Jay Kuo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A robust vision-based traffic monitoring system for vehicle and traffic information extraction is developed in this research. It is challenging to maintain detection robustness at all time for a highway surveillance system. There are three major problems in detecting and tracking a vehicle: (1 the moving cast shadow effect, (2 the occlusion effect, and (3 nighttime detection. For moving cast shadow elimination, a 2D joint vehicle-shadow model is employed. For occlusion detection, a multiple-camera system is used to detect occlusion so as to extract the exact location of each vehicle. For vehicle nighttime detection, a rear-view monitoring technique is proposed to maintain tracking and detection accuracy. Furthermore, we propose a method to improve the accuracy of background extraction, which usually serves as the first step in any vehicle detection processing. Experimental results are given to demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient for vision-based highway surveillance.

  8. 具有不确定收益的新的投资组合优化模型的研究%Research on New Optimal Portfolio Selection Model with Uncertain Returns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军

    2011-01-01

    解决了具有不确定收益的投资组合问题.从一个新的视角给出了不确定投资组合的风险定义,在此基础上,提出了新的投资组合优化模型,并设计出新的混合智能算法来解决这一新的优化问题.在新的算法中,99方法被用来计算期望值和机会值,与之前的算法相比,大大减少了计算的工作量,加快了求解过程.最后,提出一个数值例子来验证新的优化模型和所提算法的可行性和正确性.%This paper solved the portfolio selection problem whose security returns with uncertainty. Utilizing a new perspective, this paper gave a new definition of risk for uncertain portfolio selection. A new optimal portfolio selection model was proposed based on this new definition of risk. A new hybrid intelligent algorithm was designed for solving the new optimization problem. In the proposed new algorithm, 99 method was employed to calculate the expected value and the chance value. It greatly reduces the computational work and speeds up the process of solution compared with hybrid simulation used in our previous algorithm. A numerical example was also presented to illustrate feasibility and validity of the new modeling idea and the proposed new algorithm.

  9. Detection of Upscale-Crop and Partial Manipulation in Surveillance Video Based on Sensor Pattern Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Kyu Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In many court cases, surveillance videos are used as significant court evidence. As these surveillance videos can easily be forged, it may cause serious social issues, such as convicting an innocent person. Nevertheless, there is little research being done on forgery of surveillance videos. This paper proposes a forensic technique to detect forgeries of surveillance video based on sensor pattern noise (SPN. We exploit the scaling invariance of the minimum average correlation energy Mellin radial harmonic (MACE-MRH correlation filter to reliably unveil traces of upscaling in videos. By excluding the high-frequency components of the investigated video and adaptively choosing the size of the local search window, the proposed method effectively localizes partially manipulated regions. Empirical evidence from a large database of test videos, including RGB (Red, Green, Blue/infrared video, dynamic-/static-scene video and compressed video, indicates the superior performance of the proposed method.

  10. Global avian influenza surveillance in wild birds: a strategy to capture viral diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machalaba, Catherine C; Elwood, Sarah E; Forcella, Simona; Smith, Kristine M; Hamilton, Keith; Jebara, Karim B; Swayne, David E; Webby, Richard J; Mumford, Elizabeth; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gaidet, Nicolas; Daszak, Peter; Karesh, William B

    2015-04-01

    Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus. To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health-administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least 119 countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during 2008-2013, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses. Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community.

  11. A review of current statistical methodologies for in-storage sampling and surveillance in the grains industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmouttie, D; Hammond, N E B; Hamilton, G

    2013-04-01

    Effective, statistically robust sampling and surveillance strategies form an integral component of large agricultural industries such as the grains industry. Intensive in-storage sampling is essential for pest detection, integrated pest management (IPM), to determine grain quality and to satisfy importing nation's biosecurity concerns, while surveillance over broad geographic regions ensures that biosecurity risks can be excluded, monitored, eradicated or contained within an area. In the grains industry, a number of qualitative and quantitative methodologies for surveillance and in-storage sampling have been considered. Primarily, research has focussed on developing statistical methodologies for in-storage sampling strategies concentrating on detection of pest insects within a grain bulk; however, the need for effective and statistically defensible surveillance strategies has also been recognised. Interestingly, although surveillance and in-storage sampling have typically been considered independently, many techniques and concepts are common between the two fields of research. This review aims to consider the development of statistically based in-storage sampling and surveillance strategies and to identify methods that may be useful for both surveillance and in-storage sampling. We discuss the utility of new quantitative and qualitative approaches, such as Bayesian statistics, fault trees and more traditional probabilistic methods and show how these methods may be used in both surveillance and in-storage sampling systems.

  12. Procedures for the ethical review of public health surveillance protocols. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The present commentary is based on the following considerations: 1) for the purposes of authorisation, a distinction is drawn between "research" and "intervention". The procedures for authorising the former are more complex, the relevant controls are stricter and approval has to be granted by a Research Ethics Committee (REC); 2) although the debate is still open, it is barely credible to claim that public health surveillance is not a form of research. It should, therefore, be subject to rigorous ethical assessment; 3) when addressing specifically the issue of surveillance, it would be appropriate to shift the focus of attention from the type of procedure (research/intervention) to the risk implied in that procedure; 4) much emphasis has hitherto been placed on the risks that public health surveillance may imply for the protection of personal data; 5) the emphasis on the protection of personal data is frequently excessive and the risks should be examined in a broader context.

  13. Appropriating Video Surveillance for Art and Environmental Awareness: Experiences from ARTiVIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Mónica; Ângelo, Pedro; Correia, Nuno; Nisi, Valentina

    2016-02-22

    Arts, Real-Time Video and Interactivity for Sustainability (ARTiVIS) is an ongoing collaborative research project investigating how real-time video, DIY surveillance technologies and sensor data can be used as a tool for environmental awareness, activism and artistic explorations. The project consists of a series of digital contexts for aesthetic contemplation of nature and civic engagement, aiming to foster awareness and empowerment of local populations through DIY surveillance. At the core of the ARTIVIS efforts are a series of interactive installations (namely B-Wind!, Hug@tree and Play with Fire), that make use of surveillance technologies and real-time video as raw material to promote environmental awareness through the emotion generated by real-time connections with nature. Throughout the project development, the surveillance concept has been shifting from the use of surveillance technology in a centralized platform, to the idea of veillance with distributed peer-to-peer networks that can be used for science and environmental monitoring. In this paper we present the history of the ARTiVIS project, related and inspiring work, describe ongoing research work and explore the present and future challenges of appropriating surveillance technology for artistic, educational and civic engagement purposes.

  14. 2016 Consensus statement on return to sport from the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy, Bern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardern, Clare L; Glasgow, Philip; Schneiders, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Deciding when to return to sport after injury is complex and multifactorial-an exercise in risk management. Return to sport decisions are made every day by clinicians, athletes and coaches, ideally in a collaborative way. The purpose of this consensus statement was to present and synthesise current...... sense of individual factors that may influence the athlete's return to sport, and the Strategic Assessment of Risk and Risk Tolerance framework may help decision-makers synthesise information to make an optimal return to sport decision. Research evidence to support return to sport decisions in clinical...... evidence to make recommendations for return to sport decision-making, clinical practice and future research directions related to returning athletes to sport. A half day meeting was held in Bern, Switzerland, after the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy. 17 expert clinicians participated. 4...

  15. Factors Affecting the Return Stock Company in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX LQ45 in Years 2012-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangki A. Sorongan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the effect of partially and jointly independent variable of Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM against the dependent variable on the stock return. Objects of this research were companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI LQ45 continuously for four years in the period 2012-2015. Companies that qualify for this research were 28 companies. Based on this research, the conclusions indicate that all four independent variables; Debt to Equity Ratio (DER, Return on Equity (ROA, Return on Equity (ROE, and Net Profit Margin (NPM, either jointly or partially give the significant effect on return stock.

  16. Cost effectiveness of surveillance for GI cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Meester, Reinier G S; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2016-12-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are among the leading causes of death in the world. To reduce the burden of GI diseases, surveillance is recommended for some diseases, including for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, Barrett's oesophagus, precancerous gastric lesions, colorectal adenoma, and pancreatic neoplasms. This review aims to provide an overview of the evidence on cost-effectiveness of surveillance of individuals with GI conditions predisposing them to cancer, specifically focussing on the aforementioned conditions. We searched the literature and reviewed 21 studies. Despite heterogeneity of studies in terms of settings, study populations, surveillance strategies and outcomes, most reviewed studies suggested at least some surveillance of patients with these GI conditions to be cost-effective. For some high-risk conditions frequent surveillance with 3-month intervals was warranted, while for other conditions, surveillance may only be cost-effective every 10 years. Further studies based on more robust effectiveness evidence are needed to inform and optimise surveillance programmes for GI cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Remote container monitoring and surveillance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Aquila Technologies Group is developing a monitoring and surveillance system to monitor containers of nuclear materials. The system will both visually and physically monitor the containers. The system is based on the combination of Aquila`s Gemini All-Digital Surveillance System and on Aquila`s AssetLAN{trademark} asset tracking technology. This paper discusses the Gemini Digital Surveillance system as well as AssetLAN technology. The Gemini architecture with emphasis on anti-tamper security features is also described. The importance of all-digital surveillance versus other surveillance methods is also discussed. AssetLAN{trademark} technology is described, emphasizing the ability to continually track containers (as assets) by location utilizing touch memory technology. Touch memory technology provides unique container identification, as well as the ability to store and retrieve digital information on the container. This information may relate to container maintenance, inspection schedules, and other information. Finally, this paper describes the combination of the Gemini system with AssetLAN technology, yielding a self contained, container monitoring and area/container surveillance system. Secure container fixture design considerations are discussed. Basic surveillance review functions are also discussed.

  18. Modernization of existing VVER-1000 surveillance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V.; Erak, D.; Makhotin, D. [NRC ' Kurchatov Inst.' , 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    According to generally accepted world practice, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material behavior during operation is carried out using tests of surveillance specimens. The main objective of the surveillance program consists in insurance of safe RPV operation during the design lifetime and lifetime-extension period. At present, the approaches of pressure vessels residual life validation based on the test results of their surveillance specimens have been developed and introduced in Russia and are under consideration in other countries where vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactors- (VVER-) 1000 are in operation. In this case, it is necessary to ensure leading irradiation of surveillance specimens (as compared to the pressure vessel wall) and to provide uniformly irradiated specimen groups for mechanical testing. Standard surveillance program of VVER-1000 has several significant shortcomings and does not meet these requirements. Taking into account program of lifetime extension of VVER-1000 operating in Russia, it is necessary to carry out upgrading of the VVER-1000 surveillance program. This paper studies the conditions of a surveillance specimen's irradiation and upgrading of existing sets to provide monitoring and prognosis of RPV material properties for extension of the reactor's lifetime up to 60 years or more. (authors)

  19. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  20. Risk of portfolio with simulated returns based on copula model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2015-02-01

    The commonly used tool for measuring risk of a portfolio with equally weighted stocks is variance-covariance method. Under extreme circumstances, this method leads to significant underestimation of actual risk due to its multivariate normality assumption of the joint distribution of stocks. The purpose of this research is to compare the actual risk of portfolio with the simulated risk of portfolio in which the joint distribution of two return series is predetermined. The data used is daily stock prices from the ASEAN market for the period January 2000 to December 2012. The copula approach is applied to capture the time varying dependence among the return series. The results shows that the chosen copula families are not suitable to present the dependence structures of each bivariate returns. Exception for the Philippines-Thailand pair where by t copula distribution appears to be the appropriate choice to depict its dependence. Assuming that the t copula distribution is the joint distribution of each paired series, simulated returns is generated and value-at-risk (VaR) is then applied to evaluate the risk of each portfolio consisting of two simulated return series. The VaR estimates was found to be symmetrical due to the simulation of returns via elliptical copula-GARCH approach. By comparison, it is found that the actual risks are underestimated for all pairs of portfolios except for Philippines-Thailand. This study was able to show that disregard of the non-normal dependence structure of two series will result underestimation of actual risk of the portfolio.