WorldWideScience

Sample records for surveillance program conducted

  1. GEIS Surveillance Network Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    resistance surveillance, diarrhea etiology and antimicrobial resistance surveillance, sexually transmitted illness surveillance, and capacity building...vomiting, diarrhea , joint pains, general malaise. Of the samples analyzed, only 53.7% had an associated etiology: Malaria (47.0%, EBV (39.7...immunity to the disease. Many adults in those situations are reservoirs, facilitating continuing disease transmission to those without immunity. In Kenya

  2. National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The National Cardiac Device Surveillance Program Database supports the Eastern Pacemaker Surveillance Center (EPSC) staff in its function of monitoring some 11,000...

  3. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  4. Enhanced surveillance program FY1998 accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, J

    1998-10-01

    This report highlights the accomplishments of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP), the highest-priority research and development effort in stockpile management today. This is volume one of eleven, the unclassified summary of selected program highlights. These highlights fall into the following focus areas: pits, high explosives, organics, dynamics, diagnostics, systems, secondaries, materials-aging models, non-nuclear components, and routine surveillance testing system upgrades. Principal investigators from around the DOE complex contributed to this report.

  5. Modernization of existing VVER-1000 surveillance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkin, V.; Erak, D.; Makhotin, D. [NRC ' Kurchatov Inst.' , 1 Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    According to generally accepted world practice, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) material behavior during operation is carried out using tests of surveillance specimens. The main objective of the surveillance program consists in insurance of safe RPV operation during the design lifetime and lifetime-extension period. At present, the approaches of pressure vessels residual life validation based on the test results of their surveillance specimens have been developed and introduced in Russia and are under consideration in other countries where vodo-vodyanoi energetichesky reactors- (VVER-) 1000 are in operation. In this case, it is necessary to ensure leading irradiation of surveillance specimens (as compared to the pressure vessel wall) and to provide uniformly irradiated specimen groups for mechanical testing. Standard surveillance program of VVER-1000 has several significant shortcomings and does not meet these requirements. Taking into account program of lifetime extension of VVER-1000 operating in Russia, it is necessary to carry out upgrading of the VVER-1000 surveillance program. This paper studies the conditions of a surveillance specimen's irradiation and upgrading of existing sets to provide monitoring and prognosis of RPV material properties for extension of the reactor's lifetime up to 60 years or more. (authors)

  6. Veterinary surveillance laboratories: developing the training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Staci L; McCline, Katasha T; Hanfelt, Margery M

    2010-01-01

    The increased need and demand for onsite, frequent, rapid, and portable food and bottled water testing for indicators of microbiological and chemical agents led to the deployment of 2 laboratory veterinary equipment sets. A Surveillance Food Laboratory Program (SFLP) was developed to allow Veterinary Corps commanders to establish targeted testing programs to enhance food safety and wholesomeness, along with faster responses to food defense, suspected foodborne illness, and food/water risk assessment missions. To support the deployment of the veterinary equipment sets and the SFLP, 2 new functional courses were developed by the Department of Veterinary Science. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Technician Course teaches essential technical skills that include sample processing, assay methodologies, results review, and interpretation of results produced by these laboratories. The Surveillance Food Laboratory Manager Course, developed for designated managers of the laboratories and laboratory programs, teaches the skills critical to ensuring proper surveillance laboratory oversight, testing, evaluation of results, risk communication, and response to presumptive positive results produced by the laboratories. Together, the courses allowed for the successful deployment of the unique veterinary equipment sets, resulting in development of fully operational surveillance laboratories in support of food protection missions in every major theater of operations.

  7. Enhanced surveillance program FY97 accomplishments. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauzy, A. [ed.; Laake, B. [comp.

    1997-10-01

    This annual report is one volume of the Enhanced Surveillance Program (ESP) FY97 Accomplishments. The complete accomplishments report consists of 11 volumes. Volume 1 includes an ESP overview and a summary of selected unclassified FY97 program highlights. Volume 1 specifically targets a general audience, reflecting about half of the tasks conducted in FY97 and emphasizing key program accomplishments and contributions. The remaining volumes of the accomplishments report are classified, organized by program focus area, and present in technical detail the progress achieved in each of the 104 FY97 program tasks. Focus areas are as follows: pits; high explosives; organics; dynamics; diagnostics; systems; secondaries; nonnuclear materials; nonnuclear components; and Surveillance Test Program upgrades.

  8. Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities with which citizens living near the Hanford Site have been participating. Local teachers have been managing and operating three special radiological air sampling stations located in Richland, Basin City, and Franklin County, Washington. Other expansion efforts of this program are also described.

  9. Activity Surveillance and Hawthorne Effect to Prevent Programming Plagiarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufian Sufian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Course instructors are facing serious problems in dealing with students who plagiarize programs especially when the number of students in the course is high. Among the proposed approach to handle this problem is by using automatic detection of plagiarism in programming projects. Preventive action is required rather than curing the problem so that programming students get the right message from the beginning. Approach: To address this problem, a surveillance system was proposed to record every programming activity. It is developed in an integrated development environment so that programming activity profile in Java format is created when students are developing their Java program. A non-intrusive and non-experimental setting approach was applied in which hidden data collection is conducted to observe students’ behavior in natural programming setting. Experimental study effect i.e., Hawthorne effect and effect of expectation on subject behavior was exploited as prevention on plagiarism. Surveillance system produces two file types: Activity log to keep programming activity log information and Backup file to save the program writing record. Results: The proposed programming activity surveillance system, DwiCoder presented a programming activity report at the end of each programming session. Students can assess their own progress in developing a program in these three activities: Compilation, execution and modification. The report was presented in a simple and meaningful way to encourage student spend their own time in programming activity. Conclusion: By using DwiCoder, student’s programming activity is continuously monitored and their behavior is under control. This system provides an effective prevention method in tackling plagiarism.

  10. Master schedule for CY-1977 Hanford Environmental Surveillance Routine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Myers, D.A.; Fix, J.J.

    1976-12-01

    Data are presented from the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site as conducted by the Environmental Evaluation Section of Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory for ERDA. Tables are presented to show levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollution in the Columbia River, sanitary water, surface water, ground water, foods, wildlife, soil, and vegetation. Data are also presented for external radiation measurements using thermoluminescent dosimeters, results of portable instrument surveys, and monitoring of waste disposal sites. (HLW)

  11. Surveillance data bases, analysis, and standardization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kam, F.B.K.

    1990-09-26

    The traveler presented a paper at the Seventh ASTM-EURATOM Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry and co-chaired an oral session on Computer Codes and Methods. Papers of considerable interest to the NRC Surveillance Dosimetry Program involved statistically based adjustment procedures and uncertainties. The information exchange meetings with Czechoslovakia and Hungary were very enlightening. Lack of large computers have hindered their surveillance program. They depended very highly on information from their measurement programs which were somewhat limited because of the lack of sophisticated electronics. The Nuclear Research Institute at Rez had to rely on expensive mockups of power reactor configurations to test their fluence exposures. Computers, computer codes, and updated nuclear data would advance their technology rapidly, and they were not hesitant to admit this fact. Both eastern-bloc countries said that IBM is providing an IBM 3090 for educational purposes but research and development studies would have very limited access. They were very apologetic that their currencies were not convertible, and any exchange means that they could provide services or pay for US scientists in their respective countries, but funding for their scientists in the United States, or expenses that involved payment in dollars, must come from us.

  12. 21 CFR 822.15 - How long must I conduct postmarket surveillance of my device?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long must I conduct postmarket surveillance of my device? 822.15 Section 822.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE Postmarket Surveillance...

  13. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  14. Active epidemiological surveillance in the program of poliomyelitis eradication in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main strategy of the worldwide Program of Poliomyelitis Eradication is based on immunization with oral poliovirus vaccine and active epidemiological surveillance aimed to demonstrate the absence of wild poliovirus circulation. The specification of the surveillance in the program, reporting and investigation of certain syndrome – the acute flaccid paralysis - as a specific feature of surveillance of poliomyelitis, is a new experience both for clinicians and epidemiologists. Along with the achieved results, problems in conducting the active epidemiological surveillance in Serbia, applied measures, and suggestions for improving its quality were presented. This experience might help in implementing the active surveillance for some other diseases that could be prevented by vaccine immunization.

  15. Developing a Statewide Childhood Body Mass Index Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David R.; Scruggs, Philip W.; Goc Karp, Grace; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Robinson, Clay; Lester, Michael J.; Gao, Yong; Petranek, Laura J.; Brown, Helen; Shimon, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several states have implemented childhood obesity surveillance programs supported by legislation. Representatives from Idaho wished to develop a model for childhood obesity surveillance without the support of state legislation, and subsequently report predictors of overweight and obesity in the state. Methods: A coalition comprised of…

  16. Master schedule for CY-1981 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1980-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is provided. Questions about specific entries should be referred to the authors since modifications to the schedule are made during the year and special areas of study, usually of short duration, are not scheduled. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Air quality data obtained in a separate program are also reported. The collection schedule for potable water is shown but it is not part of the routine environmental surveillance program. Schedules are presented for the following subjects: air, Columbia River, sanitary water, surface water, ground water, foodstuffs, wildlife, soil and vegetation, external radiation measurement, portable instrument surveys, and surveillance of waste disposal sites. (JGB)

  17. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E

    2016-12-24

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2015. During the survey period, 1,383 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these, 1,031 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 634 specimens had been collected from children under 5 years of age, while 397 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of samples from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 48.2% of strains nationally. Genotype G3P[8] was the second most common strain nationally, representing 22.8% of samples, followed by G2P[4] and G1P[8] (9% and 8% respectively). G3P[8] was further divided as equine-like G3P[8] (13.2% of all strains) and other wild-type G3P[8] (9.6%). This report highlights the continued predominance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. Genotype distribution was distinct between jurisdictions using RotaTeq and Rotarix vaccines. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states using RotaTeq, while equine-like G3P[8] and G2P[4] were more common in the states and territories using Rotarix. This survey highlights the dynamic change in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction, including the emergence of a novel equine-like G3P[8] as a major strain. The prolonged dominance of G12P[8] for a 4th consecutive year further illustrates the unexpected trends in the wild type rotaviruses circulating in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  18. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program annual report, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Carl D; Roczo-Farkas, Suzie

    2015-09-30

    The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis. During the survey period of 1 January to 31 December 2014, 1,022 faecal samples were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, and of these 733 were confirmed as rotavirus positive. A total of 480 specimens were collected from children under 5 years of age, while 253 were from older children and adults. Genotype analysis of the 733 rotavirus samples collected from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 29.6% of strains nationally. Genotype G1P[8] was the 2nd most common strain nationally, representing 22.9% of samples, followed by genotype G3P[8] (14.9%). This report highlights the continued significance of G12P[8] strains as the major cause of disease in this population. The genotype distribution was slightly altered when the analysis was restricted to samples collected from children under 5 years of age, with G1P[8] being the dominant genotype (29%) followed by G12P[8] as the 2nd most common genotype (26%). Fluctuations in genotype distribution were also observed based on the vaccine type in use. Genotype G12P[8] was more common in states and territories using RotaTeq, while G1P[8] was more common in the locations using Rotarix. This survey highlights the yearly fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction. The continuation of G12P[8] as the dominant genotype further illustrates the dynamic and diversity present in the wild-type rotavirus population evident in the Australian population since vaccine introduction.

  19. Master schedule for CY-1980 Hanford Environmental Surveillance Routine Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Houston, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.

    1979-12-01

    The current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site is presented. The enviromental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in Manual Chapter 0513, and to monitor Hanford operations for compliance with applicable environmental criteria given in Manual Chapter 0524 and Washington State Water Quality Standards. Data are reported on the following topics: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurement; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites;

  20. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Daugherty, W.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-05-27

    Results from the 9975 shipping package Storage and Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout the extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The 10 year storage life justification was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to validate the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 10 years in storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program began. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. The primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton{reg_sign} containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex{reg_sign} fiberboard thermal insulation at bounding conditions of radiation, elevated temperatures and/or elevated humidity.

  1. Master schedule for CY-1982 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided does not include samples which are planned to be collected during FY-1982 in support of special studies or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results. Sampling schedules are presented for the following: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurements; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites. (ATT)

  2. Public Health Practice of Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Cara T; Kirby, Russell S; Correa, Adolfo; Rosenberg, Deborah; Petros, Michael; Fagen, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Birth defects remain a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States and contribute substantially to health care costs and lifelong disabilities. State population-based surveillance systems have been established to monitor birth defects, yet no recent systematic examination of their efforts in the United States has been conducted. To understand the current population-based birth defects surveillance practices in the United States. The National Birth Defects Prevention Network conducted a survey of US population-based birth defects activities that included questions about operational status, case ascertainment methodology, program infrastructure, data collection and utilization, as well as priorities and challenges for surveillance programs. Birth defects contacts in the United States, including District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, received the survey via e-mail; follow-up reminders via e-mails and telephone were used to ensure a 100% response rate. Forty-three states perform population-based surveillance for birth defects, covering approximately 80% of the live births in the United States. Seventeen primarily use an active case-finding approach and 26 use a passive case-finding approach. These programs all monitor major structural malformations; however, passive case-finding programs more often monitor a broader list of conditions, including developmental conditions and newborn screening conditions. Active case-finding programs more often use clinical reviewers, cover broader pregnancy outcomes, and collect more extensive information, such as family history. More than half of the programs (24 of 43) reported an ability to conduct follow-up studies of children with birth defects. The breadth and depth of information collected at a population level by birth defects surveillance programs in the United States serve as an important data source to guide public health action. Collaborative efforts at the state and national levels can help harmonize data

  3. 3013/9975 Surveillance Program Interim Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; McClard, J.

    2011-06-22

    The K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) requires a surveillance program to monitor the safety performance of 3013 containers and 9975 shipping packages stored in KAMS. The SRS surveillance program [Reference 1] outlines activities for field surveillance and laboratory tests that demonstrate the packages meet the functional performance requirements described in the DSA. The SRS program also supports the complexwide Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) [Reference 2] for 3013 containers. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the SRS portion of the surveillance program activities through fiscal year 2010 (FY10) and formally communicate the interpretation of these results by the Surveillance Program Authority (SPA). Surveillance for the initial 3013 container random sampling of the Innocuous bin and the Pressure bin has been completed and there has been no indication of corrosion or significant pressurization. The maximum pressure observed was less than 50 psig, which is well below the design pressure of 699 psig for the 3013 container [Reference 3]. The data collected during surveillance of these bins has been evaluated by the Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Working Group and no additional surveillance is necessary for these bins at least through FY13. A decision will be made whether additional surveillance of these bins is needed during future years of storage and as additional containers are generated. Based on the data collected to date, the SPA concludes that 3013 containers in these bins can continue to be safely stored in KAMS. This year, 13 destructive examinations (DE) were performed on random samples from the Pressure & Corrosion bin. To date, DE has been completed for approximately 30% of the random samples from the Pressure & Corrosion bin. In addition, DE has been performed on 6 engineering judgment (EJ) containers, for a total of 17 to date. This includes one container that exceeded the 3013

  4. [Risk factors in police activities: operational criticism in surveillance programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprani, Fabrizio; Moroni, Maria; Conte, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The planning of specific health surveillance programs for police officers is extremely complex due to difficulty in predictability and variety of occupational hazards. Even in the case of conventional occupational risk factors clearly identified by current regulations, particular working conditions may require specific assessment to effectively identify and quantify the risk of occupational exposure. An extensive program of health surveillance, aimed at promoting overall health and effectiveness of the operators, would be really desirable, in order to help better address a number of risks that cannot be easily predicted. The progressive increase in the average age of the working population and the increasing prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases, may also suggest the need for health surveillance procedures designed to verify continued unqualified suitability to police service, providing for the identification of diversified suitability profiles in relation to age and state of health: accordingly, in regard to our field of interest, there is a close link between medico-legal eligibility and occupational medicine.

  5. Infection surveillance and control programs in the Department of Veterans Affairs nursing home care units: a preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Linda; Hojlo, Christa; Kearns, Martha A; Davis, Chester; Langberg, Robert; Claggett, Maurice; Coughlin, Nancy; Miller, Michael; Gaynes, Robert; Gibert, Cynthia; Montgomery, Ona; Richards, Chesley; Danko, Linda; Roselle, Gary

    2006-03-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the capacity and current practices of the infection surveillance and control programs at the Department of Veterans Affairs' 130 nursing home care units (VA NHCUs) covering a total of 15,006 beds in 2003. All 130 VA NHCUs responded to the survey, although not all NHCUs answered every question. The majority of the VA NHCUs provided specialized services that might pose increased risks of infection. For every 8 to 10 VA NHCU beds, there was 1 regular-pressure or negative-pressure infection control room available. Each VA NHCU had an active ongoing infection surveillance and control program managed by highly educated infection control personnel (ICP), of which 96% had a minimum of a bachelor degree. A median of 12 hours per week of these ICP efforts was devoted to the infection surveillance and control activities. The most frequently used surveillance methods were targeted surveillance for specific infections and for specific organisms. Most VA NHCUs conducted surveillance for antibiotic-resistant organisms. However, VA NHCUs did not use a uniform set of definitions for nosocomial infections for their infection surveillance and control purposes. We conclude that VA NHCUs have a considerable infrastructure and capacity for infection surveillance and control. This information can be used to develop a nationwide VA NHCU nosocomial infection surveillance system.

  6. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    are part of long-term site management. In response to post-closure care requirements set forth in UMTRCA, DOE Headquarters established the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Program in 1988 at the DOE office in Grand Junction, Colorado. The program assumed long-term management responsibility for sites remediated under UMTRCA and other programs. Since its inception, the LTS&M Program has evolved in response to changing stakeholder needs, improvements in technology, and the addition of more DOE sites as remediation is completed. The mission of the LTS&M Program was to fulfill DOE’s responsibility to implement all activities necessary to ensure regulatory compliance and to protect the public and the environment from long-lived wastes associated with the nation’s nuclear energy, weapons, and research activities. Key components of the LTS&M Program included stakeholder participation, site monitoring and maintenance, records and information management, and research and technology transfer. This report presents summaries of activities conducted in 2003 in fulfillment of the LTS&M Program mission. On December 15, 2003, DOE established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to allow for optimum management of DOE’s legacy responsibilities. Offices are located in Washington, DC, Grand Junction, Colorado, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to perform long-term site management, land management, site transition support, records management, and other related tasks. All activities formerly conducted under the LTS&M Program have been incorporated into the Office of Land and Site Management (LM–50), as well as management of remedies involving ground water and surface water contaminated by former processing activities.

  7. FINAL REPORT FORMER RADIATION WORKER MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM AT ROCKY FLATS For Department of Energy Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe M. Aldrich

    2004-11-01

    The Former Radiation Worker Medical Surveillance Program at Rocky Flats was conducted in Arvada, CO, by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education under DOE Contract DE-AC05-00OR22750. Objectives of the program were to obtain information on the value of medical surveillance among at-risk former radiation workers and to provide long-term internal radiation dosimetry information to the scientific community. This program provided the former radiation workers of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (formerly Rocky Flats Plant) an opportunity to receive follow-up medical monitoring and a re-evaluation of their internal radiation dose. The former Rocky Flats radiation worker population is distinctive because it was a reasonably stable work force that received occupational exposures, at times substantial, over several decades. This report reflects the summation of health outcomes, statistical analyses, and dose assessment information on former Rocky Flats radiation workers to the date of study termination as of March 2004.

  8. Extending cluster lot quality assurance sampling designs for surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2014-07-20

    Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) has a long history of applications in industrial quality control. LQAS is frequently used for rapid surveillance in global health settings, with areas classified as poor or acceptable performance on the basis of the binary classification of an indicator. Historically, LQAS surveys have relied on simple random samples from the population; however, implementing two-stage cluster designs for surveillance sampling is often more cost-effective than simple random sampling. By applying survey sampling results to the binary classification procedure, we develop a simple and flexible nonparametric procedure to incorporate clustering effects into the LQAS sample design to appropriately inflate the sample size, accommodating finite numbers of clusters in the population when relevant. We use this framework to then discuss principled selection of survey design parameters in longitudinal surveillance programs. We apply this framework to design surveys to detect rises in malnutrition prevalence in nutrition surveillance programs in Kenya and South Sudan, accounting for clustering within villages. By combining historical information with data from previous surveys, we design surveys to detect spikes in the childhood malnutrition rate.

  9. The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP): Clinical, Diagnostic, and Epidemiological Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kalckreuth, Vera; Konings, Frank; Aaby, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ali, Mohammad; Aseffa, Abraham; Baker, Stephen; Breiman, Robert F; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Clemens, John D; Crump, John A; Cruz Espinoza, Ligia Maria; Deerin, Jessica Fung; Gasmelseed, Nagla; Sow, Amy Gassama; Im, Justin; Keddy, Karen H; Cosmas, Leonard; May, Jürgen; Meyer, Christian G; Mintz, Eric D; Montgomery, Joel M; Olack, Beatrice; Pak, Gi Deok; Panzner, Ursula; Park, Se Eun; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Schütt-Gerowitt, Heidi; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Warren, Michelle R; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    New immunization programs are dependent on data from surveillance networks and disease burden estimates to prioritize target areas and risk groups. Data regarding invasive Salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are currently limited, thus hindering the implementation of preventive measures. The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) was established by the International Vaccine Institute to obtain comparable incidence data on typhoid fever and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa through standardized surveillance in multiple countries. Standardized procedures were developed and deployed across sites for study site selection, patient enrolment, laboratory procedures, quality control and quality assurance, assessment of healthcare utilization and incidence calculations. Passive surveillance for bloodstream infections among febrile patients was initiated at thirteen sentinel sites in ten countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, and Tanzania). Each TSAP site conducted case detection using these standardized methods to isolate and identify aerobic bacteria from the bloodstream of febrile patients. Healthcare utilization surveys were conducted to adjust population denominators in incidence calculations for differing healthcare utilization patterns and improve comparability of incidence rates across sites. By providing standardized data on the incidence of typhoid fever and iNTS disease in sub-Saharan Africa, TSAP will provide vital input for targeted typhoid fever prevention programs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Detection of imminent vein graft occlusion: what is the optimal surveillance program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinder, Chelsey N; Bandyk, Dennis F

    2009-12-01

    The prediction of infrainguinal vein bypass failure remains an inexact judgment. Patient demographics, technical factors, and vascular laboratory graft surveillance testing are helpful in identifying a high-risk graft cohort. The optimal surveillance program to detect the bypass at risk for imminent occlusion continues to be developed, but required elements are known and include clinical assessment for new or changes in limb ischemia symptoms, measurement of ankle and/or toe systolic pressure, and duplex ultrasound imaging of the bypass graft. Duplex ultrasound assessment of bypass hemodynamics may be the most accurate method to detect imminent vein graft occlusion. The finding of low graft flow during intraoperative assessment or at a scheduled surveillance study predicts failure; and if associated with an occlusive lesion, a graft revision can prolong patency. The most common abnormality producing graft failure is conduit stenosis caused by myointimal hyperplasia; and the majority can be repaired by an endovascular intervention. Frequency of testing to detect the failing bypass should be individualized to the patient, the type of arterial bypass, and prior duplex ultrasound scan findings. The focus of surveillance is on identification of the low-flow arterial bypass and timely repair of detected critical stenosis defined by duplex velocity spectra criteria of a peak systolic velocity 300 cm/s and peak systolic velocity ratio across the stenosis >3.5-correlating with >70% diameter-reducing stenosis. When conducted appropriately, a graft surveillance program should result in an unexpected graft failure rate of <3% per year.

  11. Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Coeckelbergh, Mark; Matzner, Tobias;

    Studying surveillance involves raising questions about the very nature of concepts such as information, technology, identity, space and power. Besides the maybe all too obvious ethical issues often discussed with regard to surveillance, there are several other angles and approaches that we should...... like to encourage. Therefore, our panel will focus on the philosophical, yet non-ethical issues of surveillance in order to stimulate an intense debate with the audience on the ethical implications of our enquiries. We also hope to provide a broader and deeper understanding of surveillance....

  12. Characteristics of national and statewide health care-associated infection surveillance programs: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Philip L; Havers, Sally M; Cheng, Allen C; Richards, Michael; Graves, Nicholas; Hall, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    There are many well-established national health care-associated infection surveillance programs (HAISPs). Although validation studies have described data quality, there is little research describing important characteristics of large HAISPs. The aim of this study was to broaden our understanding and identify key characteristics of large HAISPs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively selected leaders from national and state-based HAISPs. Interview data were analyzed following an interpretive description process. Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted over a 6-month period during 2014-2015. Analysis of the data generated 5 distinct characteristics of large HAISPs: (1) triggers: surveillance was initiated by government or a cooperative of like-minded people, (2) purpose: a clear purpose is needed and determines other surveillance mechanisms, (3) data measures: consistency is more important than accuracy, (4) processes: a balance exists between the volume of data collected and resources, and (5) implementation and maintenance: a central coordinating body is crucial for uniformity and support. National HAISPs are complex and affect a broad range of stakeholders. Although the overall goal of health care-associated infection surveillance is to reduce the incidence of health care-associated infection, there are many crucial factors to be considered in attaining this goal. The findings from this study will assist the development of new HAISPs and could be used as an adjunct to evaluate existing programs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring activities review of the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    The 1992 Monitoring Activities Review (MAR) is directed at the Radiological Environment Surveillance Program (RESP) activities at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of Idaho Engineering Laboratory (INEL). MAR panelists studied RESP documents and discussed their concerns with Environmental Monitoring Unit (EMU) staff and other panel members. These concerns were subsequently consolidated into a collection of recommendations with supporting discussions. Recommendations focus on specific monitoring activities, as well as the overall program. The MAR report also contains pertinent comments that should not require further action.

  14. A new computerized program for surveillance of prosthetic arteriovenous fistulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Tozzi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stenosis and thrombosis are common causes of prosthetic vascular access (pVA failure. The role of arteriovenous fistula (AVF surveillance is widely debated. The aim of this paper is to present a new real-time application designed for AVF surveillance called SPIDER. Surgical staff and hemodialysis nurses are responsible for data entry. SPIDER automatically analyses data and generates alerts in case of abnormal trends. Surgical evaluation and duplex Doppler ultrasonography are then immediately performed to confirm presence of stenosis or other possible pVA defects. Surgery can be performed if required. A preliminary analysis of results will be completed at 12 months after the program begins and subsequently after 24 months. Primary assisted patency will be compared with historical using multivariate analysis. Expected results are an improvement in primary assisted pVA patency and reduction of hospitalizations. Simultaneous management of a high number of patients can become difficult due to the large amount of data required for surveillance. We want to demonstrate whether a real-time automated system could help to prevent thrombosis and graft loss.

  15. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  16. European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs: Surveillance Programs, Diagnostic Tools and Swine Influenza Virus Subtypes Identified in 14 European Countries from 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Gaelle; Larsen, Lars Erik; Duerrwald, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs......, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs......: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence...

  17. N-CDAD in Canada: Results of the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program 1997 N-CDAD Prevalence Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghen Hyland

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A 1996 preproject survey among Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee (CHEC sites revealed variations in the prevention, detection, management and surveillance of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Facilities wanted to establish national rates of nosocomially acquired CDAD (N-CDAD to understand the impact of control or prevention measures, and the burden of N-CDAD on health care resources. The CHEC, in collaboration with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada and under the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, undertook a prevalence surveillance project among selected hospitals throughout Canada.

  18. SRS environmental air surveillance program 1954-2015: General trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jannik, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-02

    The radiological monitoring program at SRS was established under the DuPont Company in June 1951 and was used as a measurement of the effectiveness of plant controls and as an authoritative record of environmental conditions surrounding the plant. It also served as a method of demonstrating compliance with applicable federal regulations and guidance. This document serves as a general summary of changes made specifically to the environmental air monitoring program since its inception, and a discussion of the general trends seen in the air monitoring program at SRS from 1954 to 2015. Initially, the environmental air surveillance program focused not only on releases from SRS but also on fallout from various weapons testing performed through the end of 1978. Flypaper was used to measure the amount of fallout in the atmosphere during this period, and was present at each of the 10 monitoring stations. By 1959, all site stacks were included in the air monitoring program to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity onsite, and the number of air surveillance samplers rose to 18. This trend of an increased number of sampling locations continued to a peak of 35 sampling locations before shifting to a downward trend in the mid-1990s. In 1962, 4 outer-range samplers were placed in Savannah and Macon, GA, and in Greenville and Columbia, SC. Until 1976, air samplers were simply placed around the perimeter of the various operation locations (after 1959, this included stacks to determine their contribution to the airborne radioactivity), with the intent of creating as representative a distribution as possible of the air surrounding operations.

  19. Conducting the Annual Program Review: A Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake Univ., Des Moines, IA. Midwest Regional Resource Center.

    Designed to assist local education agencies (LEAs) in conducting annual program reviews, the handbook focuses on evaluating Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for handicapped children. An annual review meeting guide discusses purposes and procedures of the review. The second section provides a background on the planning-evaluation process,…

  20. 21 CFR 822.11 - What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket surveillance? 822.11 Section 822.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE...

  1. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  2. Mass surveillance, privacy, and freedom : A case for public access to information about mass government surveillance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Moore, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines judicial decisions about the legality of mass surveillance in the United States and Europe (at the European Court of Human Rights), and explores how the existence of these programs threatens individual freedom. In doing so, the chapter presents a theory of information access an

  3. A focused ethnographic study of Alberta cattle veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sawford

    Full Text Available The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance.

  4. A focused ethnographic study of Alberta cattle veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance.

  5. A Focused Ethnographic Study of Alberta Cattle Veterinarians’ Decision Making about Diagnostic Laboratory Submissions and Perceptions of Surveillance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawford, Kate; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Stephen, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance. PMID:23741397

  6. Challenges in designing a national surveillance program for inflammatory bowel disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Millie D; Hutfless, Susan; Kappelman, Michael D; Khalili, Hamed; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Bernstein, Charles N; Colombel, Jean Frederic; Gower-Rousseau, Corinne; Herrinton, Lisa; Velayos, Fernando; Loftus, Edward V; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Sonnenberg, Amnon; Chan, Andrew; Sandler, Robert S; Atreja, Ashish; Shah, Samir A; Rothman, Kenneth J; Leleiko, Neal S; Bright, Renee; Boffetta, Paolo; Myers, Kelly D; Sands, Bruce E

    2014-02-01

    This review describes the history of U.S. government funding for surveillance programs in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), provides current estimates of the incidence and prevalence of IBD in the United States, and enumerates a number of challenges faced by current and future IBD surveillance programs. A rationale for expanding the focus of IBD surveillance beyond counts of incidence and prevalence, to provide a greater understanding of the burden of IBD, disease etiology, and pathogenesis, is provided. Lessons learned from other countries are summarized, in addition to potential resources that may be used to optimize a new form of IBD surveillance in the United States. A consensus recommendation on the goals and available resources for a new model for disease surveillance are provided. This new model should focus on "surveillance of the burden of disease," including (1) natural history of disease and (2) outcomes and complications of the disease and/or treatments.

  7. Impact of a surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance program in orthopedics and traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, C; Marcheix, P S; Mounier, M; Dijoux, P; Pestourie, N; Bonnevialle, P; Bonnomet, F

    2012-10-01

    Surveillance of surgical site infections (SSI) is a priority. One of the fundamental principles for the surveillance of SSI is based on receiving effective field feedback (retro-information). The aim of this study was to report the results of a program of SSI surveillance and validate the hypothesis that there is a correlation between creating a SSI surveillance program and a reduction in SSI. The protocol was based on the weekly collection of surveillance data obtained directly from the different information systems in different departments. A delay of 3 months was established before extraction and analysis of data and information from the surgical teams. The NNIS index (National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System) developed by the American surveillance system and the reduction of length of hospital stay index Journées d'hospitalisation évitées (JHE). Since the end of 2009, 7156 surgical procedures were evaluated (rate of inclusion 97.3%), and 84 SSI were registered with a significant decrease over time from 1.86% to 0.66%. A total of 418 days of hospitalization have been saved since the beginning of the surveillance system. Our surveillance system has three strong points: follow-up is continuous, specifically adapted to orthopedic traumatology and nearly exhaustive. The extraction of data directly from hospital information systems effectively improves the collection of data on surgical procedures. The implementation of a SSI surveillance protocol reduces SSI. Level III. Prospective study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. SAVY-4000 Surveillance and Life Extension Program Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blair, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-03

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the DOE M441.1-1/sup>1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE, 2008) requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.” In order to ensure continuing safe storage of nuclear material and the maximization of risk reduction, TA-55 has established a Surveillance Program to ensure storage container integrity for operations within its specified design life. The LANL SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan2 defines the near-term field surveillance plan for SAVY-4000 containers as required by the Manual. A long-term surveillance plan will be established based on the results of the first several years of surveillance and the results of the lifetime extension studies as defined in the Accelerated Aging Plan3. This report details progress in positioning the Surveillance Program for successful implementation in FY14 and status of the Design Life Extension Program in terms of its implementation and data collection for FY13.

  9. Development and implementation of the first national data quality standards for population-based birth defects surveillance programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderka, Marlene; Mai, Cara T; Romitti, Paul A; Copeland, Glenn; Isenburg, Jennifer; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Krikov, Sergey; Rickard, Russel; Olney, Richard S; Canfield, Mark A; Stanton, Carol; Mosley, Bridget; Kirby, Russell S

    2015-09-19

    Population-based birth defects surveillance is a core public health activity in the United States (U.S.); however, the lack of national data quality standards has limited the use of birth defects surveillance data across state programs. Development of national standards will facilitate data aggregation and utilization across birth defects surveillance programs in the U.S. Based on national standards for other U.S. public health surveillance programs, existing National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) guidelines for conducting birth defects surveillance, and information from birth defects surveillance programs regarding their current data quality practices, we developed 11 data quality measures that focused on data completeness (n = 5 measures), timeliness (n = 2), and accuracy (n = 4). For each measure, we established tri-level performance criteria (1 = rudimentary, 2 = essential, 3 = optimal). In January 2014, we sent birth defects surveillance programs in each state, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the U.S. Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry an invitation to complete a self-administered NBDPN Standards Data Quality Assessment Tool. The completed forms were electronically submitted to the CDC for analyses. Of 47 eligible population-based surveillance programs, 45 submitted a completed assessment tool. Two of the 45 programs did not meet minimum inclusion criteria and were excluded; thus, the final analysis included information from 43 programs. Average scores for four of the five completeness performance measures were above level 2. Conversely, the average scores for both timeliness measures and three of the four accuracy measures were below level 2. Surveillance programs using an active case-finding approach scored higher than programs using passive case-finding approaches for the completeness and accuracy measures, whereas their average scores were lower

  10. Canine leishmaniasis surveillance program in a San Marino Republic kennel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Salvatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of San Marino is an autonomous State that, in view of its geographical and environmental features, can be considered a part of the Northern Italian territory, where the canine leishmaniasis (CanL is endemic. In the past, a CanL focus in the Republic's kennel was described. As a consequence of this epidemiological situation, a surveillance program was carried-out covering a 6-year period (2006-2012. A total of 1,094 sera were collected from 420 kennel dogs and examined for antibodies to Leishmania infantum by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Eighty-eight (21% dogs resulted IFAT positive (antibody titre ≥1/40. The overall seroprevalence increased in the first 4 years (2006-2010, going from 5.5% to 26.8% and then decreased in the 2 following years going to 17.9% (2011 and 3.9% (2012. The cumulative incidence constantly increased from 0.6% to 2.6%. This trend could be attributed to a changed infection pressure due to the dog turnover in the kennels. According to the observed incidence values, the CanL focus seems to be stable, supported by autochthonous transmission, new case introduction and Leishmania spp. circulation in owned dogs in the same area.

  11. [A review on the advancement of internet-based public health surveillance program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y Q; Ma, W J

    2017-02-10

    Internet data is introduced into public health arena under the features of fast updating and tremendous volume. Mining and analyzing internet data, researchers can model the internet-based surveillance system to assess the distribution of health-related events. There are two main types of internet-based surveillance systems, i.e. active and passive, which are distinguished by the sources of information. Through passive surveillance system, information is collected from search engine and social media while the active system gathers information through provision of the volunteers. Except for serving as a real-time and convenient complementary approach to traditional disease, food safety and adverse drug reaction surveillance program, Internet-based surveillance system can also play a role in health-related behavior surveillance and policy evaluation. Although several techniques have been applied to filter information, the accuracy of internet-based surveillance system is still bothered by the false positive information. In this article, we have summarized the development and application of internet-based surveillance system in public health to provide reference for a better surveillance program in China.

  12. Identifying risk factors for brain metastasis in breast cancer patients: Implication for a vigorous surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Chow

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Chinese breast cancer patients with brain metastasis were more likely to have high-grade tumors and negative estrogen receptor status. A more vigorous surveillance program for the central nervous system should be considered for this group of patients.

  13. Utilization of Healthcare in the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzner, Ursula; Pak, Gi Deok; Aaby, Peter; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Ali, Mohammad; Aseffa, Abraham; Baker, Stephen; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Crump, John A; Deerin, Jessica; Cruz Espinoza, Ligia Maria; Gasmelseed, Nagla; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Hertz, Julian T; Im, Justin; von Kalckreuth, Vera; Keddy, Karen H; Lankoande, Bruno; Løfberg, Sandra; Meyer, Christian G; Oresto, Michael Munishi; Park, Jin Kyung; Park, Se Eun; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël; Sarpong, Nimako; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Gassama Sow, Amy; Tall, Adama; Teferi, Mekonnen; Worku, Alemayehu; Yeshitela, Biruk; Wierzba, Thomas F; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    Assessing healthcare utilization is important to identify weaknesses of healthcare systems, to outline action points for preventive measures and interventions, and to more accurately estimate the disease burden in a population. A healthcare utilization survey was developed for the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) to adjust incidences of salmonellosis determined through passive, healthcare facility-based surveillance. This cross-sectional survey was conducted at 11 sites in 9 sub-Saharan African countries. Demographic data and healthcare-seeking behavior were assessed at selected households. Overall and age-stratified percentages of each study population that sought healthcare at a TSAP healthcare facility and elsewhere were determined. Overall, 88% (1007/1145) and 81% (1811/2238) of the population in Polesgo and Nioko 2, Burkina Faso, respectively, and 63% (1636/2590) in Butajira, Ethiopia, sought healthcare for fever at any TSAP healthcare facility. A far smaller proportion-namely, 20%-45% of the population in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau (1743/3885), Pikine, Senegal (1473/4659), Wad-Medani, Sudan (861/3169), and Pietermaritzburg, South Africa (667/2819); 18% (483/2622) and 9% (197/2293) in Imerintsiatosika and Isotry, Madagascar, respectively; and 4% (127/3089) in Moshi, Tanzania-sought healthcare at a TSAP healthcare facility. Patients with fever preferred to visit pharmacies in Imerintsiatosika and Isotry, and favored self-management of fever in Moshi. Age-dependent differences in healthcare utilization were also observed within and across sites. Healthcare utilization for fever varied greatly across sites, and revealed that not all studied populations were under optimal surveillance. This demonstrates the importance of assessing healthcare utilization. Survey data were pivotal for the adjustment of the program's estimates of salmonellosis and other conditions associated with fever. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the

  14. Optimal surveillance program for hepatocellular carcinoma- getting ready, but not yet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grace; Lai-Hung; Wong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) secondary to chronic viral hepatitis is a major health problem in AsianPacific regions due to the endemics of chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection. HCC surveillance has been recommended to patients who are at risk to develop HCC. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients still died in long run due to tumor recurrence. The key components of an optimal surveillance program include an accurate tumor biomarker and optimal surveillance interval. Serum alpha-fetoprotein(AFP), despite of being the most widely used biomarker for HCC surveillance, it was criticized as neither sensitive nor specific. Other HCC biomarkers, including lectin-reactive AFP(AFP-L3), des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, are still under investigations. Recent study showed cancerassociated genome-wide hypomethylation and copy number aberrations by plasma DNA bisulfite sequencing to be accurate with both sensitivity and specificity close to 90% in detecting HCC in a case-control study. Concerning the optimal surveillance interval, we believe one size does not fit all patients. Accurate risk prediction to assist prognostication with well-validated HCC risk scores would be useful to decide the need for HCC surveillance. These key components of an optimal HCC surveillance program should be further validated at a surveillance setting.

  15. Common cold symptoms in children: results of an Internet-based surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troullos, Emanuel; Baird, Lisa; Jayawardena, Shyamalie

    2014-06-19

    Conducting and analyzing clinical studies of cough and cold medications is challenging due to the rapid onset and short duration of the symptoms. The use of Internet-based surveillance tools is a new approach in clinical studies that is gradually becoming popular and may become a useful method of recruitment. As part of an initiative to assess the safety and efficacy of cough and cold ingredients in children 6-11 years of age, a surveillance program was proposed as a means to identify and recruit pediatric subjects for clinical studies. The objective of the study was to develop an Internet-based surveillance system and to assess the feasibility of using such a system to recruit children for common cold clinical studies, record the natural history of their cold symptoms, and determine the willingness of parents to have their children participate in clinical studies. Healthy potential subjects were recruited via parental contact online. During the 6-week surveillance period, parents completed daily surveys to record details of any cold symptoms in their children. If a child developed a cold, symptoms were followed via survey for 10 days. Additional questions evaluated the willingness of parents to have their children participate in a clinical study shortly after onset of symptoms. The enrollment target of 248 children was reached in approximately 1 week. Children from 4 distinct geographic regions of the United States were recruited. Parents reported cold symptoms in 163 children, and 134 went on to develop colds. The most prevalent symptoms were runny nose, stuffed-up nose, and sneezing. The most severe symptoms were runny nose, stuffed-up nose, and sore/scratchy throat. The severity of most symptoms peaked 1-2 days after onset. Up to 54% of parents expressed willingness to bring a sick child to a clinical center shortly after the onset of symptoms. Parents found the Internet-based surveys easy to complete. Internet-based surveillance and recruitment can be useful

  16. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component. Qu

  17. Conducting a SWOT Analysis for Program Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a teacher education program, or any program, can be the driving force for implementing change. A SWOT analysis is used to assist faculty in initiating meaningful change in a program and to use the data for program improvement. This tool is useful in any undergraduate or degree…

  18. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, M.; Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Borsella, B.W.; Wright, K.C.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes calendar year 1995 environmental surveillance activities of Environmental Monitoring and Water Resources of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company, performed at the following Waste Management Facilities: the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and tow surplus facilities. Results of the sampling performed by the Radiological Environmental Surveillance Program, Site Environmental Surveillance Program, and the United States Geological Survey at these facilities are included in this report. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1995 environmental surveillance data with US DOE Derived Concentration Guides and with data form previous years.

  19. Surveillance in Programming Plagiarism beyond Techniques: An Incentive-Based Fishbone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqing; Chen, Min; Liang, Yaowen; Jiang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Lots of researches have showed that plagiarism becomes a severe problem in higher education around the world, especially in programming learning for its essence. Therefore, an effective strategy for plagiarism surveillance in program learning is much essential. Some literature focus on code similarity algorithm and the related tools can help to…

  20. Surveillance of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Coleen A.; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the autism surveillance activities of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It considers why surveillance to track prevalence of autistic disorders is needed, how such surveillance is conducted, and the special challenges of autism surveillance. (DB)

  1. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Simon

    Full Text Available Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013 aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%, human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13% and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%, as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm virus (10.3%. Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  2. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Van Reeth, Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Brown, Ian H; Loeffen, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  3. Establishment of a Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M; Reses, Hannah; Franka, Richard; Dilius, Pierre; Fenelon, Natael; Orciari, Lillian; Etheart, Melissa; Destine, Apollon; Crowdis, Kelly; Blanton, Jesse D; Francisco, Calvin; Ludder, Fleurinord; Del Rio Vilas, Victor; Haim, Joseph; Millien, Max

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 –December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9%) and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%), representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%). Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries. PMID:26600437

  4. Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the ORNL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program FY 1993--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

    1992-07-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D D) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration D D program. The purpose and objectivesof this program include: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S M) of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities; and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Participating D D contractors are required to prepare formal plans that document the S M programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilities included in the ORNL D D Program.

  5. 9 CFR 145.15 - Diagnostic surveillance program for low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... low pathogenic avian influenza. 145.15 Section 145.15 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of the...

  6. Detection capacity, information gaps and the design of surveillance programs for invasive forest pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank Koch; Yakov Ben-Haim; William Smith

    2010-01-01

    Integrated pest risk maps and their underlying assessments provide broad guidance for establishing surveillance programs for invasive species, but they rarely account for knowledge gaps regarding the pest of interest or how these can be reduced. In this study we demonstrate how the somewhat competing notions of robustness to uncertainty and potential knowledge gains...

  7. [Thirty Years of Health Surveillance of Foods in Barcelona: The "ICSA" Food Quality Research Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontcuberta-Famadas, Mireia; Rodellar-Torras, Santiago; Portaña-Tudela, Samuel; Durán-Neira, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The Food Health Quality Research Program (Investigación de la Calidad Sanitaria de los Alimentos [ICSA]) of the Public Health Agency of Barcelona (Agencia de Salud Pública de Barcelona [ASPB]) was initiated in 1984 to carry out surveillance of certain chemical and microbiological parameters related to the sanitary and safety of foods sold in the city. The present article analyzes the importance of health surveillance and provides details of the uses of the ICSA program. The main aim of this program is to evaluate whether marketed foods comply with the absence and/or established tolerance levels of specific parameters. Nevertheless, the program is able to incorporate or suppress parameters or foods that pose emerging dangers or interests not represented in current legislation. Besides, the program not only obtains a view of the parameters studied at a specific time period in each report, but also accumulates data over time, allowing risk assessment, calculation of dietary intake of contaminants, analysis of tendencies, and evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations to reduce contaminants. The program can also help in the planning of food control programs. The information obtained is disseminated nationally and internationally and is included in dossiers of contaminants issued by national and European health agencies. This demonstrates that a locally-developed surveillance system can have a wider scope and broader objectives and can provide useful information for managers, administrations, economic operators and consumers.

  8. An oil spill surveillance program for Lake Pontchartrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Ezra; Pereira, Joao F; Retana, Gabriel; Baker, Andy; Lopez, John; McCorquodale, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an oil spill surveillance strategy implemented in response to BP's 2010 MC252 oil well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico. A three-pronged strategy consisted of Geographic Information System (GIS) monitoring of the surface slick, hydrodynamic modeling of the potential movement of the slick within the Basin, and weekly field reconnaissance. Our analysis was completed in near real time during the event and the results and predictions helped local responders minimize oiling impacts in Lake Pontchartrain. No prior planning was undertaken before this crisis response, and this article reports our support activities as they happened. For the GIS component, a remote sensing derived surface slick outline layer was obtained to produce near daily maps showing the slick's proximity to Lake Pontchartrain along with weather conditions and deployed response assets. This regular monitoring of the slicks' location was complemented by hydrodynamic numerical modeling that simulated the currents that determined the trajectories of oil particles. These data were ground-truthed through weekly reconnaissance trips that assessed the potential routes of oil penetration into Lake Pontchartrain for the presence of sheen, tarballs, and other oil constituents. Despite the ad hoc design and on-the-fly implementation, these three assessments provided consistent and actionable information.

  9. A four-year surveillance program for detection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A Fontecha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Countries could use the monitoring of drug resistance in malaria parasites as an effective early warning system to develop the timely response mechanisms that are required to avert the further spread of malaria. Drug resistance surveillance is essential in areas where no drug resistance has been reported, especially if neighbouring countries have previously reported resistance. Here, we present the results of a four-year surveillance program based on the sequencing of the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum populations from endemic areas of Honduras. All isolates were susceptible to chloroquine, as revealed by the pfcrt “CVMNK” genotype in codons 72-76.

  10. A four-year surveillance program for detection of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontecha, Gustavo A; Sanchez, Ana L; Mendoza, Meisy; Banegas, Engels; Mejía-Torres, Rosa E

    2014-07-01

    Countries could use the monitoring of drug resistance in malaria parasites as an effective early warning system to develop the timely response mechanisms that are required to avert the further spread of malaria. Drug resistance surveillance is essential in areas where no drug resistance has been reported, especially if neighbouring countries have previously reported resistance. Here, we present the results of a four-year surveillance program based on the sequencing of the pfcrt gene of Plasmodium falciparum populations from endemic areas of Honduras. All isolates were susceptible to chloroquine, as revealed by the pfcrt "CVMNK" genotype in codons 72-76.

  11. Newborn screening for critical congenital heart disease: potential roles of birth defects surveillance programs--United States, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    In September 2011, the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) approved the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (SACHDNC) 2010 recommendation that all newborns be screened for critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) using pulse oximetry, a noninvasive test of blood oxygenation, to prevent mortality and morbidity. CDC partnered with the National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN) to conduct a survey designed to assess state birth defect surveillance programs' potential roles, capabilities, and readiness to assist with newborn screening activities for CCHD. States were surveyed in November 2010, after the initial SACHDNC recommendation, and again in November 2011, after the Secretary's approval. From 2010 to 2011, the number of birth defects surveillance programs involved in CCHD screening increased from one to 10. Barriers exist, such as the lack of legislative authority, staffing, funding, and informatics infrastructure. Sixty-seven percent of programs take an average of more than 12 months to collect complete data on birth defect cases, including congenital heart defects. An assessment of state birth defects programs' existing data and capability to lead the evaluation of screening for CCHD is warranted.

  12. Verifying Elimination Programs with a Special Emphasis on Cysticercosis Endpoints and Postelimination Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukwan Handali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods are needed for determining program endpoints or postprogram surveillance for any elimination program. Cysticercosis has the necessary effective strategies and diagnostic tools for establishing an elimination program; however, tools to verify program endpoints have not been determined. Using a statistical approach, the present study proposed that taeniasis and porcine cysticercosis antibody assays could be used to determine with a high statistical confidence whether an area is free of disease. Confidence would be improved by using secondary tests such as the taeniasis coproantigen assay and necropsy of the sentinel pigs.

  13. Emerging Infections Program as Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridkin, Scott K; Cleveland, Angela A; See, Isaac; Lynfield, Ruth

    2015-09-01

    Across the United States, antimicrobial drug-resistant infections affect a diverse population, and effective interventions require concerted efforts across various public health and clinical programs. Since its onset in 1994, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program has provided robust and timely data on antimicrobial drug-resistant infections that have been used to inform public health action across a spectrum of partners with regard to many highly visible antimicrobial drug-resistance threats. These data span several activities within the Program, including respiratory bacterial infections, health care-associated infections, and some aspects of foodborne diseases. These data have contributed to estimates of national burden, identified populations at risk, and determined microbiological causes of infection and their outcomes, all of which have been used to inform national policy and guidelines to prevent antimicrobial drug-resistant infections.

  14. Future Directions for NCI’s Surveillance Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the early 1970s, NCI’s SEER program has been an invaluable resource for statistics on cancer in the United States. For the past several years, SEER researchers have been working toward a much broader and comprehensive goal for providing cancer stati

  15. Postmarketing surveillance of new food ingredients: results from the program with the fat replacer olestra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, G S; Kuter, D J; Roll, K T; Taylor, S L; Zorich, N L

    2001-04-01

    Market introduction of savory snacks containing olestra offered an opportunity to evaluate the safety of olestra in a free-living population and thereby compare the outcome to the previously established safety profile determined in clinical trials in which subjects were required to eat predetermined amounts at prescribed intervals. Therefore, a multifaceted postmarketing surveillance program was designed to evaluate consumer experience and safety of olestra in the marketplace. Customer comments were solicited through toll-free telephone numbers. Collected data were evaluated by both internal and external medical experts. About 10% of toll-free telephone calls reported health effects, most of which were gastrointestinal (GI) in nature. Clinical studies were designed and conducted to determine potential GI effects under the range of consumption patterns reported by toll-free calls. Health effects reported were those found commonly in the general population and analyses of the data found no biological reason to conclude that serious or meaningful health effects were the result of olestra consumption.

  16. Evaluation of the surveillance program of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H. J.; Pedersen, L. H.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Danish surveillance program of Streptococcus agalactiae in dairy herds with respect to 1) fluctuation over time of the presence of S. agalactiae in bulk tank milk, 2) sensitivity and specificity of the bacteriological method used, and 3) contamination...... of bulk tank milk samples with milk from other herds. From June to September 1996, bulk tank milk was sampled from 100 Danish dairy herds seven times, with intervals of 2 wk. The samples were examined for the presence of S. agalactiae by four different methods: 1) by the method approved for the program, 2...... the isolates. Streptococcus agalactiae was found in eight of 96 herds in which S. agalactiae had never previously been found during the surveillance program. Streptococcus agalactiae was not found in all seven sampling rounds in any of the eight herds. Comparing the approved method with supplemental findings...

  17. A preliminary study for the development of indices and the current state of surgical site infections (SSIs) in Korea: the Korean Surgical Site Infection Surveillance (KOSSIS) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Jin; Lee, Kil Yeon; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jae Gil; Choi, Hee Jung; Chun, Hee Kyung; Kang, Jung Gu

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to develop an effective system for surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance and examine the current domestic state of SSIs for common abdominal surgeries in Korea. The Korean Surgical Site Infection Surveillance (KOSSIS) program was developed as an SSI surveillance system. A prospective multicenter study in nine university-affiliated or general hospitals was conducted for patients who underwent gastrectomy, cholecystectomy, appendectomy, colectomy, or proctectomy between August 16 and September 30 in 2012. Patients were monitored for up to 30 days by combining direct observation and a postdischarge surgeon survey. Data on SSIs were prospectively collected with KOSSIS secretarial support according to a common protocol. Operation-specific SSI rates were stratified according to risk factors and compared with data from the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS) and National Healthcare Safety Network. A focus group interview was conducted with participating hospitals for feedback. A total of 1,088 operations were monitored: 207 gastrectomies, 318 cholecystectomies, 270 appendectomies, 197 colectomies, and 96 proctectomies. Operation-specific SSI rates determined by the KOSSIS program were substantially higher than those found in KONIS (7.73% [95% confidence interval, 4.5%-12.3%] vs. 3.4% for gastrectomies, 10.15% [95% confidence interval, 6.1%-15.2%] vs. 4.0% for colectomy, and 13.5% [95% confidence interval, 7.4%-22.0%] vs. 4.2% for proctectomy). Despite a short surveillance period and heterogenous group of hospitals, our results suggest that KOSSIS could be a useful program to enhance SSI surveillance in Korea.

  18. Facility Decontamination and Decommissioning Program Surveillance and Maintenance Plan, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poderis, Reed J. [NSTec; King, Rebecca A. [NSTec

    2013-09-30

    This Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan describes the activities performed between deactivation and final decommissioning of the following facilities located on the Nevada National Security Site, as documented in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order under the Industrial Sites program as decontamination and decommissioning sites: ? Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (EMAD) Facility: o EMAD Building (Building 25-3900) o Locomotive Storage Shed (Building 25-3901) ? Test Cell C (TCC) Facility: o Equipment Building (Building 25-3220) o Motor Drive Building (Building 25-3230) o Pump Shop (Building 25-3231) o Cryogenic Lab (Building 25-3232) o Ancillary Structures (e.g., dewars, water tower, piping, tanks) These facilities have been declared excess and are in various stages of deactivation (low-risk, long-term stewardship disposition state). This S&M Plan establishes and implements a solid, cost-effective, and balanced S&M program consistent with federal, state, and regulatory requirements. A graded approach is used to plan and conduct S&M activities. The goal is to maintain the facilities in a safe condition in a cost-effective manner until their final end state is achieved. This plan accomplishes the following: ? Establishes S&M objectives and framework ? Identifies programmatic guidance for S&M activities to be conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) ? Provides present facility condition information and identifies hazards ? Identifies facility-specific S&M activities to be performed and their frequency ? Identifies regulatory drivers, NNSA/NFO policies and procedures, and best management practices that necessitate implementation of S&M activities ? Provides criteria and frequencies for revisions and updates ? Establishes the process for identifying and dispositioning a condition that has not been previously identified or

  19. Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the ORNL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program FY 1993--2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.

    1992-07-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration D&D program. The purpose and objectivesof this program include: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning for the orderly decommissioning of these facilities; and (3) implementation of a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost-effective, and timely manner. Participating D&D contractors are required to prepare formal plans that document the S&M programs established for each site. This report has been prepared to provide this documentation for those facilities included in the ORNL D&D Program.

  20. Establishment of a health surveillance program for reintroduction of the Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) into Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Gidona; Girling, Simon; Pizzi, Romain; Meredith, Anna; Rosell, Frank; Campbell-Palmer, Roisin

    2012-10-01

    In 2009 and 2010 16 Norwegian Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were reintroduced to Knapdale, Scotland as part of a 5-yr reintroduction trial (Scottish Beaver Trial). Despite numerous reintroduction programs throughout Europe there is no published information concerning recommended health surveillance during beaver reintroduction and only one publication describing causes of mortality. We describe the establishment of a health surveillance program based on International Union of Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and governmental guidelines, and report preliminary results based on the fecal and blood samples following the completion of the first stage of reintroduction. Animals underwent at least one general anesthetic to allow collection of fecal and blood samples and a thorough clinical examination. No bacterial enteric pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., or Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were isolated, nor were Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. However, numerous helminths including Travassosius rufus and Stichorchis subtriquetrus were detected. Five animals were positive for Leptospira antibodies. This included Leptospira saxkoebing, Leptospira canicola, Leptospira copenhageni, Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae, Leptospira autumnalis, and Leptospira javanica. The highest loss of animals (20%) was during the statutory 6-mo rabies quarantine period. No common cause of death was determined. The rabies quarantine conditions were waived for four remaining animals, three of which were introduced to the wild successfully. The authors recommend the shortest possible quarantine period when introducing beavers, but allowing for the minimum recommended IUCN 35 days to allow for implementation of the initial stage of the health surveillance program, examination of animals, sample collection, and processing.

  1. Standard Practice for Design of Surveillance Programs for Light-Water Moderated Nuclear Power Reactor Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing a surveillance program for monitoring the radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials in light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels. This practice includes the minimum requirements for the design of a surveillance program, selection of vessel material to be included, and the initial schedule for evaluation of materials. 1.2 This practice was developed for all light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels for which the predicted maximum fast neutron fluence (E > 1 MeV) at the end of license (EOL) exceeds 1 × 1021 neutrons/m2 (1 × 1017 n/cm2) at the inside surface of the reactor vessel. 1.3 This practice applies only to the planning and design of surveillance programs for reactor vessels designed and built after the effective date of this practice. Previous versions of Practice E185 apply to earlier reactor vessels. 1.4 This practice does not provide specific procedures for monitoring the radiation induced cha...

  2. Feasibility and acceptability of a workers’ health surveillance program for hospital physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn M. Ruitenburg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A Workers’ Health Surveillance (WHS program is an occupational health strategy used to detect and address the health of individual workers to improve their ability to work. This study aims to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of a new job-specific WHS for hospital physicians. Material and Methods: All hospital physicians of the general surgery, radiotherapy and obstetrics and gynecology departments from 1 academic hospital were invited to participate in the WHS by the in-company occupational health service. An occupational physician and a medical assistant were trained to use the protocol. Feasibility was operationalized as the received and delivered dose, observed success factors and potential obstacles. Acceptability was assessed by asking whether the WHS was desirable and feasible for future use and by estimating the effects on health and work ability. Written questions and semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participating physicians, 5 department managers and the 2 occupational health professionals involved in the study. Results: One-third of the hospital physicians (34% participated in every part of the WHS. The delivered dose was 77/84 (92%. Almost all hospital physicians who received recommendations expected to adhere to this advice. The study participants appreciated the organization of the WHS. This WHS was positively graded (8 out of 10 max in terms of acceptability. Positive effects of the WHS on health, work functioning and long-term work ability were perceived by 2/3 of the physicians. Conclusions: The new job-specific WHS for hospital physicians showed good feasibility and acceptability among participating hospital physicians, occupational health professionals and medical managers.

  3. The effect of a "surveillance nurse" telephone support intervention in a home care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ronald; Godin, Lori

    2015-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of a unique "surveillance nurse" telephone support intervention for community-dwelling elderly individuals in a home care program. A combined propensity-based covariate-matching procedure was used to pair each individual who received the intervention ("treatment" condition, nT = 930) to a similar individual who did not receive the intervention ("control" condition, nC1 = 930) from among a large pool of potential control individuals (nC0 = 4656). The intervention consisted of regularly scheduled telephone calls from a surveillance nurse to proactively assess the individual's well-being, care plan status, use of and need for services (home support, adult day program, physiotherapy, etc.) and home environment (e.g., informal caregiver support). Treatment and control conditions were compared with respect to four service utilization outcomes: (1) rate of survival in the community before institutionalization in an assisted living or nursing home facility or death, (2) rate of emergency room registrations, (3) rate of acute care hospitalizations, and (4) rate of days in hospital, during home care enrollment. Results indicated a beneficial effect of the surveillance nurse intervention on reducing rate of service utilization by increasing the duration of the home care episode.

  4. Process Evaluation of a Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Meat Processing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko

    2016-07-30

    Objective To evaluate the implementation process of a workers' health surveillance (WHS) program in a Dutch meat processing company. Methods Workers from five plants were eligible to participate in the WHS program. The program consisted of four evaluative components and an intervention component. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to evaluate seven process aspects. Data were gathered by interviews with stakeholders, participant questionnaires, and from registries of the company and occupational health service. Results Two recruitment strategies were used: open invitation or automatic participation. Of the 986 eligible workers, 305 participated in the program. Average reach was 53 %. Two out of five program components could not be assessed on dose delivered, dose received and fidelity. If components were assessable, 85-100 % of the components was delivered, 66-100 % of the components was received by participants, and fidelity was 100 %. Participants were satisfied with the WHS program (mean score 7.6). Contextual factors that facilitated implementation were among others societal developments and management support. Factors that formed barriers were program novelty and delayed follow-up. Conclusion The WHS program was well received by participants. Not all participants were offered the same number of program components, and not all components were performed according to protocol. Deviation from protocol is an indication of program failure and may affect program effectiveness.

  5. Airport sentinel surveillance and entry quarantine for dengue infections following a fever screening program in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue has not reached an endemic status in Taiwan; nevertheless, we have implemented a fever screening program at airports for the early detection of febrile passengers with a dengue infection. This study is intended to assess the performance of the airport screening procedures for dengue infection. Methods We analyzed data from the national surveillance system of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. We included the imported dengue cases reported by sentinel airports and clinics as well as the domestic cases from 2007–2010. Results Approximately 44.9% (95%CI: 35.73-54.13%) of the confirmed imported dengue cases with an apparent symptom (febrile) in the viremic stage were detected via the airport fever screening program, with an estimated positive predictive value of 2.36% (95% CI: 0.96- 3.75%) and a negative predictive value > 99.99%. Fluctuations in the number of the symptomatic imported dengue cases identified in the airports (X) were associated with the total number of imported dengue cases (Y) based on a regression analysis of a biweekly surveillance (i.e., n = 104, R2X:Y = 0.61, P dengue cases (X) with a 1–2 month lead time (t) was in parallel with that of the domestic dengue cases (Y) based on a consecutive 4-year surveillance (i.e., n = 48, R2X(t-1):Y = 0.22, R2X(t-2):Y = 0.31, P dengue at the airports examined in this study indicated some limitations of the fever screening program for the prevention of importation. The screening program could assist in the rapid triage for self-quarantine of some symptomatic dengue cases that were in the viremic stage at the borders and contribute to active sentinel surveillance; however, the blocking of viral transmission to susceptible populations (neighbors or family) from all of the viremic travelers, including those with or without symptoms, is critical to prevent dengue epidemics. Therefore, the reinforcement of mosquito bite prevention and household vector control in

  6. Safety and tolerability of fluvastatin XL in the treatment of hyper-cholesterolemia : a postmarketing surveillance conducted in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arini Setiawati

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluvastatin XL 80 mg tablet has been marketed in Indonesia since December 2002. This post-marketing surveillance (PMS was conducted between May 2004 and April 2005 involving 98 general physicians to observe the safety and tolerability of fluvastatin XL 80 mg once daily at bedtime for 8 weeks in the treatment of outpatients with hypercholesterolemia. The efficacy of the drug in lowering LDL-cholesterol and other lipid parameters was also observed in daily clinical practice in this PMS. A total of 740 patients were eligible for safety analyses. There were 32 patients (4.32% with 39 adverse events that were considered related to fluvastatin XL therapy. The most common adverse reactions were dizziness (2.03%, nausea (1.22%, and myalgia (0.68%. No serious adverse event (SAE was found in this PMS, and no patient discontinued due to adverse event. According to physician’s global evaluation, the safety and tolerability of treatment was good in 91.9% of patients. For efficacy analyses, only 566 patients were eligible. At week 8, fluvastatin XL caused decreases in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG levels by 28.6%, 30.2% and 24.5%, respectively, and an increase in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C by 14.3%. In 74 patients with baseline TG > 300 mg/dL, the decrease in TG was 38.1% and the increase in HDL-C was 18.1%. Reduction in LDL-C of > 40% occurred in 19.6% of the patients. In conclusion, treatment with fluvastatin XL 80 mg once daily for 8 weeks in this PMS was shown to be safe and well tolerated, and also effective in reducing LDL-C, TC and TG, and raising HDL-C in daily clinical practice. (Med J Indones 2008; 17:88-95Keywords: post-marketing surveillance (PMS, fluvastatin XL, hypercholesterolemia

  7. Surveillance Metrics Sensitivity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierbaum, R; Hamada, M; Robertson, A

    2011-11-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  8. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Results of the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walop Wikke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE is so rare in developed countries with measles immunization programs that national active surveillance is now needed to capture sufficient number of cases for meaningful analysis of data. Through the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP, the SSPE study was able to document a national incidence and determine the epidemiology of affected Canadian children. Methods Between 1997 and 2000, the CPSP surveyed monthly 1978 to 2294 Canadian pediatricians and sub-specialists for SSPE cases. The response rate varied from 82–86% over those years. Results Altogether, four SSPE cases were reported to the CPSP: one case before, two during and one after the study period. The incidence of SSPE in Canadian children was 0.06/million children/year. Of the four cases, diagnosed between ages four and 17 years, three children had measles infection in infancy. All children showed a progressive course of dementia, loss of motor skills and epilepsy. Two children were treated with isoprinosine and intraventricular interferon but died in less than three years from disease onset. One child did not have any treatment and died after seven years of illness. One child received intraventricular ribavirin and remains alive, but markedly impaired, nine years following diagnosis. Conclusion The CPSP has demonstrated that Canadian paediatricians and paediatric neurologists may encounter cases of SSPE. This report highlights the clinical course of affected Canadian children and provides a review of the disease and its management.

  9. Airport sentinel surveillance and entry quarantine for dengue infections following a fever screening program in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Mei-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue has not reached an endemic status in Taiwan; nevertheless, we have implemented a fever screening program at airports for the early detection of febrile passengers with a dengue infection. This study is intended to assess the performance of the airport screening procedures for dengue infection. Methods We analyzed data from the national surveillance system of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. We included the imported dengue cases reported by sentinel airports and clinics as well as the domestic cases from 2007–2010. Results Approximately 44.9% (95%CI: 35.73-54.13% of the confirmed imported dengue cases with an apparent symptom (febrile in the viremic stage were detected via the airport fever screening program, with an estimated positive predictive value of 2.36% (95% CI: 0.96- 3.75% and a negative predictive value > 99.99%. Fluctuations in the number of the symptomatic imported dengue cases identified in the airports (X were associated with the total number of imported dengue cases (Y based on a regression analysis of a biweekly surveillance (i.e., n = 104, R2X:Y = 0.61, P 2X(t-1:Y = 0.22, R2X(t-2:Y = 0.31, P  Conclusions A moderate sensitivity of detecting dengue at the airports examined in this study indicated some limitations of the fever screening program for the prevention of importation. The screening program could assist in the rapid triage for self-quarantine of some symptomatic dengue cases that were in the viremic stage at the borders and contribute to active sentinel surveillance; however, the blocking of viral transmission to susceptible populations (neighbors or family from all of the viremic travelers, including those with or without symptoms, is critical to prevent dengue epidemics. Therefore, the reinforcement of mosquito bite prevention and household vector control in dengue-endemic or dengue-competent hotspots during an epidemic season is essential and highly recommended.

  10. Multicenter evaluation of resistance patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolated from clinical specimens in Brazil: RESISTNET surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Paz Oplustil

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance programs are essential to detect the increase of antimicrobial resistance, and several different programs are being conducted in many countries. The RESISTNET is a surveillance program for bacterial resistance against several antimicrobial agents initiated in 1998 among Latin American countries. In Brazil, several centers were invited to join this surveillance and a total of 11 centers (6 from São Paulo and 5 from other states participated in the study. All results were analyzed using the WHONET program. A total of 894 Escherichia coli, 386 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 70 Shigella spp and 57 Salmonella spp strains were analyzed in this study from April, 1998, to April, 1999. Susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method using NCCLS 1998 guidelines for several different drugs. For all strains, imipenem was the most effective drug (100% of the strains were susceptible. Klebsiella pneumoniae presented a high resistance rate to ampicillin (96.4%. The rate of probable ESBL producers among K. pneumoniae strains was 36.3%, most of them being isolated from catheters (58.8%. Among all Escherichia coli strains analyzed, the highest resistance rate was found for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (46.9% and the majority of the resistant strains were isolated from urine samples (47.8%. Among Salmonella spp, the resistance rates were low for all antibiotics tested. For Shigella spp strains there was a high resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (80.0%. No resistance to ceftriaxone was observed in these strains. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is critical for the successful management of infectious diseases. The results of this survey show significant resistance rates among these bacteria which are responsible for several types of human infections.

  11. Multicenter evaluation of resistance patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolated from clinical specimens in Brazil: RESISTNET surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Paz Oplustil

    Full Text Available Surveillance programs are essential to detect the increase of antimicrobial resistance, and several different programs are being conducted in many countries. The RESISTNET is a surveillance program for bacterial resistance against several antimicrobial agents initiated in 1998 among Latin American countries. In Brazil, several centers were invited to join this surveillance and a total of 11 centers (6 from São Paulo and 5 from other states participated in the study. All results were analyzed using the WHONET program. A total of 894 Escherichia coli, 386 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 70 Shigella spp and 57 Salmonella spp strains were analyzed in this study from April, 1998, to April, 1999. Susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method using NCCLS 1998 guidelines for several different drugs. For all strains, imipenem was the most effective drug (100% of the strains were susceptible. Klebsiella pneumoniae presented a high resistance rate to ampicillin (96.4%. The rate of probable ESBL producers among K. pneumoniae strains was 36.3%, most of them being isolated from catheters (58.8%. Among all Escherichia coli strains analyzed, the highest resistance rate was found for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (46.9% and the majority of the resistant strains were isolated from urine samples (47.8%. Among Salmonella spp, the resistance rates were low for all antibiotics tested. For Shigella spp strains there was a high resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (80.0%. No resistance to ceftriaxone was observed in these strains. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is critical for the successful management of infectious diseases. The results of this survey show significant resistance rates among these bacteria which are responsible for several types of human infections.

  12. Decontamination and decommissioning surveillance and maintenance report for FY 1991. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwinkle, T. W.; Cannon, T. R.; Ford, M. K.; Holder, Jr., L.; Clotfelter, O. K.; Faulkner, R. L.; Smith, D. L.; Wooten, H. O.

    1991-12-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program has three distinct phases: (1) surveillance and maintenance (S&M); (2) decontamination and removal of hazardous materials and equipment (which DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., calls Phase I of remediation); and (3) decommissioning and ultimate disposal, regulatory compliance monitoring, and property transfer (which DOE Headquarters calls Phase II of remediation). A large part of D&D is devoted to S&M at each of the sites. Our S&M activities, which are performed on facilities awaiting decommissioning, are designed to minimize potential hazards to human health and the environment by: ensuring adequate containment of residual radioactive and hazardous materials; and, providing physical safety and security controls to minimize potential hazards to on-site personnel and the general public. Typically, we classify maintenance activities as either routine or special (major repairs). Routine maintenance includes such activities as painting, cleaning, vegetation control, minor structural repairs, filter changes, and building system(s) checks. Special maintenance includes Occupational Safety and Health Act facility upgrades, roof repairs, and equipment overhaul. Surveillance activities include inspections, radiological measurements, reporting, records maintenance, and security (as required) for controlling and monitoring access to facilities. This report summarizes out FY 1991 S&M activities for the Tennessee plant sites, which include the K-25 Site, the Gas Centrifuge facilities, ORNL, and the Y-12 Plant.

  13. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Containment and Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz,R.A.

    2008-06-13

    The United States Support Program (USSP) priority for containment and surveillance (US) focuses on maintaining or improving the reliability and cost-effectiveness of C/S systems for IAEA safeguards, expanding the number of systems that are unattended and remotely monitored, and developing verification methods that help streamline the on-site inspection process. Existing IAEA C/S systems have evolved to become complex, integrated systems, which may include active seals, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments, video cameras, and other sensors. These systems operate autonomously. They send analytical data to IAEA headquarters where it can be reviewed. These systems present challenges to the goals of improved system performance, standardization, reliability, maintainability, documentation, and cost effectiveness. One critical lesson from past experiences is the need for cooperation and common objectives among the IAEA, the developer, and the facility operator, to create a successful, cost effective system. Recent USSP C/S activities include Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant safeguard systems, production of a new shift register, numerous vulnerability assessments of C/S systems, a conduit monitoring system which identifies tampering of IAEA conduit deployed in the field, fiber optic seal upgrades, unattended monitoring system software upgrades, next generation surveillance system which will upgrade existing camera systems, and support of the IAEA's development of the universal nondestructive assay data acquisition platform.

  14. Establishment of a High Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Wallace

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 -December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9% and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%, representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%. Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries.

  15. Establishment of a High Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M; Reses, Hannah; Franka, Richard; Dilius, Pierre; Fenelon, Natael; Orciari, Lillian; Etheart, Melissa; Destine, Apollon; Crowdis, Kelly; Blanton, Jesse D; Francisco, Calvin; Ludder, Fleurinord; Del Rio Vilas, Victor; Haim, Joseph; Millien, Max

    2015-11-01

    The Republic of Haiti is one of only several countries in the Western Hemisphere in which canine rabies is still endemic. Estimation methods have predicted that 130 human deaths occur per year, yet existing surveillance mechanisms have detected few of these rabies cases. Likewise, canine rabies surveillance capacity has had only limited capacity, detecting only two rabid dogs per year, on average. In 2013, Haiti initiated a community-based animal rabies surveillance program comprised of two components: active community bite investigation and passive animal rabies investigation. From January 2013 -December 2014, 778 rabies suspect animals were reported for investigation. Rabies was laboratory-confirmed in 70 animals (9%) and an additional 36 cases were identified based on clinical diagnosis (5%), representing an 18-fold increase in reporting of rabid animals compared to the three years before the program was implemented. Dogs were the most frequent rabid animal (90%). Testing and observation ruled out rabies in 61% of animals investigated. A total of 639 bite victims were reported to the program and an additional 364 bite victims who had not sought medical care were identified during the course of investigations. Only 31% of people with likely rabies exposures had initiated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis prior to the investigation. Rabies is a neglected disease in-part due to a lack of surveillance and understanding about the burden. The surveillance methods employed by this program established a much higher burden of canine rabies in Haiti than previously recognized. The active, community-based bite investigations identified numerous additional rabies exposures and bite victims were referred for appropriate medical care, averting potential human rabies deaths. The use of community-based rabies surveillance programs such as HARSP should be considered in canine rabies endemic countries.

  16. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. What Have We Learned From the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen; Hombach, Joachim; Marks, Florian

    2016-03-15

    The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) was established in 2009 to fill the data void concerning invasive Salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa, and to specifically estimate the burden of bloodstream infections caused by the key pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. TSAP has achieved this ambitious target, finding high incidences of typhoid fever in both rural and urban populations in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The results of TSAP will undoubtedly dictate the direction of future typhoid fever research in Africa, and at last provides a key piece of the disease burden jigsaw puzzle. With the dawn of new Vi conjugate vaccines against Salmonella Typhi, the next priority for the typhoid community must be providing the required data on these vaccines so they can be licensed and provided to those in high-risk groups and locations across sub-Saharan Africa. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. Risk factors for changing test classification in the Danish surveillance program for Salmonella in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lennarth Ravn; Warnick, L. D.; Greiner, M.

    2007-01-01

    A surveillance program in which all cattle herds in Denmark are classified into Salmonella infection categories has been in place since 2002. Dairy herds were considered test negative and thus most likely free of infection if Salmonella antibody measurements were consistently low in bulk tank milk...... samples collected every 3 mo. Herds were considered test positive and thus most likely infected if the 4-quarter moving average bulk tank milk antibody concentration was high or if there was a large increase in the most recent measurement compared with the average value from the previous 3 samples....... The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for changing from test negative to positive, which was indicative of herds becoming infected from one quarter of the year to the next, and risk factors for changing from test positive to negative, which was indicative of herds recovering from infection...

  19. The Features of Genetic Prion Diseases Based on Chinese Surveillance Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Shi

    Full Text Available To identify the features of Chinese genetic prion diseases.Suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD cases that were reported under CJD surveillance were diagnosed and subtyped using the diagnostic criteria issued by the WHO. The general information concerning the patient, their clinical, MRI and EEG data, and the results of CSF 14-3-3 and PRNP sequencing were carefully collected from the database of the national CJD surveillance program and analyzed using the SPSS 11.5 statistical software program.Since 2006, 69 patients were diagnosed with genetic prion diseases and as having 15 different mutations. The median age of the 69 patients at disease onset was 53.5 years, varying from 19 to 80 years. The majority of patients displaying clinical symptoms were in the 50-59 years of age. FFI, T188K gCJD and E200K were the three most common subtypes. The disease appeared in the family histories of 43.48% of the patients. The clinical manifestations varied considerably among the various diseases. Patients who carried mutations in the N-terminus displayed a younger age of onset, were CSF 14-3-3 negative, had a family history of the condition, and experienced a longer duration of the condition. The clinical courses of T188K were significantly shorter than those of FFI and E200K gCJD, while the symptoms in the FFI group appeared at a younger age and for a longer duration. Moreover, the time intervals between the initial neurologist visit to the final diagnosis were similar among patients with FFI, T188K gCJD, E200K gCJD and other diseases.The features of Chinese genetic prion diseases are different from those seen in Europe and other Asian countries.

  20. Use of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare Data to Conduct Case-Control Studies of Cancer Among the US Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Eric A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Ricker, Winnie; Wheeler, William; Parsons, Ruth; Warren, Joan L.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is an important cause of morbidity in the elderly, and many medical conditions and treatments influence cancer risk. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database can be used to conduct population-based case-control studies that elucidate the etiology of cancer among the US elderly. SEER-Medicare links data on malignancies ascertained through SEER cancer registries to claims from Medicare, the US government insurance program for people over age 65 years. Under one approach described herein, elderly cancer cases are ascertained from SEER data (1987–2005). Matched controls are selected from a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Risk factors of interest, including medical conditions and procedures, are identified by using linked Medicare claims. Strengths of this design include the ready availability of data, representative sampling from the US elderly population, and large sample size (e.g., under one scenario: 1,176,950 cases, including 221,389 prostate cancers, 185,853 lung cancers, 138,041 breast cancers, and 124,442 colorectal cancers; and 100,000 control subjects). Limitations reflect challenges in exposure assessment related to Medicare claims: restricted range of evaluable risk factors, short time before diagnosis/selection for ascertainment, and inaccuracies in claims. With awareness of limitations, investigators have in SEER-Medicare data a valuable resource for epidemiologic research on cancer etiology. PMID:21821540

  1. Economic evaluation and budget impact analysis of the surveillance program for hepatocellular carcinoma in Thai chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangmala, Pannapa; Chaikledkaew, Usa; Tanwandee, Tawesak; Pongchareonsuk, Petcharat

    2014-01-01

    The incidence rate and the treatment costs of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are high, especially in Thailand. Previous studies indicated that early detection by a surveillance program could help by down-staging. This study aimed to compare the costs and health outcomes associated with the introduction of a HCC surveillance program with no program and to estimate the budget impact if the HCC surveillance program were implemented. A cost utility analysis using a decision tree and Markov models was used to compare costs and outcomes during the lifetime period based on a societal perspective between alternative HCC surveillance strategies with no program. Costs included direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs. Health outcomes were measured as life years (LYs), and quality adjusted life years (QALYs). The results were presented in terms of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in Thai THB per QALY gained. One- way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were applied to investigate parameter uncertainties. Budget impact analysis (BIA) was performed based on the governmental perspective. Semi-annual ultrasonography (US) and semi-annual ultrasonography plus alpha-fetoprotein (US plus AFP) as the first screening for HCC surveillance would be cost-effective options at the willingness to pay (WTP) threshold of 160,000 THB per QALY gained compared with no surveillance program (ICER=118,796 and ICER=123,451 THB/QALY), respectively. The semi-annual US plus AFP yielded more net monetary benefit, but caused a substantially higher budget (237 to 502 million THB) than semi-annual US (81 to 201 million THB) during the next ten fiscal years. Our results suggested that a semi-annual US program should be used as the first screening for HCC surveillance and included in the benefit package of Thai health insurance schemes for both chronic hepatitis B males and females aged between 40-50 years. In addition, policy makers considered the program could be feasible

  2. Design, baseline characteristics, and early findings of the MPS VI (mucopolysaccharidosis VI) Clinical Surveillance Program (CSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksz, Christian J; Giugliani, Roberto; Harmatz, Paul; Lampe, Christina; Martins, Ana Maria; Pastores, Gregory M; Steiner, Robert D; Leão Teles, Elisa; Valayannopoulos, Vassili

    2013-03-01

    To outline the design, baseline data, and 5-year follow-up data of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI enrolled in the Clinical Surveillance Program (CSP), a voluntary, multinational, observational program. The MPS VI CSP was opened in 2005 to collect, for at least 15 years, observational data from standard clinical and laboratory assessments of patients with MPS VI. Baseline and follow-up data are documented by participating physicians in electronic case report forms. Between September 2005 and March 2010 the CSP enrolled 132 patients, including 123 who received enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with galsulfase. Median age at enrolment was 13 years (range 1-59). Mean baseline data showed impaired growth, hepatosplenomegaly, and reduced endurance and pulmonary function. The most common findings were heart valve disease (90%), reduced visual acuity (79%), impaired hearing (59%), and hepatosplenomegaly (54%). Follow-up data up to 5 years in patients with pre- and post-ERT measurements showed a decrease in urinary glycosaminoglycans and increases in height and weight in patients MPS VI to date. This first report provides information on the design and implementation of the program and population statistics for several clinical variables in patients with MPS VI. Data collected over 5 years suggest that ERT provides clinical benefit and is well-tolerated with no new safety concerns.

  3. 9 CFR 146.14 - Diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../H7 low pathogenic avian influenza. 146.14 Section 146.14 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... pathogenic avian influenza. (a) The Official State Agency must develop a diagnostic surveillance program for H5/H7 low pathogenic avian influenza for all poultry in the State. The exact provisions of the...

  4. Are School Absences Correlated with Influenza Surveillance Data in England? Results from Decipher My Data-A Research Project Conducted through Scientific Engagement with Schools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Aldridge

    Full Text Available School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza.We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13. The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP influenza like illness (ILI episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus.27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5-14 year olds, laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus.This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies in the future.

  5. Trends in Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii over a 10-year Period: Nationwide Data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Lyu, Yuan; Li, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Using data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program conducted biennially, we investigated the secular changes in the resistance of 2917 isolates of A. baumannii from 2004 to 2014 to differ antimicrobial agents. Methods: Pathogen samples were collected from 17 to 20 hospitals located in the eastern, central, and western regions of China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by a 2-fold agar dilution method, and antimicrobial susceptibility was established using the 2014 Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute-approved breakpoints. Isolates not susceptible to all the tested aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, β-lactams, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitors and carbapenems were defined as extensively drug resistant. Results: The rates of nonsusceptibility to common antimicrobial agents remained high (>65%) over the years with some fluctuations to certain agents. The prevalence of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (IRAB) increased from 13.3% in 2004 to 70.5% in 2014 and that of extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDRAB) increased from 11.1% in 2004 to 60.4% in 2014. The activity of tigecycline was stable with MIC90 ≤4 mg/L against A. baumannii from 2009 to 2014. Susceptibility to colistin remained high (97.0%) from 2009 to 2014. The prevalence of XDRAB increased in all the three surveillance regions over the years and was significantly higher in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) wards than non-ICU wards. Conclusions: This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed the nationwide emergence of A. baumannii in China and showed a significant increase in prevalence from 2004 to 2014. High levels of bacterial resistance were detected among samples collected from clinical settings in China, with IRAB and XDRAB being especially prevalent. This study will help to guide empirical therapy and identify at-risk groups requiring more

  6. Trends in Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii over a 10-year Period: Nationwide Data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Lyu, Yuan; Li, Yun

    2017-03-20

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Using data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program conducted biennially, we investigated the secular changes in the resistance of 2917 isolates of A. baumannii from 2004 to 2014 to differ antimicrobial agents. Pathogen samples were collected from 17 to 20 hospitals located in the eastern, central, and western regions of China. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by a 2-fold agar dilution method, and antimicrobial susceptibility was established using the 2014 Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute-approved breakpoints. Isolates not susceptible to all the tested aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, β-lactams, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitors and carbapenems were defined as extensively drug resistant. The rates of nonsusceptibility to common antimicrobial agents remained high (>65%) over the years with some fluctuations to certain agents. The prevalence of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii (IRAB) increased from 13.3% in 2004 to 70.5% in 2014 and that of extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDRAB) increased from 11.1% in 2004 to 60.4% in 2014. The activity of tigecycline was stable with MIC90 ≤4 mg/L against A. baumannii from 2009 to 2014. Susceptibility to colistin remained high (97.0%) from 2009 to 2014. The prevalence of XDRAB increased in all the three surveillance regions over the years and was significantly higher in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) wards than non-ICU wards. This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed the nationwide emergence of A. baumannii in China and showed a significant increase in prevalence from 2004 to 2014. High levels of bacterial resistance were detected among samples collected from clinical settings in China, with IRAB and XDRAB being especially prevalent. This study will help to guide empirical therapy and identify at-risk groups requiring more intense interventional infection control

  7. Conducting Simulation Studies in the R Programming Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Kevin A

    2013-10-12

    Simulation studies allow researchers to answer specific questions about data analysis, statistical power, and best-practices for obtaining accurate results in empirical research. Despite the benefits that simulation research can provide, many researchers are unfamiliar with available tools for conducting their own simulation studies. The use of simulation studies need not be restricted to researchers with advanced skills in statistics and computer programming, and such methods can be implemented by researchers with a variety of abilities and interests. The present paper provides an introduction to methods used for running simulation studies using the R statistical programming environment and is written for individuals with minimal experience running simulation studies or using R. The paper describes the rationale and benefits of using simulations and introduces R functions relevant for many simulation studies. Three examples illustrate different applications for simulation studies, including (a) the use of simulations to answer a novel question about statistical analysis, (b) the use of simulations to estimate statistical power, and (c) the use of simulations to obtain confidence intervals of parameter estimates through bootstrapping. Results and fully annotated syntax from these examples are provided.

  8. Conducting Simulation Studies in the R Programming Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Hallgren

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Simulation studies allow researchers to answer specific questions about data analysis, statistical power, and best-practices for obtainingaccurate results in empirical research. Despite the benefits that simulation research can provide, many researchers are unfamiliar with available tools for conducting their own simulation studies. The use of simulation studies need not be restricted toresearchers with advanced skills in statistics and computer programming, and such methods can be implemented by researchers with a variety of abilities and interests. The present paper provides an introduction to methods used for running simulationstudies using the R statistical programming environment and is written for individuals with minimal experience running simulation studies or using R. The paper describes the rationale and benefits of using simulations and introduces R functions relevant for many simulation studies. Three examples illustrate different applications for simulation studies, including (a the use of simulations to answer a novel question about statistical analysis, (b the use of simulations to estimate statistical power, and (c the use of simulations to obtain confidence intervals of parameter estimates throughbootstrapping. Results and fully annotated syntax from these examples are provided.

  9. Surveillance programs in Denmark has revealed the circulation of novel reassortant influenza A viruses in swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Trebbien, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    avH1N1 and H3N2 which is different from the dominating European H1N2 subtype (1). The prevalence of the H1N1pdm09 virus in swine has increased since 2009 in some countries including Denmark. Here we present the results of the national passive surveillance program on influenza in swine performed from...... by the combination of the gene segments hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). In most European countries, the avian-like (av)H1N1, the 2009 pandemic variant (H1N1pdm09), H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes have constituted the dominating SIV subtypes during recent years. In Denmark, the H1N2 subtype is a reassortant between......Swine influenza is a respiratory disease caused by multiple subtypes of influenza A virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is enzootic in swine populations in Europe, Asia, North and South America. The influenza A virus genome consist of eight distinct gene segments and SIV subtypes are defined...

  10. The Italian screening program for primary congenital hypothyroidism: actions to improve screening, diagnosis, follow-up, and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassio, A; Corbetta, C; Antonozzi, I; Calaciura, F; Caruso, U; Cesaretti, G; Gastaldi, R; Medda, E; Mosca, F; Pasquini, E; Salerno, M C; Stoppioni, V; Tonacchera, M; Weber, G; Olivieri, A

    2013-03-01

    The Italian screening program for primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is an integrated system including neonatal screening, diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and nationwide surveillance of the disease. The aim of the Italian screening program for CH is to identify not only babies with severe permanent CH (core target), but also babies with mild persistent and transient forms of CH who could have a benefit from an early replacement therapy (secondary target). In the last years, despite the important results obtained in terms of standardization of screening and follow-up procedures, it has become clear the need of optimizing the program in order to harmonize the screening strategy and the screening procedures among Regions, and to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic approach in all affected infants. On the basis of available guidelines, the experience of the Italian screening and clinical reference centers, and the knowledge derived from the nation-wide surveillance activity performed by the Italian National Registry of Infants with CH, the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology together with the Italian Society for the Study of Metabolic Diseases and Neonatal Screening and the Italian National Institute of Health promoted actions aimed at improving diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and surveillance of CH in our country. In this paper the most important actions to improve the Italian screening program for CH are described. ©2013, Editrice Kurtis

  11. Emergence of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex over 10 years: Nationwide data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Shu-Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ABC has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Longitudinal multicenter surveillance data on ABC from different sources in Taiwan have not been published. Using data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR conducted biennially, we investigated the secular change in resistance of 1640 ABC from 2002 to 2010 (TSAR period III to VII to different antimicrobial agents and identified factors associated with imipenem-resistant and extensively drug-resistant ABC (IRABC and XDRABC. Methods Isolates were collected by TSAR from the same 26 hospitals located in all 4 regions of Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by reference broth microdilution method. Isolates nonsusceptible to all tested aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, β-lactam, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitors, and carbapenems were defined as extensively drug-resistant (XDR. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between predictor variables among patients with resistant ABC and patients with non-resistant ABC. Results The prevalence of IRABC increased from 3.4% in 2002 to 58.7% in 2010 (P P 55% over the years with some fluctuations before and after TSAR V (2006 on some agents. Multivariate analysis revealed that recovery from elderly patients, origins other than blood, from ICU settings, or geographic regions are independent factors associated with IRABC and XDRABC. Although the prevalence of XDRABC increased in all four regions of Taiwan over the years, central Taiwan had higher prevalence of XDRABC starting in 2008. Susceptibility to polymyxin remained high (99.8%. Conclusions This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed significant increase and nationwide emergence of IRABC and XDRABC in Taiwan over the years. This study also identified factors associated with IRABC and XDRABC to help guide empirical therapy

  12. Emergence of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex over 10 years: nationwide data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shu-Chen; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Wang, Hui-Ying; Lai, Jui-Fen; Chen, Pei-Chen; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Huang, I-Wen; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling Yang

    2012-08-28

    Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ABC) has emerged as an important pathogen causing a variety of infections. Longitudinal multicenter surveillance data on ABC from different sources in Taiwan have not been published. Using data from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (TSAR) conducted biennially, we investigated the secular change in resistance of 1640 ABC from 2002 to 2010 (TSAR period III to VII) to different antimicrobial agents and identified factors associated with imipenem-resistant and extensively drug-resistant ABC (IRABC and XDRABC). Isolates were collected by TSAR from the same 26 hospitals located in all 4 regions of Taiwan. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by reference broth microdilution method. Isolates nonsusceptible to all tested aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, β-lactam, β-lactam/β-lactam inhibitors, and carbapenems were defined as extensively drug-resistant (XDR). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between predictor variables among patients with resistant ABC and patients with non-resistant ABC. The prevalence of IRABC increased from 3.4% in 2002 to 58.7% in 2010 (P 55%) over the years with some fluctuations before and after TSAR V (2006) on some agents. Multivariate analysis revealed that recovery from elderly patients, origins other than blood, from ICU settings, or geographic regions are independent factors associated with IRABC and XDRABC. Although the prevalence of XDRABC increased in all four regions of Taiwan over the years, central Taiwan had higher prevalence of XDRABC starting in 2008. Susceptibility to polymyxin remained high (99.8%). This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed significant increase and nationwide emergence of IRABC and XDRABC in Taiwan over the years. This study also identified factors associated with IRABC and XDRABC to help guide empirical therapy and at-risk groups requiring more intense interventional infection

  13. Heavy manual work, exposure to vibration and Dupuytren's disease? Results of a surveillance program for musculoskeletal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, Alexis; Bodin, Julie; Ha, Catherine; Goubault, Pierre; Lebreton, Marine; Chastang, Jean François; Imbernon, Ellen; Leclerc, Annette; Goldberg, Marcel; Roquelaure, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In view of the debate about occupational factors in Dupuytren’s disease, the aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of the disease in men and its relationship with work exposure, and especially to distinguish heavy manual work with and without significant use of vibrating tools by using data from a surveillance program for musculoskeletal disorders. Method This cross-sectional study was conducted in France between 2002 and 2004. Dupuytren’s disease was diagnosed clinically by one of the 83 occupational physicians involved in the program. Exposure in relation to work status and occupational risk factors was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire, and was categorized according to vibration exposure (defined as use of vibrating tools ≥2h/day), heavy manual work without vibration exposure [defined as use of hand tools ≥2h/day (use of vibrating tools ≥2h/day excluded) and Borg scale ≥15/20] and no form of such exposure. Bivariate and multivariate associations using logistic models were recorded in men and also in those with over 10 years at the same job. Results Of the 2,161 men, 1.3% (n=27) suffered from Dupuytren’s disease (mean age 47.1+/−6.7 years). Heavy manual work without vibration exposure was significantly associated with the disease (adjusted odds ratio - aOR- 3.9[1.3;11.5]) adjusted on age and diabetes), as was the use of vibrating tools (aOR 5.1[2.1;12.2]). These associations remained significant among subjects with over 10 years at the same job, with increases in aOR of 6.1[1.5;25.0] and 10.7[3.4;34.6], respectively. Conclusion Despite the limited number of cases, occupational exposure, including both vibration exposure and heavy manual work without significant vibration exposure, was associated with Dupuytren’s disease. PMID:22213840

  14. Impact of potential changes to the current bovine spongiform encephalopathy surveillance programs for slaughter cattle and fallen stock in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Murray, Noel; Shinoda, Naoki; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    Cattle slaughtered in Japan for human consumption, regardless of their age, have been tested for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) since October 2001. Beginning in April 2004, all fallen stock from 24 months of age also have been tested. We evaluated the impact of potential changes to the current BSE surveillance programs for both slaughter cattle and fallen stock using a simple stochastic model. We calculated the probability that a BSE-infected dairy cow, Wagyu beef animal, Wagyu-Holstein cross steer or heifer, or Holstein steer slaughtered for human consumption or arising as fallen stock would be tested and detected. Four surveillance strategies were explored for cattle slaughtered for human consumption, with the minimum age at testing set at 0, 21, 31, or 41 months. Three surveillance strategies were explored for fallen stock, with the minimum age at testing set at 24, 31, or 41 months. Increasing the minimum age of testing from 0 to 21 months for both dairy cattle and Wagyu beef cattle had very little impact on the probability that a BSE-infected animal slaughtered for human consumption would be detected. Although increasing the minimum age at testing from 21 to 31 or 41 months would lead to fewer slaughtered animals being tested, the impact on the probability of detecting infected animals would be insignificant. The probability of infected Wagyu-Holstein crosses and Holstein steers being detected at slaughter or as fallen stock would be very low under all surveillance strategies.

  15. Health care-associated Clostridium difficile infection in adults admitted to acute care hospitals in Canada: a Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Denise; Miller, Mark; Simor, Andrew; Taylor, Geoffrey; Gardam, Michael; McGeer, Allison; Hutchinson, James; Moore, Dorothy; Kelly, Sharon; Boyd, David; Mulvey, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most frequent cause of health care-associated infectious diarrhea in industrialized countries. The only previous report describing the incidence of health care-associated CDI (HA CDI) in Canada was conducted in 1997 by the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program. We re-examined the incidence of HA CDI with an emphasis on patient outcomes. A prospective surveillance was conducted from 1 November 2004 through 30 April 2005. Basic demographic data were collected, including age, sex, type of patient ward where the patient was hospitalized on the day HA CDI was identified, and patient comorbidities. Data regarding severe outcome were collected 30 days after the diagnosis of HA CDI; severe outcome was defined as an admission to the intensive care unit because of complications of CDI, colectomy due to CDI, and/or death attributable to CDI. A total of 1430 adults with HA CDI were identified in 29 hospitals during the 6-month surveillance period. The overall incidence rate of HA CDI for adult patients admitted to these hospitals was 4.6 cases per 1000 patient admissions and 65 per 100,000 patient-days. At 30 days after onset of HA CDI, 233 patients (16.3%) had died from all causes; 31 deaths (2.2%) were a direct result of CDI, and 51 deaths (3.6%) were indirectly related to CDI, for a total attributable mortality rate of 5.7%. The rates are remarkably similar to those found in our previous study; although we found wide variations in HA CDI among the participating hospitals. However, the attributable mortality increased almost 4-fold (5.7% vs. 1.5%; P<.001).

  16. The new classification system for slaughter-pig herds in the Danish Salmonella surveillance-and-control program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Stege, Helle; Dahl, J.

    2002-01-01

    The Danish surveillance-and-control program for Salmonella in slaughter pigs was introduced in 1995. The key element of the program is a quick and correct identification of herds with high seroprevalence. After 5 years, the classification scheme was evaluated-and a revision was made. Data from two...... the Danish Salmonella Database including all herds in 2000. The classification scheme has been adjusted on the following points. (1) The sampling has been simplified into 60, 75, or 100 samples per herd per year depending on herd size. This means more-precise estimates for the seroprevalence among smaller...

  17. Epidemiology and Microbiologic Characterization of Nosocomial Candidemia from a Brazilian National Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, André Mario; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; Edmond, Michael B; Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Siqueira, Ricardo Andreotti; da Mota, Vivian Pereira; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia is a growing problem in hospitals all over the world. Despite advances in the medical support of critically ill patients, candidiasis leads to prolonged hospitalization, and has a crude mortality rate around 50%. We conducted a multicenter surveillance study in 16 hospitals distributed across five regions of Brazil to assess the incidence, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, and risk factors for bloodstream infections due to Candida species. From June 2007 to March 2010, we studied a total of 2,563 nosocomial bloodstream infection (nBSI) episodes. Candida spp. was the 7th most prevalent agent. Most of the patients were male, with a median age of 56 years. A total of 64 patients (46.7%) were in the ICU when candidemia occurred. Malignancies were the most common underlying condition (32%). The crude mortality rate of candidemia during the hospital admission was 72.2%. Non-albicans species of Candida accounted for 65.7% of the 137 yeast isolates. C. albicans (34.3%), Candida parapsilosis (24.1%), Candida tropicalis (15.3%) and Candida glabrata (10.2%) were the most prevalent species. Only 47 out of 137 Candida isolates were sent to the reference laboratory for antifungal susceptibility testing. All C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the 5 antifungal drugs tested. Among 11 C. glabrata isolates, 36% were resistant to fluconazole, and 64% SDD. All of them were susceptible to anidulafungin and amphotericin B. We observed that C. glabrata is emerging as a major player among non-albicans Candida spp. and fluconazole resistance was primarily confined to C. glabrata and C. krusei strains. Candida resistance to echinocandins and amphotericin B remains rare in Brazil. Mortality rates remain increasingly higher than that observed in the Northern Hemisphere countries, emphasizing the need for improving local practices of clinical management of candidemia, including early diagnosis, source control and precise

  18. 34 CFR 359.30 - How is peer review conducted under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is peer review conducted under this program? 359.30 Section 359.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF...? § 359.30 How is peer review conducted under this program? Peer review is conducted under this program...

  19. DVT surveillance program in the ICU: analysis of cost-effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai K Malhotra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venous Thrombo-embolism (VTE--Deep venous thrombosis (DVT and/or pulmonary embolism (PE--in traumatized patients causes significant morbidity and mortality. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of DVT surveillance in reducing PE, and performs a cost-effectiveness analysis. METHODS: All traumatized patients admitted to the adult ICU underwent twice weekly DVT surveillance by bilateral lower extremity venous Duplex examination (48-month surveillance period--SP. The rates of DVT and PE were recorded and compared to the rates observed in the 36-month pre-surveillance period (PSP. All patients in both periods received mechanical and pharmacologic prophylaxis unless contraindicated. Total costs--diagnostic, therapeutic and surveillance--for both periods were recorded and the incremental cost for each Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY gained was calculated. RESULTS: 4234 patients were eligible (PSP--1422 and SP--2812. Rate of DVT in SP (2.8% was significantly higher than in PSP (1.3% - p<0.05, and rate of PE in SP (0.7% was significantly lower than that in PSP (1.5% - p<0.05. Logistic regression demonstrated that surveillance was an independent predictor of increased DVT detection (OR: 2.53 - CI: 1.462-4.378 and decreased PE incidence (OR: 0.487 - CI: 0.262-0.904. The incremental cost was $509,091/life saved in the base case, translating to $29,102/QALY gained. A sensitivity analysis over four of the parameters used in the model indicated that the incremental cost ranged from $18,661 to $48,821/QALY gained. CONCLUSIONS: Surveillance of traumatized ICU patients increases DVT detection and reduces PE incidence. Costs in terms of QALY gained compares favorably with other interventions accepted by society.

  20. Nationwide surveillance of bacterial pathogens from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis conducted by the Japanese surveillance committee during 2009 and 2010: antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Shingo; Uehara, Shinya; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Minamitani, Shinichi; Watanabe, Akira; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kadota, Junichi; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Naito, Seiji; Tatsugami, Katsunori; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Ito, Shin; Kanokogi, Mototsugu; Narita, Harunori; Kawano, Hiromi; Hosobe, Takahide; Takayama, Kazuo; Sumii, Toru; Fujii, Akira; Sato, Takashi; Yamauchi, Takamine; Izumitani, Masanobu; Chokyu, Hirofumi; Ihara, Hideari; Akiyama, Kikuo; Yoshioka, Masaru; Uno, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Kano, Motonori; Kaji, Shinichi; Kawai, Shuichi; Ito, Kenji; Inatomi, Hisato; Nishimura, Hirofumi; Ikuyama, Toshihiro; Nishi, Shohei; Takahashi, Koichi; Kawano, Yukihiro; Ishihara, Satoshi; Tsuneyoshi, Kengo; Matsushita, Shinji; Yamane, Takashi; Hirose, Takaoki; Fujihiro, Shigeru; Endo, Katsuhisa; Oka, Yasuhiko; Takeyama, Koh; Kimura, Takahiro; Uemura, Tetsuji

    2013-06-01

    The Japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens responsible for female acute uncomplicated cystitis at 43 hospitals throughout Japan from April 2009 to November 2010. In this study, the causative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were investigated by isolation and culturing of bacteria from urine samples. In total, 387 strains were isolated from 461 patients, including E. coli (n = 301, 77.8 %), S. saprophyticus (n = 20, 5.2 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 13, 3.4 %), and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 11, 2.8 %). S. saprophyticus was significantly more common in premenopausal women (P = 0.00095). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of 19 antibacterial agents used for these strains were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute manual. At least 87 % of E. coli isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, and 100 % of S. saprophyticus isolates showed susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. The proportions of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli strains were 13.3 % and 4.7 %, respectively. It is important to confirm the susceptibility of causative bacteria for optimal antimicrobial therapy, and empiric antimicrobial agents should be selected by considering patient characteristics and other factors. However, the number of isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant or ESBL-producing strains in gram-negative bacilli may be increasing in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Japan. Therefore, these data present important information for the proper treatment of UTIs and will serve as a useful reference for future surveillance studies.

  1. Epidemiological surveillance linked to an outreach psychological support program after the Xynthia storm in Charente-Maritime, France, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguenaud, Marie-Eve; Germonneau, Philippe; Leseigneur, Jackie; Chavagnat, Jean-Jacques; Motreff, Yvon; Vivier-Darrigol, Martine; Pirard, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Following the Xynthia storm of February 2010 in France, an outreach program was initiated by the regional health authorities during the post-emergency phase to improve access to mental health care for the population exposed to the floods. The program was designed to complement routine health and social care services. It relied on a special telephone service and outreach consultations located in the town halls of the five most affected cities. The objective of this outreach service was to provide initial psychological counseling free of charge and without appointment. Another objective was to refer persons for appropriate treatment and follow-up by routine health care services. A surveillance program was developed to monitor the use of mental health services by first-time users, describe outreach service users with psychological manifestations, and provide timely information to decision makers. Health providers working in affected towns were asked to complete an individual record sheet for each person who displayed psychological manifestations directly or indirectly linked with the storm on their first visit, and to send it to the regional health office. Participation was voluntary. Data analysis was performed monthly during the six-month surveillance period. Only mental health providers participated in the surveillance. A total of 227 individual files were sent from April 7 through September 19, 2010. New cases were mainly female adults, and one fifth had a past history of psychiatric illness. Depressive signs and anxiety were the most commonly reported symptoms, followed by signs of post-traumatic stress disorder. A total of five feedback reports were produced for surveillance participants (informants) and authorities. With initiation in the post-emergency phase of a disaster and timely regular feedback, the surveillance program enabled the authors to describe the occurrence of psychological distress, monitor mental health service use by first-time users, and

  2. Status report - The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, J; McFaull, S; Thompson, W; Skinner, R; Do, M T; Fréchette, M; Mukhi, S

    2016-06-01

    This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP's overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools-designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product)-is revealing eCHIRPP's potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends.

  3. Status report - The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Crain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP’s overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools—designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product—is revealing eCHIRPP’s potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends.

  4. A nationwide cohort study of stage I seminoma patients followed on a surveillance program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Lauritsen, Jakob; Gundgaard, Maria Gry

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing concerns about late effects after adjuvant treatment for stage I seminoma have made surveillance an attractive alternative. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surveillance strategy in a nationwide cohort study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective, population-based st......BACKGROUND: Increasing concerns about late effects after adjuvant treatment for stage I seminoma have made surveillance an attractive alternative. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surveillance strategy in a nationwide cohort study. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A retrospective, population......-based study of Danish patients diagnosed with stage I seminoma between 1984 and 2008 and followed for 5 yr (n=1954). Patient data were linked with national registries on November 30, 2012, to obtain information on late relapse, vital status, and cause of death. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS...... factor was excluded from analysis. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study and the number of missing values in analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In the world's largest study of stage I seminoma patients, we found surveillance to be a safe alternative to adjuvant therapies. Tumor size...

  5. Improving patient safety through a multi-faceted internal surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlow, Anne; Stevens, Polly; Urmson, Lynn; Wray, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Surveillance, a method used in epidemiology to study the incidence, distribution and control of disease, is an important means of gathering and analyzing information that can be used as needed to effect change. Surveillance has been an important component of the Blueprint for Patient Safety at the Hospital for Sick Children to identify potential and existing vulnerabilities and failures and put measures in place to avoid and mitigate any harm. Reviewing internal reports and actively seeking vulnerabilities has allowed us to make important changes to improve patient safety at the hospital. In this article, we review four internal surveillance strategies that have been particularly successful in driving change - safety reports, morbidity and mortality reviews, patient safety walkarounds and shoe leather infection control rounds - and discuss the successes and challenges we have experienced.

  6. Using data from a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system to assess trends and influence nutrition programs and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasima Akhter

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* of Helen Keller International (HKI, Bangladesh, implemented in partnership with the Government of Bangladesh’s (GOB Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN from 1990 until 2006, is among the longest running surveillance systems; and was implemented with an overall goal to monitor nutrition and health status of children and mothers in Bangladesh. From 1990-1997, NSP data collection included rural and urban poor populations of disaster prone areas of Bangladesh. Since 1998, it evolved into a nationally representative nutrition surveillance system in rural Bangladesh and also continued assessing trends of malnutrition in urban poor areas. Over the 16 year period, the NSP produced plethora of information that was packaged and shared as bulletins, in peer reviewed journal articles, as presentations at conferences, seminars, workshops. The NSP had a flexible framework that allowed it to assess trends and underlying factors of malnutrition, monitor and evaluate selected programs and conduct special studies related to current and emerging issues. NSP findings were available to contribute to program development and supported policy discussions in-country and internationally. The NSP continuously highlighted the importance of monitoring, which is not only an indispensible element for a successful program, but also helps prioritization and decision making to maximize utilization of limited resources for developing countries burdened with numerous problems to address. The NSP provides an example of a technically sound surveillance system with rapid turnover of data and findings, which is imperative to successful program planning, policy formulation and tracking progress toward developmental goals.Le projet Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP* de l’association Helen Keller International (HKI, mis en œuvre au Bangladesh en partenariat avec l’Institute of Public Health Nutrition (IPHN,

  7. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  8. Effective environmental public health surveillance programs: a framework for identifying and evaluating data resources and indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Kristen C; Resnick, Beth; Burke, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    The complexity and multidisciplinary nature of environmental public health (EPH) surveillance call for a systematic framework and a concrete set of criteria to guide development, selection, and evaluation of environmental public health indicators. Environmental public health indicators are the foundation of a comprehensive EPH surveillance system, providing quantitative summary measures and descriptive information about spatial and temporal trends of hazard, exposure, and health effects over person, place, and time. A case-synthesis review of environmental regulatory and public health indicator models was employed to develop a framework and outline a methodological approach to EPH surveillance system development, including the selection of content areas and the corresponding data and environmental public health indicators. The framework is organized around three assessment phases: (1) scientific basis and relevance, (2) analytic soundness, and (3) feasibility, interpretation and utility. By outlining a process and identifying important constructs and criteria, the framework provides practitioners with an effective and systematic tool for making scientifically valid programmatic decisions about EPH content development. Improved decision making ensures more effective EPH surveillance systems and enhanced opportunities to understand and protect the public health from environmental threats.

  9. OPPIDUM surveillance program: 20 years of information on drug abuse in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Moracchini, Christophe; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Braunstein, David; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. Some are based on specific population surveys, such as individuals with drug abuse or dependence, or under opiate maintenance treatment, because this population is very familiar with drugs and is more likely to divert or abuse them. In France, an original surveillance system based on this specific population and called 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications (OPPIDUM) survey' was set up in 1990 as the first of its kind. The aim of this article is to describe this precursor of French drug abuse surveillance using different examples, to demonstrate its ability to effectively give health authorities and physicians interesting data on drug abuse. OPPIDUM is an annual, cross-sectional survey that anonymously collects information on abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50,734 patients were included with descriptions of 102,631 psychoactive substance consumptions. These data have outlined emergent behaviors such as the misuse of buprenorphine by intravenous or nasal administration. It has contributed to assess abuse liability of emergent drugs such as clonazepam or methylphenidate. This surveillance system was also able to detect the decrease of flunitrazepam abuse following implementation of regulatory measures. OPPIDUM's twenty years of experience clearly demonstrate that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible and can provide helpful information for physicians and health authorities.

  10. 2003 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for ORNL. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2003 Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Idaho National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. BAQMAP. Air Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Program for Botswana. Mission 1 Report 4-22 November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkestad, T.; Dreiem, R.; Hermansen, O.; Knudsen, S.

    1996-12-31

    This report is concerned with the start of a joint project between the authorities in Botswana and Norway on the development of an air pollution monitoring and surveillance program for Botswana. NILU will provide assistance in the fields of (1) Siting and establishment of an air pollution monitoring network, (2) Laboratory techniques, methods and routines, (3) Quality control and quality assurance procedures, (4) Emission data bases, (5) Statistical data analysis and reporting, (6) Atmospheric dispersion model estimates for air quality planning and assessment analysis. This is the report of the Norwegian team after their first visit to Botswana. 1 ref., 13 figs., 35 tabs.

  14. Simulation model estimates of test accuracy and predictive values for the Danish Salmonella surveillance program in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnick, L.D.; Nielsen, L.R.; Nielsen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    antibody measurements for infected and noninfected herds were determined from field study data. Herd infection was defined as having either >= 1 Salmonella culture-positive fecal sample or >= 5% within-herd prevalence based on antibody measurements in serum or milk from individual animals. No distinction......The Danish government and cattle industry instituted a Salmonella surveillance program in October 2002 to help reduce Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Dublin (S. Dublin) infections. All dairy herds are tested by measuring antibodies in bulk tank milk at 3-month intervals. The program...... is based on a well-established ELISA, but the overall test program accuracy and misclassification was not previously investigated. We developed a model to simulate repeated bulk tank milk antibody measurements for dairy herds conditional on true infection status. The distributions of bulk tank milk...

  15. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes...

  16. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Canada: results from the Canadian nosocomial infection surveillance program, 1999-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofner-Agostini, Marianna; Johnston, B Lynn; Simor, Andrew E; Embil, John; Matlow, Anne; Mulvey, Michael; Ormiston, Debbie; Conly, John

    2008-03-01

    Surveillance for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in sentinel Canadian hospitals has been conducted since 1999. From 1999 to 2005, the rate of VRE detection increased from 0.37 to 1.32 cases per 1,000 patients admitted, and the rate of VRE infection increased from 0.02 to 0.05 cases per 1,000 patients admitted. Thirty-three percent of all patients with VRE detected that were reported during 1999-2005 were identified in 2005, with increases seen in all regions of Canada. Although the incidence rate of VRE carriage in Canada is increasing, it remains very low.

  17. Trends in Drug Resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii over a 10-year Period: Nationwide Data from the China Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This longitudinal multicenter surveillance program revealed the nationwide emergence of A. baumannii in China and showed a significant increase in prevalence from 2004 to 2014. High levels of bacterial resistance were detected among samples collected from clinical settings in China, with IRAB and XDRAB being especially prevalent. This study will help to guide empirical therapy and identify at-risk groups requiring more intense interventional infection control measures, while also helping to focus surveillance efforts.

  18. Expendable Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth System (XCTD) development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-30

    States of America as represented Sby the Secretary of the Navy 3. Four electrode conductivity sensor for moored sensor chains. Robert 8. Sudar Edward...CHARACYCRIZAl ION 0N.$. Manning. 6. Dalton, and H.W. LanceStorr 2. APPARAIUS Solow is a diagram of the drop test apparatus at the MAVOCEANO facility (Fig. 1). The

  19. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1.

  20. A nationwide cohort study of stage I seminoma patients followed on a surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Lauritsen, Jakob; Gundgaard, Maria Gry; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Christensen, Ib Jarle; von der Maase, Hans; Daugaard, Gedske

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concerns about late effects after adjuvant treatment for stage I seminoma have made surveillance an attractive alternative. To evaluate the surveillance strategy in a nationwide cohort study. A retrospective, population-based study of Danish patients diagnosed with stage I seminoma between 1984 and 2008 and followed for 5 yr (n=1954). Patient data were linked with national registries on November 30, 2012, to obtain information on late relapse, vital status, and cause of death. Disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival, relapse rates, time to relapse, detection of relapse, and prognostic factors for relapse were described for the cohort. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine survival probabilities. A Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis of prognostic factors. Median follow-up time was 15.1 yr. In total, 369 patients relapsed after a median 13.7 mo. DSS after 15 yr was 99.3%. Tumor size was a significant factor for relapse. Either vascular invasion or invasion of epididymis was significant if the other factor was excluded from analysis. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study and the number of missing values in analysis. In the world's largest study of stage I seminoma patients, we found surveillance to be a safe alternative to adjuvant therapies. Tumor size was a significant factor for relapse, together with either invasion of epididymis or vascular invasion. In this nationwide study, we looked at the outcomes of patients with stage I seminoma followed for 5 yr. We found that surveillance is a safe alternative to adjuvant treatment. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The longitudinal time course of QTc in early infancy. Preliminary results of a prospective sudden infant death syndrome surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, M S; Trippel, D L; Buckles, D S; Young, R H; Dolan, P L; Gillette, P C

    1991-03-01

    Eleven hundred one healthy neonates in Charleston County, SC, were enrolled in a prospective, serial measurement sudden infant death syndrome/QT surveillance program. Automated computer-enhanced ECGs were recorded at 1 day of age in the hospital nursery and again at 1 week and 1, 2, and 3 months in the participant's home. At 1 year, the families were contacted by phone or mail and questioned as to the health of the child. Validation studies demonstrated the computer-enhanced ECGs to be 96% accurate, whereas traditional ECG recording and measurement was 94% accurate. No systematic differences in the QTc according to race and sex were observed. There were parallel longitudinal time courses for each race and sex group with a significant (P less than .001) shortening of the QTc at 1 week. There was no evidence of tracking of the QTc during the first 3 months of life. In conclusion, (1) automated, enhanced ECG QTc intervals are superior to traditional electrocardiography while retaining the advantages of automation; (2) there is a significant shortening of the QTc during the first month of life; and (3) a home follow-up sudden infant death syndrome surveillance program is feasible and produces accurate, reliable information.

  2. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program.

  3. Disease surveillance system evaluation as a model for improved integration and standardization of the laboratory component in the Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) curriculum worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Integration of laboratory training into the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) began in 2004 and has advanced the training of laboratory scientists worldwide on the basic principles of epidemiology, disease surveillance, and outbreak investigation. The laboratory component of the FE(L)TP training has traditionally been disease specific, revolving around classroom and bench training on laboratory methods, and field placement in areas where services are needed. There is however a need to improve the integration of epidemiology elements used in surveillance, outbreak investigation, and evaluation activities with specific measurable laboratory activities that could in turn impact the overall disease surveillance and response. A systematic and clear evaluation guideline for the laboratory components of disease surveillance systems alongside the corresponding epidemiological indicators can better identify, address, and mitigate weaknesses that may exist in the entire surveillance system, and also help to integrate and standardize the FE(L)TP curriculum content. The institution of laboratory Quality Management System principles linked to a comprehensive surveillance evaluation scheme will result in improved disease surveillance, response, and overall laboratory capacity over time.

  4. U.S. Department of Energy Illness, and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health At A Glance, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program (IISP) has monitored the health of contractor workers at selected DOE sites since 1990. For the first time, the IISP has sufficient data to describe, in a collective manner, the health trends occurring among workers at a number of DOE sites during a 10-year period. This brief report and the more detailed Worker Health Summary assess illness and injury trends of DOE workers according to gender, age, occupational group, and program office over the 10-year period, 1995 through 2004. During this time, over 137,000 individual contractor workers were employed at the 15 DOE sites participating in the IISP.

  5. BAQMAP Air Quality Monitoring and Surveillance Program for Botswana. Mission 2 Report 27 January - 18 February 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekkestad, T.

    1997-12-31

    This report is concerned with Mission 2 of a joint project between the authorities in Botswana and Norway on the development of an air pollution monitoring and surveillance program for Botswana. Mission 2 was undertaken as part of the annual meeting on 4 February 1997. Discussions and decision on the air quality program was performed after the annual meeting. Passive samplers for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} were installed in Selebi-Phikwe and Francistown. The samplers measured air pollution from the BCL smelter and traffic, respectively, during the first two weeks of February 1997. The samplers have been analysed and the results are given in this report, which also includes a status report. 13 tabs.

  6. Conductive Education: A Functional Skills Program for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke-Taylor, Helen; O'Shea, Roberta; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Conductive education (CE) is an educational approach for children with cerebral palsy. This paper describes the history of conductive education, and the characteristics of current programs that exist in many countries. The underlying principles and the unique techniques used in CE programs are described. These include the role of the conductor or…

  7. U.S. Department of Energy, Illness and Injury Surveillance Program, Worker Health Summary, 1995-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Illness and Injury Surveillance Program has created an opportunity to assess illness and injury rates and patterns among workers at participating sites for well over a decade. The Worker Health Summary introduces an additional perspective on worker health with the introduction of analyses comparing the experience of sites in different program offices and a focus on time trends covering a decade of worker illness and injury experience. These analyses by program office suggest that illness and injury patterns among National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) workers diverge in many ways from those seen among Environmental Management (EM) and Science workers for reasons not yet understood. These differences will receive further investigation in future special focus studies, as will other findings of interest. With the time depth now available in our data, the Worker Health Summary reveals an additional nuance in worker health trends: changing health patterns in a specialized and skilled but aging work force. Older workers are becoming an increasing percentage of the work force, and their absence rates for diseases such as diabetes and hypertension are increasing as well. The impact of these emerging health issues, if properly addressed, can be managed to maintain or even enhance worker health and productivity. Prevention strategies designed to reduce the toll of these health conditions appear warranted, and this report gives us an indication of where to focus them. The analyses that follow reflect the Illness and Injury Surveillance Program’s continued commitment to apply a public health perspective in protecting the health of DOE’s work force.

  8. Multilevel Resistance Programming in Conductive Bridge Resistive Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalanabis, Debayan

    This work focuses on the existence of multiple resistance states in a type of emerging non-volatile resistive memory device known commonly as Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) or Conductive Bridge Random Access Memory (CBRAM), which can be important for applications such as multi-bit memory as well as non-volatile logic and neuromorphic computing. First, experimental data from small signal, quasi-static and pulsed mode electrical characterization of such devices are presented which clearly demonstrate the inherent multi-level resistance programmability property in CBRAM devices. A physics based analytical CBRAM compact model is then presented which simulates the ion-transport dynamics and filamentary growth mechanism that causes resistance change in such devices. Simulation results from the model are fitted to experimental dynamic resistance switching characteristics. The model designed using Verilog-a language is computation-efficient and can be integrated with industry standard circuit simulation tools for design and analysis of hybrid circuits involving both CMOS and CBRAM devices. Three main circuit applications for CBRAM devices are explored in this work. Firstly, the susceptibility of CBRAM memory arrays to single event induced upsets is analyzed via compact model simulation and experimental heavy ion testing data that show possibility of both high resistance to low resistance and low resistance to high resistance transitions due to ion strikes. Next, a non-volatile sense amplifier based flip-flop architecture is proposed which can help make leakage power consumption negligible by allowing complete shutdown of power supply while retaining its output data in CBRAM devices. Reliability and energy consumption of the flip-flop circuit for different CBRAM low resistance levels and supply voltage values are analyzed and compared to CMOS designs. Possible extension of this architecture for threshold logic function computation using the CBRAM devices as re

  9. Post-marketing safety surveillance conducted in Korea (2008–2013) following the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414 (Rotarix™)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Son Moon; Kim, Chun Soo; Karkada, Naveen; Liu, Aixue; Jayadeva, Girish; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: According to regulations from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea, additional safety information on the use of Rotarix™ vaccine (RIX4414; GSK, Belgium) in ≥3000 evaluable Korean infants was required following vaccine registration. In order to comply with these regulations, we conducted a 6-year open, non-comparative, multicenter post-marketing surveillance (NCT00750893). Methods: During this time, the original lyophilized vaccine formulation of RIX4414 was replaced by a liquid formulation. Healthy infants aged ≥6 weeks were enrolled and given 2 doses of the RIX4414 vaccine, separated by an interval of ≥4 weeks. The overall incidence of adverse events (AEs) (expected and unexpected) was then assessed for up to 30 days along with the incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs). Adverse drug reactions (ADRs: any AE whose causality to the drug could not be ruled out) were identified. Results: A total of 3040 children (mean age: 9.55 weeks) were analyzed. One or more expected AE was experienced by 30.5% infants and 8.6% had an ADR. The most commonly seen expected AE was irritability (14.0%). One or more unexpected AE was seen in 32.5% infants and 3.1% experienced an ADR. The most commonly seen unexpected AE was upper respiratory tract infection (8.7%). Of 34 SAEs recorded in 24 subjects, none were related to vaccination. Conclusions: We conclude that this 6-year surveillance showed both formulations of RIX4414 to have acceptable safety profiles when administered to Korean infants according to local prescribing recommendations and current clinical practice. PMID:27494163

  10. Post-marketing safety surveillance conducted in Korea (2008-2013) following the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, RIX4414 (Rotarix™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Son Moon; Kim, Chun Soo; Karkada, Naveen; Liu, Aixue; Jayadeva, Girish; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-10-02

    According to regulations from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea, additional safety information on the use of Rotarix™ vaccine (RIX4414; GSK, Belgium) in ≥3000 evaluable Korean infants was required following vaccine registration. In order to comply with these regulations, we conducted a 6-year open, non-comparative, multicenter post-marketing surveillance (NCT00750893). During this time, the original lyophilized vaccine formulation of RIX4414 was replaced by a liquid formulation. Healthy infants aged ≥6 weeks were enrolled and given 2 doses of the RIX4414 vaccine, separated by an interval of ≥4 weeks. The overall incidence of adverse events (AEs) (expected and unexpected) was then assessed for up to 30 days along with the incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs). Adverse drug reactions (ADRs: any AE whose causality to the drug could not be ruled out) were identified. A total of 3040 children (mean age: 9.55 weeks) were analyzed. One or more expected AE was experienced by 30.5% infants and 8.6% had an ADR. The most commonly seen expected AE was irritability (14.0%). One or more unexpected AE was seen in 32.5% infants and 3.1% experienced an ADR. The most commonly seen unexpected AE was upper respiratory tract infection (8.7%). Of 34 SAEs recorded in 24 subjects, none were related to vaccination. We conclude that this 6-year surveillance showed both formulations of RIX4414 to have acceptable safety profiles when administered to Korean infants according to local prescribing recommendations and current clinical practice.

  11. COYOTE: a finite-element computer program for nonlinear heat-conduction problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartling, D.K.

    1982-10-01

    COYOTE is a finite element computer program designed for the solution of two-dimensional, nonlinear heat conduction problems. The theoretical and mathematical basis used to develop the code is described. Program capabilities and complete user instructions are presented. Several example problems are described in detail to demonstrate the use of the program.

  12. Geocoding capacity of birth defects surveillance programs: results from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network Geocoding Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; O'Leary, Leslie A; Rickard, Russel S; Mason, Craig A

    2010-01-01

    A Web-based survey focusing on geocoding of birth defects data was developed and administrated to gain an understanding of the capacity of state birth defects programs to geocode maternal residence and to identify barriers to geocoding birth defects data. The survey consisted of 21 questions related to geocoding of maternal residence, type of software used, barriers to geocoding, and data linkage. In August 2007, an e-mail with a Web link to the survey was sent to all state birth defects program contacts in the United States, including the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requesting they complete the online survey. By October 2007, 39 (74%) out of 53 birth defects program contacts completed the survey. Although nearly all birth defects programs collect maternal residential data, many are not currently geocoding that data. Results indicated that 97% of the programs that completed the survey reported they collected data on maternal residence, 53% of which reported that the birth defects surveillance data were geocoded to the street address level using maternal residential address at delivery. Twenty six percent of the programs that do not currently geocode the data identified "Software and address reference file are not available" as the most significant barrier to geocoding; another 16% chose "Lack of funding" as the most significant barrier to geocoding. Since geocoding is an important component of spatial analyses used to detect potential clusters of birth defects, leveraging resources to overcome the barriers that prevent programs from geocoding is important.

  13. [Italian Program for Surveillance of Acute Pesticide-Related Illnesses: cases identified in 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimi, L; Davanzo, F; Travaglia, A; Locatelli, C; Cilento, I; Volpe, C; Russo, A; Miceli, G; Fracassi, A; Maiozzi, P; Marcello, I; Sesan, F; Urbani, E

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the Italian System for Surveillance of Acute Pesticide-Related Illnesses (SIAF) identified 625 cases, among which 520 unintentionally exposed. The majority of these subjects were men (75%) and aged 26-65 years (65%). About 63% of all exposures occurred at work. Severity for these illnesses was low for 94% and moderate for 5%. Four cases were classified as illnesses of high severity. Some 70% of all the reported exposures occurred between May and September. The active ingredients responsible for the largest number of cases were: glyphosate (n. 56), copper sulphate (n. 55), methomyl (n. = 52), metam-sodium (n. 24). Three episodes of collective environmental exposure to soil fumigants involving 23 subjects were also detected.

  14. Differences in MRSA prevalence and resistance patterns in a tertiary center before and after joining an international program for surveillance of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuric, Olivera; Jovanovic, Snezana; Stosovic, Branka; Tosic, Tanja; Jovanovic, Milica; Nartey, Naomi; Todorovic, Jovana; Markovic-Denic, Ljiljana

    2016-12-08

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) emerged as one of the most important causes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (BSIs), especially the multidrug resistant clones. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence and resistance patterns of MRSA bacteremia in the major tertiary-care academic and referral center in Serbia before and after implementing an active antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. Laboratory-based before-after study was conducted during a two-year period (January 2012 to December 2013) in Clinical Centre of Serbia. Isolation and identification of bacterial strains were done following standard microbiological procedures. During the AMR surveillance, nearly twice more bloodstream samples were collected compared to the year without surveillance (1,528 vs. 855). In total, 43 isolates of MRSA were identified. MRSA was significantly more prevalent during the AMR surveillance compared to the previous year [14 (66.7%) to 29 (76.3%); P = 0.046]. During the AMR surveillance, MRSA more frequently originated from medical departments compared to intensive care unit, surgical department, and internal medicine (P = 0.027) indicating increasing MRSA infections in patients with less severe clinical condition and no apparent risk factors. Higher prevalence of MRSA and its lower susceptibility to erythromycin were revealed by implementation of active AMR surveillance, which may reflect more thoughtful collection of bloodstream samples from patients with suspected BSI.

  15. Severe morbidity after antiretroviral (ART) initiation: active surveillance in HIV care programs, the IeDEA West Africa collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Yao; Zannou Djimon, Marcel; Messou, Eugène; Balestre, Eric; Kouakou, Martial; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Ahouada, Carin; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Dabis, François; Lewden, Charlotte; Minga, Albert

    2015-04-09

    The causes of severe morbidity in health facilities implementing Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) programmes are poorly documented in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to describe severe morbidity among HIV-infected patients after ART initiation, based on data from an active surveillance system established within a network of specialized care facilities in West African cities. Within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA)--West Africa collaboration, we conducted a prospective, multicenter data collection that involved two facilities in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and one in Cotonou, Benin. Among HIV-infected adults receiving ART, events were recorded using a standardized form. A simple case-definition of severe morbidity (death, hospitalization, fever>38°5C, Karnofsky indexART in ambulatory HIV care facilities in West Africa. Meanwhile, additional studies are needed due to the undiagnosed aspect of severe morbidity in substantial proportion.

  16. Effectiveness and Cost-benefit Evaluation of a Comprehensive Workers' Health Surveillance Program for Sustainable Employability of Meat Processing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Holland, Berry J; Reneman, Michiel F; Soer, Remko; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R

    2017-03-24

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive workers' health surveillance (WHS) program on aspects of sustainable employability and cost-benefit. Methods A cluster randomized stepped wedge trial was performed in a Dutch meat processing company from february 2012 until march 2015. In total 305 workers participated in the trial. Outcomes were retrieved during a WHS program, by multiple questionnaires, and from company registries. Primary outcomes were sickness absence, work ability, and productivity. Secondary outcomes were health, vitality, and psychosocial workload. Data were analyzed with linear and logistic multilevel models. Cost-benefit analyses from the employer's perspective were performed as well. Results Primary outcomes sickness absence (OR = 1.40), work ability (B = -0.63) and productivity (OR = 0.71) were better in the control condition. Secondary outcomes did not or minimally differ between conditions. Of the 12 secondary outcomes, the only outcome that scored better in the experimental condition was meaning of work (B = 0.18). Controlling for confounders did not or minimally change the results. However, our stepped wedge design did not enable adjustment for confounding in the last two periods of the trial. The WHS program resulted in higher costs for the employer on the short and middle term. Conclusions Primary outcomes did not improve after program implementation and secondary outcomes remained equal after implementation. The program was not cost-beneficial after 1-3 year follow-up. Main limitation that may have contributed to absence of positive effects may be program failure, because interventions were not deployed as intended.

  17. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  18. 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 522 Postmarket Surveillance Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated under section 522 of the...

  19. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1996-02-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project.

  20. Resistance to beta-lactams among blood isolates of Salmonella spp. in European hospitals : results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program 1997-98

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzouvelekis, LS; Lukova, [No Value; Tassios, PT; Fluit, AC; Jones, RN; Legakis, NJ

    2003-01-01

    The susceptibility to beta -lactams and the beta -lactamase content of 110 Salmonella spp. blood isolates collected during 1997-98 in 19 European centers participating in the SENTRY Surveillance Program were studied. Thirty-one isolates (28%) were resistant to penicillins, due to production of TEM-1

  1. Resistance to beta-lactams among blood isolates of Salmonella spp. in European hospitals : results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program 1997-98

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzouvelekis, LS; Lukova, [No Value; Tassios, PT; Fluit, AC; Jones, RN; Legakis, NJ

    2003-01-01

    The susceptibility to beta -lactams and the beta -lactamase content of 110 Salmonella spp. blood isolates collected during 1997-98 in 19 European centers participating in the SENTRY Surveillance Program were studied. Thirty-one isolates (28%) were resistant to penicillins, due to production of TEM-1

  2. [Role of the National Poliovirus Laboratory for the Program of eradication and poliomyelitis surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trallero, Gloria; Cabrerizo, María; Avellón, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish acute flaccid paralysis surveillance network is coordinated by the National Poliovirus Laboratory (NPL), which, since 1998, carries out polioviruses (PV) and other enteroviruses detected characterization by cell culture and molecular techniques. A total of 110,725 (70046+40679) samples were studied between 1998-2012 and enteroviruses were detected in 8% of these. Among these enteroviruses 241 PV were characterized as PV Sabin-like, except samples belong to an imported poliomyelitis case, all of which were characterised as vaccine derived PV type 2. The NPL has carried out the serotyping and the intratypic differentiation of all the isolated PV in Spain of any syndrome. It is shown that wild PV has not circulated in our country during the 15 years studied and that has led to the signing of the Act of the "eradication of poliomyelitis in Spain" by WHO in 2001, and the /"certification of the eradication of wild PV free for European countries" on 21 June 2002. Currently only 3 countries have endemic transmission of wild PV (Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria). Until a complete worldwide eradication, was achieved, Spain will actively continue to participate in the maintenance of the poliomyelitis eradication infrastructure by monitoring and vaccination as well as the wild PV containment plan to avoid the spread of wild PV.

  3. 2006 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2006 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2006 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2007 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2009 Argonne National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-08-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2010 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2010 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2007 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2007 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2008 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2007 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2007 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety, and Security

    2009-07-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2008 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2007 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2007 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2009 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2007 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-07-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2008 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2010 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2006 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-08-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2008 Idaho National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-11-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2008 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2006 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2006 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2009 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2010 Sandia National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2010 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-06-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2010 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-09-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2009 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. Successful application of a simple specimen transport method for the conduct of respiratory virus surveillance in remote Indigenous communities in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Torzillo, Paul J; Rockett, Rebecca J; Whiley, David M; Nissen, Michael D; Sloots, Theo P; Lambert, Stephen B

    2011-06-01

    Surveillance programs and research for acute respiratory infections in remote Aboriginal communities are complicated by difficulties in the storage and transport of frozen samples to urban laboratories for testing. This study assessed the sensitivity of a simple method for transporting respiratory samples from a remote setting for viral PCR compared with frozen specimens. We sampled every individual who presented to a remote Aboriginal community clinic in a non-epidemic respiratory season. Two anterior nasal swabs were collected from each participant. The left nare specimen was mailed to the laboratory via routine postal services. The right nare specimen was transported frozen. Testing for 16 viruses was undertaken using real-time multiplex PCR. A total of 140 participants were enrolled who contributed 150 study visits. Respiratory illnesses accounted for 10% of the reasons for presentation. Sixty-one viruses were identified in 50 (33.3%) presentations for 40 (28.6%) individuals; bocavirus and rhinovirus were the most common viruses identified (14.0% and 12.6% of episodes respectively). The sensitivity for any virus detected in mailed specimens was 67.2% (95%CI 55.4, 78.9) compared to 65.6% (95%CI 53.7, 77.5) for frozen specimens. The mailing of unfrozen nasal specimens from remote communities does not compromise the viability of the specimen for viral studies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening.

  17. Waterborne Release Monitoring and Surveillance Programs at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-03-26

    This report documents the liquid release environmental compliance programs currently in place at the Savannah river Site (SRS). Included are descriptions of stream monitoring programs, which measure chemical parameters and radionuclides in site streams and the Savannah river and test representative biological communities within the streams for chemical and radiological uptake. This report also explains the field sampling and analytical capabilities that are available at SRS during both normal and emergency conditions.

  18. [Total eclipse of the sun in August 11, 1999: a program of prevention and surveillance of ocular complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixsaut, G; Coulombier, D; Malfait, P; Bodaghi, B; Espinoza, P

    2000-01-01

    Watching directly at the sun without appropriate protection, particularly during a solar eclipse, can cause severe retinal injuries. On 11 August 1999, a total solar eclipse crossed France. The Direction Générale de la Santé implemented a prevention strategy. A formal agreement was developed with manufacturers and importers of protective glasses and more than 30 million glasses, conformed with safety standards, were distributed in France. Information campaign reach the whole population in France. In order to evaluate the impact of this campaign, The National Institute of Public Health in France implemented a nation-wide surveillance of ocular complications related to the eclipse. Information on patients was collected using a standardised questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to the 5,600 private and public sector ophthalmologists practising in France and to five hundred hospital emergency units. A total of 147 patients were reported to have had a retinal injury associated with viewing the eclipse. Seventeen cases were severe (visual acuity eclipse in three regions in the south of France which were sunny on 11th August. One hundred and six patients (67% aged 30 years and more) presented with keratitis. Thirty-six per cent occurred in 2 northern regions of France, which were overcast on the day. A hundred patients watched the whole eclipse without any protection, 74 reported to have removed their EC glasses, and 32 used non-appropriate devices. Only 4 patients presenting with retinal injury reported having used the EC glasses the whole time whilst viewing the eclipse. France is the only country in Europe to have implemented an exhaustive prospective surveillance of ocular injuries related to the solar eclipse. According to current data, the quality and availability of EC glasses did not contribute significantly to ocular injuries. Clinical and epidemiological studies are being conducted in order to further document the evolution of patients presenting with

  19. Mark of the reconstitution process of the surveillance program of the CLV; Calificacion del proceso de reconstitucion del programa de vigilancia de CLV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, J.; Hernandez, R.; Fernandez, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jrc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    surveillance program of the reactor vessel of the nucleo electric central of Mexico it evaluates the mechanical state of the vessel, for it are had surveillance capsules with a series of witness test tubes, subjected to a similar or major neutron flux to that of the vessel. The objective is to evaluate in advance the embrittlement grade of the vessel in its design life. However the number of capsules with the witness test tubes it is only for the design life of the plant and at the moment the nucleo electric plants negotiate an extension of life of these, until for 20 years or more, of there the importance of this witness material that stores the information of the damage accumulated by irradiation. This material requires to be taken advantage after being rehearsed and the normative one settles down as obligatory to qualify the rebuilding process to obtain other 'new' Charpy test tubes that are again introduced in the reactor, reusing this material, as much for the surveillance program as for the extension of the plant life. In this work the qualification of the welding process by 'Stud Welding' for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes of the surveillance program of the BWR reactor Unit 2 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric plant, Veracruz, Mexico is described. (Author)

  20. Design of a computer program for the registration of implantable medical device, field safety corrective action and advers events, as a tool for medical device surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Márquez-Peiró

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the features of computer program to support the activity of the responsible for surveillance of medical devices. To evaluate their use after one year of implementation in a hospital. Method: The stages of the process were: description of the activities of medical devices surveillance and implant registration, definition of functionality and data processing, creation of databases, implementation in a private hospital which manages PS, validation of the program and analysis of their usefulness. Results: SIVIPS was developed using Acces®. Main variables were described for all the activities of the responsible for medical device surveillance (implants, alert, medical device incidents, including for in vitro diagnostics and all the functionalities of the computer program. SIVIPS was introduced in a pharmacy service with one pharmacist for the management of medical devices. One year after its implementation we had registered 564 implants with a description by type of implant, 31 alerts and 6 incidents. SIVIPS allow monitoring of the actions taken in these cases. Conclusions: SIVIPS® is the first tool to support the activity of medical device surveillance. It is an easy tool that allows the registration of alerts and medical device related incidents, and registration of implants performed in the center, which will improve the traceability of the PS.

  1. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of...

  2. A Focused Ethnographic Study of Alberta Cattle Veterinarians’ Decision Making about Diagnostic Laboratory Submissions and Perceptions of Surveillance Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Sawford; Ardene Robinson Vollman; Craig Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemen...

  3. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at BNL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  4. 78 FR 32228 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Determination of Whether To Conduct a Referendum Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Determination of Whether To Conduct a Referendum Regarding 1990 Amendments to the Cotton Research and Promotion Act AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... review by the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), that it is not necessary to conduct a...

  5. 43 CFR 404.47 - How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will a feasibility study be conducted... Studies § 404.47 How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program? Feasibility studies will be... feasibility study, including the Principles and Guidelines (incorporated by reference at § 404.4). You...

  6. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington.

  7. Security Vs. Liberty: How to Measure Privacy Costs in Domestic Surveillance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    online retailers . . . . I for one doubt that people would accept without complaint the warrantless disclosure to the Government of a list of every...5 D. PROBLEMS AND HYPOTHESES ...............................................................7 E . METHODS AND SOURCES...NSA: SHAMROCK .................................................................14 e . FBI: Counterintelligence Program

  8. 40 CFR 172.8 - Program surveillance and reporting of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of testing at each site of application. It will further be the responsibility of the permittee to... include: (i) All data gathered during the testing program; field notes need not be submitted but must be... provided for elsewhere in this part, in the case of any meat-producing animals or birds that receive...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix H to Part 50 - Reactor Vessel Material Surveillance Program Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... within the physical constraints of the system, the neutron spectrum, temperature history, and maximum... light water nuclear power reactors which result from exposure of these materials to neutron irradiation and the thermal environment. Under the program, fracture toughness test data are obtained...

  10. Head Injury Secondary to Suspected Child Maltreatment: Results of a Prospective Canadian National Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Susan; Ward, Michelle; Moreau, Katherine; Fortin, Gilles; King, Jim; MacKay, Morag; Plint, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the incidence, clinical features, and demographic profile of head injury secondary to suspected child maltreatment (abuse or neglect) in Canada to help inform the development and evaluation of prevention programs for abusive head injuries. Methods: From March 1, 2005 to February 28, 2008, an average of 2,545…

  11. Evaluation of the US Army Institute of Public Health Destination Monitoring Program, a food safety surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp-Santos, Kamala; Havas, Karyn; Vest, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The Destination Monitoring Program, operated by the US Army Public Health Command (APHC), is one component that supports the APHC Veterinary Service's mission to ensure safety and quality of food procured for the Department of Defense (DoD). This program relies on retail product testing to ensure compliance of production facilities and distributors that supply food to the DoD. This program was assessed to determine the validity and timeliness by specifically evaluating whether sample size of items collected was adequate, if food samples collected were representative of risk, and whether the program returns results in a timely manner. Data was collected from the US Army Veterinary Services Lotus Notes database, including all food samples collected and submitted from APHC Region-North for the purposes of destination monitoring from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. For most food items, only one sample was submitted for testing. The ability to correctly identify a contaminated food lot may be limited by reliance on test results from only one sample, as the level of confidence in a negative test result is low. The food groups most frequently sampled by APHC correlated with the commodities that were implicated in foodborne illness in the United States. Food items to be submitted were equally distributed among districts and branches, but sections within large branches submitted relatively few food samples compared to sections within smaller branches and districts. Finally, laboratory results were not available for about half the food items prior to their respective expiration dates.

  12. Global Emerging Infection Surveillance and Response (GEIS)- Avian Influenza Pandemic Influenza (AI/PI) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Western region of the country. ISO 9001 :2008 external audit was conducted at USAMRU-K Kericho as part of the requirement by Kenya Medical Research...through its collaboration with Makerere University College of Veterinary medicine, and other institutions to provide capacity building and training to...capable of responding to pandemic threats. MUWRP previously trained a laboratory technologist from the National Animal Disease Diagnostic and

  13. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Fernald Environmental Management Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. During the past several years, a number of DOE sites have participated in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at FEMP and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  14. [Literature review on human influenza epidemics occurred before the implementation plan for sentinel surveillance program in the DRC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwembe-Ngabana, Edith; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Kebela-Ilunga, Benoit; Londa, Emile Okitolo; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), several influenza epidemics are ignored because they are confused with other infectious diseases which have similar symptoms. Our study aims to assess influenza epidemics occurred in the DRC before 2008, year of the implementation of the influenza surveillance program in the DRC. We searched all the documents [articles, report,…] about influenza epidemic or acute respiratory infections [ARI] in the DRC before 2008 by using chosen key words. Epidemic description elements were identified and analyzed in each report. 4 documents have been found that had no article published. The sites of the epidemic outbreak were the rural health zones in Koshibanda and Kahemba, Bandundu [1995 and 2007], in Bosobolo, Equator [2002] and in Kinshasa [2002-2003]. Attack and lethality rates were 3.9% and 16% in Koshibanda respectively; 0.1% and 2% in Kinshasa; 47.5% and 1.5% in Bosobolo and 14.6% and 2.9% in Kahemba. Children less than 5 years of age were the most affected. Their attack rates ranged between 22.6 and 57.7% and lethality rates ranged between 3.2 and 3.7%. The two epidemics in Bosobolo and Kinshasa were associated with H3N2 influenza virus. This literature review highlights a high morbidity and mortality due to rare influenza epidemics in the DRC.

  15. The Boundaries of States' Intelligence Surveillance Conducts%论国家情报监控行为的“边界”--从“棱镜门”事件谈起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振宁

    2014-01-01

    " Prism" incident revealed that the unregulated intelligence surveillance conducts, which violate seriously the other countries' sovereignty and harm gravely citizens' basic human rights, should be regulated by setting boundaries and standards. States' intelligence sur-veillance conducts must have a legitimate source of power, just cause and right intention. Where conducting intelligence surveillance, it must be noticed to balance the needs of national security and the other countries' sovereignty and the citizens' fundamental rights. To regu-late States' intelligence surveillance conducts, is to accept the existance and the rationality of this kind of behavior and to minimize its dan-gers. By learning from the " just war" theory, the international community can work towards the identified international rules to regulate States' intelligence surveillance conducts and to curb the abuse of States' intelligence surveillance conducts.%“棱镜门”事件揭示了不受规制的情报监控行为对国家主权、公民基本人权的极大危害,应该对国家情报监控行为设定“边界”予以规范。国家情报监控行为应有合法的权力来源和正当目的,应注意平衡本国国家安全需要与他国国家主权与公民的基本权利。规制国家情报监控行为,是在接受该种行为的现实存在及其合理性的前提下,尽量减少该行为的危害。国际社会可以通过借鉴“战争正义”理论的相关标准,探索规范国家情报监控行为的国际规则,遏制国家情报监控行为的滥用。

  16. Two distinct surveillance methods to track hospitalized influenza patients in New York State during the 2009-2010 influenza season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Kimberly A; Hoefer, Dina; Barr, Christine; Belflower, Ruth; Malloy, Kevin; Cherry, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the severity of 2009 H1N1 influenza disease, enhanced surveillance of patients hospitalized with influenza was conducted during the 2009-2010 influenza season in New York State through existing Emerging Infections Program surveillance and a newly established sentinel hospital surveillance program. The 2 surveillance systems were compared to determine consistency across surveillance modalities and reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each to accomplish comprehensive influenza surveillance. Similar variables from the aggregate data collected from each system were compared and differences were analyzed in detail. New York State. Hospitalized adult and pediatric patients detected through 2 influenza surveillance programs. Significant differences in age distribution, timing of illness onset, illness complications, underlying medical conditions, critical care admissions, use of mechanical ventilation, and illness outcomes. Both surveillance systems saw the highest numbers of confirmed influenza infection among patients hospitalized in early fall 2009, with sharp declines thereafter. Sentinel hospital surveillance continued to detect hospitalizations for influenza-like illness that were not due to 2009 H1N1 influenza well into March 2010. Compared to influenza surveillance conducted through the Emerging Infections Program, the sentinel hospital influenza surveillance program tended to detect a sicker population of children and adults, including a higher rate of critical illness and mechanical ventilation, and among adults, higher rates of some underlying medical conditions. There were no differences in disease outcomes detected between the 2 systems. Although the 2 surveillance systems were complementary, inherent methodologic variations revealed important differences at season conclusion. The lessons learned should be used to determine the best way to allocate resources to meet the needs of future state and national influenza surveillance efforts.

  17. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of surveillance programs for families at high and moderate risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose Olsen, Kim; Bojesen, Stig E; Gerdes, Anne-Marie M

    2007-01-01

    and moderate risk of HNPCC are offered surveillance from age 25 and age 45, respectively. The model includes costs for all families referred to genetic counseling, including genetic risk assessment, mutation analysis, and surveillance in relevant families with or without known mutation, plus the costs related...... the moderate risk group is evaluated genetically but not offered surveillance. Sensitivity analysis showed these findings to be robust, although cost-effectiveness can be improved in cases of more conservative referrals to genetic counseling. CONCLUSIONS: The result for high risk families confirms the findings...

  19. Molecular programming of steady-state dendritic cells: impact on autoimmunity and tumor immune surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dylan J; Ohashi, Pamela S

    2013-05-01

    Dendritic cells are master regulators of immunity. Immature dendritic cells are essential for maintaining self-tolerance, while mature dendritic cells initiate a variety of specialized immune responses. Dendritic cell quiescence is often viewed as a default state that requires exogenous stimuli to induce maturation. However, recent studies have identified dendritic cell quiescence factors that actively program dendritic cells to an immature state. In the absence of these factors, dendritic cells spontaneously become immunogenic and can induce autoimmune responses. Herein we discuss two such factors, NF-κB1 and A20, that preserve dendritic cell immaturity through their regulation of NF-κB signaling. Loss of either of these factors increases dendritic cell immunogenicity, suggesting that they may be important targets for enhancing dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapies. Alternatively, defects in molecules critical for maintaining steady-state DCs may provide novel biomarkers that identify patients who have enhanced natural antitumor immunity or that correlate with better responses to various immunotherapies.

  20. The added value of a surveillance human biomonitoring program: The case of FLEHS in Flanders (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Hans; Colles, Ann; Morrens, Bert; Mampaey, Maja; Coertjens, Dries; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet; Loots, Ilse; Chovanova, Hana; Winderickx, Wim; Van Campenhout, Karen

    2016-09-20

    Since 2002, the Flemish Government decided to carry out the Flemish Environment and Health Survey (FLEHS), an extended human biomonitoring (HBM) program, which is integrated in the environmental health policy. Through the FLEHS studies, a vast amount of data such as biomarkers of exposure and effect, exposure-effect associations, time trends and geographical differences, became available to the Flemish policy makers. In order to facilitate the policy interpretation, a phased action-plan was developed collaboratively by FLEHS researchers and policy makers. In this article we look back on more than 15 years of investments of the Flemish government in HBM and reflect on how this large scaled and challenging HBM-initiative contributed to shaping the environmental health policy in Flanders. We used the FLEHS I (2002-2006) and II (2007-2011) results on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the resulting policy actions as an example to illustrate the added value of HBM for policy making. Policy measures for POPs, including source-related regulation (e.g. further optimization and tightening of existing Flemish legislation on open fires), investment in monitoring networks and communication and awareness campaigns, are presented and the added value for environmental health policy is discussed. We also reflect on how HBM can support science and innovation in the environmental monitoring context. Finally, we describe what society can gain from HBM in terms of opportunities for (1) feeding the political and societal debate, (2) stimulating community involvement and (3) empowering participants and citizens. All together, the gained insights and phased action plan showed that next to compliance with high scientific standards, results of the Flemish human biomonitoring campaign could be translated in targeted policy actions even for chemicals that have since long been regulated.

  1. Programs EMCUPL and SCHCOPL: computation of electromagnetic coupling on a layered halfspace with complex conductivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauahikaua, James P.; Anderson, Walter L.

    1979-01-01

    A number of efficient numerical computer algorithms are incorporated into a general program called EMCUPL, which calculates the electromagnetic (EM) coupling between two straight wires on the surface of a multilayered half space. Each layer has an isotropic conductivity which may be either real or complex. A second computer program, called SCHCOPL, is described which calculates the coupling for the special case of a Schlumberger or Wenner array also on a multilayered half space. Comparison with other programs shows that EMCUPL is at least as accurate, more generally applicable, and computationally more efficient FORTRAN listings of all subprograms and example calculations are given in the Appendix.

  2. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  3. Sustainability of a successful malaria surveillance and treatment program in a Runggus community in Sabah, east Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, J L; Chee, K C; Vun, Y S; Awang, J; Chin, K H; Kan, S K

    1996-09-01

    another, despite their close geographic proximity. The monthly number of VHV-diagnosed patients from the school and kampungs communities and the monthly number of true malaria patients in the two groups were significantly correlated. Sustainability of SPKP was linked to an ongoing process of social change which involved co-operative networking between the government health sector and the community. This in turn provided a stimulus for malaria abatement efforts. When Runggus people themselves control and maintain ownership of community-based malaria programs, the function of SPKP as a malaria surveillance system and an antimalarial drug distribution network is vastly improved.

  4. Quality Assurance of Non-Local Accounting Programs Conducted in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mei-Ai; Leung, Noel W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the current government policy and institutional practice on quality assurance of non-local accounting programs conducted in Hong Kong. Both international guidelines, national regulations and institutional frameworks in higher education and transnational higher education, and professional practice in accounting education are…

  5. Bayesian pretest probability estimation for primary malignant bone tumors based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benndorf, Matthias; Neubauer, Jakob; Langer, Mathias; Kotter, Elmar

    2017-03-01

    In the diagnostic process of primary bone tumors, patient age, tumor localization and to a lesser extent sex affect the differential diagnosis. We therefore aim to develop a pretest probability calculator for primary malignant bone tumors based on population data taking these variables into account. We access the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute, 2015 release) database and analyze data of all primary malignant bone tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2012. We record age at diagnosis, tumor localization according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-O-3) and sex. We take relative probability of the single tumor entity as a surrogate parameter for unadjusted pretest probability. We build a probabilistic (naïve Bayes) classifier to calculate pretest probabilities adjusted for age, tumor localization and sex. We analyze data from 12,931 patients (647 chondroblastic osteosarcomas, 3659 chondrosarcomas, 1080 chordomas, 185 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas, 2006 Ewing's sarcomas, 281 fibroblastic osteosarcomas, 129 fibrosarcomas, 291 fibrous malignant histiocytomas, 289 malignant giant cell tumors, 238 myxoid chondrosarcomas, 3730 osteosarcomas, 252 parosteal osteosarcomas, 144 telangiectatic osteosarcomas). We make our probability calculator accessible at http://ebm-radiology.com/bayesbone/index.html . We provide exhaustive tables for age and localization data. Results from tenfold cross-validation show that in 79.8 % of cases the pretest probability is correctly raised. Our approach employs population data to calculate relative pretest probabilities for primary malignant bone tumors. The calculator is not diagnostic in nature. However, resulting probabilities might serve as an initial evaluation of probabilities of tumors on the differential diagnosis list.

  6. Carbapenem non-susceptible enterobacteriaceae in Quebec, Canada: results of a laboratory surveillance program (2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Lefebvre

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE represent a major public health concern because these bacteria are usually extensively resistant to most antibiotics. In order to evaluate their dissemination in Quebec, a surveillance program was introduced in 2010. We report the molecular and epidemiological profiles of CPE isolates collected. Between August 2010 and December 2012, a total of 742 non-duplicate isolates non-susceptible to carbapenems were analysed. AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase production were detected by Etest and carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test (MHT. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined using broth microdilution or Etest. Clonality of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC strains was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The presence of genes encoding carbapenemases as well as other β-lactamases was detected using PCR. Of the 742 isolates tested, 169 (22.8% were CPE. Of these 169 isolates, 151 (89.3% harboured a blaKPC gene while the remaining isolates carried blaSME (n = 9, blaOXA-48 (n = 5, blaNDM (n = 3, and blaNMC (n = 1 genes. Among the 93 KPC strains presenting with a unique pattern (unique PFGE pattern and/or unique antibiotics susceptibility profile, 99% were resistant to ertapenem, 95% to imipenem, 87% to meropenem, 97% to aztreonam, 31% to colistin and 2% to tigecycline. In 19 patients, 2 to 5 KPC strains from different species or with a different PFGE pattern were isolated. CPE strains were present in the province of Quebec with the majority of strains harbouring KPC. Alternately, SME, OXA-48 and NMC containing strains were rarely found.

  7. Mono- and combination drug therapies in hospitalized patients with bipolar depression. Data from the European drug surveillance program AMSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haeberle Anne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the pharmacological treatment of bipolar depression several guidelines exist. It is largely unknown, to what extent the prescriptions in daily clinical routine correspond to these evidence based recommendations and which combinations of psychotropic drugs are frequently used. Methods The prescriptions of psychotropic drugs were investigated of all in-patients with bipolar depression (n = 2246; time period 1994–2009 from hospitals participating in the drug surveillance program AMSP. For the drug use in 2010, 221 cases were analysed additionally. Results From 1994 to 2009, 85% of all patients received more than one class of psychotropic substances: 74% received antidepressants in combination therapy, 55% antipsychotics, 48% anticonvulsants and 33% lithium. When given in combination, lithium is the most often prescribed substance for bipolar depression (33%, followed by valproic acid (23%, mirtazapine and venlafaxine (16% each, quetiapine (15%, lamotrigine (14% and olanzapine (13%. Both, lithium and valproic acid are often combined with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, but also with mirtazapine und venlafaxine. Combinations of more than one antidepressant occur quite often, whereby combinations with bupropion, paroxetine, fluoxetine or fluvoxamine are very rare. In 2010, quetiapine (alone and combined was the most frequently prescribed drug (39%; aripiprazole was administered in 10%. Conclusion Combinations of antidepressants (SSRI, mirtazapine, venlafaxine with mood stabilizers (lithium, valproic acid, lamotrigine and / or atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine, olanzapine are common. Of most of those combinations the efficacy has not been studied. The use of aripiprazole and the concomitant use of two or three antidepressants contrast the guidelines.

  8. Systematic review of reporting rates of adverse events following immunization: an international comparison of post-marketing surveillance programs with reference to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biao; Page, Andrew; Wang, Huaqing; Taylor, Richard; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-01-11

    China is the most populous country in the world, with an annual birth cohort of approximately 16 million, requiring an average of 500 million vaccine doses administered annually. In China, over 30 domestic and less than 10 overseas vaccine manufacturers supply over 60 licensed vaccine products, representing a growing vaccine market mainly due to recent additions to the national immunization schedule, but data on post-marketing surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) are sparse. To compare reporting rates for various categories of AEFI from China with other routine post-marketing surveillance programs internationally. Systematic review of published studies reporting rates of AEFI by vaccine, category of reaction and age from post-marketing surveillance systems in English and Chinese languages. Overall AEFI reporting rates (all vaccines, all ages) in Chinese studies were consistent with those from similar international studies elsewhere, but there was substantial heterogeneity in regional reporting rates in China (range 2.3-37.8/100,000 doses). The highest AEFI reporting rates were for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis whole-cell (DTwP) and acellular (DTaP) vaccines (range 3.3-181.1/100,000 doses for DTwP; range 3.5-92.6/100,000 doses for DTaP), with higher median rates for DTwP than DTaP, and higher than expected rates for DTaP vaccine. Similar higher rates for DTwP and DTaP containing vaccines, and relatively lower rates for vaccines against hepatitis B virus, poliovirus, and Japanese encephalitis virus were found in China and elsewhere in the world. Overall AEFI reporting rates in China were consistent with similar post-marketing surveillance systems in other countries. Sources of regional heterogeneity in AEFI reporting rates, and their relationships to differing vaccine manufacturers versus differing surveillance practices, require further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surveillance Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    and leisure have not been studied with the same intensity as e.g. policing, civil liberties and social sorting. This paper offers a study of trends in surveillance pleasures, i.e. watching and eavesdropping in popular culture. My focus is the existential aspects and ethical dilemmas of surveillance...

  10. Guide for Conducting Benefit-Cost Evaluation of Realized Impacts of Public R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting, Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Jordan, Gretchen B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This document provides guidance for evaluators who conduct impact assessments to determine the “realized” economic benefits and costs, energy, environmental benefits, and other impacts of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s (EERE) R&D programs. The focus of this Guide is on realized outcomes or impacts of R&D programs actually experienced by American citizens, industry, and others. Retrospective evaluations may be contrasted to prospective evaluations that reflect expected or potential outcomes only if assumptions hold. The retrospective approach described in this Guide is based on realized results only and the extent they can be attributed to the efforts of an R&D program. While it has been prepared specifically to guide retrospective benefit-cost analysis of EERE R&D Programs, this report may be used for similar analysis of other public R&D organizations.

  11. Analysis to evaluate predictors of fiberboard aging to guide surveillance sampling for the 9975 life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Daugherty, William L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hackney, Elizabeth R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-09

    During surveillance of the 9975 shipping package at the Savannah River Site K-Area Complex, several package dimensions are recorded. The analysis described in this report shows that, based on the current data analysis, two of these measurements, Upper Assembly Outer Diameter (UAOD) and Upper Assembly Inside Height (UAIH), do not have statistically significant aging trends regardless of wattage levels. In contrast, this analysis indicates that the measurement of Air Shield Gap (ASGap) does show a significant increase with age. It appears that the increase is greater for high wattage containers, but this result is dominated by two measurements from high-wattage containers. For all three indicators, additional high-wattage, older containers need to be examined before any definitive conclusions can be reached. In addition, the current analysis indicates that ASGap measurements for low and medium wattage containers are increasing slowly over time. To reduce uncertainties and better capture the aging trend for these containers, additional low and medium wattage older containers should also be examined. Based on this analysis, surveillance guidance is to augment surveillance containers resulting from 3013 surveillance with 9975-focused sampling that targets older, high wattage containers and also includes some older, low and medium wattage containers. This focused sampling began in 2015 and will continue in 2016. The UAOD, UAIH and ASGap data are highly variable. It is possible that additional factors such as seasonal variation and packaging site location might reduce variability and be useful for focusing surveillance and predicting aging.

  12. 2003 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the East Tennessee Technology Park (K-25).The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. Analytical challenges for emerging public health surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolka, Henry; Walker, David W; English, Roseanne; Katzoff, Myron J; Scogin, Gail; Neuhaus, Elizabeth

    2012-07-27

    The root of effective disease control and prevention is an informed understanding of the epidemiology of a particular disease based on sound scientific interpretation of evidence. Such evidence must frequently be transformed from raw data into consumable information before it can be used for making decisions, determining policy, and conducting programs. However, the work of building such evidence in public health practice--doing the right thing at the right time--is essentially hidden from view. Surveillance involves acquiring, analyzing, and interpreting data and information from several sources across various systems. Achieving the goals and objectives of surveillance investments requires attention to analytic requirements of such systems. The process requires computer programming, statistical reasoning, subject matter expertise, often modeling, and effective communication skills.

  14. Developing a framework for assessing responsible conduct of research education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynne E

    2010-03-01

    Education in the responsible conduct of research (RCR) in the United States has evolved over the past decade from targeting trainees to including educational efforts aimed at faculty and staff. In addition RCR education has become more focused as federal agencies have moved to recommend specific content and to mandate education in certain areas. RCR education has therefore become a research-compliance issue necessitating the development of policies and the commitment of resources to develop or expand systems for educating faculty and staff and for assuring compliance. These changes implied the need to develop a program evaluation model that could be applied to institutional RCR education programs, which were expected to differ from traditional academic credit-bearing courses targeting trainees. Information gleaned from the examination of corporate compliance models was analyzed in order to create a program evaluation module that could be used to document and assess educational programs focused on teaching RCR. A programmed series of questions for each of the nine RCR content areas identified by the United States Office of Research Integrity was created based on a performance-monitoring evaluation model. The questions focus on educational goals, resources provided to support the educational efforts, educational content, content delivery, educational outcomes, compliance requirements and feedback. Answers collected in response to the questions could be used to both document and continually improve the quality of RCR educational programs through on-going formative assessment and feedback.

  15. Pregnancy nutrition surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System is a useful tool in monitoring Healthy People 2010 objectives and is intended to provide a framework for analyzing data on the nutritional status and behavioral risk factors of pregnant women and the association to birth outcome. The data are useful to health professionals in providing prenatal care and developing programs to reduce pregnancy-related health risks.

  16. COYOTE : a finite element computer program for nonlinear heat conduction problems. Part I, theoretical background.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.

    2010-03-01

    The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction

  17. Adherence to the breast cancer surveillance program for women at risk for familial breast and ovarian cancer versus overscreening: a monocenter study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Lisa; Keller, Monika; Bruckner, Thomas; Golatta, Michael; Eismann, Sabine; Evers, Christina; Dikow, Nicola; Sohn, Christof; Heil, Jörg; Schott, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer among women worldwide and in 5-10 % of cases is of hereditary origin, mainly due to BRCA1/2 mutations. Therefore, the German Consortium for Familial Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC) with its 15 specialized academic centers offers families at high risk for familial/hereditary cancer a multimodal breast cancer surveillance program (MBCS) with regular breast MRI, mammography, ultrasound, and palpation. So far, we know a lot about the psychological effects of genetic testing, but we know little about risk-correlated adherence to MBCS or prophylactic surgery over time. The aim of this study was to investigate counselees' adherence to recommendations for MBCS in order to adjust the care supply and define predictors for incompliance. All counselees, who attended HBOC consultation at the University Hospital Heidelberg between July 01, 2009 and July 01, 2011 were eligible to participate. A tripartite questionnaire containing sociodemographic information, psychological parameters, behavioral questions, and medical data collection from the German consortium were used. A high participation rate was achieved among the study population, with 72 % returning the questionnaire. This study showed a rate of 59 % of full-adherers to the MBCS. Significant predictors for partial or full adherence were having children (p = 0.0221), younger daughters (p = 0.01795), a higher awareness of the topic HBOC (p = 0.01795, p breast cancer risk (p adherence of MBCS, prospective studies are needed to understand counselees' needs to further improve surveillance programs and adherence to them. Adherence to the breast cancer surveillance program for women at risk for familial breast and ovarian cancer versus overscreening-a monocenter study in Germany.

  18. Contemporary prevalence of BRO beta-lactamases in Moraxella catarrhalis: report from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (North America, 1997 to 2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Sader, Helio S; Fritsche, Thomas R; Jones, Ronald N

    2006-10-01

    A total of 7,860 community-acquired Moraxella catarrhalis isolates (SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997 to 2004) were tested by broth microdilution methods, and 399 randomly selected strains from North American sites were tested for BRO-1 and BRO-2 by PCR methods. Several antimicrobials remained very active, including amoxicillin-clavulanate (MIC90s, BRO-2 incidence rates by year were 3 to 4% overall (96 to 97% for BRO-1) and were the highest in Canada (7.9%), with the incidence in the United States being only 2.0%.

  19. EPIMIC: A Simple Homemade Computer Program for Real-Time EPIdemiological Surveillance and Alert Based on MICrobiological Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Abat, Cédric; Charrel, Rémi; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases (IDs) are major causes of morbidity and mortality and their surveillance is critical. In 2002, we implemented a simple and versatile homemade tool, named EPIMIC, for the real-time systematic automated surveillance of IDs at Marseille university hospitals, based on the data from our clinical microbiology laboratory, including clinical samples, tests and diagnoses. This tool was specifically designed to detect abnormal events as IDs are rarely predicted and modeled. EPIMIC operates using Microsoft Excel software and requires no particular computer skills or resources. An abnormal event corresponds to an increase above, or a decrease below threshold values calculated based on the mean of historical data plus or minus 2 standard deviations, respectively. Between November 2002 and October 2013 (11 years), 293 items were surveyed weekly, including 38 clinical samples, 86 pathogens, 79 diagnosis tests, and 39 antibacterial resistance patterns. The mean duration of surveillance was 7.6 years (range, 1 month-10.9 years). A total of 108,427 Microsoft Excel file cells were filled with counts of clinical samples, and 110,017 cells were filled with counts of diagnoses. A total of 1,390,689 samples were analyzed. Among them, 172,180 were found to be positive for a pathogen. EPIMIC generated a mean number of 0.5 alert/week on abnormal events. EPIMIC proved to be efficient for real-time automated laboratory-based surveillance and alerting at our university hospital clinical microbiology laboratory-scale. It is freely downloadable from the following URL: http://www.mediterranee-infection.com/article.php?larub=157&titre=bulletin-epidemiologique (last accessed: 20/11/2015).

  20. Integration of syndromic surveillance data into public health practice at state and local levels in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoff, Erika; Waller, Anna; Fleischauer, Aaron; Ising, Amy; Davis, Meredith K; Park, Mike; Haas, Stephanie W; DiBiase, Lauren; MacDonald, Pia D M

    2012-01-01

    We sought to describe the integration of syndromic surveillance data into daily surveillance practice at local health departments (LHDs) and make recommendations for the effective integration of syndromic and reportable disease data for public health use. Structured interviews were conducted with local health directors and communicable disease nursing staff from a stratified random sample of LHDs from May through September 2009. Interviews captured information on direct access to the North Carolina syndromic surveillance system and on the use of syndromic surveillance information for outbreak management, program management, and the creation of reports. We analyzed syndromic surveillance system data to assess the number of signals resulting in a public health response. Syndromic surveillance data were used for outbreak investigation (19% of respondents) and program management and report writing (43% of respondents); a minority reported use of both syndromic and reportable disease data for these purposes (15% and 23%, respectively). Receiving data from frequent system users was associated with using data for these purposes (p=0.016 and p=0.033, respectively, for syndromic and reportable disease data). A small proportion of signals (surveillance data by North Carolina local public health authorities resulted in meaningful public health action, including both case investigation and program management. While useful, the syndromic surveillance data system was oriented toward sensitivity rather than efficiency. Successful incorporation of new surveillance data is likely to require systems that are oriented toward efficiency.

  1. 2006 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-04-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2006 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  3. 2006 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-03-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2010 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2007 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2008 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-09-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2010 Nevada National Security Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2010 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2003 Fernald Environmental Management Project Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2003 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Los Alamos National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2007 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  13. 2007 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  14. 2008 East Tennessee Technology Park Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-10-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  15. 2008 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  16. 2007 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-03-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  17. 2009 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2010-07-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  18. 2007 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  19. 2006 Los Alamos National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  20. 2003 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  1. 2003 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Y-12. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  2. 2003 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for the Hanford site. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. The prpogram is part of DOE's commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers and includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers.

  3. 2003 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Lawrence Livermore National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  4. 2003 Savannah River Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Savannah River Site. DOE is commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The report monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  5. 2004 Hanford Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-24

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2004 for the Hanford site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  6. 2003 Brookhaven National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-02

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for Brookhaven National Lab. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  7. 2006 Sandia National Laboratories--Albuquerque Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2008-05-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  8. 2003 Kansas City Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-04

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Kansas City Plant. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. 2003 Pantex Plant Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report, Revised September 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-10-05

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Pantex Plant. DOE is commited to assuring the health and safety of its workers. This includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The IISP monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  10. 2010 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-07-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  11. 2010 Y-12 National Security Complex Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Health, Office of Health and Safety, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2011-08-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of illness and injury surveillance activities that provide an early warning system to detect health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  12. The effectiveness of a health-surveillance program for caisson saturation divers in a tunnel-boring machine: a microbiological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rees Vellinga, T P; Sterk, W; Van Dijk, F J H

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this field study is to report and evaluate the implementation of a health surveillance program we developed to monitor the microbiological load for saturation divers, including preventive and therapeutic interventions. We extended the DMAC protocol for Saturation Diving Chamber Hygiene and added some components: ear inspections, swabs and environmental swabs every third day. The implementation was evaluated by analyzing the results of the activities. In a pre-saturation dive check we examined a total of 17 divers. Here we present the data from all seven saturation phases, collected over a period of 1.5 years. In every saturation phase we have found pathogenic bacteria or fungi in divers and in the environment, but more in some periods than in others. We did not observe any serious infection that required a diver to abort his stay in the living chamber. This health surveillance program has demonstrated the potential value of an early warning system to prevent problems. The bacterial load found in divers and in the environment was clearly visible. Prevention could be improved by more consistent implementation of the protocol. Fortunately, the infections had no serious consequences for the health of the workers or for the continuation of the work process.

  13. Discordant detection of avian influenza virus subtypes in time and space between poultry and wild birds; Towards improvement of surveillance programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josanne H; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Schutten, Martin; Guldemeester, Judith; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Elbers, Armin R W; Slaterus, Roy; Hornman, Menno; Koch, Guus; Fouchier, Ron A M

    2017-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses from wild birds can cause outbreaks in poultry, and occasionally infect humans upon exposure to infected poultry. Identification and characterization of viral reservoirs and transmission routes is important to develop strategies that prevent infection of poultry, and subsequently virus transmission between poultry holdings and to humans. Based on spatial, temporal and phylogenetic analyses of data generated as part of intense and large-scale influenza surveillance programs in wild birds and poultry in the Netherlands from 2006 to 2011, we demonstrate that LPAIV subtype distribution differed between wild birds and poultry, suggestive of host-range restrictions. LPAIV isolated from Dutch poultry were genetically most closely related to LPAIV isolated from wild birds in the Netherlands or occasionally elsewhere in Western Europe. However, a relatively long time interval was observed between the isolations of related viruses from wild birds and poultry. Spatial analyses provided evidence for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) being more abundant near primary infected poultry farms. Detailed year-round investigation of virus prevalence and wild bird species distribution and behavior near poultry farms should be used to improve risk assessment in relation to avian influenza virus introduction and retarget avian influenza surveillance programs.

  14. Validación de un programa de vigilancia de infecciones nosocomiales Validation of a nosocomial infections surveillance program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigfrido Rangel-Frausto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Validar el programa de vigilancia de infecciones nosocomiales y conocer la morbilidad y la mortalidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Un médico especialmente capacitado, realizó vigilancia intensiva de todos los pacientes admitidos en el hospital. Los casos de infección fueron discutidos con otros dos médicos y el resultado se comparó con la vigilancia rutinaria. Se incluyó a todos los pacientes hospitalizados del 11 de julio al 12 de agosto de 1995, que no tenían un proceso infeccioso activo o que no manifestaban un periodo de incubación a su ingreso. Se siguieron diariamente y se registraron datos de: edad, sexo y padecimiento de ingreso. Se recabó información sobre tratamiento antimicrobiano, microrganismo aislado y susceptibilidad. Se evaluó el estado clínico final y se estimó el tiempo de estancia hospitalaria. RESULTADOS. De 429 pacientes, 45 desarrollaron infección nosocomial (casos y 384 no lo hicieron (controles. La incidencia de infecciones nosocomiales fue de 10.48/100. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del programa fueron de 93.3 y 98.7%, respectivamente. La mortalidad en los infectados fue de 11.11%, y en el grupo de los no infectados, de 2.4%. El promedio de estancia hospitalaria fue de 20 y 11 días, para infectados y no infectados, respectivamente (pOBJECTIVES. To validate the nosocomial infections surveillance system, establish its impact in morbi-mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Surveillance of every single patient admited during a one month period was done by one of us (DMG. Each posibile case was discussed with two other hospital epidemiologists (SPLR, MSRF. This intensive surveillance was compared against the routinely surveillance performed by the nurses. We included all hospitalized patients between 11th July and 12th of August according to CDC (Atlanta, GA nosocomial infections definitions. Patients were followed everyday and information about age, gender, underlying diagnosis, microorganisms responsible

  15. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at INEEL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  16. Crypto and empire: the contradictions of counter-surveillance advocacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gürses, S.; Kundnani, A.; Van Hoboken, J.

    2016-01-01

    Since Edward Snowden’s revelations of US and UK surveillance programs, privacy advocates, progressive security engineers, and policy makers have been seeking to win majority support for countering surveillance. The problem is framed as the replacement of targeted surveillance with mass surveillance

  17. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION): Methods of the Surveillance Program, 2011–2012 Through 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dompier, Thomas P.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Kerr, Zachary Y.; Hayden, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Context Previous epidemiologic researchers have examined time-loss (TL) injuries in high school student-athletes, but little is known about the frequency of non–time-loss (NTL) injuries in these athletes. Objective To describe the methods of the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) Surveillance Program and provide descriptive epidemiology of TL and NTL injuries across athletes in 27 high school sports. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from 147 high schools in 26 states. Patients or Other Participants High school student-athletes participating in 13 boys' sports and 14 girls' sports during the 2011–2012 through 2013–2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Athletic trainers documented injuries and exposures using commercially available injury-tracking software packages. Standard injury-tracking software was modified by the software vendors to conform to the surveillance needs of this project. The modified software exported a set of common data elements, stripped of personally identifiable information, to a centralized automated verification and validation system before they were included in the centralized research database. Dependent measures were injury and exposure frequencies and injury rates with 95% confidence intervals stratified by sport, sex, and injury type (TL or NTL). Results Over the 3-year period, a total of 2337 team seasons across 27 sports resulted in 47 014 injuries and 5 146 355 athlete-exposures. The NTL injuries accounted for 38 765 (82.45%) and TL injuries for 8249 (17.55%) of the total. Conclusions The NTL injuries accounted for a substantial amount of the total number of injuries sustained by high school student-athletes. This project demonstrates the feasibility of creating large-scale injury surveillance systems using commercially available injury-tracking software. PMID:26067620

  18. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the

  19. Surveillance Angels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The use of sensor networks has been proposed for military surveillance and environmental monitoring applications. Those systems are composed of a heterogeneous set of sensors to observe the environment. In centralised systems the observed data will be conveyed to the control room to process the data

  20. Surveillance strategies for detecting chronic wasting disease in free-ranging deer and elk: results of a CWD surveillance workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Joly, Damien O.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wright, Scott D.; Otis, David L.; Werge, Rob W.; Miller, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD), a fatal brain disease of North American deer and elk, has recently emerged as an important wildlife management issue. Interest and concern over the spread of this disease and its potential impact on free-ranging cervid populations has increased with discovery of the disease in numerous states and provinces. Current studies suggest that CWD may adversely affect of these highly visible, socially desirable, and economically valuable species. Despite the lack of evidence that CWD affects humans or livestock, a significant concern has been the perceived risk to humans and livestock. Uncertainty about whether CWD poses a health risk to hunters and their families who consume venison has resulted in testing of free-ranging cervids for CWD. In response to many of these concerns, wildlife management agencies across the nation have undertaken surveillance programs to detect CWD in their cervid populations. The nation-wide costs for an extensive CWD surveillance program have been estimated at several million dollars. This document provides guidance on the development and conduct of scientifically sound surveillance programs to detect CWD in free-ranging deer and elk populations. These guidelines will not apply equally to all jurisdictions. In many cases local circumstances, resources, area(s) of concern, disease risk, animal and landscape ecology, political, social, and many other factors will influence the objectives, design, and conduct of CWD surveillance programs. Part I of this report discusses the importance of management goals, strategies, and disease risks in developing a surveillance program. Part II describes surveillance methods, steps in designing a sampling strategy to detect CWD, alternative collection methods, and statistical considerations. Part III describes costs (personnel, time, and money) associated with implementation of these plans that will influence program design. Part IV outlines research that is needed to further

  1. Ocean surveillance satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D.

    Soviet and U.S. programs involving satellites for surveillance of ships and submarines are discussed, considering differences in approaches. The Soviet program began with the Cosmos 198 in 1967 and the latest, the Cosmos 1400 series, 15 m long and weighing 5 tons, carry radar for monitoring ships and a nuclear reactor for a power supply. Other Soviet spacecraft carrying passive microwave sensors and ion drives powered by solar panels have recently been detonated in orbit for unknown reasons. It has also been observed that the Soviet satellites are controlled in pairs, with sequential orbital changes for one following the other, and both satellites then overflying the same points. In contrast, U.S. surveillance satellites have been placed in higher orbits, thus placing greater demands on the capabilities of the on-board radar and camera systems. Project White Cloud and the Clipper Bow program are described, noting the continued operation of the White Cloud spacecraft, which are equipped to intercept radio signals from surface ships. Currently, the integrated tactical surveillance system program has completed its study and a decision is expected soon.

  2. Emergency department surveillance of injuries associated with bunk beds: the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), 1990-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFaull, S R; Fréchette, M; Skinner, R

    2012-12-01

    Due to space constraints, bunk beds are a common sleeping arrangement in many homes. The height and design of the structure can present a fall and strangulation hazard, especially for young children. The primary purpose of this study was to describe bunk bed-related injuries reported to the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), 1990-2009. CHIRPP is an injury and poisoning surveillance system operating in 11 pediatric and 4 general emergency departments across Canada. Records were extracted using CHIRPP product codes and narratives. Over the 20-year surveillance period, 6002 individuals presented to Canadian emergency departments for an injury associated with a bunk bed. Overall, the frequency of bunk bed-related injuries in CHIRPP has remained relatively stable with an average annual percent change of 21.2% (21.8% to 20.5%). Over 90% of upper bunk-related injuries were due to falls and children 3-5 years of age were most frequently injured (471.2/100 000 CHIRPP cases). Children with bunk bed-related injuries continue to present to Canadian emergency departments, many with significant injuries. Injury prevention efforts should focus on children under 6 years of age.

  3. Effects of Breakpoint Changes on Carbapenem Susceptibility Rates ofEnterobacteriaceae: Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, United States, 2008 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Rennie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of clinical resistance, breakpoints for many antimicrobial agents are often set high. Clinical failures following use of the agents over time requires re-evaluation of breakpoints. This is based on patient response, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic information and in vitro minimal inhibitory concentration data. Data from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program has shown that Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint changes for carbapenems that occurred between 2008 and 2012 in North America have resulted in decreased levels of susceptibility for some species. In particular, reduced susceptibility to imipenem was observed for Proteus mirabilis (35% and Morganella morganii (80%. Minor decreases in susceptibility were also noted for Enterobacter species with ertapenem (5% and imipenem (4.3%, and Serratia species with imipenem (6.4%. No significant decreases in susceptibility were observed for meropenem following the breakpoint changes. There were no earlier breakpoints established for doripenem. Very few of these Enterobacteriaceae produce carbapenamase enzymes; therefore, the clinical significance of these changes has not yet been clearly determined. In conclusion, ongoing surveillance studies with in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration data are essential in predicting the need for breakpoint changes and in identifying the impact of such changes on the percent susceptibility of different species.

  4. Children aged 12–59 months missed through the National Vitamin A Capsule Distribution Program in Bangladesh: findings of the Nutritional Surveillance Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Akhter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available From January 1990 to December 2006, Helen Keller International implemented the Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP in Bangladesh, which has been used to conduct regular surveillance and special surveys to provide information on health and nutritional status of children and mothers, and report on the coverage and impact of nutrition and health programs in Bangladesh. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB distributes vitamin A Capsule (VAC among children aged 12–59 months biannually. The NSP data was analyzed to assess VAC coverage and to explore which children were less likely to receive a VAC in order to help GOB identify necessary modifications aimed at higher coverage of VAC among all eligible children. Results showed that coverage among girls and boys was not different (P=0.970. However, coverage was consistently lower among children aged 12-23 months compared to older children (24–59 months (P≤0.001 in each of the distribution rounds. Coverage among children from poorer households was lower than among children from wealthiest households (P<0.001, with the extent of this difference varying by round. Coverage was significantly higher if households had had contact with a government health assistant in the last month (P<0.001; and among households who owned a radio or a TV compared to those who did not. The VAC distribution campaign needs to be strengthened to cover the children who are currently not reached; especially younger children, children living in underserved regions, children from poorer households and from households with less contact with health service providers or mass media.De janvier 1990 à décembre 2006, l’ONG Helen Keller International a mis en oeuvre le projet Nutritional Surveillance Project (NSP au Bangladesh. Ce projet a permis de réaliser une surveillance régulière et des études ciblées afin de recueillir des informations sur l’état de santé et l’état nutritionnel des mères et des enfants, et de

  5. Performance of health product risk management and surveillance conducted by health personnel at sub-district health promotion hospitals in the northeast region of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjanarach T

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tipaporn Kanjanarach,1,2 Raksaworn Jaisa-ard,1,2 Nantawan Poonaovarat3 1Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Center for Research and Development of Herbal Health Products, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3Health Consumer Protection, Chaiyapum Health Provincial Office, Chaiyapum, Thailand Background: Health personnel at sub-district health promotion hospitals (SD-HPHs are assigned to take responsibility for 15 activities related to health product risk management and surveillance (HP-RM&S. This cross-sectional survey aimed to identify factors that determined their job performance and to record their expressed needs to support HP-RM&S operation. In this study, job performance was defined as completion of all 15 activities. Methods: Self-administered postal questionnaires were used to collect data from 380 randomly selected health personnel who were in charge of HP-RM&S at SD-HPHs in the northeast of Thailand. Results: Thirty-six point one percent (n=137 of the respondents were able to perform all 15 of the HP-RM&S activities assigned to SD-HPHs. A logistic regression model identified three factors that statistically significantly determined the completion of all 15 HP-RM&S activities. These were: receiving a high or very high level of support from the community (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5, 4.1, the responsible persons for HP-RM&S did not hold an administrative position (adjusted OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7, and having at least one training session related to HP-RM&S per year (adjusted OR: 1.7; 95% CI 1.1, 2.6. There were 1,536 expressed needs which can be classified into four major categories, ie, training needs (41.6%, n=639, resource support (28.3%, n=435, mechanisms that facilitate HP-RM&S operation (24.1%, n=370 and adjusting of the scope of HP-RM&S (6.0%, n=92. The topics most frequently referred to in training needs were drug law, food law, and cosmetics

  6. The Department of Defense Global, Laboratory-Based Influenza Surveillance Program: Technical Report on Program Methods for the 2012-2013 Influenza Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    outbreaks occurred in vaccinees . Observing that vaccine -induced immunity waned and that the influenza virus gradually adapted to escape vaccine -induced...2014-1676, 14 Apr 2014 breakthrough in vaccine coverage, ensuring that emerging flu strains are collected in a timely manner and reported to CDC...surveillance, laboratory analysis and reporting, and on scientific contributions to influenza vaccine development and influenza virology. The two main

  7. Long term outcome of an attachment-based program for conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, M M; Holland, R; Peterson, S

    1994-08-01

    There is increasing concern among professionals and the public about the level of violence and antisocial behaviour among our youth. This has been coupled with confusion and a sense of helplessness about which types of interventions are most effective in responding to these difficulties. Some professionals and advocacy groups are calling for tougher disciplinary responses to violence and antisocial behaviour, including changes in the Young Offenders Act. Yet, such interventions are rarely effective in producing the desired reductions in these behaviours. Other professionals have called for better forms of treatment. However, few treatments have been shown to be effective in bringing about long term reductions either in aggressive behaviour or in the concomitant psychological difficulties experienced by these youths. In this paper, a description is presented of an approach to understanding conduct disorder that focuses on attachment as an organizing principle of behaviour and affect. Also, a description is presented of a community-oriented program that is based on attachment theory, as well as the results of the program evaluation at six, 12 and 18 months following discharge. The findings replicate and extend earlier findings reported by Holland et al (1) on the effectiveness of this approach.

  8. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M report for 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W. (ESQ)

    2011-05-31

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2010 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  9. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2010-04-21

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2009 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells and monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  10. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  11. At-a-glance, Emergency department surveillance of thermal burns and scalds, electronic Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, J; McFaull, S; Rao, D P; Do, M T; Thompson, W

    2017-01-01

    Although fatality and hospitalization rates for burns in Canada have declined over time, less serious cases still commonly present to the emergency department (ED). The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) is an injury and poisoning surveillance system administered by the Public Health Agency of Canada, operating in emergency departments of 17 hospitals. Overall, cases reported in 2013 were scalds and contact burns from hot objects. The leading direct causes of scalds were hot beverages and hot water. The leading causes of contact burns were stoves/ovens and fireplaces/accessories. While the overall proportion of burns was highest among females, males comprised a higher proportion of burns from all mechanisms except scalds.

  12. Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and group A beta-haemolytic streptococci in 2002-2003. Results of the multinational GRASP Surveillance Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekmann, Susan E; Heilmann, Kris P; Richter, Sandra S

    2005-01-01

    A multinational surveillance study, GRASP, was conducted between November 2002 and April 2003 with the aim of assessing rates of antimicrobial resistance among 2656 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 2486 isolates of group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, 1358 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae...... and 1047 of Moraxella catarrhalis from 20 countries in Europe, eastern Asia and southern Africa. Conspicuous differences between various countries were noted in the S. pneumoniae resistance rates observed for penicillin (0-79.2%) and erythromycin (4-66%), along with other antimicrobials. The percentage...... of MDR strains was above 25% in 8 of the 20 countries studied. Group A streptococcal macrolide resistance rates ranged from 0% to 35% by country, while rates of beta-lactamase production ranged from 0% to 39% for H. influenzae and 80-100% for M. catarrhalis. Antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae remains...

  13. 34 CFR 658.11 - What projects and activities may a grantee conduct under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... opportunities for learning foreign languages, including less commonly taught languages; (d) Providing... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM What Kinds of Projects Does the Secretary Assist Under This Program... program to improve undergraduate instruction in international studies and foreign languages. These...

  14. 25 CFR 170.500 - What program reviews do the Secretaries conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Planning, Design, and Construction of Indian Reservation Roads Program Facilities... planning; (3) Design; (4) Contract administration; (5) Construction; (6) Financial management; and (7...

  15. Surveillance issues in inflammatory bowel disease: ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, D; Onken, J

    2001-02-01

    This review article on the surveillance of patients with ulcerative colitis provides an overview of the criteria for evaluating screening and surveillance programs and applies the criteria to the available evidence to determine the effectiveness of the surveillance of patients with ulcerative colitis. We examine the clinical outcomes associated with surveillance, the additional clinical time required to confirm the diagnosis of dysplasia and cancer, compliance with surveillance and follow-up, and the effectiveness of the individual components of a surveillance program, including colonoscopy and pathologist's interpretation. The disability associated with colectomy is considered, as are the cost and acceptability of surveillance programs. Patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis are at risk for developing colorectal cancer. Recommended surveillance colonoscopy should be supported. New endoscopic and histopathologic techniques to improve the identification of high-risk patients may enhance the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surveillance practices.

  16. [Are programs supporting parenthood skills effective in the prevention and reduction of conduct disorders and problems of childhood?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Piia; Santalahti, Pälvi; Sihvo, Sinikka

    2016-01-01

    In this systematic review it will be evaluated whether parent-targeted programs teaching positive methods of upbringing and interaction are effective in the reduction and prevention of conduct disorders and behavioral problems in children belonging to a risk group. Altogether 29 European studies on parent-targeted programs were selected for the review. Most of the examined methods were based on the social learning theory and the cognitive behavior theory. The majority of the studies proved that long-term programs of 8 to 20 weeks'duration are effective in the reduction of behavioral problems and conduct disorders of childhood.

  17. 国家动物源细菌耐药性监测工作的探讨和建议%Discussion and Suggestion on the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Surveillance Program in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾欣; 金凌艳; 蔡金华; 刘雅妮; 王蓓

    2009-01-01

    The foreign profile of antimicrobial resistance monitoring and surveillance program in animal, and the purpose of resistance monitoring and surveillance program were described. A variety of factors to be considered for resistance monitoring and surveillance program were introduced and discussed, including the animal species, food products, Sampling strategies, specimens collecting, bacterial species, antimicrobials, standardized susceptibility testing, quality control, database design and recording, report and analysis of result. Suggestion was pointed out about antimicrobial resistance monitoring and surveillance program in the future.%介绍了国外动物源细菌耐药性监测工作的情况及目标,对我国的动物源细菌耐药性监测工作需考虑的许多因素进行了介绍和讨论,包括动物品种、食品、采样方法、样本的收集、细菌品种、抗菌药物、标准药敏试验法、质控、结果记录和数据库设计、报告和结果分析等,并对今后的动物源细菌耐药性监测工作提出了建议.

  18. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  19. Assessment of varicella surveillance and outbreak control practices - United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Adriana S; Lichtenstein, Meredith; Schmid, Scott D; Bialek, Stephanie

    2014-09-12

    Case-based varicella (chickenpox) surveillance is important for monitoring the impact of the varicella vaccination program. In 2002, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) recommended that all states move toward case-based varicella surveillance by 2005; in 2003, varicella was made nationally notifiable. To ease the transition to case-based reporting, CSTE and CDC recommended starting with sentinel site or outbreak surveillance and then moving to statewide case-based surveillance when feasible. To gauge progress in varicella surveillance, in 2012 CDC and CSTE developed a survey for assessing varicella surveillance practices, which CSTE administered to all states and the District of Columbia (DC). As of 2012, varicella was reportable in 44 (86.3%) of the 51 jurisdictions surveyed, of which 37 (84.1%) conduct statewide case-based surveillance. Of the 38 jurisdictions conducting statewide or sentinel site varicella case-based surveillance, more than 84% reported collecting information on age, sex, and race/ethnicity (all 97.4%), vaccination status (94.7%), outbreak association (86.8%), and disease severity (84.2%). Nineteen (43.2%) of the 44 jurisdictions where reporting was mandated transmitted varicella-specific data to CDC using Health Level 7 (HL7) messaging. Currently, HL7 messaging is the only mechanism available for states to send varicella-specific data to CDC. Although public health agencies have made much progress to strengthen varicella surveillance throughout the United States, strategies are needed to facilitate transmission of varicella-specific data to CDC from all jurisdictions, using HL7 messaging, and to increase the number of jurisdictions collecting the varicella-specific data necessary to monitor varicella epidemiology and the impact of the vaccination program nationally.

  20. 77 FR 72435 - Pipeline Safety: Using Meaningful Metrics in Conducting Integrity Management Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... integrity management program: * * * * * (7) Methods to measure the program's effectiveness (see paragraph (k) of this section); Sec. 195.452(k) What methods to measure program effectiveness must be used? An... methods must an operator use to measure program effectiveness? (a) General. An operator must include in...

  1. The Increasing Challenge of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli: Results of a 5-Year Active Surveillance Program in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Mario; Geraci, Daniela M; Bonura, Celestino; Saporito, Laura; Graziano, Giorgio; Insinga, Vincenzo; Aleo, Aurora; Vecchio, Davide; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Colonization and infection by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are increasingly reported.We conducted a 5-year prospective cohort surveillance study in a tertiary NICU of the hospital "Paolo Giaccone," Palermo, Italy. Our objectives were to describe incidence and trends of MDR GNB colonization and the characteristics of the most prevalent organisms and to identify the risk factors for colonization. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were prospectively collected. Active surveillance cultures (ASCs) were obtained weekly. Clusters of colonization by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by conventional and molecular epidemiological tools.During the study period, 1152 infants were enrolled in the study. Prevalences of colonization by MDR GNB, ESBL-producing GNB and multiple species/genera averaged, respectively, 28.8%, 11.7%, and 3.7%. Prevalence and incidence density of colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing GNB showed an upward trend through the surveillance period. Rates of ESBL-producing E coli and K pneumoniae colonization showed wide fluctuations peaking over the last 2 years. The only independent variables associated with colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing organisms and multiple colonization were, respectively, the days of NICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 1.041), the days of exposure to ampicillin-sulbactam (OR 1.040), and the days of formula feeding (OR 1.031). Most clusters of E coli and K pneumoniae colonization were associated with different lineages. Ten out of 12 clusters had an outborn infant as their index case.Our study confirms that MDR GNB are an increasing challenge to NICUs. The universal once-a-week approach allowed us to understand the epidemiology of MDR GNB, to timely detect new clones and institute contact precautions, and to assess risk factors. Collection of these data can be an important tool to

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in China: Results from the CARTIPS Antimicrobial Surveillance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Chunjiang; Wang, Zhanwei; Cao, Bin; Du, Yan; Feng, Xianju; Hu, Yunjian; Hu, Bijie; Ji, Ping; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Yong; Liao, Wanzhen; Lu, Juan; Sun, Hongli; Wang, Zhongxin; Xu, Xiuli; Xu, Xuesong; Yang, Qing; Yu, Yunsong; Zhang, Rong; Zhuo, Chao

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates causing adult community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTIs) in China. A multicentre resistance surveillance study (CARTIPS) investigating 1046 clinical isolates from 19 hospitals in China was conducted from 2013 to 2014. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints of oral penicillin, the percentages of penicillin-resistant, penicillin-intermediate and penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae were 44.1%, 13.7%, and 42.2%, respectively. The rates of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae ranged from 27.9% to 72.2% in different cities, with the highest rate in Nanchang. Macrolides, including azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin, showed the lowest activities against S. pneumoniae isolates, with resistance rates of 90.5%, 92.2% and 93.0%, respectively. However, 98% of these strains were susceptible to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin. For H. influenzae isolates, most of the antimicrobials agents exhibited good activities. However, ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole showed relatively lower activity against H. influenzae, with resistance rates of 35.0% and 54.4%, respectively. β-lactamase production rates amongst H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were 31.0% and 87.1%, respectively. In addition, a total of 15 β-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains identified in this study were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefaclor and cefuroxime. Most of the antimicrobial agents showed excellent activity against M. catarrhalis, with susceptibility rates of >90%. The results from the current study confirmed the regional variations in antimicrobial susceptibility of major CARTI pathogens and provided some choices for the treatment of these organisms. Continuous national surveillance of the epidemiology of CARTIs is strongly warranted in China.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin America: results from SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (Latin America, 2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, Ana C; Castanheira, Mariana; Jones, Ronald N; Sader, Hélio S

    2012-08-01

    This study updates the frequency and resistance rates of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin American medical centers enrolled in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. A total of 12,811 bacterial organisms, including 5704 Gram-negative bacilli (44.5%), were consecutively collected (1 per patient) between January 2008 and December 2010 from 10 Latin American medical centers located in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method at a central laboratory. All Gram-negative organisms with reduced susceptibility to imipenem or meropenem (MIC, ≥ 2 μg/mL) were screened for carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test and by polymerase chain reaction. ESBL rates were 18.1%, 12.8%, 23.8%, and 48.4% among Escherichia coli and 60.4%, 49.9%, 59.2%, and 33.3% among Klebsiella spp. from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, respectively. Meropenem-nonsusceptible Klebsiella spp. rate was highest in Brazil (11.1%), followed by Argentina (8.2%), Chile (5.0%), and Mexico (0.8%). Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae was not detected in 2008, but emerged in 2009 (10 strains) and increased significantly in 2010 (44; P 77% overall coverage against the 5 most frequently isolated Gram-negative bacilli from Latin American Medical centers participating in the SENTRY Program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SAVY-4000 Field Surveillance Plan Update for 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-20

    The Packaging Surveillance Program section of the Department of Energy (DOE) Manual 441.1-­1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual (DOE 2008), requires DOE contractors to “ensure that a surveillance program is established and implemented to ensure the nuclear material storage package continues to meet its design criteria.”This 2017 update reflects changes to the surveillance plan resulting from surveillance findings as documented in Reeves et al. 2016. These findings include observations of corrosion in SAVY and Hagan containers and the indication (in one SAVY container) of possible filter membrane thermal degradation. This surveillance plan update documents the rationale for selecting surveillance containers, specifies the containers for 2017 surveillance, and identifies a minimum set of containers for 2018 surveillance. This update contains important changes to the previous surveillance plans.

  5. Implementing a Comprehensive Program for the Prevention of Conduct Problems in Rural Communities: The Fast Track Experience1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood conduct problems are predictive of a number of serious long-term difficulties (e.g., school failure, delinquent behavior, and mental health problems), making the design of effective prevention programs a priority. The Fast Track Program is a demonstration project currently underway in four demographically diverse areas of the United States, testing the feasibility and effectiveness of a comprehensive, multicomponent prevention program targeting children at risk for conduct disorders. This paper describes some lessons learned about the implementation of this program in a rural area. Although there are many areas of commonality in terms of program needs, program design, and implementation issues in rural and urban sites, rural areas differ from urban areas along the dimensions of geographical dispersion and regionalism, and community stability and insularity. Rural programs must cover a broad geographical area and must be sensitive to the multiple, small and regional communities that constitute their service area. Small schools, homogeneous populations, traditional values, limited recreational, educational and mental health services, and politically conservative climates are all more likely to emerge as characteristics of rural rather than urban sites (Sherman, 1992). These characteristics may both pose particular challenges to the implementation of prevention programs in rural areas, as well as offer particular benefits. Three aspects of program implementation are described in detail: (a) community entry and program initiation in rural areas, (b) the adaptation of program components and service delivery to meet the needs of rural families and schools, and (c) issues in administrative organization of a broadly dispersed tricounty rural prevention program. PMID:9338956

  6. Surveillance and Critical Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this comment, the author reflects on surveillance from a critical theory approach, his involvement in surveillance research and projects, and the status of the study of surveillance. The comment ascertains a lack of critical thinking about surveillance, questions the existence of something called “surveillance studies” as opposed to a critical theory of society, and reflects on issues such as Edward Snowden’s revelations, and Foucault and Marx in the context of surveillance.

  7. Principles in sampling design, lessons, and recommendations from a multi-year, multi-port surveillance program in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly-introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay), and designed an ada...

  8. Principles in sampling design, lessons, and recommendations from a multi-year, multi-port surveillance program in Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly-introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay), and designed an ada...

  9. Parent Education Programs as a Psychiatric Approach to Children with Conduct Disorder: An Evaluation through Two Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Arkan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder is a category to describe the behaviors which have an adverse affect on the individual, family or society, violate the basic rights of other people and ignore the age-appropriate social norms and rules. Parental behaviors should be shaped as well as those of the children in order for conduct disorder to be treated. The reason for this is that parental attitudes play a key role in emergence of anti-social behaviors among children. Therefore, parent programs have been undertaken for the last thirty years. It has been proved that parent programs are effective in children with conduct disorder who display highly disruptive behaviors. The two best parent programs implemented on the parents of children diagnosed with conduct disorder are Triple P and Incredible Years which cooperate with families and the society, reduce the risk factors, support the protective factors, have a multi-disciplinary approach (psychiatrist, psychologist, nurse, child development and educationalist, social service specialist, psychological consultant, teacher, etc., having high evidence standards, use randomized controlled studies and yield long-term results. For that reason, this literature review was conducted in order to evaluate the efficacy of these two programs, to determine the differences, what is known about the issue.

  10. EVMS Self-Surveillance of Remote Handled Low Level Waste (RHLLW) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Nelson; Kimberly Case; Linda Hergesheimer; Maxine Johnson; Doug Parker; Rick Staten; Scott taylor

    2013-07-01

    DOE G 413.3-10A, Section 3.a states: “The Contractor has primary responsibility for implementing and maintaining a surveillance program to ensure continued compliance of the system with ANSI/EIA-748B. DOE O 413.3B requires the FPD to ensure the contractor conducts a Self-Surveillance annually. This annual Self-Surveillance,…should cover all 32 guidelines of the ANSI/EIA748B. Documentation of the Self-Surveillance is sent to the CO and the PMSO (copy to OECM) confirming the continued compliance of their EVMS ANSI/EIA748B...” This review, and the associated report, is deemed to satisfy this requirement.

  11. An overview of environmental surveillance of waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.H.; Chew, E.W.; Hedahl, T.G.; Mann, L.J.; Pointer, T.F.; Wiersma, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), in southeastern Idaho, is a principal center for nuclear energy development for the Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Navy. Fifty-two reactors have been built at the INEL, with 15 still operable. Extensive environmental surveillance is conducted at the INEL by DOE's Radiological Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), EG&G Idaho, Inc., and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO). Surveillance of waste management facilities radiation is integrated with the overall INEL Site surveillance program. Air, warer, soil, biota, and environmental radiation are monitored or sampled routinely at INEL. Results to date indicate very small or no impacts from INEL on the surrounding environment. Environmental surveillance activities are currently underway to address key environmental issues at the INEL.

  12. Evaluation of Prerequisite Programs Implementation and Hygiene Practices at Social Food Services through Audits and Microbiological Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayoa, Roncesvalles; Yánez, Nathaly; Díez-Leturia, María; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Vitas, Ana Isabel

    2016-04-01

    Prerequisite programs are considered the most efficient tool for a successful implementation of self-control systems to ensure food safety. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of these programs in 15 catering services located in Navarra and the Basque Country (regions in northern Spain), through on-site audits and microbiological analyses. The implementation of the prerequisite program was incomplete in 60% of the sample. The unobserved temperature control during both the storage and preparation of meals in 20% of the kitchens reveals misunderstanding in the importance of checking these critical control points. A high level of food safety and hygiene (absence of pathogens) was observed in the analyzed meals, while 27.8% of the tested surfaces exceeded the established limit for total mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (≤100 CFU/25 cm²). The group of hand-contact surfaces (oven door handles and aprons) showed the highest level of total mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and Enterobacteriaceae, and the differences observed with respect to the food-contact surfaces (work and distribution utensils) were statistically significant (P food workers' hands, lower levels of microorganisms were observed in the handlers wearing gloves (that is, for Staphylococcus spp we identified 43 CFU/cm2 on average compared with 4 CFU/cm2 (P food handlers, through specific activities such as informal meetings and theoretical-practical sessions adapted to the characteristics of each establishment.

  13. 40 CFR 52.2030 - Source surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source surveillance. 52.2030 Section 52.2030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Pennsylvania § 52.2030 Source surveillance...

  14. 14 CFR 91.1431 - CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1431 CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each program manager who maintains program aircraft under a CAMP must establish and maintain a system for the continuing analysis and surveillance of the performance and effectiveness of its inspection program and the...

  15. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  16. How to Conduct a Qualitative Program Evaluation in the Light of Eisner’s Educational Connoisseurship and Criticism Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Yüksel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe quantitative methodologies have been traditionally employed in the educational research so far. However, as long as with the appreciation and widespread use of the qualitative methodologies in many disciplines, many different educational areas have started to be examined in terms of qualitative research aspects. Particularly, the qualitative evaluation of the education programs has received considerable interest and there have been recently some attempts to develop a qualitative methodology for evaluating educational programs based upon the tenets of program evaluation. The evaluators have underlined the benefits of qualitative methods to boost the information shared with decision-makers and policy makers. The most inclusive endeavour has been carried out by Eisner. Eisner’s program evaluation model presents the role of educational connoisseurship and criticism in educational evaluation in terms of qualitative evaluation. This study aims at examining how a qualitative program evaluation is conducted in relation with the Eisner’s evaluation model.

  17. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. A number of DOE sites participate in the Epidemiologic Surveillance Program. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Hanford Site from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at Hanford and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The information in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site, and the appendices provides additional detail. The report also contains an expanded Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories which gives examples of health conditions in each of the diagnostic categories.

  18. 75 FR 41392 - Sorghum Promotion and Research Program: Procedures for the Conduct of Referenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1221 Sorghum Promotion and Research Program: Procedures for the... Commodity Promotion, Research, and Information Act of 1996 (Act) authorizes a program of promotion, research, and information to be developed through the promulgation of the Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  19. 15 CFR 923.133 - Procedure for conducting continuing reviews of approved State CZM programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... will submit a financial assistance application or work program, whichever is applicable, on a timetable... evaluation team indicating that they wish to receive the final findings. Notice of the availability of the... approved CZM program; (B) The management agency is effectively playing a leadership role in coastal...

  20. Cost-effectiveness of endoscopic screening followed by surveillance for Barrett's esophagus: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiere, Josephine M; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2009-12-01

    Screening interventions for Barrett's esophagus (BE) are appealing, but there is little supporting evidence. We reviewed health economics studies about BE endoscopic screening followed by, as required, endoscopic surveillance ("screening and surveillance" hereafter) to help inform the design and conduct of future research. Health economics studies about BE screening and surveillance were identified using electronic database searches and personal contact with authors of identified studies. No studies examined general population screening. Five US studies published between 2003 and 2007 examined the cost effectiveness of screening and surveillance (against no intervention) in patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). There was no randomized trial evidence to inform model construction. Assumptions about prevalence and transition probabilities between BE histologic subtypes and about surveillance and treatment protocols varied substantially between studies. Parameters such as potential BE diagnosis-related reduction in quality of life or increase in health care use, diagnostic accuracy, and infrastructural costs (for quality assurance) were considered either "optimistically" or not at all. Only 2 studies considered endoscopic treatments. No study considered the recently introduced radiofrequency ablation technique, or the potential for biomarker-based risk stratification of surveillance interval or duration. Current health economics evidence is likely to have provided optimistic cost-effectiveness estimates and is not sufficient to support introduction of endoscopic BE screening programs among GERD patients. The evidence does not adequately incorporate novel (endoscopic) treatments and the potential for (clinical, endoscopic, or biomarker-based) risk stratification of surveillance. Future research should aim to encompass both these factors.

  1. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  2. Hospital-based surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herini, Elisabeth Siti; Gunadi; Triono, Agung; Mulyadi, Asal Wahyuni Erlin; Mardin, Niprida; Rusipah; Soenarto, Yati; Reef, Susan E

    2017-03-01

    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has serious consequences, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and severe birth defects in infants, resulting from rubella virus infection during pregnancy. However, rubella vaccine has not yet been implemented in Indonesia. This study aimed (1) to estimate the incidence of CRS in Indonesia, (2) describe the clinical features of CRS at our referral hospital, and (3) pilot a CRS surveillance system to be extended to other hospitals. We conducted a 4-month prospective surveillance study of infants aged Indonesia. Conducting hospital-based surveillance of CRS in other hospitals in Indonesia may be appropriate. What is Known: •Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has serious consequences in infants resulting from rubella virus infection during pregnancy. •The incidence of CRS in most developed countries has greatly decreased since implementation of rubella vaccination. •Rubella vaccine has not yet been implemented in many developing countries. What is New: •The number of laboratory-confirmed CRS cases among Indonesian infants was high. •Implementation of rubella vaccine into immunization programs in Indonesia is important because of the high number of CRS cases. •Our study highlights the need for ongoing prospective surveillance of CRS in Indonesia.

  3. National capacity for surveillance, prevention, and control of West Nile virus and other arbovirus infections--United States, 2004 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Patel, Dhara; Bradley, Kristy; Hughes, James M; Blackmore, Carina; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Getchell, Jane; Blumenstock, James; Engel, Jeffrey

    2014-04-04

    In the first 5 years after its introduction in the United States in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) spread to the 48 contiguous states, resulting in 667 reported deaths. To establish detection and response capacity, WNV surveillance and prevention was supported through CDC Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity (ELC) cooperative agreements with all 50 states and six large cities/counties. In 2005, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) conducted an assessment of ELC recipients and determined that, since 1999, all had developed WNV surveillance and control programs, resulting in a national arboviral surveillance infrastructure. From 2004 to 2012, ELC funding for WNV surveillance decreased by 61%. In 2012, the United States had its most severe WNV season since 2003, prompting a follow-up assessment of the capacity of ELC-supported WNV programs. Since the first assessment, 22% of jurisdictions had stopped conducting active human surveillance, 13% had stopped mosquito surveillance, 70% had reduced mosquito trapping and testing, and 64% had eliminated avian mortality surveillance. Reduction in early detection capacity compromises local and national ability to rapidly detect changes in WNV and other arboviral activity and to initiate prevention measures. Each jurisdiction is encouraged to review its current surveillance systems in light of the local threat of WNV and emerging arboviruses (e.g., dengue and chikungunya) and ensure it is able to rapidly detect and respond to critical changes in arbovirus activity.

  4. Comparing an Emotion- and a Behavior-Focused Parenting Program as Part of a Multsystemic Intervention for Child Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J; Stargatt, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multisystemic early intervention that included a comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused parenting program for children with emerging conduct problems. The processes that moderated positive child outcomes were also explored. A repeated measures cluster randomized group design methodology was employed with three conditions (Tuning in to Kids, Positive Parenting Program, and waitlist control) and two periods (preintervention and 6-month follow-up). The sample consisted of 320 predominantly Caucasian 4- to 9-year-old children who were screened for disruptive behavior problems. Three outcome measures of child conduct problems were evaluated using a parent (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and teacher (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) rating scale and a structured child interview (Home Interview With Child). Six moderators were assessed using family demographic information and a parent-rated measure of psychological well-being (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales short form). The results indicated that the multisystemic intervention was effective compared to a control group and that, despite different theoretical orientations, the emotion- and behavior-focused parenting programs were equally effective in reducing child conduct problems. Child age and parent psychological well-being moderated intervention response. This effectiveness trial supports the use of either emotion- or behavior-focused parenting programs in a multisystemic early intervention and provides greater choice for practitioners in the selection of specific programs.

  5. The incidence of nosocomial infection in the Intensive Care Unit, Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia: ICU-acquired nosocomial infection surveillance program 1998-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozaidi, S W; Sukro, J; Dan, A

    2001-06-01

    CU-acquired nosocomial infection (NI) remains one of the major causes of ICU mortality. This study presents the incidence of ICU-acquired nosocomial infection in ICU HUKM for the years 1998 and 1999, as part of the ongoing ICU-acquired nosocomial infection surveillance program. The overall incidence was 23%. The main types of NI was lower respiratory tract infection (15.3%), primary bacteraemia (8.1%), ventilator associated pneumonia (5.4%), urinary tract infection (2.0%), skin infection (1.6%) central venous catheter sepsis (1.2%) and surgical skin infection (0.8%). The overall culture positive nosocomial infection rate was only 12.1%, majority from the lungs (12.6%), blood (7.3%), skin swabs (2.0%), and urine (1.6%). The main gram-negative organism cultured was Acinetobacter sp. (19%) and Staph. aureus (8.5%) was the gram-positive organism. The overall ICU mortality rate was 27.5% of which 60.9% of patients who died were attributed directly to sepsis.

  6. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1989. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1989 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 58 refs., 31 figs., 39 tabs.

  7. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1987. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1987 cover: external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and liquid effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface and ground waters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are insignificant and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment. 113 refs., 33 figs., 120 tabs.

  8. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the environmental surveillance program conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in 1979. Routine monitoring for radiation and radioactive or chemical substances was conducted on the Laboratory site and in the surrounding region to determine compliance with appropriate standards and permit early identification of possible undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of the data for 1979 on penetrating radiation, chemical and radiochemical quality of ambient air, surface and ground water, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, food, and airborne and liquid effluents are included. Comparisons with appropriate standards and regulations or with background levels from natural or other non-LASL sources provide a basis for concluding that environmental effects attributable to LASL operations are minor and cannot be considered likely to result in any hazard to the population of the area. Results of several special studies provide documentation of some unique environmental conditions in the LASL environs.

  9. Prevalence of rotavirus genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program: report of rotavirus surveillance in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Durmaz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A rotaviruses are the most common causative agent of acute gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years of age throughout the world. This sentinel surveillance study was aimed to obtain baseline data on the rotavirus G and P genotypes across Turkey before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program. METHODS: Rotavirus antigen-positive samples were collected from 2102 children less than 5 years of age who attended hospitals participating in the Turkish Rotavirus Surveillance Network. Rotavirus antigen was detected in the laboratories of participating hospitals by commercial serological tests such as latex agglutination, immunochromatographic test or enzyme immunoassay. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using consensus primers detecting the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. RESULTS: RT-PCR found rotavirus RNA in 1644 (78.2% of the samples tested. The highest rate of rotavirus positivity (38.7% was observed among children in the 13 to 24 month age group, followed by children in the age group of 25 to 36 months (28.3%. A total of eight different G types, six different P types, and 42 different G-P combinations were obtained. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3, and G9 and two common P types (P[8] and P[4] accounted for 95.1% and 98.8% of the strains, respectively. G9P[8] was the most common G/P combination found in 40.5% of the strains followed by G1P[8] (21.6%, G2P[8] (9.3%, G2P[4] (6.5%, G3P[8] (3.5%, and finally, G4P[8] (3.4%. These six common genotypes included 83.7% of the strains tested in this study. The rate of uncommon genotypes was 14%. CONCLUSION: The majority of the strains analyzed belonged to the G1-G4 and G9 genotypes, suggesting high coverage of current rotavirus vaccines. This study also demonstrates a dramatic increase in G9 genotype across the country.

  10. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  11. Elevated blood lead in California adults, 1987: results of a statewide surveillance program based on laboratory reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L; Sutton, P; Jones, J R; Kizer, K W

    1990-08-01

    California medical laboratories that test for blood lead are required to report results exceeding 1.21 mumols/L (25 micrograms/dl). Between April and December 1987, the California Department of Health Services received 3,077 blood lead reports from 34 laboratories for 1,293 civilian, non-institutionalized adults. Approximately 1 percent of all reports exceeded 3.87 mumols/L (80 micrograms/dl), 7 percent exceeded 2.42 mumols/L (50 micrograms/dl), and 21 percent exceeded 1.93 mumols/L (40 micrograms/dl). Individuals tested were overwhelmingly male (94 percent), disproportionately Hispanic surnamed (44 percent), and most often residents of Los Angeles County (81 percent). Workers in lead smelting, battery manufacturing, and brass foundries accounted for nearly 80 percent of reports. Construction, radiator repair, pottery and ceramics manufacturing, and gun firing ranges accounted for the remainder. All adults with reports of greater than or equal to 2.90 mumols/L who were contacted reported on occupational exposure. Approximately half were not in routine medical monitoring programs. Despite OSHA standards, elevated blood lead with the potential for serious acute and chronic lead poisoning in California adults remains a significant public health and major occupational health concern.

  12. Improving preschooler conduct adaptation by using a social learning program based on motion games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa Szilárda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Being aware of the changes which occur under the influence of environmental conditions, education, culture and social roles upon the child is indispensable with a view to build up a conduct adapted to the social environment. For any preschooler child, entering kindergarten is an important social event and getting adapted to the new situation is not easy. Broadening the relational framework with objects, other individuals, with one’s own self, results in disciplining preschooler conducts and increasing the number of socially desirable conducts. Relying upon the above statements, this study is aimed at working out a social learning programme made up of motion games involving socialization/cooperation elements intended for inducing amelioration in terms of the child’s conduct during the process of adaptation to the kindergarten environment. The experiment was conducted using a sample of “little group” preschoolers (children 3-4 years of age. As research methods, the following have been used: studying the reference literature, the method of pedagogical observation, the method of experiment and the method of playing. Further to the practical application of the programme worked out with a view to enhance the adaptation conduct in the said subjects, the experimental group proved to have undergone a significant positive evolution and each subject showed improvements considering the conduct of adaptation to kindergarten conditions, as highlighted by the change i.e. higher values in terms of the individual scores achieved at the final test. Preschool education is meant to provide all possible ways and means to enable any child’s integration into groups of children of a peer age, to develop sociability in children and to create favorable conditions for building out inter-children networks.

  13. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LE Bisping

    1999-02-12

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental protection Program,'' and DOE Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.'' The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY1999 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes the sampling location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 1999 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing approximate sampling locations.

  14. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LE Bisping

    2000-01-27

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program: and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling design is described in the Operations Office, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY 2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2000 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map showing approximate sampling locations is included for each media scheduled for collection.

  15. Hanford site environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1 {open_quotes}General Environmental Protection Program,{close_quotes} and DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.{close_quotes} The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the 1998 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section of this document describes the planned sampling schedule for a specific media (air, surface water, biota, soil and vegetation, sediment, and external radiation). Each section includes the sample location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be planned for 1998 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing sample locations.

  16. State-level Zoonotic Disease Surveillance in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Scotch, Matthew; Rabinowitz, Peter; Brandt, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, yet recent commissions have highlighted deficiencies in their surveillance. We conducted a survey to understand the needs of state agencies for zoonotic disease surveillance. The findings will hopefully support the development of biomedical informatics applications that can link animal and human data for surveillance.

  17. Supporting Policy and Program Decisions: Recommendations for Conducting High Quality Systematic Evidence Reviews. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Policy and program decisions typically involve selecting one choice from among a set of options, and research about the effect of those options can help inform the decision process. However, for the research to be useful, decision makers need a way of drawing accurate lessons from what often can be a large assortment of relevant studies.…

  18. FitKids360: Design, Conduct, and Outcomes of a Stage 2 Pediatric Obesity Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M. Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes FitKids360, a stage 2 pediatric weight management program. FitKids360 is a physician-referred, multicomponent, low-cost healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese youth 5–16 years of age and their families. FitKids360 provides an evidence-based approach to the treatment of pediatric overweight by targeting patients’ physical activity, screen time, and dietary behaviors using a family-centered approach. The intervention begins with a two-hour orientation and assessment period followed by six weekly sessions. Assessments include lifestyle behaviors, anthropometry, and the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA survey, which screens for obesogenic risk factors in the home environment. Outcomes are presented from 258 patients who completed one of 33 FitKids360 classes. After completing FitKids360, patients increased moderate to vigorous physical activity by 14 minutes (P=0.019, reduced screen time by 44 minutes (P<0.001, and improved key dietary behaviors. Overall, FNPA scores increased by 9% (P<0.001 and 69% of patients with “high risk” FNPA scores at baseline dropped below the “high risk” range by followup. Patients also lowered BMIs (P=0.011 and age- and sex-adjusted BMI z-scores (P<0.001 after completing the 7-week program. We hope this report will be useful to medical and public health professionals seeking to develop stage 2 pediatric obesity programs.

  19. Survey of Communicable Diseases Surveillance System in Hospitals of Iran: A Qualitative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehcheshmeh, Nayeb Fadaei; Arab, Mohammad; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Farzianpour, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Communicable Disease Surveillance and reporting is one of the key elements to combat against diseases and their control. Fast and timely recognition of communicable diseases can be helpful in controlling of epidemics. One of the main sources of management of communicable diseases reporting is hospitals that collect communicable diseases’ reports and send them to health authorities. One of the focal problems and challenges in this regard is incomplete and imprecise reports from hospitals. In this study, while examining the implementation processes of the communicable diseases surveillance in hospitals, non-medical people who were related to the program have been studied by a qualitative approach. Methods: This study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants in the study included 36 informants, managers, experts associated with health and surveillance of communicable diseases that were selected using targeted sampling and with diverse backgrounds and work experience (different experiences in primary health surveillance and treatment, Ministry levels, university staff and operations (hospitals and health centers) and sampling was continued until arrive to data saturation. Results: Interviews were analyzed after the elimination of duplicate codes and integration of them. Finally, 73 codes were acquired and categorized in 6 major themes and 21 levels. The main themes included: policy making and planning, development of resources, organizing, collaboration and participation, surveillance process, and monitoring and evaluation of the surveillance system. In point of interviewees, attention to these themes is necessary to develop effective and efficient surveillance system for communicable diseases. Conclusion: Surveillance system in hospitals is important in developing proper macro - policies in health sector, adoption of health related decisions and preventive plans appropriate to the existing situation. Compilation, changing

  20. Genetically Programming Interfaces between Active Materials, Conductive Pathway and Current Collector in Li Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    assembled into coin cell with metallic lithium as counter electrode. Electrochemical characterization was conducted by galvanostatically cycling the half...encodes either A1, A2, S7, T7 or H7. These DNAs were then introduced into bacteria cells for amplification. Genetic sequencing performed on the

  1. Assessing and Treating Aggression and Conduct Problems in Schools: Implications from the Coping Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Nicole P.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Baden, Rachel; Stromeyer, Sara; Minney, Jessica A.; Mushtaq, Asia; Lochman, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior and conduct problems create major management problems in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates and with their own academic achievement. A contextual social-cognitive model can provide a framework for understanding risk factors involved in the development and…

  2. E-book for Knowledge Management in Scientific Research Conducted in the Medical Sciences Graduate Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oramis Sosa Palacios

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The training of students enrolled in the Medical Sciences graduate program (residents includes research activities such as research projects, the final paper of the specialty, scientific events and scientific publications. Knowledge gaps in residents lead to problems seen in both the poor quality of the research project and the final paper of the specialty and in the lack of autonomy to make decisions, affecting their overall training. An electronic book aimed at residents was created for knowledge management in scientific research. The first version was designed using the Crheasoft 2.0 program. It consists of: presentation, start modules, list of topics and complementary information. It comprises condensed knowledge on: research management, research methodology, statistics, information management, computer science, linguistics and language. This e-book contributes to the execution of research activities and promotes learning independence.

  3. The epidemiology of malignant giant cell tumors of bone: an analysis of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (1975–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Schwartz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant giant cell tumor (GCT of bone is a rare tumor with debilitating consequences. Patients with GCT of bone typically present with mechanical difficulty and pain as a result of bone destruction and are at an increased risk for fracture. Because of its unusual occurrence, little is known about the epidemiology of malignant GCT of bone. This report offers the first reliable population-based estimates of incidence, patient demographics, treatment course and survival for malignancy in GCT of bone in the United States. Using data from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER program, we estimated the overall incidence and determinants of survival among patients diagnosed with malignant GCT of bone from 1975-2004. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate demographic and clinical determinants of survival among malignant GCT cases. Based on analyses of 117 malignant GCT cases, the estimated annual incidence in the United States was 1.6 per 10,000,000 persons per year. Incidence was highest among adults aged 20 to 44 years (2.4 per 10,000,000 per year and most patients were diagnosed with localized (31.6% or regional (29.9% disease compared to distant disease (16.2%. Approximately 85% of patients survived at least 5 years, with survival poorest among older patients and those with evidence of distant metastases at time of diagnosis. The current study represents the largest systematic investigation examining the occurrence and distribution of malignancy in GCT of bone in the general U.S. population. We confirm its rare occurrence and suggest that age and stage at diagnosis are strongly associated with long-term survival.

  4. Injuries in the North--analysis of 20 years of surveillance data collected by the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Minh T; Fréchette, Mylène; McFaull, Steven; Denning, Bryany; Ruta, Mike; Thompson, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Injury is a major public health concern, particularly for Canadians living in Arctic regions where the harsh physical and social conditions pose additional challenges. Surveillance data collected over the past 2 decades through the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) provide insights into the burden of injuries in certain parts of Canada. This study aims to summarize and compare patterns of injuries in the Northwest Territories (NWT) and Nunavut to other southern communities across Canada. Analysis was based on CHIRPP data covering the period 1991-2010. Proportionate injury ratio (PIR) and its 95% confidence interval were used to summarize and compare the injury experience of Canadians living in the Arctic regions to other CHIRPP sites across Canada. Between 1991 and 2010, there were 65,116 reported injuries. Approximately 83% of the cases were unintentional in nature; however, significantly higher proportions were observed for assaults and maltreatment (PIR = 2.80, 95% CI: 2.72-2.88) among Canadians living in northern communities. Significantly higher proportions were also observed for crushing/amputations (PIR = 2.28, 95% CI: 2.14-2.44), poison/toxic effects (PIR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.15-1.28), drowning/asphyxiations (PIR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.33-1.74) and frostbites (PIR = 7.39, 95% CI: 6.60-8.28). The use of all-terrain vehicles or snowmobiles also resulted in significantly higher proportions of injuries (PIR = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.79-2.09). This study contributes to the limited literature describing injuries in northern communities where the harsh physical and social climates pose additional challenges. Excesses in the proportions identified in this study could be useful in identifying strategies needed to minimize injury risks in northern communities within Canada.

  5. Effect of occupational polychlorinated biphenyls exposure on quality-adjusted life years over time at the HELPcB surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, A; Gaum, P M; Schettgen, T; Kraus, T; Gube, M; Lang, J

    2015-01-01

    HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls [PCB]) is a surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a capacitor recycling company and other concerned individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and on quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The EQ-5D-3L questionnaire was used to determine the HRQL. After three cross-sectional examinations at intervals of 1 yr, the longitudinal development of QALY was compared by repeated-measurement analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The cohort was split at the 95th percentile of the comparison group for each PCB congener; known confounders such as age were taken into account. A significant difference in height and development of QALY over time was shown for the higher chlorinated non-dioxin-like PCB (hcPCB) congeners. A significant between-groups effect was found on PCB 153, PCB 180, and the sum of hcPCB. It was found that QALY decreased in the high-burden group and QALY stabilized after yr 2 in the normal-burden group. Taking the dimensions of the EQ-5D into account, the between-groups effect seems to be based predominantly on the dimension anxiety. The development of the within-group effect, however, seems to be based on the dimension mobility. This study detected a significant influence of hcPCB on the development of HRQL and QALYs over time according to the level of internal PCB burden.

  6. Survival by histologic subtype in stage IV nonsmall cell lung cancer based on data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei Y

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Karynsa Cetin1, David S Ettinger2, Yong-jiang Hei3, Cynthia D O'Malley11Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA; 2Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Global Development, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USABackground: The role of histology in the targeted management of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC has garnered renewed attention in recent years. We provide contemporary population-based estimates of survival and an assessment of important prognostic factors in stage IV NSCLC by major histologic subtype.Methods: Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER Program, we stratified 51,749 incident stage IV NSCLC patients (1988–2003 with follow-up through 2006 by major histologic subtype. We used Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards methods to describe overall survival and the prognostic influence of select patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics for each histologic subgroup.Results: Survival was highest in patients with bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma (1-year survival: 29.1% and lowest in those with large cell tumors (1-year survival: 12.8%. Diagnosis in later years, female gender, younger age, either Asian/Pacific Islander or Hispanic race/ethnicity, lower tumor grade, and surgery or beam radiation as part of first-line treatment were generally independently associated with a decreased risk of death, but the prognostic significance of some of these factors (age, ethnicity, tumor grade varied according to histologic subtype.Conclusion: Findings demonstrate a poor prognosis across histologic subtypes in stage IV NSCLC patients but highlight differences in both absolute survival and the relative importance of select prognostic factors by histologic subclassification. More research using other sources of population-based data could help clarify the role of histology in the presentation, management, and prognosis of late

  7. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2002-01-16

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. The document contains the CY 2002 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  8. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M - Report for 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2007-05-07

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2006 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand-pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (PlotM) to the hand pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if buried radionuclides other than hydrogen-3 have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive and chemically hazardous materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red GateWoods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  9. Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2009-05-07

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2008 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to (1) monitor the migration pathway of hydrogen-3 contaminated water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and (3) monitor for the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  10. Surveillance of site A and plot M, report for 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.; ESH/QA Oversight

    2008-03-25

    The results of the environmental surveillance program conducted at Site A/Plot M in the Palos Forest Preserve area for Calendar Year 2007 are presented. Based on the results of the 1976-1978 radiological characterization of the site, a determination was made that a surveillance program be established. The characterization study determined that very low levels of hydrogen-3 (as tritiated water) had migrated from the burial ground and were present in two nearby hand pumped picnic wells. The current surveillance program began in 1980 and consists of sample collection and analysis of surface and subsurface water. The results of the analyses are used to: (1) monitor the migration pathway of water from the burial ground (Plot M) to the hand-pumped picnic wells, (2) establish if other buried radionuclides have migrated, and (3) monitor the presence of radioactive materials in the environment of the area. Hydrogen-3 in the Red Gate Woods picnic wells was still detected this year, but the average and maximum concentrations were significantly less than found earlier. Hydrogen-3 continues to be detected in a number of wells, boreholes, dolomite holes, and a surface stream. Analyses since 1984 have indicated the presence of low levels of strontium-90 in water from a number of boreholes next to Plot M. The results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the radioactivity remaining at Site A/Plot M does not endanger the health or safety of the public visiting the site, using the picnic area, or living in the vicinity.

  11. Conducting international diploma course on malaria program planning and management (1996-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Mesdaghinia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still a public health problem in the world. One of the main objectives of World Health organization is capacity building of authorities who are involved with malaria control activities.The first course was conducted in 1996 in Bandar Abbas Training center. The course was conducted jointly by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran, WHO-EMRO and School of Public health, Tehran university of Medical Sciences. In year 2002, Iran has been designated as WHO regional Malaria Training Center. Prior to initiate the course, pre-test evaluations including 11 subjects were carried out. The examinations include multiple choice questions. Different methods of teaching including lecture, laboratory, workshop, team work, field exercise and presentation were used. The duration of the course was 9 weeks. A total of 360 contact hours were taught. The main subjects were Basic epidemiology and Simple Statistics, Malaria Parasitology, Malaria disease Management, Malaria Entomology, Vector Control, Epidemiological approach, Filed work and Planning. The requirement for achievement of the course was to have at least 60% of the total mark for awarding the diploma certificate. The 13th course was conducted by the financial support of Islamic Development Bank (IDB.A total of 300 participants from 26 different countries have been graduated from these courses so far.This course is providing the skill for decision making, how to combat against malaria in their country and is parallel to the policy of the malaria control for capacity building in malarious areas of the world.

  12. THERM3D -- A boundary element computer program for transient heat conduction problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingber, M.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-02-01

    The computer code THERM3D implements the direct boundary element method (BEM) to solve transient heat conduction problems in arbitrary three-dimensional domains. This particular implementation of the BEM avoids performing time-consuming domain integrations by approximating a ``generalized forcing function`` in the interior of the domain with the use of radial basis functions. An approximate particular solution is then constructed, and the original problem is transformed into a sequence of Laplace problems. The code is capable of handling a large variety of boundary conditions including isothermal, specified flux, convection, radiation, and combined convection and radiation conditions. The computer code is benchmarked by comparisons with analytic and finite element results.

  13. Tuberculosis en trabajadores de la salud: importancia de los programas de vigilancia y control Tuberculosis in healthcare workers: importance of surveillance and control programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner

    2000-02-01

    follow-up were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with odds ratios, p-values, and 95% confidence intervals. Subgroup analysis were done with chi². Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to analyze times to conversion. RESULTS: Surveillance was done in 1617 workers (68% female and 32% male. Mean age was 26.9±7.6(15-68 years. Job positions were 30.5% nurses, 14.6% residents and 14.1% interns. Place of origin was Mexico City in 65.8%. BCG vaccination was present in 71.6% and 15.1% had previous PPD. Admission PPD was positive in 39.6%, negative in 48.3% and 12.1% were lost to follow-up. On negatives, 483 booster shots were applied, and 49 additional positives were found. Follow-up was done in 231 workers, of which 100 (43.3% converted. The mean time for conversion was 22.8±12.4 months. The conversion rate at twelve months was 20%. Fifty workers received/accepted isoniazid prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: A high percentage of workers were PPD-positive; booster shots allowed the detection of an additional 10%. A high conversion rate underscores the need to organize tuberculosis control programs in Mexico.

  14. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Data Report for Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2008-10-13

    Environmental surveillance on and around the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. The environmental surveillance data collected for this report provide a historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and Hanford Site operations. Data were also collected to monitor several chemicals and metals in Columbia River water, sediment, and wildlife. These data are included in this appendix. This report is the first of two appendices that support "Hanford Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2007" (PNNL-17603), which describes the Hanford Site mission and activities, general environmental features, radiological and chemical releases from operations, status of compliance with environmental regulations, status of programs to accomplish compliance, Hanford Site cleanup and remediation efforts, and environmental monitoring activities and results.

  15. 基于互联网信息的公共卫生监测进展%A review on the advancement of internet-based public health surveillance program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永谦; 马文军

    2017-01-01

    互联网数据因其更新快和数据量丰富的特点被引入公共卫生监测领域.通过挖掘分析互联网中丰富的健康相关信息,研究者建立基于互联网的公共卫生监测系统,以快速估计人群中健康相关事件的分布.基于互联网的公共卫生监测系统根据信息来源不同可分为主动式监测系统和被动式监测系统.相较于传统监测系统,基于互联网的监测系统具有及时性佳和成本低的优点,还可在健康相关行为监测和卫生政策评价等传统监测力所不逮的领域发挥作用.但由于假阳性消息的存在,基于互联网的监测系统存在准确性不佳的缺点.本文介绍基于互联网的公共卫生监测进展及其在疾病预警中的应用,为我国开展相关工作提供参考.%Internet data is introduced into public health arena under the features of fast updating and tremendous volume.Mining and analyzing internet data,researchers can model the internet-based surveillance system to assess the distribution of health-related events.There are two main types of internet-based surveillance systems,i.e.active and passive,which are distinguished by the sources of information.Through passive surveillance system,information is collected from search engine and social media while the active system gathers information through provision of the volunteers.Except for serving as a real-time and convenient complementary approach to traditional disease,food safety and adverse drug reaction surveillance program,Internet-based surveillance system can also play a role in health-related behavior surveillance and policy evaluation.Although several techniques have been applied to filter information,the accuracy of internet-based surveillance system is still bothered by the false positive information.In this article,we have summarized the development and application of internet-based surveillance system in public health to provide reference for a better surveillance

  16. Evaluation of multivariate surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Frisén,Marianne; Andersson, Eva; Schiöler, Linus

    2009-01-01

    Multivariate surveillance is of interest in many areas such as industrial production, bioterrorism detection, spatial surveillance, and financial transaction strategies. Some of the suggested approaches to multivariate surveillance have been multivariate counterparts to the univariate Shewhart, EWMA, and CUSUM methods. Our emphasis is on the special challenges of evaluating multivariate surveillance methods. Some new measures are suggested and the properties of several measures are demonstrat...

  17. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence an

  18. SOA-surveillance Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam J; Bosman A; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999 a working group was started to evaluate the current surveillance systems for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and to make suggestions for a renewed effective and efficient STD surveillance system in the Netherlands. The surveillance system has to provide insight into the prevalence

  19. Non-physiological increase of AV conduction time in sinus disease patients programmed in AAIR-based pacing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabo, Philippe; Cebron, Jean-Pierre; Solnon, Aude; Tassin, Aude; Graindorge, Laurence; Gras, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The EVOCAV(DS) trial aimed to quantify the paradoxal atrioventricular (AV) conduction time lengthening in sinus node (SD) patients (pts) paced in AAIR-based pacing mode. SD pts, implanted with dual-chamber pacemaker programmed in AAIR-based pacing mode, were randomized in two arms for a 1-month period: the low atrial pacing (LAP; basic rate at 60 bpm, dual sensor with minimal slope) and the high atrial pacing (HAP; basic rate at 70 bpm, dual sensor with optimized slope, overdrive pacing) arm. At 1 month, crossover was performed for an additional 1-month period. AV conduction time, AV block occurrence and AV conduction time adaptation during exercise were ascertained from device memories at each follow-up. Seventy-nine pts participated to the analysis (75 ± 8 years; 32 male; PR = 184 ± 38 ms; bundle branch block n = 12; AF history n = 36; antiarrhythmic treatment n = 53; beta-blockers n = 27; class III/Ic n = 18; both n = 8). The mean AV conduction time was significantly greater during the HAP (275 ± 51 ms) vs. LAP (263 ± 49 ms) period (p AV blocks occurred in 49 % of pts in the HAP vs. 19 % in the LAP period (p AV conduction time during exercise. AAIR-based pacing in SD pts may induce a significant lengthening of pts' AV conduction time, including frequent abnormal adaptation of AV conduction time during exercise.

  20. The AFHSC-Division of GEIS Operations Predictive Surveillance Program: A Multidisciplinary Approach for the Early Detection and Response to Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    from laboratory diag- nosis or syndromic surveillance. This human disease surveillance is described elsewhere [46] and will not be discussed here...northeastern Kenya, and southeastern Ethiopia in 2000-01. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 2003, 97:515-518. 39. Paddock CD, Sumner JW, Comer JA, Zaki SR, Goldsmith...mammals in the Republic of Korea. J Wild Dis 2010, 46(1):165-172. 46. Lombardo J, Burkom H, Elbert E, Magruder S, Lewis SH, Loschen W, Sari J, Sniegoski C

  1. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsam, G.

    Australia's geography and technology base got it off to a flying start in the early days of surveillance of space, starting with CSIRO's first radio telescope in the 1940's and climaxing in NASA's establishment of station 43 in the Deep Space Network at Tidbinbilla in 1965. But Britain's exit from space and the subsequent closure of the Woomera launch range and associated space tracking facilities in the early 1970's saw the start of a long draw-down of capability. Programs such as CSIRO's radio astronomy telescopes, Electro-Optic Systems' adoption of laser technology for satellite laser ranging and tracking system, and the exploration of the use of technology developed in Australia's over-the-horizon-radar program for surveillance of space, kept some interest in the problem alive, but there has been no serious national investment in the area for the last thirty years. Recently, however, increased awareness of the vulnerability of space systems and the need to include potential opponents' space capabilities in operations planning has led to a revival of interest in space situational awareness within the Australian Defence Organisation. While firm commitments to new systems must wait on the next Defence White Paper due out at the end of 2007 and the policy directions it formally endorses, discussions have already started with the US on participating in the Space Surveillance Network (SSN) and developing a comprehensive space situational awareness capability. In support of these initiatives the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO) is drawing up an inventory of relevant Australian capabilities, technologies and activities: the paper will describe the findings of this inventory, and in particular local technologies and systems that might be deployed in Australia to contribute to the SSN. In the optical regime the available options are rather limited; they centre primarily on the satellite laser ranging technology developed by Electro-Optic Systems and

  2. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Tante

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR, Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED. Methods: A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results: Two of 11 (18% surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45% surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91% rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7% considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27% surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6% surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion: In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other.

  3. 优化正己烷作业人群职业健康监护技术方案研究%Study on optimization of technical program of occupational health surveillance for workers exposed to n-hexane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉斌; 黄汉林; 李宏玲; 江嘉欣

    2014-01-01

    Objective To carry out an optimization of technical program of occupational health surveillance( OHS)for workers exposed to n-hexane,and to improve its accessibility. Methods According to the theory of evidence-based medi-cine,this research analyzed the target diseases,screening items and interval period of the pre-employment/on-job/off-post physical examination required by GBZ 188 Technical Specifications of Occupational Health Surveillance,and reviewed the collected articles on common issues of OHS from literature database,such as the China National Knowledge Internet ( CNKI),WanFang and PubMed,in order to select proper indicators,promote an optimization and guideline of OHS for workers exposed to n-hexane with primary application. Results The optimization of technical program and application guide of OHS for workers exposed to n-hexane was established by altering nerve conduction velocity and serum neuron-specific enolase as biomarkers of effect,urine 2,5-hexanedione as biomarkers of exposure;adding urine glucose as identifi-cation indicators;adding diabetes complicated with peripheral nerve damage,vitamin B deficiency,minors and female employees with pregnancy or lactation as occupational contraindications. Conclusion The optimization is practical and proved to be applicable in OHS for workers exposed to n-hexane.%目的:建立正己烷作业人群职业健康监护( OHS )优化方案和应用指南,提高职业健康监护的可操作性。方法从循证医学角度出发,对GBZ 188《职业健康监护技术规范》规定的对正己烷作业人群开展上岗前、在岗期间和离岗时OHS的目标疾病、健康检查内容和周期等内容进行分析,以OHS工作中的常见问题为线索,通过中国期刊全文数据库( CNKI)、万方数据库和PubMed进行文献检索,筛选优化指标,提出正己烷作业人群OHS技术优化方案和应用指南,初步推广应用。结果成功建立正己烷作业人群OHS技术

  4. Results of an interlaboratory fatigue test program conducted on alloy 800H at room and elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental approach adopted for low cycle fatigue tests of alloy 800H involved the use of electrohydraulic test systems, hour glass geometry specimens, diametral extensometers, and axial strain computers. Attempts to identify possible problem areas were complicated by the lack of reliable data for the heat of Alloy 800H under investigation. The method adopted was to generate definitive test data in an Interlaboratory Fatigue Test Program. The laboratories participating in the program were Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle Columbus, Mar-Test, and NASA Lewis. Fatigue tests were conducted on both solid and turbular specimens at temperatures of 20, 593, and 760 C and strain ranges of 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5 percent. The subject test method can, under certain circumstances, produce fatigue data which are serious in error. This approach subsequently was abandoned at General Atomic Company in favor of parallel gage length specimens and axial extensometers.

  5. In Vitro Activity of Imipenem against Carbapenemase-Positive Enterobacteriaceae Isolates Collected by the SMART Global Surveillance Program from 2008 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, James A; Lob, Sibylle H; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Badal, Robert E; Young, Katherine; Motyl, Mary R; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-06-01

    The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance program collected 103,960 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from 2008 to 2014. From this isolate collection, all ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates (MIC, ≥1 μg/ml; n = 3,428) and 9,371 isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis with an ertapenem-susceptible extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive phenotype were assessed for the presence of common carbapenemase genes using a Check-MDR CT101 microarray (Check-Points, Wageningen, the Netherlands) and published multiplex PCR assays. Testing identified 1,493 isolates that harbored a carbapenemase gene (1,485 ertapenem-nonsusceptible isolates and 8 ertapenem-susceptible ESBL-positive isolates) and accounted for 1.4% (1,493/103,960) of all isolates of Enterobacteriaceae The most frequently identified carbapenemase genes were the KPC (n = 794), OXA-48-like (n = 300), and NDM (n = 290) genes. Carbapenemase genes were most frequently identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1,127), Escherichia coli (n = 149), and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 110). Among the carbapenemase-positive isolates, 66.7% (2/3), 37.0% (111/300), 20.0% (8/40), 3.3% (3/92), 2.3% (18/794), and 0% (0/290) of the isolates with genes for GES, OXA-48-like, IMP, VIM, KPC, and NDM, respectively, were susceptible to imipenem (MIC, ≤1 μg/ml). Isolates that tested as susceptible to imipenem were not uncommon among carbapenemase-positive isolates (9.4%, 141/1,493) and most frequently carried OXA-48-like enzymes (78.7%; 111/141); however, overall, these isolates remained rare (0.1%, 141/103,960). The practice of screening clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae that test as susceptible to carbapenems in vitro for the presence of carbapenemase genes remains controversial and requires further study. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Sensors for Desert Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Chauhan

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors-visible, passive night vision, infrared, synthetic aperture radar, etc can be used for desert surveillance. The surveillance capability of these sensors depends to a large extent, on various atmospheric effects, viz., absorption, scattering, aerosol, turbulence, and optical mirage. In this paper, effects of various atmospheric phenomena on the transmission of signals, merits and demerits of different means of surveillance under desert environmental conditions are discussed. Advanced surveillance techniques, ie, multisensor fusion, multi and hyperspectral imaging, having special significance for desert surveillance, have also been discussed.

  7. Periprosthetic Infection following Primary Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: The Impact of Limiting the Postoperative Surveillance Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Virginia R; Mitchell, Robyn; Vachon, Julie; Alexandre, Stéphanie; Amaratunga, Kanchana; Smith, Stephanie; Vearncombe, Mary; Davis, Ian; Mertz, Dominik; Henderson, Elizabeth; John, Michael; Johnston, Lynn; Lemieux, Camille; Pelude, Linda; Gravel, Denise

    2017-02-01

    BACKGROUND Hip and knee arthroplasty infections are associated with considerable healthcare costs. The merits of reducing the postoperative surveillance period from 1 year to 90 days have been debated. OBJECTIVES To report the first pan-Canadian hip and knee periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates and to describe the implications of a shorter (90-day) postoperative surveillance period. METHODS Prospective surveillance for infection following hip and knee arthroplasty was conducted by hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) using standard surveillance definitions. RESULTS Overall hip and knee PJI rates were 1.64 and 1.52 per 100 procedures, respectively. Deep incisional and organ-space hip and knee PJI rates were 0.96 and 0.71, respectively. In total, 93% of hip PJIs and 92% of knee PJIs were identified within 90 days, with a median time to detection of 21 days. However, 11%-16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections were not detected within 90 days. This rate was reduced to 3%-4% at 180 days post procedure. Anaerobic and polymicrobial infections had the shortest median time from procedure to detection (17 and 18 days, respectively) compared with infections due to other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS PJI rates were similar to those reported elsewhere, although differences in national surveillance systems limit direct comparisons. Our results suggest that a postoperative surveillance period of 90 days will detect the majority of PJIs; however, up to 16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections may be missed. Extending the surveillance period to 180 days could allow for a better estimate of disease burden. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:147-153.

  8. Using spatially explicit surveillance models to provide confidence in the eradication of an invasive ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Darren F; Anderson, Dean P; Barron, Mandy C

    2016-10-10

    Effective detection plays an important role in the surveillance and management of invasive species. Invasive ants are very difficult to eradicate and are prone to imperfect detection because of their small size and cryptic nature. Here we demonstrate the use of spatially explicit surveillance models to estimate the probability that Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) have been eradicated from an offshore island site, given their absence across four surveys and three surveillance methods, conducted since ant control was applied. The probability of eradication increased sharply as each survey was conducted. Using all surveys and surveillance methods combined, the overall median probability of eradication of Argentine ants was 0.96. There was a high level of confidence in this result, with a high Credible Interval Value of 0.87. Our results demonstrate the value of spatially explicit surveillance models for the likelihood of eradication of Argentine ants. We argue that such models are vital to give confidence in eradication programs, especially from highly valued conservation areas such as offshore islands.

  9. A retrospective analysis of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (bovine herpes virus-1) surveillance program in Norway using Monte Carlo simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Tharaldsen, J.; Jarp, J.

    2001-01-01

    Serological surveillance for antibodies against bovine herpes virus type I (BHV-1) which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis has been carried out since 1992 in Norway. Since 1993 (when a single infected herd was detected) all bulk-milk and pooled-serum...

  10. Een sociaal-cognitief interventieprogramma voor gedragsgestoorde kinderen, een vooronderzoek. / A social cognitive intervention program for children with a conduct disorder, a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, T.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Conducted a pilot study on the efficacy of a social-cognitive group intervention program based on social information-processing theory (K. A. Dodge, 1986) for children with a conduct disorder. Human Ss: 16 Dutch school-age children and adolescents (aged 10-13 yrs) (conduct disorder). Ss participated

  11. Activity-Based Scene Decomposition for Topology Inference of Video Surveillance Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The topology inference is the study of spatial and temporal relationships among cameras within a video surveillance network. We propose a novel approach to understand activities based on the visual coverage of a video surveillance network. In our approach, an optimal camera placement scheme is firstly presented by using a binary integer programming algorithm in order to maximize the surveillance coverage. Then, each camera view is decomposed into regions based on the Histograms of Color Optical Flow (HCOF, according to the spatial-temporal distribution of activity patterns observed in a training set of video sequences. We conduct experiments by using hours of video sequences captured at an office building with seven camera views, all of which are sparse scenes with complex activities. The results of real scene experiment show that the features of histograms of color optic flow offer important contextual information for spatial and temporal topology inference of a camera network.

  12. Annual report on surveillance and maintenance activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1995, the sites and facilities from both the Remedial Action (RA) and Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) programs were combined to form the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) Program. Surveillance and Maintenance activities were conducted throughout FY 1996 at the RA facilities. Overall, the RA S and M Program consists of approximately 650 acres that include 14 waste area groupings with approximately 200 sites. These sites include 46 major facilities, several leak and contaminated soil sites, 38 inactive tanks, approximately 50 environmental study areas and approximately 2,973 wells and boreholes. Site inspections were conducted at established frequencies on appropriate sites in the RA S and M Program in accordance with the established S and M FY 1996 Incentive Task Order (ITO).

  13. Health environmental risks surveillance systems: toxicological surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Ferrer Dufol; Santiago Nogué Xarau; Francisco Vargas Marcos; Olivia Castillo Soria; Pilar Gascó Alberich; Ana de la Torre Reoyo; Eduardo de la Peña de Torres

    2004-01-01

    A study of the Clinical Toxicological Section, about the Epidemiological Surveillance in Emergency Services, in relation to chemical products intoxications during the 1999-2003 period, is presented. This work is a result of an agreement between the Spanish Toxicological Association (AETOX) and the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumption, and was presented in the National Congress of Environment (CONAMA) within the “Health Environmental Risks Surveillance Systems” working group.

  14. Customer Surveillance: Consumer Attitudes and Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Plangger, Kirk Anton

    2015-01-01

    Due to technological advances, customer surveillance (i.e., the collection, capture, use, or storage of customers’ personal data) is becoming less expensive and more covert. Brands use these personal data that contain needs, preferences, characteristics, behavior, attitudes, or other customer attributes (i.e., market intelligence) to develop more competitive products and services. Customer surveillance also can put stress on customer relationships with brands, thus brands must conduct custome...

  15. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Verbruggen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings.

  16. Secure surveillance videotapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnik, W.M.; Kadner, S.P. [Aquila Technologies Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olsen, R.; Chitumbo, K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Pepper, S. [International Safeguards Project Office, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-12-31

    With assistance from the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), Aquila Technologies Group developed the Tamper-Resistant Analog Media (TRAM-1000) system to provide standard VHS surveillance video tapes with an enhanced tamper-indicating capability. This project represents further implementation of the partnership approach in facilities including light water reactors with MOX facilities. These facilities use Uniplex Digiquad system video tapes. The partnership approach ensures that one organization can exchange the tapes in a machine without the presence of the other, without losing continuity of information. The TRAM-1000 system development project was accomplished in two stages. In the first stage of the project, the original system delivered to the IAEA, consists of three parts: (1) the tamper detection unit, (2) a specially augmented VHS video tape, and (3) an HP-95 reader. The tamper detection unit houses a VACOSS active fiber-optic seal and an electronic identification tag (E-TAG) reader. In the second stage of the project, the original TRAM-1000 was modified to its current design based on agency input. After delivery of the original TRAM-1000 system to the IAEA, it was reviewed by inspectors. The inspectors felt that the initial system`s tape storage/transport method could be simplified. Rather than threading the fiber through the tape spindles, the inspectors suggested that the tape be placed in a bag capable of being sealed. Also, a more flexible fiber-optic cable was recommended. As a result of these suggestions, Aquila developed a tamper-proof bag specifically for holding a surveillance video tape and sealable with a VACOSS fiber optical seal.

  17. Reassembling Surveillance Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We live in societies in which surveillance technologies are constantly introduced, are transformed, and spread to new practices for new purposes. How and why does this happen? In other words, why does surveillance “creep”? This question has received little attention either in theoretical...... development or in empirical analyses. Accordingly, this article contributes to this special issue on the usefulness of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) by suggesting that ANT can advance our understanding of ‘surveillance creep’. Based on ANT’s model of translation and a historical study of the Danish DNA database......, we argue that surveillance creep involves reassembling the relations in surveillance networks between heterogeneous actors such as the watchers, the watched, laws, and technologies. Second, surveillance creeps only when these heterogeneous actors are adequately interested and aligned. However...

  18. Uncertainty analysis of heat flux measurements estimated using a one-dimensional, inverse heat-conduction program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James Thomas; Figueroa, Victor G.; Murphy, Jill E. (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA)

    2005-02-01

    The measurement of heat flux in hydrocarbon fuel fires (e.g., diesel or JP-8) is difficult due to high temperatures and the sooty environment. Un-cooled commercially available heat flux gages do not survive in long duration fires, and cooled gages often become covered with soot, thus changing the gage calibration. An alternate method that is rugged and relatively inexpensive is based on inverse heat conduction methods. Inverse heat-conduction methods estimate absorbed heat flux at specific material interfaces using temperature/time histories, boundary conditions, material properties, and usually an assumption of one-dimensional (1-D) heat flow. This method is commonly used at Sandia.s fire test facilities. In this report, an uncertainty analysis was performed for a specific example to quantify the effect of input parameter variations on the estimated heat flux when using the inverse heat conduction method. The approach used was to compare results from a number of cases using modified inputs to a base-case. The response of a 304 stainless-steel cylinder [about 30.5 cm (12-in.) in diameter and 0.32-cm-thick (1/8-in.)] filled with 2.5-cm-thick (1-in.) ceramic fiber insulation was examined. Input parameters of an inverse heat conduction program varied were steel-wall thickness, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity; insulation thickness, thermal conductivity, and volumetric heat capacity, temperature uncertainty, boundary conditions, temperature sampling period; and numerical inputs. One-dimensional heat transfer was assumed in all cases. Results of the analysis show that, at the maximum heat flux, the most important parameters were temperature uncertainty, steel thickness and steel volumetric heat capacity. The use of a constant thermal properties rather than temperature dependent values also made a significant difference in the resultant heat flux; therefore, temperature-dependent values should be used. As an example, several parameters were varied to

  19. Handbook of surveillance technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    From officially sanctioned, high-tech operations to budget spy cameras and cell phone video, this updated and expanded edition of a bestselling handbook reflects the rapid and significant growth of the surveillance industry. The Handbook of Surveillance Technologies, Third Edition is the only comprehensive work to chronicle the background and current applications of the full-range of surveillance technologies--offering the latest in surveillance and privacy issues.Cutting-Edge--updates its bestselling predecessor with discussions on social media, GPS circuits in cell phones and PDAs, new GIS s

  20. Redefining syndromic surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Baker, Julia; Test, Elisa

    2011-12-01

    With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field's capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Alan P

    2015-01-01

    .... Surveillance of antibiotic resistance involves the collection of antibiotic susceptibility test results undertaken by microbiology laboratories on bacteria isolated from clinical samples sent for investigation...

  2. Summary of activities of the life cycle costing workshop conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    A five-day life cycle workshop was conducted by the Environmental Restoration (FR) Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop appropriate remediation scenarios for each Waste Area Grouping (WAG) at ORNL and to identify associated data needs (e.g., remedial investigations, special studies, and technology demonstrations) and required interfaces. Workshop participants represented the Department of Energy, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Bechtel National, Radian Corporation, EBASCO Corporation, and M-K Ferguson. The workshop was used to establish a technical basis for remediation activities at each WAG. The workshop results are documented in this report and provide the baseline for estimating the technical scope for each WAG. The scope and associated budgets and schedules will be summarized in baseline reports for each WAG, which, in turn, will be compiled into an overall strategy document for ORNL ER.

  3. Hazelwood Interim Storage Site environmental surveillance report for calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveillance activities conducted at the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) during calendar year 1993. It includes an overview of site operations, the basis for monitoring for radioactive and non-radioactive parameters, summaries of environmental program at HISS, a summary of the results, and the calculated hypothetical radiation dose to the offsite population. Environmental surveillance activities were conducted in accordance with the site environmental monitoring plan, which describes the rationale and design criteria for the surveillance program, the frequency of sampling and analysis, specific sampling and analysis procedures, and quality assurance requirements. The US Department of Energy (DOE) began environmental monitoring of HISS in 1984, when the site was assigned to DOE by Congress through the energy and Water Development Appropriations Act and subsequent to DOE`s Formerly Utilized Sites Remediation Action Program (FUSRAP). Contamination at HISS originated from uranium processing work conducted at Mallinckrodt Chemical Works at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) from 1942 through 1957.

  4. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  5. 3-D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problems with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofronov, I.D.; Voronin, B.L.; Butnev, O.I. [VNIIEF (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the work performed is to develop a 3D parallel program for numerical calculation of gas dynamics problem with heat conductivity on distributed memory computational systems (CS), satisfying the condition of numerical result independence from the number of processors involved. Two basically different approaches to the structure of massive parallel computations have been developed. The first approach uses the 3D data matrix decomposition reconstructed at temporal cycle and is a development of parallelization algorithms for multiprocessor CS with shareable memory. The second approach is based on using a 3D data matrix decomposition not reconstructed during a temporal cycle. The program was developed on 8-processor CS MP-3 made in VNIIEF and was adapted to a massive parallel CS Meiko-2 in LLNL by joint efforts of VNIIEF and LLNL staffs. A large number of numerical experiments has been carried out with different number of processors up to 256 and the efficiency of parallelization has been evaluated in dependence on processor number and their parameters.

  6. Appropriate Pedagogical Approaches For Conduct of Site Planning and Built Environment Studio in Spatial Planning Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valliappan Alagappan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial planning education is multi-disciplinary in nature and particularly site planning needs exposure to Engineering, Architectural, Landscape, Sociological, Economic, and Infrastructural aspects. The curriculum of the spatial planning program introduces the site-planning studio (multi-level design and planning at the initial semesters without introduction of single space design and planning. Due to inadequate exposure the students find it difficult to plan and design residential layouts in the planning studio. The site-planning studio provides a good understanding of how the articulation of density can modify the built form and environment. There are considerable lacunae in the adopted approaches of site planning studios in various planning schools. The author discusses in detail the varied methodologies and approaches adopted in site planning and built environment studio programs. The two pedagogical studios methods experimented in the site-planning studio were discussed at length. One method discusses from unit level planning and designing to block and neighborhood level and other method discusses from neighborhood to block and unit level. Within these two studio pedagogical methodologies, for conduct of site planning exercises two approaches were generally adopted i.e block-based approach and Design based approach. The characteristic features, outcomes, advantages and disadvantages of each methodologies /approach offer an understanding of how site-planning studios have to be taught in the planning program. The author emphasizes the importance of a gradual progression from a single space design and planning to multi-level design and planning for enhanced comprehension of students.

  7. Summary of activities of the life cycle costing workshop conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Enviromental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    A five-day life cycle workshop was conducted by the Environmental Restoration (FR) Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop appropriate remediation scenarios for each Waste Area Grouping (WAG) at ORNL and to identify associated data needs (e.g., remedial investigations, special studies, and technology demonstrations) and required interfaces. Workshop participants represented the Department of Energy, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Bechtel National, Radian Corporation, EBASCO Corporation, and M-K Ferguson. The workshop was used to establish a technical basis for remediation activities at each WAG. The workshop results are documented in this report and provide the baseline for estimating the technical scope for each WAG. The scope and associated budgets and schedules will be summarized in baseline reports for each WAG, which, in turn, will be compiled into an overall strategy document for ORNL ER.

  8. Are hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance programs effective at improving the therapeutic options?: ¿mejoran las opciones terapéuticas de estos pacientes? Eficacia de los programas de cribado de hepatocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zapata

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to evaluate whether the current surveillance programs (ultrasonography and alpha-fetoprotein testing every six months are successful in detecting patients in the early stages. Material and methods: the health records of all patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma in Donostia Hospital between 2003 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Eighty-five patients (11 women and 74 men were included in the study and demographic data, risk factors and clinical data were obtained. Patients were split into two groups according to whether or not they had been included in a surveillance program. Results: seventy per cent of patients of the surveillance group is diagnosed in early stage opposite to 26.7% of patients in no surveillance group (p Objetivo: determinar si la utilización en nuestro medio del programa de cribado de HCC establecido -alfa-fetoproteína (AFP y ecografia semestral- en pacientes con hepatopatía crónica permite detectar pacientes en estadios precoces de la enfermedad. Material y métodos: Diseño experimental: estudio retrospectivo. Criterios diagnósticos de HCC: 2 o más técnicas de imagen con lesión hipervascular mayor de 2 cm o 1 técnica de imagen con lesión hipervascular mayor de 2 cm asociado a AFP mayor de 400 ng/ml. Pacientes: 85 pacientes diagnosticados de HCC en el Hospital Donostia entre los años 2003 y 2005. Datos analizados: información demográfica (sexo, edad, factores de riesgo (alcohol, virus de hepatitis, hemocromatosis, otras enfermedades asociadas, e información clínica (etiología de la hepatopatía, estadio de Child-Pugh, determinación de AFP, hallazgos radiológicos, criterios de resecabilidad, tratamiento recibido, evolución. Se divide la muestra en dos grupos según hubieran seguido o no un programa de cribado. Resultados: el 70% de los pacientes del grupo de cribado se diagnostican en estadio precoz frente al 26,7% del grupo de no cribado (p < 0,05. Trece pacientes no pueden recibir

  9. Mortality Surveillance in the U.S. Army 20052014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Army Publ ic Heal th Center (Provis ional Public Health Report Army Public Health Center (Provisional) Army Public Health Center (Provisional...Public Health Report Mortality Surveillance in the U.S. Army 2005-2014 PHR No. S.0034370-14 Approved for public release, distribution unlimited...Disease Surveillance Portfolio Behavioral and Social Health Outcomes Program Mortality Surveillance in the U.S. Army 2005–2014 Brent E

  10. A review of zoonotic disease surveillance supported by the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, R L; Kronmann, K C; Daniels, C C; Meyers, M; Byarugaba, D K; Dueger, E; Klein, T A; Evans, B P; Vest, K G

    2012-05-01

    The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System conducts disease surveillance through a global network of US Department of Defense research laboratories and partnerships with foreign ministries of agriculture, health and livestock development in over 90 countries worldwide. In 2010, AFHSC supported zoonosis survey efforts were organized into four main categories: (i) development of field assays for animal disease surveillance during deployments and in resource limited environments, (ii) determining zoonotic disease prevalence in high-contact species which may serve as important reservoirs of diseases and sources of transmission, (iii) surveillance in high-risk human populations which are more likely to become exposed and subsequently infected with zoonotic pathogens and (iv) surveillance at the human-animal interface examining zoonotic disease prevalence and transmission within and between human and animal populations. These efforts have aided in the detection, identification and quantification of the burden of zoonotic diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, Hantaan virus, influenza, Lassa fever, leptospirosis, melioidosis, Q fever, Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever Sicilian virus, sandfly fever Naples virus, tuberculosis and West Nile virus, which are of military and public health importance. Future zoonotic surveillance efforts will seek to develop local capacity for zoonotic surveillance focusing on high risk populations at the human-animal interface.

  11. Surveillance and persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagenborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper is as much about surveillance as about persuasive technologies (PTs). With regard to PTs it raises the question about the ethical limits of persuasion. It will be argued that even some forms of self-imposed persuasive soft surveillance technologies may be considered unethical. Therefore,

  12. Cause of Death in Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Nepal Obtained Through Community-Based Surveillance: Is Reducing Maternal Mortality the Right Priority for Women's Health Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakurel, Ram; Sharma, Nirmala; Paudel, Deepak; Coghill, Anna; Sinden, Laura; Bost, Liberty; Larkin, Melissa; Burrus, Carla Jean; Roy, Khrist

    2015-01-01

    We used a community surveillance system to gather information regarding pregnancy outcomes and the cause of death for women of reproductive age (WRA) in Kanchanpur, Nepal. A total of 784 mother groups participated in the collection of pregnancy outcomes and mortality data. Of the 273 deaths among WRA, the leading causes of death reported were chronic diseases (94, 34.4%) poisoning, snake bites, and suicide (grouped together; 55, 20.1%), and accidents (29, 10.6%), while maternal mortality accounted for 7%. Nevertheless, the calculated maternal mortality ratio was quite high (259.3 per 100,000 live births).

  13. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  14. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Summary Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis Chancroid Selected STDs Appendix Appendix Interpreting STD Surveillance Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors ...

  15. Surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titis Widowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children worldwide. Data on the burden of disease in Indonesia is limited. Objective To provide an epidemiological profile of rotavirus infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. Methods In January - December 2006, a prospective, hospital-based surveillance was carried out in children aged less than five years, presenting with diarrhea. Stool samples were examined for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. G- and P-typing were performed on specimens confirmed to be positive by EIA. Results A total of 513 fecal specimens from 534 children were tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of the specimens, mostly of the G9 type (62.5%. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhea was highest in the 6 month to 2 years age group (60.4%. Children with rotavirus diarrhea were more likely to present with dehydration, compared to those with non-rotavirus diarrhea (94% vs 70%, respectively, P=0.03. Conclusion Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in children with diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of pediatric diarrheal specimens tested in our study. This finding warrants the use of a large-scale program to prevent disease, such as vaccination against rotavirus. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:22-7].

  16. Can We Use Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis as a Surveillance Tool for National Trachoma Control Programs? Results from a District Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Sheila K.; Munoz, Beatriz; Weaver, Jerusha; Mrango, Zakayo; Dize, Laura; Gaydos, Charlotte; Quinn, Thomas C.; Martin, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Trachoma is targeted for elimination by 2020. World Health Organization advises districts to undertake surveillance when follicular trachoma (TF) hamlets in Kilosa district, Tanzania, and randomly selected 50 children ages 1–9 per hamlet. The tarsal conjunctivae were graded for trachoma (TF), tested for C. trachomatis infection (Aptima Combo2 assay: Hologic, San Diego, CA), and a dried blood spot processed for antibodies to C. trachomatis pgp3 using a multiplex bead assay on a Luminex 100 platform. Principal findings The prevalence of trachoma (TF) was 0.4%, well below the hamlets, 22 had neither infection nor TF. Antibody positivity overall was low, 7.5% and increased with age from 5.2% in 1–3 year olds, to 9.3% in 7–9 year olds (p = 0.015). In 16 of the 30 hamlets, no children ages 1–3 years had antibodies to pgp3. Conclusions The antibody status of the 1–3 year olds indicates low cumulative exposure to infection during the surveillance period. Four years post MDA, there is no evidence for re-emergence of follicular trachoma. PMID:26771906

  17. Japanese Encephalitis Surveillance and Immunization - Asia and Western Pacific Regions, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffelfinger, James D; Li, Xi; Batmunkh, Nyambat; Grabovac, Varja; Diorditsa, Sergey; Liyanage, Jayantha B; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Bahl, Sunil; Vannice, Kirsten S; Hyde, Terri B; Chu, Susan Y; Fox, Kimberley K; Hills, Susan L; Marfin, Anthony A

    2017-06-09

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the most important vaccine-preventable cause of encephalitis in the Asia-Pacific region. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integration of JE vaccination into national immunization schedules in all areas where the disease is a public health priority (1). This report updates a previous summary of JE surveillance and immunization programs in Asia and the Western Pacific in 2012 (2). Since 2012, funding for JE immunization has become available through the GAVI Alliance, three JE vaccines have been WHO-prequalified,* and an updated WHO JE vaccine position paper providing guidance on JE vaccines and vaccination strategies has been published (1). Data for this report were obtained from a survey of JE surveillance and immunization practices administered to health officials in countries with JE virus transmission risk, the 2015 WHO/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, notes and reports from JE meetings held during 2014-2016, published literature, and websites. In 2016, 22 (92%) of 24 countries with JE virus transmission risk conducted JE surveillance, an increase from 18 (75%) countries in 2012, and 12 (50%) countries had a JE immunization program, compared with 11 (46%) countries in 2012. Strengthened JE surveillance, continued commitment, and adequate resources for JE vaccination should help maintain progress toward prevention and control of JE.

  18. Dosimeter-Type NOx Sensing Properties of KMnO4 and Its Electrical Conductivity during Temperature Programmed Desorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Moos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An impedimetric NOx dosimeter based on the NOx sorption material KMnO4 is proposed. In addition to its application as a low level NOx dosimeter, KMnO4 shows potential as a precious metal free lean NOx trap material (LNT for NOx storage catalysts (NSC enabling electrical in-situ diagnostics. With this dosimeter, low levels of NO and NO2 exposure can be detected electrically as instantaneous values at 380 °C by progressive NOx accumulation in the KMnO4 based sensitive layer. The linear NOx sensing characteristics are recovered periodically by heating to 650 °C or switching to rich atmospheres. Further insight into the NOx sorption-dependent conductivity of the KMnO4-based material is obtained by the novel eTPD method that combines electrical characterization with classical temperature programmed desorption (TPD. The NOx loading amount increases proportionally to the NOx exposure time at sorption temperature. The cumulated NOx exposure, as well as the corresponding NOx loading state, can be detected linearly by electrical means in two modes: (1 time-continuously during the sorption interval including NOx concentration information from the signal derivative or (2 during the short-term thermal NOx release.

  19. Editorial: Best Practices in Surveillance of Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Sachin; Gaddam, Srinivas

    2017-07-01

    Endoscopic surveillance in Barrett's esophagus (BE) has numerous limitations and thus provides several opportunities for improving the effectiveness of our current surveillance strategies. Several risk stratification and prediction tools have been investigated to identify patients at highest risk for progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Persistence of non-dysplastic BE (NDBE) has been proposed as an indicator of lower risk of progression to EAC. This editorial highlights the variable results and methodologies in studies evaluating persistence of NDBE as a risk stratification tool in the surveillance of BE patients and provides guidance for optimizing outcomes in BE patients enrolled in surveillance programs.

  20. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramini Jeff

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  1. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Patel, Dhara; Nasci, Roger S; Petersen, Lyle R; Hughes, James M; Bradley, Kristy; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states and assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, and human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity and anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance and laboratory testing capacity and had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect and provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks and other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya).

  2. Assessment of Arbovirus Surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhara; Nasci, Roger S.; Petersen, Lyle R.; Hughes, James M.; Bradley, Kristy; Etkind, Paul; Kan, Lilly; Engel, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, and many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state and selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 and in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states and assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, and human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity and anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance and laboratory testing capacity and had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect and provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks and other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya). PMID:26079471

  3. Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system: coordinating national data on antimicrobial use and resistance for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnidge, John D; Meleady, Kathy T

    2017-06-22

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe the process of establishment and coordination of the national Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Australia (AURA) surveillance system.Methods Existing surveillance programs conducted by health organisations at state or multi-jurisdictional levels were reviewed, and gaps and opportunities identified for the development of a national system. In view of the time frame available as part of the Australian Government Department of Health funding agreement, the strategy used by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care was to commence work with existing surveillance programs, expanding and enhancing them and developing new systems where gaps were identified. Using the specifications of the AURA national system, the data from each of these elements were then analysed and reported. The system provides coverage for the acute and community sectors for antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance.Results The AURA surveillance system integrates eight streams of surveillance activities, including passive and targeted surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance from hospitals (public and private) and the community (general practitioners and aged care homes). A gap was identified in timely surveillance of critical antimicrobial resistances (CARs), which resulted in the development of the national CARAlert system. The first comprehensive analyses of data across the surveillance programs was published in June 2016, providing baseline data for future reports to build on.Conclusion The AURA surveillance system has established the framework and foundation systems for an integrated and comprehensive picture of both antimicrobial use and resistance in Australia over time. National coordination and support will improve data collection, standardisation and analysis, and will facilitate collaboration across the states and territories, the Australian Government and the private sector. AURA publications will

  4. Safety experience with bosentan in 146 children 2-11 years old with pulmonary arterial hypertension: results from the European Postmarketing Surveillance program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghetti, M.; Hoeper, M.M.; Kiely, D.G.;

    2008-01-01

    The oral dual endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan has been shown to improve the short- and medium-term course of adult pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, data from clinical studies in children are limited. This analysis investigated the safety profile of bosentan in pediatric...... patients in a European, prospective, noninterventional, Internet-based postmarketing surveillance database (Tracleer PMS). Pediatric patients (aged 2-11 y) were compared with patients aged > or =12 y. Over a 30-mo period, 4994 patients, including 146 bosentan-naive pediatric patients (51.4% males), were...... captured in the database. Predominant etiologies in children were idiopathic PAH (40.4%) and PAH related to congenital heart disease (45.2%). The majority of children were in New York Heart Association functional class II (28.1%) or III (50.7%), and median exposure to bosentan was 29.1 wk. Elevated...

  5. Economic optimization of surveillance in livestock production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hazard surveillance in livestock production chains is an essential activity that is usually conducted by surveillance organizations. Its importance has been highlighted by the major crises that occurred in the field of livestock production and food safety during the last

  6. Economic optimization of surveillance in livestock production chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hazard surveillance in livestock production chains is an essential activity that is usually conducted by surveillance organizations. Its importance has been highlighted by the major crises that occurred in the field of livestock production and food safety during the last d

  7. Avian influenza surveillance in backyard poultry of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, C; Espinosa, C; Terrera, M V; De Benedetti, R

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an exotic disease in Argentina. A surveillance program for AI was conducted in backyard poultry during 1998-2005 in two regions: 1) region A, which included the avian population in the provinces that border Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay, and 2) region B, which included the rest of the provinces of the country. More than 8000 serum samples were tested for antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or agar gel immunodiffusion tests, and more than 18,000 tracheal and cloacal swabs were tested for virus by isolation in embryonated specific-pathogen-free eggs. This study was part of the AI prevention program in Argentina, which includes other avian populations such as commercial poultry and all the controls for importation and exportation of live birds. The results from backyard poultry were negative for AI.

  8. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1991. Environmental protection group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewart, J.; Kohen, K.L. [comps.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the environmental surveillance program conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1991. Routine monitoring for radiation and for radioactive and chemical materials is conducted on the Laboratory site as well as in the surrounding region. Monitoring results are used to determine compliance with appropriate standards and to permit early identification of potentially undesirable trends. Results and interpretation of data for 1991 cover external penetrating radiation; quantities of airborne emissions and effluents; concentrations of chemicals and radionuclides in ambient air, surface waters and groundwaters, municipal water supply, soils and sediments, and foodstuffs; and environmental compliance. Comparisons with appropriate standards, regulations, and background levels provide the basis for concluding that environmental effects from Laboratory operations are small and do not pose a threat to the public, Laboratory employees, or the environment.

  9. Surveillance for occupational respiratory diseases in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antao, Vinicius C; Pinheiro, Germania A

    2015-06-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa.

  10. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  11. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  12. Between visibility and surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    visible. It thus enables activists to monitor and expose corporate misconduct, but simultaneously renders them vulnerable to surveillance from corporations. In this presentation, I examine these practices and discuss their implications for political participation by drawing on examples of companies...

  13. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Battlefield Acoustic Sensing, Multimodal Sensing, and Networked Sensing for Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications by Latasha Solomon, Wesley Wang, and Miriam Häge...Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications by Latasha Solomon Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Wesley Wang...Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ( ISR ) Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  15. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  16. Occupational injuries in Canadian youth: an analysis of 22 years of surveillance data collected from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pratt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inexperience, inadequate training and differential hazard exposure may contribute to a higher risk of injury in young workers. This study describes features of work-related injuries in young Canadians to identify areas for potential occupational injury prevention strategies. Methods: We analyzed records for youth aged 10–17 presenting to Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP emergency departments (EDs from 1991–2012. We classified work-related injuries into job groups corresponding to National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006 codes and conducted descriptive analyses to assess injury profiles by job group. Age- and sex-adjusted proportionate injury ratios (PIRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to compare the nature of injuries between occupational and non-occupational events overall and by job group. Results: Of the 6046 injuries (0.72% of events in this age group that occurred during work, 63.9% were among males. Youth in food and beverage occupations (54.6% males made up 35.4% of work-related ED visits and 10.2% of work-related hospital admissions, while primary industry workers (76.4% males made up 4.8% of workrelated ED visits and 24.6% of work-related hospital admissions. PIRs were significantly elevated for burns (9.77, 95% CI: 8.94–10.67, crushing/amputations (6.72, 95% CI: 5.79–7.80, electrical injuries (6.04, 95% CI: 3.64–10.00, bites (5.09, 95% CI: 4.47–5.79, open wounds (2.68, 95% CI: 2.59–2.78 and eye injuries (2.50, 95% CI: 2.20–2.83 in occupational versus non-occupational events. These were largely driven by high proportional incidence of injury types unique to job groups. Conclusion: Our findings provide occupation group-specific information on common injury types that can be used to support targeted approaches to reduce incidence of youth injury in the workplace.

  17. Components production and assemble of the irradiation capsule of the Surveillance Program of Materials of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde;Fabricacion de componentes y ensamble de la capsula de irradiacion del Programa de Vigilancia de Materiales de la central nuclear Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, A. [ININ, Departamento de Tecnologia de Materiales, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    To predict the effects of the neutrons radiation and the thermal environment about the mechanical properties of the reactor vessel materials of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, a surveillance program is implemented according to the outlines settled by Astm E185-02 -Standard practice for design of surveillance programs for light-water moderated nuclear power reactor vessels-. This program includes the installation of three irradiation capsules of similar materials to those of the reactor vessels, these samples are test tubes for mechanical practices of impact and tension. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research and due to the infrastructure as well as of the actual human resources of the Pilot Plant of Nuclear Fuel Assembles Production it was possible to realize the materials rebuilding extracted in 2005 of Unit 2 of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde as well as the production, assemble and reassignment of the irradiation capsule made in 2006. At the present time the surveillance materials extracted in 2008 of Unit 1 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde are reconstituting and the components are manufactured for the assembles of the irradiation capsule that will be reinstalled in the reactor vessel in 2010. The purpose of the present work is to describe the necessary components as well as its disposition during the assembles of the irradiation capsule for the surveillance program of the reactors vessel of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. (Author)

  18. The value of community participation in disease surveillance: a case study from Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Serigne M; Quick, Linda; Sanda, Ousmane; Niandou, Seydou

    2003-06-01

    A team of researchers, including one behavioral scientist (S.M.N.) and three epidemiologists (L.Q., O.S. and S.N.) conducted community analyses to assess the social and cultural factors that affect the detection and reporting of disease cases in a surveillance system, using acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Niger as a case study. Over a 60-day period in the country, the research team reviewed written field reports and interviewed epidemiologists, nurses, community members and persons in governmental and non-governmental organizations. Overall, we found that the logistical difficulties of travel and communication, which are common in developing countries, constrain the conventional surveillance system that relies on epidemiologists visiting sites to discover and investigate cases, particularly in rural areas. Other challenges include: community members' lack of knowledge about the possible link between a case of paralysis and a dangerous, communicable disease; lack of access to health care, including the low number of clinics and health care workers; cultural beliefs that favor seeking a local healer before consulting a nurse or physician; and health workers' lack of training in AFP surveillance. The quality of surveillance in developing countries can improve if a community-based approach is adopted. Such a system has been used successfully in Niger during smallpox-eradication and guinea worm-control campaigns. In a community-based system, community members receive basic education or more extensive training to motivate and enable them to notify health care staff about possible cases of disease in a timely fashion. Local organizations, local projects and local leaders must be included to ensure the success of such a program. In Niger we found sufficient quantities of this type of social capital, along with enough local experience of past health campaigns, to suggest that a community-based approach can improve the level of comprehensiveness and sensitivity

  19. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona;

    Avian influenza (AI) is a disease of major threat to poultry production. Surveillance of AI in wild birds contributes to the control of AI. In Denmark (DK) and Greenland (GL), extensive surveillance of AI viruses in the wild bird population has been conducted. The surveillance aimed at detecting...

  20. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona

    Avian influenza (AI) is a disease of major threat to poultry production. Surveillance of AI in wild birds contributes to the control of AI. In Denmark (DK) and Greenland (GL), extensive surveillance of AI viruses in the wild bird population has been conducted. The surveillance aimed at detecting ...

  1. A framework for conducting a national study of substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novins, Douglas K; Moore, Laurie A; Beals, Janette; Aarons, Gregory A; Rieckmann, Traci; Kaufman, Carol E

    2012-09-01

    Because of their broad geographic distribution, diverse ownership and operation, and funding instability, it is a challenge to develop a framework for studying substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities at a national level. This is further complicated by the historic reluctance of American Indian and Alaska Native communities to participate in research. We developed a framework for studying these substance abuse treatment programs (n ≈ 293) at a national level as part of a study of attitudes toward, and use of, evidence-based treatments among substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities with the goal of assuring participation of a broad array of programs and the communities that they serve. Because of the complexities of identifying specific substance abuse treatment programs, the sampling framework divides these programs into strata based on the American Indian and Alaska Native communities that they serve: (1) the 20 largest tribes (by population); (2) urban AI/AN clinics; (3) Alaska Native Health Corporations; (4) other Tribes; and (5) other regional programs unaffiliated with a specific AI/AN community. In addition, the recruitment framework was designed to be sensitive to likely concerns about participating in research. This systematic approach for studying substance abuse and other clinical programs serving AI/AN communities assures the participation of diverse AI/AN programs and communities and may be useful in designing similar national studies.

  2. Building 9401-2 Plating Shop Surveillance and Maintenance Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-05-01

    This document provides a plan for implementing surveillance and maintenance (S and M) activities to ensure that Building 9401-2 Plating Shop is maintained in a cost effective and environmentally secure configuration until subsequent closure during the final disposition phase of decommissioning. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) G430.1A-2, Surveillance and Maintenance During Facility Disposition (1997), was used as guidance in the development of this plan. The S and M Plan incorporates DOE O 430.1A, Life Cycle Asset Management (LCAM) (1998a) direction to provide for conducting surveillance and maintenance activities required to maintain the facility and remaining hazardous and radioactive materials, wastes, and contamination in a stable and known condition pending facility disposition. Recommendations in the S and M plan have been made that may not be requirement-based but would reduce the cost and frequency of surveillance and maintenance activities. During the course of S and M activities, the facility's condition may change so as to present an immediate or developing hazard or unsatisfactory condition. Corrective action should be coordinated with the appropriate support organizations using the requirements and guidance stated in procedure Y10-202, Rev. 1, Integrated Safety Management Program, (Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES), 1998a) implemented at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the methodology of the Nuclear Operations Conduct of Operations Manual (LMES, 1999) for the Depleted Uranium Operations (DUO) organization. The key S and M objectives applicable to the Plating Shop are to: Ensure adequate containment of remaining residual material in exhaust stacks and outside process piping, stored chemicals awaiting offsite shipment, and items located in the Radioactive Material Area (RMA); Provide access control into the facility and physical safety to S and M personnel; Maintain the facility in a manner that will protect the public, the environment, and

  3. A computer program to calculate the resistivity of a thin film deposited on a conductive substrate from four-point probe measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, L. G.; Fralick, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    A series of FORTRAN-77 programs is described which correct for the effect of a conducting substrate when a linear four-point probe is used to measure the resistivity of a thin film. The resistivity of the film is given in terms of the thicknesses of the film and substrate, the known resistivity of the substrate, and the measured delta V/I. A full development is given as well as a complete description of the operation of the programs. The programs themselves can be obtained through COSMIC, and are identified as LEW No. 14381.

  4. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  5. Distributed data processing for public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih Katherine

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many systems for routine public health surveillance rely on centralized collection of potentially identifiable, individual, identifiable personal health information (PHI records. Although individual, identifiable patient records are essential for conditions for which there is mandated reporting, such as tuberculosis or sexually transmitted diseases, they are not routinely required for effective syndromic surveillance. Public concern about the routine collection of large quantities of PHI to support non-traditional public health functions may make alternative surveillance methods that do not rely on centralized identifiable PHI databases increasingly desirable. Methods The National Bioterrorism Syndromic Surveillance Demonstration Program (NDP is an example of one alternative model. All PHI in this system is initially processed within the secured infrastructure of the health care provider that collects and holds the data, using uniform software distributed and supported by the NDP. Only highly aggregated count data is transferred to the datacenter for statistical processing and display. Results Detailed, patient level information is readily available to the health care provider to elucidate signals observed in the aggregated data, or for ad hoc queries. We briefly describe the benefits and disadvantages associated with this distributed processing model for routine automated syndromic surveillance. Conclusion For well-defined surveillance requirements, the model can be successfully deployed with very low risk of inadvertent disclosure of PHI – a feature that may make participation in surveillance systems more feasible for organizations and more appealing to the individuals whose PHI they hold. It is possible to design and implement distributed systems to support non-routine public health needs if required.

  6. Infectious diseases: Surveillance, genetic modification and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, H. L.; Teh, S.Y.; De Angelis, D. L.; Jiang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diseases such as influenza and dengue have the potential of becoming a worldwide pandemic that may exert immense pressures on existing medical infrastructures. Careful surveillance of these diseases, supported by consistent model simulations, provides a means for tracking the disease evolution. The integrated surveillance and simulation program is essential in devising effective early warning systems and in implementing efficient emergency preparedness and control measures. This paper presents a summary of simulation analysis on influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in Malaysia. This simulation analysis provides insightful lessons regarding how disease surveillance and simulation should be performed in the future. This paper briefly discusses the controversy over the experimental field release of genetically modified (GM) Aedes aegypti mosquito in Malaysia. Model simulations indicate that the proposed release of GM mosquitoes is neither a viable nor a sustainable control strategy. ?? 2011 WIT Press.

  7. 青海海西州地区牛羊布鲁菌氏病监测方案的研究%Study on the Surveillance Program for Bovine and Sheep Brucellosis in Haixi Zhou Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡双龙

    2012-01-01

      目的探索适合青海省海西州地区牛、羊布鲁氏菌病的监测方案,净化布鲁氏菌病.利用琥红平板凝集试验(RBPT)、全乳环状试验(MRT)和试管凝集试验(SAT)对1200份牛血清中376份奶牛血清、677份羊血清,以及376份牛奶进行检测.结果RBPT检测1200份牛血清中9份可疑,3份阳性;376份奶牛血清中3份可疑,1份阳性;其他牛6份可疑,2份阳性;677份羊血清中3份可疑.MRT检测376份奶样中5份可疑,1份阳性.SAT重复检测的20份血清中2份为阳性,RBPT与MRT结果的符合率为100%.结论三种检测方法的联合使用适合大样本的进行布鲁氏菌病的监测,为基层布鲁氏菌病的监测方案的研究提供了理论依据.%  To explore the suitable cattle and sheep brucellosis surveillance and eradication programs in Haixi Prefecture of Qinghai province region. 1200 bovine serum samples including 376 dairy cow serum samples,677 sheep serum samples and 376 milk samples were detected by using the Rose Bengal plate agglutination test(RBPT),whole milk ring test(MRT)and standard tube agglutination test(SAT).Results showed that among 1200 bovine serum samples,3 were positive and 9 were suspicious(including 1 positive and 3 suspicious among 376 dairy cow serum samples)and among 677 sheep serum samples,3 were suspicious by RBPT.Among 376 milk samples,5 were suspicous by MRT.2 out 20 serum samples retested by SAT were positive.The coincidence between RBPT and MRT for detection of Brucella in serum samples was 100%.In conclusion,joint use of the three assays(RBPT,MRT and SAT)were suitable for brucellosis surveillance of large amount of samples,thus providing a theoretical basis for making grassroots brucellosis surveillance pragrams.

  8. Program of environmental radiological surveillance of the radioactive wastes storage center of Maquixco in the period January-December 1991; Programa de vigilancia radiologica ambiental del centro de almacenamiento de deschos radiactivos de Maquixco en el periodo Enero-Diciembre dde 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaso P, M.I

    1991-12-15

    The primary objective of all program of environmental radiological surveillance (PVRA), it is to follow the evolution of the radioactive content of the links of the chains that constitute the different ways of transfer of the radioactivity toward the man, with the purpose of making a realistic evaluation of the environmental impact produced by the installation under surveillance. In the CADER in Mexico, only accidents or escapes of radioactivity of slow evolution can be detected. At the moment the radioactive wastes in this installation are not treated. In this report the results obtained during the year 1991 are presented. (Author)

  9. Organization of surveillance in GI practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senore, Carlo; Bellisario, Cristina; Hassan, Cesare

    2016-12-01

    Several reports documented an inefficient utilisation of available resources, as well as a suboptimal compliance with surveillance recommendations. Although, evidence suggests that organisational issues can influence the quality of care delivered, surveillance protocols are usually based on non-organized approaches. We conducted a literature search (publication date: 01/2000-06/2016) on PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for guidelines, or consensus statements, for surveys of practice, reporting information about patients, or providers attitudes and behaviours, for intervention studies to enhance compliance with guidelines. Related articles were also scrutinised. Based on the clinical relevance and burden on endoscopy services this review was focused on surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus, IBD and post-polypectomy surveillance of colonic adenomas. Existing guidelines are generally recognising structure and process requirements influencing delivery of surveillance interventions, while less attention had been devoted to transitions and interfaces in the care process. Available evidence from practice surveys is suggesting the need to design organizational strategies aimed to enable patients to attend and providers to deliver timely and appropriate care. Well designed studies assessing the effectiveness of specific interventions in this setting are however lacking. Indirect evidence from screening settings would suggest that the implementation of automated standardized recall systems, utilisation of clinical registries, removing financial barriers, could improve appropriateness of use and compliance with recommendations. Lack of sound evidence regarding utility and methodology of surveillance can contribute to explain the observed variability in providers and patients attitudes and in compliance with the recommended surveillance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  10. Changes in drug use patterns reported on the web after the introduction of ADF OxyContin: findings from the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System Web Monitoring Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K; Haynes, Colleen; Besharat, Andrea; Green, Jody L

    2017-09-01

    This qualitative study summarizes information that individuals shared online about use of OxyContin following the August 2010 introduction of the abuse deterrent formulation (ADF). The primary objective was to study online posts that endorsed continued use of OxyContin or a switch from OxyContin to another formulation of oxycodone or another substance altogether following the introduction of the ADF. A secondary objective was to determine whether posts revealed that the ADF led to cessation of OxyContin use. Data were collected with the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance System Web Monitoring Program, an online surveillance system that collects and organizes posts about prescription drugs from social media websites, blogs, and forums from 3Q2009 to 4Q2014 using a commercially available web platform. Posts were categorized by whether they conveyed a switch to drugs other than reformulated OxyContin or a continuation of reformulated OxyContin abuse. "Switch posts" primarily discussed switching to immediate-release opioids. "Continue abusing" posts identified tampering strategies for alternate routes of administration, oral use, and continued use although post authors were generally unhappy with the experience. No reference to OxyContin cessation as a function of the introduction of the ADF was found; however, discontinued use was discussed. Web Monitoring data are useful for capturing cross sections of Internet conversation reflecting reactions to new drug formulations. These data support the notion that users will gravitate to non-ADFs generally, and to immediate-release non-ADF opioid formulations, specifically, as long as these options remain on the market. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Enhancing Disease Surveillance Event Communication Among Jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, Nathaniel R; Loschen, Wayne A; Jorgensen, Joel; Suereth, Joshua; Coberly, Jacqueline S; Holtry, Rekha S; Sikes, Marvin L; Babin, Steven M; Lewis, Sheryl L Happel

    2009-01-01

    Automated disease surveillance systems are becoming widely used by the public health community. However, communication among non-collocated and widely dispersed users still needs improvement. A web-based software tool for enhancing user communications was completely integrated into an existing automated disease surveillance system and was tested during two simulated exercises and operational use involving multiple jurisdictions. Evaluation of this tool was conducted by user meetings, anonymous surveys, and web logs. Public health officials found this tool to be useful, and the tool has been modified further to incorporate features suggested by user responses. Features of the automated disease surveillance system, such as alerts and time series plots, can be specifically referenced by user comments. The user may also indicate the alert response being considered by adding a color indicator to their comment. The web-based event communication tool described in this article provides a common ground for collaboration and communication among public health officials at different locations.

  12. Serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular epidemiology of invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in paediatric patients after the introduction of 13-valent conjugate vaccine in a nationwide surveillance study conducted in Japan in 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Satoshi; Fujisawa, Takao; Ito, Yutaka; Chang, Bin; Suga, Shigeru; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ohnishi, Makoto; Ihara, Toshiaki; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-01-02

    Pneumococcal infection in children is a major public health problem worldwide, including in Japan. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 (PCV7) was licensed for use in Japan in 2010 followed by PCV13 in 2013. This report includes the results of a nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and non-IPD in paediatric patients from January 2012 to December 2014. We collected 343 isolates from 337 IPD patients and 286 isolates from 278 non-IPD patients. Of the IPD isolates, the most identified serotypes included 19A, 24F, and 15A. The prevalence of non-PCV13 serotype isolates increased significantly from 2012 to 2014 (51.6-71.4%, p=0.004). Serotypes 19A, 15A and 35B were highly non-susceptible to penicillin, and the rates of non-susceptible isolates from IPD patients to penicillin and cefotaxime significantly declined during the study period (p=0.029 and p=0.013, respectively). The non-susceptible rate to meropenem increased, particularly for serotype 15A. The IPD isolates comprised clonal complex (CC) 3111 (93.8% was serotype 19A) followed by CC2572 (81.5% was serotype 24F) and CC63 (97.1% was serotype 15A). CC3111, CC63 and CC156 (33.3% was serotype 23A, 28.6% was serotype 6B, and 14.3% was serotype 19A) were highly non-susceptible to penicillin. Of the non-IPD isolates, the most identified serotypes included 19A, 15A, and 3. In conclusion, the introduction of PCV7 and PCV13 resulted in increasing non-PCV13 serotypes and clones, including antimicrobial resistant serotypes 15A and CC63 (Sweden(15A)-25 clone).

  13. Incidence and trends of cardiovascular mortality after common cancers in young adults:Analysis of surveillance, epidemiology and end-results program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadeer G Al-Kindi; Guilherme H Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the incidence of cardiovascular mortality(CVM) in survivors of major cancers and identify its trends over the past two decades. METHODS: We used the surveillance, epidemiology and end-results 19 registry to identify young adults(20-49 years), diagnosed with the following major primary cancers: Lung, breast, liver/intrahepatic bile duct, pancreas, prostate, colorectal, and ovarian from 1990 through 2012 and identified the cumulative incidence of CVM after adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: We identified a total of 301923 cancers(breast 173748, lung 38938, colorectal 31722, prostate 22848, ovary 16065, liver 9444, pancreas 9158). A total of 2297(0.8%) of patients had incident CVM. Lung(10-year cumulative CVM 2.4%) and liver(1.73%) cancers had the highest incidence of CVM, while breast(0.6%) and prostate(1.2%) had the lowest CVM mortality, even after multiple adjustments(P < 0.001). Overall, there was a significant improvement in CVM since 1990 [2005-2012 vs 1990-1994, adjusted HR 0.63(0.54-0.72), P < 0.001]. This was driven by improvements in CVM in lung cancers(P = 0.02), breast(P < 0.001), and a trend in ovarian cancer(P = 0.097).There was no statistically significant improvement in CVM among survivors of colorectal, pancreatic, liver, or prostate cancers.CONCLUSION: The risk of CVM differs among different cancers, and is highest among survivors of lung and liver cancers. The incidence of CVM has decreased over the past 2 decades mainly among survivors of lung and breast cancers.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of ceftobiprole, a novel anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cephalosporin, tested against contemporary pathogens: results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2005-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2008-05-01

    Ceftobiprole is a 1st-in-class anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) extended-spectrum cephalosporin currently in clinical trials for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) and nosocomial pneumonia. This agent is also active against other prominent Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, making it an attractive candidate for broad-spectrum therapy. We evaluated the in vitro potency of ceftobiprole tested against the most commonly occurring bacterial pathogens as part of a global surveillance study for the years 2005 to 2006 (>60 medical centers in North America, Latin America, and Europe). All isolates (40 675) were susceptibility tested using reference broth microdilution methods. Ceftobiprole inhibited 100% and >99% of tested S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci at Ceftobiprole was also broadly active against Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic and viridans group streptococci, inhibiting >98% of isolates at ceftobiprole was generally inactive against Enterococcus faecium, the majority of Enterococcus faecalis strains (95.7%) were inhibited at ceftobiprole and ceftazidime), ceftobiprole and cefepime were superior to ceftazidime against Enterobacter spp. and Citrobacter spp. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ceftobiprole was equal in potency to ceftazidime (MIC50, 2 microg/mL) and 2-fold more potent than cefepime. None of these agents inhibited >45% of Acinetobacter spp. at 8 mug/mL. Ceftobiprole is a new anti-MRSA beta-lactam with recognized activity against the most commonly occurring Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa, similar to that of extended-spectrum cephems. These characteristics warrant continued evaluation of the agent as empiric therapy for cSSSIs, and in pneumonia, especially in those institutions/regions where MRSA and P. aeruginosa may be prevalent.

  15. Conditional Survival in Pediatric Malignancies: Analysis of data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Ann C; Yong, Jian; Dietz, Andrew; Kreiter, Erin; Yasui, Yutaka; Bleyer, Archie; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term survivors of pediatric cancer are at risk for life-threatening late effects of their cancer. Previous studies have shown excesses in long-term mortality within high-risk groups defined by demographic and treatment characteristics. Methods To investigate conditional survival in a pediatric cancer population, we performed an analysis of conditional survival in the original Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database registry. The overall probability of death for patients in 5 years and 10 years after they survived 5, 10, 15, and 20 years since cancer diagnosis, and cause-specific death in 10 years for 5-year survivors were estimated using the cumulative incidence method. Results Among CCSS and SEER patients who were alive 5 years post cancer diagnosis, within each diagnosis group at least 92% are alive in the subsequent 5 years, except leukemia patients of whom only 88% of 5-year survivors remain alive in the subsequent 5 years. The probability of all-cause mortality in the next 10 years on patients who survived at least 5 years after diagnosis, was 8.8% in CCSS and 10.6% in SEER, approximately three quarter of which were due to neoplasms as causes of death. Conclusion The risk of death of pediatric cancer survivors in 10 years can vary between diagnosis groups by at most 12% even up to 20 years post diagnosis. This information is clinically important in counseling patients on their conditional survival, particularly when survivors are seen in long-term follow-up. PMID:25557134

  16. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... institutions have a growing interest in accessing this personal data. Here, contributors explore this changing landscape by addressing topics such as commercial data collection by advertising, consumer sites and interactive media; self-disclosure in the social web; surveillance of file-sharers; privacy...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  17. Surveillance to detect chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Damien O; Samuel, Michael D; Langenberg, Julia A; Rolley, Robert E; Keane, Delwyn P

    2009-10-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease affecting North American cervids, has been discovered in at least 12 states and provinces throughout the continent. Since 2002, a number of states and provinces have initiated surveillance programs to detect CWD in native cervid populations. However, many questions remain about the appropriate methods, geographic scope, and number of samples required for an effective CWD surveillance program. We provide an improved statistical method to calculate the probability of detecting CWD in primary sample units (e.g., county or deer management unit) that also considers deer abundance and the nonrandom distribution of CWD and hunter harvests. We used this method to analyze data from a statewide CWD detection program conducted in Wisconsin during the autumns of 2002 and 2003 to determine the distribution of CWD in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Deer heads were collected at hunter registration stations, and brainstem (obex) and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were removed for disease testing. Our analysis includes samples from >35,000 deer collected outside the known affected area. The probability of detecting chronic wasting disease at a prevalence of 1% varied from 0.89 to > or =0.99 among the 56 primary sample units. Detection probabilities for 1% CWD prevalence were >0.9 in 55 primary sample units, and >0.99 in 10. Detection probabilities will be higher in areas where CWD prevalence exceeds 1%. CWD-positive deer were detected in eight primary sample units surrounding the known affected area during surveillance activities. Our approach provides a novel statistical technique to accommodate nonrandom sampling in wildlife disease surveillance programs.

  18. Enhancing Surveillance for Arboviral Infections in the Arizona Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Orion; Vanskike, Frank; Ernst, Kacey; Komatsu, Ken; Margolis, Harold; Waterman, Stephen; Tippit, Laura; Tomashek, Kay; Wertheimer, Anne; Montiel, Sonia; Golenko, Catherine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    that present to medical services for WNV testing and reported to public health officials are the most severe nueroinvasive cases. Much less is understood about the non-neuroinvasive cases with often present with non-descript symptoms. Results Vector mapping: Comparative densities of Ae. aegypti with academic partners of the Entomology and Public Health conducting a study capturing Ae. aegypti may help to enhance environmental programs. Laboratory Capacity: The laboratory training will cover conventional serological methods as well as recently FDA cleared molecular RT-PCR. Participants will include public health laboratory personnel working in molecular and serology diagnostics and other binational partners. Surveillance: A convenient seroprevalence study at sentinel-hospital site of symptomatic patients presenting in Arizona border hospital sites will be performed to better understand circulating levels of arboviral infections. Conclusions Appropriate and timely response to surveillance data is the key to identification human and animal disease associated with WNV, DENV, and other arboviruses. The mosquito vector Ae. aegypti is well established widespread and thriving in Arizona yet there is no autochthonous transmission of DENV identified to date. The results from this study will identify gaps and potential prevention and control measures for emerging infectious diseases including WNV and DENV in Arizona.

  19. CARL: a LabVIEW 3 computer program for conducting exposure therapy for the treatment of dental injection fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, S E; Getz, T; Milgrom, P; Prall, C W; Spadafora, A; Ramsay, D S

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes CARL (Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning), a computerized, exposure-based therapy program for the treatment of dental injection fear. The CARL program operates primarily in two different modes; in vitro, which presents a video-taped exposure hierarchy, and in vivo, which presents scripts for a dentist or hygienist to use while working with a subject. Two additional modes are used to train subjects to use the program and to administer behavioral assessment tests. The program contains five different modules, which function to register a subject, train subjects to use physical and cognitive relaxation techniques, deliver an exposure hierarchy, question subjects about the helpfulness of each of the therapy components, and test for memory effects of anxiolytic medication. Nine subjects have completed the CARL therapy program and 1-yr follow-up as participants in a placebo-controlled clinical trial examining the effects of alprazolam on exposure therapy for dental injection phobia. All nine subjects were able to receive two dental injections, and all reduced their general fear of dental injections. Initial results therefore indicate that the CARL program successfully reduces dental injection fear.

  20. Towards One Health disease surveillance: The Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esron D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa has the highest burden of infectious diseases in the world and yet the least capacity for its risk management. It has therefore become increasingly important to search for ‘fit-for- purpose’ approaches to infectious disease surveillance and thereby targeted disease control. The fact that the majority of human infectious diseases are originally of animal origin means we have to consider One Health (OH approaches which require inter-sectoral collaboration for custom-made infectious disease surveillance in the endemic settings of Africa. A baseline survey was conducted to assess the current status and performance of human and animal health surveillance systems and subsequently a strategy towards OH surveillance system was developed. The strategy focused on assessing the combination of participatory epidemiological approaches and the deployment of mobile technologies to enhance the effectiveness of disease alerts and surveillance at the point of occurrence, which often lies in remote areas. We selected three study sites, namely the Ngorongoro, Kagera River basin and Zambezi River basin ecosystems. We have piloted and introduced the next-generation Android mobile phones running the EpiCollect application developed by Imperial College to aid geo-spatial and clinical data capture and transmission of this data from the field to the remote Information Technology (IT servers at the research hubs for storage, analysis, feedback and reporting. We expect that the combination of participatory epidemiology and technology will significantly improve OH disease surveillance in southern Africa.

  1. The plays and arts of surveillance: studying surveillance as entertainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Dubbeld, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests a direction in the development of Surveillance Studies that goes beyond current attention for the caring, productive and enabling aspects of surveillance practices. That is, surveillance could be considered not just as positively protective, but even as a comical, playful,

  2. Break-even analysis of costs for controlling Toxoplasma gondii infections in slaughter pigs via a serological surveillance program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Wisselink, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a food safety hazard which causes a substantial human disease burden and cost-of-illness. Infected pig meat is a common source of toxoplasmosis. A break-even analysis was conducted to estimate the point for which the intervention cost at fattening pig farms

  3. Break-even analysis of costs for controlling Toxoplasma gondii infections in slaughter pigs via a serological surveillance program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Wisselink, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a food safety hazard which causes a substantial human disease burden and cost-of-illness. Infected pig meat is a common source of toxoplasmosis. A break-even analysis was conducted to estimate the point for which the intervention cost at fattening pig farms equale

  4. Diagnostics and surveillance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...

  5. Active surveillance: Oncologic outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.D.F. Venderbos (Lionne); L.P. Bokhorst (Leonard); C.H. Bangma (Chris); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give insight into recent literature (during the past 12-18 months) reporting on oncologic outcomes of men on active surveillance. RECENT FINDINGS: From recent published trials comparing radical prostatectomy vs. watchful waiting, we learn that radical treatment only

  6. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chervoni Julia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. Methods The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Results Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p Conclusion Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  7. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Vaitsi, Vasiliki; Kapoula, Christina; Vousoureli, Anastasia; Kalivitis, Isidiros; Chervoni, Julia; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Vasilogiannakopoulos, Antonios; Daniilidis, Vasilis D; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2006-12-18

    Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc) of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p hotel restaurant which accommodated athletes during a test event. Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective.

  8. MyAgRecord: An Online Career Portfolio Management Tool for High School Students Conducting Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emis, Larry; Dillingham, John

    Texas's online career portfolio management tool for high school students participating in supervised agricultural experience programs (SAEPs) was developed in 1998 by a committee of Texas high school teachers of agriscience and Texas Education Agency personnel. The career portfolio management tool reflects General Accepted Accounting Principles…

  9. History and evolution of surveillance in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern concept of surveillance has evolved over the centuries. Public health surveillance provides the scientific database essential for decision making and appropriate public health action. It is considered as the best public health tool to prevent the occurrence of epidemics and is the backbone of public health programs and provides information so that effective action can be taken in controlling and preventing diseases of public health importance. This article reviews the history of evolution of public health surveillance from historical perspective: from Hippocrates, Black Death and quarantine, recording of vital events for the first time, first field investigation, legislations that were developed over time and modern concepts in public health surveillance. Eradication of small pox is an important achievement in public health surveillance but the recent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and Influenza pandemics suggest still there is a room for improvement. Recently new global disease surveillance networks like FluNet and DengueNet were developed as internet sites for monitoring influenza and dengue information. In spite of these developments, global public health surveillance still remains unevenly distributed. There is a need for increased international cooperation to address the global needs of public health surveillance.

  10. 76 FR 39283 - Enforcement of Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Handicap in Programs or Activities Conducted by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... conducted by the agency. For example, auxiliary aids useful for persons with impaired vision include readers... affecting one or more of ] the following body systems: Neurological; musculoskeletal; special sense organs... shall ensure that interested persons, including persons with impaired vision or hearing, can...

  11. Prosthodontic program directors' perceptions regarding implant placement by prosthodontic residents: a 2004 survey conducted by the Educational Policy Subcommittee of the American College of Prosthodontists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukotjo, Cortino; Arbree, Nancy S

    2008-12-01

    In 2004, a survey regarding implant placement by prosthodontic residents was conducted by the Educational Policy Subcommittee of the American College of Prosthodontists (ACP). The aim of the survey was to assess the current trends in implant curricula at advanced graduate prosthodontics programs in the United States and Canada and determine the issues surrounding surgical implant training for prosthodontic residents. The survey was mailed to the prosthodontic/maxillofacial prosthetic program directors of the 59 prosthodontic graduate programs in the United States and Canada in 2004. Of these, 27 program directors replied, yielding a response rate of 46%. Of the replying programs, 43% either required residents to place or offered the option to have residents place implants. Forty-four percent reported that residents participate by functioning as first assistants for some of their implant patients, 40% have a specific curriculum to train residents in implant placement, 50% reported not having any institutional barriers that prevent program directors from training prosthodontic residents in implant placement, 51% provide implant training using plastic jaws, and 66% of the programs required residents to observe implant surgery in the clinic before they are permitted to place implants. Of prosthodontic residents who treated implant-related patients, the majority treated 11 to 20 patients during their residency. In 2004, 40% of program directors were not trained in the placement of dental implants, and if they did have the implant training, the majority (82%) stated that the nature of their training was 1- to 3-day course(s). This survey showed that implant dentistry has become an integral part of the postgraduate prosthodontic curriculum. The trends to incorporate implant placement into the postgraduate prosthodontic curriculum were already evident prior to 2004. To address the demand for implant treatment in patient care and enhance surgical implant knowledge, the ACP

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Health, Safety and Security Illness and Injury Surveillance Program Worker Health at a Glance, 2000-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Cliff [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Richter, Bonnie [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-01-23

    The Worker Health at a Glance, 2000 – 2009 provides an overview of selected illness and injury patterns among the current DOE contractor workforce that have emerged over the 10-years covered by this report. This report is a roll-up of data from 16 individual DOE sites, assigned to one of three program offices (Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration). In this report, an absences is defined as 40 or more consecutive work hours (5+ calendar days) off the job. Shorter absences were not included.

  13. Surveillance for Stage I Nonseminoma Testicular Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Gedske; Gundgaard, Maria Gry; Mortensen, Mette Saksø

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe treatment results in a large cohort with stage I nonseminoma germ cell cancer (NSGCC) treated in a surveillance program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2007, 1,226 patients with stage I NSGCC, including high-risk patients with vascular invasion......, were observed in a surveillance program. RESULTS: The relapse rate after orchiectomy alone was 30.6% at 5 years. Presence of vascular invasion together with embryonal carcinoma and rete testis invasion in the testicular primary identified a group with a relapse risk of 50%. Without risk factors....... Relapses after 5 years were seen in 0.5% of the whole cohort or in 1.6% of relapsing patients. The majority of relapses (94.4%) belonged to the good prognostic group according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification. The disease-specific survival at 15 years was 99...

  14. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-05

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  15. Validation according to OIE criteria of a monoclonal, recombinant p26-based, serologic competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as screening method in surveillance programs for the detection of Equine infectious anemia virus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Roberto; Autorino, Gian Luca; Ricci, Ida; Frontoso, Raffaele; Rosone, Francesca; Simula, Massimiliano; Scicluna, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    The Italian National Reference Center for equine infectious anemia (CRAIE; Rome, Italy) developed and validated a monoclonal, recombinant p26-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of EIA virus antibodies employing the 2010 criteria of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). The following parameters were evaluated: cutoff values, repeatability, reproducibility, concordance, analytical sensitivity (Se), absolute analytical specificity (Sp), and diagnostic Se and Sp. Positive and negative predictive values were also defined in relation to the estimated prevalence. When the cELISA was used as a screening test for 96,468 samples in the Italian EIA surveillance program, 17% more EIA cases were detected than by the agar gel immunodiffusion test, and the apparent diagnostic Sp estimated from these samples was 99.8%, which was more than the diagnostic Sp (80.2%) estimated from validation. The high Se and Sp of the cELISA confirm its fit for purpose as a screening test. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. Appropriate Pedagogical Approaches For Conduct of Site Planning and Built Environment Studio in Spatial Planning Education Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Valliappan Alagappan

    2015-01-01

    Spatial planning education is multi-disciplinary in nature and particularly site planning needs exposure to Engineering, Architectural, Landscape, Sociological, Economic, and Infrastructural aspects. The curriculum of the spatial planning program introduces the site-planning studio (multi-level design and planning) at the initial semesters without introduction of single space design and planning. Due to inadequate exposure the students find it difficult to plan and design residential layouts ...

  17. Environmental effects on composite airframes: A study conducted for the ARM UAV Program (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    Composite materials are affected by environments differently than conventional airframe structural materials are. This study identifies the environmental conditions which the composite-airframe ARM UAV may encounter, and discusses the potential degradation processes composite materials may undergo when subjected to those environments. This information is intended to be useful in a follow-on program to develop equipment and procedures to prevent, detect, or otherwise mitigate significant degradation with the ultimate goal of preventing catastrophic aircraft failure.

  18. How to Conduct a Qualitative Program Evaluation in the Light of Eisner’s Educational Connoisseurship and Criticism Model

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail Yüksel

    2010-01-01

    AbstractThe quantitative methodologies have been traditionally employed in the educational research so far. However, as long as with the appreciation and widespread use of the qualitative methodologies in many disciplines, many different educational areas have started to be examined in terms of qualitative research aspects. Particularly, the qualitative evaluation of the education programs has received considerable interest and there have been recently some attempts to develop a qualitative m...

  19. Aquatic monitoring programs conducted during environmental impact assessments in Canada: preliminary assessment before and after weakened environmental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Brynn; Walker, Tony R

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic monitoring programs are imperative for the functioning of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process and a cornerstone for industrial compliance in Canada. However, in 2012, several leading pieces of federal environmental legislation (e.g., Canadian Environmental Assessment Act c.19, s. 52, 2012) were drastically altered, effectively weakening levels of environmental protection for aquatic ecosystems during project developments. This paper assesses the impact of CEAA 2012 on aquatic monitoring programs (and subsequent monitoring data reporting) across Canada for ten projects (five completed pre-CEAA 2012 and five completed post-CEAA 2012). Projects included four energy and six mining projects and were selected based on the following criteria: (i) representative of Canada's resource economy; (ii) project information was publicly available; and (iii) strong public interest. Projects pre- and post-CEAA 2012 exhibited few apparent differences before and after environmental regulatory changes. However, wide discrepancies exist in numbers and types of parameters reported, along with a lack of consistency in reporting. Projects pre-CEAA 2012 provided more follow-up monitoring commitments. Although qualitative differences remain inconclusive, this paper highlights requirements for further assessment of aquatic monitoring and follow-up programs in Canada. Recommendations for the government to consider during reviews of the federal environmental assessment processes include (i) improved transparency on the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency website ( https://www.ceaa-acee.gc.ca/ ); (ii) creation of a legally binding standardized aquatic monitoring program framework to ensure that all Canadian aquatic ecosystems are monitored with equal rigour; and (iii) commitments and justification related to frequency of aquatic monitoring of water quality.

  20. [Ethical problems in health surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoletto, F; Briatico Vangosa, G; Panizza, C

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance of workers' health in the field of occupational medicine poses substantial ethical problems in view of occupational medicine's complex responsibilities towards workers and employers, preventive and protection services, workers' representatives, public healthcare and preventive medicine facilities, controlling agencies and judicial authorities. Potentially conflicting rights and duties often come into play in this sector. In the last few years various international and national bodies have drawn up codes of ethics or guidelines for the conduct of physicians in occupational medicine, three of which are of particular importance: 1) The International Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH, 1992); 2) The Code of Conduct of the National Association of Company Doctors (ANMA, 1997); 3) The Technical and Ethical Guidelines for workers' health (ILO, 1998). The chief purpose of all these documents is to safeguard the health of workers and to guarantee the safety of the workplace by defining programmes of health supervision to match specific risks. The methods should be non-invasive and should allow for a check or efficiency. The physician is expected to have a high degree of professionalism and up-to-date skills; to be independent and impartial; to be reserved and capable of inter-disciplinary co-operation. On the basis of the above documents, a number of problematic aspects may be appraised concerning the relationship between the occupational health physician responsible for the surveillance activities of the local health authority and the relative company physician. The documents stress the importance of keeping up to date and of quality, fields in which the dominant role played by Scientific Societies is underlined. Finally it is recommended that health supervision be arranged in such a manner as to foster the professionalism and responsibility of the physician in charge rather than the formal implementation of health

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of unusual nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli isolated from Latin America: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C Gales

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial susceptibility of 176 unusual non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB collected from Latin America region through the SENTRY Program between 1997 and 2002 was evaluated by broth microdilution according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS recommendations. Nearly 74% of the NF-BGN belonged to the following genera/species: Burkholderia spp. (83, Achromobacter spp. (25, Ralstonia pickettii (16, Alcaligenes spp. (12, and Cryseobacterium spp. (12. Generally, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (MIC50, 16 µg/ml; 18.8% susceptible and meropenem (MIC50, 8 µg/ml; 50% susceptible against Ralstonia pickettii. Since selection of the most appropriate antimicrobial agents for testing and reporting has not been established by the NCCLS for many of NF-GNB species, results from large multicenter studies may help to guide the best empiric therapy.

  2. Needs assessment for performance improvement of personnel in charge of epidemiological surveillance in Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Priotto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In line with the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005, the Morocco health surveillance system has been reinforced via infrastructure strengthening and decentralization in its regions. To plan for personnel capacity reinforcement actions, a national workforce needs assessment was conducted by the National Epidemiological Surveillance Service and the World Health Organization. METHODS: The assessment used an ad-hoc method comprising two stages: (1 A survey via a standardized electronic questionnaire, administered to all staff in regional and provincial surveillance teams. Data collected included demographics, basic qualification, complementary training, perceived training needs, and preferred training modalities. Individuals were asked to grade, on a nine-point scale, their perception of importance of a given list of tasks and of their capacity to perform them. The gap between perceptions was quantified and described. (2 Field visits to national, regional and provincial sites for direct observation and opinion gathering on broader issues such as motivators, barriers, and training needs from the local perspective. RESULTS: Questionnaire respondents were 122/158 agents at 78 surveillance units countrywide. Mean age was 43.6 years and job longevity 5.7 years. Only 53% (65/122 had epidemiology training, posted in 62% (48/78 of the structures. Self-assessed capacity varied by basic qualification and by structure level (regional vs. provincial. The gap between the importance granted to a task and the perceived capacity to perform it was sizable, showing an uneven distribution across competency domains, regions, surveillance level and staff's basic qualification. From the opinions gathered, a problem of staff demotivation and high turnover emerged clearly. CONCLUSIONS: Our method was successful in revealing specific details of the training needs countrywide. A national strategy is needed to ensure rational planning of training

  3. Automating the surveillance of healthcare-associated infections

    OpenAIRE

    van Mourik, M.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are among the most common complications of medical care, affecting one in twenty-five hospitalized patients on any given day. Surveillance of HAI by systematically assessing patients for the development of an infection is a key component of successful infection prevention programs, both to measure the effects of an intervention and to assess quality of care. Traditional methods of surveillance, manual review of patients’ medical records, are time-consumi...

  4. Internet and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged in this co......The Internet has been transformed in the past years from a system primarily oriented on information provision into a medium for communication and community-building. The notion of “Web 2.0”, social software, and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and MySpace have emerged...... in the age of the internet; civil watch-surveillance on social networking sites; and networked interactive surveillance in transnational space. This book is a result of a research action launched by the intergovernmental network COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)....

  5. Surface-water surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldi, K.A.; Dirkes, R.L.; Blanton, M.L.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the Surface water on and near the Hanford Site is monitored to determine the potential effects of Hanford operations. Surface water at Hanford includes the Columbia River, riverbank springs, ponds located on the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site, and offsite water systems directly east and across the Columbia River from the Hanford Site. Columbia River sediments are also included in this discussion. Tables 5.3.1 and 5.3.2 summarize the sampling locations, sample types, sampling frequencies, and sample analyses included in surface-water surveillance activities during 1994. Sample locations are also identified in Figure 5.3.1. This section describes the surveillance effort and summarizes the results for these aquatic environments. Detailed analytical results are reported by Bisping (1995).

  6. Monitoring and Surveillance of Hemodialysis Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Nischal; Anvari, Evamaria; McLennan, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    Access surveillance using invasive or noninvasive methods with an objective to improve access patency and decrease hospital admissions for access dysfunction in dialysis population has been promoted, but its success to predict incipient thrombosis and subsequent access failure is a controversial topic. Some studies have shown improvement in access outcomes, while others have failed to demonstrate an ideal method to diagnose access problems. Furthermore, the use of endovascular interventions such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty to timely correct access problem might itself be a promoter of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis during balloon angioplasty. There are significant costs and efforts associated with routine dialysis surveillance; therefore, it is necessary to understand whether such programs will help improve access-related problems and guarantee adequate dialysis care. It is generally agreed upon that despite the lack of guaranteed success of surveillance, such strategies have helped improve dialysis management, resulted in decreased costs and hospitalizations, and represented clinically relevant indications of failure prior to planning any radiological or surgical intervention. In this study, the authors review monitoring and surveillance measures in place, and their associated merits and limitations to detect stenosis and prevent incidences of vascular access thrombosis.

  7. Surveillance of employees involved in coal-derived materials research with emphasis on the dermatologic portion of the surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, A.S. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Special surveillance of employees involved in coal-derived materials research was begun in February, 1975. These evaluations were in addition to the basic medical surveillance of all employees at ORNL. Included in this health assessment are laboratory studies every 18 months of all employees followed by a physical exam by a physician or P.A. for employees 45 years and older. Physician exams are performed every 36 months for employees under age 45. This presentation covers the details and findings of the special skin surveillance program. 3 refs.

  8. History of trichinellosis surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blancou J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The origin of trichinellosis, which existed in ancient times as testified by the discovery of parasite larvae on an Egyptian mummy, unfolded in several stages: discovery of encapsulated larvae (in the 1820s, identification and scientific description of these larvae (Paget Owen, 1835, followed by experimental infestations of animals (dogs, pigs, rabbits, mice or of humans as from 1850.The main occurrences of trichinellosis were followed with particular attention in Europe (Germany, Denmark, France, etc. and in the United States of America at the end of the XIXth century. They affected numerous domestic animal species (pigs, horses, etc. or wildlife and humans. Germany paid the heaviest toll with regard to the disease in humans, between 1860 and 1880, with several thousands of patients and more than 500 deaths.Different trichinellosis surveillance systems were set up in the relevant countries in the 1860s. In humans, this surveillance was carried out on affected living patients by a biopsy of the biceps muscles and subsequently by an analysis of eosinophilia (1895. In animals, surveillance was for a long time solely based on postmortem examination of the muscles of the affected animals. This method was used for the first time in 863 in Germany, and from the 1 890s, on several hundreds of thousands of pigs in Europe or in the United States of America.

  9. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Ewing, Alexander; Mandel, Michele G; Simmons, Katharine B; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen

    2016-11-25

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2013. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2013, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2004-2013. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 664,435 abortions were reported to CDC for 2013. Of these abortions, 98.2% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2004-2013. Among these 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2013 was 12.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2012 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 5%. From 2004 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 20%, 21%, and 17%, respectively. In 2013, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2004-2013). In 2013 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2013, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 25.9% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.8 and 18.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.8%, 9.2%, and 3.6% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.8, 7.0, and 2

  10. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008) Evaluación del programa integral de vigilancia de la salud de los trabajadores que han estado expuestos a amianto en España (2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat García Gómez; Rosario Castañeda; Vega García López; Manuel Martínez Vidal; Vicent Villanueva; Mercedes Elvira Espinosa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA]) with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectivene...

  11. Characteristics of the IAEA correlation monitor material for surveillance programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Kim; Valo, Matti; Rintamaa, Rauno; Toerroenen, Kari; Ahlstrand, Ralf

    1989-08-01

    Correlation monitor material developed to meet the needs of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Association) coordinated research program for optimizing reactor pressure vessel surveillance programs and their analysis is described. The material is intended to serve as a reference within the IAEA for future vessel surveillance programs throughout the world. The results of an extensive evaluation of the material in the as-received condition are presented. The mechanical properties measured at different temperatures include Charpy V notch and instrumented precracked Charpy data. Elastic-plastic fracture toughness is studied. Specimen size and geometry are varied in the tests. Correlations between different fracture properties are evaluated and discussed.

  12. Material studies in the frame of CLIC Accelerating structures production conducted within the Mechanics program together with Metso Oy

    CERN Document Server

    Nurminen, Janne

    2012-01-01

    MeChanICs (Marie Curie Linking Industry to CERN) is an Industry to Academia Partnership and Pathways (IAPP) platform for precision manufacturing knowledge exchange bringing together five Finnish manufacturing companies with Helsinki Insitute of Physics (HIP) and CERN. The scientific objective of MeChanICs project is to contribute to the manufacturing RTD of CLIC enabling technologies. The focus is on the design, materials, machining, brazing and assembly of A CLIC accelerating structure. This study deals with the materials work package of the program and wants to explore the following items: 1) producing copper accelerating structures for CLIC from raw copper powder by near net shape hot isostatic pressing (HIP). 2) The feasibility to use HIP diffusion bonding of the accelerator structures as a function of surface quality and applied temperature and pressure. 3) Brazing for CLIC AS auxiliary systems, like water cooling or damping manifolds, to the disc stack by coating one of the brazing partners with an enab...

  13. Characterizing Lyme Disease Surveillance in an Endemic State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, H J; Wee, Sb; Feldman, K A

    2016-07-29

    Lyme disease (LD) is the most common vector-borne disease in Maryland and the United States. Surveillance for LD is valuable for understanding the burden of the disease, particularly to assess whether the disease is spreading and to appreciate who is affected. However, not all cases of LD in Maryland are reported, and surveillance practices vary across each of Maryland's 24 local health departments (LHDs). To better understand this variability and to systematically characterize the surveillance process, we surveyed Maryland's LHDs regarding LD surveillance. The Maryland Local Health Department Lyme Disease Surveillance Survey has been administered annually since 2011. Questions asked each year included whether all LD reports are investigated or only a subset, and how many reports are not entered into the surveillance database. Since 2011, Maryland has lost surveillance personnel for LD. Each year from 2009 to 2012, a median 3598 (range 2462 to 5722) reports were not entered into the surveillance database and hence not investigated. These reports represent 43-55% of all reports received for the year. Over time, more LHDs chose to streamline their LD investigation approach by investigating only those reports that met the criteria for laboratory evidence of infection: in 2008, 5 (21%) LHDs investigated only a subset of LD reports; by 2013, this increased to 15 (63%). There is wide variability across LHDs in how LD investigations are conducted. Maryland LHDs have experienced a loss of LD surveillance personnel with a concomitant increase in the number of LHDs adopting a streamlined approach to investigating cases. These findings underscore the tremendous burden of LD on the public health agencies and highlight the need for alternative approaches that can both reduce burden and preserve surveillance data quality. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Mapping HIV/STI behavioural surveillance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lert France

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Used in conjunction with biological surveillance, behavioural surveillance provides data allowing for a more precise definition of HIV/STI prevention strategies. In 2008, mapping of behavioural surveillance in EU/EFTA countries was performed on behalf of the European Centre for Disease prevention and Control. Method Nine questionnaires were sent to all 31 member States and EEE/EFTA countries requesting data on the overall behavioural and second generation surveillance system and on surveillance in the general population, youth, men having sex with men (MSM, injecting drug users (IDU, sex workers (SW, migrants, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, and sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics patients. Requested data included information on system organisation (e.g. sustainability, funding, institutionalisation, topics covered in surveys and main indicators. Results Twenty-eight of the 31 countries contacted supplied data. Sixteen countries reported an established behavioural surveillance system, and 13 a second generation surveillance system (combination of biological surveillance of HIV/AIDS and STI with behavioural surveillance. There were wide differences as regards the year of survey initiation, number of populations surveyed, data collection methods used, organisation of surveillance and coordination with biological surveillance. The populations most regularly surveyed are the general population, youth, MSM and IDU. SW, patients of STI clinics and PLWHA are surveyed less regularly and in only a small number of countries, and few countries have undertaken behavioural surveys among migrant or ethnic minorities populations. In many cases, the identification of populations with risk behaviour and the selection of populations to be included in a BS system have not been formally conducted, or are incomplete. Topics most frequently covered are similar across countries, although many different indicators are used. In most

  15. Approaches to the Surveillance of Foodborne Disease: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Laura; Miller, Megge; Cawthorne, Amy; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-12-01

    Foodborne disease surveillance aims to reduce the burden of illness due to contaminated food. There are several different types of surveillance systems, including event-based surveillance, indicator-based surveillance, and integrated food chain surveillance. These approaches are not mutually exclusive, have overlapping data sources, require distinct capacities and resources, and can be considered a hierarchy, with each level being more complex and resulting in a greater ability to detect and control foodborne disease. Event-based surveillance is generally the least resource-intensive system and makes use of informal data sources. Indicator-based surveillance is seen as traditional notifiable disease surveillance and consists of routinely collected data. Integrated food chain surveillance is viewed as the optimal practice for conducting continuous risk analysis for foodborne diseases, but also requires significant ongoing resources and greater multisectoral collaboration compared to the other systems. Each country must determine the most appropriate structure for their surveillance system for foodborne diseases based on their available resources. This review explores the evidence on the principles, minimum capabilities, and minimum requirements of each type of surveillance and discusses examples from a range of countries. This review forms the evidence base for the Strengthening the Surveillance and Response for Foodborne Diseases: A Practical Manual.

  16. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Nieto, R; Soler, A; Pelayo, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Markowska-Daniel, I; Pridotkas, G; Nurmoja, I; Granta, R; Simón, A; Pérez, C; Martín, E; Fernández-Pacheco, P; Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs.

  17. Decrease in mortality in Lynch syndrome families because of surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.E. de; Hendriks, Y.M.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Boer, S.Y. de; Cats, A.; Griffioen, G.; Nagengast, F.M.; Nelis, F.G.; Rookus, M.A.; Vasen, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lynch syndrome family members have a high risk of developing colorectal (CRC), endometrial (EC), and other cancers. A large-scale surveillance program was introduced in The Netherlands in the late 1980s. The aims of the study were to evaluate the effectiveness of this program by a

  18. Lessons from the epidemiological surveillance program, during the influenza A (H1N1 virus epidemic, in a reference university hospital of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Moretti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The case definition of influenza-like illness (ILI is a powerful epidemiological tool during influenza epidemics. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the impact of two definitions used as epidemiological tools, in adults and children, during the influenza A H1N1 epidemic. Patients were included if they had upper respiratory samples tested for influenza by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction during two periods, using the ILI definition (coughing + temperature > 38ºC in period 1, and the definition of severe acute respiratory infection (ARS (coughing + temperature > 38ºC and dyspnoea in period 2. RESULTS: The study included 366 adults and 147 children, covering 243 cases of ILI and 270 cases of ARS. Laboratory confirmed cases of influenza were higher in adults (50% than in children (21.6% ( p < 0.0001 and influenza infection was more prevalent in the ILI definition (53% than ARS (24.4% (p < 0.0001. Adults reported more chills and myalgia than children (p = 0.0001. Oseltamivir was administered in 58% and 46% of adults and children with influenza A H1N1, respectively. The influenza A H1N1 case fatality rate was 7% in adults and 8.3% in children. The mean time from onset of illness until antiviral administration was 4 days. CONCLUSIONS: The modification of ILI to ARS definition resulted in less accuracy in influenza diagnosis and did not improve the appropriate time and use of antiviral medication.

  19. Neutrophil volume, conductivity and scatter parameters with effective modeling of molecular activity statistical program gives better results in neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, I H; Demirel, G; Sukhachev, D; Erdeve, O; Dilmen, U

    2013-02-01

    Neonatal sepsis remains an important clinical syndrome despite advances in neonatology. Current hematology analyzers can determine cell volume (V), conductivity for internal composition of cell (C) and light scatter for cytoplasmic granularity and nuclear structure (S), and standard deviations which are effective in the diagnosis of sepsis. Statistical models can be used to strengthen the diagnosis. Effective modeling of molecular activity (EMMA) uses combinatorial algorithm of the selection parameters for regression equation based on modified stepwise procedure. It allows obtaining different regression models with different combinations of parameters. We investigated these parameters in screening of neonatal sepsis. We used LH780 hematological analyzer (Beckman Coulter, Fullerton, CA, USA). We combined these parameters with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and developed models by EMMA. A total of 304 newborns, 76 proven sepsis, 130 clinical sepsis and 98 controls, were enrolled in the study. Mean neutrophil volume (MNV) and volume distribution width (VDW) were higher in both proven and clinical sepsis groups. We developed three models using MNV, VDW, IL-6, and CRP. These models gave more sensitivity and specificity than the usage of each marker alone. We suggest to use the combination of MNV and VDW with markers such as CRP and IL-6, and use diagnostic models created by EMMA. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. AIDS-case surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S; Khodakevich, L; Sengupta, D

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 in India, the Ministry of Health realized that the diagnostic and reporting network for AIDS cases was inadequate as AIDS cases grew and that the establishment of specialized AIDS units in hospitals was not the best strategy. It decided to integrate AIDS diagnostic and management facilities into primary health services. It would arrange training for 1 physician from each district and peripheral hospital, private hospital, and inpatient service of other medical institutions in AIDS diagnosis and management. These physicians would then train others in the clinical diagnosis and management of AIDS cases. The physicians would use the World Health Organization [WHO] case definition of AIDS supported by HIV serological test results. All AIDS cases would be transferred to the Medical College Hospitals of the States and Union Territories (UTs), regional hospitals, and perhaps some private hospitals. Between May 1986 and October 1993, India had 459 AIDS cases reported from 19 States and UTs, especially the States of Tamil Nadul and Maharashtra. This AIDS case surveillance system should motivate political will, describe the underlying and preceding HIV epidemic, and contribute to the understanding of current and future course of the epidemic. Thus, it will guide decision makers to develop sound preventive strategies, to plan health care, and to evaluate interventions. The surveillance system's target population is all outpatients and inpatients at medical institutions. During 1993-1994, 1000 hospitals should make up the network of referral institutions. AIDS case surveillance coordinators (ASCs) at each institution form the basis of the network. The individual case record of each suspected AIDS case will have details on his/her life and medical history. Records of confirmed cases will be sent to State ASCs who will compile them for the National AIDS Control Organisation. After 3-4 year of training and practice in AIDS diagnosis and reporting, AIDS reporting will be

  1. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  2. Projectbeschrijving Surveillance Ziekenhuisinfecties 1996-1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg JMJ van den; Boer AS de; Mintjes-de Groot AJ; Sprenger MJW; Cucic S; Pelt W van; Centraal Begeleidingsorgaan; CIE

    1996-01-01

    In the Project Surveillance Hospital Acquired Infections a surveillance system in a national network of hospitals is being developed and implemented. In the project surveillance of hospital acquired infections is implemented in components: surveillance of surgical wound infections, surveillance of i

  3. Blue Guardian: open architecture intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Russell G.; Borntrager, Luke A.; Soine, Andrew T.; Green, David M.

    2017-04-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) - Sensors Directorate has developed the Blue Guardian program to demonstrate advanced sensing technology utilizing open architectures in operationally relevant environments. Blue Guardian has adopted the core concepts and principles of the Air Force Rapid Capabilities Office (AFRCO) Open Mission Systems (OMS) initiative to implement an open Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) platform architecture. Using this new OMS standard provides a business case to reduce cost and program schedules for industry and the Department of Defense (DoD). Blue Guardian is an early adopting program of OMS and provides much needed science and technology improvements, development, testing, and implementation of OMS for ISR purposes. This paper presents results and lessons learned under the Blue Guardian Project Shepherd program which conducted Multi-INT operational demonstrations in the Joint Interagency Task Force - South (JIATF-S) and USSOUTHCOM area of operations in early 2016. Further, on-going research is discussed to enhance Blue Guardian Multi-INT ISR capabilities to support additional mission sets and platforms, including unmanned operations over line of sight (LOS) and beyond line of sight (BLOS) datalinks. An implementation of additional OMS message sets and services to support off-platform sensor command and control using OMS/UCI data structures and dissemination of sensor product data/metadata is explored. Lastly, the Blue Guardian team is working with the AgilePod program to use OMS in a full Government Data Rights Pod to rapidly swap these sensors to different aircraft. The union of the AgilePod (which uses SOSA compliant standards) and OMS technologies under Blue Guardian programs is discussed.

  4. Pressure Ulcers Surveillance Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Esin Gencer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcer is a chronic wound. It reduces the quality of life of the elderly and individuals with restricted range of motion. It prolongs hospital stay and increases the risk of complications. The cost is quite high. Preventive actions for the prevention of pressure ulcers should be developed. Planning protocols and standards of care are among the main targets. Material and Method: Research was conducted in one-year period between 2012 May and 2013 May on patients who were followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital clinics and intensive care unit with pressure ulcers. The research population consisted of 569 patients. Patient data were recorded in SPSS 16 for Windows program. Statistical analyzes were performed with retrospective methods. The demographic characteristics of patients with pressure ulcers were analyzed as frequency and descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence of one year were calculated. Results: Of the patients, 58% were males, 42% were females. Of the patients, 36% were in the age range of 61-80 years, and their average length of stay was 42,9 days. Of the patients, 70% were at stage 2 and 3. In 15% of patients pressure ulcers occurred on the first day of hospitalization. Pressure ulcers were developed between days 2 and 10 in 59% of the patients. Prevalence rate was 2.5%, the incidence was 1.9%, the prevalence rate was 5.9% in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: It is easier to prevent pressure ulcers than treating.

  5. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  6. Systematic review of surveillance by social media platforms for illicit drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Donna M; Borsari, Brian; Levine, Maureen J; Dooley, Beau

    2017-03-14

    The use of social media (SM) as a surveillance tool of global illicit drug use is limited. To address this limitation, a systematic review of literature focused on the ability of SM to better recognize illicit drug use trends was addressed. A search was conducted in databases: PubMed, CINAHL via Ebsco, PsychINFO via Ebsco, Medline via Ebsco, ERIC, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, ABI/INFORM Complete and Communication and Mass Media Complete. Included studies were original research published in peer-reviewed journals between January 2005 and June 2015 that primarily focused on collecting data from SM platforms to track trends in illicit drug use. Excluded were studies focused on purchasing prescription drugs from illicit online pharmacies. Selected studies used a range of SM tools/applications, including message boards, Twitter and blog/forums/platform discussions. Limitations included relevance, a lack of standardized surveillance systems and a lack of efficient algorithms to isolate relevant items. Illicit drug use is a worldwide problem, and the rise of global social networking sites has led to the evolution of a readily accessible surveillance tool. Systematic approaches need to be developed to efficiently extract and analyze illicit drug content from social networks to supplement effective prevention programs.

  7. Influenza in outpatient ILI case-patients in national hospital-based surveillance, Bangladesh, 2007-2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaman, Rashid Uz; Alamgir, A S M; Rahman, Mustafizur; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Gurley, Emily S; Sharker, M Abu Yushuf; Brooks, W Abdullah; Azim, Tasnim; Fry, Alicia M; Lindstrom, Stephen; Gubareva, Larisa V; Xu, Xiyan; Garten, Rebecca J; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, Salah Uddin; Faruque, Labib Imran; Ameer, Syeda Shegufta; Klimov, Alexander I; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2009-01-01

    ... influenza prevention and control efforts. We conducted influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory illness sentinel surveillance in 12 hospitals across Bangladesh during May 2007-December 2008...

  8. 中国2005-2008年肾综合征出血热监测及疫情分析%Epidemiology and surveillance programs on hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Mainland China, 2005-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芹; 周航; 韩仰欢; 王晓芳; 王世文; 殷文武; 李群; 许真

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiologic and surveillance data of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HERS) in China, from 2005 to 2008, to describe the epidemiology and trend of HERS. Methods Descriptive epidemiology were studied to analyze the surveillance data from 2005 to 2008, collected from both the internet-based national notifiable disease reporting system and 40 HFRS sentinel sites developed since 2005 in 40 counties around China. Results A total of 56 077 HERS cases and 692 deaths reported in China with case fatality rate as 1.23%. Morbidity and mortality had been annually decreasing since 2004. The top 7 provinces with HFRS cases were Heilongjiang, Lianning, Jilin, Shandong, Shaanxi, Hebei and Zhejiang, which had a total of 44 081 cases reported, accounting for 78.61% of the total number of cases, in the nation. More cases were reported in spring and autumn-winter season, with the peak in November. Cases reported in males were 3.13 times of the females and most cases seen in young and middle-aged farmers. The density and the virus carrying rate of animal hosts and the distribution of dominant species were relatively stable and similar to the previous findings. Apodemus agrarius and Rattus norvegicus were still the most common and predominant animal hosts. No genetic mutation of Hantavirus was detected in the surveillance program. Conclusion The continuous descending trend of the HERS epidemics could be related to the successful strategies on comprehensive prevention and control measures, as controlling the number of rodents and vectors, carrying out HERS vaccination campaign and health education by the local health care takers in the recent years. Implementation of the new national Expanded Program of Immunization on HFRS vaccine in high-risk areas may further reduce the epidemics. However,both the density and the virus carried rate among the host animals remain high in some areas, together with the emergence of new epidemic areas, all call for more

  9. Incremental cost of conducting population-based prevalence surveys for a neglected tropical disease: the example of trachoma in 8 national programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqun Chen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Trachoma prevalence surveys provide the evidence base for district and community-wide implementation of the SAFE strategy, and are used to evaluate the impact of trachoma control interventions. An economic analysis was performed to estimate the cost of trachoma prevalence surveys conducted between 2006 and 2010 from 8 national trachoma control programs in Africa.Data were collected retrospectively from reports for 165 districts surveyed for trachoma prevalence using a cluster random sampling methodology in Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Southern Sudan and The Gambia. The median cost per district survey was $4,784 (inter-quartile range [IQR] = $3,508-$6,650 while the median cost per cluster was $311 (IQR = $119-$393. Analysis by cost categories (personnel, transportation, supplies and other and cost activity (training, field work, supervision and data entry revealed that the main cost drivers were personnel and transportation during field work.Population-based cluster random surveys are used to provide the evidence base to set objectives and determine when elimination targets have been reached for several neglected tropical diseases, including trachoma. The cost of conducting epidemiologically rigorous prevalence surveys should not be a barrier to program implementation or evaluation.

  10. FY2004 CORROSION SURVEILLANCE RESULTS FOR L-BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VORMELKER, P

    2005-09-05

    This report documents the results of the L-Basin Corrosion Surveillance Program for the fiscal year 2004. Test coupons were removed from the basin on February 12, 2004, shipped to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and visually examined in a contaminated laboratory hood. Selected coupons were metallurgically characterized to establish the extent of general corrosion and pitting. Pitting was observed on galvanically coupled and on intentionally creviced coupons, thus demonstrating that localized concentration cells were formed during the exposure period. In these cases, the susceptibility to pitting was not attributed to aggressive basin water chemistry but to localized conditions (intentional crevices and galvanic coupling) that allowed the development of oxygen and/or metal ion concentration cells that produced locally aggressive waters. General oxidation was also observed on all of the coupons with localized corrosion observed on some of the coupons. These coupons were not pretreated to produce a protective oxide layer prior to exposure in the basin water. Non-protected coupons are more susceptible to corrosion than fuel cladding which has developed a protective oxide layer from high temperature reactor operations. However, the oxide on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored in L-Basin is not necessarily in pristine condition. Some of the oxide may have spalled off or been mechanically damaged prior to arrival at SRS. These areas on the fuel cladding would have the same susceptibility to corrosion as the coupons. Current observations from the test coupons demonstrate that, even with rigorously controlled basin water chemistry, localized aggressive conditions can develop in intentional crevice and galvanic samples. These results do illustrate the potential for corrosion induced degradation and thus the importance of a routine surveillance program similar to that conducted on the Uruguay fuel and on the surveillance coupons stored in L-Basin and future in

  11. Surveillance theory and its implications for law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timan, Tjerk; Galic, Masa; Koops, Bert-Jaap; Yeung, Karen; Brownsword, Roger; Scotford, Eloise

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of key surveillance theories and their implications for law and regulation. It presents three stages of theories that characterise changes in thinking about surveillance in society and the disciplining, controlling, and entertaining functions of surveillance.

  12. Public Health Surveillance in Pilot Drinking Water Contamination Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C.; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the lessons learned from operation and maintenance of the public health surveillance (PHS) component of five pilot city drinking water contamination warning systems (CWS) including: Cincinnati, New York, San Francisco, Philadelphia, and Dallas. Introduction The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed a program to pilot multi-component contamination warning systems (CWSs), known as the “Water Security initiative (WSi).” The Cincinnati pilot has been fully operational since January 2008, and an additional four pilot utilities will have their own, custom CWSs by the end of 2012. A workshop amongst the pilot cities was conducted in May 2012 to discuss lessons learned from the design, implementation, operation, maintenance, and evaluation of each city’s PHS component. Methods When evaluating potential surveillance tools to integrate into a drinking water contamination warning system, it is important to consider design decisions, dual use applications/considerations, and the unique capabilities of each tool. The pilot cities integrated unique surveillance tools, which included a combination of automated event detection tools and communication and coordination procedures into their respective PHS components. The five pilots performed a thorough, technical evaluation of each component of their CWS, including PHS. Results Four key lessons learned were identified from implementation of the PHS component in the five pilot cities. First, improved communication and coordination between public health and water utilities was emphasized as an essential goal even if it were not feasible to implement automated surveillance systems. The WSi pilot project has helped to strengthen this communication pathway through the process of collaborating to develop the component, and through the need to investigate PHS alerts. Second, the approximate location of specific cases associated with PHS alerts was found to be an essential feature that

  13. Preventing conduct problems and improving school readiness: evaluation of the Incredible Years Teacher and Child Training Programs in high-risk schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Jamila Reid, M; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2008-05-01

    School readiness, conceptualized as three components including emotional self-regulation, social competence, and family/school involvement, as well as absence of conduct problems play a key role in young children's future interpersonal adjustment and academic success. Unfortunately, exposure to multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds that children will demonstrate increased emotional dysregulation, fewer social skills, less teacher/parent involvement and more conduct problems. Consequently intervention offered to socio-economically disadvantaged populations that includes a social and emotional school curriculum and trains teachers in effective classroom management skills and in promotion of parent-school involvement would seem to be a strategic strategy for improving young children's school readiness, leading to later academic success and prevention of the development of conduct disorders. This randomized trial evaluated the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management and Child Social and Emotion curriculum (Dinosaur School) as a universal prevention program for children enrolled in Head Start, kindergarten, or first grade classrooms in schools selected because of high rates of poverty. Trained teachers offered the Dinosaur School curriculum to all their students in bi-weekly lessons throughout the year. They sent home weekly dinosaur homework to encourage parents' involvement. Part of the curriculum involved promotion of lesson objectives through the teachers' continual use of positive classroom management skills focused on building social competence and emotional self-regulation skills as well as decreasing conduct problems. Matched pairs of schools were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Results from multi-level models on a total of 153 teachers and 1,768 students are presented. Children and teachers were observed in the classrooms by blinded observers at the beginning and the end of the school year. Results indicated that

  14. Defining 'surveillance' in drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Hauben, Manfred; Bate, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    The concept of surveillance in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology has evolved from the concept of surveillance in epidemiology, particularly of infectious diseases. We have surveyed the etymology, usages, and previous definitions of 'surveillance' and its modifiers, such as 'active' and 'passive'. The following essential definitional features of surveillance emerge: (i) surveillance and monitoring are different--surveillance involves populations, while monitoring involves individuals; (ii) surveillance can be performed repeatedly and at any time during the lifetime of a medicinal product or device; (iii) although itself non-interventional, it can adduce any types of evidence (interventional, observational, or anecdotal, potentially at different times); (iv) it encompasses data collection, management, analysis, and interpretation; (v) it includes actions to be taken after signal detection, including initial evaluation and communication; and (vi) it should contribute to the classification of adverse reactions and their prevention or mitigation and/or to the harnessing of beneficial effects. We conclude that qualifiers add ambiguity and uncertainty without enhancing the idea of surveillance. We propose the following definition of surveillance of health-care products, which embraces all the surveyed ideas and reflects real-world pharmacovigilance processes: 'a form of non-interventional public health research, consisting of a set of processes for the continued systematic collection, compilation, interrogation, analysis, and interpretation of data on benefits and harms (including relevant spontaneous reports, electronic medical records, and experimental data).' As a codicil, we note that the purposes of surveillance are to identify, evaluate, understand, and communicate previously unknown effects of health-care products, or new aspects of known effects, in order to harness such effects (if beneficial) or prevent or mitigate them (if harmful).

  15. State synergies and disease surveillance: creating an electronic health data communication model for cancer reporting and comparative effectiveness research in kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Christopher; Powell, Mallory; Edwards, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes the collaboration between a state public health department, a major research university, and a health extension service funded as part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act to establish an interoperable health information system for disease surveillance through electronic reporting of systemic therapy data from numerous oncology practices in Kentucky. The experience of the Kentucky cancer surveillance system can help local and state entities achieve greater effectiveness in designing communication efforts to increase usage of electronic health records (EHRs) and health information exchanges (HIEs), help eligible clinicians meet these new standards in patient care, and conduct disease surveillance in a learning health system. We document and assess the statewide efforts of early health information technology (HIT) adopters in Kentucky to facilitate the nation's first electronic transmission of a clinical document architecture (CDA) from a physician office to a state cancer surveillance registry in November 2012. Successful transmission of the CDA not only represented a landmark for technology innovators, informaticists, and clinicians, but it also set in motion a new communication mechanism by which state and federal agencies can capture and trade vital cancer statistics in a way that is safe, secure, and timely. The corresponding impact this has on cancer surveillance and comparative effective research is immense. With guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Kentucky Cancer Registry (KCR), the Kentucky Health Information Exchange (KHIE), and the Kentucky Regional Extension Center (KREC) have moved one step further in transforming the interoperable health environment for improved disease surveillance. This case study describes the efforts of established and reputable agencies, including the KCR, the state department of health, state and federal governmental

  16. Self-surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    coupled with social interaction and sometimes framed as entertainment or games. Facilitated by online community and social networking sites, the possibility of collecting and sharing data is a significant feature of these self-monitoring technologies. They all include sharing features where weight, blood...... pressure, fitness activities, sleep cycles, etc. can be broadcasted, e.g. as tweets on Twitter or status updates on Facebook. Such quantification practices with monitoring technologies become co-producing when individuals constitute themselves as subjects engaging in self-tracking, self-care, and self......, and gamification modulate the enactment of selfhood? How does self-surveillance contribute to corresponding notions of self-optimization and self-cultivation such as “the good life”, “sustainable lifestyle”, “healthy living”, “good learning” and “work productivity”?...

  17. Drug approval and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, M

    1980-01-01

    This article argues that current regulations governing the licensing of drugs, particularly in the U.S., need to be changed and replaced by a system of provisional or conditional licensing and increased postmarketing surveillance of drug use. In terms of research and development of new forms of contraception, this proposal would have great impact. It is believed that the U.S./Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements--animal experiments and Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials--not only put an unacceptable financial burden on any institution attempting to develop new contraceptives, but do not demonstrably contribute to the reduction of risks. The author questions whether even if oral contraceptives introduced prior to new U.S./FDA regulations had been subject to these current regulations that convincing evidence would have been found to alert anyone to the now-known rare adverse effects, such as risk of thromboembolism. It is pointed out that these sorts of rare risks were uncovered by continuous screening processes which are not now a part of the FDA drug regulation requirements. The author also questions the politics of "conpulsory safety," such as might be legislated for regulated car safety belt use. Citing a partnership already established between government and private industry in high-risk/low cost ventures in the aerospace industry, the author sees no reason why such a relationship could not evolve in the pharmaceutical industry. In Britain, proposals have been made to establish a fund to compensate patients adversely affected by drugs which pharmaceutical companies would reimburse if proved negligent; such a fund may work in the U.S. under new regulations which stress postmarketing surveillance.

  18. State-based surveillance for selected hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulihan, Mary M; Feuchtbaum, Lisa; Jordan, Lanetta; Kirby, Russell S; Snyder, Angela; Young, William; Greene, Yvonne; Telfair, Joseph; Wang, Ying; Cramer, William; Werner, Ellen M; Kenney, Kristy; Creary, Melissa; Grant, Althea M

    2015-02-01

    The lack of an ongoing surveillance system for hemoglobinopathies in the United States impedes the ability of public health organizations to identify individuals with these conditions, monitor their health-care utilization and clinical outcomes, and understand the effect these conditions have on the health-care system. This article describes the results of a pilot program that supported the development of the infrastructure and data collection methods for a state-based surveillance system for selected hemoglobinopathies. The system was designed to identify and gather information on all people living with a hemoglobinopathy diagnosis (sickle cell diseases or thalassemias) in the participating states during 2004-2008. Novel, three-level case definitions were developed, and multiple data sets were used to collect information. In total, 31,144 individuals who had a hemoglobinopathy diagnosis during the study period were identified in California; 39,633 in Florida; 20,815 in Georgia; 12,680 in Michigan; 34,853 in New York, and 8,696 in North Carolina. This approach provides a possible model for the development of state-based hemoglobinopathy surveillance systems.

  19. Postmarketing surveillance of abuse liability of sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Schuster, Charles R; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn

    2003-03-01

    The abuse liability of medications is a growing concern as the number of newly approved psychoactive medications increases. Postmarketing surveillance can assist in determining abuse liability, but strategies are not well-defined for medications believed to be at low abuse risk. Using a newly approved medication (sibutramine--an anorectic drug), a novel approach to postmarketing abuse surveillance was introduced. A one-page anonymous questionnaire covering sibutramine, a scheduled anorectic drug (phentermine), and a fabricated name was added to the intake process of 58 treatment programs. From the 8780 completed questionnaires, 8.8% had heard of sibutramine and phentermine. For continued use to get high (a proxy for abuse), the rate for sibutramine was lower than for phentermine (0.6 vs. 2.2%, McNemar's chi(2) = 110.45, P < 0.001) but was higher than for the fabricated name (0.6 vs. 0.3%, McNemar's chi(2) = 11.86, P < 0.001). These results suggest the risk of abuse associated with sibutramine was lower than that associated with a known abused drug, one that itself is considered low risk despite decades of population exposure. The relatively high rate of hearing of sibutramine may be due to the direct-to-consumer advertisement. This approach is only one indicator in a surveillance framework but appears promising and validates findings from laboratory-based abuse liability studies that also indicate low abuse liability for sibutramine. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  20. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively