WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding young stellar

  1. High spatial resolution IR observations of young stellar objects - A possible disk surrounding HL Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasdalen, G. L.; Strom, S. E.; Strom, K. M.; Capps, R. W.; Thompson, D.; Castelaz, M.

    1984-01-01

    High spatial resolution images of the T Tauri star HL Tau were obtained at 1.6 microns and 2.2 microns. The original images as well as maximum entropy image reconstructions reveal a circumstellar envelope structure, similar at both wavelenghts, and extended along P.A. = 112 deg; the 10 percent width of the structure is 1.9 sec (300 AU at 160 pc). The extended structure is interpreted as light scattered toward earth by dust in a disk surrounding this young stellar object. Polarization measurements made at 2.2 microns support this hypothesis. The total solid particle mass is, at minimum, 5 x 10 to the -7th solar mass.

  2. The interplay between the young stellar super cluster Westerlund 1, and the surrounding interstellar medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the multi-band (CO, HI and Spitzer maps, large-scale (150 pc gaseous structure around Westerlund 1, the most massive known superstar cluster in the Milky Way, with the intention of exploring the effect of feedback from massive stars in this young (age < 5 Myr cluster on the surrounding interstellar medium. We find no traces of the parental molecular cloud in the immediate vicinity of the cluster, instead this volume is partially filled by HI gas. On the other hand, there are two giant molecular clouds, both moving away from the cluster at 5–10 km s−1, at distances of around 50–150 pc. There are several ultra-compact HII regions associated with these giant molecular clouds. All these events suggest that the cluster has played an important role in re-structuring the ISM, in the form of ejecting the molecular gas, as well as triggering secondary star formation.

  3. Disks around young stellar objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H C Bhatt

    2011-07-01

    By 1939, when Chandrasekhar’s classic monograph on the theory of Stellar Structure was published, although the need for recent star formation was fully acknowledged, no one had yet recognized an object that could be called a star in the process of being born. Young stellar objects (YSOs), as pre-main-sequence stars, were discovered in the 1940s and 1950s. Infrared excess emission and intrinsic polarization observed in these objects in the 1960s and 1970s indicated that they are surrounded by flattened disks. The YSO disks were seen in direct imaging only in the 1980s. Since then, high-resolution optical imaging with HST, near-infrared adaptive optics on large groundbased telescopes, mm and radiowave interferometry have been used to image disks around a large number of YSOs revealing disk structure with ever-increasing detail and variety. The disks around YSOs are believed to be the sites of planet formation and a few such associations have now been confirmed. The observed properties of the disk structure and their evolution, that have very important consequences for the theory of star and planet formation, are discussed.

  4. A Stellar Stream Surrounds the Whale Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    The -cold dark matter cosmological model predicts that galaxies are assembled through the disruption and absorption of small satellite dwarf galaxies by their larger hosts. A recent study argues that NGC 4631, otherwise known as the Whale galaxy, shows evidence of such a recent merger in the form of an enormous stellar stream extending from it.Stream SignaturesAccording to the -CDM model, stellar tidal streams should be a ubiquitous feature among galaxies. When satellite dwarf galaxies are torn apart, they spread out into such streams before ultimately feeding the host galaxy. Unfortunately, these streams are very faint, so were only recently starting to detect these features.Stellar tidal streams have been discovered around the Milky Way and Andromeda, providing evidence of these galaxies growth via recent (within the last 8 Gyr) mergers. But discovering stellar streams around other Milky Way-like galaxies would help us to determine if the model of hierarchical galaxy assembly applies generally.To this end, the Stellar Tidal Stream Survey, led by PI David Martnez-Delgado (Center for Astronomy of Heidelberg University), is carrying out the first systematic survey of stellar tidal streams. In a recent study, Martnez-Delgado and collaborators present their detection of a giant (85 kpc long!) stellar tidal stream extending into the halo of NGC 4631, the Whale galaxy.Modeling a SatelliteThe top image is a snapshot from an N-body simulation of a single dwarf satellite, 3.5 Gyr after it started interacting with the Whale galaxy. The satellite has been torn apart and spread into a stream that reproduces observations, which are shown in the lower image (scale is not the same). [Martnez-Delgado et al. 2015]The Whale galaxy is a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with a second spiral, NGC 4656. But the authors dont believe that the Whale galaxys giant tidal stellar stream is caused by its interactions with NGC 4656. Instead, based on their observations, they believe

  5. Young Stellar Clusters Containing Massive Young Stellar Objects in the VVV Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Borissova, J; Alonso, J; Lucas, P W; Kurtev, R; Medina, N; Navarro, C; Kuhn, M; Gromadzki, M; Retamales, G; Fernandez, M A; Agurto-Gangas, C; Chené, A -N; Minniti, D; Peña, C Contreras; Catelan, M; Decany, I; Thompson, M A; Morales, E F E; Amigo, P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the connection of global properties of eight young stellar clusters projected in the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) ESO Large Public Survey disk area and their young stellar object population. The analysis in based on the combination of spectroscopic parallax-based reddening and distance determinations with main sequence and pre-main sequence ishochrone fitting to determine the basic parameters (reddening, age, distance) of the sample clusters. The lower mass limit estimations show that all clusters are low or intermediate mass (between 110 and 1800 Mo), the slope Gamma of the obtained present-day mass functions of the clusters is close to the Kroupa initial mass function. On the other hand, the young stellar objects in the surrounding cluster's fields are classified by low resolution spectra, spectral energy distribution fit with theoretical predictions, and variability, taking advantage of multi-epoch VVV observations. All spectroscopically confirmed young s...

  6. Young and Exotic Stellar Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Summary Super star clusters are groups of hundreds of thousands of very young stars packed into an unbelievably small volume. They represent the most extreme environments in which stars and planets can form. Until now, super star clusters were only known to exist very far away, mostly in pairs or groups of interacting galaxies. Now, however, a team of European astronomers [1] have used ESO's telescopes to uncover such a monster object within our own Galaxy, the Milky Way, almost, but not quite, in our own backyard! The newly found massive structure is hidden behind a large cloud of dust and gas and this is why it took so long to unveil its true nature. It is known as "Westerlund 1" and is a thousand times closer than any other super star cluster known so far. It is close enough that astronomers may now probe its structure in some detail. Westerlund 1 contains hundreds of very massive stars, some shining with a brilliance of almost one million suns and some two-thousand times larger than the Sun (as large as the orbit of Saturn)! Indeed, if the Sun were located at the heart of this remarkable cluster, our sky would be full of hundreds of stars as bright as the full Moon. Westerlund 1 is a most unique natural laboratory for the study of extreme stellar physics, helping astronomers to find out how the most massive stars in our Galaxy live and die. From their observations, the astronomers conclude that this extreme cluster most probably contains no less than 100,000 times the mass of the Sun, and all of its stars are located within a region less than 6 light-years across. Westerlund 1 thus appears to be the most massive compact young cluster yet identified in the Milky Way Galaxy. PR Photo 09a/05: The Super Star Cluster Westerlund 1 (2.2m MPG/ESO + WFI) PR Photo 09b/05: Properties of Young Massive Clusters Super Star Clusters Stars are generally born in small groups, mostly in so-called "open clusters" that typically contain a few hundred stars. From a wide range of

  7. Young Stellar Clusters Containing Massive Young Stellar Objects in the VVV Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borissova, J.; Ramírez Alegría, S.; Alonso, J.; Lucas, P. W.; Kurtev, R.; Medina, N.; Navarro, C.; Kuhn, M.; Gromadzki, M.; Retamales, G.; Fernandez, M. A.; Agurto-Gangas, C.; Chené, A.-N.; Minniti, D.; Contreras Pena, C.; Catelan, M.; Decany, I.; Thompson, M. A.; Morales, E. F. E.; Amigo, P.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the connections of the global properties of eight young stellar clusters projected in the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV) ESO Large Public Survey disk area and their young stellar object (YSO) populations. The analysis is based on the combination of spectroscopic parallax-based reddening and distance determinations with main-sequence and pre-main-sequence ishochrone fitting to determine the basic parameters (reddening, age, distance) of the sample clusters. The lower mass limit estimations show that all clusters are low or intermediate mass (between 110 and 1800 M ⊙), the slope Γ of the obtained present-day mass functions of the clusters is close to the Kroupa initial mass function. The YSOs in the cluster’s surrounding fields are classified using low resolution spectra, spectral energy distribution fits with theoretical predictions, and variability, taking advantage of multi-epoch VVV observations. All spectroscopically confirmed YSOs (except one) are found to be massive (more than 8 M ⊙). Using VVV and GLIMPSE color-color cuts we have selected a large number of new YSO candidates, which are checked for variability and 57% are found to show at least low-amplitude variations. In few cases it was possible to distinguish between YSO and AGB classifications on the basis of light curves.

  8. High Energy Emissions from Young Stellar Objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. C. Das; Ashok Ambastha

    2012-03-01

    X-ray emissions from Young Stellar Objects (YSO) are detected by many X-ray missions that are providing important information about their properties. However, their emission processes are not fully understood. In this research note, we propose a model for the generation of emissions from a YSO on the basis of a simple interaction between the YSO and its surrounding circumstellar accretion disc containing neutral gas and charged dust. It is assumed that the YSO has a weak dipole type magnetic field and its field lines are threaded into the circumstellar disc. Considering the motion of ions and charged dust particles in the presence of neutral gas, we show that the sheared dust-neutral gas velocities can lead to a current along the direction of ambient magnetic field. Magnitude of this current can become large and is capable of generating an electric field along the magnetic field lines. It is shown how the particles can gain energy up to MeV range and above, which can produce high-energy radiations from the YSO.

  9. Accretion disks in luminous young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, M T

    2015-01-01

    An observational review is provided of the properties of accretion disks around young stars. It concerns the primordial disks of intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects in embedded and optically revealed phases. The properties were derived from spatially resolved observations and therefore predominantly obtained with interferometric means, either in the radio/(sub)millimeter or in the optical/infrared wavelength regions. We make summaries and comparisons of the physical properties, kinematics, and dynamics of these circumstellar structures and delineate trends where possible. Amongst others, we report on a quadratic trend of mass accretion rates with mass from T Tauri stars to the highest mass young stellar objects and on the systematic difference in mass infall and accretion rates.

  10. Magnetospheric outflows in young stellar objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanni Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different classes of outflows are associated with the magnetospheric activity of accreting T Tauri protostars. Stellar winds are accelerated along the open field lines anchored in the stellar surface; disk winds (extended or X-type can be launched along the open magnetic surfaces threading the accretion disk; another type of ejection can arise from the region of interaction of the closed magnetosphere with the accretion disk (magnetospheric ejections, conical winds, where the magnetic surfaces undergo quasiperiodic episodes of inflation and reconnection. In this chapter I will present the main dynamical properties of these different types of outflow. Two main issues will be addressed. First, I will try to understand if these ejection phenomena can account for the origin of the jets often observed in young forming stellar systems. Second, I will evaluate the impact of these outflows on the angular momentum evolution of the central protostar.

  11. Assessment of Stellar Stratification in Three Young Star Clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A; Xin, Yu; Rochau, Boyke

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) We present a comprehensive study of stellar stratification in young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We apply our recently developed effective radius method for the assessment of stellar stratification on imaging data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys of three young LMC clusters to characterize the phenomenon and develop a comparative scheme for its assessment in such clusters. The clusters of our sample, NGC 1983, NGC 2002 and NGC 2010, are selected on the basis of their youthfulness, and their variety in appearance, structure, stellar content, and surrounding stellar ambient. Our photometry is complete for magnitudes down to m_814 ~ 23 mag, allowing the calculation of the structural parameters of the clusters, the estimation of their ages and the determination of their stellar content. Our study shows that each cluster in our sample demonstrates stellar stratification in a quite different manner and at different degree from the others. Specifically, NGC 1983 shows to...

  12. A Search for Extremely Young Stellar Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月芳; 王均智; 吴京文

    2003-01-01

    We have observed 22 sources in 13CO and C18O J = 1 - 0 lines with a 13.7-m telescope at Qinghai station of PMO, NAOC. The samples were chosen with new criteria so that the sources are much redder and fainter than those chosen before. All the 22 sources were detected with the pair lines of 13CO and C18O and are suitable for analysing star formation except one multiple emission source IRAS 20300+3909. Physical parameters were derived from the local thermodynamic equilibrium assumption. The excitation temperature and column density of C18O are 13K and 1.5 × 1015 cm-2, respectively, on the average. 11 sources in the samples have line widths larger than 3 km/s. The IRAS colour indices are larger than those of class-O objects. The intermediate and farinfrared energy distributions show that the emission peaks of the samples fall in far infrared or longer wavelengths except IRAS 20149+3955, indicating that they may be very young stellar objects. Analyses of line widths and bolometric luminosity show that seven of those sources may be extremely young high or intermediate mass stellar objects.

  13. The LARI Experience - Young Stellar Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Michael J.; Coveyl, Kevin; Heiland, Leo; Steffens, Gary W.

    2015-05-01

    The Lowell Observatory has had a long and rich history of professional-amateur (Pro-Am) collaborations beginning with the observatory's founder, Percival Lowell. The Lowell Amateur Research Initiative (LARI) was launched in 2012 to formally involve amateur astronomers in scientific research by bringing them to the attention of and helping professional astronomers with their research endeavours. One of the LARI projects is the BVRI photometric monitoring of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), wherein amateurs obtain observations to search for new outburst events and characterize the colour evolution of previously identified outbursters. We summarize the scientific and organizational aspects of this LARI program, including its goals and science motivation, the process for getting involved with the project, the current team members and their equipment, our unique methods of collaboration, programme stars, preliminary findings, and lessons learned.

  14. Young Stellar Objects close to Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, B; Eckart, A; Zwart, S Portegies; Sabha, N; Borkar, A; Moultaka, J; Muzic, K; Moser, L

    2013-01-01

    We aim at modelling small groups of young stars such as IRS 13N, 0.1 pc away from Sgr A*, which is suggested to contain a few embedded massive young stellar objects. We perform hydrodynamical simulations to follow the evolution of molecular clumps orbiting about a $4\\times10^6 ~ M_{\\odot}$ black hole, to constrain the formation and the physical conditions of such groups. We find that, the strong compression due to the black hole along the orbital radius vector of clumps evolving on highly eccentric orbits causes the clumps densities to increase to higher than the tidal density of Sgr A*, and required for star formation. This suggests that the tidal compression from the black hole could support star formation. Additionally, we speculate that the infrared excess source G2/DSO approaching Sgr A* on a highly eccentric orbit could be associated with a dust enshrouded star that may have been formed recently through the mechanism supported by our models.

  15. The Spatial Structure of Young Stellar Clusters. II. Total Young Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Michael A; Feigelson, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the intrinsic stellar populations (estimated total numbers of OB and pre-main-sequence stars down to 0.1 Mo) that are present in 17 massive star-forming regions (MSFRs) surveyed by the MYStIX project. The study is based on the catalog of >31,000 MYStIX Probable Complex Members with both disk-bearing and disk-free populations, compensating for extinction, nebulosity, and crowding effects. Correction for observational sensitivities is made using the X-ray Luminosity Function (XLF) and the near-infrared Initial Mass Function (IMF)--a correction that is often not made by infrared surveys of young stars. The resulting maps of the projected structure of the young stellar populations, in units of intrinsic stellar surface density, allow direct comparison between different regions. Several regions have multiple dense clumps, similar in size and density to the Orion Nebula Cluster. The highest projected density of ~34,000 stars/pc^2 is found in the core of the RCW38 cluster. Histograms of surface densit...

  16. Extended stellar substructure surrounding the Boötes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, T. A.; Mackey, A. D.; Jerjen, H.; Da Costa, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    We present deep stellar photometry of the Boötes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy in g- and i-band filters, taken with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo in Chile. Our analysis reveals a large, extended region of stellar substructure surrounding the dwarf, as well as a distinct overdensity encroaching on its tidal radius. A radial profile of the Boötes I stellar distribution shows a break radius indicating the presence of extra-tidal stars. These observations strongly suggest that Boötes I is experiencing tidal disruption, although not as extreme as that exhibited by the Hercules dwarf spheroidal. Combined with revised velocity dispersion measurements from the literature, we see evidence suggesting the need to review previous theoretical models of the Boötes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy.

  17. Extended stellar substructure surrounding the Bo\\"otes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Roderick, T A; Jerjen, H; Da Costa, G S

    2016-01-01

    We present deep stellar photometry of the Bo\\"otes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy in g and i band filters, taken with the Dark Energy Camera at Cerro Tololo in Chile. Our analysis reveals a large, extended region of stellar substructure surrounding the dwarf, as well as a distinct over-density encroaching on its tidal radius. A radial profile of the Bo\\"otes I stellar distribution shows a break radius indicating the presence of extra-tidal stars. These observations strongly suggest that Bo\\"otes I is experiencing tidal disruption, although not as extreme as that exhibited by the Hercules dwarf spheroidal. Combined with revised velocity dispersion measurements from the literature, we see evidence suggesting the need to review previous theoretical models of the Bo\\"otes I dwarf spheroidal galaxy.

  18. Young Stellar Objects in the Gould Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Evans, Neal J; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Cieza, Lucas; Di Francesco, James; Gutermuth, Robert A; Harvey, Paul M; Hatchell, Jennifer; Heiderman, Amanda; Huard, Tracy; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Jason M; Matthews, Brenda C; Miller, Jennifer F; Peterson, Dawn E; Young, Kaisa E

    2015-01-01

    We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope "cores to disks" (c2d) and "Gould Belt" (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the Gould Belt. We compile extinction corrected SEDs for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. We find that 326 (11%), 210 (7%), 1248 (42%), and 1182 (40%) are classified as Class 0+I, Flat-spectrum, Class II, and Class III, respectively, and show that the Class III sample suffers from an overall contamination rate by background AGB stars between 25% and 90%. Adopting standard assumptions, we derive durations of 0.40-0.78 Myr for Class 0+I YSOs and 0.26-0.50 Myr for Flat-spectrum YSOs, where the ranges encompass uncertainties in the ado...

  19. Binary Populations and Stellar Dynamics in Young Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbeveren, D.; Belkus, H.; Van Bever, J.; Mennekens, N.

    2008-06-01

    We first summarize work that has been done on the effects of binaries on theoretical population synthesis of stars and stellar phenomena. Next, we highlight the influence of stellar dynamics in young clusters by discussing a few candidate UFOs (unconventionally formed objects) like intermediate mass black holes, η Car, ζ Pup, γ2 Velorum and WR 140.

  20. Binary populations and stellar dynamics in young clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Vanbeveren, D; Van Bever, J; Mennekens, N

    2008-01-01

    We first summarize work that has been done on the effects of binaries on theoretical population synthesis of stars and stellar phenomena. Next, we highlight the influence of stellar dynamics in young clusters by discussing a few candidate UFOs (unconventionally formed objects) like intermediate mass black holes, Eta Carinae, Zeta Puppis, Gamma Velorum and WR 140.

  1. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE GOULD BELT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, Lori E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ (United States); Evans II, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul M. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Cieza, Lucas A. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda C. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Programs, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hatchell, Jennifer [Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Heiderman, Amanda [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Huard, Tracy L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Kirk, Jason M. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Miller, Jennifer F. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Peterson, Dawn E. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Young, Kaisa E., E-mail: mdunham@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physical Sciences, Nicholls State University, P.O. Box 2022, Thibodaux, LA 70310 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope “cores to disks” (c2d) and “Gould Belt” (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the GB. We compile extinction corrected spectral energy distributions for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. We find that 326 (11%), 210 (7%), 1248 (42%), and 1182 (40%) are classified as Class 0 + I, Flat-spectrum, Class II, and Class III, respectively, and show that the Class III sample suffers from an overall contamination rate by background Asymptotic Giant Branch stars between 25% and 90%. Adopting standard assumptions, we derive durations of 0.40–0.78 Myr for Class 0 + I YSOs and 0.26–0.50 Myr for Flat-spectrum YSOs, where the ranges encompass uncertainties in the adopted assumptions. Including information from (sub)millimeter wavelengths, one-third of the Class 0 + I sample is classified as Class 0, leading to durations of 0.13–0.26 Myr (Class 0) and 0.27–0.52 Myr (Class I). We revisit infrared color–color diagrams used in the literature to classify YSOs and propose minor revisions to classification boundaries in these diagrams. Finally, we show that the bolometric temperature is a poor discriminator between Class II and Class III YSOs.

  2. Saturation of Stellar Winds from Young Suns

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Takeru K; Kataoka, Ryuho; Kato, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Takuma; Miyahara, Hiroko; Tsuneta, Saku

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged)We investigate mass losses via stellar winds from sun-like main sequence stars with a wide range of activity levels. We perform forward-type magnetohydrodynamical numerical experiments for Alfven wave-driven stellar winds with a wide range of the input Poynting flux from the photosphere. Increasing the magnetic field strength and the turbulent velocity at the stellar photosphere from the current solar level, the mass loss rate rapidly increases at first owing to the suppression of the reflection of the Alfven waves. The surface materials are lifted up by the magnetic pressure associated with the Alfven waves, and the cool dense chromosphere is intermittently extended to 10-20% of the stellar radius. The densities of the corona and transition region above the chromosphere is also high, which leads to efficient radiative losses. Eventually most of the input Poynting energy from the stellar surface escapes by the radiation. As a result, there is no more sufficient energy remained for the kinetic energy...

  3. Warm gas towards young stellar objects in Corona Australis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Johan; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; D. Green, Joel;

    2014-01-01

    by an intermediate-mass young star. We study the effects on the warm gas and dust in a group of low-mass young stellar objects from the irradiation by the young luminous Herbig Be star R CrA. Herschel/PACS far-infrared datacubes of two low-mass star-forming regions in the R CrA dark cloud are presented...

  4. Young Stellar Objects in the Orion B Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petr-Gotzens, M. G.; Alcalá, J. M.; Spezzi, L.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Stanke, Th.; Lombardi, M.; Alves, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Wide-field near-infrared imaging surveys offer an excellent opportunity to obtain spatially complete samples of young stars in nearby star-forming regions. By studying their spatial distribution and individual properties, the global star formation characteristics of a region can be established. Near-infrared wide-field imaging observations of a significantly large area in the Orion Molecular Cloud B, obtained with the VISTA telescope on Cerro Paranal are presented. On the basis of photometric selection criteria, we have identified 186 candidate young stellar objects that are associated with the stellar clusters NGC 2068 and NGC 2071, and with the stellar group around HH24-26. Overall, Orion B shows a lot of similarities in its star formation characteristics with other Galactic star-forming regions: a star formation efficiency of a few percent, a stellar mass distribution very similar to that of the Orion Trapezium cluster, and a high observed fraction of circumstellar discs.

  5. STELLAR FEEDBACK AND THE EVOLUTION OF YOUNG EMBEDDED STAR CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Weidner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present the rst results of an theoretical attempt to address the question of the evacuation time-scale but also the star-formation efficiency and the in uence of feedback on the most-massive star in a star cluster. With the use of stellar evolution models, known descriptions for the evolution of an ionised sphere around a star and further models to describe stellar winds, the e ects of young stellar populations of di erent sizes are studied.

  6. Origin of [OI] and [CII] emission in Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Goran

    Observations with Herschel/ PACS show that [OI] 63 micron is ubiquitous in young stellar objects (YSOs). In Class II sources the emission is mostly unresolved, whereas it can be quite extended in deeply embedded Class 0 sources powering highly collimated molecular outflows. Since [OI] can be excited in both photon dominated regions (PDRs) and in shocks, and because the Herschel/ PACS [OI] observations do not resolve the [OI] emission, it is uncertain what fraction of emission originates in PDRs (disks) versus shocks. [CII], when detected, is often spatially extended, and likely to originate from PDR emission in the surrounding cloud. Since extended [CII] emission seems to correlate with extended [OI] emission, it is often assumed that the emission originates from the same region. This assumption is almost certainly false. [CII] is not excited in shocks, nor does it seem to trace emission from disks.Here we will use GREAT in the L2/H configuration to obtain velocity resolved spectra of a small sample of YSOs from the Herschel GASPS and DIGIT sample to investigate whether [OI] is primarly is excited from dissociative J-shocks or irradiated J/C shocks and how [CII] relates to [OI].

  7. Chandra Observations of Embedded Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, K

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the Chandra deep exposure observations of star forming regions, rho-Ophiuchi, Orion Molecular Clouds 2 and 3, Sagittarius B2 and Monoceros R2. The results are; (1) class I protostars are found to exhibit higher temperature plasma than those of T Tauri stars, (2) heavily absorbed X-rays are discovered from the candidates of class 0 protostars, (3) hard and highly variable X-rays are observed from high-mass young stars, and (4) young brown dwarfs emit X-rays similar to those of low-mass young stars.

  8. The interactions of winds from massive young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, E R; Hoare, M G; Wright, N J; Drake, J J

    2010-01-01

    The supersonic stellar and disk winds possessed by massive young stellar objects will produce shocks when they collide against the interior of a pre-existing bipolar cavity (resulting from an earlier phase of jet activity). The shock heated gas emits thermal X-rays which may be observable by spaceborne observa- tories such as the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Hydrodynamical models are used to explore the wind-cavity interaction. Radiative transfer calculations are performed on the simulation output to produce synthetic X-ray observations, allowing constraints to be placed on model parameters through comparisons with observations. The model reveals an intricate interplay between the inflowing and outflowing material and is successful in reproducing the observed X-ray count rates from massive young stellar objects.

  9. The young stellar population of Lynds 1340. An infrared view

    CERN Document Server

    Kun, M; Moór, A; Apai, D; Balog, Z; O'Linger-Luscusk, J; Moriarty-Schieven, G

    2016-01-01

    We present results of an infrared study of the molecular cloud Lynds 1340, forming three groups of low and intermediate-mass stars. Our goals are to identify and characterise the young stellar population of the cloud, study the relationships between the properties of the cloud and the emergent stellar groups, and integrate L1340 into the picture of the star-forming activity of our Galactic environment. We selected candidate young stellar objects from the Spitzer and WISE data bases using various published color criteria, and classified them based on the slope of the spectral energy distribution. We identified 170 Class II, 27 Flat SED, and Class 0/I sources. High angular resolution near-infrared observations of the RNO 7 cluster, embedded in L1340, revealed eight new young stars of near-infrared excess. The surface density distribution of young stellar objects shows three groups, associated with the three major molecular clumps of L1340, each consisting of less than 100 members, including both pre-main sequen...

  10. The Effects of Stellar Dynamics on the Evolution of Young, Dense Stellar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkus, H.; van Bever, J.; Vanbeveren, D.

    In this paper, we report on first results of a project in Brussels in which we study the effects of stellar dynamics on the evolution of young dense stellar systems using 3 decades of expertise in massive-star evolution and our population (number and spectral) synthesis code. We highlight an unconventionally formed object scenario (UFO-scenario) for Wolf Rayet binaries and study the effects of a luminous blue variable-type instability wind mass-loss formalism on the formation of intermediate-mass black holes.

  11. The Hierarchical Distribution of Young Stellar Clusters in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasha, Kathryn; Calzetti, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the spatial distributions of young stellar clusters in six nearby galaxies to trace the large scale hierarchical star-forming structures. The six galaxies are drawn from the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS). We quantify the strength of the clustering among stellar clusters as a function of spatial scale and age to establish the survival timescale of the substructures. We separate the clusters into different classes, compact (bound) clusters and associations (unbound), and compare the clustering among them. We find that younger star clusters are more strongly clustered over small spatial scales and that the clustering disappears rapidly for ages as young as a few tens of Myr, consistent with clusters slowly losing the fractal dimension inherited at birth from their natal molecular clouds.

  12. THE STEADY-STATE WIND MODEL FOR YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTERS WITH AN EXPONENTIAL STELLAR DENSITY DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennadiy, E-mail: silich@inaoep.mx, E-mail: gkogan@iki.rssi.ru [Space Research Institute, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya, Moscow 117810 (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-20

    A hydrodynamic model for steady-state, spherically symmetric winds driven by young stellar clusters with an exponential stellar density distribution is presented. Unlike in most previous calculations, the position of the singular point R{sub sp}, which separates the inner subsonic zone from the outer supersonic flow, is not associated with the star cluster edge, but calculated self-consistently. When the radiative losses of energy are negligible, the transition from the subsonic to the supersonic flow occurs always at R{sub sp} Almost-Equal-To 4R{sub c} , where R{sub c} is the characteristic scale for the stellar density distribution, irrespective of other star cluster parameters. This is not the case in the catastrophic cooling regime, when the temperature drops abruptly at a short distance from the star cluster center, and the transition from the subsonic to the supersonic regime occurs at a much smaller distance from the star cluster center. The impact from the major star cluster parameters to the wind inner structure is thoroughly discussed. Particular attention is paid to the effects which radiative cooling provides to the flow. The results of the calculations for a set of input parameters, which lead to different hydrodynamic regimes, are presented and compared to the results from non-radiative one-dimensional numerical simulations and to those from calculations with a homogeneous stellar mass distribution.

  13. The young stellar population at the center of NGC 205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, L.; Saviane, I.; Perina, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Federici, L.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Galleti, S.

    2009-08-01

    Context: NGC 205 is a peculiar dwarf elliptical galaxy hosting in its center a population of young blue stars. Their origin is still matter of debate, the central fresh star formation activity possibly being related to dynamical interactions between NGC 205 and M 31. Aims: The star formation history in the central 30´´ (~120 pc) around the NGC 205 central nucleus is investigated in order to obtain clues to the origin of the young stellar population. Methods: Deep HST/ACS CCD photometry is compared with theoretical isochrones and luminosity functions to characterize the stellar content of the region under study and compute the recent SF rate. Results: Our photometry reveals a previously undetected blue plume of young stars clearly distinguishable down to I≃ 26. Our analysis suggests that 1.9 × 105 M_⊙ were produced between approximately 62 Myr and 335 Myr ago in the NGC 205 inner regions, with a latest minor episode occurring ~25 Myr ago. This implies a star formation rate of ~7× 10-4 M_⊙/yr over this period. Conclusions: The excellent fit of the observed luminosity function of young main sequence stars obtained with a model having a constant star formation rate argues against a tidally triggered star formation activity over the last ~300 Myr. Rather, a constant SF may be consistent with NGC 205 being on its first interaction with M 31.

  14. Non-thermal emission from Massive Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, E R; Hoare, M G

    2009-01-01

    In the young stellar object (YSO) phase of their lives, massive stars drive bi-polar molecular outflows. These outflows produce beautiful, often hourglass shaped, cavities. The central star possesses a powerful stellar wind (v ~ 2000 km s^-1), and possibly a dense equatorial disk wind (v ~ 400 km s^-1), which collide with the inner surface of the bi-polar cavity and produces hot (T ~ 10^5 - 10^8 K) shocked plasma. A reverse shock is formed at the point where the ram pressure between the preshock flow balances the thermal pressure of the postshock flow and provides a site for the acceleration of non-thermal particles to relativistic energies. Hydrodynamical models of the wind interaction, coupled with calculations of the non-thermal energy spectrum, are used to explore the observable synchrotron and gamma-ray emission from these objects.

  15. The Outflow-Disc Interaction in Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Pestalozzi, M R

    2000-01-01

    In this work the most spectacular phenomena occurring during the formation of a star are briefly reviewed: accretion through a rotating disc of matter and outflow through the poles of the new stellar object. Magnetic fields have been proposed to be principally responsible for the coexistence of these opposed mechanisms of accretion and outflowing. According to different models, the magnetic fields are either twisted or stretched by the accretion disc, allowing the formation of polar channels through which part of the accreting matter can escape. The high degree of coupling between the physical parameters describing the young stellar object (e.g. circular velocity of the disc and the central object, viscosity, strength and freezing of magnetic fields, etc.) makes detailed understanding of the interaction between accretion discs and outflows very difficult. The models presented here provide only a partial answer to this difficult problem.

  16. Bimodal regime in young massive clusters leading to subsequent stellar generations

    CERN Document Server

    Wünsch, Richard; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Ehlerová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Massive stars in young massive clusters insert tremendous amounts of mass and energy into their surroundings in the form of stellar winds and supernova ejecta. Mutual shock-shock collisions lead to formation of hot gas, filling the volume of the cluster. The pressure of this gas then drives a powerful cluster wind. However, it has been shown that if the cluster is massive and dense enough, it can evolve in the so--called bimodal regime, in which the hot gas inside the cluster becomes thermally unstable and forms dense clumps which are trapped inside the cluster by its gravity. We will review works on the bimodal regime and discuss the implications for the formation of subsequent stellar generations. The mass accumulates inside the cluster and as soon as a high enough column density is reached, the interior of the clumps becomes self-shielded against the ionising radiation of stars and the clumps collapse and form new stars. The second stellar generation will be enriched by products of stellar evolution from t...

  17. Differential Radial Velocities and Stellar Parameters of Nearby Young Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yelda, D P S

    2006-01-01

    Radial velocity searches for substellar mass companions have focused primarily on stars older than 1 Gyr. Increased levels of stellar activity in young stars hinders the detection of solar system analogs and therefore there has been a prejudice against inclusion of young stars in radial velocity surveys until recently. Adaptive optics surveys of young stars have given us insight into the multiplicity of young stars but only for massive, distant companions. Understanding the limit of the radial velocity technique, restricted to high-mass, close-orbiting planets and brown dwarfs, we began a survey of young stars of various ages. While the number of stars needed to carry out full analysis of the problems of planetary and brown dwarf population and evolution is large, the beginning of such a sample is included here. We report on 61 young stars ranging in age from beta Pic association (~12 Myr) to the Ursa Majoris association (~300 Myr). This initial search resulted in no stars showing evidence for companions grea...

  18. The young stellar population at the center of NGC 205

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, L; Perina, S; Bellazzini, M; Buzzoni, A; Federici, L; Pecci, F Fusi; Galleti, S

    2009-01-01

    Context. NGC 205 is a peculiar dwarf elliptical galaxy hosting in its center a population of young blue stars. Their origin is still matter of debate, the central fresh star formation activity possibly being related to dynamical interactions between NGC 205 and M31. Aims. The star formation history in the central 30\\arcsec ($\\sim$120 pc) around the NGC 205 central nucleus is investigated in order to obtain clues to the origin of the young stellar population. Methods. Deep HST/ACS CCD photometry is compared with theoretical isochrones and luminosity functions to characterize the stellar content of the region under study and compute the recent SF rate. Results. Our photometry reveals a previously undetected blue plume of young stars clearly distinguishable down to I$\\simeq$26. Our analysis suggests that 1.9$\\times10^5$ M$_\\odot$ were produced between approximately 62 Myr and 335 Myr ago in the NGC 205 inner regions, with a latest minor episode occurring $\\sim$25 Myr ago. This implies a star formation rate of $\\...

  19. The Steady State Wind Model for Young Stellar Clusters with an Exponential Stellar Density Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model for steady state, spherically-symmetric winds driven by young stellar clusters with an exponential stellar density distribution is presented. Unlike in most previous calculations, the position of the singular point R_sp, which separates the inner subsonic zone from the outer supersonic flow, is not associated with the star cluster edge, but calculated self-consistently. When the radiative losses of energy are negligible, the transition from the subsonic to the supersonic flow occurs always at R_sp ~ 4 R_c, where R_c is the characteristic scale for the stellar density distribution, irrespective of other star cluster parameters. This is not the case in the catastrophic cooling regime, when the temperature drops abruptly at a short distance from the star cluster center and the transition from the subsonic to the supersonic regime occurs at a much smaller distance from the star cluster center. The impact from the major star cluster parameters to the wind inner structure is thoroughly discusse...

  20. Survey of Young Stellar Clusters in the North Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costado, M. T.; Alfaro, E. J.; Delgado, A. A.; Djupvik, A. A.; Michel, R.

    2017-03-01

    Five years ago, the Stellar Systems Group of the IAA began an observational programme of young stellar clusters containing massive stars, whose main objective is the characterization of their stellar population using optical (UBV RI + Hα) and NIR (JHK) photometry. With these data, we can obtain the physical parameters of the clusters and determine the mass function of the cluster members, their spatial distribution by mass range, as well as a census of populations at different masses and evolutionary states for two distinct environments: a) isolated clusters, and b) clusters contained within a larger star-forming region. So far, we have observed around 40 clusters, which are at different stages of analysis. The optical data were secured from the 1.5m telescope at Sierra Nevada Observatory (OSN), while the NIR data were taken using the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory. The last year, we began the optical observations of the survey with a larger field of view (13' size) at the 0.9m telescope (OSN). The analysis of the set of standard stars observed along the whole project enabled us to determine a reliable estimation of the atmospheric extinction as well as to analyze the stability of the photometric transformations at OSN to calibrate the data. In this poster, we present the results of the calibration analysis and the preliminary study for a subsample of the clusters.

  1. Stellar Collisions in Young Clusters: Formation of (Very) Massive Stars?

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Marc

    2007-01-01

    In young star clusters, the density can be high enough and the velocity dispersion low enough for stars to collide and merge with a significant probability. This has been suggested as a possible way to build up the high-mass portion of the stellar mass function and as a mechanism leading to the formation of one or two very massive stars (M > 150 Msun) through a collisional runaway. I quickly review the standard theory of stellar collisions, covering both the stellar dynamics of dense clusters and the hydrodynamics of encounters between stars. The conditions for collisions to take place at a significant rate are relatively well understood for idealised spherical cluster models without initial mass segregation, devoid of gas and composed of main-sequence (MS) stars. In this simplified situation, 2-body relaxation drives core collapse through mass segregation and a collisional phase ensues if the core collapse time is shorter than the MS lifetime of the most massive stars initially present. The outcome of this p...

  2. Hypervelocity stars from young stellar clusters in the Galactic Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Fragione, Giacomo; Kroupa, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The enormous velocities of the so called hypervelocity stars (HVSs) derive, likely, from close interactions with massive black holes, binary stars encounters or supernova explosions. In this paper, we investigate the origin of hypervelocity stars as consequence of the close interaction between the Milky Way central massive black hole and a passing-by young stellar cluster. We found that both single and binary HVSs may be generated in a burst-like event, as the cluster passes near the orbital pericentre. High velocity stars will move close to the initial cluster orbital plane and in the direction of the cluster orbital motion at the pericentre. The binary fraction of these HVS jets depends on the primordial binary fraction in the young cluster. The level of initial mass segregation determines the value of the average mass of the ejected stars. Some binary stars will merge, continuing their travel across and out of the Galaxy as blue stragglers.

  3. Magnetically Controlled Accretion Flows onto Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Fred C

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) Accretion from disks onto young stars is thought to follow magnetic field lines from the inner disk edge to the stellar surface. The accretion flow thus depends on the geometry of the magnetic field. This paper extends previous work by constructing a collection of orthogonal coordinate systems, including the corresponding differential operators, where one coordinate traces the magnetic field lines. This formalism allows for an (essentially) analytic description of the geometry and the conditions required for the flow to pass through sonic points. Using this approach, we revisit the problem of magnetically controlled accretion flow in a dipole geometry, and then generalize the treatment to consider magnetic fields with multiple components, including dipole, octupole, and split monopole contributions. This approach can be generalized further to consider more complex magnetic field configurations. Observations indicate that accreting young stars have substantial dipole and octupole components, and tha...

  4. Explosive Disintegration of a Massive Young Stellar System in Orion

    CERN Document Server

    Zapata, Luis A; Ho, Paul T P; Rodriguez, Luis F; Menten, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Young massive stars in the center of crowded star clusters are expected to undergo close dynamical encounters that could lead to energetic, explosive events. However, there has so far never been clear observational evidence of such a remarkable phenomenon. We here report new interferometric observations that indicate the well know enigmatic wide-angle outflow located in the Orion BN/KL star-forming region to have been produced by such a violent explosion during the disruption of a massive young stellar system, and that this was caused by a close dynamical interaction about 500 years ago. This outflow thus belongs to a totally new family of molecular flows which is not related to the classical bipolar flows that are generated by stars during their formation process. Our molecular data allow us to create a 3D view of the debris flow and to link this directly to the well know Orion H$_2$ "fingers" further out.

  5. Stellar Masses in the Mysterious Young Triple Star System AS 205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encalada, Frankie; Rosero, Viviana A.; Prato, Lisa A.; Bruhns, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The lack of accurate absolute mass measurements for young, low-mass pre-main sequence stars is problematic for the calibration of stellar evolutionary track models. An on-going program to increase the sample of young star masses begins with mass ratio measurements in spectroscopic binaries. By the end of its 5-year duration, the GAIA all-sky mission will provide new astrometric measurements for young spectroscopic binaries down to separations of tens of microarcseconds, yielding absolute masses for double-lined systems. We obtain mass ratios by taking high-resolution spectra of young double-lined spectroscopic binaries over a few epochs to construct a radial velocity versus phase diagram. For the young spectroscopic binary AS 205B, using eight of our own spectra supplied by the CSHELL instrument on the IRTF at Mauna Kea, plus one from the literature, we estimate a period of approximately 140 days, an eccentricity of 0.7, and a mass-ratio of 0.5. This spectroscopic system comprises the secondary in a 1.4'' visual binary in which both the A and B components are surrounded by optically thick, actively accreting disks, making AS 205B a member of that rare class of young spectroscopic binaries with a primordial circumbinary disk.

  6. The PTF Orion Project: Eclipsing Binaries and Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    van Eyken, Julian C; Rebull, Luisa M; Stauffer, John R; Akeson, Rachel L; Beichman, Charles A; Boden, Andrew F; von Braun, Kaspar; Gelino, Dawn M; Hoard, D W; Howell, Steve B; Kane, Stephen R; Plavchan, Peter; Ramírez, Solange V; Bloom, Joshua S; Cenko, S Bradley; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Law, Nicholas M; Nugent, Peter E; Ofek, Eran O; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M; Grillmair, Carl J; Laher, Russ; Levitan, David; Mattingly, Sean; Surace, Jason A

    2011-01-01

    The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) Orion project is an experiment within the broader PTF survey, a systematic automated exploration of the sky for optical transients. Taking advantage of the wide field of view available using the PTF camera at the Palomar 48" telescope, 40 nights were dedicated in December 2009-January 2010 to perform continuous high-cadence differential photometry on a single field containing the young (7-10Myr) 25 Ori association. The primary motivation for the project is to search for planets around young stars in this region. The unique data set also provides for much ancillary science. In this first paper we describe the survey and data reduction pipeline, and present initial results from an inspection of the most clearly varying stars relating to two of the ancillary science objectives: detection of eclipsing binaries and young stellar objects. We find 82 new eclipsing binary systems, 9 of which we are candidate 25 Ori- or Orion OB1a-association members. Of these, 2 are potential young...

  7. The Early History of Stellar Spin: the Theory of Accretion onto Young Stellar Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudritz Ralph E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of the magnetospheres of forming stars with their surrounding protostellar disks results in magnetospheric accretion flow onto the star. How is the associated angular momentum of accreting material channelled? The resolution of this issue is crucial for understanding the origin of the spins of pre main sequence stars. A significant fraction of these rotate very slowly, which indicates that an efficient angular momentum transport mechanism is at work to counteract the strong accretion spin up torques. We review the observational, theoretical, and computational advances in the field and argue that an accretion powered stellar winds together with highly time variable mass ejections from the disk/magnetosphere interface is a likely solution.

  8. Statistics of Stellar Populations of Star Clusters and Surrounding Fields in the Outer Disk of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, J F C; Claria, J J; Bica, E; Geisler, D; Dottori, H

    1999-01-01

    A comparative analysis of Washington color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for 14 star clusters and respective surrounding fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) outer disk is presented. Each CCD frame including field and respective cluster covers an area of 185 arcmin^2. The stellar population sampled is of intermediate age and metallicity. CMD radial analysis involving star count ratios, morphology and integrated light properties are carried out. Luminosity functions (LFs) are also presented. Two main results are: (i) Within the range 4stellar populations, as inferred from red giant clump star counts.

  9. IRAS 20050+2720: ANATOMY OF A YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, H. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Spitzbart, B.; Forbrich, J.; Wright, N. J.; Bourke, T. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Allen, L. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS-113, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Pipher, J. L., E-mail: hguenther@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, 500 Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    IRAS 20050+2720 is young star-forming region at a distance of 700 pc without apparent high-mass stars. We present results of our multi-wavelength study of IRAS 20050+2720 which includes observations by Chandra and Spitzer, and Two Micron All Sky Survey and UBVRI photometry. In total, about 300 young stellar objects (YSOs) in different evolutionary stages are found. We characterize the distribution of YSOs in this region using a minimum spanning tree analysis. We newly identify a second cluster core, which consists mostly of class II objects, about 10' from the center of the cloud. YSOs of earlier evolutionary stages are more clustered than more evolved objects. The X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of IRAS 20050+2720 is roughly lognormal, but steeper than the XLF of the more massive Orion Nebula complex. IRAS 20050+2720 shows a lower N{sub H}/A{sub K} ratio compared with the diffuse interstellar medium.

  10. High-velocity molecular outflows hear massive young stellar objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月芳; 李月兴; 杨传义; 雷成明; 孙金江; 吕静; 韩溥

    1999-01-01

    By mapping the 12CO J=1—0 lines in IRAS 05391-0217, 06114+1745 and 06291+0421, three new high-velocity bipolar molecular outflows are found. Parameters of these outflows are derived, which suggest that they are massive and energetic outflows with total kinetic energies of about 1038 J and mass loss rates about 10-5 M⊙/a. The driving sources are identified by analyzing the positions, intensities and color temperatures of the associated infrared sources. These outflows are most likely driven by single sources which correspond to massive young stellar objects. In these regions H2O masers have been detected located near the embedded infrared sources, which indicates that their exciting mechanism may be correlated with that of the CO outflows. The relationship between the parameters of outflows and central sources shows that high-velocity outflow and thermal radiation of a star are two basic correlated but different features in the evolution of young stars.

  11. Near-IR integral field spectroscopy of ionizing stars and young stellar objects on the borders of HII regions

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, F; Deharveng, L; Zavagno, A; Bouret, J -C

    2009-01-01

    We present near-IR SINFONI observations of three Galactic HII regions: RVW79, RCW82 and RCW120. We identify the ionizing stars of each region: they are early to late O stars, close to the main sequence. We derive their stellar and wind properties using atmosphere models computed with the code CMFGEN. The cluster ionizing RCW~79 formed 2.3+/-0.5 Myr ago. Similar ages are estimated, albeit with a larger uncertainty, for the ionizing stars of the other two regions. In RCW79 the mechanical wind luminosity represents only 0.1% of the ionizing luminosity, questioning the influence of stellar winds on the dynamics of the the HII region. The young stellar objects show four main types of spectral features: H2 emission, Br gamma emission, CO bandheads emission and CO bandheads absorption. These features are typical of young stellar objects surrounded by disks and/or envelopes. The radial velocities of most YSOs are consistent with that of the ionized gas, firmly establishing that star formation is taking place on the b...

  12. A search for ionized jets towards massive young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Purser, S J D; Hoare, M G; Urquhart, J S; Cunningham, N; Purcell, C R; Brooks, K J; Garay, G; Gúzman, A E; Voronkov, M A

    2016-01-01

    Radio continuum observations using the Australia telescope compact array at 5.5, 9.0, 17.0 and 22.8 GHz have detected free-free emission associated with 45 of 49 massive young stellar objects and HII regions. Of these, 26 sources are classified as ionized jets (12 of which are candidates), 2 as ambiguous jets or disc winds, 1 as a disc-wind, 14 as HII regions and 2 were unable to be categorised. Classification as ionized jets is based upon morphology, radio flux and spectral index, in conjunction with previous observational results at other wavelengths. Radio-luminosity and momentum are found to scale with bolometric luminosity in the same way as low-mass jets, indicating a common mechanism for jet production across all masses. In 13 of the jets, we see associated non-thermal/optically-thin lobes resulting from shocks either internal to the jet and/or at working surfaces. Ten jets display non-thermal (synchrotron emission) spectra in their lobes, with an average spectral index of -0.55 consistent with Fermi a...

  13. Star Formation & Young Stellar Content in the W3 GMC

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera-Ingraham, A; Polychroni, D; Moore, T J T

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have carried out an in-depth analysis of the young stellar content in the W3 GMC. The YSO population was identified and classified in the IRAC/MIPS color-magnitude space according to the `Class' scheme and compared to other classifications based on intrinsic properties. Class 0/I and II candidates were also compared to low/intermediate-mass pre-main-sequence stars selected through their colors and magnitudes in 2MASS. We find that a reliable color/magnitude selection of low-mass PMS stars in the infrared requires prior knowledge of the protostar population, while intermediate mass objects can be more reliably identified. By means of the MST algorithm and our YSO spatial distribution and age maps we investigated the YSO groups and the star formation history in W3. We find signatures of clustered and distributed star formation in both triggered and quiescent environments. The central/western parts of the GMC are dominated by large scale turbulence likely powered by isolated bursts of star format...

  14. Herschel Hi-GAL imaging of massive young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Olguin, F A; Wheelwright, H E; Clay, S J; de Wit, W -J; Rafiq, I; Pezzuto, S; Molinari, S

    2015-01-01

    We used Herschel Hi-GAL survey data to determine whether massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) are resolved at 70$\\mu$m and to study their envelope density distribution. Our analysis of three relatively isolated sources in the l=30{\\deg} and l=59{\\deg} Galactic fields show that the objects are partially resolved at 70$\\mu$m. The Herschel Hi-GAL survey data have a high scan velocity which makes unresolved and partially resolved sources appear elongated in the 70$\\mu$m images. We analysed the two scan directions separately and examine the intensity profile perpendicular to the scan direction. Spherically symmetric radiative transfer models with a power law density distribution were used to study the circumstellar matter distribution. Single dish sub-mm data were also included to study how different spatial information affects the fitted density distribution. The density distribution which best fits both the 70$\\mu$m intensity profile and SED has an average index of ~0.5. This index is shallower than expected an...

  15. Water destruction by X-rays in young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Stäuber, P; Van Dishoeck, E F; Doty, S D; Benz, A O

    2006-01-01

    We study the H2O chemistry in star-forming environments under the influence of a central X-ray source and a central far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field. The gas-phase water chemistry is modeled as a function of time, hydrogen density and X-ray flux. To cover a wide range of physical environments, densities between n_H = 10^4-10^9 cm^-3 and temperatures between T = 10-1000 K are studied. Three different regimes are found: For T 10^-3 ergs s-1 cm^-2 (t = 10^4 yrs) and for F_X > 10^-4 ergs s^-1 cm^-2 (t = 10^5 yrs). At higher temperatures (T > 250 K) and hydrogen densities, water can persist with x(H2O) ~ 10^-4 even for high X-ray fluxes. The X-ray and FUV models are applied to envelopes around low-mass Class 0 and I young stellar objects (YSOs). Water is destroyed in both Class 0 and I envelopes on relatively short timescales (t ~ 5000 yrs) for realistic X-ray fluxes, although the effect is less prominent in Class 0 envelopes due to the higher X-ray absorbing densities there. FUV photons from the central sou...

  16. The accretion/ejection paradigm in young stellar objects: from HST and Herschel to JWST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podio, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Stellar jets and molecular outflows are observed in association with young accreting stars and are believed to play a key role in the star formation process. In this talk I will show how current and future space missions are of crucial importance to investigate the origin of stellar jets and their l

  17. Infalling young clusters in the Galactic Centre: implications for IMBHs and young stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, J. A.; Gualandris, A.

    2017-06-01

    The central parsec of the Milky Way hosts two puzzlingly young stellar populations, a tight isotropic distribution of B stars around SgrA* (the S-stars) and a disc of OB stars extending to ˜0.5 pc. Using a modified version of Sverre Aarseth's direct summation code nbody6, we explore the scenario in which a young star cluster migrates to the Galactic Centre within the lifetime of the OB disc population via dynamical friction. We find that star clusters massive and dense enough to reach the central parsec form a very massive star via physical collisions on a mass segregation time-scale. We follow the evolution of the merger product using the most up to date, yet conservative, mass-loss recipes for very massive stars. Over a large range of initial conditions, we find that the very massive star expels most of its mass via a strong stellar wind, eventually collapsing to form a black hole of mass ˜ 20-400 M⊙, incapable of bringing massive stars to the Galactic Centre. No massive intermediate mass black hole can form in this scenario. The presence of a star cluster in the central ˜10 pc within the last 15 Myr would also leave an ˜2 pc ring of massive stars, which is not currently observed. Thus, we conclude that the star cluster migration model is highly unlikely to be the origin of either young population, and in situ formation models or binary disruptions are favoured.

  18. Wide-Area Interference Spectroscopy of the Ionized Gas Surrounding the OCL-352 (IC-1805) Stellar Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomos, Nikolaos

    We investigated the global kinematics of the giant ionized shell IC1805 centred a (l,b)=(134.7deg,+0.92deg)at a distance of -2.3 Kpc and surrounding the Ocl352, within Cassiopeia OB6 stellar association. Fabry-Perot interference spectroscopy data in the light of [SIII]9530.9A have been used to obtain the radial velocity field of the IC1795/IC1805 (W3/W4) region as a means to probe the large scale gas motions around Cass Ocl-352. The observations are discussed and interpreted in conjuction with radioastronomical and optical data available. A new empirical model is proposed to account for the complex kinematical structure of the region. As was suggested by Solomos (Ph.D Thesis, 1991)the region is a leaking HII shell with the ionized gas flowing to the North escaping from the galactic plane.

  19. Three-dimensional Radiation Transfer in Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, B. A.; Robitaille, T. P.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Dong, R.; Wolff, M. J.; Wood, K.; Honor, J.

    2013-08-01

    We have updated our publicly available dust radiative transfer code (HOCHUNK3D) to include new emission processes and various three-dimensional (3D) geometries appropriate for forming stars. The 3D geometries include warps and spirals in disks, accretion hotspots on the central star, fractal clumping density enhancements, and misaligned inner disks. Additional axisymmetric (2D) features include gaps in disks and envelopes, "puffed-up inner rims" in disks, multiple bipolar cavity walls, and iteration of disk vertical structure assuming hydrostatic equilibrium (HSEQ). We include the option for simple power-law envelope geometry, which, combined with fractal clumping and bipolar cavities, can be used to model evolved stars as well as protostars. We include non-thermal emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains, and external illumination from the interstellar radiation field. The grid structure was modified to allow multiple dust species in each cell; based on this, a simple prescription is implemented to model dust stratification. We describe these features in detail, and show example calculations of each. Some of the more interesting results include the following: (1) outflow cavities may be more clumpy than infalling envelopes. (2) PAH emission in high-mass stars may be a better indicator of evolutionary stage than the broadband spectral energy distribution slope; and related to this, (3) externally illuminated clumps and high-mass stars in optically thin clouds can masquerade as young stellar objects. (4) Our HSEQ models suggest that dust settling is likely ubiquitous in T Tauri disks, in agreement with previous observations.

  20. THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATION TRANSFER IN YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, B. A.; Honor, J. [University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Robitaille, T. P. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bjorkman, J. E. [Ritter Observatory, MS 113, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States); Dong, R. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Wolff, M. J. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Wood, K., E-mail: bwhitney@astro.wisc.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9AD (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    We have updated our publicly available dust radiative transfer code (HOCHUNK3D) to include new emission processes and various three-dimensional (3D) geometries appropriate for forming stars. The 3D geometries include warps and spirals in disks, accretion hotspots on the central star, fractal clumping density enhancements, and misaligned inner disks. Additional axisymmetric (2D) features include gaps in disks and envelopes, ''puffed-up inner rims'' in disks, multiple bipolar cavity walls, and iteration of disk vertical structure assuming hydrostatic equilibrium (HSEQ). We include the option for simple power-law envelope geometry, which, combined with fractal clumping and bipolar cavities, can be used to model evolved stars as well as protostars. We include non-thermal emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains, and external illumination from the interstellar radiation field. The grid structure was modified to allow multiple dust species in each cell; based on this, a simple prescription is implemented to model dust stratification. We describe these features in detail, and show example calculations of each. Some of the more interesting results include the following: (1) outflow cavities may be more clumpy than infalling envelopes. (2) PAH emission in high-mass stars may be a better indicator of evolutionary stage than the broadband spectral energy distribution slope; and related to this, (3) externally illuminated clumps and high-mass stars in optically thin clouds can masquerade as young stellar objects. (4) Our HSEQ models suggest that dust settling is likely ubiquitous in T Tauri disks, in agreement with previous observations.

  1. The Young Stellar Population in M17 Revealed by Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broos, Patrick S.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Wang, Junfeng; Garmire, Gordon P.; Jiang, Zhibo; Tsuboi, Yohko

    2007-04-01

    We report here results from a Chandra ACIS observation of the stellar populations in and around the M17 H II region. The field reveals 886 sources with observed X-ray luminosities (uncorrected for absorption) between ˜29.3 ergs s-1tables of X-ray source properties, several results are presented: 1. The X-ray luminosity function is calibrated to that of the Orion Nebula Cluster population to infer a total population of roughly 8000-10,000 stars in M17, one-third lying in the central NGC 6618 cluster. 2. About 40% of the ACIS sources are heavily obscured with AV>10 mag. Some are concentrated around well-studied star-forming regions -- IRS 5/UC1, the Kleinmann-Wright Object, and M17-North -- but most are distributed across the field. As previously shown, star formation appears to be widely distributed in the molecular clouds. X-ray emission is detected from 64 of the hundreds of Class I protostar candidates that can be identified by near- and mid-infrared colors. These constitute the most likely protostar candidates known in M17. 3. The spatial distribution of X-ray stars is complex: in addition to the central NGC 6618 cluster and well-known embedded groups, we find a new embedded cluster (designated M17-X), a 2 pc long arc of young stars along the southwest edge of the M17 H II region, and 0.1 pc substructure within various populations. These structures may indicate that the populations are dynamically young. 4. All (14/14) of the known O stars but only about half (19/34) of the known B0-B3 stars in the M17 field are detected. These stars exhibit the long-reported correlation between X-ray and bolometric luminosities of LX˜10-7Lbol. While many O and early-B stars show the soft X-ray emission expected from microshocks in their winds or moderately hard emission that could be caused by magnetically channeled wind shocks, six of these stars exhibit very hard thermal plasma components (kT>4 keV) that may be due to colliding wind binaries. More than 100 candidate new OB

  2. Physical Properties of Young Stellar Populations in 24 Starburst Galaxies Observed with FUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Pellerin, Anne

    2007-01-01

    We presents the main physical properties of very young stellar populations seen with FUSE in 24 individual starbursts. These characteristics have been obtained using the evolutionary spectral synthesis technique in the far-ultraviolet range with the LavalSB code. For each starburst, quantitative values for age, metallicity, initial mass function slope, stellar mass, and internal extinction have been obtained and discussed in details. Limits of the code have been tested. One main conclusion is that most starbursts (and probably all of them) cannot be represented by any continuous star formation burst in the far-ultraviolet. Also, quantitative values of various optical diagnostics related to these stellar populations have been predicted. Underlying stellar populations, dominated by B-type stars, have been detected in NGC 1140, NGC 4449, and possibly NGC 3991. We characterized the young stellar populations of less than 5 Myr in Seyfert 2 nuclei.

  3. Multipopulation aftereffects on the color-magnitude diagram and Cepheid variables of young stellar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carini, R; Marconi, M; Raimondo, G

    2013-01-01

    Context: The evidence of a multipopulation scenario in Galactic globular clusters raises several questions about the formation and evolution of the two (or more) generations of stars. These populations show differences in their age and chemical composition. These differences are found in old- and intermediate- age stellar clusters in the Local Group. The observations of young stellar systems are expected to present footprints of multiple stellar populations. Aims: This theoretical work intends to be a specific step in exploring the space of the observational indicators of multipopulations, without covering all the combinations of parameters that may contribute to the formation of multiple generations of stars in a cluster or in galaxy. The goal is to shed light on the possible observational features expected by core He-burning stars that belong to two stellar populations with different original He content and ages. Methods: The tool adopted was the stellar population synthesis. We used new stellar and pulsati...

  4. Stellar-mass black holes in young massive and open stellar clusters and their role in gravitational-wave generation

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical processes involving stellar-remnant black holes (BH) in stellar clusters has always drawn attention due to the BHs' potential in a number of astrophysical phenomena, especially the dynamical formation of binary black holes (BBH), which would potentially coalesce via radiation of gravitational waves (GW). This study presents a preliminary set of evolutionary models of compact stellar clusters with initial masses ranging over $1.0\\times10^4M_\\odot-5.0\\times10^4M_\\odot$, and half-mass radius of 2 pc or 1 pc, that is typical for young massive and starburst clusters. They have metallicities between $0.05Z_\\odot-Z_\\odot$. Including contemporary schemes for stellar wind and remnant-formation, such model clusters are evolved, for the first time, using the state-of-the-art direct N-body evolution program NBODY7, until their dissolution or at least for 10 Gyr. That way, a self-regulatory behaviour in the effects of dynamical interactions among the BHs, especially while heating and expanding the cluster an...

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Young stellar structures in NGC 6503 (Gouliermis+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouliermis, D. A.; Thilker, D.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Adamo, A.; Aloisi, A.; Cignoni, M.; Cook, D. O.; Dale, D. A.; Gallagher, J. S. Iii; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Davo, A. H.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kim, H.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Pellerin, A.; Ryon, J.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Ubeda, L.; Whitmore, B.

    2016-03-01

    LEGUS is an HST panchromatic stellar survey of 50 nearby star-forming dwarf and spiral galaxies with an emphasis on UV-enabled science applications. Images in a wide waveband coverage from the near-UV (NUV) to the I band are being collected with WFC3 and ACS in parallel, and combined with archival optical ACS data. The survey, its scientific objectives and the data reduction are described in Calzetti et al. (2015AJ....149...51C). We present a detailed clustering analysis of the young blue stellar population identified with LEGUS across the star-forming ring galaxy NGC 6503. We construct stellar surface density maps and apply a contour-based analysis technique to identify the stellar complexes' population of the galaxy. We identify 244 distinct structures at various stellar density (significance) levels. The complete catalogue of 244 structures is available online at LEGUS site https://legus.stsci.edu/. (1 data file).

  6. Modeling the Near-Infrared Luminosity Functions of Young Stellar Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Münch, A; Lada, C J; Muench, August A.; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Lada, Charles J.

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of numerical experiments designed to evaluate the usefulness of near-infrared luminosity functions for constraining the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of young stellar populations. From this numerical modeling, we find that the luminosity function of a young stellar population is considerably more sensitive to variations in the underlying initial mass function than to either variations in the star forming history or assumed pre-main-sequence (PMS) mass-to-luminosity relation. To illustrate the potential effectiveness of using the KLF of a young cluster to constrain its IMF, we model the observed K band luminosity function of the nearby Trapezium cluster. Our derived mass function for the Trapezium spans two orders of magnitude in stellar mass (5 Msun to 0.02 Msun), has a peak near the hydrogen burning limit, and has an IMF for Brown Dwarfs which steadily decreases with decreasing mass.

  7. ISOCAM-CVF spectroscopy of the circumstellar environment of young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, R D; André, P M; Persi, P; Eiroa, C

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a mid-infrared imaging spectroscopy survey of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) and their surrounding environment in four low-mass star formation regions: RCrA, Rho Ophiuchi, Serpens and Chamaeleon I. This survey was performed using ISOCAM and its Circular Variable Filters (CVF) and observed 42 YSO candidates. A number of spectral features were measured, most notably the 9.7um silicate feature, the bending modes of both water and CO2 ices at 6.0 and 15.2um respectively and the well-known unidentified feature at 6.8um. The strength of the unidentified feature was observed to correlate very well with that of the water ice bending mode and far less strongly with the CO2 ice bending mode. This suggests, in a manner consistent with previous observations, that the carrier of the unidentified feature is a strongly polar ice. Absorption profiles of the bending mode of CO2 ice are observed to show a significant long wavelength wing, which suggests that a significant fraction of the CO2 ice observe...

  8. High and Intermediate-Mass Young Stellar Objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Gruendl, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) Photometry of archival Spitzer observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are used to search for young stellar objects (YSOs). Simple mid-infrared selection criteria were used to exclude most normal and evolved stars and background galaxies. We identify a sample of 2,910 sources in the LMC that could potentially be YSOs. We then simultaneously considered images and photometry from the optical through mid-IR wavelengths to assess the source morphology, spectral energy distribution (SED), and the surrounding interstellar environment to determine the most likely nature of each source. From this examination of the initial sample, we suggest 1,172 sources are most likely YSOs and 1,075 probable background galaxies, consistent with expectations based on SWIRE survey data. Spitzer IRS observations of 269 of the brightest YSOs from our sample have confirmed that ~>95% are indeed YSOs. A comprehensive search for YSOs in the LMC has also been carried out by the SAGE team. There are three major differen...

  9. Aligned grains and inferred toroidal magnetic fields in the envelopes of massive young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Janet P; Hines, Dean C; Schneider, Glenn; Burton, Michael G; Colgan, Sean W J; Cotera, Angela S; Erickson, Edwin F; Wolff, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Massive young stellar objects (YSOs), like low-mass YSOs, are thought to be surrounded by optically thick envelopes and/or discs and are observed to have associated regions that produce polarized light at near-infrared wavelengths. These polarized regions are thought to be lower-density outflows along the polar axes of the YSO envelopes. Using the 0.2 arcsec spatial resolution of the Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer on the Hubble Space Telescope we are examining the structure of the envelopes and outflow regions of massive YSOs in star-forming regions within a few kpc of the Sun. Here we report on 2 micron polarimetry of Mon R2-IRS3, S140-IRS1, and AFGL 2591. All three sources contain YSOs with highly-polarized monopolar outflows, with Mon R2-IRS3 containing at least two YSOs in a small cluster. The central stars of all four YSOs are also polarized, with position angles perpendicular to the directions of the outflows. We infer that this polarization is due to scattering and absorption by ali...

  10. Resolved 24.5 micron emission from massive young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    De Wit, W J; Fujiyoshi, T; Oudmaijer, R D; Honda, M; Kataza, H; Miyata, T; Okamoto, Y K; Onaka, T; Sako, S; Yamashita, T

    2008-01-01

    Massive young stellar objects (MYSO) are surrounded by massive dusty envelopes. Our aim is to establish their density structure on scales of ~1000 AU, i.e. a factor 10 increase in angular resolution compared to similar studies performed in the (sub)mm. We have obtained diffraction-limited (0.6") 24.5 micron images of 14 well-known massive star formation regions with Subaru/COMICS. The images reveal the presence of discrete MYSO sources which are resolved on arcsecond scales. For many sources, radiative transfer models are capable of satisfactorily reproducing the observations. They are described by density powerlaw distributions (n(r) ~ r^(-p)) with p = 1.0 +/-0.25. Such distributions are shallower than those found on larger scales probed with single-dish (sub)mm studies. Other sources have density laws that are shallower/steeper than p = 1.0 and there is evidence that these MYSOs are viewed near edge-on or near face-on, respectively. The images also reveal a diffuse component tracing somewhat larger scale st...

  11. The Formation of Secondary Stellar Generations in Massive Young Star Clusters from Rapidly Cooling Shocked Stellar Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, R.; Palouš, J.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Ehlerová, S.

    2017-01-01

    We study a model of rapidly cooling shocked stellar winds in young massive clusters and estimate the circumstances under which secondary star formation, out of the reinserted winds from a first stellar generation (1G), is possible. We have used two implementations of the model: a highly idealized, computationally inexpensive, spherically symmetric semi-analytic model, and a complex, three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic, simulation; they are in a good mutual agreement. The results confirm our previous findings that, in a cluster with 1G mass 107 M⊙ and half-mass–radius 2.38 pc, the shocked stellar winds become thermally unstable, collapse into dense gaseous structures that partially accumulate inside the cluster, self-shield against ionizing stellar radiation, and form the second generation (2G) of stars. We have used the semi-analytic model to explore a subset of the parameter space covering a wide range of the observationally poorly constrained parameters: the heating efficiency, ηhe, and the mass loading, ηml. The results show that the fraction of the 1G stellar winds accumulating inside the cluster can be larger than 50% if ηhe ≲ 10%, which is suggested by the observations. Furthermore, for low ηhe, the model provides a self-consistent mechanism predicting 2G stars forming only in the central zones of the cluster. Finally, we have calculated the accumulated warm gas emission in the H30α recombination line, analyzed its velocity profile, and estimated its intensity for super star clusters in interacting galaxies NGC4038/9 (Antennae) showing that the warm gas should be detectable with ALMA.

  12. Stellar-mass black holes in young massive and open stellar clusters and their role in gravitational-wave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2017-01-01

    Stellar-remnant black holes (BH) in dense stellar clusters have always drawn attention due to their potential in a number of phenomena, especially the dynamical formation of binary black holes (BBH), which potentially coalesce via gravitational-wave (GW) radiation. This study presents a preliminary set of evolutionary models of compact stellar clusters with initial masses ranging over 1.0 × 104M⊙ - 5.0 × 104M⊙, and half-mass radius of 2 or 1 pc, that is typical for young massive and starburst clusters. They have metallicities between 0.05Z⊙ - Z⊙. Including contemporary schemes for stellar wind and remnant formation, such model clusters are evolved, for the first time, using the state-of-the-art direct N-body evolution program NBODY7 , until their dissolution or at least for 10 Gyr. That way, a self-regulatory behaviour in the effects of dynamical interactions among the BHs is demonstrated. In contrast to earlier studies, the BBH coalescences obtained in these models show a prominence in triple-mediated coalescences while being bound to the clusters, compared to those occurring among the BBHs that are dynamically ejected from the clusters. A broader mass spectrum of the BHs and lower escape velocities of the clusters explored here might cause this difference, which is yet to be fully understood. Among the BBH coalescences obtained here, there are ones that resemble the detected GW151226, LVT151012, and GW150914 events and also ones which are even more massive. A preliminary estimate suggests few 10s-100s of BBH coalescences per year, originating due to dynamics in stellar clusters, that can be detected by the LIGO at its design sensitivity.

  13. Stellar-mass black holes in young massive and open stellar clusters and their role in gravitational-wave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2017-05-01

    Stellar-remnant black holes (BH) in dense stellar clusters have always drawn attention due to their potential in a number of phenomena, especially the dynamical formation of binary black holes (BBH), which potentially coalesce via gravitational-wave radiation. This study presents a preliminary set of evolutionary models of compact stellar clusters with initial masses ranging over 1.0 × 104-5.0 × 104 M⊙, and half-mass radius of 2 or 1 pc, which is typical for young massive and starburst clusters. They have metallicities between 0.05 Z⊙ and Z⊙. Including contemporary schemes for stellar wind and remnant formation, such model clusters are evolved, for the first time, using the state-of-the-art direct N-body evolution program nbody7, until their dissolution or at least for 10 Gyr. That way, a self-regulatory behaviour in the effects of dynamical interactions among the BHs is demonstrated. In contrast to earlier studies, the BBH coalescences obtained in these models show a prominence in triple-mediated coalescences while being bound to the clusters, compared to those occurring among the BBHs that are dynamically ejected from the clusters. A broader mass spectrum of the BHs and lower escape velocities of the clusters explored here might cause this difference, which is yet to be fully understood. Among the BBH coalescences obtained here, there are ones that resemble the detected GW151226, LVT151012 and GW150914 events and also ones that are even more massive. A preliminary estimate suggests few 10-100 s of BBH coalescences per year, originating due to dynamics in stellar clusters that can be detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) at its design sensitivity.

  14. The large scale view of the young stellar populations in the Orion OB1 Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria

    2016-06-01

    The Orion OB1 association, at ~400 pc and with a wide range of ages (~1-10 Myr) and environmental conditions, is an ideal place to look at how stars form, first evolve and disperse among the general population of field stars. Also to study disk dispersal and the duration of the planet formation phase.However, despite spanning nearly 200 deg2 on the sky, almost all we know about Orion comes from studies of a limited fraction of the entire region, mostly of the youngest objects (~B molecular clouds and the ~3 Myr old sigma Ori cluster.We will present here the results of our 180 sq deg photometric multi-epoch survey across the Orion OB1 association, using the known variability of T Tauri stars to pick them among the general field population, and following with spectroscopy to confirm members and characterize them.The ~2000 newly identified young low-mass stars are mostly located away from the molecular clouds, across tens of sq. deg. in the Orion OB1a and OB1b sub-associations, with ages in the range ~4-10 Myr. But within this general population we identify a significant fraction concentrated in distinct overdensities, most notably the ~7 Myr old 25 Orionis cluster. These stellar aggregates point to a previously unknown degree of substructure that has survived the dissipation of the parent molecular clouds. We also find that the Orion Nebula Cluster is surrounded by a few sq.deg. halo of young stars, as has been suggested by recent sudies.

  15. Unresolved versus resolved: testing the validity of young simple stellar population models with VLT/MUSE observations of NGC 3603

    CERN Document Server

    Kuncarayakti, H; Anderson, J P; Krühler, T; Hamuy, M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT. Stellar populations are the building blocks of galaxies including the Milky Way. The majority, if not all extragalactic studies are entangled with the use of stellar population models given the unresolved nature of their observation. Extragalactic systems contain multiple stellar populations with complex star formation histories. However, their study is mainly based upon the principles of simple stellar populations (SSP). Hence, it is critical to examine the validity of SSP models. AIMS. This work aims to empirically test the validity of SSP models. This is done by comparing SSP models against observations of spatially resolved young stellar population in the determination of its physical properties, i.e. age and metallicity. METHODS. Integral field spectroscopy of a young stellar cluster in the Milky Way, NGC 3603, is used to study the properties of the cluster both as a resolved and unresolved stellar population. The unresolved stellar population is analysed using the H$\\alpha$ equivalent width as ...

  16. The State of the Gas Around Young Stellar Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, J; Plewa, T.; garcia-Segura, G.

    1996-01-01

    We present the main features in the evolution of the gas pressure in star forming regions, from the formation of the parental cloud to the moment when the region is pressurized by interacting stellar winds. The main processes for cloud destruction and the self-limiting properties of star formation are described. The high star forming efficiency in nuclear starbursts is a consequence of the high gas pressures. The evolution of slow winds in highly pressurized region is also sketched.

  17. A young stellar cluster within the RCW41 HII region: deep NIR photometry and Optical/NIR polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Fábio P; Franco, Gabriel A P

    2012-01-01

    The RCW41 star-forming region is embedded within the Vela Molecular Ridge, hosting a massive stellar cluster surrounded by a conspicuous HII region. Understanding the role of interstellar magnetic fields and studying the newborn stellar population is crucial to build a consistent picture of the physical processes acting on this kind of environment. We have carried out a detailed study of the interstellar polarization toward RCW41, with data from an optical and near-infrared polarimetric survey. Additionally, deep near-infrared images from the NTT 3.5m telescope have been used to study the photometric properties of the embedded young stellar cluster, revealing several YSO's candidates. By using a set of pre-main sequence isochrones, a mean cluster age in the range 2.5 - 5.0 million years was determined, and evidence of sequential star formation were revealed. An abrupt decrease in R-band polarization degree is noticed toward the central ionized area, probably due to low grain alignment efficiency caused by the...

  18. Star formation in W3 - AFGL333: Young stellar content, properties and roles of external feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Jessy; Herczeg, Gregory J; Samal, Manash R; Bieging, John H; Meyer, Michael R; Sherry, William H

    2016-01-01

    One of the key questions in the field of star formation is the role of stellar feedback on subsequent star formation process. The W3 giant molecular cloud complex at the western border of the W4 super bubble is thought to be influenced by the stellar winds of the massive stars in W4. AFGL333 is a ~10^4 Msun cloud within W3. This paper presents a study of the star formation activity within AFGL333 using deep JHKs photometry obtained from the NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Imager combined with Spitzer-IRAC-MIPS photometry. Based on the infrared excess, we identify 812 candidate young stellar objects in the complex, of which 99 are classified as Class I and 713 are classified as Class II sources. The stellar density analysis of young stellar objects reveals three major stellar aggregates within AFGL333, named here AFGL333-main, AFGL333-NW1 and AFGL333-NW2. The disk fraction within AFGL333 is estimated to be ~50-60%. We use the extinction map made from the H-Ks colors of the background stars to understand the...

  19. The SEEDS High-Contrast Imaging Survey of Exoplanets Around Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyama, Taichi; Hashimoto, Jun; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Mayama, Satoshi; Akiyama, Eiji; Currie, Thayne; Livingston, John; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mcelwain, Michael W.; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H.; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L.; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2017-03-01

    We present high-contrast observations of 68 young stellar objects (YSOs) that have been explored as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) survey on the Subaru telescope. Our targets are very young (population of planets and brown dwarfs at the very youngest ages; these may be compared to the results of surveys targeting somewhat older stars. Our sample and the associated observational results will help enable detailed statistical analyses of giant planet formation.

  20. The hydrogen emission of young stellar objects : Key science for next-generation instruments and facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, Paulo J. V.; Benisty, Myriam; Rajabi, Samira; Dougados, Catherine; Massi, Fabrizzio; Bacciotti, Francesca; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Malbet, Fabien; Podio, Linda; Renard, Stephanie; Whelan, Emma

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen emission line is a defining characteristic of young stellar objects probing the planet forming regions of the disks. The limiting sensitivity of current interferometers has precluded it's detailed study. We'll review our current understanding of hydrogen emission, recent results and pro

  1. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF Ne II EMISSION FROM YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacco, G. G.; Flaccomio, E.; Pascucci, I.; Lahuis, F.; Ercolano, B.; Kastner, J. H.; Micela, G.; Stelzer, B.; Sterzik, M.

    2012-01-01

    Constraining the spatial and thermal structure of the gaseous component of circumstellar disks is crucial for understanding star and planet formation. Models predict that the [Ne II] line at 12.81 mu m detected in young stellar objects (YSOs) with Spitzer traces disk gas and its response to high-ene

  2. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF Ne II EMISSION FROM YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacco, G. G.; Flaccomio, E.; Pascucci, I.; Lahuis, F.; Ercolano, B.; Kastner, J. H.; Micela, G.; Stelzer, B.; Sterzik, M.

    2012-01-01

    Constraining the spatial and thermal structure of the gaseous component of circumstellar disks is crucial for understanding star and planet formation. Models predict that the [Ne II] line at 12.81 mu m detected in young stellar objects (YSOs) with Spitzer traces disk gas and its response to high-ene

  3. Water in Massive Young Stellar Objects Revealed by Herschel PACS Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Woojin; van der Tak, Floris; Karska, Agata; Herczeg, Gregory; Chavarria, Luis; Herpin, Fabrice; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Braine, Jonathan; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-01-01

    Water has been found in various stages of star formation and plays a role as an efficient coolant. We have detected multiple water lines in the Herschel PACS imaging spectroscopy data toward ten massive young stellar objects taken as part of the WISH project. The ten targets include four high mass p

  4. Warping the young stellar disc in the Galactic Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Subr, Ladislav; 10.1088/1742-6596/131/1/012013

    2008-01-01

    We examine influence of the circum-nuclear disc (CND) upon the orbital evolution of young stars in the Galactic Centre. We show that gravity of the CND causes precession of the orbits which is highly sensitive upon the semi-major axis and inclination. We consider such a differential precession within the context of an ongoing discussion about the origin of the young stars and suggest a possibility that all of them have originated in a thin disc which was partially destroyed due to the influence of the CND during the period of ~6Myr.

  5. Isolating the young stellar population in the outer disk of NGC 300

    CERN Document Server

    Hillis, Tristan J; Dolphin, Andrew E; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Skillman, Evan D

    2016-01-01

    The recent star formation history (SFH) in the outer disk of NGC 300 is presented through the analysis of color magnitude diagrams (CMDs). We analyze resolved stellar photometry by creating CMDs from four Hubble Space Telescope fields containing a combination of images from the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the UVIS imager aboard the Wide Field Camera 3. From the best models of these CMDs, we derive the SFH in order to extract the young stellar component for the past 200 Myrs. We find that the young stellar disk of NGC 300 is unbroken out to at least ${\\sim}$8 scale lengths (including an upper limit out to ${\\sim}$10 scale lengths) with $r{_s}$ = 1.4 ${\\pm}$ 0.1 kpc, which is similar to the total stellar surface brightness profile. This unbroken profile suggests that NGC 300 is undisturbed, similar to the isolated disk galaxy NGC 2403. We compare the environments of NGC 300, NGC 2403, and M33 along with the properties of the gas and stellar disks. We find that the disturbed HI outer disk morphology is not a...

  6. MYStIX First Results: Spatial Structures of Massive Young Stellar Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Michael A; Feigelson, Eric D; Getman, Konstantin V; Broos, Patrick S; Townsley, Leisa K; Povich, Matthew S; Naylor, Tim; King, Robert R; Busk, Heather A; Luhman, Kevin L

    2012-01-01

    Observations of the spatial distributions of young stars in star-forming regions can be linked to the theory of clustered star formation using spatial statistical methods. The MYStIX project provides rich samples of young stars from the nearest high-mass star-forming regions. Maps of stellar surface density reveal diverse structure and subclustering. Young stellar clusters and subclusters are fit with isothermal spheres and ellipsoids using the Bayesian Information Criterion to estimate the number of subclusters. Clustering is also investigated using Cartwright and Whitworth's Q statistic and the inhomogeneous two-point correlation function. Mass segregation is detected in several cases, in both centrally concentrated and fractally structured star clusters, but a few clusters are not mass segregated.

  7. The Cosmic Christmas Ghost - Two Stunning Pictures of Young Stellar Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Just like Charles Dickens' Christmas Carol takes us on a journey into past, present and future in the time of only one Christmas Eve, two of ESO' s telescopes captured various stages in the life of a star in a single image. ESO PR Photo 42a/05 shows the area surrounding the stellar cluster NGC 2467, located in the southern constellation of Puppis (" The Stern" ). With an age of a few million years at most, it is a very active stellar nursery, where new stars are born continuously from large clouds of dust and gas. The image, looking like a colourful cosmic ghost or a gigantic celestial Mandrill [1] , contains the open clusters Haffner 18 (centre) and Haffner 19 (middle right: it is located inside the smaller pink region - the lower eye of the Mandrill), as well as vast areas of ionised gas. The bright star at the centre of the largest pink region on the bottom of the image is HD 64315, a massive young star that is helping shaping the structure of the whole nebular region. ESO PR Photo 42a/05 was taken with the Wide-Field Imager camera at the 2.2m MPG/ESO telescope located at La Silla, in Chile. Another image of the central part of this area is shown as ESO PR Photo 42b/05. It was obtained with the FORS2 instrument at ESO' s Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal, also in Chile. ESO PR Photo 42b/05 zooms in on the open stellar cluster Haffner 18, perfectly illustrating three different stages of this process of star formation: In the centre of the picture, Haffner 18, a group of mature stars that have already dispersed their birth nebulae, represents the completed product or immediate past of the star formation process. Located at the bottom left of this cluster, a very young star, just come into existence and, still surrounded by its birth cocoon of gas, provides insight into the very present of star birth. Finally, the dust clouds towards the right corner of the image are active stellar nurseries that will produce more new stars in the future. Haffner 18 contains

  8. RemoveYoung: A tool for the removal of the young stellar component in galaxies within an adjustable age cutoff

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Jean Michel

    2016-01-01

    The optical morphology of galaxies holds the cumulative record of their assembly history, and techniques for its quantitative characterization offer a promising avenue toward understanding galaxy formation and evolution. However, the morphology of star-forming galaxies is generally dictated by the youngest stellar component, which can readily overshine faint structural/morphological features in the older underlying stellar background (e.g., relics from recent minor mergers) that could hold important insights into the galaxy build-up process. Stripping off galaxy images from the emission from stellar populations younger than an adjustable age cutoff tcut can, therefore, provide a valuable tool in extragalactic research. RemoveYoung (RY), a publicly available tool that is presented here, exploits the combined power of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) and spectral population synthesis (SPS) toward this goal. Two-dimensional (2D) post-processing of SPS models to IFS data cubes with RY permits computation of the ...

  9. The Hierarchical Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in Six Local Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D.; Adamo, A.; Kim, H.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Dale, D. A.; Fumagalli, M.; Grebel, E. K.; Johnson, K. E.; Kahre, L.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Messa, M.; Pellerin, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Shabani, F.; Thilker, D.; Ubeda, L.

    2017-05-01

    We present a study of the hierarchical clustering of the young stellar clusters in six local (3-15 Mpc) star-forming galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey). We identified 3685 likely clusters and associations, each visually classified by their morphology, and we use the angular two-point correlation function to study the clustering of these stellar systems. We find that the spatial distribution of the young clusters and associations are clustered with respect to each other, forming large, unbound hierarchical star-forming complexes that are in general very young. The strength of the clustering decreases with increasing age of the star clusters and stellar associations, becoming more homogeneously distributed after ˜40-60 Myr and on scales larger than a few hundred parsecs. In all galaxies, the associations exhibit a global behavior that is distinct and more strongly correlated from compact clusters. Thus, populations of clusters are more evolved than associations in terms of their spatial distribution, traveling significantly from their birth site within a few tens of Myr, whereas associations show evidence of disruption occurring very quickly after their formation. The clustering of the stellar systems resembles that of a turbulent interstellar medium that drives the star formation process, correlating the components in unbound star-forming complexes in a hierarchical manner, dispersing shortly after formation, suggestive of a single, continuous mode of star formation across all galaxies.

  10. The young stellar population of NGC 4214 as observed with HST. I. Data and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Úbeda, Leonardo; MacKenty, John

    2007-01-01

    We present the data and methods that we have used to perform a detailed UV-optical study of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4214 using multifilter HST/WFPC2+STIS photometry. We explain the process followed to obtain high-quality photometry and astrometry of the stellar and cluster populations of this galaxy. We describe the procedure used to transform magnitudes and colors into physical parameters using spectral energy distributions. The data show the existence of both young and old stellar populations that can be resolved at the distance of NGC 4214 (2.94 Mpc) and we perform a general description of those populations.

  11. The spatial structure of young stellar clusters. I. Subclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Michael A.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Broos, Patrick S.; Luhman, Kevin L.; Busk, Heather A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Baddeley, Adrian J. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Sills, Alison [Department of Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Bate, Matthew R.; Naylor, Tim; King, Robert R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4SB (United Kingdom); Povich, Matthew S., E-mail: mkuhn1@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The clusters of young stars in massive star-forming regions show a wide range of sizes, morphologies, and numbers of stars. Their highly subclustered structures are revealed by the MYStIX project's sample of 31,754 young stars in nearby sites of star formation (regions at distances <3.6 kpc that contain at least one O-type star.) In 17 of the regions surveyed by MYStIX, we identify subclusters of young stars using finite mixture models—collections of isothermal ellipsoids that model individual subclusters. Maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate the model parameters, and the Akaike Information Criterion is used to determine the number of subclusters. This procedure often successfully finds famous subclusters, such as the BN/KL complex behind the Orion Nebula Cluster and the KW-object complex in M 17. A catalog of 142 subclusters is presented, with 1-20 subclusters per region. The subcluster core radius distribution for this sample is peaked at 0.17 pc with a standard deviation of 0.43 dex, and subcluster core radius is negatively correlated with gas/dust absorption of the stars—a possible age effect. Based on the morphological arrangements of subclusters, we identify four classes of spatial structure: long chains of subclusters, clumpy structures, isolated clusters with a core-halo structure, and isolated clusters well fit by a single isothermal ellipsoid.

  12. X-ray Properties of Young Stars and Stellar Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Feigelson, E; Güdel, M; Stassun, K G; Feigelson, Eric; Townsley, Leisa; Gudel, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Although the environments of star and planet formation are thermodynamically cold, substantial X-ray emission from 10-100 MK plasmas is present. In low mass pre-main sequence stars, X-rays are produced by violent magnetic reconnection flares. In high mass O stars, they are produced by wind shocks on both stellar and parsec scales. The recent Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project, XMM-Newton Extended Survey of Taurus, and Chandra studies of more distant high-mass star forming regions reveal a wealth of X-ray phenomenology and astrophysics. X-ray flares mostly resemble solar-like magnetic activity from multipolar surface fields, although extreme flares may arise in field lines extending to the protoplanetary disk. Accretion plays a secondary role. Fluorescent iron line emission and absorption in inclined disks demonstrate that X-rays can efficiently illuminate disk material. The consequent ionization of disk gas and irradiation of disk solids addresses a variety of important astrophysical issues of disk dynamics, pla...

  13. Filaments in Galactic Winds Driven by Young Stellar Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Ary; Velazquez, Pablo; Raga, Alejandro; Melo, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    The starburst galaxy M82 shows a system of H$\\alpha$-emitting filaments which extend to each side of the galactic disk. We model these filaments as the result of the interaction between the winds from a distribution of Super Stellar Clusters (SSCs). We first derive the condition necessary for producing a radiative interaction between the cluster winds (a condition which is met by the SSC distribution of M82). We then compute 3D simulations for SSC wind distributions which satisfy the condition for a radiative interaction, and also for distributions which do not satisfy this condition. We find that the highly radiative models, that result from the interaction of high metallicity cluster winds, produce a structure of H$\\alpha$ emitting filaments, which qualitatively agrees with the observations of the M82, while the non-radiative SSC wind interaction models do not produce filamentary structures. Therefore, our criterion for radiative interactions (which depends on the mass loss rate and the terminal velocity of...

  14. RemoveYoung: A tool for the removal of the young stellar component in galaxies within an adjustable age cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.

    2016-10-01

    The optical morphology of galaxies holds the cumulative record of their assembly history, and techniques for its quantitative characterization offer a promising avenue toward understanding galaxy formation and evolution. However, the morphology of star-forming galaxies is generally dictated by the youngest stellar component, which can readily overshine faint structural/morphological features in the older underlying stellar background (e.g., relics from recent minor mergers) that could hold important insights into the galaxy build-up process. Stripping off galaxy images from the emission from stellar populations younger than an adjustable age cutoff tcut can therefore provide a valuable tool in extragalactic research. RemoveYoung (), a publicly available tool that is presented here, exploits the combined power of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) and spectral population synthesis (SPS) toward this goal. Two-dimensional (2D) post-processing of SPS models to IFS data cubes with permits computation of the spectral energy, surface brightness, and stellar surface density distribution of stellar populations older than a user-defined tcut. This suggests a variety of applications of star-forming galaxies, such as interacting or merging galaxy pairs and lower mass starburst galaxies near and far; these include blue compact and tidal dwarf galaxies.

  15. Modeling the Near-Infrared Luminosity Function of Young Stellar Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, A. A.; Lada, E. A.; Lada, C. J.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of numerical experiments designed to evaluate the usefulness of near-infrared luminosity functions for constraining the Initial Mass Function (IMF) of young (0-10 Myr) stellar populations. Using Monte Carlo techniques, we create a suite of model luminosity functions systematically varying each of these basic underlying relations: the underlying IMF, cluster star forming history, and theoretical pre-main sequence mass-to-luminosity relations. Our modeling techniques also allow us to explore the effects of unresolved binaries, infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks, and interstellar extinction on the cluster luminosity function. From this numerical modeling, we find that the luminosity function of a young stellar population is considerably more sensitive to variations in the underlying initial mass function than to either variations in the star forming history or assumed pre-main-sequence (PMS) mass-to-luminosity relation. To illustrate the potential effectiveness of using the KLF of a young cluster to constrain its IMF, we model the observed K band luminosity function of the nearby Trapezium cluster. Our derived mass function for the Trapezium spans two orders of magnitude in stellar mass (5>Msun>0.02) and has a peak near the hydrogen burning limit. Below the hydrogen burning limit, the mass function steadily decreases with decreasing mass throughout the brown dwarf regime. We also test the hypothesis of a space varying IMF by performing model fits to the K band luminosity functions of several other young clusters.

  16. YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTERS WITH A SCHUSTER MASS DISTRIBUTION. I. STATIONARY WINDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palous, Jan; Wuensch, Richard; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bocni II 1401-2a, Prague (Czech Republic); Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo, E-mail: palous@ig.cas.cz [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-08-01

    Hydrodynamic models for spherically symmetric winds driven by young stellar clusters with a generalized Schuster stellar density profile are explored. For this we use both semi-analytic models and one-dimensional numerical simulations. We determine the properties of quasi-adiabatic and radiative stationary winds and define the radius at which the flow turns from subsonic to supersonic for all stellar density distributions. Strongly radiative winds significantly diminish their terminal speed and thus their mechanical luminosity is strongly reduced. This also reduces their potential negative feedback into their host galaxy interstellar medium. The critical luminosity above which radiative cooling becomes dominant within the clusters, leading to thermal instabilities which make the winds non-stationary, is determined, and its dependence on the star cluster density profile, core radius, and half-mass radius is discussed.

  17. Observational clues to the physics at the magnetosphere in young stellar objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alencar Silvia H. P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical T Tauri stars offer an excellent laboratory to study the accretion process and star-disk interaction, which define the transfer of mass and angular momentum in the system. The interaction takes place very close to the star, in a region of about a few stellar radii, and it is therefore challenging to study in detail the physics of the magnetosphere in young stellar objects. We will discuss, through observational examples, how our description of a static and axisymmetric stellar magnetosphere from the early 90s has evolved to a very dynamical multipolar region that takes into account non-steady accretion and time-dependent star-disk interactions.

  18. Measurements of Ca II Infrared Triplet Lines of Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Moto'oka, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Equivalent widths and line widths of Ca II infrared triplet emission lines were measured in high-resolution optical spectra of 39 young stellar objects.We found that the equivalent widths of the emission lines decrease with stellar evolution. It has been often claimed that strong chromospheric activity is generated by a dynamo process caused by fast rotation of the photosphere. However, we found no clear correlation between the strength of the Ca II lines and the stellar rotation velocity. Instead, we found that the objects with high mass accretion rates had stronger Ca II emission lines. This correlation supports the turbulent chromosphere model or the magnetic accretion theory for classical T Tauri stars. We also noticed that the equivalent widths of Ca II lines of transitional disk objects are one-tenth of those of classical T Tauri stars, even if the masses of the circumstellar disks are comparable.

  19. Young Stellar Clusters with a Schuster Mass Distribution - I: Stationary Winds

    CERN Document Server

    Palous, Jan; Martinez-Gonzalez, Sergio; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto; Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamic models for spherically-symmetric winds driven by young stellar clusters with a generalized Schuster stellar density profile are explored. For this we use both semi-analytic models and 1D numerical simulations. We determine the properties of quasi-adiabatic and radiative stationary winds and define the radius at which the flow turns from subsonic into supersonic for all stellar density distributions. Strongly radiative winds diminish significantly their terminal speed and thus their mechanical luminosity is strongly reduced. This also reduces their potential negative feedback into their host galaxy ISM. The critical luminosity above which radiative cooling becomes dominant within the clusters, leading to thermal instabilities which make the winds non-stationary, is determined, and its dependence on the star cluster density profile, core radius and half mass radius is discussed.

  20. Magnetic information affects the stellar orientation of young bird migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindler, Peter; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Wiltschko, Wolfgang

    1996-09-01

    WHEN young birds leave on their first migration, they are guided by innate information about their direction of migration. It is generally assumed that this direction is represented twice, namely with respect to celestial rotation and with respect to the Earth's magnetic field1,2. The interactions between the two cue systems have been analysed by exposing hand-raised young birds during the premigratory period to cue-conflict situations, in which celestial rotation and the magnetic field provided different information. Celestial rotation altered the course with respect to the magnetic field3-7, whereas conflicting magnetic information did not seem to affect the course with respect to the stars8,9. Celestial information thus seemed to dominate over magnetic information. Here we report that the interaction between the two cue systems is far more complex than this. Celestial rotation alone seems to provide only a tendency to move away from its centre (towards geographical south), which is then modified by information from the magnetic field to establish the distinctive, population-specific migratory direction.

  1. Stellar Populations of Highly Magnified Lensed Galaxies Young Starburst at Z to Approximately 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Eva; Rigby, Jane R.; Gladders, Michael D.; Gilbank, David G.; Sharon, Keren; Gralla, Megan B.; Bayliss, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the rest-frame UV to near-IR spectral energy distributions and rest-frame optical spectra of four of the brightest gravitationally lensed galaxies in the literature: RCSGA 032727-132609 at z = 170, MS1512-cB58 at z = 2.73, SGAS J152745.1+065219 at z = 2.76 and SGAS J12265L3+215220 at z = 2.92. This includes new Spitzer imaging for RCSGA0327 as well as new spectra, near-IR imaging and Spitzer imaging for SGAS1527 and SGAS1226. Lensing magnifications of 3-4 magnitudes allow a detailed study of the stellar populations and physical conditions. We compare star formation rates as measured from the SED fit, the Ha and [O II] .(lambda)3727 emission lines, and the UV+IR bolometric luminosity where 24micron photometry is available. The SFR estimate from the SED fit is consistently higher than the other indicators, which suggests that the Calzetti dust extinction law used in the SED fitting is too flat for young star-forming galaxies at z approx. 2. Our analysis finds similar stellar population parameters for all four lensed galaxies: stellar masses 3 - 7 x 10(exp 9) Stellar mass, young ages approx. 100 Myr, little dust content E(B - V)=0.10-0.25, and star formation rates around 20- 100 Stellar mass/y. Compared to typical values for the galaxy population at z approx. 2, this suggests we are looking at newly formed, starbursting systems that have only recently started the build-up of stellar mass. These results constitute the first detailed, uniform analysis of a sample of the growing number of strongly lensed galaxies known at z approx. 2. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift, strong gravitational lensing, infrared: galaxies

  2. RCW 108: Massive Young Stars Trigger Stellar Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    RCW 108 is a region where stars are actively forming within the Milky Way galaxy about 4,000 light years from Earth. This is a complicated region that contains young star clusters, including one that is deeply embedded in a cloud of molecular hydrogen. By using data from different telescopes, astronomers determined that star birth in this region is being triggered by the effect of nearby, massive young stars. This image is a composite of X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue) and infrared emission detected by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red and orange). More than 400 X-ray sources were identified in Chandra's observations of RCW 108. About 90 percent of these X-ray sources are thought to be part of the cluster and not stars that lie in the field-of-view either behind or in front of it. Many of the stars in RCW 108 are experiencing the violent flaring seen in other young star-forming regions such as the Orion nebula. Gas and dust blocks much of the X-rays from the juvenile stars located in the center of the image, explaining the relative dearth of Chandra sources in this part of the image. The Spitzer data show the location of the embedded star cluster, which appears as the bright knot of red and orange just to the left of the center of the image. Some stars from a larger cluster, known as NGC 6193, are also visible on the left side of the image. Astronomers think that the dense clouds within RCW 108 are in the process of being destroyed by intense radiation emanating from hot and massive stars in NGC 6193. Taken together, the Chandra and Spitzer data indicate that there are more massive star candidates than expected in several areas of this image. This suggests that pockets within RCW 108 underwent localized episodes of star formation. Scientists predict that this type of star formation is triggered by the effects of radiation from bright, massive stars such as those in NGC 6193. This radiation may cause the interior of gas clouds in RCW 108 to

  3. RCW 108: Massive Young Stars Trigger Stellar Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    RCW 108 is a region where stars are actively forming within the Milky Way galaxy about 4,000 light years from Earth. This is a complicated region that contains young star clusters, including one that is deeply embedded in a cloud of molecular hydrogen. By using data from different telescopes, astronomers determined that star birth in this region is being triggered by the effect of nearby, massive young stars. This image is a composite of X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue) and infrared emission detected by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (red and orange). More than 400 X-ray sources were identified in Chandra's observations of RCW 108. About 90 percent of these X-ray sources are thought to be part of the cluster and not stars that lie in the field-of-view either behind or in front of it. Many of the stars in RCW 108 are experiencing the violent flaring seen in other young star-forming regions such as the Orion nebula. Gas and dust blocks much of the X-rays from the juvenile stars located in the center of the image, explaining the relative dearth of Chandra sources in this part of the image. The Spitzer data show the location of the embedded star cluster, which appears as the bright knot of red and orange just to the left of the center of the image. Some stars from a larger cluster, known as NGC 6193, are also visible on the left side of the image. Astronomers think that the dense clouds within RCW 108 are in the process of being destroyed by intense radiation emanating from hot and massive stars in NGC 6193. Taken together, the Chandra and Spitzer data indicate that there are more massive star candidates than expected in several areas of this image. This suggests that pockets within RCW 108 underwent localized episodes of star formation. Scientists predict that this type of star formation is triggered by the effects of radiation from bright, massive stars such as those in NGC 6193. This radiation may cause the interior of gas clouds in RCW 108 to

  4. Evolution of Dusty Disks in Nearby Young Stellar Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Jayawardhana, R

    2001-01-01

    Given their proximity and age differences, nearby groups of young stars are valuable laboratories for investigations of disk evolution and diversity. The estimated 10-Myr age of groups like the TW Hydrae Association provides a strong constraint on disk evolution timescales and fills a significant gap in the age sequence between 1-Myr-old T Tauri stars in molecular clouds and 50-Myr-old nearby open clusters. I review the results of recent and on-going studies of dusty disks in three nearby groups --TW Hya, $\\eta$ Cha and MBM 12-- that suggest rapid evolution of inner disks. However, it is unlikely that there is a universal evolutionary timescale for protoplanetary disks, especially when the influence of companion stars is taken into account.

  5. THE SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTERS. III. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND EVOLUTIONARY STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Michael A.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Getman, Konstantin V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sills, Alison [Department of Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Bate, Matthew R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4SB (United Kingdom); Borissova, Jordanka [Instituto de Fisica y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-10-20

    We analyze the physical properties of stellar clusters that are detected in massive star-forming regions in the MYStIX project—a comparative, multiwavelength study of young stellar clusters within 3.6 kpc that contain at least one O-type star. Tabulated properties of subclusters in these regions include physical sizes and shapes, intrinsic numbers of stars, absorptions by the molecular clouds, and median subcluster ages. Physical signs of dynamical evolution are present in the relations of these properties, including statistically significant correlations between subcluster size, central density, and age, which are likely the result of cluster expansion after gas removal. We argue that many of the subclusters identified in Paper I are gravitationally bound because their radii are significantly less than what would be expected from freely expanding clumps of stars with a typical initial stellar velocity dispersion of ∼3 km s{sup −1} for star-forming regions. We explore a model for cluster formation in which structurally simpler clusters are built up hierarchically through the mergers of subclusters—subcluster mergers are indicated by an inverse relation between the numbers of stars in a subcluster and their central densities (also seen as a density versus radius relation that is less steep than would be expected from pure expansion). We discuss implications of these effects for the dynamical relaxation of young stellar clusters.

  6. The Spatial Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in the Star-forming Galaxy NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasha, K.; Calzetti, D.; Adamo, A.; Kim, H.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Aloisi, A.; Bright, S. N.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Dale, D. A.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Grebel, E. K.; Johnson, K. E.; Lee, J. C.; Messa, M.; Smith, L. J.; Ryon, J. E.; Thilker, D.; Ubeda, L.; Wofford, A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a study of the spatial distribution of the stellar cluster populations in the star-forming galaxy NGC 628. Using Hubble Space Telescope broadband WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey), we have identified 1392 potential young (≲ 100 Myr) stellar clusters within the galaxy using a combination of visual inspection and automatic selection. We investigate the clustering of these young stellar clusters and quantify the strength and change of clustering strength with scale using the two-point correlation function. We also investigate how image boundary conditions and dust lanes affect the observed clustering. The distribution of the clusters is well fit by a broken power law with negative exponent α. We recover a weighted mean index of α ∼ -0.8 for all spatial scales below the break at 3.″3 (158 pc at a distance of 9.9 Mpc) and an index of α ∼ -0.18 above 158 pc for the accumulation of all cluster types. The strength of the clustering increases with decreasing age and clusters older than 40 Myr lose their clustered structure very rapidly and tend to be randomly distributed in this galaxy, whereas the mass of the star cluster has little effect on the clustering strength. This is consistent with results from other studies that the morphological hierarchy in stellar clustering resembles the same hierarchy as the turbulent interstellar medium.

  7. Investigation of Energy Release from X-ray Flares on Young Stellar Objects with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vievering, Juliana; Glesener, Lindsay; Grefenstette, Brian; Smith, David M.

    2017-08-01

    Young stellar objects (YSOs), which tend to flare more frequently and at higher temperatures than what is typically observed on Sun-like stars, are excellent targets for studying the nature of energy release and transport in large flaring events. Multiple star-forming regions have been observed in the past by soft x-ray missions such as Chandra and XMM-Newton, but the energy ranges of these missions fall off prior to the hard x-ray regime, where it would be possible to search for a crossover from thermal to nonthermal emission. To investigate this hard x-ray emission, three 50ks observations of the star-forming region rho Ophiuchi have been taken with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), which is optimized over the energy range of 3-79 keV. Multiple stellar flares have been identified in the observations; here we present the current spectral and timing analyses of the brightest of the these events, exploring the way energy is released as well as the effects of these large flares on the surrounding environment. We compare these results to what is typically observed for solar flares.

  8. Stellar Rotation in Young Clusters. II. Evolution of Stellar Rotation and Surface Helium Abundance

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, W

    2005-01-01

    We derive the effective temperatures and gravities of 461 OB stars in 19 young clusters by fitting the H-gamma profile in their spectra. We use synthetic model profiles for rotating stars to develop a method to estimate the polar gravity for these stars, which we argue is a useful indicator of their evolutionary status. We combine these results with projected rotational velocity measurements obtained in a previous paper on these same open clusters. We find that the more massive B-stars experience a spin down as predicted by the theories for the evolution of rotating stars. Furthermore, we find that the members of binary stars also experience a marked spin down with advanced evolutionary state due to tidal interactions. We also derive non-LTE-corrected helium abundances for most of the sample by fitting the He I 4026, 4387, 4471 lines. A large number of helium peculiar stars are found among cooler stars with Teff < 23000 K. The analysis of the high mass stars (8.5 solar masses < M < 16 solar masses) s...

  9. Characterizing the nature of embedded young stellar objects through silicate, ice and millimeter observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapsi, A.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Dullemond, C. P.

    2008-07-01

    Context: Determining the evolutionary stage of a Young Stellar Object (YSO) is of fundamental importance to test star formation theories. Classification schemes for YSOs are based on evaluating the degree of dissipation of the surrounding envelope, whose main effects are the extinction of the optical radiation from the central YSO and re-emission in the far-infrared to millimeter part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Since extinction is a property of column density along the line of sight, the presence of a protoplanetary disk may lead to a misclassification of pre-main sequence stars with disks when viewed edge-on. Aims: We performed radiative transfer calculations to show the effects of different geometries on the main indicators of YSO evolutionary stage. In particular we tested not only the effects on the infrared colors, like the slope α of the flux between 2.2 and 24 μm, but also on other popular indicators of YSO evolutionary stage, such as the bolometric temperature and the optical depth of silicates and ices. Methods: We used the axisymmetric 3D radiative transfer codes RADMC and RADICAL to calculate the spectral energy distribution including silicates and ice features in a grid of models covering the range of physical properties typical of embedded and pre-main sequence sources. Results: Our set of models compares well with existing observations, supporting the assumed density parametrization and the adopted dust opacities. We show that for systems viewed at intermediate angles (25°-70°) the “classical” indicators of evolution are able to classify the degree of evolution of young stellar objects since they accurately trace the envelope column density, and they all agree with each other. On the other hand, edge-on system are misclassified for inclinations larger than 65° ± 5°, where the spread is mostly due to the range of mass and the flaring degree of the disk. In particular, silicate emission, typical of pre-main sequence stars with disks

  10. Modeling the Near-Infrared Luminosity Functions of Young Stellar Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, August A.; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Lada, Charles J.

    2000-04-01

    We present the results of numerical experiments designed to evaluate the usefulness of near-infrared (NIR) luminosity functions for constraining the initial mass function (IMF) of young stellar populations. We test the sensitivity of the NIR K-band luminosity function (KLF) of a young stellar cluster to variations in the underlying IMF, star-forming history, and pre-main-sequence mass-to-luminosity relations. Using Monte Carlo techniques, we create a suite of model luminosity functions systematically varying each of these basic underlying relations. From this numerical modeling, we find that the luminosity function of a young stellar population is considerably more sensitive to variations in the underlying initial mass function than to either variations in the star-forming history or assumed pre-main-sequence (PMS) mass-to-luminosity relation. Variations in a cluster's star-forming history are also found to produce significant changes in the KLF. In particular, we find that the KLFs of young clusters evolve in a systematic manner with increasing mean age. Our experiments indicate that variations in the PMS mass-to-luminosity relation, resulting from differences in adopted PMS tracks, produce only small effects on the form of the model luminosity functions and that these effects are mostly likely not detectable observationally. To illustrate the potential effectiveness of using the KLF of a young cluster to constrain its IMF, we model the observed KLF of the nearby Trapezium cluster. With knowledge of the star-forming history of this cluster obtained from optical spectroscopic studies, we derive the simplest underlying IMF whose model luminosity function matches the observations. Our derived mass function for the Trapezium spans 2 orders of magnitude in stellar mass (5>Msolar>0.02) and has a peak near the hydrogen-burning limit. Below the hydrogen-burning limit, the mass function steadily decreases with decreasing mass throughout the brown dwarf regime. Comparison

  11. THE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION OF THE CYGNUS-X DR15 REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Gálvez, S. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Ensenada, México (Mexico); Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Ybarra, J. E. [Instituto de Astronomía, Unidad Académica en Ensenada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada 22860, México (Mexico); Alves, J. F. [Formerly at Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán, Glorieta de la Astronomía, S/N, Granada (Spain); Lada, Elizabeth A., E-mail: sandily.r@gmail.com [Astronomy Department, University of Florida (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the young stellar population in the Cygnus-X DR15 region. We studied young stars that were forming or recently formed at and around the tip of a prominent molecular pillar and an infrared dark cloud. Using a combination of ground-based near-infrared, space-based infrared, and X-ray data, we constructed a point source catalog from which we identified 226 young stellar sources, which we classified into evolutionary classes. We studied their spatial distributions across the molecular gas structures and identified several groups that possibly belong to distinct young star clusters. We obtained samples of these groups and constructed K-band luminosity functions that we compared with those of artificial clusters, allowing us to make first order estimates of the mean ages and age spreads of the groups. We used a {sup 13}CO(1-0) map to investigate the gas kinematics at the prominent gaseous envelope of the central cluster in DR15, and we inferred that the removal of this envelope is relatively slow compared to other cluster regions, in which the gas dispersal timescale could be similar or shorter than the circumstellar disk dissipation timescale. The presence of other groups with slightly older ages, associated with much less prominent gaseous structures, may imply that the evolution of young clusters in this part of the complex proceeds in periods that last 3–5 Myr, perhaps after a slow dissipation of their dense molecular cloud birthplaces.

  12. A YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTER WITHIN THE RCW41 H II REGION: DEEP NIR PHOTOMETRY AND OPTICAL/NIR POLARIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Fabio P.; Franco, Gabriel A. P. [Departamento de Fisica - ICEx - UFMG, Caixa Postal 702, 30.123-970 Belo Horizote - MG (Brazil); Roman-Lopes, Alexandre, E-mail: fabiops@fisica.ufmg.br, E-mail: franco@fisica.ufmg.br, E-mail: roman@dfuls.cl [Departamento de Fisica - Universidad de La Serena, Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile)

    2012-06-01

    The RCW41 star-forming region is embedded within the Vela Molecular Ridge, hosting a massive stellar cluster surrounded by a conspicuous H II region. Understanding the role of interstellar magnetic fields and studying the newborn stellar population is crucial to building a consistent picture of the physical processes acting on this kind of environment. We carried out a detailed study of the interstellar polarization toward RCW41 with data from an optical and near-infrared polarimetric survey. Additionally, deep near-infrared images from the 3.5 meter New Technology Telescope were used to study the photometric properties of the embedded young stellar cluster, revealing several YSO candidates. By using a set of pre-main-sequence isochrones, a mean cluster age in the range 2.5-5.0 million years was determined, and evidence of sequential star formation was revealed. An abrupt decrease in R-band polarization degree was noticed toward the central ionized area, probably due to low grain alignment efficiency caused by the turbulent environment and/or the weak intensity of magnetic fields. The distortion of magnetic field lines exhibits dual behavior, with the mean orientation outside the area approximately following the borders of the star-forming region and directed radially toward the cluster inside the ionized area, in agreement with simulations of expanding H II regions. The spectral dependence of polarization allowed a meaningful determination of the total-to-selective extinction ratio by fittings of the Serkowski relation. Furthermore, a large rotation of polarization angle as a function of wavelength was detected toward several embedded stars.

  13. An Infrared Search for Young Stellar Objects in IC 1396

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chelen H.; Linahan, Marcella; Gibbs, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; Archibald, Andrew R.; Dickmann, Samantha Rose; Hart, Erica A.; Hedlund, Audrey R.; Hilfer, Shannon L.; Lacher, Thomas; McKernan, John T.; Medeiros, Emma M.; Nelson, Samantha Brooks; O'Leary, Harrison; Peña, Nicholas D.; Peterson, Alexis; Reader, Livia K.; Ropinski, Brandi Lucia; Scarpa, Gabriella; Sundeen, Kiera A.; Takara, Amber L.; Thiel, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    About 700 parsecs away from Earth, IC1396 lies along the galactic plane, in the direction of the constellation Cepheus, and includes many dark nebulae, including the Elephant’s Trunk Nebula. IC 1396A has been examined with a variety of telescopes, including Spitzer, 2MASS, IPHAS, Chandra, and WISE. The YSOVAR project (Rebull et al. 2014) also has Spitzer monitoring data in this region at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. Our team has merged these catalogs and identified candidate YSOs using IR color selection, X-ray detection, and variability metrics. In order to interpret the YSOVAR light curves, it is critical to understand which of the 700+ YSO candidates in this region are likely YSOs, and which are foreground/background stars or are extragalactic objects. As a first attempt to confirm these candidate YSOs, we have created spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for wavelengths from IPHAS r band to 24 microns, which we use, coupled with image inspection, to confirm (or refute) YSO candidates from this list of identified YSO candidates. We will then compare our vetted list of YSO candidates to the lists of YSO candidates already identified in the literature in this region. The goal of this study is to identify candidate YSO sources, as well as support the greater understanding of the variety, evolution and variability of young stars. This project is a collaborative effort of high school students from three states. They analyzed data individually and later collaborated online to compare results. This project is the result of many years of work with the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP).

  14. Unresolved versus resolved: testing the validity of young simple stellar population models with VLT/MUSE observations of NGC 3603

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncarayakti, H.; Galbany, L.; Anderson, J. P.; Krühler, T.; Hamuy, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Stellar populations are the building blocks of galaxies, including the Milky Way. The majority, if not all, extragalactic studies are entangled with the use of stellar population models given the unresolved nature of their observation. Extragalactic systems contain multiple stellar populations with complex star formation histories. However, studies of these systems are mainly based upon the principles of simple stellar populations (SSP). Hence, it is critical to examine the validity of SSP models. Aims: This work aims to empirically test the validity of SSP models. This is done by comparing SSP models against observations of spatially resolved young stellar population in the determination of its physical properties, that is, age and metallicity. Methods: Integral field spectroscopy of a young stellar cluster in the Milky Way, NGC 3603, was used to study the properties of the cluster as both a resolved and unresolved stellar population. The unresolved stellar population was analysed using the Hα equivalent width as an age indicator and the ratio of strong emission lines to infer metallicity. In addition, spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting using STARLIGHT was used to infer these properties from the integrated spectrum. Independently, the resolved stellar population was analysed using the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) to determine age and metallicity. As the SSP model represents the unresolved stellar population, the derived age and metallicity were tested to determine whether they agree with those derived from resolved stars. Results: The age and metallicity estimate of NGC 3603 derived from integrated spectroscopy are confirmed to be within the range of those derived from the CMD of the resolved stellar population, including other estimates found in the literature. The result from this pilot study supports the reliability of SSP models for studying unresolved young stellar populations. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation

  15. Search for associations containing young stars (SACY) VII. New stellar and substellar candidate members in the young associations

    CERN Document Server

    Elliott, P; Melo, C H F; Torres, C A O; Sterzik, M F; Quast, G R; Montes, D; Brahm, R

    2016-01-01

    The young associations offer us one of the best opportunities to study the properties of young stellar and substellar objects and to directly image planets thanks to their proximity ($<$200 pc) and age ($\\approx$5-150 Myr). However, many previous works have been limited to identifying the brighter, more active members ($\\approx$1 M$_\\odot$) owing to photometric survey sensitivities limiting the detections of lower mass objects. We search the field of view of 542 previously identified members of the young associations to identify wide or extremely wide (1000-100,000 au in physical separation) companions. We combined 2MASS near-infrared photometry ($J$, $H$, $K$) with proper motion values (from UCAC4, PPMXL, NOMAD) to identify companions in the field of view of known members. We collated further photometry and spectroscopy from the literature and conducted our own high-resolution spectroscopic observations for a subsample of candidate members. This complementary information allowed us to assess the efficienc...

  16. The Young Stellar Population of the Cygnus-X DR15 Region

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera-Gálvez, Sandily; Jiménez-Bailón, Elena; Ybarra, Jason E; Alves, João F; Lada, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the young stellar population in the Cygnus-X DR15 region. We studied young stars forming or recently formed at and around the tip of a prominent molecular pillar and an infrared dark cloud. Using a combination of ground based near-infrared, space based infrared and X-ray data, we constructed a point source catalog from which we identified 226 young stellar sources, which we classified into evolutionary classes. We studied their spatial distribution across the molecular gas structures and identified several groups possibly belonging to distinct young star clusters. We obtained samples of these groups and constructed K-band luminosity functions that we compared with those of artificial clusters, allowing us to make first order estimates of the mean ages and age spreads of the groups. We used a $^{13}$CO(1-0) map to investigate the gas kinematics at the prominent gaseous envelope of the central cluster in DR15, and we infer that the removal of this envelope is relatively sl...

  17. Formation scenarios for the young stellar associations between galactic longitudes l = 280-360 deg

    CERN Document Server

    Sartori, M J; Dias, W S; Sartori, Marilia J.; Lepine, Jacques R. D.; Dias, Wilton S.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the spatial distribution, the space velocities and age distribution of the pre-main sequence (PMS) stars belonging to Ophiuchus, Lupus and Chamaeleon star-forming regions (SFRs), and of the young early-type star members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association. These young stellar associations extend over the galactic longitude range from 280 deg. to 360 deg., and are at a distance interval of around 100 and 200 pc. The study is based on a compilation of distances, proper motions and radial velocities from the literature for the kinematic properties, and of basic stellar data for the construction of Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams. Although there was no well-known OB association in Chamaeleon, the distances and the proper motions of a group of 21 B- and A-type stars, taken from the Hipparcos Catalogue, lead us to propose that they form a young association. We show that the young early-type stars of the OB associations and the PMS stars of the SFRs follow a similar spatial distribution, i.e., there ...

  18. A Model for (Quasi-)Periodic Multi-wavelength Photometric Variability in Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Kesseli, Aurora Y; Wood, Kenneth; Whitney, Barbara A; Hillenbrand, L A; Gregory, Scott G; Stauffer, J R; Morales-Calderon, M; Rebull, L; Alencar, S H P

    2016-01-01

    We present radiation transfer models of rotating young stellar objects (YSOs) with hotspots in their atmospheres, inner disk warps and other 3-D effects in the nearby circumstellar environment. Our models are based on the geometry expected from the magneto-accretion theory, where material moving inward in the disk flows along magnetic field lines to the star and creates stellar hotspots upon impact. Due to rotation of the star and magnetosphere, the disk is variably illuminated. We compare our model light curves to data from the Spitzer YSOVAR project (Morales-Calderon et al. 2014, Cody et al. 2014) to determine if these processes can explain the variability observed at optical and mid-infrared wavelengths in young stars. We focus on those variables exhibiting "dipper" behavior that may be periodic, quasi-periodic, or aperiodic. We find that the stellar hotspot size and temperature affects the optical and near-infrared light curves, while the shape and vertical extent of the inner disk warp affects the mid-IR...

  19. Study of young stellar objects around SNR G18.8+0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis Peña, M.; Paron, S.

    2016-08-01

    In recent works, through observations of molecular lines, we found that the supernova remnant (SNR) G18.8+0.3 is interacting with a molecular cloud towards its southern edge. Also it has been proven the presence of several neighboring H ii regions very likely located at the same distance as the remnant. The presence of dense molecular gas and the existence of shock fronts generated by the SNR and H ii regions make this region an interesting scenario to study the population of young stellar objects. Thus, using the most modern colour criteria applied to the emission in the mid-infrared bands obtained from IRAC and MIPS on board Spitzer, we characterized all the point sources lying in this region. We analyzed the spectral energy distributions of sources that show signs of being young stellar objects in order to confirm their nature and derive stellar parameters. Additionally, we present a map of the CO J=32 emission obtained with the ASTE telescope towards one of the H ii regions embedded in the molecular cloud. The molecular gas was studied with the aim to analyze whether the cloud is a potential site of star formation.

  20. Study of young stellar objects around SNR G18.8+0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, M Celis

    2016-01-01

    In recent works, through observations of molecular lines, we found that the supernova remnant (SNR) G18.8+0.3 is interacting with a molecular cloud towards its southern edge. Also it has been proven the presence of several neighboring HII regions very likely located at the same distance as the remnant. The presence of dense molecular gas and the existence of shock fronts generated by the SNR and HII regions make this region an interesting scenario to study the population of young stellar objects. Thus, using the most modern colour criteria applied to the emission in the mid-infrared bands obtained from IRAC and MIPS on board Spitzer, we characterized all the point sources lying in this region. We analyzed the spectral energy distributions of sources that show signs of being young stellar objects in order to confirm their nature and derive stellar parameters. Additionally, we present a map of the $^{12}$CO J=3-2 emission obtained with the ASTE telescope towards one of the HII regions embedded in the molecular ...

  1. The Spatial Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in the Star Forming Galaxy NGC 628

    CERN Document Server

    Grasha, K; Adamo, A; Kim, H; Elmegreen, B G; Gouliermis, D A; Aloisi, A; Bright, S N; Christian, C; Cignoni, M; Dale, D A; Dobbs, C; Elmegreen, D M; Fumagalli, M; Gallagher, J S; Grebel, E K; Johnson, K E; Lee, J C; Messa, M; Smith, L J; Ryon, J E; Thilker, D; Ubeda, L; Wofford, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the spatial distribution of the stellar cluster populations in the star forming galaxy NGC 628. Using Hubble Space Telescope broad band WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey), we have identified 1392 potential young (<100 Myr) stellar clusters within the galaxy, identified from a combination of visual inspection and automatic selection. We investigate the clustering of these young stellar clusters and quantify the strength and change of clustering strength with scale using the two-point correlation function. We also investigate how image boundary conditions and dust lanes affect the observed clustering. The distribution of the clusters is well fit by a broken power law with negative exponent $\\alpha$. We recover a weighted mean index of $\\alpha$ ~ -0.8 for all spatial scales below the break at 3".3 (158 pc at a distance of 9.9 Mpc) and an index of $\\alpha$ ~ -0.18 above 158 pc for the accumulation of all cluster types. The stre...

  2. SPIN EVOLUTION OF ACCRETING YOUNG STARS. II. EFFECT OF ACCRETION-POWERED STELLAR WINDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt, Sean P. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/Irfu Universite Paris-Diderot CNRS/INSU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pinzon, Giovanni [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Greene, Thomas P. [NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States); Pudritz, Ralph E., E-mail: sean.matt@cea.fr, E-mail: thomas.p.greene@nasa.gov, E-mail: gapinzone@unal.edu.co, E-mail: pudritz@physics.mcmaster.ca [Physics and Astronomy Department, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2012-01-20

    We present a model for the rotational evolution of a young, solar-mass star interacting magnetically with an accretion disk. As in a previous paper (Paper I), the model includes changes in the star's mass and radius as it descends the Hayashi track, a decreasing accretion rate, and a prescription for the angular momentum transfer between the star and disk. Paper I concluded that, for the relatively strong magnetic coupling expected in real systems, additional processes are necessary to explain the existence of slowly rotating pre-main-sequence stars. In the present paper, we extend the stellar spin model to include the effect of a spin-down torque that arises from an accretion-powered stellar wind (APSW). For a range of magnetic field strengths, accretion rates, initial spin rates, and mass outflow rates, the modeled stars exhibit rotation periods within the range of 1-10 days in the age range of 1-3 Myr. This range coincides with the bulk of the observed rotation periods, with the slow rotators corresponding to stars with the lowest accretion rates, strongest magnetic fields, and/or highest stellar wind mass outflow rates. We also make a direct, quantitative comparison between the APSW scenario and the two types of disk-locking models (namely, the X-wind and Ghosh and Lamb type models) and identify some remaining theoretical issues for understanding young star spins.

  3. Study of young stellar groupings in HII regions based on the spectral and photometric data

    CERN Document Server

    Gusev, A S; Piskunov, A E; Kharchenko, N V; Pilyugin, L S; Ezhkova, O V; Khramtsova, M S; Guslyakova, S A; Bruevich, V V; Dodonov, S N; Lang, V; Shimanovskaya, E V; Efremov, Yu N

    2016-01-01

    We studied 102 star forming regions in seven spiral galaxies (NGC 628, NGC 783, NGC 2336, NGC 6217, NGC 6946, NGC 7331, and NGC 7678) on the basis of complex spectroscopic, photometric (UBVRI) and spectrophotometric (H alpha line) observations. Using data on the chemical composition and absorption in HII regions, obtained from spectroscopic observations, and using evolutionary models, we estimated physical parameters (ages and masses) of young stellar groupings embedded in HII regions. We found that the gas extinction, A(gas), which determined from the Balmer decrement, does not correspond in some cases to the absorption A(stars) in the young stellar associations (complexes). This is due to the spatial offset relative HII cloud the stellar group related to him. It has been found that the condition A(gas) = A(stars) does not satisfied for the star forming regions, in which: 1) the contribution to the total emission of gas in the B and/or V bands is higher than 40%, and 2) EW(H alpha) > 1500A. Extinction A(V) i...

  4. 3D Gray Radiative Properties of Accretion Shocks in Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibgui, L.; Orlando, S.; Stehlé, C.; Chièze, J.-P.; Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T.; de Sá, L.; Matsakos, T.; González, M.; Bonito, R.

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of the contribution of radiation to the structure and dynamics of accretion shocks on Young Stellar Objects. Solving the 3D RTE (radiative transfer equation) under our "gray LTE approach", i.e., using appropriate mean opacities computed in local thermodynamic equilibrium, we post-process the 3D MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) structure of an accretion stream impacting the stellar chromosphere. We find a radiation flux of ten orders of magnitude larger than the accreting energy rate, which is due to a large overestimation of the radiative cooling. A gray LTE radiative transfer approximation is therefore not consistent with the given MHD structure of the shock. Further investigations are required to clarify the role of radiation, by relaxing both the gray and LTE approximations in RHD (radiation hydrodynamics) simulations. Post-processing the obtained structures through the resolution of the non-LTE monochromatic RTE will provide reference radiation quantities against which RHD approximate solutions will be compared.

  5. Stellar Populations of Highly Magnified Lensed Galaxies: Young Starbursts at Z approximately 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Eva; Rigby, Jane R.; Gladders, Michael D.; Gilbank, David G.; Sharon, Keren; Gralla, Megan B.; Bayliss, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the rest-frame UV to near-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and rest-frame optical spectra of four of the brightest gravitationally lensed galaxies in the literature: RCSGA 032727-132609 at z = 1.70, MS1512-cB58 at z = 2.73, SGAS J152745.1+065219 at z = 2.76, and SGAS J122651.3+215220 at z = 2.92. This includes new Spitzer imaging for RCSGA0327 as well as new spectra, near-IR imaging and Spitzer imaging for SGAS1527 and SGAS1226. Lensing magnifications of 3-4 mag allow a detailed study of the stellar populations and physical conditions. We compare star formation rates (SFRs) as measured from the SED fit, the Ha and [O II] ?3727 emission lines, and the UV+IR bolometric luminosity where 24 micron photometry is available. The SFR estimate from the SED fit is consistently higher than the other indicators, which suggests that the Calzetti dust extinction law used in the SED fitting is too flat for young star-forming galaxies at z 2. Our analysis finds similar stellar population parameters for all four lensed galaxies: stellar masses (3-7) ? 10(exp 9)Solar M young ages approx 100 Myr, little dust content E(B - V) = 0.10-0.25, and SFRs around 20-100 solar M/ yr. Compared to typical values for the galaxy population at z approx. 2, this suggests we are looking at newly formed, starbursting systems that have only recently started the buildup of stellar mass. These results constitute the first detailed, uniform analysis of a sample of the growing number of strongly lensed galaxies known at z approx 2.

  6. Not a galaxy: IRAS 04186+5143, a new young stellar cluster in the outer Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, J L; Djupvik, A A; Torrelles, J M; Molinari, S

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new young stellar cluster in the outer Galaxy located at the position of an IRAS PSC source that has been previously mis-identified as an external galaxy. The cluster is seen in our near-infrared imaging towards IRAS 04186+5143 and in archive Spitzer images confirming the young stellar nature of the sources detected. There is also evidence of sub-clustering seen in the spatial distributions of young stars and of gas and dust. Near- and mid-infrared photometry indicates that the stars exhibit colours compatible with reddening by interstellar and circumstellar dust and are likely to be low- and intermediate-mass YSOs with a large proportion of Class I YSOs. Ammonia and CO lines were detected, with the CO emission well centred near the position of the richest part of the cluster. The velocity of the CO and NH$_3$ lines indicates that the gas is Galactic and located at a distance of about 5.5 kpc, in the outer Galaxy. Herschel data of this region characterise the dust environment of t...

  7. Young stellar clusters in the Rosette molecular cloud. Arguments against triggered star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Cambrésy, L; Feher, O; Tóth, L V; Schneider, N

    2013-01-01

    The Rosette complex is a well studied region of the galactic plane which presents the apparent characteristics of a triggered star forming region. This is however still debated as no strong evidence corroborates this statement. In this study, we focus on characterizing the young stellar population in the Rosette to improve our understanding of the processes that regulate the star formation in this region. We propose an original method relying on the joint analysis of the star color and density in the near-infrared. It leads to the mapping of the molecular cloud spatial distribution and the detection of the embedded clusters with their characterization in term of member number and age estimation. We identified 13 clusters, 2 of them are new discoveries, and we estimated that the total number of young stellar objects in the Rosette ranges between 4000 and 8000 members. We found the age distribution of the young clusters is not consistent with a general triggered scenario for the star formation in this molecular...

  8. IRAS 19520+2759: a 105 L⊙ massive young stellar object driving a collimated outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palau, Aina; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Sahai, R.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Rizzo, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of massive star formation currently suffers from a scarce observational base of massive young stellar objects to compare with. In this paper, we present interferometric 12CO (1-0), 13CO (1-0), C18O (1-0) and 2.6 mm continuum images of the infrared source IRAS 19520+2759 together with complementary single-dish observations of CS (1-0), obtained with the 34 m antenna DSS-54 at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex, as well as archive images at different wavelengths. As a result from our work, IRAS 19520+2759, with a controversial nature in the past, is firmly established as a massive young stellar object associated with a strong and compact millimetre source and driving a collimated outflow. In addition, a second fainter millimetre source is discovered about 4 arcsec to the south, which is also driving an outflow. Furthermore, the two millimetre sources are associated with C18O clumps elongated perpendicularly to the outflows, which may be related to rotating toroids. The masses of gas and dust of the millimetre sources are estimated to be around 100 and 50 M⊙. MM1, the dominant source at all wavelengths, with a total luminosity of (1-2) × 105 L⊙ at 9 kpc, is however not associated with 6 cm emission down to an rms noise level of 0.1 mJy. We propose that IRAS 19520+2759 could be an example of the recent theoretical prediction of `bloated' or `swollen' star, i.e. a massive young stellar object whose radius has increased due to effects of accretion at a high-mass accretion rate.

  9. Classifying the embedded young stellar population in Perseus and Taurus and the LOMASS database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, M. T.; Ylldlz, U. A.; Mottram, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The classification of young stellar objects (YSOs) is typically done using the infrared spectral slope or bolometric temperature, but either can result in contamination of samples. More accurate methods to determine the evolutionary stage of YSOs will improve the reliability of statistics...... in the protostellar envelopes. The spatial concentration of HCO+J = 4-3 and 850 μm dust emission are used to classify the embedded nature of YSOs. Results. Approximately 30% of Class 0+I sources in Perseus and Taurus are not Stage I, but are likely to be more evolved Stage II pre-main sequence (PMS) stars with disks...

  10. An intermediate-luminosity-optical-transient (ILOT) model for the young stellar object ASASSN-15qi

    CERN Document Server

    Kashi, Amit

    2016-01-01

    We construct a scenario where the outburst of the young-stellar-object ASASSN-15qi is an intermediate luminosity optical transient (ILOT). In this scenario a sub-Jupiter young planet was tidally destructed on to a young main-sequence star. The system is young, therefore the radius of the planet is larger than its final value, and consequently it has smaller density. The lower density allows the tidal destruction of the young Saturn-like planet on to the main-sequence star of mass $\\approx 2.4 ~M_\\odot$, resulting in a formation of a disc and a gravitationally-powered ILOT. Unlike the case of the more energetic ILOT V838~Mon, the mass of the destroyed planet is too low to inflate a giant envelope, and hence the merger remnant stays hot. If our suggested model holds, this ILOT possesses two interesting properties: (1) its luminosity and total energy are below those of novae, and (2) it is not as red as other ILOTs. The unusual outburst of ASASSN-15qi, if indeed is an ILOT, further increases the diversity of the...

  11. ON THE FATE OF THE MATTER REINSERTED WITHIN YOUNG NUCLEAR STELLAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto; Palous, Jan; Wuensch, Richard [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bocni II 1401, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic); Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy, E-mail: filibert@asu.cas.cz [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a hydrodynamical model describing the evolution of the gas reinserted by stars within a rotating young nuclear star cluster (NSC). We explicitly consider the impact of the stellar component on the flow by means of a uniform insertion of mass and energy within the stellar cluster. The model includes the gravity force of the stellar component and a central supermassive black hole (SMBH), and accounts for the heating from the central source of radiation and the radiative cooling of the thermalized gas. By using a set of parameters typical for NSCs and SMBHs in Seyfert galaxies, our simulations show that a filamentary/clumpy structure is formed in the inner part of the cluster. This 'torus' is Compton-thick and covers a large fraction of the sky (as seen from the SMBH). In the outer parts of the cluster a powerful wind is produced that inhibits the infall of matter from larger scales and thus the NSC-SMBH interplay occurs in isolation.

  12. On the fate of the matter reinserted within young nuclear stellar clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto; Wunsch, Richard; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a hydrodynamical model describing the evolution of the gas reinserted by stars within a rotating young nuclear star cluster (NSC). We explicitly consider the impact of the stellar component to the flow by means of a uniform insertion of mass and energy within the stellar cluster. The model includes the gravity force of the stellar component and a central supermassive black hole (SMBH), and accounts for the heating from the central source of radiation and the radiative cooling of the thermalized gas. By using a set of parameters typical for NSCs and SMBHs in Seyfert galaxies our simulations show that a filamentary/clumpy structure is formed in the inner part of the cluster. This "torus" is Compton thick and covers a large fraction of the sky (as seen from the SMBH). In the outer parts of the cluster a powerful wind is produced, that inhibits the infall of matter from larger scales and thus the NSC-SMBH interplay occurs in isolation.

  13. Lower limit for differential rotation in members of young loose stellar associations

    CERN Document Server

    Distefano, E; Lanza, A F; Messina, S; Spada, F

    2016-01-01

    Surface differential rotation (SDR) plays a key role in dynamo models. SDR estimates are therefore essential for constraining theoretical models. We measure a lower limit to SDR in a sample of solar-like stars belonging to young associations with the aim of investigating how SDR depends on global stellar parameters in the age range (4-95 Myr). The rotation period of a solar-like star can be recovered by analyzing the flux modulation caused by dark spots and stellar rotation. The SDR and the latitude migration of dark-spots induce a modulation of the detected rotation period. We employ long-term photometry to measure the amplitude of such a modulation and to compute the quantity DeltaOmega_phot =2p/P_min -2pi/P_max that is a lower limit to SDR. We find that DeltaOmega_phot increases with the stellar effective temperature and with the global convective turn-over time-scale tau_c. We find that DeltaOmega_phot is proportional to Teff^2.18pm 0.65 in stars recently settled on the ZAMS. This power law is less steep ...

  14. Accretion-induced variability links young stellar objects, white dwarfs, and black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone; Maccarone, Thomas J; Körding, Elmar; Knigge, Christian; Vaughan, Simon; Marsh, Thomas R; Aranzana, Ester; Dhillon, Vikram S; Barros, Susana C C

    2015-10-01

    The central engines of disc-accreting stellar-mass black holes appear to be scaled down versions of the supermassive black holes that power active galactic nuclei. However, if the physics of accretion is universal, it should also be possible to extend this scaling to other types of accreting systems, irrespective of accretor mass, size, or type. We examine new observations, obtained with Kepler/K2 and ULTRACAM, regarding accreting white dwarfs and young stellar objects. Every object in the sample displays the same linear correlation between the brightness of the source and its amplitude of variability (rms-flux relation) and obeys the same quantitative scaling relation as stellar-mass black holes and active galactic nuclei. We also show that the most important parameter in this scaling relation is the physical size of the accreting object. This establishes the universality of accretion physics from proto-stars still in the star-forming process to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies.

  15. Near-infrared spectra of ISO selected Chamaeleon I young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, M; Gomez, Mercedes; Persi, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    We present 0.95--2.5 micron moderate (R = 500) resolution spectra of 19 ISOCAM detected sources in the Chamaeleon I dark cloud. Thirteen of these stars are candidate very low mass members of the cloud proposed by Persi et al. (2000 A&A 357:219) on basis of the mid-IR color excess. The sample also includes a bona-fide young brown dwarf (Cha Halpha 1), a transition --stellar/sub-stellar-- object (Cha Halpha 2), one previously known T Tauri star (Sz 33) and three ISOCAM sources with no mid-IR excess. The spectra of the mid-IR color excess sources are relatively flat and featureless in this wavelength range. Both atomic and molecular lines (when in absorption) are partially veiled suggesting the presence of continuum emission from circumstellar dust. In addition some of the sources show Paschen and Brackett lines in emission. We apply the 2 micron water vapor index defined by Wilking et al. (1999 AJ 117:469) to estimate spectral types. These stars have spectral types M0--8. We use Persi et al.'s stellar lumin...

  16. Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai; Geller, Aaron M; Xin, Yu; Hu, Yi; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André

    2016-01-28

    Stars in clusters are thought to form in a single burst from a common progenitor cloud of molecular gas. However, massive, old 'globular' clusters--those with ages greater than ten billion years and masses several hundred thousand times that of the Sun--often harbour multiple stellar populations, indicating that more than one star-forming event occurred during their lifetimes. Colliding stellar winds from late-stage, asymptotic-giant-branch stars are often suggested to be triggers of second-generation star formation. For this to occur, the initial cluster masses need to be greater than a few million solar masses. Here we report observations of three massive relatively young star clusters (1-2 billion years old) in the Magellanic Clouds that show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era. We show that such clusters could have accreted sufficient gas to form new stars if they had orbited in their host galaxies' gaseous disks throughout the period between their initial formation and the more recent bursts of star formation. This process may eventually give rise to the ubiquitous multiple stellar populations in globular clusters.

  17. The peculiar dipping events in the disk-bearing young-stellar object EPIC 204278916

    CERN Document Server

    Scaringi, S; Barenfeld, S A; Groot, P J; Isella, A; Kenworthy, M A; Knigge, C; Maccarone, T J; Ricci, L; Ansdell, M

    2016-01-01

    EPIC 204278916 has been serendipitously discovered from its K2 light curve which displays irregular dimmings of up to 65% for ~25 consecutive days out of 78.8 days of observations. For the remaining duration of the observations, the variability is highly periodic and attributed to stellar rotation. The star is a young, low-mass (M-type) pre-main-sequence star with clear evidence of a resolved tilted disk from ALMA observations. We examine the K2 light curve in detail and hypothesise that the irregular dimmings are caused by either a warped inner-disk edge or transiting cometary-like objects in either circular or eccentric orbits. The explanations discussed here are particularly relevant for other recently discovered young objects with similar absorption dips.

  18. Lower limit for differential rotation in members of young loose stellar associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Lanza, A. F.; Messina, S.; Spada, F.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Surface differential rotation (SDR) plays a key role in dynamo models and determines a lower limit on the accuracy of stellar rotation period measurements. SDR estimates are therefore essential to constrain theoretical models and infer realistic rotation period uncertainties. Aims: We measure a lower limit to SDR in a sample of solar-like stars belonging to young loose stellar associations with the aim of investigating how SDR depends on global stellar parameters in the age range (4 - 95 Myr). Methods: The rotation period of a solar-like star can be recovered by analyzing the flux modulation caused by dark spots and stellar rotation. The SDR and the latitude migration of dark-spots induce a modulation of the detected rotation period. We employed long-term photometry to measure the amplitude of such a modulation and to compute the quantity ΔΩphot = 2π/Pmin - 2π/Pmax that is a lower limit to SDR. Results: We find that ΔΩphot increases with the stellar effective temperature and with the global convective turn-over timescale τc, which is the characteristic time for the rise of a convective element through the stellar convection zone. We find that ΔΩphot is proportional to Teff2.18±0.65 in stars recently settled on the ZAMS. This power law is less steep than those found by previous authors, but closest to recent theoretical models. We investigate how ΔΩphot changes in time in a ~1 M⊙ star. We find that ΔΩphot steeply increases between 4 and 30 Myr and that it is almost constant between 30 and 95 Myr. We find also that the relative shear increases with the Rossby number Ro. Although our results are qualitatively in agreement with hydrodynamical mean-field models, our measurements are systematically higher than the values predicted by these models. The discrepancy between ΔΩphot measurements and theoretical models is particularly large in stars with periods between 0.7 and 2 d. Such a discrepancy, together with the anomalous SDR measured by

  19. Unveiling the near-infrared structure of the massive-young stellar object NGC3603 IRS 9A with sparse aperture masking and spectroastrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J; Tuthill, P; Alberdi, A; Schödel, R; Lacour, S

    2014-01-01

    According to the current theories, massive stars gather mass during their initial phases via accreting disk-like structures. However, those disks have remained elusive for massive young objects. This is mainly because of the observational challenges due to the large distances at which they are located, their rareness, and the high interstellar extinction. Therefore, the study of each young massive stellar object matters. NGC 3603 IRS 9A is a young massive stellar object still surrounded by an envelope of molecular gas. Previous mid-infrared observations with long-baseline interferometry provided evidence for a disk of 50 mas diameter at its core. This work studies the IRS 9A physics and morphology at near-infrared wavelengths. This study analyzed new sparse aperture masking data taken with NACO/VLT at K s and Lp filters in addition to archive CRIRES spectra of the H2 and Br_gamma lines. The calibrated visibilities trends of the Ks and Lp bands suggest the presence of a partially resolved compact object of 30 ...

  20. A multiwavelength investigation of the HII region S311: Young stellar population and star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Ram Kesh; Sharma, Saurabh; Ojha, D K; Samal, M R; Mallick, K K; Jose, J; Ogura, K; Richichi, Andrea; Irawati, Puji; Kobayashi, N; Eswaraiah, C

    2016-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength investigation of the young stellar population and star formation activities around the \\hii region Sharpless 311. Using our deep near-infrared observations and archival {\\it Spitzer}-IRAC observations, we have detected a total of 125 young stellar objects (YSOs) in an area of $\\sim$86 arcmin$^2$. The YSOs sample include 8 Class I and 117 Class II candidate YSOs. The mass completeness of the identified YSOs sample is estimated to be 1.0 \\msun. The ages and masses of the majority of the candidate YSOs are estimated to be in the range of $\\sim$0.1$-$5 Myr and $\\sim$0.3$-$6 \\msun, respectively. The 8 \\mum image of S311 displays an approximately spherical cavity around the ionizing source which is possibly created due to the expansion of the \\hii region. The spatial distribution of the candidate YSOs reveals that a significant number of them are distributed systematically along the 8 $\\mu$m emission with a majority clustered around the eastern border of the \\hii region. Four clumps/com...

  1. Spitzer Observations of Long Term Infrared Variability Among Young Stellar Objects in Chamaeleon I

    CERN Document Server

    Flaherty, Kevin M; Muzerolle, James; Balog, Zoltan; Herbst, William; Megeath, S Thomas; Furlan, Elise; Gutermuth, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Infrared variability is common among young stellar objects, with surveys finding daily to weekly fluctuations of a few tenths of a magnitude. Space-based observations can produce highly sampled infrared light curves, but are often limited to total baselines of about a month due to the orientation of the spacecraft. Here we present observations of the Chameleon I cluster whose low declination makes it observable by the Spitzer space telescope over a 200 day period. We observe 30 young stellar objects with a daily cadence to better sample variability on timescales of months. We find such variability is common, occurring in ~80% of the detected cluster members. The change in [3.6]-[4.5] color over 200 days for many of the sources falls between that expected for extinction and fluctuations in disk emission. With our high cadence and long baseline we can derive power spectral density curves covering two orders of magnitude in frequency and find significant power at low frequencies, up to the boundaries of our 200 ...

  2. The SEEDS High Contrast Imaging Survey of Exoplanets around Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Uyama, Taichi; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Mayama, Satoshi; Akiyama, Eiji; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph C; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Goto, Miwa; Grady, Carol A; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; Mcelwain, Michael W; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Yasuhiro H; Takami, Michihiro; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Wisniewski, John; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2016-01-01

    We present high-contrast observations of 68 young stellar objects (YSOs) taken as part of the SEEDS survey on the Subaru telescope. Our targets are very young ($<$10 Myr) stars, which often harbor protoplanetary disks where planets may be forming. We achieve typical contransts of $\\sim$$10^{-4}$-$10^{-5.5}$ at the angular distance of 1$\\arcsec$ from the central star, corresponding to typical mass sensitivities (assuming hot-start evolutionary models) of $\\sim$10 ${\\rm M_J}$ at 70 AU and $\\sim$6 ${\\rm M_J}$ at 140 AU. We have detected a stellar companion to HIP 79462 and confirmed the substellar objects GQ Lup b and ROXs 42B b. An additional six companion candidates await follow-up observations to check for common proper-motion. Our SEEDS YSO observations prove the population of planets and brown dwarfs at the very youngest ages, these may be compared to the results of surveys targeting somewhat older stars. We will present a detailed statistical analysis of our sample and its implications for giant planet ...

  3. Young stellar population and ongoing star formation in the HII complex Sh2-252

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Jessy; Samal, M R; Ojha, D K; Ogura, K; Kim, J S; Kobayashi, N; Goyal, A; Chauhan, N; Eswaraiah, C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an extensive survey of the star forming complex Sh2-252 has been undertaken with an aim to explore its hidden young stellar population as well as to understand the structure and star formation history. This complex is composed of five embedded clusters associated with the sub-regions A, C, E, NGC 2175s and Teu 136. Using 2MASS-NIR and Spitzer-IRAC, MIPS photometry we identified 577 young stellar objects (YSOs), of which, 163 are Class I, 400 are Class II and 14 are transition disk YSOs. Spatial distribution of the candidate YSOs shows that they are mostly clustered around the sub-regions in the western half of the complex, suggesting enhanced star formation activity towards its west. Using the spectral energy distribution and optical colour-magnitude diagram based age analyses, we derived probable evolutionary status of the sub-regions of Sh2-252. Our analysis shows that the region A is the youngest (~ 0.5 Myr), the regions B, C and E are of similar evolutionary stage (~ 1-2 Myr) and the cluster...

  4. STAR FORMATION AND YOUNG STELLAR CONTENT IN THE W3 GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Ingraham, Alana [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Martin, Peter G. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Polychroni, Danae [INAF-IFSI, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Moore, Toby J. T. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-10

    In this work, we have carried out an in-depth analysis of the young stellar content in the W3 giant molecular cloud (GMC). The young stellar object (YSO) population was identified and classified in the Infrared Array Camera/Multiband Imaging Photometer color-magnitude space according to the 'Class' scheme and compared to other classifications based on intrinsic properties. Class 0/I and II candidates were also compared to low-/intermediate-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars selected through their colors and magnitudes in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. We find that a reliable color/magnitude selection of low-mass PMS stars in the infrared requires prior knowledge of the protostar population, while intermediate-mass objects can be more reliably identified. By means of the minimum spanning tree algorithm and our YSO spatial distribution and age maps, we investigated the YSO groups and the star formation history in W3. We find signatures of clustered and distributed star formation in both triggered and quiescent environments. The central/western parts of the GMC are dominated by large-scale turbulence likely powered by isolated bursts of star formation that triggered secondary star formation events. Star formation in the eastern high-density layer (HDL) also shows signs of quiescent and triggered stellar activity, as well as extended periods of star formation. While our findings support triggering as a key factor for inducing and enhancing some of the major star-forming activity in the HDL (e.g., W3 Main/W3(OH)), we argue that some degree of quiescent or spontaneous star formation is required to explain the observed YSO population. Our results also support previous studies claiming a spontaneous origin for the isolated massive star(s) powering KR 140.

  5. Disks and Outflows in CO Rovibrational Emission from Embedded, Low-Mass Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Herczeg, Gregory J; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Pontoppidan, Klaus M

    2011-01-01

    Young circumstellar disks that are still embedded in dense molecular envelopes may differ from their older counterparts, but are historically difficult to study because emission from a disk can be confused with envelope or outflow emission. CO fundamental emission is a potentially powerful probe of the disk/wind structure within a few AU of young protostars. In this paper, we present high spectral (R=90,000) and spatial (0.3") resolution VLT/CRIRES M-band spectra of 18 low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) with dense envelopes in nearby star-froming regions to explore the utility of CO fundamental 4.6 micron emission as a probe of very young disks. CO fundamental emission is detected from 14 of the YSOs in our sample. The emission line profiles show a range of strengths and shapes, but can generally be classified into a broad, warm component and a narrow, cool component. The broad CO emission is detected more frequently from YSOs with bolometric luminosities of 15 Lsun, and as with CO emission from CTTSs is a...

  6. IN-SYNC. IV. The Young Stellar Population in the Orion A Molecular Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rio, Nicola; Tan, Jonathan C.; Covey, Kevin R.; Cottaar, Michiel; Foster, Jonathan B.; Cullen, Nicholas C.; Tobin, John J.; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Meyer, Michael R.; Nidever, David L.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Flaherty, Kevin M.; Majewski, Steve; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Zasowski, Gail; Pan, Kaike

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey APOGEE INfrared Spectroscopy of Young Nebulous Clusters program (IN-SYNC) survey of the Orion A molecular cloud. This survey obtained high-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy of about 2700 young pre-main-sequence stars on a ˜ 6^\\circ field of view. We have measured accurate stellar parameters ({T}{{eff}}, {log}g, v{sin}i) and extinctions and placed the sources in the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram (HRD). We have also extracted radial velocities for the kinematic characterization of the population. We compare our measurements with literature results to assess the performance and accuracy of the survey. Source extinction shows evidence for dust grains that are larger than those in the diffuse interstellar medium: we estimate an average RV = 5.5 in the region. Importantly, we find a clear correlation between HRD inferred ages and spectroscopic surface-gravity-inferred ages and between extinction and disk presence; this strongly suggests a real spread of ages larger than a few Myr. Focusing on the young population around NGC 1980/ι Ori, which has previously been suggested to be a separate, foreground, older cluster, we confirm its older (˜5 Myr) age and low AV, but considering that its radial velocity distribution is indistinguishable from Orion A’s population, we suggest that NGC 1980 is part of Orion A’s star formation activity. Based on their stellar parameters and kinematic properties, we identify 383 new candidate members of Orion A, most of which are diskless sources in areas of the region poorly studied by previous works.

  7. Young Stellar Population of the Bright-Rimmed Clouds BRC 5, BRC 7 and BRC 39

    CERN Document Server

    Panwar, Neelam; Pandey, A K; Samal, M R; Ogura, K; Ojha, D K; Jose, J; Bhatt, B C

    2014-01-01

    Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs), illuminated and shaped by nearby OB stars, are potential sites of recent/ongoing star formation. Here we present an optical and infrared photometric study of three BRCs: BRC 5, BRC 7 and BRC 39 to obtain a census of the young stellar population, thereby inferring the star formation scenario, in these regions. In each BRC, the Class I sources are found to be located mostly near the bright rim or inside the cloud, whereas the Class II sources are preferentially outside, with younger sources closer to the rim. This provides strong support to sequential star formation triggered by radiation driven implosion due to the UV radiation. Moreover, each BRC contains a small group of young stars being revealed at its head, as the next-generation stars. In particular, the young stars at the heads of BRC 5 and BRC 7 are found to be intermediate/high mass stars, which, under proper conditions, may themselves trigger further star birth, thereby propagating star formation out to long distances.

  8. Star Formation in the vicinity of Nuclear Black Holes: Young Stellar Objects close to Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, B; Eckart, A; Zwart, S Portegies; Sabha, N; Borkar, A; Moultaka, J; Mužić, K; Moser, L

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that the strong gravitational field of a super-massive black hole disrupts an adjacent molecular cloud preventing classical star formation in the deep potential well of the black hole. Yet, young stars have been observed across the entire nuclear star cluster of the Milky Way including the region close ($<$0.5~pc) to the central black hole, Sgr A*. Here, we focus particularly on small groups of young stars, such as IRS 13N located 0.1 pc away from Sgr A*, which is suggested to contain about five embedded massive young stellar objects ($<$1 Myr). We perform three dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to follow the evolution of molecular clumps orbiting about a $4\\times10^6~M_{\\odot}$ black hole, to constrain the formation and the physical conditions of such groups. The molecular clumps in our models assumed to be isothermal containing 100 $M_{\\odot}$ in $<$0.2 pc radius. Such molecular clumps exist in the circumnuclear disk of the Galaxy. In our highly eccentrically orbiting clump...

  9. Mapping the Outer Edge of the Young Stellar Cluster in the Galactic Center

    CERN Document Server

    Støstad, Morten N; Murray, Norm; Lu, Jessica R; Yelda, Sylvana; Ghez, Andrea M

    2015-01-01

    We present new near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the outer edges of the young stellar cluster around the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center. The observations show a break in the surface-density profile of young stars at approximately 13 arcsec (0.52 pc). These observations spectroscopically confirm previous suggestions of a break based on photometry. Using Gemini North's Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) we are able to detect and separate early- and late-type stars with a 75% completeness at Ks = 15.5. We sample a region with radii between 7" to 23" (0.28 pc to 0.92 pc) from Sgr A*, and present new spectral classifications of 144 stars brighter than Ks = 15.5, where 140 stars are late-type (> 1 Gyr) and only four stars are early-type (young, 4-6 Myr). A broken power-law fit of the early-type surface-density matches well with our data and previously published values. The projected surface-density of late-type stars is also measured and found to be consistent with previous r...

  10. Molecular gas and a new young stellar cluster in the far outer Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Joao L; Palmeirim, Pedro M; Gomes, Joana I; Martins, Andre M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the star-formation ocurring in the region towards IRAS07527-3446 in the molecular cloud [MAB97]250.63-3.63, in the far outer Galaxy. We report the discovery of a new young stellar cluster, and describe its properties and those of its parent molecular cloud. Near-infrared JHKS images were obtained with VLT/ISAAC, and millimetre line CO spectra were obtained with the SEST telescope. VLA archive date were also used. The cloud and cluster are located at a distance of 10.3 kpc and a Galactocentric distance of 15.4 kpc, in the far outer Galaxy. Morphologically, IRAS 07527-3446 appears as a young embedded cluster of a few hundred stars seen towards the position of the IRAS source, extending for about 2-4 pc and exhibiting sub-clustering. The cluster contains low and intermediate-mass young reddened stars, a large fraction having cleared the inner regions of their circumstellar discs responsible for (H-Ks) colour excess. The observations are compatible with a < 5 Myr cluster with variable spatial ex...

  11. Young stellar population of bright-rimmed clouds BRC 5, BRC 7 and BRC 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Neelam; Chen, W. P.; Pandey, A. K.; Samal, M. R.; Ogura, K.; Ojha, D. K.; Jose, J.; Bhatt, B. C.

    2014-09-01

    Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs), illuminated and shaped by nearby OB stars, are potential sites of recent/ongoing star formation. Here we present an optical and infrared photometric study of three BRCs: BRC 5, BRC 7 and BRC 39 to obtain a census of the young stellar population, thereby inferring the star formation scenario, in these regions. In each BRC, the Class I sources are found to be located mostly near the bright rim or inside the cloud, whereas the Class II sources are preferentially outside, with younger sources closer to the rim. This provides strong support to sequential star formation triggered by radiation-driven implosion due to the ultraviolet radiation. Moreover, each BRC contains a small group of young stars being revealed at its head, as the next-generation stars. In particular, the young stars at the heads of BRC 5 and BRC 7 are found to be intermediate-/high-mass stars, which, under proper conditions, may themselves trigger further star birth, thereby propagating star formation out to long distances.

  12. The Structure of the Young Star Cluster NGC 6231. I. Stellar Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Michael A.; Medina, Nicolás; Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Gromadzki, Mariusz; Borissova, Jordanka; Kurtev, Radostin

    2017-09-01

    NGC 6231 is a young cluster (age ˜2-7 Myr) dominating the Sco OB1 association (distance ˜1.59 kpc) with ˜100 O and B stars and a large pre-main-sequence stellar population. We combine a reanalysis of archival Chandra X-ray data with multiepoch near-infrared (NIR) photometry from the VISTA Variables in the Vía Lactéa (VVV) survey and published optical catalogs to obtain a catalog of 2148 probable cluster members. This catalog is 70% larger than previous censuses of probable cluster members in NGC 6231. It includes many low-mass stars detected in the NIR but not in the optical and some B stars without previously noted X-ray counterparts. In addition, we identify 295 NIR variables, about half of which are expected to be pre-main-sequence stars. With the more complete sample, we estimate a total population in the Chandra field of 5700-7500 cluster members down to 0.08 {M}⊙ (assuming a universal initial mass function) with a completeness limit at 0.5 {M}⊙ . A decrease in stellar X-ray luminosities is noted relative to other younger clusters. However, within the cluster, there is little variation in the distribution of X-ray luminosities for ages less than 5 Myr. The X-ray spectral hardness for B stars may be useful for distinguishing between early-B stars with X-rays generated in stellar winds and B-star systems with X-rays from a pre-main-sequence companion (>35% of B stars). A small fraction of catalog members have unusually high X-ray median energies or reddened NIR colors, which might be explained by absorption from thick or edge-on disks or being background field stars.

  13. 3D Gray Radiative Properties of Accretion Shocks in Young Stellar Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibgui L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of the contribution of radiation to the structure and dynamics of accretion shocks on Young Stellar Objects. Solving the 3D RTE (radiative transfer equation under our “gray LTE approach”, i.e., using appropriate mean opacities computed in local thermodynamic equilibrium, we post-process the 3D MHD (magnetohydrodynamic structure of an accretion stream impacting the stellar chromosphere. We find a radiation flux of ten orders of magnitude larger than the accreting energy rate, which is due to a large overestimation of the radiative cooling. A gray LTE radiative transfer approximation is therefore not consistent with the given MHD structure of the shock. Further investigations are required to clarify the role of radiation, by relaxing both the gray and LTE approximations in RHD (radiation hydrodynamics simulations. Post-processing the obtained structures through the resolution of the non-LTE monochromatic RTE will provide reference radiation quantities against which RHD approximate solutions will be compared.

  14. X-Shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects - VI - HI line decrements

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniucci, S; Giannini, T; Rigliaco, E; Alcalá, J M; Natta, A; Stelzer, B

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen recombination emission lines commonly observed in accreting young stellar objects represent a powerful tracer for the gas conditions in the circumstellar structures. Here we perform a study of the HI decrements and line profiles, from the Balmer and Paschen lines detected in the X-Shooter spectra of a homogeneous sample of 36 T Tauri stars in Lupus, the accretion and stellar properties of which were already derived in a previous work. We aim to obtain information on the gas physical conditions to derive a consistent picture of the HI emission mechanisms in pre-main sequence low-mass stars. We have empirically classified the sources based on their HI line profiles and decrements. We identified four Balmer decrement types (classified as 1, 2, 3, and 4) and three Paschen decrement types (A, B, and C), characterised by different shapes. We first discussed the connection between the decrement types and the source properties and then compared the observed decrements with predictions from recently published...

  15. Evolutionary Stages and Disk Properties of Young Stellar Objects in the Perseus Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Fang, Min; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Yinghe; Chang, Ruixiang; Jiang, Xuejian; Liu, Xiao-Wei; Luo, A-Li; Ma, Hongjun; Shao, Zhengyi; Wang, Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the evolutionary stages and disk properties of 211 Young stellar objects (YSOs) across the Perseus cloud by modeling the broadband optical to mid-infrared (IR) spectral energy distribution (SED). By exploring the relationships among the turnoff wave bands lambda_turnoff (longward of which significant IR excesses above the stellar photosphere are observed), the excess spectral index alpha_excess at lambda = 5.8 microns, whereas the median fractional dust luminosities L_dust/L_star tend to decrease with lambda_turnoff. This points to an inside-out disk clearing of small dust grains. Moreover, a positive correlation between alpha_excess and R_in was found at alpha_excess > ~0 and R_in > ~10 $\\times$ the dust sublimation radius R_sub, irrespective of lambda_turnoff, L_dust/L_star and disk flaring. This suggests that the outer disk flaring either does not evolve synchronously with the inside-out disk clearing or has little influence on alpha_excess shortward of 24 microns. About 23% of our YSO disk...

  16. Core dissolution and the dynamics of massive stars in young stellar clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnell, I A

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the dynamical effects of rapid gas expulsion from the core of a young stellar cluster. The aims of this study are to determine 1) whether a mass-segregated core survives the gas expulsion and 2) the probable location of any massive stars that have escaped from the core. Feedback from massive stars is expected to remove the gas from the core of the cluster first, as that is where most massive stars are located. We find that gas expulsion has little effect on the core for a core star formation efficiency, of greater than 50%. For lower values of star formation efficiency down to 20%, a reduced core survives containing the majority of the massive stars while some of them are dispersed into the rest of the cluster. In fact we find that ejected stars migrate from radial to tangential orbits due to stellar encounters once they leave the core. Thus, the location of massive stars outside of the core does not exclude their forming in the dense cluster core. Few massive stars are expected to remain in th...

  17. Dusty supernovae running the thermodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Martínez-González, Sergio [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Palouš, Jan; Wünsch, Richard, E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cmt@ll.iac.es [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II 1401, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-12-01

    Following the observational and theoretical evidence that points at core-collapse supernovae (SNe) as major producers of dust, here we calculate the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters under the assumption of gas and dust radiative cooling. The large SN rate expected in massive clusters allows for a continuous replenishment of dust immersed in the high temperature thermalized reinserted matter and warrants a stationary presence of dust within the cluster volume during the type II SN era. We first show that such a balance determines the range of the dust-to-gas-mass ratio, and thus the dust cooling law. We then search for the critical line that separates stationary cluster winds from the bimodal cases in the cluster mechanical luminosity (or cluster mass) versus cluster size parameter space. In the latter, strong radiative cooling reduces considerably the cluster wind mechanical energy output and affects particularly the cluster central regions, leading to frequent thermal instabilities that diminish the pressure and inhibit the exit of the reinserted matter. Instead, matter accumulates there and is expected to eventually lead to gravitational instabilities and to further stellar formation with the matter reinserted by former massive stars. The main outcome of the calculations is that the critical line is almost two orders of magnitude or more, depending on the assumed value of V {sub A∞}, lower than when only gas radiative cooling is applied. And thus, many massive clusters are predicted to enter the bimodal regime.

  18. Spin Evolution of Accreting Young Stars. II. Effect of Accretion-Powered Stellar Winds

    CERN Document Server

    Matt, Sean P; Greene, Thomas P; Pudritz, Ralph E

    2011-01-01

    We present a model for the rotational evolution of a young, solar-mass star interacting magnetically with an accretion disk. As in a previous paper (Paper I), the model includes changes in the star's mass and radius as it descends the Hayashi track, a decreasing accretion rate, and a prescription for the angular momentum transfer between the star and disk. Paper I concluded that, for the relatively strong magnetic coupling expected in real systems, additional processes are necessary to explain the existence of slowly rotating pre-main-sequence stars. In the present paper, we extend the stellar spin model to include the effect of a spin-down torque that arises from an accretion-powered stellar wind. For a range of magnetic field strengths, accretion rates, initial spin rates, and mass outflow rates, the modeled stars exhibit rotation periods within the range of 1--10 days in the age range of 1--3 Myr. This range coincides with the bulk of the observed rotation periods, with the slow rotators corresponding to s...

  19. Tidal Truncation of Inclined Circumstellar and Circumbinary Discs in Young Stellar Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that circumstellar and circumbinary discs in young stellar binaries are often misaligned with respect to the binary orbital plane. We analyze the tidal truncation of such misaligned discs due to torques applied to the disc at the Lindblad resonances from the tidal forcings of the binary. We consider eccentric binaries with arbitrary binary-disc inclination angles. We determine the dependence of the tidal forcing strengths on the binary parameters and show that they are complicated non-monotonic functions of eccentricity and inclination. We adopt a truncation criterion determined by the balance between resonant torque and viscous torque, and use it to calculate the outer radii of circumstellar discs and the inner radii of circumbinary discs. Misaligned circumstellar discs have systematically larger outer radii than aligned discs, and are likely to fill their Roche lobes if inclined by more than $45^\\circ - 90^\\circ$, depending on the binary mass ratio and disc viscosity parameter...

  20. A Search for H2CO 6cm Emission toward Young Stellar Objects III: VLA Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Araya, E D; Goss, W M; Linz, H; Kurtz, S; Olmi, L

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of our third survey for formaldehyde (H2CO) 6cm maser emission in the Galaxy. Using the Very Large Array, we detected two new H2CO maser sources (G23.01-0.41 and G25.83-0.18), thus increasing the sample of known H2CO maser regions in the Galaxy to seven. We review the characteristics of the G23.01-0.41 and G25.83-0.18 star forming regions. The H2CO masers in G23.01-0.41 and G25.83-0.18 share several properties with the other known H2CO masers, in particular, emission from rich maser environments and close proximity to very young massive stellar objects.

  1. Dusty supernovae running the thermodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; González, Sergio Martínez; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Palouš, Jan; Wünsch, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Following the observational and theoretical evidence that points at core collapse supernovae as major producers of dust, here we calculate the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters under the assumption of gas and dust radiative cooling. The large supernova rate expected in massive clusters allows for a continuous replenishment of dust immersed in the high temperature thermalized reinserted matter and warrants a stationary presence of dust within the cluster volume during the type II supernova era. We first show that such a balance determines the range of dust to gas mass ratio and this the dust cooling law. We then search for the critical line that separates stationary cluster winds from the bimodal cases in the cluster mechanical luminosity (or cluster mass) vs cluster size parameter space. In the latter, strong radiative cooling reduces considerably the cluster wind mechanical energy output and affects particularly the cluster central regions, leading to freq...

  2. A formation scenario of young stellar groups in the region of the Scorpio Centaurus OB association

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, V G; De la Reza, R; Bazzanella, B

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the role played by Lower Centaurus Crux (LCC) and Upper Centaurus Lupus (UCL), both subcomponents of the Scorpio Centaurus OB association (Sco-Cen), in the formation of the groups beta Pictoris, TW Hydrae and the eta Chamaeleontis cluster. The dynamical evolution of all the stellar groups involved and of the bubbles and shells blown by LCC and UCL are calculated and followed from the past to the present. This leads to a formation scenario in which (1) the groups beta Pictoris, TW Hydrae were formed in the wake of the shells created by LCC and UCL, (2) the young cluster eta Chamaeleontis was born as a consequence of the collision of the shells of LCC and UCL, and (3) the formation of Upper Scorpius (US), the other main subcomponent of the Sco-Cen association, may have been started by the same process that created eta Chamaeleontis.

  3. MHD simulations of radiative jets from young stellar objects: Halpha emission

    CERN Document Server

    De Colle, F; Colle, Fabio De; Raga, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    We study the H$\\alpha$ emission from jets using two-dimensional axisymmetrical simulations. We compare the emission obtained from hydrodynamic (HD) simulations with that obtained from magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. The magnetic field is supposed to be present in the jet only, and with a toroidal configuration. The simulations have time-dependent ejection velocities and different intensities for the initial magnetic field. The results show an increase in the H$\\alpha$ emission along the jet for the magnetized cases with respect to the HD case. The increase in the emission is due to a better collimation of the jet in the MHD case, and to a small increase in the shock velocity. These results could have important implications for the interpretation of the observations of jets from young stellar objects.

  4. Spherically-symmetric Accretion onto a Black Hole at the Center of a Young Stellar Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Silich, Sergiy; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto

    2008-01-01

    We present a self-consistent, bimodal stationary solution for spherically symmetric flows driven by young massive stellar clusters with a central supermassive black hole. We demonstrate that the hydrodynamic regime of the flow depends on the location of the cluster in the 3D (star cluster mechanical luminosity - BH mass - star cluster radius) parameter space. We show that a threshold mechanical luminosity (L_crit) separates clusters which evolve in the BH dominated regime frome those whose internal structure is strongly affected by the radiative cooling. In the first case(below the threshold energy) gravity of the BH separates the flow into two distinct zones: the inner accretion zone and the outer zone where the star cluster wind is formed. In the second case (above the critical luminosity), catastrophic cooling sets in inside the cluster. In this case the injected plasma becomes thermally unstable that inhibits a complete stationary solution. We compared the calculated accretion rates and the BH luminositie...

  5. Complex organic molecules in organic-poor massive young stellar objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayolle, Edith C.; Öberg, Karin I.; Garrod, Robin T.;

    2015-01-01

    aim to use complex molecule abundances toward a chemically less explored class of MYSOs with weak hot organic emission lines to constrain the impact of hot molecular cores and initial ice conditions on the chemical composition toward MYSOs. Methods. We use the IRAM 30 m and the Submillimeter Array......Context. Massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) with hot cores are classic sources of complex organic molecules. The origins of these molecules in such sources, as well as the small-and large-scale differentiation between nitrogen-and oxygen-bearing complex species, are poorly understood. Aims. We...... to search for complex organic molecules over 8-16 GHz in the 1 mm atmospheric window toward three MYSOs with known ice abundances, but without luminous molecular hot cores. Results. Complex molecules are detected toward all three sources at comparable abundances with respect to CH3OH to classical hot core...

  6. Detection of water masers toward young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, A. K.; Migenes, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, N283 ESC, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Breen, S. L., E-mail: ajohanson@byu.edu [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2014-02-01

    We present results from a search for water maser emission toward N4A, N190, and N206, three regions of massive star formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Four water masers were detected; two toward N4A, and two toward N190. In the latter region, no previously known maser emission has been reported. Future studies of maser proper motion to determine the galactic dynamics of the LMC will benefit from the independent data points the new masers in N190 provide. Two of these masers are associated with previously identified massive young stellar objects (YSOs), which strongly supports the authenticity of the classification. We argue that the other two masers identify previously unknown YSOs. No masers were detected toward N206, but it does host a newly discovered 22 GHz continuum source, also associated with a massive YSO. We suggest that future surveys for water maser emission in the LMC be targeted toward the more luminous, massive YSOs.

  7. Accretion discs around young stellar objects and the proto-sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D. N. C.

    1989-01-01

    Observed IR and UV excesses have widely been interpreted as signatures for accretion disks around young stellar objects. Analyses of the observed properties of these disks are important for the investigation of star formation as well as the dynamics of the protoplanetary disk out of which the solar system was formed. Accretion-disk theories suggest that evolution of protoplanetary disks is determined by the efficiency of angular momentum transport. During the formation stages, the disk dynamics are regulated by mixing of infalling material and disk gas. In the outermost regions of the disk, self-gravity may promote the growth of nonaxisymmetric perturbations which can transfer angular momentum outwards. After infall has ceased, convectively driven turbulence can redistribute angular momentum with an evolutionary timescale of 0.1 - 1 Myr. Convection in protoplanetary disks may eventually be stabilized by surface heating as the disk material is depleted.

  8. Mass and metal ejection efficiency in disk galaxies driven by young stellar clusters of nuclear starburst

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A; Raga, A C; Colin, P

    2011-01-01

    We present results from models of galactic winds driven by energy injected by nuclear starbursts. The total energy of the starburst is provided by young central stellar clusters and parts of the galactic interstellar medium are pushed out as part of the galactic wind (in some cases the galactic wind contains an important part of the metals produced in the new generation of stars). We have performed adiabatic and radiative 3D N-Body/Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics simulations of galactic winds using the GADGET-2 code. The numerical models cover a wide range of starburst (from $\\sim10^2$ to $\\sim10^7$ M$_\\odot$) and galactic gas masses (from $\\sim6\\times10^6$ to $\\sim10^{11}$ M$_\\odot$). The concentrated central starburst regions are an efficient engine for producing of the mass and metal loss in galaxies, and also for driving the metal redistribution in the galaxies.

  9. A Search for Water Maser Emission from Brown Dwarfs and Low-luminosity Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José F.; Palau, Aina; Uscanga, Lucero; Manjarrez, Guillermo; Barrado, David

    2017-05-01

    We present a survey for water maser emission toward a sample of 44 low-luminosity young objects, comprising (proto-)brown dwarfs, first hydrostatic cores (FHCs), and other young stellar objects (YSOs) with bolometric luminosities lower than 0.4 L ⊙. Water maser emission is a good tracer of energetic processes, such as mass-loss and/or accretion, and is a useful tool to study these processes with very high angular resolution. This type of emission has been confirmed in objects with L bol ≳ 1 L ⊙. Objects with lower luminosities also undergo mass-loss and accretion, and thus, are prospective sites of maser emission. Our sensitive single-dish observations provided a single detection when pointing toward the FHC L1448 IRS 2E. However, follow-up interferometric observations showed water maser emission associated with the nearby YSO L1448 IRS 2 (a Class 0 protostar of L bol ≃ 3.6-5.3 L ⊙) and did not find any emission toward L1448 IRS 2E. The upper limits for water maser emission determined by our observations are one order of magnitude lower than expected from the correlation between water maser luminosities and bolometric luminosities found for YSOs. This suggests that this correlation does not hold at the lower end of the (sub)stellar mass spectrum. Possible reasons are that the slope of this correlation is steeper at L bol ≤ 1 L ⊙ or that there is an absolute luminosity threshold below which water maser emission cannot be produced. Alternatively, if the correlation still stands at low luminosity, the detection rates of masers would be significantly lower than the values obtained in higher-luminosity Class 0 protostars.

  10. THE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT POPULATION IN THE VELA-D MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strafella, F.; Maruccia, Y.; Maiolo, B. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università del Salento, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Lorenzetti, D.; Giannini, T. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio (Italy); Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S. [INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Massi, F.; Olmi, L., E-mail: francesco.strafella@le.infn.it [INAF-Osservatorio di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-01-10

    We investigate the young stellar population in the Vela Molecular Ridge, Cloud-D, a star-forming region observed by both the Spitzer/NASA and Herschel/ESA space telescopes. The point-source, band-merged, Spitzer-IRAC catalog complemented with MIPS photometry previously obtained is used to search for candidate young stellar objects (YSOs), also including sources detected in less than four IRAC bands. Bona fide YSOs are selected by using appropriate color-color and color-magnitude criteria aimed at excluding both Galactic and extragalactic contaminants. The derived star formation rate and efficiency are compared with the same quantities characterizing other star-forming clouds. Additional photometric data, spanning from the near-IR to the submillimeter, are used to evaluate both bolometric luminosity and temperature for 33 YSOs located in a region of the cloud observed by both Spitzer and Herschel. The luminosity-temperature diagram suggests that some of these sources are representative of Class 0 objects with bolometric temperatures below 70 K and luminosities of the order of the solar luminosity. Far-IR observations from the Herschel/Hi-GAL key project for a survey of the Galactic plane are also used to obtain a band-merged photometric catalog of Herschel sources intended to independently search for protostars. We find 122 Herschel cores located on the molecular cloud, 30 of which are protostellar and 92 of which are starless. The global protostellar luminosity function is obtained by merging the Spitzer and Herschel protostars. Considering that 10 protostars are found in both the Spitzer and Herschel lists, it follows that in the investigated region we find 53 protostars and that the Spitzer-selected protostars account for approximately two-thirds of the total.

  11. Studying the molecular ambient towards the young stellar object EGO G35.04-0.47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paron, Sergio; Ortega, Martín; Astort, Ana; Rubio, Mónica; Fariña, Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    We are performing a systematic study of the interstellar medium around extended green objects (EGOs), likely massive young stellar objects driving outflows. EGO G35.04-0.47 is located towards a dark cloud at the north-western edge of an H II region. Recently, H2 jets were discovered towards this source, mainly towards its south-west, where the H2 1-0 S(1) emission peaks. Therefore, the source was catalogued as the molecular hydrogen emission-line object MHO 2429. In order to study the molecular ambient towards this star-forming site, we observed a region around the aforementioned EGO using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in the 12CO J = 3-2, 13CO J = 3-2, HCO+ J = 4-3, and CS J = 7-6 lines with an angular and spectral resolution of 22'' and 0.11 km s-1, respectively. The observations revealed a molecular clump where the EGO is embedded at vLSR ˜ 51 km s-1, in coincidence with the velocity of a Class I 95 GHz methanol maser previously detected. Analyzing the 12CO line we discovered high velocity molecular gas in the range from 34 to 47 km s-1, most likely a blueshifted outflow driven by the EGO. The alignment and shape of this molecular structure coincide with those of the south-west lobe of MHO 2429, mainly between 46 and 47 km s-1, confirming that we are mapping its CO counterpart. Performing a spectral energy distribution analysis of EGO G35.04-0.47, we found that its central object should be an intermediate-mass young stellar object accreting mass at a rate similar to those found in some massive YSOs. We suggest that this source can become a massive YSO.

  12. Near-IR imaging toward a puzzling young stellar object precessing jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paron, S.; Fariña, C.; Ortega, M. E.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: The study of jets that are related to stellar objects in formation is important because it enables us to understand the history of how the stars have built up their mass. Many studies currently examine jets towards low-mass young stellar objects, while equivalent studies toward massive or intermediate-mass young stellar objects are rare. In a previous study, based on 12CO J = 3-2 and public near-IR data, we found highly misaligned molecular outflows toward the infrared point source UGPS J185808.46+010041.8 (IRS) and some infrared features suggesting the existence of a precessing jet. Methods: Using near-IR data acquired with Gemini-NIRI at the JHKs broad- and narrowbands centered on the emission lines of [FeII], H2 1-0 S(1), H2 2-1 S(1), Brγ, and CO 2-0 (bh), we studied the circumstellar environment of IRS with an angular resolution between 0.̋35 and 0.̋45. Results: The emission in the JHKs broadbands shows in great detail a cone-shaped nebula extending to the north-northeast of the point source, which appears to be attached to it by a jet-like structure. In the three bands the nebula is resolved in a twisted-shaped feature composed of two arc-like features and a bow-shock-like structure seen mainly in the Ks band, which strongly suggests the presence of a precessing jet. An analysis of proper motions based on our Gemini observations and UKIDSS data additionally supports the precession scenario. We present one of the best-resolved cone-like nebula that is most likely related to a precessing jet up to date. The analysis of the observed near-IR lines shows that the H2 is collisionally excited, and the spatially coincidence of the [FeII] and H2 emissions in the closer arc-like feature suggests that this region is affected by a J shock. The second arc-like feature presents H2 emission without [FeII], which suggests a nondissociated C shock or a less energetic J shock. The H2 1-0 S(1) continuum-subtracted image reveals several knots and filaments at a larger

  13. Search for associations containing young stars (SACY). VII. New stellar and substellar candidate members in the young associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, P.; Bayo, A.; Melo, C. H. F.; Torres, C. A. O.; Sterzik, M. F.; Quast, G. R.; Montes, D.; Brahm, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The young associations offer us one of the best opportunities to study the properties of young stellar and substellar objects and to directly image planets thanks to their proximity (NOMAD) to identify companions in the field of view of known members. We collated further photometry and spectroscopy from the literature and conducted our own high-resolution spectroscopic observations for a subsample of candidate members. This complementary information allowed us to assess the efficiency of our method. Results: We identified 84 targets (45: 0.2-1.3 M⊙, 17: 0.08-0.2 M⊙, 22: <0.08 M⊙) in our analysis, ten of which have been identified from spectroscopic analysis in previous young association works. For 33 of these 84, we were able to further assess their membership using a variety of properties (X-ray emission, UV excess, Hα, lithium and K I equivalent widths, radial velocities, and CaH indices). We derive a success rate of 76-88% for this technique based on the consistency of these properties. Conclusions: Once confirmed, the targets identified in this work would significantly improve our knowledge of the lower mass end of the young associations. Additionally, these targets would make an ideal new sample for the identification and study of planets around nearby young stars. Given the predicted substellar mass of the majority of these new candidate members and their proximity, high-contrast imaging techniques would facilitate the search for new low-mass planets. Based on FEROS observations obtained during CNTAC programme CN2015B-9 and observations made with the HERMES spectrograph mounted on the 1.2 m Mercator Telescope at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Full Table 4 (Appendix E) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A13

  14. Stellar contents and star formation in the young open cluster Stock 8

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Jessy; Ojha, D K; Ogura, K; Chen, W P; Bhatt, B C; Ghosh, S K; Mito, H; Maheswar, G; Sharma, Saurabh

    2007-01-01

    We present $UBVI_c$ CCD photometry of the young open cluster Stock 8 with the aim to study the basic properties and star formation scenario in this region. The radius of the cluster is found to be $\\sim 6^{\\prime}$ ($\\sim 3.6$ pc) and the reddening within the cluster region varies from $E(B-V)=0.40$ to 0.60 mag. The cluster is located at a distance of $2.05 \\pm 0.10$ kpc. Using H$\\alpha$ slitless spectroscopy and 2MASS NIR data we identified H$\\alpha$ emission and NIR excess young stellar objects (YSOs), respectively. The colour-magnitude diagrams of these YSOs reveal that majority of these objects have ages between 1 to 5 Myr indicating a non-coeval star formation in the cluster. Massive stars in the cluster region reveal an average age of $\\le$ 2 Myr. In the cluster region ($r \\le 6^\\prime$) the slope of the mass function (MF), $\\Gamma$, in the mass range $\\sim 1.0 \\le M/M_\\odot < 13.4$ can be represented by a power law having a slope of $-1.38\\pm0.12$, which agrees well with Salpeter value (-1.35). In t...

  15. Dynamical star-disk interaction in the young stellar system V354 Mon

    CERN Document Server

    Fonseca, N N J; Bouvier, J; Favata, F; Flaccomio, E

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to characterize the mass accretion and ejection processes of the classical T Tauri star V354 Mon, a member of the young stellar cluster NGC 2264. In March 2008, photometric and spectroscopic observations of V354 Mon were obtained simultaneously with the CoRoT satellite, the 60 cm telescope at the Observat\\'orio Pico dos Dias (LNA - Brazil) equipped with a CCD camera and Johnson/Cousins BVRI filters, and the SOPHIE \\'echelle spectrograph at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS - France). The light curve of V354 Mon shows periodical minima (P = 5.26 +/- 0.50 days) that vary in depth and width at each rotational cycle. From the analysis of the photometric and spectroscopic data, it is possible to identify correlations between the emission line variability and the light-curve modulation of the young system, such as the occurrence of pronounced redshifted absorption in the H_alpha line at the epoch of minimum flux. This is evidence that during photometric minima we see the accreti...

  16. Young Stellar Objects in the Massive Star Forming Region: W49

    CERN Document Server

    Saral, Gozde; Willis, Sarah E; Koenig, Xavier P; Gutermuth, Robert A; Saygac, A Talat

    2015-01-01

    We present the initial results of our investigation of the star-forming complex W49, one of the youngest and most luminous massive star forming regions in our Galaxy. We used Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) data to investigate massive star formation with the primary objective to locate a representative set of protostars and the clusters of young stars that are forming around them. We present our source catalog with the mosaics from the IRAC data. In this study we used a combination of IRAC, MIPS, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey (UKIDSS) data to identify and classify the Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). We identified 232 Class 0/I YSOs, 907 Class II YSOs, and 74 transition disk candidate objects using color-color and color-magnitude diagrams. In addition, to understand the evolution of star formation in W49 we analysed the distribution of YSOs in the region to identify clusters using a minimal spanning tree method. The fraction of YSOs that belong to clusters with >7 memb...

  17. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION W49

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saral, G.; Hora, J. L.; Willis, S. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koenig, X. P. [Yale University, Department of Astronomy, 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Saygac, A. T., E-mail: gsaral@cfa.harvard.edu [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Astronomy and Space Sciences Department, Istanbul-Turkey (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    We present the initial results of our investigation of the star-forming complex W49, one of the youngest and most luminous massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. We used Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) data to investigate massive star formation with the primary objective of locating a representative set of protostars and the clusters of young stars that are forming around them. We present our source catalog with the mosaics from the IRAC data. In this study we used a combination of IRAC, MIPS, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and UKIRT Deep Infrared Sky Survey (UKIDSS) data to identify and classify the young stellar objects (YSOs). We identified 232 Class 0/I YSOs, 907 Class II YSOs, and 74 transition disk candidate objects using color–color and color–magnitude diagrams. In addition, to understand the evolution of star formation in W49, we analyzed the distribution of YSOs in the region to identify clusters using a minimal spanning tree method. The fraction of YSOs that belong to clusters with ≥7 members is found to be 52% for a cutoff distance of 96″, and the ratio of Class II/I objects is 2.1. We compared the W49 region to the G305 and G333 star-forming regions and concluded that W49 has the richest population, with seven subclusters of YSOs.

  18. Massive open star clusters using the VVV survey V. Young clusters with an OB stellar population

    CERN Document Server

    Alegría, S Ramírez; Chené, A -N; Bonatto, C; Kurtev, R; Amigo, P; Kuhn, M; Gromadzki, M; Carballo-Bello, J A

    2016-01-01

    The ESO public survey VISTA Variables in the V\\'ia L\\'actea (VVV) has contributed with deep multi-epoch photometry of the Galactic bulge and the adjacent part of the disk over 526 square degrees. More than a hundred cluster candidates have been reported thanks to this survey. We present the fifth article in a series of papers focused on young and massive clusters discovered in the VVV survey. In this paper, we present the physical characterization of five clusters with a spectroscopically confirmed OB-type stellar population. To characterize the clusters, we used near-infrared photometry ($J$, $H,$ and $K_S$) from the VVV survey and near-infrared $K$-band spectroscopy from ISAAC at VLT, following the methodology presented in the previous articles of the series. All clusters in our sample are very young (ages between 1-20 Myr), and their total mass are between $(1.07^{+0.40}_{-0.30})\\cdot10^2$ $M_{\\odot}$ and $(4.17^{+4.15}_{-2.08})\\cdot10^3$ $M_{\\odot}$. We observed a relation between the clusters total mass ...

  19. Nothing to Hide: An X-ray Survey for Young Stellar Objects in the Pipe Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbrich, Jan; Posselt, Bettina; Covey, Kevin R.; Lada, Charles J.

    2010-08-01

    We have previously analyzed sensitive mid-infrared observations to establish that the Pipe Nebula (PiN) has a very low star formation efficiency. That study focused on young stellar objects (YSOs) with excess infrared emission (i.e., protostars and pre-main-sequence stars with disks), however, and could have missed a population of more evolved pre-main-sequence stars or Class III objects (i.e., young stars with dissipated disks that no longer show excess infrared emission). Evolved pre-main-sequence stars are X-ray bright, so we have used ROSAT All-Sky Survey data to search for diskless pre-main-sequence stars throughout the PiN. We have also analyzed archival XMM-Newton observations of three prominent areas within the Pipe: Barnard 59 (B 59), containing a known cluster of YSOs; Barnard 68, a dense core that has yet to form stars; and the Pipe molecular ring, a high-extinction region in the bowl of the Pipe. We also characterize the X-ray properties of YSOs in B 59. The ROSAT and XMM-Newton data provide no indication of a significant population of more evolved pre-main-sequence stars within the Pipe, reinforcing our previous measurement of the Pipe's very low star formation efficiency.

  20. Nothing to hide: An X-ray survey for young stellar objects in the Pipe Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Forbrich, Jan; Covey, Kevin R; Lada, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    We have previously analyzed sensitive mid-infrared observations to establish that the Pipe Nebula has a very low star-formation efficiency. That study focused on YSOs with excess infrared emission (i.e, protostars and pre-main sequence stars with disks), however, and could have missed a population of more evolved pre-main sequence stars or Class III objects (i.e., young stars with dissipated disks that no longer show excess infrared emission). Evolved pre-main sequence stars are X-ray bright, so we have used ROSAT All-Sky Survey data to search for diskless pre-main sequence stars throughout the Pipe Nebula. We have also analyzed archival XMM-Newton observations of three prominent areas within the Pipe: Barnard 59, containing a known cluster of young stellar objects; Barnard 68, a dense core that has yet to form stars; and the Pipe molecular ring, a high-extinction region in the bowl of the Pipe. We additionally characterize the X-ray properties of YSOs in Barnard 59. The ROSAT and XMM-Newton data provide no i...

  1. IN-SYNC IV - The Young Stellar Population in the Orion A Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Da Rio, Nicola; Covey, Kevin R; Cottaar, Michiel; Foster, Jonathan B; Cullen, Nicholas C; Tobin, John; Kim, Jinyoung S; Meyer, Michael R; Nidever, David L; Stassun, Keivan G; Chojnowski, S Drew; Flaherty, Kevin M; Majewski, Steve; Skrutskie, Michael F; Zasowski, Gail; Pan, Kaike

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of the SDSS APOGEE INfrared Spectroscopy of Young Nebulous Clusters program (IN-SYNC) survey of the Orion A molecular cloud. This survey obtained high resolution near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of about 2700 young pre-main sequence stars throughout the region, acquired across five distinct fields spanning 6deg field of view (FOV). With these spectra, we have measured accurate stellar parameters (T_eff, log g, v sin i) and extinctions, and placed the sources in the Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram (HRD). We have also extracted radial velocities for the kinematic characterization of the population. We compare our measurements with literature results for a sub-sample of targets in order to assess the performances and accuracy of the survey. Source extinction shows evidence for dust grains that are larger than those in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM): we estimate an average R_V=5.5 in the region. Importantly, we find a clear correlation between HRD inferred ages and spectroscopic surface-g...

  2. A Perspective from Extinct Radionuclides on a Young Stellar Object: The Sun and Its Accretion Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphas, Nicolas; Chaussidon, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Meteorites, which are remnants of solar system formation, provide a direct glimpse into the dynamics and evolution of a young stellar object (YSO), namely our Sun. Much of our knowledge about the astrophysical context of the birth of the Sun, the chronology of planetary growth from micrometer-sized dust to terrestrial planets, and the activity of the young Sun comes from the study of extinct radionuclides such as 26Al (t1/2=0.717 Myr). Here we review how the signatures of extinct radionuclides (short-lived isotopes that were present when the solar system formed and that have now decayed below detection level) in planetary materials influence the current paradigm of solar system formation. Particular attention is given to tying meteorite measurements to remote astronomical observations of YSOs and modeling efforts. Some extinct radionuclides were inherited from the long-term chemical evolution of the Galaxy, others were injected into the solar system by a nearby supernova, and some were produced by particle irradiation from the T-Tauri Sun. The chronology inferred from extinct radionuclides reveals that dust agglomeration to form centimeter-sized particles in the inner part of the disk was very rapid (spanned several million years, planetary embryos (possibly like Mars) were formed in a few million years, and terrestrial planets (like Earth) completed their growths several tens of million years after the birth of the Sun.

  3. A perspective from extinct radionuclides on a Young Stellar Object: The Sun and its accretion disk

    CERN Document Server

    Dauphas, Nicolas; 10.1146/annurev-earth-040610-133428

    2011-01-01

    Meteorites, which are remnants of solar system formation, provide a direct glimpse into the dynamics and evolution of a young stellar object (YSO), namely our Sun. Much of our knowledge about the astrophysical context of the birth of the Sun, the chronology of planetary growth from micrometer-sized dust to terrestrial planets, and the activity of the young Sun comes from the study of extinct radionuclides such as 26Al (t1/2 = 0.717 Myr). Here we review how the signatures of extinct radionuclides (short-lived isotopes that were present when the solar system formed and that have now decayed below detection level) in planetary materials influence the current paradigm of solar system formation. Particular attention is given to tying meteorite measurements to remote astronomical observations of YSOs and modeling efforts. Some extinct radionuclides were inherited from the long-term chemical evolution of the Galaxy, others were injected into the solar system by a nearby supernova, and some were produced by particle ...

  4. Molecular gas and a new young stellar cluster in the far outer Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J. L.; Elia, D.; Palmeirim, P. M.; Gomes, J. I.; Martins, A. M.

    2009-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the star-formation ocurring in the region towards IRAS 07527-3446 in the molecular cloud [MAB97]250.63-3.63, in the far outer Galaxy. We report the discovery of a new young stellar cluster, and describe its properties and those of its parent molecular cloud. Methods: Near-infrared JHKS images were obtained with VLT/ISAAC, and millimetre line CO spectra were obtained with the SEST telescope. VLA archive date were also used. Results: The cloud and cluster are located at a distance of 10.3 kpc and a Galactocentric distance of 15.4 kpc, in the far outer Galaxy. Morphologically, IRAS 07527-3446 appears as a young embedded cluster of a few hundred stars seen towards the position of the IRAS source, extending for about 2-4 pc and exhibiting sub-clustering. The cluster contains low and intermediate-mass young reddened stars, a large fraction having cleared the inner regions of their circumstellar discs responsible for (H-K_S) colour excess. The observations are compatible with a ≤5 Myr cluster with variable spatial extinction of between A_V=5 and A_V=11. Decomposition of CO emission in clumps, reveals a clump clearly associated with the cluster position, of mass 3.3 × 103 M_⊙. Estimates of the slopes of the K_S-band luminosity function and of the star-formation efficiency yield values similar to those seen in nearby star-formation sites. These findings reinforce previous results that the distant outer Galaxy continues to be active in the production of new and rich stellar clusters, with the physical conditions required for the formation of rich clusters continuing to be met in the very distant environment of the outer Galactic disc. Based on observations collected at the ESO 8.2-m VLT-UT1 Antu telescope (program 66.C-0015A). Table 2 is only available in electonic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. X-shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects in Lupus. Atmospheric parameters, membership, and activity diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, A.; Biazzo, K.; Alcalá, J. M.; Manara, C. F.; Stelzer, B.; Covino, E.; Antoniucci, S.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: A homogeneous determination of basic stellar parameters of young stellar object (YSO) candidates is needed to confirm their pre-main sequence evolutionary stage and membership to star forming regions (SFRs), and to get reliable values of the quantities related to chromospheric activity and accretion. Methods: We used the code ROTFIT and synthetic BT-Settl spectra for the determination of the atmospheric parameters (Teff and log g), veiling (r), radial (RV), and projected rotational velocity (vsini) from X-shooter spectra of 102 YSO candidates (95 of infrared Class II and seven Class III) in the Lupus SFR. The spectral subtraction of inactive templates, rotationally broadened to match the vsini of the targets, enabled us to measure the line fluxes for several diagnostics of both chromospheric activity and accretion, such as Hα, Hβ, Ca ii, and Na i lines. Results: We have shown that 13 candidates can be rejected as Lupus members based on their discrepant RV with respect to Lupus and/or the very low log g values. At least 11 of them are background giants, two of which turned out to be lithium-rich giants. Regarding the members, we found that all Class III sources have Hα fluxes that are compatible with a pure chromospheric activity, while objects with disks lie mostly above the boundary between chromospheres and accretion. Young stellar objects with transitional disks display both high and low Hα fluxes. We found that the line fluxes per unit surface are tightly correlated with the accretion luminosity (Lacc) derived from the Balmer continuum excess. This rules out that the relationships between Lacc and line luminosities found in previous works are simply due to calibration effects. We also found that the Ca ii-IRT flux ratio, FCaII8542/FCaII8498, is always small, indicating an optically thick emission source. The latter can be identified with the accretion shock near the stellar photosphere. The Balmer decrement reaches instead, for several accretors, high

  6. X-shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects. VI. H i line decrements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Giannini, T.; Rigliaco, E.; Alcalá, J. M.; Natta, A.; Stelzer, B.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Hydrogen recombination emission lines commonly observed in accreting young stellar objects represent a powerful tracer for the gas conditions in the circumstellar structures (accretion columns, and winds or jets). Aims: Here we perform a study of the H i decrements and line profiles, from the Balmer and Paschen H i lines detected in the X-shooter spectra of a homogeneous sample of 36 T Tauri objects in Lupus, the accretion and stellar properties of which were already derived in a previous work. We aim to obtain information on the H i gas physical conditions to delineate a consistent picture of the H i emission mechanisms in pre-main sequence low-mass stars (M∗narrow symmetric profiles, and present similar Balmer and Paschen decrements (straight decrements, types 2 and A). Lines in these sources are consistent with optically thin emission from gas with hydrogen densities of order 109 cm-3 and 5000 11 cm-3). Type 1 (curved) Balmer decrements are observed only in three sub-luminous sources viewed edge-on, so we speculate that these are actually type 2 decrements that are reddened because of neglecting a residual amount of extinction in the line emission region. About 20% of the objects present type 3 Balmer decrements (bumpy), which, however, cannot be reproduced with current models. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile, under programmes 084.C-0269(A), 085.C-238(A), 086.C-0173(A), 087.C-0244(A), and 089.C-0143(A).

  7. UV-extended E-MILES stellar population models: young components in massive early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazdekis, A.; Koleva, M.; Ricciardelli, E.; Röck, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.

    2016-12-01

    We present UV-extended E-MILES stellar population synthesis models covering the spectral range λλ 1680-50 000 Å at moderately high resolution. We employ the NGSL space-based stellar library to compute spectra of single-age, single-metallicity stellar populations in the wavelength range from 1680 to 3540 Å. These models represent a significant improvement in resolution and age/metallicity coverage over previous studies based on earlier space-based libraries. These model spectra were joined with those we computed in the visible using MILES, and other empirical libraries for redder wavelengths. The models span the metallicity range -1.79≤ [M/H]≤ +0.26 and ages above 30 Myr, for a suite of initial mass function types with varying slopes. We focus on the behaviour of colours, spectra and line-strength indices in the UV range as a function of relevant stellar population parameters. Whereas some indices strengthen with increasing age and metallicity, as most metallicity indicators in the visible, other indices peak around 3 Gyr for metal-rich stellar populations, such as Mg at 2800 Å. Our models provide reasonably good fits to the integrated colours and most line strengths of the stellar clusters of the Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud. Our full spectrum fits in the UV range for a representative set of early-type galaxies (ETGs) of varying mass yield age and metallicity estimates in very good agreement with those obtained in the optical range. The comparison of UV colours and line strengths of massive ETGs with our models reveals the presence of young stellar components, with ages in the range 0.1-0.5 Gyr and mass fractions 0.1-0.5 per cent, on the top of an old stellar population.

  8. Cultural scripts surrounding young people's sexual and romantic relationships in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Robyn; Schroffel, Heidi; Findlay, Trinity; Winskell, Kate

    2016-09-01

    Guatemala has one of the world's highest teenage pregnancy rates and 92% of young people report not using contraception for first sex. We conducted narrative-based thematic analysis of a sample of narratives (n = 40; 15 male-authored, 25 female-authored) on HIV and sexuality, submitted to a 2013 scriptwriting competition by young people aged 15-19 years from Guatemala's Western Highlands. Our objective was to identify dominant cultural scripts and narratives that deviated positively from that norm with a view to informing the development of educational curricula and communication materials promoting youth sexual and reproductive health. The narratives are characterised by romantic themes and melodramatic plotlines: three in four had tragic endings. Rigid gender norms and ideologies of enduring love make female characters blind to the potential consequences of unprotected sex and vulnerable to betrayal and abandonment. Unprotected sex is the norm, with contraception and sexually transmitted infection protection mentioned rarely. In the four positively deviant narratives, female and male characters' interaction is based on mutual respect, dialogue and genuine affection. The narratives reveal opportunities for action to increase sexual health knowledge and access to services and to challenge harmful cultural scripts, potentially by leveraging the positive value attached to romantic love by authors of both sexes.

  9. Spectroscopic observations of ices around embedded young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud with AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the chemical conditions of ices around embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) in the metal-poor Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We performed near-infrared (2.5-5 micron) spectroscopic observations toward 12 massive embedded YSOs and their candidates in the LMC using the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard AKARI. We estimated the column densities of the H2O, CO2, and CO ices based on their 3.05, 4.27, and 4.67 micron absorption features, and we investigated the correlation between ice abundances and physical properties of YSOs.The ice absorption features of H2O, CO2, 13CO2, CO, CH3OH, and possibly XCN are detected in the spectra. In addition, hydrogen recombination lines and PAH emission bands are detected toward the majority of the targets. The derived typical CO2/H2O ice ratio of our samples (~0.36 +- 0.09) is greater than that of Galactic massive YSOs (~0.17 +- 0.03), while the CO/H2O ice ratio is comparable. It is shown that the CO2 ice abundance does not correlate with the ob...

  10. HOW SIGNIFICANT IS RADIATION PRESSURE IN THE DYNAMICS OF THE GAS AROUND YOUNG STELLAR CLUSTERS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo, E-mail: silich@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2013-03-01

    The impact of radiation pressure on the dynamics of the gas in the vicinity of young stellar clusters is thoroughly discussed. The radiation over the thermal/ram pressure ratio time evolution is calculated explicitly and the crucial roles of the cluster mechanical power, the strong time evolution of the ionizing photon flux, and the bolometric luminosity of the exciting cluster are stressed. It is shown that radiation has only a narrow window of opportunity to dominate the wind-driven shell dynamics. This may occur only at early stages of the bubble evolution and if the shell expands into a dusty and/or a very dense proto-cluster medium. The impact of radiation pressure on the wind-driven shell always becomes negligible after about 3 Myr. Finally, the wind-driven model results allow one to compare the model predictions with the distribution of thermal pressure derived from X-ray observations. The shape of the thermal pressure profile then allows us to distinguish between the energy and the momentum-dominated regimes of expansion and thus conclude whether radiative losses of energy or the leakage of hot gas from the bubble interior have been significant during bubble evolution.

  11. Near-Infrared Imaging Polarimetry of Young Stellar Objects in rho-Ophiuchi

    CERN Document Server

    Beckford, A F; Chrysostomou, A C; Gledhill, T M

    2008-01-01

    The results of a near-infrared (J H K LP) imaging linear polarimetry survey of 20 young stellar objects (YSOs) in rho Ophiuchi are presented. The majority of the sources are unresolved, with K-band polarizations, P_K 20 per cent are seen over their envelopes. Correlations are observed between the degree of core polarization and the evolutionary status inferred from the spectral energy distribution. K-band core polarizations >6 per cent are only observed in Class I YSOs. A 3D Monte Carlo model with oblate grains aligned with a magnetic field is used to investigate the flux distributions and polarization structures of three of the rho Oph YSOs with extended nebulae. A rho proportional to r^(-1.5) power law for the density is applied throughout the envelopes. The large-scale centrosymmetric polarization structures are due to scattering. However, the polarization structure in the bright core of the nebula appears to require dichroic extinction by aligned non-spherical dust grains. The position angle indicates a ...

  12. Circular polarimetry reveals helical magnetic fields in the young stellar object HH 135-136

    CERN Document Server

    Chrysostomou, Antonio; Hough, James H

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields are believed to have a vital role in regulating and shaping the flow of material onto and away from protostars during their initial mass accretion phase. It is becoming increasingly accepted that bipolar outflows are generated and collimated as material is driven along magnetic field lines and centrifugally accelerated off a rotating accretion disk. However, the precise role of the magnetic field is poorly understood and evidence for its shape and structure has not been forthcoming. Here we report imaging circular polarimetry in the near-infrared and Monte Carlo modelling showing that the magnetic field along the bipolar outflow of the HH 135-136 young stellar object is helical. The field retains this shape for large distances along the outflow, so the field structure can also provide the necessary magnetic pressure for collimation of the outflow. This result lends further weight to the hypothesis - central to any theory of star formation - that the outflow is an important instrument for the r...

  13. MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS MASQUERADING AS YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE CENTRAL MOLECULAR ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Morales, Esteban F. E.; Johnston, Katharine G., E-mail: koepferl@mpia.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-20

    In contrast to most other galaxies, star formation rates in the Milky Way can be estimated directly from young stellar objects (YSOs). In the central molecular zone the star formation rate calculated from the number of YSOs with 24 μm emission is up to an order of magnitude higher than the value estimated from methods based on diffuse emission (such as free-free emission). Whether this effect is real or whether it indicates problems with either or both star formation rate measures is not currently known. In this paper, we investigate whether estimates based on YSOs could be heavily contaminated by more evolved objects such as main-sequence stars. We present radiative transfer models of YSOs and of main-sequence stars in a constant ambient medium which show that the main-sequence objects can indeed mimic YSOs at 24 μm. However, we show that in some cases the main-sequence models can be marginally resolved at 24 μm, whereas the YSO models are always unresolved. Based on the fraction of resolved MIPS 24 μm sources in the sample of YSOs previously used to compute the star formation rate, we estimate the fraction of misclassified ''YSOs'' to be at least 63%, which suggests that the star formation rate previously determined from YSOs is likely to be at least a factor of three too high.

  14. Main-sequence stars masquerading as Young Stellar Objects in the central molecular zone

    CERN Document Server

    Koepferl, Christine M; Morales, Esteban F E; Johnston, Katharine G

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to most other galaxies, star-formation rates in the Milky Way can be estimated directly from Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). In the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ) the star-formation rate calculated from the number of YSOs with 24 microns emission is up to order of magnitude higher than the value estimated from methods based on diffuse emission (such as free-free emission). Whether this effect is real or whether it indicates problems with either or both star formation rate measures is not currently known. In this paper, we investigate whether estimates based on YSOs could be heavily contaminated by more evolved objects such as main-sequence stars. We present radiative transfer models of YSOs and of main-sequence stars in a constant ambient medium which show that the main-sequence objects can indeed mimic YSOs at 24 microns. However, we show that in some cases the main-sequence models can be marginally resolved at 24 microns, whereas the YSO models are always unresolved. Based on the fraction of resolve...

  15. Probing the envelopes of massive young stellar objects with diffraction limited mid-infrared imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wheelwright, H E; Oudmaijer, R D; Hoare, M G; Lumsden, S L; Fujiyoshi, T; Close, J L

    2012-01-01

    Massive stars form whilst they are still embedded in dense envelopes. As a result, the roles of rotation, mass loss and accretion in massive star formation are not well understood. This study evaluates the source of the Q-band, lambda=19.5 microns, emission of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). This allows us to determine the relative importance of rotation and outflow activity in shaping the circumstellar environments of MYSOs on 1000 AU scales. We obtained diffraction limited mid-infrared images of a sample of 20 MYSOs using the VLT/VISIR and Subaru/COMICS instruments. For these 8 m class telescopes and the sample selected, the diffraction limit, ~0.6", corresponds to approximately 1000 AU. We compare the images and the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) observed to a 2D, axis-symmetric dust radiative transfer model that reproduces VLTI/MIDI observations of the MYSO W33A. We vary the inclination, mass infall rate, and outflow opening angle to simultaneously recreate the behaviour of the sample of MYSO...

  16. Young Stellar Object Variability (YSOVAR): Long Timescale Variations in the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rebull, L M; Covey, K R; Guenther, H M; Hillenbrand, L A; Plavchan, P; Poppenhaeger, K; Stauffer, J R; Wolk, S J; Gutermuth, R; Morales-Calderon, M; Song, I; Barrado, D; Bayo, A; James, D; Hora, J L; Vrba, F J; de Oliveira, C Alves; Bouvier, J; Carey, S J; Carpenter, J M; Favata, F; Flaherty, K; Forbrich, J; Hernandez, J; McCaughrean, M J; Megeath, S T; Micela, G; Smith, H A; Terebey, S; Turner, N; Allen, L; Ardila, D; Bouy, H; Guieu, S

    2014-01-01

    The YSOVAR (Young Stellar Object VARiability) Spitzer Space Telescope observing program obtained the first extensive mid-infrared (3.6 & 4.5 um) time-series photometry of the Orion Nebula Cluster plus smaller footprints in eleven other star-forming cores (AFGL490, NGC1333, MonR2, GGD 12-15, NGC2264, L1688, Serpens Main, Serpens South, IRAS 20050+2720, IC1396A, and Ceph C). There are ~29,000 unique objects with light curves in either or both IRAC channels in the YSOVAR data set. We present the data collection and reduction for the Spitzer and ancillary data, and define the "standard sample" on which we calculate statistics, consisting of fast cadence data, with epochs about twice per day for ~40d. We also define a "standard sample of members", consisting of all the IR-selected members and X-ray selected members. We characterize the standard sample in terms of other properties, such as spectral energy distribution shape. We use three mechanisms to identify variables in the fast cadence data--the Stetson ind...

  17. Classifying the embedded young stellar population in Perseus and Taurus & the LOMASS database

    CERN Document Server

    Carney, M T; Mottram, J C; van Dishoeck, E F; Ramchandani, J; Jørgensen, J K

    2016-01-01

    Context. The classification of young stellar objects (YSOs) is typically done using the infrared spectral slope or bolometric temperature, but either can result in contamination of samples. More accurate methods to determine the evolutionary stage of YSOs will improve the reliability of statistics for the embedded YSO population and provide more robust stage lifetimes. Aims. We aim to separate the truly embedded YSOs from more evolved sources. Methods. Maps of HCO+ J=4-3 and C18O J=3-2 were observed with HARP on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) for a sample of 56 candidate YSOs in Perseus and Taurus in order to characterize emission from high (column) density gas. These are supplemented with archival dust continuum maps observed with SCUBA on the JCMT and Herschel PACS to compare the morphology of the gas and dust in the protostellar envelopes. The spatial concentration of HCO+ J=4-3 and 850 micron dust emission are used to classify the embedded nature of YSOs. Results. Approximately 30% of Class 0+I ...

  18. Spectroscopic properties of Young Stellar Objects in the Lupus Molecular Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Mortier, Annelies; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2011-01-01

    The results of an optical spectroscopic survey of a sample of young stellar objects (YSOs) and pre-main sequence (PMS) stars in the Lupus Clouds are presented. 92 objects were observed with VLT/FLAMES. All of those objects show IR excess as discovered by the Spitzer Legacy Program "From Molecular Cores to Planet-Forming Disks" (c2d). After reduction, 54 spectra with good signal-to-noise ratio are spectrally classified. Effective temperatures and luminosities are derived for these objects, and used to construct H-R diagrams for the population. The sample consists mostly of M-type stars, with 10% K-type stars. Individual ages and masses are inferred for the objects according to theoretical evolutionary models. The mean population age is found to be between 3.6 and 4.4 Myr, depending on the model, while the mean mass is found to be ~0.3 M for either model. Together with literature data, the distribution of spectral types is found to be similar to that in Chamaeleon I and IC348. The H{\\alpha} line in emission, fo...

  19. Absence of Significant Cool Disks in Young Stellar Objects Exhibiting Repetitive Optical Outbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Vorobyov, Eduard I; Kóspál, Ágnes; Rodríguez, Luis F; Dunham, Michael M; Hirano, Naomi; Henning, Thomas; Takami, Michihiro; Dong, Ruobing; Hashimoto, Jun; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Carrasco-González\\, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We report Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.3 mm high angular resolution observations towards the four EXor type outbursting young stellar objects (YSOs) VY Tau, V1118 Ori, V1143 Ori, and NY Ori. The data mostly show low dust masses $M_{dust}$ in the associated circumstellar disks. Among the sources, NY Ori possesses a relatively massive disk with $M_{dust} \\sim 9 \\times 10^{-4}$ $M_{\\odot}$. V1118 Ori has a marginal detection equivalent to $M_{dust} \\sim 6 \\times 10^{-5}$ $M_{\\odot}$. V1143 Ori has a non-detection also equivalent to $M_{dust} < 6 \\times 10^{-5}$ $M_{\\odot}$. For the nearest source VY Tau, we get a surprising non-detection which provides a stringent upper limit $M_{dust} < 6 \\times 10^{-6}$ $M_{\\odot}$. We interpret our findings as suggesting that the gas and dust reservoirs that feed the short duration, repetitive optical outbursts seen in some EXors may be limited to the small scale, innermost region of their circumstellar disks. This hot dust may have escaped our detection limits. Follow-u...

  20. Do individual Spitzer young stellar object candidates enclose multiple UKIDSS sources?

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Esteban F E

    2016-01-01

    We analyze near-infrared UKIDSS observations of a sample of 8325 objects taken from a catalog of intrinsically red sources in the Galactic plane selected in the Spitzer-GLIMPSE survey. Given the differences in angular resolution (factor >2 better in UKIDSS), our aim is to investigate whether there are multiple UKIDSS sources that might all contribute to the GLIMPSE flux, or there is only one dominant UKIDSS counterpart. We then study possible corrections to estimates of the SFR based on counts of GLIMPSE young stellar objects (YSOs). This represents an exploratory work towards the construction of a hierarchical YSO catalog. After performing PSF fitting photometry in the UKIDSS data, we implemented a technique to automatically recognize the dominant UKIDSS sources by evaluating their match with the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the associated GLIMPSE red sources. This is a generic method which could be robustly applied for matching SEDs across gaps at other wavelengths. We found that most (87.0% +- 1.6...

  1. Search for ionized jets towards high-mass young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Guzmán, Andrés E; Brooks, Kate J; Voronkov, Maxim A

    2012-01-01

    We are carrying out multi-frequency radio continuum observations, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, to systematically search for collimated ionized jets towards high-mass young stellar objects (HMYSOs). Here we report observations at 1.4, 2.4, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz, made with angular resolutions of about 7, 4, 2, and 1 arcsec, respectively, towards six objects of a sample of 33 southern HMYSOs thought to be in very early stages of evolution. The objects in the sample were selected from radio and infrared catalogs by having positive radio spectral indices and being luminous (L_bol > 20,000 L_sun), but underluminous in radio emission compared to that expected from its bolometric luminosity. This criteria makes the radio sources good candidates for being ionized jets. As part of this systematic search, two ionized jets have been discovered: one previously published and the other reported here. The rest of the observed candidates correspond to three hypercompact hii regions and two ultracompact hii regions. ...

  2. Hydrides in Young Stellar Objects: Radiation tracers in a protostar-disk-outflow system

    CERN Document Server

    Benz, Arnold O; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2010-01-01

    Context: Hydrides of the most abundant heavier elements are fundamental molecules in cosmic chemistry. Some of them trace gas irradiated by UV or X-rays. Aims: We explore the abundances of major hydrides in W3 IRS5, a prototypical region of high-mass star formation. Methods: W3 IRS5 was observed by HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory with deep integration (about 2500 s) in 8 spectral regions. Results: The target lines including CH, NH, H3O+, and the new molecules SH+, H2O+, and OH+ are detected. The H2O+ and OH+ J=1-0 lines are found mostly in absorption, but also appear to exhibit weak emission (P-Cyg-like). Emission requires high density, thus originates most likely near the protostar. This is corroborated by the absence of line shifts relative to the young stellar object (YSO). In addition, H2O+ and OH+ also contain strong absorption components at a velocity shifted relative to W3 IRS5, which are attributed to foreground clouds. Conclusions: The molecular column densities derived from observations corre...

  3. Spitzer-MIPS survey of the young stellar content in the Vela Molecular Cloud-D

    CERN Document Server

    Giannini, T; De Luca, M; Nisini, B; Marengo, M; Allen, L; Smith, H A; Fazio, G; Massi, F; Elia, D; Strafella, F

    2007-01-01

    A new, unbiased Spitzer-MIPS imaging survey (~1.8 square degs) of the young stellar content of the Vela Molecular Cloud-D is presented. The survey is complete down to 5mJy and 250mJy at 24micron (mu) and 70mu, respectively. 849 sources are detected at 24mu and 52 of them also have a 70mu counterpart. The VMR-D region is one that we have already partially mapped in dust and gas millimeter emission, and we discuss the correlation between the Spitzer compact sources and the mm contours. About half of the 24mu sources are located inside the region delimited by the 12CO(1-0) contours (corresponding to only one third of the full area mapped with MIPS) with a consequent density increase of about 100% of the 24mu sources [four times for 70mu ones] moving from outside to inside the CO contours. About 400 sources have a 2MASS counterpart. So we have constructed a Ks vs. Ks-[24] diagram and identified the protostellar population. We find an excess of Class I sources in VMR-D in comparison with other star forming regions...

  4. Complex organic molecules in organic-poor massive young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Fayolle, Edith C; Garrod, Robin T; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Bisschop, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) with hot cores are classic sources of complex organic molecules. The origins of these molecules in such sources, as well as the small- and large-scale differentiation between nitrogen- and oxygen-bearing complex species, are poorly understood. We aim to use complex molecule abundances toward a chemically less explored class of MYSOs with weak hot organic emission lines to constrain the impact of hot molecular cores and initial ice conditions on the chemical composition toward MYSOs. We use the IRAM 30m and the Submillimeter Array to search for complex organic molecules over 8-16 GHz in the 1~mm atmospheric window toward three MYSOs with known ice abundances, but without luminous molecular hot cores. Complex molecules are detected toward all three sources at comparable abundances with respect to CH$_3$OH to classical hot core sources. The relative importance of CH$_3$CHO, CH$_3$CCH, CH$_3$OCH$_3$, CH$_3$CN, and HNCO differ between the organic-poor MYSOs and hot cores, howe...

  5. Radio Properties of Young Stellar Objects in the Core of the Serpens South Infrared Dark Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Nicholas; Tobin, John; Mead, Adrian; Gutermuth, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We present deep radio continuum observations of the star-forming core of the Serpens South Infrared Dark Cloud with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Observations were conducted in two bands centered at 7.25 GHz (4.14 cm) and 4.75 GHz (6.31 cm) with an rms of 8.5 and 11.1 microJy/beam, respectively. We also use 2MASS, Spitzer and Herschel data to put our radio observations in the context of young stellar populations characterized by near and far infrared observations. Within a 5 arcmin x 5 arcmin region of interest around the central cluster, we detect roughly eighteen radio sources, seven of which we determine are protostellar in nature due to their radio spectral indices and their association with infrared sources. We find evidence for a previously undetected embedded Class 0 protostar and reaffirm Class 0 protostellar classifications determined by previous millimeter wavelength continuum studies. We use our infrared data to derive mid-infrared luminosities for three of our protostellar sources and...

  6. ABSENCE OF SIGNIFICANT COOL DISKS IN YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS EXHIBITING REPETITIVE OPTICAL OUTBURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Hirano, Naomi; Takami, Michihiro; Dong, Ruobing [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Carrasco-González, Carlos [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, A.P. 3-72, Xangari, Morelia, 58089 (Mexico); Vorobyov, Eduard I. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Vienna (Austria); Kóspál, Ágnes [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Henning, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Königstuhl, 17 D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hashimoto, Jun [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 Japan (Japan); Hasegawa, Yasuhiro, E-mail: baobabyoo@gmail.com [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    We report Submillimeter Array 1.3 mm high angular resolution observations toward the four EXor-type outbursting young stellar objects VY Tau, V1118 Ori, V1143 Ori, and NY Ori. The data mostly show low dust masses M{sub dust} in the associated circumstellar disks. Among the sources, NY Ori possesses a relatively massive disk with M{sub dust} ∼ 9 × 10{sup −4}M{sub ⊙}. V1118 Ori has a marginal detection equivalent to M{sub dust} ∼ 6 × 10{sup −5}M{sub ⊙}. V1143 Ori has a non-detection also equivalent to M{sub dust} < 6 × 10{sup −5}M{sub ⊙}. For the nearest source, VY Tau, we get a surprising non-detection that provides a stringent upper limit M{sub dust} < 6 × 10{sup −6}M{sub ⊙}. We interpret our findings as suggesting that the gas and dust reservoirs that feed the short-duration, repetitive optical outbursts seen in some EXors may be limited to the small-scale, innermost region of their circumstellar disks. This hot dust may have escaped our detection limits. Follow-up, more sensitive millimeter observations are needed to improve our understanding of the triggering mechanisms of EXor-type outbursts.

  7. How Significant is Radiation Pressure in the Dynamics of the Gas Around Young Stellar Clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Silich, Sergiy

    2013-01-01

    The impact of radiation pressure on the dynamics of the gas in the vicinity of young stellar clusters is thoroughly discussed. The radiation over the thermal/ram pressure ratio time evolution is calculated explicitely and the crucial role of the cluster mechanical power and of the strong time evolution of the ionizing photon flux and of the bolometric luminosity of the exciting cluster is stressed. It is shown that radiation has only a narrow window of opportunity to dominate the wind-driven shell dynamics. This may occur only at early stages of the bubble evolution and if the shell expands into a dusty and/or a very dense proto-cluster medium. The impact of radiation pressure on the wind-driven shell becomes always negligible after about 3 Myr. Finally, the wind-driven model results allow one to compare the model predictions with the distribution of thermal pressure derived from X-ray observations. The shape of the thermal pressure profile allows then to distinguish between the energy and the momentum domina...

  8. Young Stellar Populations in MYStIX Star Forming Regions: Candidate Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Romine, Gregory; Getman, Konstantin V; Kuhn, Michael A; Povich, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    The Massive Young Star Forming Complex in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX) project provides a new census on stellar members of massive star forming regions within 4 kpc. Here the MYStIX Infrared Excess catalog (MIRES) and Chandra-based X-ray photometric catalogs are mined to obtain high-quality samples of Class I protostars using criteria designed to reduce extragalactic and Galactic field star contamination. A total of 1,109 MYStIX Candidate Protostars (MCPs) are found in 14 star forming regions. Most are selected from protoplanetary disk infrared excess emission, but 20% are found from their ultrahard X-ray spectra from heavily absorbed magnetospheric flare emission. Two-thirds of the MCP sample is newly reported here. The resulting samples are strongly spatially associated with molecular cores and filaments on Herschel far-infrared maps. This spatial agreement and other evidence indicate that the MCP sample has high reliability with relatively few 'false positives' from contaminating populations. But the limite...

  9. The RMS Survey: Near-IR Spectroscopy of Massive Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, H D B; Oudmaijer, R D; Hoare, M G; Clarke, A J; Urquhart, J S; Mottram, J C; Moore, T J T; Davies, B

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared H- and K-band spectra are presented for 247 objects, selected from the Red MSX Source (RMS) survey as potential young stellar objects (YSOs). 195 (~80%) of the targets are YSOs, of which 131 are massive YSOs (L_BOL > 5x10^3 L_solar), M > 8M_solar. This is the largest spectroscopic study of massive YSOs to date, providing a valuable resource for the study of massive star formation. In this paper we present our exploratory analysis of the data. The YSOs observed have a wide range of embeddedness (2.7 < A_V < 114), demonstrating that this study covers minimally obscured objects right through to very red, dusty sources. Almost all YSOs show some evidence for emission lines, though there is a wide variety of observed properties. The most commonly detected lines are Brgamma, H_2, fluorescent FeII, CO bandhead, [FeII] and HeI 2-1 2^1S-2^1P, in order of frequency of occurrence. In total, ~40% of the YSOs display either fluorescent FeII 1.6878um or CO bandhead emission (or both), indicative of a ci...

  10. Herschel observations of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Wampfler, S F; Bruderer, S; Benz, A O; van Dishoeck, E F; Kristensen, L E; Visser, R; Doty, S D; Melchior, M; van Kempen, T A; Yildiz, U A; Dedes, C; Goicoechea, J R; Baudry, A; Melnick, G; Bachiller, R; Benedettini, M; Bergin, E; Bjerkeli, P; Blake, G A; Bontemps, S; Braine, J; Caselli, P; Cernicharo, J; Codella, C; Daniel, F; di Giorgio, A M; Dominik, C; Encrenaz, P; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Giannini, T; de Graauw, Th; Helmich, F; Herpin, F; Jacq, T; Johnstone, D; ørgensen, J K J; Larsson, B; Lis, D; Liseau, R; Marseille, M; McCoey, C; Neufeld, D; Nisini, B; Olberg, M; Parise, B; Pearson, J C; Plume, R; Risacher, C; Santiago-Garcia, J; Saraceno, P; Shipman, R; Tafalla, M; van der Tak, F F S; Wyrowski, F; Roelfsema, P; Jellema, W; Dieleman, P; Caux, E; Stutzki, J

    2010-01-01

    Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) is a Herschel Key Program investigating the water chemistry in young stellar objects (YSOs) during protostellar evolution. Hydroxyl (OH) is one of the reactants in the chemical network most closely linked to the formation and destruction of H2O. High-temperature chemistry connects OH and H2O through the OH + H2 H2O + H reactions. Formation of H2O from OH is efficient in the high-temperature regime found in shocks and the innermost part of protostellar envelopes. Moreover, in the presence of UV photons, OH can be produced from the photo-dissociation of H2O. High-resolution spectroscopy of the OH 163.12 micron triplet towards HH 46 and NGC 1333 IRAS 2A was carried out with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) on board Herschel. The low- and intermediate-mass YSOs HH 46, TMR 1, IRAS 15398-3359, DK Cha, NGC 7129 FIRS 2, and NGC 1333 IRAS 2A were observed with the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) in four transitions of OH and tw...

  11. Ice chemistry in embedded young stellar objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, J M; Chen, C -H R; Tielens, A G G M; Sloan, G C; Woods, P M; Kemper, F; Indebetouw, R; Gordon, K D; Boyer, M L; Shiao, B; Madden, S; Speck, A K; Meixner, M; Marengo, M

    2009-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of a sample of 15 embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These observations were obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) as part of the SAGE-Spec Legacy program. We analyze the two prominent ice bands in the IRS spectral range: the bending mode of CO_2 ice at 15.2 micron and the ice band between 5 and 7 micron that includes contributions from the bending mode of water ice at 6 micron amongst other ice species. The 5-7 micron band is difficult to identify in our LMC sample due to the conspicuous presence of PAH emission superimposed onto the ice spectra. We identify water ice in the spectra of two sources; the spectrum of one of those sources also exhibits the 6.8 micron ice feature attributed to ammonium and methanol. We model the CO_2 band in detail, using the combination of laboratory ice profiles available in the literature. We find that a significant fraction (> 50%) of CO_2 ice is locked in a water-rich component, con...

  12. Accelerating a water maser face-on jet from a high mass young stellar object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motogi, Kazuhito; Sorai, Kazuo; Honma, Mareki; Hirota, Tomoya; Hachisuka, Kazuya; Niinuma, Kotaro; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Yonekura, Yoshinori; Fujisawa, Kenta

    2016-10-01

    We report on long-term single-dish and VLBI monitoring for intermittent flare activities of a dominant blue-shifted H2O maser associated with a southern high mass young stellar object, G353.273+0.641. Bi-weekly single-dish monitoring using the Hokkaido University Tomakomai 11 m radio telescope has shown that a systematic acceleration continues over four years beyond the lifetime of individual maser features. This fact suggests that the H2O maser traces a region where molecular gas is steadily accelerated. There were five maser flares during the five years of monitoring, and maser distributions in four of them were densely monitored by VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). The overall distribution of the maser features suggests the presence of a bipolar jet, with the 3D kinematics indicating that it is almost face-on (inclination angle of ˜ 8°-17° from the line of sight). Most maser features were recurrently excited within a region of 100×100 au2 around the radio continuum peak, while their spatial distributions significantly varied between each flare. This confirms that episodic propagations of outflow shocks recurrently invoke intermittent flare activities. We also measured annual parallax, deriving a source distance of 1.70^{+0.19}_{-0.16} kpc that is consistent with the commonly used photometric distance.

  13. Accelerating an Water Maser Face-on Jet from a High Mass Young Stellar Object

    CERN Document Server

    Motogi, Kazuhito; Honma, Mareki; Hirota, Tomoya; Hachisuka, Kazuya; Niinuma, Kotaro; Sugiyama, Koichiro; Yonekura, Yosinori; Fujisawa, Kenta

    2015-01-01

    We report on a long-term single-dish and VLBI monitoring for intermittent flare activities of a Dominant Blue-Shifted H$_{2}$O Maser (DBSM) associated with a southern high mass young stellar object, G353.273+0.641. Bi-weekly single-dish monitoring using Hokkaido University Tomakomai 11-m radio telescope has shown that a systematic acceleration continues over four years beyond a lifetime of individual maser features. This fact suggests that the H$_{2}$O maser traces a region where molecular gas is steadily accelerated. There were five maser flares during five-years monitoring, and maser distributions in four of them were densely monitored by the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA). The overall distribution of the maser features suggests the presence of a bipolar jet, with the 3D kinematics indicating that it is almost face-on (inclination angle of $\\sim$ 8$^{\\fdg}$--17$^{\\fdg}$ from the line-of-sight). Most of maser features were recurrently excited within a region of 100$\\times$100 AU$^{2}$ around the...

  14. Ice chemistry in massive Young Stellar Objects: the role of metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, J M; Sloan, G C; Indebetouw, R; Kemper, F; Tielens, A G G M; Simon, J D; Woods, Paul M; Meixner, M

    2010-01-01

    We present the comparison of the three most important ice constituents (water, CO and CO2) in the envelopes of massive Young Stellar Objects (YSOs), in environments of different metallicities: the Galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and, for the first time, the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We present observations of water, CO and CO2 ice in 4 SMC and 3 LMC YSOs (obtained with Spitzer-IRS and VLT/ISAAC). While water and CO2 ice are detected in all Magellanic YSOs, CO ice is not detected in the SMC objects. Both CO and CO2 ice abundances are enhanced in the LMC when compared to high-luminosity Galactic YSOs. Based on the fact that both species appear to be enhanced in a consistent way, this effect is unlikely to be the result of enhanced CO2 production in hotter YSO envelopes as previously thought. Instead we propose that this results from a reduced water column density in the envelopes of LMC YSOs, a direct consequence of both the stronger UV radiation field and the reduced dust-to-gas ratio at lower met...

  15. EVN observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in clusters of massive young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bartkiewicz, Anna; van Langevelde, Huib

    2014-01-01

    Methanol masers at 6.7 GHz are associated with high-mass star-forming regions (HMSFRs) and often have mid-infrared (MIR) counterparts characterized by extended emission at 4.5 $\\mu$m, which likely traces outflows from massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). Our objectives are to determine the milliarcsecond (mas) morphology of the maser emission and to examine if it comes from one or several candidate MIR counterparts in the clusters of MYSOs. The European VLBI Network (EVN) was used to image the 6.7 GHz maser line with ~2.'1 field of view toward 14 maser sites from the Torun catalog. Quasi-simultaneous observations were carried out with the Torun 32 m telescope. We obtained maps with mas angular resolution that showed diversity of methanol emission morphology: a linear distribution (e.g., G37.753-00.189), a ring-like (G40.425+00.700), and a complex one (e.g., G45.467+00.053). The maser emission is usually associated with the strongest MIR counterpart in the clusters; no maser emission was detected from other ...

  16. Studying the Molecular Ambient towards the Young Stellar Object EGO G35.04-0.47

    CERN Document Server

    Paron, S; Astort, A; Rubio, M; Fariña, C

    2013-01-01

    We are performing a systematic study of the interstellar medium around extended green objects (EGOs), likely massive young stellar objects driving outflows. EGO G35.04-0.47 is located towards a dark cloud at the northern-west edge of an HII region. Recently, H2 jets were discovered towards this source, mainly towards its southwest, where the H2 1-0 S(1) emission peaks. Therefore, the source was catalogued as the Molecular Hydrogen emission-line object MHO 2429. In order to study the molecular ambient towards this star-forming site, we observed a region around the aforementioned EGO using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in the 12CO J=3--2, 13CO J=3--2, HCO+ J=4--3, and CS J=7--6 lines with an angular and spectral resolution of 22" and 0.11 km s-1, respectively. The observations revealed a molecular clump where the EGO is embedded at v_LSR ~ 51 km s-1, in coincidence with the velocity of a Class I 95 GHz methanol maser previously detected. Analyzing the 12CO line we discovered high velocity molec...

  17. The RMS Survey: Ammonia mapping of the environment of massive young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Urquhart, J S; Moore, T J T; Csengeri, T; Lumsden, S L; Pillai, T; Thompson, M A; Eden, D J; Morgan, L K

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of ammonia observations towards 66 massive star forming regions identified by the Red MSX source survey. We have used the Green Bank Telescope and the K-band focal plane array to map the ammonia NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) inversion emission at a resolution of 30 arcsec in 8 arcmin regions towards the positions of embedded massive star formation. We have identified a total of 115 distinct clumps, approximately two-thirds of which are associated with an embedded massive young stellar object or compact HII region, while the others are classified as quiescent. There is a strong spatial correlation between the peak NH3 emission and the presence of embedded objects. We derive the spatial distribution of the kinetic gas temperatures, line widths, and NH$_3$ column densities from these maps, and by combining these data with dust emission maps we estimate clump masses, H$_2$ column densities and ammonia abundances. The clumps have typical masses of ~1000 Msun and radii ~0.5 pc, line widths of ~2 km/s a...

  18. A multi-wavelength interferometric study of the massive young stellar object IRAS 13481-6124

    CERN Document Server

    Boley, Paul A; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Linz, Hendrik; van Boekel, Roy; Henning, Thomas; Lacour, Sylvestre; Monnier, John D; Stecklum, Bringfried; Tuthill, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    We present new mid-infrared interferometric observations of the massive young stellar object IRAS 13481-6124, using VLTI/MIDI for spectrally-resolved, long-baseline measurements (projected baselines up to $\\sim120$ m) and GSO/T-ReCS for aperture-masking interferometry in five narrow-band filters (projected baselines of $\\sim1.8-6.4$ m) in the wavelength range of $7.5-13$ $\\mu$m. We combine these measurements with previously-published interferometric observations in the $K$ and $N$ bands in order to assemble the largest collection of infrared interferometric observations for a massive YSO to date. Using a combination of geometric and radiative-transfer models, we confirm the detection at mid-infrared wavelengths of the disk previously inferred from near-infrared observations. We show that the outflow cavity is also detected at both near- and mid-infrared wavelengths, and in fact dominates the mid-infrared emission in terms of total flux. For the disk, we derive the inner radius ($\\sim1.8$ mas or $\\sim6.5$ AU a...

  19. The Age of the Young Bulge-like Population in the Stellar System Terzan 5: Linking the Galactic Bulge to the High-z Universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferraro, F. R.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Origlia, L.; Rich, R. M.; Mucciarelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic bulge is dominated by an old, metal-rich stellar population. The possible presence and the amount of a young (a few gigayears old) minor component is one of the major issues debated in the literature. Recently, the bulge stellar system Terzan 5 was found to harbor three sub-populations

  20. YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT SEARCH TOWARD THE BOUNDARY OF THE CENTRAL MOLECULAR ZONE WITH NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito; Nagata, Tetsuya [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nishiyama, Shogo; Kwon, Jungmi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: yosikawa@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nagata@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: shogo.nishiyama@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We have carried out near-infrared polarimetry toward the boundary of the Central Molecular Zone, in the field of (–1.°4 ≲ l ≲ –0.°3 and 1.°0 ≲ l ≲ 2.°9, |b| ≲ 0.°1), using the near-infrared polarimetric camera SIRPOL on the 1.4 m Infrared Survey Facility telescope. We have selected 112 intrinsically polarized sources on the basis of the estimate of interstellar polarization on Stokes Q/I – U/I planes. The selected sources are brighter than K{sub S} = 14.5 mag and have polarimetric uncertainty δP < 1%. Ten of these distinctive polarized sources are fit well with spectral energy distributions of young stellar objects when using the photometry in the archive of the Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared data. However, many sources have spectral energy distributions of normal stars suffering from heavy interstellar extinction; these might be stars behind dark clouds. Due to the small number of distinctive polarized sources and candidates of young stellar objects, we cannot judge if they are declining in number outside the Central Molecular Zone. Many massive candidates for young stellar objects in the literature have only small intrinsic polarization. This might suggest that their masses are 4-15 M {sub ☉}, whose intrinsic polarization has been expected to be small.

  1. X-shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects in Lupus. Lithium, iron, and barium elemental abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazzo, K.; Frasca, A.; Alcalá, J. M.; Zusi, M.; Covino, E.; Randich, S.; Esposito, M.; Manara, C. F.; Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Rigliaco, E.; Getman, F.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: With the purpose of performing a homogeneous determination of elemental abundances for members of the Lupus T association, we analyzed three chemical elements: lithium, iron, and barium. The aims were: 1) to derive the lithium abundance for the almost complete sample ( 90%) of known class II stars in the Lupus I, II, III, and IV clouds; 2) to perform chemical tagging of a region where few iron abundance measurements have been obtained in the past, and no determination of the barium content has been done up to now. We also investigated possible barium enhancement at the very young age of the region, as this element has become increasingly interesting in the last few years following the evidence of barium over-abundance in young clusters, the origin of which is still unknown. Methods: Using the X-shooter spectrograph mounted on the Unit 2 (UT2) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), we analyzed the spectra of 89 cluster members, both class II (82) and class III (7) stars. We measured the strength of the lithium line at λ6707.8 Å and derived the abundance of this element through equivalent width measurements and curves of growth. For six class II stars we also derived the iron and barium abundances using the spectral synthesis method and the code MOOG. The veiling contribution was taken into account in the abundance analysis for all three elements. Results: We find a dispersion in the strength of the lithium line at low effective temperatures and identify three targets with severe Li depletion. The nuclear age inferred for these highly lithium-depleted stars is around 15 Myr, which exceeds by an order of magnitude the isochronal one. We derive a nearly solar metallicity for the members whose spectra could be analyzed. We find that Ba is over-abundant by 0.7 dex with respect to the Sun. Since current theoretical models cannot reproduce this abundance pattern, we investigated whether this unusually large Ba content might be related to effects due to stellar

  2. A dynamical calibration of the mass-luminosity relation at very low stellar masses and young ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Laird M; Lenzen, Rainer; Guirado, Jose C; Nielsen, Eric L; Mamajek, Eric E; Brandner, Wolfgang; Hartung, Markus; Lidman, Chris; Biller, Beth

    2005-01-20

    Mass is the most fundamental parameter of a star, yet it is also one of the most difficult to measure directly. In general, astronomers estimate stellar masses by determining the luminosity and using the 'mass-luminosity' relationship, but this relationship has never been accurately calibrated for young, low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Masses for these low-mass objects are therefore constrained only by theoretical models. A new high-contrast adaptive optics camera enabled the discovery of a young (50 million years) companion only 0.156 arcseconds (2.3 au) from the more luminous (> 120 times brighter) star AB Doradus A. Here we report a dynamical determination of the mass of the newly resolved low-mass companion AB Dor C, whose mass is 0.090 +/- 0.005 solar masses. Given its measured 1-2-micrometre luminosity, we have found that the standard mass-luminosity relations overestimate the near-infrared luminosity of such objects by about a factor of approximately 2.5 at young ages. The young, cool objects hitherto thought to be substellar in mass are therefore about twice as massive, which means that the frequency of brown dwarfs and planetary mass objects in young stellar clusters has been overestimated.

  3. The accretion/ejection paradigm in young stellar objects: from HST and Herschel to JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podio, Linda

    2012-07-01

    Stellar jets and molecular outflows are observed in association with young accreting stars and are believed to play a key role in the star formation process. In this talk I will show how current and future space missions are of crucial importance to investigate the origin of stellar jets and their link to the accretion process. Thanks to its high angular (˜0.1") resolution, HST has been the first telescope allowing us to investigate the jet physics at optical/UV wavelengths down to the heart of the launching mechanism. We recently analysed a datacube of the jet emitted by the T Tauri star DG Tau obtaining spatio-kinematical maps of the hot atomic gas in the jet and of its physical conditions (Maurri et al., submitted). These data confirm the predictions of theoretical models including the fact that jets may extract the excess angular momentum from the system. In the last two years Herschel has further improved our comprehension of the ejection process observing the far infrared counterpart of fast and collimated atomic jets. PACS and HIFI observations, acquired within the GASPS (GAS in Protoplanetary Systems) Open Time Key Project (PI: B. Dent), show that T Tauri stars driving optical jets are also associated with a warm gas component emitting not only atomic ([OI], [CII]) but also molecular (high-J CO, H_2O, OH) lines. The comparison with Class 0 outflows highlights a clear evolutionary trend: the emission associated with evolved Class I/II sources is fainter and more compact and the estimated mass loss rates and lines cooling are one to two orders of magnitudes lower (Podio et al., to be submitted). The arrival of JWST will fill-in the gap between HST and Herschel opening a new window in the near and mid-infrared range at unprecedented angular resolution (down to 0.03"). This will allow resolving the emission in both atomic (e.g., [FeII]) and molecular (e.g., H_2) lines and understanding if the molecular gas is entrained by the atomic jet or launched with it

  4. Multiple stellar populations in Magellanic Cloud clusters - V. The split main sequence of the young cluster NGC 1866

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; D'Antona, F.; Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G.; Jerjen, H.; Anderson, J.; Dotter, A.; Criscienzo, M. Di; Lagioia, E. P.

    2017-03-01

    One of the most unexpected results in the field of stellar populations of the last few years is the discovery that some Magellanic Cloud globular clusters younger than ∼400 Myr exhibit bimodal main sequences (MSs) in their colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). Moreover, these young clusters host an extended main-sequence turn-off (eMSTO) in close analogy with what is observed in most ∼1-2 Gyr old clusters of both Magellanic Clouds. We use high-precision Hubble Space Telescope photometry to study the young star cluster NGC 1866 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We discover an eMSTO and a split MS. The analysis of the CMD reveals that (i) the blue MS is the less populous one, hosting about one-third of the total number of MS stars; (ii) red MS stars are more centrally concentrated than blue MS stars; (iii) the fraction of blue MS stars with respect to the total number of MS stars drops by a factor of ∼2 in the upper MS with mF814W ≲ 19.7. The comparison between the observed CMDs and stellar models reveals that the observations are consistent with ∼200 Myr old highly rotating stars on the red MS, with rotation close to critical value, plus a non-rotating stellar population spanning an age interval between ∼140 and 220 Myr, on the blue MS. Noticeable, neither stellar populations with different ages only, nor coeval stellar models with different rotation rates, properly reproduce the observed split MS and eMSTO. We discuss these results in the context of the eMSTO and multiple MS phenomenon.

  5. Star Formation in W3—AFGL 333: Young Stellar Content, Properties, and Roles of External Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Jessy; Kim, Jinyoung S.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Samal, Manash R.; Bieging, John H.; Meyer, Michael R.; Sherry, William H.

    2016-05-01

    One of the key questions in the field of star formation is the role of stellar feedback on the subsequent star formation process. The W3 giant molecular cloud complex at the western border of the W4 super bubble is thought to be influenced by the massive stars in W4. This paper presents a study of the star formation activity within AFGL 333, a ˜104 M ⊙ cloud within W3, using deep JHK s photometry obtained from the NOAO Extremely Wide Field Infrared Imager combined with Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry. Based on the infrared excess, we identify 812 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the complex, of which 99 are Class I and 713 are Class II sources. The stellar density analysis of YSOs reveals three major stellar aggregates within AFGL 333, namely AFGL 333 Main, AFGL 333 NW1 and AFGL 333 NW2. The disk fraction within AFGL 333 is estimated to be ˜50%-60%. We use the extinction map made from the H-{K}s colors of the background stars and CO data to understand the cloud structure and to estimate the cloud mass. From the stellar and cloud mass associated with AFGL 333, we infer that the region is currently forming stars with an efficiency of ˜4.5% and at a rate of ˜2-3 M ⊙ Myr-1 pc-2. In general, the star formation activity within AFGL 333 is comparable to that of nearby low mass star-forming regions. We do not find any strong evidence to suggest that the stellar feedback from the massive stars of nearby W4 super bubble has affected the global star formation properties of the AFGL 333 region.

  6. NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION CYGNUS OB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present an analysis of near-infrared time-series photometry in J, H, and K bands for about 100 epochs of a 1 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign region of the Lynds 1003/1004 dark cloud in the Cygnus OB7 region. Augmented by data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we identify 96 candidate disk bearing young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. Of these, 30 are clearly Class I or earlier. Using the Wide-Field Imaging Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, we were able to obtain photometry over three observing seasons, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.05 mag down to J Almost-Equal-To 17. We study detailed light curves and color trajectories of {approx}50 of the YSOs in the monitored field. We investigate the variability and periodicity of the YSOs and find the data are consistent with all YSOs being variable in these wavelengths on timescales of a few years. We divide the variability into four observational classes: (1) stars with periodic variability stable over long timescales, (2) variables which exhibit short-lived cyclic behavior, (3) long-duration variables, and (4) stochastic variables. Some YSO variability defies simple classification. We can explain much of the observed variability as being due to dynamic and rotational changes in the disk, including an asymmetric or changing blocking fraction, changes to the inner disk hole size, as well as changes to the accretion rate. Overall, we find that the Class I:Class II ratio of the cluster is consistent with an age of <1 Myr, with at least one individual, wildly varying source {approx}100, 000 yr old. We have also discovered a Class II eclipsing binary system with a period of 17.87 days.

  7. Multi-Sensory Approach to Search for Young Stellar Objects in CG4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoette, Vivian L.; Rebull, L. M.; McCarron, K.; Johnson, C. H.; Gartner, C.; VanDerMolen, J.; Gamble, L.; Matche, L.; McCartney, A.; Doering, M.; Crump, R.; Laorr, A.; Mork, K.; Steinbergs, E.; Wigley, E.; Caruso, S.; Killingstad, N.; McCanna, T.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities - specifically individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) and/or blind and visually-impaired (BVI) - have traditionally been underrepresented in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM). The low incidence rate of these populations, coupled with geographic isolation, creates limited opportunities for students to work with and receive mentoring by professionals who not only have specialty knowledge in disability areas but also work in STEM fields. Yerkes Observatory scientists, along with educators from the Wisconsin School for the Deaf, the Wisconsin Center for the Blind and Visually Impaired, Breck School, and Oak Park and River Forest High School, are engaged in active research with a Spitzer Science Center (SSC) scientist. Our ultimate goals are threefold; to engage DHH and BVI students with equal success as their sighted and hearing peers, to share our techniques to make astronomy more accessible to DHH and BVI youth, and to generate a life-long interest which will lead our students to STEM careers. This poster tracks our work with an SSC scientist during the spring, summer, and fall of 2010. The group coauthored another AAS poster on finding Young Stellar Objects (YSO) in the CG4 Nebula in Puppis. During the project, the students, scientists and teachers developed a number of techniques for learning the necessary science as well as doing the required data acquisition and analysis. Collaborations were formed between students with disabilities and their non-disabled peers to create multi-media projects. Ultimately, the projects created for our work with NITARP will be disseminated through our professional connections in order to ignite a passion for astronomy in all students - with and without disabilities. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Project (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program and Archive Outreach funds.

  8. Warm gas towards young stellar objects in Corona Australis - Herschel/PACS observations from the DIGIT key programme

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg, Johan E; Green, Joel D; Herczeg, Gregory J; Dionatos, Odysseas; Evans, Neal J; Karska, Agata; Wampfler, Susanne F

    2013-01-01

    The effects of external irradiation on the chemistry and physics in the protostellar envelope around low-mass young stellar objects are poorly understood. The Corona Australis star-forming region contains the R CrA dark cloud, comprising several low-mass protostellar cores irradiated by an intermediate-mass young star. We study the effects on the warm gas and dust in a group of low-mass young stellar objects from the irradiation by the young luminous Herbig Be star R CrA. Herschel/PACS far-infrared datacubes of two low-mass star-forming regions in the R CrA dark cloud are presented. The distribution of CO, OH, H2O, [C II], [O I], and continuum emission is investigated. We have developed a deconvolution algorithm which we use to deconvolve the maps, separating the point-source emission from the extended emission. We also construct rotational diagrams of the molecular species. By deconvolution of the Herschel data, we find large-scale (several thousand AU) dust continuum and spectral line emission not associate...

  9. Disk and wind interaction in the young stellar object MWC 297 spatially resolved with VLTI/AMBER

    CERN Document Server

    Malbet, F; De Wit, W J; Kraus, S; Meilland, A; Millour, F; Tatulli, E; Berger, J P; Chesneau, O; Hofmann, Karl Heinrich; Isella, A; Natta, A; Petrov, R; Preibisch, T; Stee, P; Testi, L; Weigelt, G; Antonelli, P; Beckmann, U; Bresson, Y; Chelli, A; Duvert, G; Gluck, L; Kern, P; Lagarde, S; Le Coarer, E; Lisi, F; Perraut, K; Robbe-Dubois, S; Roussel, A; Zins, G; Accardo, M; Acke, B; Agabi, K; Arezki, B; Aristidi, E; Baffa, C; Behrend, J; Blöcker, T; Bonhomme, S; Busoni, S; Cassaing, F; Clausse, J M; Colin, J; Connot, C; Delboulbé, A; Driebe, T; Dugué, M; Feautrier, P; Ferruzzi, D; Forveille, T; Fossat, E; Foy, R; Fraix-Burnet, D; Gallardo, A; Gennari, S; Glentzlin, A; Giani, E; Gil, C; Heiden, M; Heininger, M; Kamm, D; Le Contel, D; Le Contel, J M; López, B; Magnard, Y; Marconi, A; Mars, G; Martinot-Lagarde, G; Mathias, P; Monin, J L; Mouillet, D; Mourard, D; Mege, P; Nussbaum, E; Ohnaka, K; Pacheco, J; Pacini, F; Perrier, C; Puget, P; Rabbia, Y; Rebattu, S; Reynaud, F; Richichi, A; Sacchettini, M; Salinari, P; Schertl, D; Solscheid, W; Stefanini, P; Tallon, M; Tallon-Bosc, I; Tasso, D; Valtier, J C; Vannier, M; Ventura, N; Kiekebusch, M; Rantakyro, F; Schöller, M

    2005-01-01

    The young stellar object MWC 297 has been observed with the VLT interferometer equipped with the AMBER instrument. MWC 297 has been spatially resolved in the continuum with a visibility of 0.50 as well as in the Br gamma emission line where the visibility decrease to a lower value of 0.33. This change in the visibility with the wavelength can be interpreted by the presence of an optically thick disk responsible for the visibility in the continuum and of a stellar wind traced by Br gamma and whose apparent size is 40% larger. We validate this interpretation by building a model of the stellar environment that combines a geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disk model consisting of gas and dust, and a latitude-dependent stellar wind outflowing above the disk surface. The continuum emission and visibilities obtained from this model are fully consistent with the interferometric AMBER data. They agree also with existing optical, near-infrared spectra and other broad-band near-infrared interferometric visib...

  10. Probabilistic HR Diagrams: A New Infrared and X-ray Chronometer for Very Young, Massive Stellar Clusters and Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Jessica; Povich, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constraining the duration of star formation in very young, massive star-forming regions. Constraints on stellar population ages are derived from probabilistic HR diagrams (pHRDs) generated by fitting stellar model spectra to the infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Herbig Ae/Be stars and their less-evolved, pre-main sequence progenitors. Stellar samples for the pHRDs are selected based on the detection of X-ray emission associated with the IR source, and the lack of detectible IR excess emission at wavelengths ≤4.5 µm. The SED model fits were used to create two-dimensional probability distributions of the stellar parameters, specifically bolometric luminosity versus temperature and mass versus evolutionary age. We present first results from the pHRD analysis of the relatively evolved Carina Nebula and the unevolved M17 SWex infrared dark cloud, which reveal the expected, strikingly different star formation durations between these two regions. In the future, we will apply this method to analyze available X-ray and IR data from the MYStIX project on other Galactic massive star forming regions within 3 kpc of the Sun.

  11. Minor mergers and their impact on the kinematics of old and young stellar populations in disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Y; Lehnert, M D; van Driel, W; Jog, C J

    2011-01-01

    By means of N-body simulations we investigate the impact of minor mergers on the angular momentum and dynamical properties of the merger remnant. Our simulations cover a range of initial orbital characteristics and gas-to-stellar mass fractions (from 0 to 20%), and include star formation and supernova feedback. We confirm and extend previous results by showing that the specific angular momentum of the stellar component always decreases independently of the orbital parameters or morphology of the satellite, and that the decrease in the rotation velocity of the primary galaxy is accompanied by a change in the anisotropy of the orbits. However, the decrease affects only the old stellar population, and not the new population formed from gas during the merging process. This means that the merging process induces an increasing difference in the rotational support of the old and young stellar components, with the old one lagging with respect to the new. Even if our models are not intended specifically to reproduce t...

  12. Chemical evolution in the environment of intermediate mass young stellar objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, A.; Rizzo, J. R.; Caselli, P.; Bachiller, R.; Henkel, C.

    2005-04-01

    We have carried out a molecular survey of the Class 0 IM protostar NGC 7129 - FIRS 2 (hereafter FIRS 2) and the Herbig Be star LkHα 234 with the aim of studying the chemical evolution of the envelopes of intermediate-mass (IM) young stellar objects (YSOs). The two objects have similar luminosities (~500 L_⊙) and are located in the same molecular cloud which minimizes the chemical differences due to different stellar masses or initial cloud conditions. Moreover, since they are located at the same distance, we have the same spatial resolution in both objects. A total of 17 molecular species (including rare isotopes) have been observed in both objects and the structure of their envelopes and outflows has been determined with unprecedent detail. Our results show that the protostellar envelopes are dispersed and warmed up during the evolution of the YSO into a pre-main sequence star. In fact, the envelope mass decreases by a factor >5 from FIRS 2 to LkHα 234, while the kinetic temperature increases from ~13 K to 28 K. On the other hand, there is no molecular outflow associated with LkHα 234. The molecular outflow seems to stop before the star becomes visible. These physical changes strongly affect the chemistry of their envelopes. The N2H+ and NH3 abundances seem to be quite similar in the two objects. However, the H13CO+ abundance is a factor of ~3 lower in the densest part of FIRS 2 than in LkHα 234, very likely because of depletion. In contrast, the SiO abundance is larger by a factor of ~100 in FIRS 2 than in LkHα 234. CS presents complex behavior since its emission arises in different envelope components (outflow, cold envelope, hot core) and could also suffer from depletion. The CH3OH and H2CO column densities are very similar in FIRS 2 and LkHα 234 which implies that the beam-averaged abundances are a factor >5 larger in LkHα 234 than in FIRS 2. The same is found for the PDR tracers CN and HCN which have similar column densities in both objects. Finally

  13. Detection of extended very-high-energy gamma-ray emission towards the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonian, F; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Brion, E; Brown, A M; Buhler, R; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Carrigan, S; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Coignet, G; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubus, G; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Ferrero, E; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Funk, Seb; Funk, S; Fuling, M; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khelifi, B; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemiere, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; Maurin, G; McComb, T J L; Moulin, E; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nedbal, D; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Olive, J P; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Ranchon, S; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V V; Santangelo, A; Sauge, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schröder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Spanier, F; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; al, et

    2007-01-01

    Results from gamma-ray observations by the H.E.S.S. telescope array in the direction of the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2 are presented. Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov light emission of gamma-ray induced showers in the atmosphere is used to study the celestial region around the massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) binary WR 20a. Spectral and positional analysis is performed using standard event reconstruction techniques and parameter cuts. The detection of a new gamma-ray source is reported from H.E.S.S. observations in 2006. HESS J1023-575 is found to be coincident with the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2 in the well-known HII complex RCW 49. The source is detected with a statistical significance of more than 9 sigma, and shows extension beyond a point-like object within the H.E.S.S. point-spread function. The differential gamma-ray spectrum of the emission region is measured over approximately two orders of magnitude in flux. The spatial coincidence between HESS J1023-575 and the young open cluster Westerlund...

  14. YSOVAR: mid-infrared variability of young stellar objects and their disks in the cluster IRAS 20050+2720

    CERN Document Server

    Poppenhaeger, K; Covey, K R; Günther, H M; Hillenbrand, L A; Plavchan, P; Rebull, L M; Stauffer, J R; Wolk, S J; Espaillat, C; Forbrich, J; Gutermuth, R A; Hora, J L; Morales-Calderon, M; Song, Inseok

    2015-01-01

    We present a time-variability study of young stellar objects in the cluster IRAS 20050+2720, performed at 3.6 and 4.5 micron with the Spitzer Space Telescope; this study is part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability project (YSOVAR). We have collected light curves for 181 cluster members over 40 days. We find a high variability fraction among embedded cluster members of ca. 70%, whereas young stars without a detectable disk display variability less often (in ca. 50% of the cases) and with lower amplitudes. We detect periodic variability for 33 sources with periods primarily in the range of 2-6 days. Practically all embedded periodic sources display additional variability on top of their periodicity. Furthermore, we analyze the slopes of the tracks that our sources span in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We find that sources with long variability time scales tend to display CMD slopes that are at least partially influenced by accretion processes, while sources with short variability time scales tend to di...

  15. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS AND THEIR DISKS IN THE CLUSTER IRAS 20050+2720

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cody, A. M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Western Washington University, 516 High Street, Bellingham, WA 98225 (United States); Günther, H. M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Espaillat, C. [Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Forbrich, J. [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180, Vienna (Austria); Gutermuth, R. A. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Morales-Calderón, M. [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Song, Inseok [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602–2451 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We present a time-variability study of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cluster IRAS 20050+2720, performed at 3.6 and 4.5 μm with the Spitzer Space Telescope; this study is part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) project. We have collected light curves for 181 cluster members over 60 days. We find a high variability fraction among embedded cluster members of ca. 70%, whereas young stars without a detectable disk display variability less often (in ca. 50% of the cases) and with lower amplitudes. We detect periodic variability for 33 sources with periods primarily in the range of 2–6 days. Practically all embedded periodic sources display additional variability on top of their periodicity. Furthermore, we analyze the slopes of the tracks that our sources span in the color–magnitude diagram (CMD). We find that sources with long variability time scales tend to display CMD slopes that are at least partially influenced by accretion processes, while sources with short variability timescales tend to display extinction-dominated slopes. We find a tentative trend of X-ray detected cluster members to vary on longer timescales than the X-ray undetected members.

  16. Chandra X-ray observation of the young stellar cluster NGC 3293 in the Carina Nebula Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preibisch, T.; Flaischlen, S.; Gaczkowski, B.; Townsley, L.; Broos, P.

    2017-09-01

    Context. NGC 3293 is a young stellar cluster at the northwestern periphery of the Carina Nebula Complex that has remained poorly explored until now. Aims: We characterize the stellar population of NGC 3293 in order to evaluate key parameters of the cluster population such as the age and the mass function, and to test claims of an abnormal IMF and a deficit of M ≤ 2.5 M⊙ stars. Methods: We performed a deep (70 ks) X-ray observation of NGC 3293 with Chandra and detected 1026 individual X-ray point sources. These X-ray data directly probe the low-mass (M ≤ 2 M⊙) stellar population by means of the strong X-ray emission of young low-mass stars. We identify counterparts for 74% of the X-ray sources in our deep near-infrared images. Results: Our data clearly show that NGC 3293 hosts a large population of ≈solar-mass stars, refuting claims of a lack of M ≤ 2.5 M⊙ stars. The analysis of the color magnitude diagram suggests an age of 8-10 Myr for the low-mass population of the cluster. There are at least 511 X-ray detected stars with color magnitude positions that are consistent with young stellar members within 7 arcmin of the cluster center. The number ratio of X-ray detected stars in the [1-2 ] M⊙ range versus the M ≥ 5 M⊙ stars (known from optical spectroscopy) is consistent with the expectation from a normal field initial mass function. Most of the early B-type stars and ≈20% of the later B-type stars are detected as X-ray sources. Conclusions: Our data shows that NGC 3293 is one of the most populous stellar clusters in the entire Carina Nebula Complex (very similar to Tr 16 and Tr 15; only Tr 14 is more populous). The cluster probably harbored several O-type stars, whose supernova explosions may have had an important impact on the early evolution of the Carina Nebula Complex. The Chandra data described in this paper have been obtained in the open time project with ObsID 16648 (PI: T. Preibisch) ivo://ADS/Sa.CXO#obs/16648.Tables 1-3 are only

  17. Do individual Spitzer young stellar object candidates enclose multiple UKIDSS sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Esteban F. E.; Robitaille, Thomas P.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We analyze United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) observations of a sample of 8325 objects taken from a catalog of intrinsically red sources selected in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE). Given the differences in angular resolution (factor >2 better in UKIDSS), our aim is to investigate whether there are multiple UKIDSS sources that might all contribute to the GLIMPSE flux, or whether there is only one dominant UKIDSS counterpart. We then study possible corrections to estimates of the star formation rate (SFR) based on counts of GLIMPSE young stellar objects (YSOs). This represents an exploratory work toward the construction of a hierarchical YSO catalog. Methods: After performing PSF fitting photometry in the UKIDSS data, we implemented a technique to recognize the dominant UKIDSS sources automatically by evaluating their match with the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the associated GLIMPSE red sources. This is a generic method that could be robustly applied for matching SEDs across gaps at other wavelengths. Results: We found that most (87.0 ± 1.6%) of the candidate YSOs from the GLIMPSE red source catalog have only one dominant UKIDSS counterpart that matches the mid-infrared SED (fainter associated UKIDSS sources might still be present). Although at first sight this could seem surprising, given that YSOs are typically in clustered environments, we argue that within the mass range covered by the GLIMPSE YSO candidates (intermediate to high masses), clustering with objects with comparable mass is unlikely at the GLIMPSE resolution. Indeed, by performing simple clustering experiments based on a population synthesis model of Galactic YSOs, we found that although 60% of the GLIMPSE YSO enclose at least two UKIDSS sources, in general only one dominates the flux. Conclusions: No significant corrections are needed for estimates of the SFR of the Milky Way based on the assumption that the GLIMPSE YSOs

  18. Young Stellar Objects in the Magellanic Clouds: Herschel spectroscopy first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joana M.; Theodorus van Loon, Jacco; Sewilo, Marta

    2015-08-01

    As the nearest gas-rich galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) offer the opportunity to bridge the gap between star formation processes on large galactic-wide scales and on the small scales of individual Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). These metal-deficient galaxies (Z ~ 0.2-0.4 Z⊙) also provide an invaluable window into a region of parameter space hitherto observationally unexplored. Metallicity reveals itself in at least two ways: abundances of gas-phase carbon and oxygen (and their molecular products), and abundance and properties of dust grains. The most efficient cooling mechanisms during the early collapse stages are via radiation through fine structure lines of C and O, as well as rotational transitions in abundant molecules such as CO and H2O. Furthermore, dust grains are crucial in driving molecular cloud chemistry, as dust opacity shields cores from radiation, and icy mantles on grain surfaces enable chemical reactions to occur that would not happen in the gas phase.We present the first results of a programme using spectroscopy obtained with PACS and SPIRE onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. The sample of massive SMC and LMC YSOs is well characterised at mid-IR wavelengths, and includes both deeply embedded sources and compact HII regions. We measure the strengths of key gas-phase cooling species ([OI], [CII], H2O, CO, OH), in order to estimate temperature, density, ionisation state and abundances. This analysis directly probes the potential metallicity effect, since it quantifies the relative luminosities of the species that promote envelope cooling and thus constrain the cooling budget of the YSO envelopes. Preliminary results indicate that while [OI], [CII] and CO emission is widely detected, H2O and OH is weak or absent in most YSOs. Does this re-enforce the scarcity of H2O hypothesized by Oliveira et al. (2011,2013), now in the gas-phase? We also use the extension and morphology of the [OI], [CII] and [OIII] emission to

  19. Young stellar object variability (YSOVAR): Long timescale variations in the mid-infrared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebull, L. M.; Cody, A. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Carey, S. J. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Günther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 East California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Song, I. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Barrado, D. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Bayo, A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); James, D. [Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory (CTIO), Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Vrba, F. J. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86005 (United States); Alves de Oliveira, C. [European Space Agency (ESA/ESAC), P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Caãda, Madrid (Spain); Bouvier, J., E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); and others

    2014-11-01

    The YSOVAR (Young Stellar Object VARiability) Spitzer Space Telescope observing program obtained the first extensive mid-infrared (3.6 and 4.5 μm) time series photometry of the Orion Nebula Cluster plus smaller footprints in 11 other star-forming cores (AFGL 490, NGC 1333, Mon R2, GGD 12-15, NGC 2264, L1688, Serpens Main, Serpens South, IRAS 20050+2720, IC 1396A, and Ceph C). There are ∼29,000 unique objects with light curves in either or both IRAC channels in the YSOVAR data set. We present the data collection and reduction for the Spitzer and ancillary data, and define the 'standard sample' on which we calculate statistics, consisting of fast cadence data, with epochs roughly twice per day for ∼40 days. We also define a 'standard sample of members' consisting of all the IR-selected members and X-ray-selected members. We characterize the standard sample in terms of other properties, such as spectral energy distribution shape. We use three mechanisms to identify variables in the fast cadence data—the Stetson index, a χ{sup 2} fit to a flat light curve, and significant periodicity. We also identified variables on the longest timescales possible of six to seven years by comparing measurements taken early in the Spitzer mission with the mean from our YSOVAR campaign. The fraction of members in each cluster that are variable on these longest timescales is a function of the ratio of Class I/total members in each cluster, such that clusters with a higher fraction of Class I objects also have a higher fraction of long-term variables. For objects with a YSOVAR-determined period and a [3.6]-[8] color, we find that a star with a longer period is more likely than those with shorter periods to have an IR excess. We do not find any evidence for variability that causes [3.6]-[4.5] excesses to appear or vanish within our data set; out of members and field objects combined, at most 0.02% may have transient IR excesses.

  20. Possible planet formation in the young, low-mass, multiple stellar system GG Tau A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrey, Anne; Di Folco, Emmanuel; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Boehler, Yann; Bary, Jeff; Beck, Tracy; Beust, Hervé; Chapillon, Edwige; Gueth, Fredéric; Huré, Jean-Marc; Pierens, Arnaud; Piétu, Vincent; Simon, Michal; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2014-10-30

    The formation of planets around binary stars may be more difficult than around single stars. In a close binary star (with a separation of less than a hundred astronomical units), theory predicts the presence of circumstellar disks around each star, and an outer circumbinary disk surrounding a gravitationally cleared inner cavity around the stars. Given that the inner disks are depleted by accretion onto the stars on timescales of a few thousand years, any replenishing material must be transferred from the outer reservoir to fuel planet formation (which occurs on timescales of about one million years). Gas flowing through disk cavities has been detected in single star systems. A circumbinary disk was discovered around the young low-mass binary system GG Tau A (ref. 7), which has recently been shown to be a hierarchical triple system. It has one large inner disk around the single star, GG Tau Aa, and shows small amounts of shocked hydrogen gas residing within the central cavity, but other than a single weak detection, the distribution of cold gas in this cavity or in any other binary or multiple star system has not hitherto been determined. Here we report imaging of gas fragments emitting radiation characteristic of carbon monoxide within the GG Tau A cavity. From the kinematics we conclude that the flow appears capable of sustaining the inner disk (around GG Tau Aa) beyond the accretion lifetime, leaving time for planet formation to occur there. These results show the complexity of planet formation around multiple stars and confirm the general picture predicted by numerical simulations.

  1. HESS J1023-575: Non-Thermal Particle Acceleration Associated With the Young Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, O.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Hinton, J.; /Leeds U.; Hofmann, W.; Hoppe, S.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Masterson, C.; /Dublin Inst.; Raue, M.; /Hamburg U.

    2007-11-14

    The results from H.E.S.S. observations towards Westerlund 2 are presented. The detection of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission towards the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2 in the HII complex RCW49 by H.E.S.S. provides ample evidence that particle acceleration to extreme energies is associated with this region. A variety of possible emission scenarios is mentioned, ranging from high-energy gamma-ray production in the colliding wind zone of the massive Wolf-Rayet binary WR 20a, collective wind scenarios, diffusive shock acceleration at the boundaries of wind-blown bubbles in the stellar cluster, and outbreak phenomena from hot stellar winds into the interstellar medium. These scenarios are briefly compared to the characteristics of the associated new VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1023-575, and conclusions on the validity of the respective emission scenarios for high-energy gamma-ray production in the Westerlund 2 system are drawn.

  2. HESS J1023-575: Non-thermal particle acceleration associated with the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2

    CERN Document Server

    Reimer, O; Hofmann, W; Hoppe, S; Masterson, C; Raue, M

    2007-01-01

    The results from H.E.S.S. observations towards Westerlund 2 are presented. The detection of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission towards the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2 in the HII complex RCW49 by H.E.S.S. provides ample evidence that particle acceleration to extreme energies is associated with this region. A variety of possible emission scenarios is mentioned, ranging from high-energy gamma-ray production in the colliding wind zone of the massive Wolf-Rayet binary WR20a, collective wind scenarios, diffusive shock acceleration at the boundaries of wind-blown bubbles in the stellar cluster, and outbreak phenomena from hot stellar winds into the interstellar medium. These scenarios are briefly compared to the characteristics of the associated new VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1023-575, and conclusions on the validity of the respective emission scenarios for high-energy gamma-ray production in the Westerlund 2 system are drawn.

  3. HESS J1023-575: Non-Thermal Particle Acceleration Associated With the Young Stellar Cluster Westerlund 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, O.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Hinton, J.; /Leeds U.; Hofmann, W.; Hoppe, S.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Masterson, C.; /Dublin Inst.; Raue, M.; /Hamburg U.

    2007-11-14

    The results from H.E.S.S. observations towards Westerlund 2 are presented. The detection of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission towards the young stellar cluster Westerlund 2 in the HII complex RCW49 by H.E.S.S. provides ample evidence that particle acceleration to extreme energies is associated with this region. A variety of possible emission scenarios is mentioned, ranging from high-energy gamma-ray production in the colliding wind zone of the massive Wolf-Rayet binary WR 20a, collective wind scenarios, diffusive shock acceleration at the boundaries of wind-blown bubbles in the stellar cluster, and outbreak phenomena from hot stellar winds into the interstellar medium. These scenarios are briefly compared to the characteristics of the associated new VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1023-575, and conclusions on the validity of the respective emission scenarios for high-energy gamma-ray production in the Westerlund 2 system are drawn.

  4. Origin of the 6.85 micron band near young stellar objects The ammonium ion (NH4+) revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Schutte, W A

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated whether the nu_4 feature of NH4+ is a viable candidate for the 6.85 micron absorption band seen towards embedded young stellar objects. To produce NH4+ astrophysical ice analogs consisting of H2O, CO2, NH3 and O2 were UV photolysed. The IR spectra reveal peaks that are identified with the NH4+, NO2-, NO3- and HCO3- ions. It is shown that the NH4+ matches two absorption features that are observed towards embedded young stellar objects, i.e., the strong 6.85 micron feature and the 3.26 micron feature. The characteristic redshift with temperature of the interstellar 6.85 micron feature is well reproduced. The abundance of NH4+ in interstellar ices would be typically 10 % relative to H2O. The experiments show that the counterions produce little distinct spectral signature but rather a pseudo-continuum if a variety of them is present in a H2O dominated environment. The anions could therefore go undetected in IR spectra of interstellar ice. In the ISM, where additional mechanisms such as surfac...

  5. The slow spin of the young sub-stellar companion GQ Lupi b and its orbital configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Henriette; de Kok, Remco J; Snellen, Ignas A G; Brogi, Matteo; Birkby, Jayne L

    2016-01-01

    The spin of a planet or brown dwarf is related to the accretion process, and therefore studying spin can help promote our understanding of the formation of such objects. We present the projected rotational velocity of the young sub-stellar companion GQ Lupi b, along with its barycentric radial velocity. The directly imaged exoplanet or brown dwarf companion joins a small but growing ensemble of wide-orbit sub-stellar companions with a spin measurement. The GQ Lupi system was observed at high spectral resolution (R ~ 100000), and in the analysis we made use of both spectral and spatial filtering to separate the signal of the companion from that of the host star. We detect both CO (S/N=11.6) and H2O (S/N=7.7) in the atmosphere of GQ Lupi b by cross-correlating with model spectra, and we find it to be a slow rotator with a projected rotational velocity of $5.3^{+0.9}_{-1.0}$ km/s. The slow rotation is most likely due to its young age of < 5 Myr, as it is still in the process of accreting material and angular ...

  6. IRAS 19520+2759: a 10^5 Lsun massive young stellar object driving a collimated outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Palau, Aina; Sahai, Raghvendra; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Rizzo, J Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The theory of massive star formation currently suffers from a scarce observational base of massive young stellar objects to compare with. In this paper, we present OVRO CO(1-0), 13CO(1-0), C18O(1-0), and 2.6 mm continuum images of the infrared source IRAS 19520+2759 together with complementary single-dish observations of CS(1-0), obtained with the 34m antenna DSS-54 at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex, as well as archive images at different wavelengths. As a result from our work, IRAS 19520+2759, with a controversial nature in the past, is firmly established as a massive young stellar object associated with a strong and compact millimetre source and driving a collimated outflow. In addition, a second fainter millimetre source is discovered about 4 arcsec to the south, which is also driving an outflow. Furthermore, the two millimetre sources are associated with C18O clumps elongated perpendicularly to the outflows, which may be related to rotating toroids. The masses of gas and dust of the millimet...

  7. Multiple stellar populations in Magellanic Cloud clusters. V. The split main sequence of the young cluster NGC1866

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, A P; D'Antona, F; Bedin, L R; Piotto, G; Jerjen, H; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Di Criscienzo, M; Lagioia, E P

    2016-01-01

    One of the most unexpected results in the field of stellar populations of the last few years, is the discovery that some Magellanic-Cloud globular clusters younger than ~400 Myr, exhibit bimodal main sequences (MSs) in their color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). Moreover, these young clusters host an extended main sequence turn off (eMSTO) in close analogy with what is observed in most ~1-2 Gyr old clusters of both Magellanic Clouds. We use high-precision Hubble-Space-Telescope photometry to study the young star cluster NGC1866 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We discover an eMSTO and a split MS. The analysis of the CMD reveals that (i) the blue MS is the less populous one, hosting about one-third of the total number of MS stars; (ii) red-MS stars are more centrally concentrated than blue-MS stars; (iii) the fraction of blue-MS stars with respect to the total number of MS stars drops by a factor of ~2 in the upper MS with F814W <~19.7. The comparison between the observed CMDs and stellar models reveals that the o...

  8. A Possible Origin of the H-H Objects in Young Stellar Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouveia dal Pino, E.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La presencIa de flujos coljmados asocjados con objetos estelares j6venes es un fen6meno comun en reglones de formacI6n estelar. Estos chorros frecuentemente muestran una cadena de reglones de lineas de emjsI6n, a varIas de las cuales se les conoce desde bace mucho tlempo objetos HerbIg-Haro (HAl). En el presente trabajo examjnamos la poslbIlI dad de que estos nudos sean condensaciones producIdas por inestabilidad termica en un plasma que se se expande sujeto a `bremsstrahlung' reco - binaci6n y perdida por radjacj5n en lineas de emjsj6n. Nostramos que el valor minimo de = P0/PN0 bajo condjcjones Isobaricas para el crecimien to de la inestabilidad termica es = (6/5) [9/(STc\\)e) - 3/2]; en donde P0 es la presi6n de particulas, PM0 la presi6n magnetica, `)e la tasa de expansI5n y Tc el tiempo de enfriatniento radiativo en el flujo (3eI plasma ambiente. Haciendo calculos no lineales, encontratnos que l9s flujos colitnados de temperatura K, tasas de perdida de masa `4 = 10-6 - lO 8 Ne y velocidades de flujo VJ = 100-400 km/s, resultan favorables para la formacl6n de condensaciones por inestabilidad termica con contrastes de densidad Pp/ .3 -2.0 creados en intervalos de tiempo mas cortos que el tiempo estirnado de expansl6n en los chorros, en donde Pp(Po) es la densidad en la regi5n (ambiente) perturbada. ABSTRACT. The presence of collimated outflows associated with young stellar objects is a common phenomenon in star-fortning regions. These jets frequently show a chain of emission-line regions several of which have long been known as Herbig-Haro (H-H) objects. In this paper we examine the possibility that these knots are condensations produced by thermal instability in an expanding plasma , recombination and emission-line radiation losses. We show that the minimum value of = P /PNo under isobaric conditions for the growth of a thermal instability 0is = (6/5)1 [9/(STcN)e) - 3/2]; where P0 is the particle pressure, NQ tWe magnetic pressure, N) the expansion rate

  9. Linking low- to high-mass young stellar objects with Herschel-HIFI observations of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    San José-García, I.; Mottram, J. C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Braine, J.; Herpin, F.; Johnstone, D.; van Kempen, T. A.; Wyrowski, F.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Water probes the dynamics in young stellar objects (YSOs) effectively, especially shocks in molecular outflows. It is therefore a key molecule for exploring whether the physical properties of low-mass protostars can be extrapolated to massive YSOs, an important step in understanding the fundamental mechanisms regulating star formation. Aims: As part of the WISH key programme, we investigate excited water line properties as a function of source luminosity, in particular the dynamics and the excitation conditions of shocks along the outflow cavity wall. Methods: Velocity-resolved Herschel-HIFI spectra of the H2O 202-111 (988 GHz), 211-202 (752 GHz) and 312-303 (1097 GHz) lines were analysed, together with 12CO J = 10-9 and 16-15, for 52 YSOs with bolometric luminosities ranging from 105 L⊙. The H2O and 12CO line profiles were decomposed into multiple Gaussian components which are related to the different physical structures of the protostellar system. The non-LTE radiative transfer code radex was used to constrain the excitation conditions of the shocks along the outflow cavity. Results: The profiles of the three excited water lines are similar, indicating that they probe the same gas. Two main emission components are seen in all YSOs: a broad component associated with non-dissociative shocks in the outflow cavity wall ("cavity shocks") and a narrow component associated with the quiescent envelope material. More than 60% of the total integrated intensity in the excited water lines comes from the broad cavity shock component, while the remaining emission comes mostly from the envelope for low-mass Class I, intermediate- and high-mass objects, and dissociative "spot shocks" for low-mass Class 0 protostars. The widths of the water lines are surprisingly similar from low- to high-mass YSOs, whereas 12CO J = 10-9 line widths increase slightly with Lbol. The excitation analysis of the cavity shock component shows stronger 752 GHz emission for high-mass YSOs

  10. Study of the young stellar population of NGC 4214 using the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ubeda, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    We present an original study of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4214. We use archival optical and UV images obtained with WFPC2 and STIS on-board the Hubble Space Telescope. We explain the process followed to obtain high-quality photometry and astrometry of the stellar and cluster populations of this galaxy. We describe the procedure used to transform magnitudes and colours into physical parameters using spectral energy distributions. We analyze several aspects of the astrophysics of NGC 4214: we briefly describe the stellar populations in its inner structure with emphasis in the determination of the ratio of blue-to-red supergiants. We study the stellar extinction and we find it consistent with previous studies of the nebular extinction. The extinction associated to the stellar population is found to be rather low (E(B-V) < 0.1 mag). We make a complete research of the initial mass function (IMF) of the stars with masses between 20 and 100 Mo using a photometric method. We find that this dwarf galaxy has a ...

  11. Magnetocentrifugally Driven Flows from Young Stars and Disks. VI. Accretion with a Multipole Stellar Field

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy

    2008-01-01

    Previous analyses of magnetospheric accretion and outflow in classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs), within the context of both the X-wind model and other theoretical scenarios, have assumed a dipolar geometry for the stellar magnetic field if it were not perturbed by the presence of an accreting, electrically conducting disk. However, CTTS surveys reveal that accretion hot spots cover a small fraction of the stellar surface, and that the net field polarization on the stellar surface is small. Both facts imply that the magnetic field generated by the star has a complex non-dipolar structure. To address this discrepancy between theory and observations, we re-examine X-wind theory without the dipole constraint. Using simple physical arguments based on the concept of trapped flux, we show that a dipole configuration is in fact not essential. Independent of the precise geometry of the stellar magnetosphere, the requirement for a certain level of trapped flux predicts a definite relationship among various CTTS observable...

  12. The effect of broadband soft X-rays in SO2-containing ices: Implication on the photochemistry of ices towards young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Pilling, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects produced mainly by broadband soft X-rays up to 2 keV (plus fast (keV) photoelectrons and low-energy (eV) induced secondary electrons) in the ice mixtures containing H2O:CO2:NH3:SO2 (10:1:1:1) at two different temperatures (50 K and 90 K). The experiments are an attempt to simulate the photochemical processes induced by energetic photons in SO2-containing ices present in cold environments in the ices surrounding young stellar objects (YSO) and in molecular clouds in the vicinity of star-forming regions, which are largely illuminated by soft X-rays. The measurements were performed using a high vacuum portable chamber from the Laboratorio de Astroquimica e Astrobiologia (LASA/UNIVAP) coupled to the spherical grating monochromator (SGM) beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS) in Campinas, Brazil. In-situ analyses were performed by a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Sample processing revealed the formation of several organic molecules, including nitriles,...

  13. A full 1---40 micron spectral energy distribution for the Becklin-Neugebauer object: Placing constraints on disk size for a runaway massive young stellar object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuping, Ralph; Keller, Luke D.; Adams, Joseph D.; Petkova, Maya; Wood, Kenneth; Herter, Terry; Sloan, Greg; Jaffe, Daniel Thomas; Greene, Thomas P.; Ennico, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    The Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) Object—one of the brightest infrared obejcts in the sky—is a highly luminous young stellar object (YSO) deeply embedded in Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1), which sits behind the Orion Nebula (M42). The BN object is likely a 8—15 M⊙ star and has no obvious optical counterpart due to high visual extinction on the line of sight. Furthermore, recent radio studies show that BN is moving towards the northwest at approximately 26 km/s with respect to the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), which may indicate that BN was dynamically ejected from either the Trapezium or from within OMC-1 itself. Near-IR polarimetry suggests that BN is surrounded by a large (R=800 AU) disk, which is surprising since a close encounter leading to an ejection would likely disrupt and/or truncate a disk of this size. In this poster presentation, we present new SOFIA-FORCAST grism spectroscopy of BN from 10—40 μm. In conjunction with previous SOFIA-FORCAST photometry and data form the literature, we present the full 1—40 μm SED of BN which we compare to theoretical models using the HOCHUNK-3D radiative equilibrium code. We report constraints on disk parameters and discuss implications for dynamical ejection scenarios.

  14. The young stellar population of NGC 4214 as observed with HST. II. Results

    CERN Document Server

    Úbeda, Leonardo; MacKenty, John

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed UV-optical study of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4214 using multifilter HST/WFPC2+STIS photometry. The stellar extinction is found to be quite patchy, with some areas having values of E(4405-5495)< 0.1 mag and others, associated with star forming regions, much more heavily obscured, a result which is consistent with previous studies of the nebular extinction. We determined the ratio of blue-to-red supergiants and found it to be consistent with theoretical models for the metallicity of the SMC. The stellar IMF of the field in the range 20-100 solar masses is found to be steeper than Salpeter. A number of massive clusters and associations with ages between a few and 200 million years are detected and their properties are discussed.

  15. Stellar content of the young supershell GSH 305+01-24

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltcheva, N

    2013-01-01

    We combine several surveys at different wavelengths with intermediate-band $ uvby\\beta$ photometry to examine the correlation between the location of the OB-stars in the Centaurus star-forming field and the neutral and ionized material in GSH 305+01$-$24 supershell seen in the same direction. Based on homogeneous distances of nearly 700 early-type stars, we are able to select spatially coherent stellar groupings and to revise the classical concept of the Cen OB1 association. We argue that this star-forming field is closer to the Sun than estimated before, at a distance of $1.8\\pm0.4$ kpc, instead of the classical 2.5 kpc. The region shows striking similarities between the stellar distribution and H$\\alpha$ and H I emission morphologies, suggesting that the observed shell passes a stage through which the number of ionizing photons emerging from the central association is not sufficient to ionize the entire shell. Stellar masses and ages, calculated via the latest evolutionary models are used to evaluate whethe...

  16. The young nuclear stellar disc in the SB0 galaxy NGC 1023

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, E M; Pastorello, N; Bontà, E Dalla; Pizzella, A; Portaluri, E

    2015-01-01

    Small kinematically-decoupled stellar discs with scalelengths of a few tens of parsec are known to reside in the centre of galaxies. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain how they form, including gas dissipation and merging of globular clusters. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging and ground-based integral-field spectroscopy, we investigated the structure and stellar populations of the nuclear stellar disc hosted in the interacting SB0 galaxy NGC 1023. The stars of the nuclear disc are remarkably younger and more metal rich with respect to the host bulge. These findings support a scenario in which the nuclear disc is the end result of star formation in metal enriched gas piled up in the galaxy centre. The gas can be of either internal or external origin, i.e. from either the main disc of NGC 1023 or the nearby satellite galaxy NGC 1023A. The dissipationless formation of the nuclear disc from already formed stars, through the migration and accretion of star clusters into the galactic cen...

  17. Chandra X-ray Observations of the Young Stellar Cluster NGC 6193 in the Ara OB1 Association

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, S L; Palla, F; Barbosa, C L D R

    2005-01-01

    A 90 ks Chandra HETG observation of the young stellar cluster NGC 6193 in the southern Ara OB1 association detected 43 X-ray sources in a 2' x 2' core region centered on the young O stars HD 150135 (O6.5V) and HD 150136 (O3+O6V). The cluster is dominated by exceptionally bright X-ray emission from the two O stars, which are separated by only 10 arcsecs. The X-ray luminosity of HD 150136 is log Lx = 33.39 (ergs/s), making it one of the most luminous O-star X-ray sources known. All of the fainter X-ray sources in the core region have near-IR counterparts, but JHK photometry provides little evidence for near-IR excesses. These core sources have typical mean photon energies of 2 keV and about one-third are variable. It is likely that some are young low-mass stars in the cluster, but cluster membership remains to be determined. Grating spectra show that the X-ray properties of HD 150135 and HD 150136 are similar, but not identical. Both have moderately broadened unshifted emission lines and their emission is domin...

  18. The Young Massive Stellar Cluster Sandage-96 after the Explosion of SN 2004DJ in NGC 2403

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinko, J.; Sarneczky, K.; Balog, Z.; Immler, S.; Sugerman, B.; Brown, P. J.; Misselt, K.; Szabo, Gy. M.; Klagyivik, P.; Kun, M.; Foley R.; Filippenko, A. V.; Csak, B.; Kiss, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    The bright supernova 2004dj occurred within the young massive stellar cluster Sandage-96 in a spiral arm of NGC 2403, close to other star-forming complexes. New multi-wavelength observations obtained with several ground-based- and space telescopes are combined to study the radiation from Sandage-96 after SN 2004dj faded away. The late-time light curves show that Sandage-96 started to dominate the flux in the optical bands after September, 2006 (+800 days after explosion). The optical fluxes are equal to the pre-explosion ones, suggesting that Sandage-96 has survived the explosion without significant changes in its stellar population. An optical Keck-spectrum obtained at +900 days after explosion shows the dominant blue continuum from the cluster stars shortward of 6000 A as well as strong SN nebular emission lines redward. The integrated SED of the cluster has been extended into the UV-region by archival XMM-Newton and new Swift observations, and compared with theoretical models. The outer parts of the cluster have been resolved by HST allowing the construction of a color-magnitude diagram. The fitting of the cluster SED with theoretical isochrones results in two possible solutions with ages being 9+/-1 Myr and 30+/-10 Myr, depending on the assumed metallicity and the theoretical model family. The isochrone fitting of the color-magnitude diagram indicates that the outer part of the cluster consists of stars having an age dispersion of 16 explosion SEDs suggest a progenitor mass of 15 < or equal to M(sub prog) < 25 Stellar Mass.

  19. Herschel far-infrared observations of the Carina Nebula complex II: The embedded young stellar and protostellar population

    CERN Document Server

    Gaczkowski, Benjamin; Ratzka, Thorsten; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Ohlendorf, Henrike; Zinnecker, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The Carina Nebula represents one of the largest and most active star forming regions known in our Galaxy with numerous very massive stars.Our recently obtained Herschel PACS & SPIRE far-infrared maps cover the full area (about 8.7 deg^2) of the Carina Nebula complex and reveal the population of deeply embedded young stellar objects, most of which are not yet visible in the mid- or near-infrared.We study the properties of the 642 objects that are independently detected as point-like sources in at least two of the five Herschel bands.For those objects that can be identified with apparently single Spitzer counterparts, we use radiative transfer models to derive information about the basic stellar and circumstellar parameters.We find that about 75% of the Herschel-detected YSOs are Class 0 protostars.The luminosities of the Herschel-detected YSOs with SED fits are restricted to values of <=5400 Lsun, their masses (estimated from the radiative transfer modeling) range from about 1 Msun to 10 Msun.Taking the...

  20. Impact of photometric variability on age and mass determination in young stellar objects: the case of the Orion Nebula Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Sergio; Parihar, Padmakar; Distefano, Elisa

    2017-03-01

    Very young stars, like the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) members analysed in the present study, exhibit photometric variability with a wide range of amplitudes. Such a prominent variability reflects in the inferred values of stellar colours and luminosities and, in turn, in the inferred stellar ages and masses. In this study, we measure the amplitudes of the photometric variability in V, R and I optical bands of a sample of 346 ONC members. We use these measurements to investigate how this variability affects the inferred masses and ages and whether it alone can account for the age spread among ONC members reported by earlier studies. We make use of colour-magnitude and Hertzprung-Russell (HR) diagrams. We find that members that show periodic and smooth photometric rotational modulation have masses and ages that are unaffected by variability when theoretical isochrones and evolutionary mass tracks are used in either colour-magnitude or HR diagrams. On the other hand, members with periodic but very scattered photometric rotational modulation and non-periodic members have masses and ages that are significantly affected. Moreover, using HR diagrams, we find that the observed I-band photometric variability can take account of only a fraction (˜50 per cent) of the inferred age spread, whereas the V-band photometric variability is large enough to mask any age spread.

  1. Wide-field infrared survey explorer observations of young stellar objects in the Lynds 1509 dark cloud in Auriga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wilson M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Padgett, Deborah L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Terebey, Susan; Angione, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Rebull, Luisa M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Leisawitz, David, E-mail: wliu@ipac.caltech.edu [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 605, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  2. H2O masers in a jet-driven bowshock: Episodic ejection from a massive young stellar object

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, R A; Nagayama, T; Sunada, K; Omodaka, T

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of VERA multi-epoch VLBI 22 GHz water maser observations of S255IR-SMA1, a massive young stellar object located in the S255 star forming region. By annual parallax the source distance was measured as D = 1.78 +-0.12 kpc and the source systemic motion was (u alpha cos d, u d) = (-0.13 +- 0.20, -0.06 +- 0.27) mas yr-1. Masers appear to trace a U-shaped bow shock whose morphology and proper motions are well reproduced by a jet-driven outflow model with a jet radius of about 6 AU. The maser data, in the context of other works in the literature, reveal ejections from S255IR-SMA1 to be episodic, operating on timescales of ~1000 years.

  3. Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations of Young Stellar Objects in the Lynds 1509 Dark Cloud in Auriga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wilson M.; Padgett, Deborah L.; Terebey, Susan; Angione, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; McCollum, Bruce; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Leisawitz, David

    2015-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has uncovered a striking cluster of young stellar object (YSO) candidates associated with the L1509 dark cloud in Auriga. The WISE observations, at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 microns, show a number of objects with colors consistent with YSOs, and their spectral energy distributions suggest the presence of circumstellar dust emission, including numerous Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II objects. In general, the YSOs in L1509 are much more tightly clustered than YSOs in other dark clouds in the Taurus-Auriga star forming region, with Class I and flat spectrum objects confined to the densest aggregates, and Class II objects more sparsely distributed. We estimate a most probable distance of 485-700 pc, and possibly as far as the previously estimated distance of 2 kpc.

  4. The interactions of winds from massive young stellar objects: X-ray emission, dynamics, and cavity evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, E R; Hoare, M G; Wright, N J; Drake, J J

    2009-01-01

    2D axis-symmetric hydrodynamical simulations are presented which explore the interaction of stellar and disk winds with surrounding infalling cloud material. The star, and its accompanying disk, blow winds inside a cavity cleared out by an earlier jet. The collision of the winds with their surroundings generates shock heated plasma which reaches temperatures up to ~10^8 K. Attenuated X-ray spectra are calculated from solving the equation of radiative transfer along lines-of-sight. This process is repeated at various epochs throughout the simulations to examine the evolution of the intrinsic and attenuated flux. We find that the dynamic nature of the wind-cavity interaction fuels intrinsic variability in the observed emission on timescales of several hundred years. This is principally due to variations in the position of the reverse shock which is influenced by changes in the shape of the cavity wall. The collision of the winds with the cavity wall can cause clumps of cloud material to be stripped away. Mixing...

  5. Generation and evolution of stable stellar magnetic fields in young A-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Arlt, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    While the presence of magnetic fields on low-mass stars is attributed to a dynamo process essentially driven by convective motions, the existence of magnetic fields on intermediate-mass stars has very likely other reasons. Presuming that the fields we see are nearly constant in time, the paper focuses on the generation of stable magnetic configurations at the early stages of stellar evolution. The convective processing of an initial magnetic field during the pre-main-sequence phase is studied in a very simple model star. Azimuthal magnetic fields are found to be typical remnants in the upcoming radiative envelope after the convection has receded.

  6. High-resolution extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of G191-B2B: structure of the stellar photosphere and the surrounding interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstow, M. A.; Cruddace, R. G.; Kowalski, M. P.; Bannister, N. P.; Yentis, D.; Lapington, J. S.; Tandy, J. A.; Hubeny, I.; Schuh, S.; Dreizler, S.; Barbee, T. W.

    2005-10-01

    We have continued our detailed analysis of the high-resolution (R= 4000) spectroscopic observation of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B, obtained by the Joint Astrophysical Plasmadynamic Experiment (J-PEX) normal incidence sounding rocket-borne telescope, comparing the observed data with theoretical predictions for both homogeneous and stratified atmosphere structures. We find that the former models give the best agreement over the narrow waveband covered by J-PEX, in conflict with what is expected from previous studies of the lower resolution but broader wavelength coverage Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer spectra. We discuss the possible limitations of the atomic data and our understanding of the stellar atmospheres that might give rise to this inconsistency. In our earlier study, we obtained an unusually high ionization fraction for the ionized HeII present along the line of sight to the star. In the present paper, we obtain a better fit when we assume, as suggested by Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph results, that this HeII resides in two separate components. When one of these is assigned to the local interstellar cloud, the implied He ionization fraction is consistent with measurements along other lines of sight. However, the resolving power and signal-to-noise available from the instrument configuration used in this first successful J-PEX flight are not sufficient to clearly identify and prove the existence of the two components.

  7. Formation of new stellar populations from gas accreted by massive young star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai; Geller, Aaron M; Xin, Yu; Hu, Yi; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre

    2016-01-01

    Stars in star clusters are thought to form in a single burst from a common progenitor cloud of molecular gas. However, massive, old globular clusters -- with ages greater than 10 billion years and masses of several hundred thousand solar masses -- often harbour multiple stellar populations, indicating that more than one star-forming event occurred during their lifetimes. Colliding stellar winds from late-stage, asymptotic-giant-branch stars are often invoked as second-generation star-formation trigger. The initial cluster masses should be at least 10 times more massive than they are today for this to work. However, large populations of clusters with masses greater than a few million solar masses are not found in the local Universe. Here we report on three 1-2 billion-year-old, massive star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, which show clear evidence of burst-like star formation that occurred a few hundred million years after their initial formation era. We show that such clusters could accrete sufficient gas ...

  8. X-shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects in Lupus. Accretion properties of class II and transitional objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, J. M.; Manara, C. F.; Natta, A.; Frasca, A.; Testi, L.; Nisini, B.; Stelzer, B.; Williams, J. P.; Antoniucci, S.; Biazzo, K.; Covino, E.; Esposito, M.; Getman, F.; Rigliaco, E.

    2017-03-01

    The mass accretion rate, Ṁacc, is a key quantity for the understanding of the physical processes governing the evolution of accretion discs around young low-mass (M⋆ ≲ 2.0 M⊙) stars and substellar objects (YSOs). We present here the results of a study of the stellar and accretion properties of the (almost) complete sample of class II and transitional YSOs in the Lupus I, II, III and IV clouds, based on spectroscopic data acquired with the VLT/X-shooter spectrograph. Our study combines the dataset from our previous work with new observations of 55 additional objects. We have investigated 92 YSO candidates in total, 11 of which have been definitely identified with giant stars unrelated to Lupus. The stellar and accretion properties of the 81 bona fide YSOs, which represent more than 90% of the whole class II and transition disc YSO population in the aforementioned Lupus clouds, have been homogeneously and self-consistently derived, allowing for an unbiased study of accretion and its relationship with stellar parameters. The accretion luminosity, Lacc, increases with the stellar luminosity, L⋆, with an overall slope of 1.6, similar but with a smaller scatter than in previous studies. There is a significant lack of strong accretors below L⋆ ≈ 0.1 L⊙, where Lacc is always lower than 0.01 L⋆. We argue that the Lacc - L⋆ slope is not due to observational biases, but is a true property of the Lupus YSOs. The log Ṁacc - log M⋆ correlation shows a statistically significant evidence of a break, with a steeper relation for M⋆ ≲ 0.2 M⊙ and a flatter slope for higher masses. The bimodality of the Ṁacc - M⋆ relation is confirmed with four different evolutionary models used to derive the stellar mass. The bimodal behaviour of the observed relationship supports the importance of modelling self-gravity in the early evolution of the more massive discs, but other processes, such as photo-evaporation and planet formation during the YSO's lifetime, may

  9. Remnant of a "Wet" Merger: NGC 34 and Its Young Massive Clusters, Young Stellar Disk, and Strong Gaseous Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, F; Schweizer, Francois; Seitzer, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents new images and spectroscopy of NGC 34 (Mrk 938) obtained with the du Pont 2.5-m and Baade 6.5-m telescopes at Las Campanas, plus photometry of an HST archival V image. This Mv = -21.6 galaxy has often been classified as a Seyfert 2, yet recently published infrared spectra suggest a dominant central starburst. We find that the galaxy features a single nucleus, a main spheroid containing a blue central disk, and tidal tails indicative of two former disk galaxies. These galaxies appear to have completed merging. The remnant shows three clear optical signs that the merger was gas-rich ("wet") and accompanied by a starburst: (1) It sports a rich system of young star clusters, of which 87 have absolute magnitudes -10.0 > Mv > -15.4. Five clusters with available spectra have ages in the range 0.1-1.0 Gyr, photometric masses between 2x10^6 and 2x10^7 Msun, and are gravitationally bound young globulars. (2) The blue central disk appears to be young. It is exponential, can be traced to >10 kpc radiu...

  10. A Spitzer Survey of Young Stellar Clusters within One Kiloparsec of the Sun: Cluster Core Extraction and Basic Structural Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gutermuth, R A; Myers, P C; Allen, L E; Pipher, J L; Fazio, G G

    2009-01-01

    We present a uniform mid-infrared imaging and photometric survey of 36 young, nearby, star-forming clusters and groups using {\\it Spitzer} IRAC and MIPS. We have confidently identified and classified 2548 young stellar objects using recently established mid-infrared color-based methods. We have devised and applied a new algorithm for the isolation of local surface density enhancements from point source distributions, enabling us to extract the overdense cores of the observed star forming regions for further analysis. We have compiled several basic structural measurements of these cluster cores from the data, such as mean surface densities of sources, cluster core radii, and aspect ratios, in order to characterize the ranges for these quantities. We find that a typical cluster core is 0.39 pc in radius, has 26 members with infrared excess in a ratio of Class II to Class I sources of 3.7, is embedded in a $A_K$=0.8 mag cloud clump, and has a surface density of 60 pc$^{-2}$. We examine the nearest neighbor dista...

  11. A HIGHLY COLLIMATED WATER MASER BIPOLAR OUTFLOW IN THE CEPHEUS A HW3d MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chibueze, James O.; Imai, Hiroshi; Tafoya, Daniel; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Chong, Sze-Ning [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Kameya, Osamu; Hirota, Tomoya [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Torrelles, Jose M., E-mail: james@milkyway.sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (CSIC)-UB/IEEC, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of multi-epoch very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) water (H{sub 2}O) maser observations carried out with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry toward the Cepheus A HW3d object. We measured for the first time relative proper motions of the H{sub 2}O maser features, whose spatio-kinematics traces a compact bipolar outflow. This outflow looks highly collimated and expanding through {approx}280 AU (400 mas) at a mean velocity of {approx}21 km s{sup -1} ({approx}6 mas yr{sup -1}) without taking into account the turbulent central maser cluster. The opening angle of the outflow is estimated to be {approx}30 Degree-Sign . The dynamical timescale of the outflow is estimated to be {approx}100 years. Our results provide strong support that HW3d harbors an internal massive young star, and the observed outflow could be tracing a very early phase of star formation. We also have analyzed Very Large Array archive data of 1.3 cm continuum emission obtained in 1995 and 2006 toward Cepheus A. The comparative result of the HW3d continuum emission suggests the possibility of the existence of distinct young stellar objects in HW3d and/or strong variability in one of their radio continuum emission components.

  12. A Search For X-ray Emission From Colliding Magnetospheres In Young Eccentric Stellar Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Getman, Konstantin V; Kospal, Agnes; Salter, Demerese M; Garmire, Gordon P

    2016-01-01

    Among young binary stars whose magnetospheres are expected to collide, only two systems have been observed near periastron in the X-ray band: the low-mass DQ Tau and the older and more massive HD 152404. Both exhibit elevated levels of X-ray emission at periastron. Our goal is to determine whether colliding magnetospheres in young high-eccentricity binaries commonly produce elevated average levels of X-ray activity. This work is based on Chandra snapshots of multiple periastron and non-periastron passages in four nearby young eccentric binaries (Parenago 523, RX J1622.7-2325 Nw, UZ Tau E, and HD 152404). We find that for the merged sample of all 4 binaries the current X-ray data show an increasing average X-ray flux near periastron (at about 2.5-sigma level). Further comparison of these data with the X-ray properties of hundreds of young stars in the Orion Nebula Cluster, produced by the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP), indicates that the X-ray emission from the merged sample of our binaries can not be...

  13. The Effect of Broadband Soft X-Rays in SO2-Containing Ices: Implications on the Photochemistry of Ices toward Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, S.; Bergantini, A.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the effects produced mainly by broadband soft X-rays up to 2 keV (plus fast (˜keV) photoelectrons and low-energy (˜eV) induced secondary electrons) in the ice mixtures containing H2O:CO2:NH3:SO2 (10:1:1:1) at two different temperatures (50 and 90 K). The experiments are an attempt to simulate the photochemical processes induced by energetic photons in SO2-containing ices present in cold environments in the ices surrounding young stellar objects (YSO) and in molecular clouds in the vicinity of star-forming regions, which are largely illuminated by soft X-rays. The measurements were performed using a high-vacuum portable chamber from the Laboratório de Astroquímica e Astrobiologia (LASA/UNIVAP) coupled to the spherical grating monochromator beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS) in Campinas, Brazil. In situ analyses were performed by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Sample processing revealed the formation of several organic molecules, including nitriles, acids, and other compounds such as H2O2, H3O+, SO3, CO, and OCN-. The dissociation cross section of parental species was on the order of (2-7) × 10-18 cm2. The ice temperature does not seem to affect the stability of SO2 in the presence of X-rays. Formation cross sections of new species produced were also determined. Molecular half-lives at ices toward YSOs due to the presence of incoming soft X-rays were estimated. The low values obtained employing two different models of the radiation field of YSOs (TW Hydra and typical T-Tauri star) reinforce that soft X-rays are indeed a very efficient source of molecular dissociation in such environments.

  14. The reliability of age measurements for Young Stellar Objects from Hertzsprung-Russell or color-magnitude diagrams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Preibisch

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to estimate ages and masses of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) from their location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) or a colormagnitude diagram provides a very important tool for the investigation of fundamental questions related to the processes of star formation and early stellar evolution.Age estimates are essential for studies of the temporal evolution of circumstellar material around YSOs and the conditions for planet formation.The characterization of the age distribution of the YSOs in a star forming region allows researchers to reconstruct the star formation history and provides important information on the fundamental question of whether star formation is a slow or a fast process.However,the reliability of these age measurements and the ability to detect possible age spreads in the stellar population of star forming regions are fundamentally limited by several factors.The variability of YSOs,unresolved binary components,and uncertainties in the calibrations of the stellar parameters cause uncertainties in the derived luminosities that are usually much larger than the typical photometry errors.Furthermore,the pre-main sequence evolution track of a YSO depends to some degree on the initial conditions and the details of its individual accretion history.I discuss how these observational and model uncertainties affect the derived isochronal ages,and demonstrate how neglecting or underestimating these uncertainties can easily lead to severe misinterpretations,gross overestimates of the age spread,and ill-based conclusions about the star formation history.These effects are illustrated by means of Monte-Carlo simulations of observed star clusters with realistic observational uncertainties.The most important points are as follows.First,the observed scatter in the HRD must not be confused with a genuine age spread,but is always just an upper limit to the true age spread.Second,histograms of isochronal ages naturally show a decreasing number of

  15. Young Stellar Object Variability at IRAC Wavelengths: Clues to Star and Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, John R.

    2009-05-01

    Spitzer/IRAC in the warm mission is the only facility, now existing or planned, capable of carrying out an extensive, accurate time series photometric monitoring survey of star-forming regions in the thermal infrared The demonstrated sensitivity and stability of IRAC allows measurement of the relative fluxes of YSO's down to the substellar mass limit to 1-2% accuracy in star-forming regions out to >500 pc. Our exploration science project - YSOVAR - will obtain synoptic data for the Orion Nebula Cluster and 11 very young, populous embedded star-forming cores. Each cluster will be observed at 80 or more epochs spread over 40+ days, with generally two observations per day. These data will allow us to: (a) provide otherwise unobtainable constraints on the structure of the inner disks in Class I and II YSOs - and hence, perhaps, provide clues to the formation and migration of planets at young ages; (b) measure the short and long-term stability of hot spots on the surfaces of YSO's of all evolutionary stages; and (c) determine rotational periods for the largest sample to date of Class I YSO's and hence obtain the best measure of the initial angular momentum distribution of young stars.

  16. Young Stellar Object Variability (YSOVAR): Mid Infrared Clues to Accretion Disk Physics and Protostar Rotational Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, John; Akeson, Rachel; Allen, Lori; Ardila, David; Barrado, David; Bayo, Amelia; Bouvier, Jerome; Calvet, Nuria; Carey, Sean; Carpenter, John; Ciardi, David; Covey, Kevin; Favata, Fabio; Flaherty, Kevin; Forbrich, Jan; Guieu, Sylvain; Gutermuth, Rob; Hartmann, Lee; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hora, Joe; McCaughrean, Mark; Megeath, Tom; Morales-Calderon, Maria; Muzerolle, James; Plavchan, Peter; Rebull, Luisa; Skrutskie, Mike; Smith, Howard; Song, Inseok; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Sung, Hwankyung; Terebey, Susan; Vrba, Fred; Werner, Mike; Whitney, Barbara; Winston, Elaine; Wood, Kenny

    2008-12-01

    Spitzer/IRAC in the warm mission is the only facility now existing or planned capable of carrying out an extensive, accurate time series photometric monitoring survey of star-forming regions in the thermal infrared. The demonstrated sensitivity and stability of IRAC allows measurement of the relative fluxes of YSO's down to the substellar mass limit to 1-2% accuracy in star-forming regions out to >500 pc. We propose a time series monitoring exploration science survey of the Orion Nebula Cluster and 11 very young, populous embedded star-forming cores which will provide >D 80 epochs of data for > 1500 YSO's. We will complement these observations with contemporaneous optical and near-IR monitoring data in order to allow comparison of the phase, amplitude and light-curve shape as a function of wavelength. These data will allow us to: (a) provide otherwise unobtainable constraints on the structure of the inner disks in Class I and II YSOs - and hence, perhaps, provide clues to the formation and migration of planets at young ages; (b) measure the short and long-term stability of hot spots on the surfaces of YSO's of all evolutionary stages; and (c) determine rotational periods for the largest sample to date of Class I YSO's and hence obtain the best measure of the initial angular momentum distribution of young stars.

  17. Discovery of extended VHE γ-ray emission from the vicinity of the young massive stellar cluster Westerlund 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Klużniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2012-01-01

    Results obtained in very-high-energy (VHE; E ≥ 100 GeV) γ-ray observations performed with the H.E.S.S. telescope array are used to investigate particle acceleration processes in the vicinity of the young massive stellar cluster Westerlund 1 (Wd 1). Methods. Imaging of Cherenkov light from γ-ray induced particle cascades in the Earth's atmosphere is used to search for VHE γ rays from the region around d 1. Possible catalogued counterparts are searched for and discussed in terms of morphology and energetics of the H.E.S.S. source. Results. The detection of the degree-scale extended VHE γ-ray source HESS J1646-458 is reported based on 45 h of H.E.S.S. observations performed between 2004 and 2008. The VHE γ-ray source is centred on the nominal position of Wd 1 and detected with a total statistical significance of ~20σ. The emission region clearly extends beyond the H.E.S.S. point-spread function (PSF). The differential energy spectrum follows a power law in energy with an index of Λ = 2.19 ± 0.08stat ± 0.20sys and a flux normalisation at 1 TeV of φ0 = (9.0 ± 1.4stat ± 1.8sys) × 10-12 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1. The integral flux above 0.2 TeV amounts to (5.2 ± 0.9) × 10-11 cm-2 s-1. Conclusions. Four objects coincident with HESS J1646-458 are discussed in the search of a counterpart, namely the magnetar CXOU J164710.2 - 455216, the X-ray binary 4U 1642-45, the pulsar PSR J1648-4611 and the massive stellar cluster Wd 1. In a single-source scenario, Wd 1 is favoured as site of VHE particle acceleration. Here, a hadronic parent population would be accelerated within the stellar cluster. Beside this, there is evidence for a multi-source origin, where a scenario involving PSR J1648-4611 could be viable to explain parts of the VHE γ-ray emission of HESS J1646-458.

  18. A spectroscopic census in young stellar regions: the σ Orionis cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, Jesús; Perez, Alice; Hernan, Ramírez [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Briceño, Cesar [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Olguin, Lorenzo [Depto. de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Sonora (Mexico); Contreras, Maria E. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Allen, Lori [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Espaillat, Catherine, E-mail: hernandj@cida.ve [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    We present a spectroscopic survey of the stellar population of the σ Orionis cluster. We have obtained spectral types for 340 stars. Spectroscopic data for spectral typing come from several spectrographs with similar spectroscopic coverage and resolution. More than half of the stars in our sample are members confirmed by the presence of lithium in absorption, strong Hα in emission or weak gravity-sensitive features. In addition, we have obtained high-resolution (R ∼ 34,000) spectra in the Hα region for 169 stars in the region. Radial velocities were calculated from this data set. The radial velocity distribution for members of the cluster is in agreement with previous work. Analysis of the profile of the Hα line and infrared observations reveals two binary systems or fast rotators that mimic the Hα width expected in stars with accretion disks. On the other hand, there are stars with optically thick disks and narrow Hα profiles not expected in stars with accretion disks. This contribution constitutes the largest homogeneous spectroscopic data set of the σ Orionis cluster to date.

  19. High Resolution HDS/SUBARU chemical abundances of the young stellar cluster Palomar 1

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, L; Correnti, M; Bonifacio, P; Geisler, D

    2010-01-01

    Context. Palomar\\,1 is a peculiar globular cluster (GC). It is the youngest Galactic GC and it has been tentatively associated to several of the substructures recently discovered in the Milky Way (MW), including the Canis Major (CMa) overdensity and the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure (GASS). Aims. In order to provide further insights into its origin, we present the first high resolution chemical abundance analysis for one red giant in Pal\\,1. Methods. We obtained high resolution (R=30000) spectra for one red giant star in Pal\\,1 using the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted at the SUBARU telescope. We used ATLAS-9 model atmospheres coupled with the SYNTHE and WIDTH calculation codes to derive chemical abundances from the measured line equivalent widths of 18 among $\\alpha$, Iron-peak, light and heavy elements. Results. The Palomar~1 chemical pattern is broadly compatible to that of the MW open clusters population and similar to disk stars. It is, instead, remarkably different from that of the Sa...

  20. The Young Stellar Population of the Nearby Late-Type Galaxy NGC 1311

    CERN Document Server

    Eskridge, Paul B; Mager, Violet A; Jansen, Rolf A

    2010-01-01

    We have extracted PSF-fitted stellar photometry from near-ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared images, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, of the nearby (D ~ 5.5 Mpc) SBm galaxy NGC 1311. The ultraviolet and optical data reveal a population of hot main sequence stars with ages of 2-10 Myr. We also find populations of blue supergiants with ages between 10 and 40 Myr and red supergiants with ages between 10 and 100 Myr. Our near-infrared data shows evidence of star formation going back ~1 Gyr, in agreement with previous work. Fits to isochrones indicate a metallicity of Z ~ 0.004. The ratio of blue to red supergiants is consistent with this metallicity. This indicates that NGC 1311 follows the well-known luminosity-metallicity relation for late-type dwarf galaxies. About half of the hot main sequence stars and blue supergiants are found in two regions in the inner part of NGC 1311. These two regions are each about 200 pc across, and thus have crossing times roughly equal to the 10 Myr age we find for th...

  1. First detection of a low-mass stellar halo around the young open cluster Eta Chamaeleontis

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    We have identified several lithium-rich low-mass (0.08young open cluster Eta Chamaeleontis, nearly four times the radius of previous search efforts. Of these stars we propose 4 new probable cluster members, and 3 possible members requiring further investigation. These findings are consistent with a dynamical origin for the current configuration of the cluster, without the need to invoke an abnormal Initial Mass Function deficient in low-mass objects. Candidates were selected on the basis of DENIS and 2MASS photometry, NOMAD astrometry and extensive follow-up spectroscopy.

  2. Gemini Observations of Disks and Jets in Young Stellar Objects and in Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McGregor, Peter; Sutherland, Ralph; Beck, Tracy; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2007-01-01

    We present first results from the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) located at Gemini North. For the active galaxies Cygnus A and Perseus A we observe rotationally-supported accretion disks and adduce the existence of massive central black holes and estimate their masses. In Cygnus A we also see remarkable high-excitation ionization cones dominated by photoionization from the central engine. In the T-Tauri stars HV Tau C and DG Tau we see highly-collimated bipolar outflows in the [Fe II] 1.644 micron line, surrounded by a slower molecular bipolar outflow seen in the H_2 lines, in accordance with the model advocated by Pyo et al. (2002).

  3. Using Colour-Magnitude-Diagrams to Study the Evolution of Young Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, N. J.

    2008-06-01

    Timescales for stellar evolution and star and planet formation are critical to provide constraints on theories. The accuracy of these timescales, and therefore our ability to confidently reject a given model, rely on the accuracy of the derived ages for star-forming-regions (SFRs). In this study I have developed the new techniques and adopted or updated the existing techniques necessary to derive precise age orders for a range of SFRs. Deriving precise ages for SFRs requires precise distances and extinctions. I have applied a new technique, tau-squared fitting (Naylor &Jeffries, 2006), to derive a set of self-consistent and statistically robust distances (and mean extinctions), with associated uncertainties for 12 SFRs. I have also revised and formalised a widely used method of deriving individual extinctions, the Q-method (Johnson & Morgan, 1953). These new data show that the largest remaining uncertainty in deriving distances to SFRs is composition. Deriving ages or age orders for pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) populations using pre-MS theoretical isochrones has been shown to be unreliable at present (Naylor et al., 2002; Bonatto et al., 2004; Pinsonneault et al., 2004), largely due to model dependencies and spreads within a colour-magnitude diagram (CMD). Therefore, I have developed a technique to model the pre-MS, generating empirical isochrones, which effectively removes spreads in pre-MS populations in a CMD. The derived distances and extinctions have been applied to the empirical isochrones, enabling the creation of an age ordered ladder in intrinsic colour and absolute magnitude. This has been calibrated using ages for fiducial sequences and nominal ages assigned to the separable groups, which are as follows: - 1 Myr, NGC2244 and IC5146. - 2 Myrs, NGC6530 and the ONC. - 3 Myrs, Sigma Ori, Cep OB3b, NGC2264 and Lambda Ori. - 4-5 Myrs, NGC2362 and IC348. - 10 Myrs, NGC7160. - 13 Myrs, h and ? Per. - 20 Myrs, NGC1960. - 40 Myrs, NGC2547. Once assigned the nominal

  4. Accretion-induced luminosity spreads in young clusters: evidence from stellar rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Littlefair, S P; Mayne, N J; Saunders, Eric; Jeffries, R D

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the rotation of young stars in the associations Cepheus OB3b, NGC 2264, NGC 2362 and the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). We discover a correlation between rotation rate and position in a colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) such that stars which lie above an empirically determined median pre-main sequence rotate more rapidly than stars which lie below this sequence. The same correlation is seen, with a high degree of statistical significance, in each association studied here. If position within the CMD is interpreted as being due to genuine age spreads within a cluster, then the stars above the median pre-main sequence would be the youngest stars. This would in turn imply that the most rapidly rotating stars in an association are the youngest, and hence those with the largest moments of inertia and highest likelihood of ongoing accretion. Such a result does not fit naturally into the existing picture of angular momentum evolution in young stars, where the stars are braked effectively by their ...

  5. The Red MSX Source Survey: the Massive Young Stellar Population of our Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lumsden, S L; Urquhart, J S; Oudmaijer, R D; Davies, B; Mottram, J C; Cooper, H D B; Moore, T J T

    2013-01-01

    We present the Red MSX Source (RMS) Survey, the largest statistically selected catalog of young massive protostars and HII regions to date. We outline the construction of the catalog using mid and near infrared color selection, as well as the detailed follow up work at other wavelengths, and at higher spatial resolution in the infrared. We show that within the adopted selection bounds we are more than 90% complete for the massive protostellar population, with a positional accuracy of the exciting source of better than 2 arcseconds. We briefly summarize some of the results that can be obtained from studying the properties of the objects in the catalog as a whole, and find evidence that the most massive stars form: (i) preferentially nearer the Galactic centre than the anti-centre; (ii) in the most heavily reddened environments, suggestive of high accretion rates; and (iii) from the most massive cloud cores.

  6. Can Dust Injected by SNe Explain the NIR-MIR Excess in Young Massive Stellar Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Sergio; Wünsch, Richard; Palouš, Jan

    2017-07-01

    We present a physically motivated model involving the different processes affecting supernova dust grains as they are incorporated into the thermalized medium within young massive star clusters. The model is used to explain the near- to mid-infrared (NIR-MIR) excess found in such clusters and usually modeled as a blackbody with temperature ˜ (400{--}1000) K. In our approach, dust grains are efficiently produced in the clumpy ejecta of core-collapse supernovae, shattered into small pieces (≲ 0.05 μm) as they are incorporated into the hot and dense ISM, heated via frequent collisions with electrons and the absorption of energetic photons. Grains with small sizes can more easily acquire the high temperatures (˜1000 K) required to produce an NIR-MIR excess with respect to the emission of foreground PAHs and starlight. However, the extreme conditions inside young massive clusters make it difficult for these small grains to have a persistent manifestation at NIR-MIR wavelengths as they are destroyed by efficient thermal sputtering. Nevertheless, the chances for a persistent manifestation are increased by taking into account that small grains become increasingly transparent to their impinging ions as their sizes decrease. For an individual SN event, we find that the NIR-MIR excess lasts longer if the time required to incorporate all the grains into the thermalized medium is also longer, and, in some cases, comparable to the characteristic interval between supernova explosions. Our models can successfully explain the near-infrared excesses found in the star clusters observed in M33 assuming a low heating efficiency and mass loading. In this scenario, the presence of the NIR-MIR excess is an indication of efficient dust production in SNe and its subsequent destruction.

  7. The c2d Spitzer spectroscopy survey of ices around low-mass young stellar objects, III: CH4

    CERN Document Server

    Oberg, Karin I; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J; Lahuis, Fred; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2008-01-01

    CH4 is proposed to be the starting point of a rich organic chemistry. Solid CH4 abundances have previously been determined mostly toward high mass star forming regions. Spitzer/IRS now provides a unique opportunity to probe solid CH4 toward low mass star forming regions as well. Infrared spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope are presented to determine the solid CH4 abundance toward a large sample of low mass young stellar objects. 25 out of 52 ice sources in the $c2d$ (cores to disks) legacy have an absorption feature at 7.7 um, attributed to the bending mode of solid CH4. The solid CH4 / H2O abundances are 2-8%, except for three sources with abundances as high as 11-13%. These latter sources have relatively large uncertainties due to small total ice column densities. Toward sources with H2O column densities above 2E18 cm-2, the CH4 abundances (20 out of 25) are nearly constant at 4.7+/-1.6%. Correlation plots with solid H2O, CH3OH, CO2 and CO column densities and abundances relative to H2O reveal a closer...

  8. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Stellar radii in the young open clusters NGC 2264, NGC 2547 and NGC 2516

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, R J; Randich, S; Bragaglia, A; Carraro, G; Costado, M T; Flaccomio, E; Lanzafame, A C; Lardo, C; Monaco, L; Morbidelli, L; Smiljanic, R; Zaggia, S

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly rotating, low-mass members of eclipsing binary systems have measured radii significantly larger than predicted by standard models. It has been proposed that magnetic activity is responsible for radius inflation. By estimating the radii of low-mass stars in three young clusters (NGC 2264, NGC 2547, NGC 2516, with ages of 5, 35 and 140 Myr respectively), we aim to establish whether similar radius inflation is seen in single, magnetically active stars. We use radial velocities from the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) and published photometry to establish cluster membership and combine GES measurements of vsini with published rotation periods to estimate average radii for groups of fast-rotating cluster members as a function of their luminosity and age. The average radii are compared with the predictions of both standard evolutionary models and variants that include magnetic inhibition of convection and starspots. At a given luminosity, the stellar radii in NGC 2516 and NGC 2547 are larger than predicted by standar...

  9. The VISTA Carina Nebula Survey II. Spatial distribution of the infrared-excess-selected young stellar population

    CERN Document Server

    Zeidler, Peter; Ratzka, Thorsten; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Petr-Gotzens, Monika G

    2016-01-01

    We performed a deep wide-field (6.76 deg^2) near-infrared survey with the VISTA telescope that covers the entire extent of the Carina nebula complex (CNC). The point-source catalog created from these data contains around four million individual objects down to masses of 0.1 M_sun. We present a statistical study of the large-scale spatial distribution and an investigation of the clustering properties of infrared-excesses objects, which are used to trace disk-bearing young stellar objects (YSOs). We find that a (J - H) versus (Ks - [4.5]) color-color diagram is well suited to tracing the population of YSO-candidates (cYSOs) by their infrared excess. We identify 8781 sources with strong infrared excess, which we consider as cYSOs. This sample is used to investigate the spatial distribution of the cYSOs with a nearest-neighbor analysis. The surface density distribution of cYSOs agrees well with the shape of the clouds as seen in our Herschel far-infrared survey. The strong decline in the surface density of excess...

  10. Discovery of extended VHE \\gamma-ray emission from the vicinity of the young massive stellar cluster Westerlund 1

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; de Almeida, U Barres; Becherini, Y; Becker, J; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L -M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gallant, Y A; Gast, H; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göring, D; Häffner, S; Hague, J D; Hampf, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzynski, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Keogh, D; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, D; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P -O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sheidaei, F; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S

    2011-01-01

    Results obtained in very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) \\gamma-ray observations performed with the H.E.S.S. telescope array are used to investigate particle acceleration processes in the vicinity of the young massive stellar cluster Westerlund 1 (Wd 1). Imaging of Cherenkov light from \\gamma-ray induced particle cascades in the Earth's atmosphere is used to search for VHE \\gamma\\ rays from the region around Wd 1. Possible catalogued counterparts are searched for and discussed in terms of morphology and energetics of the H.E.S.S. source. The detection of the degree-scale extended VHE \\gamma-ray source HESS J1646-458 is reported based on 45 hours of H.E.S.S. observations performed between 2004 and 2008. The VHE \\gamma-ray source is centred on the nominal position of Wd 1 and detected with a total statistical significance of ~20\\sigma. The emission region clearly extends beyond the H.E.S.S. point-spread function (PSF). The differential energy spectrum follows a power law in energy with an index of \\Gamma=2.19 \\p...

  11. A Wide-Field Survey for Transiting Hot Jupiters and Eclipsing Pre-Main-Sequence Binaries in Young Stellar Associations

    CERN Document Server

    Oelkers, Ryan J; Marshall, Jennifer L; DePoy, Darren L; Lambas, Diego G; Colazo, Carlos; Stringer, Katelyn

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a significant advancement in the detection, classification and understanding of exoplanets and binaries. This is due, in large part, to the increase in use of small-aperture telescopes (< 20 cm) to survey large areas of the sky to milli-mag precision with rapid cadence. The vast majority of the planetary and binary systems studied to date consist of main-sequence or evolved objects, leading to a dearth of knowledge of properties at early times (< 50 Myr). Only a dozen binaries and one candidate transiting Hot Jupiter are known among pre-main sequence objects, yet these are the systems that can provide the best constraints on stellar formation and planetary migration models. The deficiency in the number of well-characterized systems is driven by the inherent and aperiodic variability found in pre-main-sequence objects, which can mask and mimic eclipse signals. Hence, a dramatic increase in the number of young systems with high-quality observations is highly desirable to gui...

  12. Proper Motions of Young Stellar Outflows in the Mid-Infrared with Spitzer. II. HH 377/Cep E

    CERN Document Server

    Noriega-Crespo, A; Moro-Martin, A; Flagey, N; Carey, S J

    2014-01-01

    We have used multiple mid-infrared observations at 4.5 micron obtained with the Infrared Array Camera, of the compact (~1.4 arcmin) young stellar bipolar outflow Cep E to measure the proper motion of its brightest condensations. The images span a period of ~6 yr and have been reprocessed to achieve a higher angular resolution (~0.8 arcsec) than their normal beam (2 arcsec). We found that for a distance of 730 pc, the tangential velocities of the North and South outflow lobes are 62+/-29 and 94+/-6 km/s respectively, and moving away from the central source roughly along the major axis of the flow. A simple 3D hydrodynamical simulation of the H2 gas in a precessing outflow supports this idea. Observations and model confirm that the molecular Hydrogen gas, traced by the pure rotational transitions, moves at highly supersonic velocities without being dissociated. This suggests either a very efficient mechanism to reform H2 molecules along these shocks or the presence of some other mechanism (e.g. strong magnetic ...

  13. Probing the Evolution of Massive Young Stellar Objects using Weak Class II 6.7GHz Methanol Maser Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Bethany Ann; Cunningham, Nichol

    2017-01-01

    We present results from an investigation of class II 6.7GHz methanol masers towards four Massive Young Stellar Objects (MYSOs). The sources, selected from the Red MSX Source (RMS) Survey (Lumsden et al. 2013), were previously understood to be non-detections for class II methanol maser emission in the methanol multi-beam (MMB) Survey (Caswell et al. 2010.) Class II methanol masers are a well-known sign post of massive star forming regions and may be utilized to probe their relatively poorly understood formation. It is possible that these non-detections are simply weak masers that are potentially associated with a younger evolutionary phase of MYSOs as hypothesized by Olmi et al. (2014). The sources were chosen to sample various stages of evolution, having similar 21 to 8 micron flux ratios and bolometric luminosities as other MYSOs with previous class II methanol maser detections. We observed all 4 MYSOs with ATCA (~2" resolution) at 10 times deeper sensitivity than previously obtained with the MMB survey and have a spectral resolution of 0.087kms^-1 . The raw data is reduced using the program Miriad (Sault, R. J., et al., 1995) and deconvolutioned using the program CASA (McMullin, J. P., et al. 2007.) We determine one of the four observed MYSOs is harboring a weak class II methanol maser. We discuss the possibility of sensitivity limitations on the remaining sources as well as environmental and evolutionary differences between the sources.

  14. The Herschel Gould Belt Survey in Chamaeleon II - Properties of cold dust in disks around young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Spezzi, L; Prusti, T; Merin, B; Ribas, A; de Oliveira, C Alves; Winston, E; Kospal, A; Royer, P; Vavrek, R; Andre, Ph; Pilbratt, G L; Testi, L; Bressert, E; Ricci, L; Menshchikov, A; Konyves, V

    2013-01-01

    We report on the Herschel Gould Belt survey (HGBS) of ChaII, focusing on the detection of Class I to III young stellar objects (YSOs). We aim at characterizing the circumstellar material around these YSOs and understanding which disk parameters are most likely constrained by the new HGBS data. We recovered 29 out of the 63 known YSOs in ChaII with a detection in at least one of the PACS/SPIRE pass-bands: 3 Class I YSOs (i.e.,100%), 1 Flat source (i.e., 50%), 21 Class II objects (i.e., 55%), 3 Class III objects (i.e, 16%) and the unclassified source IRAS 12522-7640. We explore PACS/SPIRE colors of this sample and present modeling of their SEDs using the RADMC-2D radiative transfer code. We find that YSO colors are confined in specific regions of PACS/SPIRE color-color diagrams. These color ranges are expected to be only marginally contaminated by extragalactic sources and field stars and, hence, provide a useful YSO selection tool when applied altogether. We were able to model the SED of 26 out of the 29 detec...

  15. The circumstellar disk, envelope, and bi-polar outflow of the Massive Young Stellar Object W33A

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Ben; Hoare, Melvin G; Oudmaijer, Rene D; de Wit, Willem-Jan

    2009-01-01

    The Young Stellar Object (YSO) W33A is one of the best known examples of a massive star still in the process of forming. Here we present Gemini North ALTAIR/NIFS laser-guide star adaptive-optics assisted K-band integral-field spectroscopy of W33A and its inner reflection nebula. In our data we make the first detections of a rotationally-flattened outer envelope and fast bi-polar jet of a massive YSO at near-infrared wavelengths. The predominant spectral features observed are Br-gamma, H_2, and a combination of emission and absorption from CO gas. We perform a 3-D spectro-astrometric analysis of the line emission, the first study of its kind. We find that the object's Br-gamma emission reveals evidence for a fast bi-polar jet on sub-milliarcsecond scales, which is aligned with the larger-scale outflow. The hybrid CO features can be explained as a combination of hot CO emission arising in a disk close to the central star, while cold CO absorption originates in the cooler outer envelope. Kinematic analysis of th...

  16. A Mid-Infrared Imaging Survey of Embedded Young Stellar Objects in the Rho Ophiuchi Cloud Core

    CERN Document Server

    Barsony, M; Marsh, K A; Barsony, Mary; Ressler, Michael E.; Marsh, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Results of a comprehensive, new, ground-based mid-infrared imaging survey of the young stellar population of the Rho Ophiuchi cloud are presented. Data were acquired at the Palomar 5-m and at the Keck 10-m telescopes with the MIRLIN and LWS instruments, at 0.25 arcsec and 0.25 arcsec resolutions, respectively. Of 172 survey objects, 85 were detected. Among the 22 multiple systems observed, 15 were resolved and their individual component fluxes determined. A plot of the frequency distribution of the detected objects with SED spectral slope shows that YSOs spend ~400,000 yr in the Flat Spectrum phase, clearing out their remnant infall envelopes. Mid-infrared variability is found among a significant fraction of the surveyed objects, and is found to occur for all SED classes with optically thick disks. Large-amplitude near-infrared variability, also found for all SED classes with optically thick disks, seems to occur with somewhat higher frequency at the earlier evolutionary stages. Although a general trend of mi...

  17. [Fe II] 1.64 um Features of Jets and Outflows from Young Stellar Objects in the Carina Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Lee, Jae-Joon; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul; Sung, Hwankyung; Chun, Moo Young; Lyo, A -Ran; Moon, Dae-Sik; Kyeong, Jaemann; Park, Byeong-Gon; Hur, Hyeonoh; Lee, Yong-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We present [Fe II] 1.64 {\\mu}m imaging observations for jets and outflows from young stellar objects (YSOs) over the northern part (~ 24'x45') of the Carina Nebula, a massive star forming region. The observations were performed with IRIS2 of Anglo-Australian Telescope and the seeing was ~1.5"+-0.5". Eleven jet and outflow features are detected at eight different regions, and are named as Ionized Fe Objects (IFOs). One Herbig-Haro object candidate missed in Hubble Space Telescope H{\\alpha} observations is newly identified as HHc-16, referring our [Fe II] images. IFOs have knotty or longish shapes, and the detection rate of IFOs against previously identified YSOs is 1.4 %, which should be treated as a lower limit. Four IFOs show an anti-correlated peak intensities in [Fe II] and H{\\alpha}, where the ratio I([Fe II])/I(H{\\alpha}) is higher for longish IFOs than for knotty IFOs. We estimate the outflow mass loss rate from the [Fe II] flux, using two different methods. The jet-driving objects are identified for th...

  18. A survey of SiO 5-4 emission towards outflows from massive young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gibb, A G; Moore, T J T

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey of SiO 5-4 emission observed with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) towards a sample of outflows from massive young stellar objects. The sample is drawn from a single-distance study by Ridge & Moore. In a sample of 12 sources, the 5-4 line was detected in 5, a detection rate of 42 per cent. This detection rate is higher than that found for a sample of low-luminosity outflow sources, although for sources of comparable luminosity, it is in good agreement with the results of a previous survey of high luminosity sources. For most of the detected sources, the 5-4 emission is compact or slightly extended along the direction of the outflow. NGC6334I shows a clear bipolar flow in the 5-4 line. Additional data were obtained for W3-IRS5, AFGL5142 and W75N for the 2-1 transition of SiO using the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) millimetre interferometer. There is broad agreement between the appearance of the SiO emission in both lines, though there are some minor...

  19. Intermittent maser flare around the high mass young stellar object G353.273+0.641 I: data & overview

    CERN Document Server

    Motogi, K; Honma, M; Minamidani, T; Takekoshi, T; Akiyama, K; Tateuchi, K; Hosaka, K; Ohishi, Y; Watanabe, Y; Habe, A; Kobayashi, H

    2011-01-01

    We have performed VLBI and single-dish monitoring of 22 GHz H$_{2}$O maser emission from the high mass young stellar object G353.273+0.641 with VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) and Tomakamai 11-m radio telescope. Two maser flares have been detected, separated almost two years. Frequent VLBI monitoring has revealed that these flare activities have been accompanied by structural change of the prominent shock front traced by H2O maser alignments. We have detected only blue-shifted emissions and all maser features have been distributed within very small area of 200 $\\times$ 200 au$^{2}$ in spite of wide velocity range (> 100 km s$^{-1}$). The light curve shows notably intermittent variation and suggests that the H$_{2}$O masers in G353.273+0.641 are excited by episodic radio jet. The time-scale of \\sim2 yr and characteristic velocity of \\sim500 km s$^{-1}$ also support this interpretation. Two isolated velocity components of C50 (-53 \\pm 7 km s$^{-1}$) and C70 (-73 \\pm 7 km s$^{-1}$) have shown synchro...

  20. $K$-band integral field spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy of massive young stellar objects in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, J L; van Loon, J Th; Sewiło, M

    2016-01-01

    We present $K$-band integral field spectroscopic observations towards 17 massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the low metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and two YSO candidates in the compact H ii regions N81 and N88 A (also in the SMC). These sources, originally identified using $Spitzer$ photometry and/or spectroscopy, have been resolved into 29 $K$-band continuum sources. By comparing Br$\\gamma$ emission luminosities with those presented for a Galactic sample of massive YSOs, we find tentative evidence for increased accretion rates in the SMC. Around half of our targets exhibit emission line (Br$\\gamma$, He i and H$_2$) morphologies which extend significantly beyond the continuum source and we have mapped both the emission morphologies and the radial velocity fields. This analysis also reveals evidence for the existence of ionized low density regions in the centre outflows from massive YSOs. Additionally we present an analysis of optical spectra towards a similar sample of massive YSOs in the SMC, ...

  1. Characterizing the nature of embedded young stellar objects through silicate, ice and millimeter observations

    CERN Document Server

    Crapsi, A; Hogerheijde, M R; Pontoppidan, K M; Dullemond, C P

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) Classification schemes for YSOs are based on evaluating the degree of dissipation of the surrounding envelope, whose main effects are the extinction of the optical radiation from the central YSO and re-emission in the far-infrared. Since extinction is a property of column density along the line of sight, the presence of a protoplanetary disk may lead to a misclassification when the system is viewed edge-on. We performed radiative transfer calculations, using the axysimmetric 3D radiative transfer codes RADMC and RADICAL, to show the effects of different geometries on the main indicators of YSO evolutionary stage, like the slope of the flux between 2 and 24mum, the bolometric temperature and the optical depth of silicates and ices. We show that for systems viewed at intermediate angles the 'classical' indicators of evolution accurately trace the envelope column density, and they all agree with each other. On the other hand, edge-on system are misclassified for inclinations larger than ~65deg. In par...

  2. Stellar magnetic activity and their influence on the habitability of exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Lüftinger, T; Johnstone, C P

    2015-01-01

    Stellar magnetism, explorable via polarimetry, is a crucial driver of activity, ionization, photodissociation, chemistry and winds in stellar environments. Thus it has an important impact on the atmospheres and magnetospheres of surrounding planets. Modeling of stellar magnetic fields and their winds is extremely challenging, both from the observational and the theoretical points of view, and only recent ground breaking advances in observational instrumentation - as were discussed during this Symposium - and a deeper theoretical understanding of magnetohydrodynamic processes in stars enable us to model stellar magnetic fields and winds and the resulting influence on surrounding planets in more and more detail. We have initiated a national and international research network (NFN): 'Pathways to Habitability - From Disks to Active Stars, Planets to Life', to address questions on the formation and habitability of environments in young, active stellar/planetary systems. In this contribution we discuss the work we ...

  3. AMI radio continuum observations of young stellar objects with known outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Ainsworth, Rachael E; Ray, Tom P; Buckle, Jane V; Davies, Matthew; Franzen, Thomas M O; Grainge, Keith J B; Hobson, Michael P; Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Lasenby, Anthony N; Olamaie, Malak; Perrott, Yvette C; Pooley, Guy G; Richer, John S; Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, Carmen; Schammel, Michel P; Scott, Paul F; Shimwell, Timothy; Saunders, Richard D E; Titterington, David; Waldram, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    We present 16 GHz (1.9 cm) deep radio continuum observations made with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager (AMI) of a sample of low-mass young stars driving jets. We combine these new data with archival information from an extensive literature search to examine spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for each source and calculate both the radio and sub-mm spectral indices in two different scenarios: (1) fixing the dust temperature (Td) according to evolutionary class; (2) allowing Td to vary. We use the results of this analysis to place constraints on the physical mechanisms responsible for the radio emission. From AMI data alone, as well as from model fitting to the full SED in both scenarios, we find that 80 per cent of the objects in this sample have spectral indices consistent with free-free emission. We find an average spectral index in both Td scenarios consistent with free-free emission. We examine correlations of the radio luminosity with bolometric luminosity, envelope mass, and outflow force and find that...

  4. X-Shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects: V - Slow winds in T Tauri stars

    CERN Document Server

    Natta, A; Alcalá, J M; Rigliaco, E; Covino, E; Stelzer, B; D'Elia, V

    2014-01-01

    Disks around T Tauri stars are known to lose mass, as best shown by the profiles of forbidden emission lines of low ionization species. At least two separate kinematic components have been identified, one characterised by velocity shifts of tens to hundreds km/s (HVC) and one with much lower velocity of few km/s (LVC). The HVC are convincingly associated to the emission of jets, but the origin of the LVC is still unknown. In this paper we analyze the forbidden line spectrum of a sample of 44 mostly low mass young stars in Lupus and $\\sigma$-Ori observed with the X-Shooter ESO spectrometer. We detect forbidden line emission of [OI], [OII], [SII], [NI], and [NII], and characterize the line profiles as LVC, blue-shifted HVC and red-shifted HVC. We focus our study on the LVC. We show that there is a good correlation between line luminosity and both L$_{star}$ and the accretion luminosity (or the mass-accretion rate) over a large interval of values (L$_{star}$ $\\sim 10^{-2} - 1$ L$_\\odot$; L$_{acc}$ $\\sim 10^{-5} ...

  5. The very low-mass stellar content of the young supermassive Galactic star cluster Westerlund 1

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M; Brandner, W; Stolte, A; de Marchi, G; Meyer, M R; Zinnecker, H

    2016-01-01

    We present deep near-infrared HST/WFC3 observations of the young supermassive Galactic star cluster Westerlund 1 and an adjacent control field. The depth of the data is sufficient to derive the mass function for the cluster as a function of radius down to 0.15 M$_\\odot$ in the outer parts of the cluster. We identify for the first time a flattening in the mass function (in logarithmic units) at a mass range that is consistent with that of the field and nearby embedded clusters. Through log-normal functional fits to the mass functions we find the nominal peak mass to be comparable to that of the field and nearby embedded star clusters. The width of a log-normal fit appears slightly narrow compared to the width of the field IMF, closer to the values found for globular clusters. The subsolar content within the cluster does not appear to be mass segregated in contrast to the findings for the supersolar content. The total mass of Westerlund 1 is estimated to be 44-57 $\\times 10^3$ M$_\\odot$ where the main uncertain...

  6. The young stellar cluster [DBS2003] 157 associated with the H II region GAL 331.31-00.34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Abraham, Z.; Copetti, M. V. F.; Ortiz, R.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D. A.; Roman-Lopes, A.

    2012-07-01

    We report a study of the stellar content of the near-infrared (NIR) cluster [DBS2003] 157 embedded in the extended H II region GAL 331.31-00.34, which is associated with the IRAS source 16085-5138. JHK photometry was carried out in order to identify potential ionizing candidates, and the follow-up NIR spectroscopy allowed the spectral classification of some sources, including two O-type stars. A combination of NIR photometry and spectroscopy data was used to obtain the distance of these two stars, with the method of spectroscopic parallax: IRS 298 (O6 V, 3.35 ± 0.61 kpc) and IRS 339 (O9 V, 3.24 ± 0.56 kpc). Adopting the average distance of 3.29 ± 0.58 kpc and comparing the Lyman continuum luminosity of these stars with that required to account for the radio continuum flux of the H II region, we conclude that these two stars are the ionizing sources of GAL 331.31-00.34. Young stellar objects (YSOs) were searched by using our NIR photometry and mid-infrared (MIR) data from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) survey. The analysis of NIR and MIR colour-colour diagrams resulted in 47 YSO candidates. The GLIMPSE counterpart of IRAS 16085-5138, which presents IRAS colour indices compatible with an ultracompact H II region, has been identified. The analysis of its spectral energy distribution between 2 and ?m revealed that this source shows a spectral index α= 3.6 between 2 and ?m, which is typical of a YSO immersed in a protostellar envelope. Lower limits to the bolometric luminosity and the mass of the embedded protostar have been estimated as L= 7.7 × 103 L⊙ and M= 10 M⊙, respectively, which correspond to a B0-B1 V zero-age main sequence star. Based on observations carried at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) observatory, a joint project of the Ministério de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI) of the República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the

  7. Lights and shadows: multi-wavelength analysis of young stellar objects and their protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Stars form from the collapse of molecular clouds and evolve in an environment rich in gas and dust before becoming Main Sequence stars. During this phase, characterised by the presence of a protoplanetary disc, stars manifest changes in the structure and luminosity. This thesis performs a multi-wavelength analysis, from optical to mm range, on a sample of young stars (YSOs), mainly Classical T Tauri (CTTS). The purpose is to study optical and infrared variability and its relation with the protoplanetary disc. Longer wavelength, in the mm range, are used instead to investigate the evolution of the disc, in terms of dust growth. In optical, an F-test on a sample of 39 CTTS reveals that 67% of the stars are variable. The variability, quantified through pooled sigma, is visible both in magnitude amplitudes and changes over time. Time series analysis applied on the more variable stars finds the presence of quasi periodicity, with periods longer than two weeks, interpreted either as eclipsing material in the disc happening on a non-regular basis, or as a consequence of star-disc interaction via magnetic field lines. The variability of YSOs is confirmed also in infrared, even if with lower amplitude. No strong correlations are found between optical and infrared variability, which implies a different cause or a time shift in the two events. By using a toy model to explore their origin, I find that infrared variations are likely to stem from emissions in the inner disc. The evolution of discs in terms of dust growth is confirmed in most discs by the analysis of the slope of the spectral energy distribution (SED), after correcting for wind emission and optical depth effects. However, the comparison with a radiative transfer model highlights that a number of disc parameters, in particular disc masses and temperature, dust size distribution and composition, can also affect the slope of the SED.

  8. Unveiling the near-infrared structure of the massive-young stellar object NGC 3603 IRS 9A* with sparse aperture masking and spectroastrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Hummel, C. A.; Tuthill, P.; Alberdi, A.; Schödel, R.; Lacour, S.; Stanke, T.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Contemporary theory holds that massive stars gather mass during their initial phases via accreting disk-like structures. However, conclusive evidence for disks has remained elusive for most massive young objects. This is mainly due to significant observational challenges: objects are rare and located at great distances within dusty, highly opaque environments. Incisive studies, even targeting individual objects, are therefore relevant to the progression of the field. NGC 3603 IRS 9A* is a young massive stellar object that is still surrounded by an envelope of molecular gas for which previous mid-infrared observations with long-baseline interferometry have provided evidence of a plausible disk of 50 mas diameter at its core. Aims: This work aims at a comprehensive study of the physics and morphology of IRS 9A at near-infrared wavelengths. Methods: New sparse aperture-masking interferometry data, taken with the near-infrared camera NACO of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Ks and L' wavelengths, were analyzed together with archival high-resolution H2 and Brγ lines obtained with the cryogenic high-resolution infrared schelle spectrograph (CRIRES). Results: The trends in the calibrated visibilities at Ks and L'-bands suggest the presence of a partially resolved compact object with an angular size of ≤30 mas at the core of IRS 9A, together with the presence of over-resolved flux. The spectroastrometric signal of the H2 line, obtained from the CRIRES spectra, shows that this spectral feature proceeds from the large-scale extended emission (~300 mas), while the Brγ line appears to be formed at the core of the object (~20 mas). To better understand the physics that drive IRS 9A, we have performed continuum radiative transfer modeling. Our best model supports the existence of a compact disk with an angular diameter of 20 mas, together with an outer envelope of 1'' exhibiting a polar cavity with an opening angle of ~30°. This model reproduces the MIR morphology

  9. A Ground-Based Mid-Infrared Imaging Survey of Embedded Young Stellar Objects in the Rho Ophiuchi Cloud Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsony, M.; Ressler, M. E.; Marsh, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    Results of a comprehensive, new, ground-based mid-infrared imaging survey of the young stellar population of the ρ Ophiuchi cloud are presented. Data were acquired at the Palomar 5-m and at the Keck 10-m telescopes with the MIRLIN and LWS instruments, at 0.5'' and 0.25'' resolutions, respectively. Of 172 survey objects, 85 were detected. A plot of the frequency distribution of the detected objects with SED spectral slope shows that YSOs spend ˜ 3 × 105 yr in the Flat Spectrum phase, clearing out their remnant infall envelopes. Mid-infrared variability is found among a significant fraction of the surveyed objects and is found to occur for all SED classes with optically thick disks. Large amplitude near-infrared variability, also found for all SED classes with optically thick disks, seems to occur with somewhat higher frequency at the earlier evolutionary stages. The highly variable value of K-band veiling that a single source can exhibit in any of the SED classes in which active disk accretion can take place is striking, and is direct observational evidence for highly time-variable accretion activity in disks. Finallly, by comparing mid-infrared vs. near-infrared excesses in a subsample with well-determined effective temperatures and extinction values, disk clearing mechanisms are explored. Financial support for this project through NSF grants AST 00-96087 (CAREER), AST 97-53229 (POWRE), and AST 02-06146 is gratefully acknowledged. MB further thanks the NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship program at JPL, that made this work possible.

  10. K- band integral field spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy of massive young stellar objects in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J. L.; Oliveira, J. M.; van Loon, J. Th.; Sewiło, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present K-band integral field spectroscopic observations towards 17 massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the low-metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and two YSO candidates in the compact H II regions N81 and N88 A (also in the SMC). These sources, originally identified using Spitzer photometry and/or spectroscopy, have been resolved into 29 K-band continuum sources. By comparing Brγ emission luminosities with those presented for a Galactic sample of massive YSOs, we find tentative evidence for increased accretion rates in the SMC. Around half of our targets exhibit emission-line (Brγ, He I and H2) morphologies that extend significantly beyond the continuum source and we have mapped both the emission morphologies and the radial velocity fields. This analysis also reveals evidence for the existence of ionized low-density regions in the centre outflows from massive YSOs. Additionally, we present an analysis of optical spectra towards a similar sample of massive YSOs in the SMC, revealing that the optical emission is photoexcited and originates near the outer edges of molecular clouds, and is therefore consistent with a high mean-free path of UV photons in the interstellar medium (ISM) of the SMC. Finally, we discuss the sample of YSOs in an evolutionary context incorporating the results of previous infrared and radio observations, as well as the near-infrared and optical observations presented in this work. Our spectroscopic analysis in both the K band and the optical regimes, combined with previously obtained infrared and radio data, exposes differences between properties of massive YSOs in our own Galaxy and the SMC, including tracers of accretion, discs and YSO-ISM interactions.

  11. High Resolution SOFIA/EXES Spectroscopy of CH4 and SO2 toward Massive Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogert, Abraham C. A.; Richter, Matt; DeWitt, Curtis; Indriolo, Nick; Neufeld, David A.; Karska, Agata; Bergin, Edwin A.; Smith, Rachel L.; Montiel, Edward

    2017-01-01

    The ro-vibrational transitions of molecules in the near to mid-infrared are excellent tracers of the composition, dynamics, and excitation of the inner regions of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). They sample a wide range of excitations in a short wavelength range, they can be seen in absorption against strong hot dust continuum sources, and they trace molecules without permanent dipole moment not observable at radio wavelengths. In particular, at high infrared spectral resolution, spatial scales smaller than those imaged by millimeter wave interferometers can be studied dynamically.We present high resolution (R=λ/Δλ˜50,000-100,000 6-12 km/s) infrared (7-8 μm) spectra of massive YSOs observed with the Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph (EXES) on the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Absorption lines of gas phase methane (CH4) are detected in our Cycle 2 observations. CH4 is thought to be a starting point of the formation of carbon chain molecules. Abundances are derived in the different dynamical regions along the sight-line towards the central star by comparing the line profiles to those of CO and other species observed at ground based facilities such as EXES' sister instrument TEXES at IRTF and Gemini. A search is also conducted for sulfur-dioxide, using data from our ongoing Cycle 4 program. SO2 was previously detected towards these massive YSOs with the space-based ISO/SWS instrument (Keane et al. 2001, A&A 376, L5) at much lower spectral resolution (R˜2,000). At high spectral resolution we should be able to pin-point the dynamical location of this SO2 gas. Up to 98% of the sulfur in dense clouds and protostellar envelopes is presently missing, and we are searching for that with the EXES/SOFIA observations.

  12. A GALEX-BASED SEARCH FOR THE SPARSE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION IN THE TAURUS-AURIGAE STAR FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; López-Martínez, Fatima; Sánchez, Néstor; Sestito, Paola; Gestoso, Javier Yañez [AEGORA Research Group, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); De Castro, Elisa; Cornide, Manuel [Fac. de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 1, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we identify 63 bona fide new candidates to T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Taurus-Auriga region, using its ultraviolet excess as our baseline. The initial data set was defined from the GALEX all sky survey (AIS). The GALEX satellite obtained images in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands where TTSs show a prominent excess compared with main-sequence or giants stars. GALEX AIS surveyed the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex, as well as a fraction of the California Nebula and the Perseus complex; bright sources and dark clouds were avoided. The properties of TTSs in the ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (UCAC4), and infrared (2MASS) have been defined using the TTSs observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer reference sample. The candidates were identified by means of a mixed ultraviolet-optical-infrared excess set of colors; we found that the FUV-NUV versus J–K color-color diagram is ideally suited for this purpose. From an initial sample of 163,313 bona fide NUV sources, a final list of 63 new candidates to TTSs in the region was produced. The search procedure has been validated by its ability to detect all known TTSs in the area surveyed: 31 TTSs. Also, we show that the weak-lined TTSs are located in a well-defined stripe in the FUV-NUV versus J–K diagram. Moreover, in this work, we provide a list of TTSs photometric standards for future GALEX-based studies of the young stellar population in star forming regions.

  13. X-Shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects: IV -- Accretion in low-mass stars and sub-stellar objects in Lupus

    CERN Document Server

    Alcalá, J M; Manara, C F; Spezzi, L; Stelzer, B; Frasca, A; Biazzo, K; Covino, E; Randich, S; Rigliaco, E; Testi, L; Comerón, F; Cupani, G; D'Elia, V

    2013-01-01

    We present X-Shooter/VLT observations of a sample of 36 accreting low-mass stellar and sub-stellar objects (YSOs) in the Lupus star forming region, spanning a range in mass from ~0.03 to ~1.2Msun, but mostly with 0.1Msun < Mstar < 0.5Msun. Our aim is twofold: firstly, analyse the relationship between excess-continuum and line emission accretion diagnostics, and, secondly, to investigate the accretion properties in terms of the physical properties of the central object. The accretion luminosity (Lacc), and from it the accretion rate (Macc), is derived by modelling the excess emission, from the UV to the near-IR, as the continuum emission of a slab of hydrogen. The flux and luminosity (Ll) of a large number of emission lines of H, He, CaII, etc., observed simultaneously in the range from ~330nm to 2500nm, were computed. The luminosity of all the lines is well correlated with Lacc. We provide empirical relationships between Lacc and the luminosity of 39 emission lines, which have a lower dispersion as comp...

  14. The ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers and the upper mass limit of stars: analysing age dependent stellar mass functions

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Fabian R N; de Mink, Selma E; Langer, Norbert; Stolte, Andrea; de Koter, Alex; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V; Hußmann, Benjamin; Liermann, Adriane; Sana, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters which can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages to 3.5$\\pm$0.7 Myr and 4.8$\\pm$1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e. the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte ...

  15. A UKIDSS-based search for low-mass stars and small stellar clumps in off-cloud parts of young star-forming regions* **

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrado y Navascués D.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The form and universality of the mass function of young and nearby star-forming regions is still under debate. Its relation to the stellar density, its mass peak and the dependency on most recent models shows significant differencies for the various regions and remains unclear up to date. We aim to get a more complete census of two of such regions. We investigate yet unexplored areas of Orion and Taurus-Auriga, observed by the UKIDSS survey. In the latter, we search for low-mass stars via photometric and proper motion criteria and signs for variability. In Orion, we search for small stellar clumps via nearest-neighbor methods. Highlights in Taurus would be the finding of the missing low-mass stars and the detection of a young cluster T dwarf. In Orion, we discovered small stellar associations of its OB1b and OB1c populations. Combined with what is known in literature, we will provide by this investigations a general picture of the results of the star-forming processes in large areas of Taurus and Orion and probe the most recent models.

  16. Cardiorespiratory Biomarker Responses in Healthy Young Adults to Drastic Air Quality Changes Surrounding the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Wang, Guangfa; Huang, Wei; Rich, David; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuedan; Lu, Shou-En; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Diehl, Scott; Hu, Min; Tong, Jian; Gong, Jicheng; Thomas, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    (HR and SBP) in healthy, young adults. These changes support the prominently hypothesized mechanistic pathways underlying the cardiorespiratory effects of air pollution. PMID:23646463

  17. HETEROGENEITY IN {sup 12}CO/{sup 13}CO ABUNDANCE RATIOS TOWARD SOLAR-TYPE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rachel L. [North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, 121 West Jones Street, Raleigh, NC 27603 (United States); Pontoppidan, Klaus M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Young, Edward D. [Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, 595 Charles E. Young Drive East, Geology Building, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Morris, Mark R., E-mail: rachel.smith@naturalsciences.org, E-mail: smithrl2@appstate.edu [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    This study reports an unusual heterogeneity in [{sup 12}C{sup 16}O]/[{sup 13}C{sup 16}O] abundance ratios of carbon monoxide observed in the gas phase toward seven ∼solar-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) and three dense foreground clouds in the nearby star-forming regions, Ophiuchus, Corona Australis, Orion, and Vela, and an isolated core, L43. Robust isotope ratios were derived using infrared absorption spectroscopy of the 4.7 μm fundamental and 2.3 μm overtone rovibrational bands of CO at very high spectral resolution (λ/Δλ ≈ 95,000), observed with the Cryogenic Infrared Echelle Spectrograph (CRIRES) on the Very Large Telescope. We find [{sup 12}C{sup 16}O]/[{sup 13}C{sup 16}O] values ranging from ∼85 to 165, significantly higher than those of the local interstellar medium (ISM) (∼65–69). These observations are evidence for isotopic heterogeneity in carbon reservoirs in solar-type YSO environments, and encourage the need for refined galactic chemical evolution models to explain the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C discrepancy between the solar system and local ISM. The oxygen isotope ratios are consistent with isotopologue-specific photodissociation by CO self-shielding toward the disks, VV CrA N and HL Tau, further substantiating models predicting CO self-shielding on disk surfaces. However, we find that CO self-shielding is an unlikely general explanation for the high [{sup 12}C{sup 16}O]/[{sup 13}C{sup 16}O] ratios observed in this study. Comparison of the solid CO against gas-phase [{sup 12}C{sup 16}O]/[{sup 13}C{sup 16}O] suggests that interactions between CO ice and gas reservoirs need to be further investigated as at least a partial explanation for the unusually high [{sup 12}C{sup 16}O]/[{sup 13}C{sup 16}O] observed.

  18. The VISTA Carina Nebula Survey. II. Spatial distribution of the infrared-excess-selected young stellar population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, P.; Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Roccatagliata, V.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    We performed a deep wide-field (6.76 sq. deg) near-infrared survey with the VISTA telescope that covers the entire extent of the Carina nebula complex (CNC). The point-source catalog created from these data contains around four million individual objects down to masses of 0.1 M⊙. We present a statistical study of the large-scale spatial distribution and an investigation of the clustering properties of infrared-excesses objects, which are used to trace disk-bearing young stellar objects (YSOs). A selection based on a near-infrared (J-H) versus (H-Ks) color-color diagram shows an almost uniform distribution over the entire observed area. We interpret this as a result of the very high degree of background contamination that arises from the Carina Nebula's location close to the Galactic plane. Complementing the VISTA near-infrared catalog with Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared photometry improves the situation of the background contamination considerably. We find that a (J-H) versus (Ks- [4.5]) color-color diagram is well suited to tracing the population of YSO-candidates (cYSOs) by their infrared excess. We identify 8781 sources with strong infrared excess, which we consider as cYSOs. This sample is used to investigate the spatial distribution of the cYSOs with a nearest-neighbor analysis. The surface density distribution of cYSOs agrees well with the shape of the clouds as seen in our Herschel far-infrared survey. The strong decline in the surface density of excess sources outside the area of the clouds supports the hypothesis that our excess-selected sample consists predominantly of cYSOs with a low level of background contamination. This analysis allows us to identify 14 groups of cYSOs outside the central area.Our results suggest that the total population of cYSOs in the CNC comprises about 164 000 objects, with a substantial fraction (~35%) located in the northern, still not well studied parts. Our cluster analysis suggests that roughly half of the cYSOs constitute a

  19. The Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of the Orion A and B Molecular Clouds. II. The Spatial Distribution and Demographics of Dusty Young Stellar Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.; J. Muzerolle; Kryukova, E.; Hora, J.L.; Allen, L E; Flaherty, K; Hartmann, L.; Myers, P. C.; Pipher, J. L.; Stauffer, J.; Young, E T; Fazio, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc$^{-2}$ to over 10,000 pc$^{-2}$, with protostars tending to be in higher density reg...

  20. The age of the young bulge-like population in the stellar system Terzan5: linking the Galactic bulge to the high-z Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B; Origlia, L; Rich, R M; Mucciarelli, A; -,

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic bulge is dominated by an old, metal rich stellar population. The possible presence and the amount of a young (a few Gyr old) minor component is one of the major issues debated in the literature. Recently, the bulge stellar system Terzan 5 was found to harbor three sub-populations with iron content varying by more than one order of magnitude (from 0.2 up to 2 times the solar value), with chemical abundance patterns strikingly similar to those observed in bulge field stars. Here we report on the detection of two distinct main sequence turn-off points in Terzan 5, providing the age of the two main stellar populations: 12 Gyr for the (dominant) sub-solar component and 4.5 Gyr for the component at super-solar metallicity. This discovery classifies Terzan 5 as a site in the Galactic bulge where multiple bursts of star formation occurred, thus suggesting a quite massive progenitor possibly resembling the giant clumps observed in star forming galaxies at high redshifts. This connection opens a new route ...

  1. Molecular gas and triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet stars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei

    2012-01-01

    The environments surrounding nine Wolf-Rayet stars were studied in molecular emission. Expanding shells were detected surrounding these WR stars (see left panels of Figure 1). The average masses and radii of the molecular cores surrounding these WR stars anti-correlate with the WR stellar wind velocities (middle panels of Figure 1), indicating the WR stars has great impact on their environments. The number density of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is enhanced in the molecular shells at $\\sim$5 arcmin from the central WR star (lower-right panel of Figure 1). Through detailed studies of the molecular shells and YSOs, we find strong evidences of triggered star formation in the fragmented molecular shells (\\cite[Liu et al. 2010]{liu_etal12}

  2. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); De Mink, S. E. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); De Koter, A.; Sana, H. [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek" , Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gvaramadze, V. V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Universitetskij Pr. 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Liermann, A., E-mail: fschneid@astro.uni-bonn.de [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M {sub ☉} limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M {sub ☉} in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M {sub ☉} star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range

  3. Stellar populations in star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai

    2016-01-01

    Stellar populations contain the most important information about star clus- ter formation and evolution. Until several decades ago, star clusters were believed to be ideal laboratories for studies of simple stellar populations (SSPs). However, discoveries of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters have expanded our view on stellar populations in star clusters. They have simultaneously generated a number of controversies, particularly as to whether young star clusters may have the same origin as old globular clusters. In addition, extensive studies have revealed that the SSP scenario does not seem to hold for some intermediate-age and young star clusters either, thus making the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters even more complicated. Stellar population anomalies in numerous star clusters are well-documented, implying that the notion of star clusters as true SSPs faces serious challenges. In this review, we focus on stellar populations in massive clusters with different ...

  4. Resolved Host Studies of Stellar Explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Levesque, Emily M

    2016-01-01

    The host galaxies of nearby (z<0.3) core-collapse supernovae and long-duration gamma-ray bursts offer an excellent means of probing the environments and populations that produce these events' varied massive progenitors. These same young stellar progenitors make LGRBs and SNe valuable and potentially powerful tracers of star formation, metallicity, the IMF, and the end phases of stellar evolution. However, properly utilizing these progenitors as tools requires a thorough understanding of their formation and, consequently, the physical properties of their parent host environments. This review looks at some of the recent work on LGRB and SN hosts with resolved environments that allows us to probe the precise explosion sites and surrounding environments of these events in incredible detail.

  5. Journal of a voyage to Lisbon. 1793-1794 : a young man’s impressions of the city and its surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Paulino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In November 1793 seventeen-year-old William Withering left England in the company of his father, who suffered from consumption; a few weeks later they arrived in the coast of Lisbon. In Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon. 1793-1794, a manuscript, Withering wrote a daily record of his experiences from the moment he left home, in Birmingham, until his return. In this paper we focus our attention on the 168 pages of the manuscript dedicated to Lisbon and its surroundings, where father and son resided for five months. We examine them against the background of the history and «culture» of travel literature, in particular that between mid-18th and mid-19th cent. Most of our sources are from the universe of travel literature and literary history. We emphasize the singularity of this travel account, which derives from factors such as the reputation of the author’s father (known as the «English Linneus», and the accessibility to places and objects it facilitated; the Enlightenment travel writing conventions the author followed; and the author’s young age

  6. How does a low-mass cut-off in the stellar IMF affect the evolution of young star clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; de Grijs, R; Rose, M; Kim, Sungsoo S

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how different stellar initial mass functions (IMFs) can affect the mass loss and survival of star clusters. We find that IMFs with radically different low-mass cut-offs (between 0.1 and 2 Msun) do not change cluster destruction time-scales as much as might be expected. Unsurprisingly, we find that clusters with more high-mass stars lose relatively more mass through stellar evolution, but the response to this mass loss is to expand and hence significantly slow their dynamical evolution. We also argue that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to have clusters with different IMFs that are initially "the same", since the mass, radius and relaxation times depend on each other and on the IMF in a complex way. We conclude that changing the IMF to be biased towards more massive stars does speed up mass loss and dissolution, but that it is not as dramatic as might be thought.

  7. Optically visible post-AGB/RGB stars and young stellar objects in the Small Magellanic Cloud: candidate selection, spectral energy distributions and spectroscopic examination

    CERN Document Server

    Kamath, D; Van Winckel, H

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a search for optically visible post-AGB candidates in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We used mid-IR observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope to select optically visible candidates with a mid-IR excess. We obtained low-resolution optical spectra for 801 candidates. After removing contaminants and poor quality spectra, the final sample comprised of 63 post-AGB/RGB candidates of A - F spectral type. Using the spectra, we estimated the stellar parameters: effective temperature, surface gravity and [Fe/H]. We also estimated the reddening and deduced the luminosity using the stellar parameters combined with photometry. Based on a luminosity criterion, 42 of these 63 sources were classified as post-RGB candidates and the remaining as post-AGB candidates. From the spectral energy distributions we found that 6 of the 63 post-AGB/RGB candidates have a circumstellar shell suggesting that they are single stars, while 27 of them have a surrounding disc, suggesting that they are binaries. For th...

  8. Optically Visible Post-AGB Stars, Post-RGB Stars and Young Stellar Objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Kamath, Devika; Van Winckel, Hans

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a search for optically visible post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). First, we selected candidates with a mid-IR excess and then obtained their optical spectra. We disentangled contaminants with unique spectra such as M-stars, C-stars, planetary nebulae, quasi-stellar objects and background galaxies. Subsequently, we performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the remaining candidates to estimate their stellar parameters such as effective temperature, surface gravity (log g), metallicity ([Fe/H]), reddening and their luminosities. This resulted in a sample of 35 likely post-AGB candidates with late-G to late-A spectral types, low log g, and [Fe/H] < -0.5. Furthermore, our study confirmed the existence of the dusty post-Red Giant Branch (post-RGB) stars, discovered previously in our SMC survey, by revealing 119 such objects in the LMC. These objects have mid-IR excesses and stellar parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe/H]) similar to those of post-A...

  9. The slow ionized wind and rotating disklike system that are associated with the high-mass young stellar object G345.4938+01.4677

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán, Andrés E.; Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; Mardones, Diego [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Rodríguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica (UNAM), Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Moran, James [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Brooks, Kate J. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, 1710 NSW (Australia); Nyman, Lars-Åke [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Sanhueza, Patricio [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We report the detection, made using ALMA, of the 92 GHz continuum and hydrogen recombination lines (HRLs) H40α, H42α, and H50β emission toward the ionized wind associated with the high-mass young stellar object G345.4938+01.4677. This is the luminous central dominating source located in the massive and dense molecular clump associated with IRAS 16562–3959. The HRLs exhibit Voigt profiles, which is a strong signature of Stark broadening. We successfully reproduce the observed continuum and HRLs simultaneously using a simple model of a slow ionized wind in local thermodynamic equilibrium, with no need for a high-velocity component. The Lorentzian line wings imply electron densities of 5 × 10{sup 7} cm{sup –3} on average. In addition, we detect SO and SO{sub 2} emission arising from a compact (∼3000 AU) molecular core associated with the central young star. The molecular core exhibits a velocity gradient that is perpendicular to the jet-axis, which we interpret as evidence of rotation. The set of observations toward G345.4938+01.4677 are consistent with it being a young high-mass star associated with a slow photo-ionized wind.

  10. Massive young stellar object W42-MME: The discovery of an infrared jet using VLT/NACO near-infrared images

    CERN Document Server

    Dewangan, L K; Luna, A; Ojha, D K

    2015-01-01

    We report on the discovery of an infrared jet from a deeply embedded infrared counterpart of 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission (MME) in W42 (i.e. W42-MME). We also investigate that W42-MME drives a parsec-scale H2 outflow, with detection of bow shock feature at ~0.52 pc to the north. The inner ~0.4 pc part of the H2 outflow has a position angle of ~18 deg and the position angle of ~40 deg is found farther away on either side of outflow from W42-MME. W42-MME is detected at wavelengths longer than 2.2 microns and is a massive young stellar object, with the estimated stellar mass of 19+-4 Msun. We map the inner circumstellar environment of W42-MME using VLT/NACO adaptive optics Ks and L' observations at resolutions ~0.2 arcsec and ~0.1 arcsec, respectively. We discover a collimated jet in the inner 4500 AU using the L' band, which contains prominent Br alpha line emission. The jet is located inside an envelope/cavity (extent ~10640 AU) that is tapered at both ends and is oriented along the north-south direction. S...

  11. First spectroscopic observations of the sub-stellar companion of the young debris disk star PZ Telescopii

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, T O B; Neuhäuser, R; Vogt, N; Witte, S; Hauschildt, P H; Helling, Ch; Seifahrt, A

    2014-01-01

    In 2010 a sub-stellar companion to the solar analog pre-main sequence star PZ Tel and member of the about 12 Myr old Beta Pic moving group was found by high-contrast direct imaging independently by two teams. In order to determine the basic parameters of this companion more precisely and independent of evolutionary models, hence age independent, we obtained follow-up spectroscopic observations of primary and companion. We use the Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI) at the Very Large Telescope Unit 4/YEPUN of ESO's Paranal Observatory in H+K band and process the data using the spectral deconvolution technique. The resulting spectrum of the companion is then compared to a grid of Drift-Phoenix synthetic model spectra, a combination of a general-purpose model atmosphere code with a non-equilibrium, stationary cloud and dust model, using a chi^2 minimization analysis. We find a best fitting spectral type of G6.5 for PZ Tel A. The extracted spectrum of the sub-stellar compan...

  12. BANANA IV: Two aligned stellar rotation axes in the young eccentric binary system EP Crucis: primordial orientation and tidal alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Simon; Torres, Guillermo; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Winn, Joshua N

    2012-01-01

    With observations of the EP Cru system, we continue our series of measurements of spin-orbit angles in eclipsing binary star systems, the BANANA project (Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned). We find a close alignment between the sky projections of the rotational and orbital angular momentum vectors for both stars (beta_p = -1.8+-1.6 deg and |beta_s|<17 deg). We also derive precise absolute dimensions and stellar ages for this system. The EP Cru and DI Her systems provide an interesting comparison: they have similar stellar types and orbital properties, but DI Her is younger and has major spin-orbit misalignments, raising the question of whether EP Cru also had a large misalignment at an earlier phase of evolution. We show that tidal dissipation is an unlikely explanation for the good alignment observed today, because realignment happens on the same timescale as spin-orbit synchronization, and the stars in EP Cru are far from syncrhonization (they are spinning 9 times too quickly). Therefore it seems th...

  13. On the association of the ultraluminous X-ray sources in the Antennae galaxies with young stellar clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Poutanen, Juri; Valeev, Azamat F; Sholukhova, Olga; Greiner, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the nearby galaxies is a matter of debates. One of the popular hypothesis associates them with accretion at a sub-Eddington rate on to intermediate mass black holes. Another possibility is a stellar-mass black hole in a high-mass X-ray binary accreting at super-Eddington rates. In this paper we find a highly significant association between brightest X-ray sources in the Antennae galaxies and stellar clusters. On the other hand, we show that most of the X-ray sources are located outside of these clusters. We study clusters associated with the ULXs using the ESO Very Large Telescope spectra and the Hubble Space Telescope data together with the theoretical evolutionary tracks and determine their ages to be below 5 Myr. This implies that the ULX progenitor masses certainly exceed 40 and for some objects are closer to 100 solar masses. We also estimate the ages of clusters situated close to the less luminous X-ray sources (with luminosity in the range 3x10^3...

  14. NGC 6340: an old S0 galaxy with a young polar disc. Clues from morphology, internal kinematics and stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Chilingarian, Igor; Cayatte, Veronique; Combes, Francoise; Di Matteo, Paola; Zasov, Anatoly

    2009-01-01

    Lenticular galaxies are believed to form by a combination of environmental effects and secular evolution. We study the nearby disc-dominated S0 galaxy NGC 6340 photometrically and spectroscopically to understand the mechanisms of S0 formation and evolution in groups. We use SDSS images to build colour maps and light profile of NGC 6340 which we decompose using a three-component model including Sersic and two exponential profiles. We also use Spitzer images to study the morphology of regions containing warm ISM and dust. Then, we re-process and re-analyse deep long-slit spectroscopic data for NGC 6340 and recover its stellar and gas kinematics, distribution of age and metallicity with the NBursts full spectral fitting. We obtain the profiles of internal kinematics, age, and metallicity out to >2 half-light radii. The three structural components of NGC 6340 are found to have distinct kinematical and stellar population properties. We see a kinematical misalignment between inner and outer regions of the galaxy. W...

  15. PROPER MOTIONS OF YOUNG STELLAR OUTFLOWS IN THE MID-INFRARED WITH SPITZER (IRAC). I. THE NGC 1333 REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, A. C. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Noriega-Crespo, A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Carey, S. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Arce, H. G., E-mail: raga@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: alberto@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: carey@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: hector.arce@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    We use two 4.5 {mu}m Spitzer (IRAC) maps of the NGC 1333 region taken over a {approx}7 yr interval to determine proper motions of its associated outflows. This is a first successful attempt at obtaining proper motions of stellars' outflow from Spitzer observations. For the outflow formed by the Herbig-Haro objects HH7, 8, and 10, we find proper motions of {approx}9-13 km s{sup -1}, which are consistent with previously determined optical proper motions of these objects. We determine proper motions for a total of eight outflows, ranging from {approx}10 to 100 km s{sup -1}. The derived proper motions show that out of these eight outflows, three have tangential velocities {<=}20 km s{sup -1}. This result shows that a large fraction of the observed outflows have low intrinsic velocities and that the low proper motions are not merely a projection effect.

  16. Proper Motions of Young Stellar Outflows in the Mid-Infrared with Spitzer (IRAC). I. The NGC 1333 region

    CERN Document Server

    Raga, A C; Carey, S J; Arce, H G

    2012-01-01

    We use two 4.5micron Spitzer (IRAC) maps of the NGC 1333 region taken over approx. 7 yr interval to determine proper motions of its associated outflows. This is a first, successful attempt at obtaining proper motions of stellars outflow from Spitzer observations. For the outflow formed by the Herbig-Haro objects HH7, 8 and 10, we find proper motions of approx. 9-13 km/s, which are consistent with previously determined optical proper motions of these objects. We determine proper motions for a total of 8 outflows, ranging from approx. 10 to 100 km/s. The derived proper motions show that out of these 8 outflows, 3 have tangential velocities less or equal to 20 km/s. This result shows that a large fraction of the observed outflows have low intrinsic velocities, and that the low proper motions are not merely a projection effect.

  17. Deriving the extinction to young stellar objects using [FeII] near-infrared emission lines. Prescriptions from GIANO high-resolution spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Pecchioli, Tommaso; Massi, Fabrizio; Oliva, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    The near-infrared emission lines of Fe$^{+}$ at 1.257, 1.321, and 1.644 $\\mu$m share the same upper level; their ratios can then be exploited to derive the extinction to a line emitting region once the relevant spontaneous emission coefficients are known. This is commonly done, normally from low-resolution spectra, in observations of shocked gas from jets driven by Young Stellar Objects. In this paper we review this method, provide the relevant equations, and test it by analyzing high-resolution ($R \\sim 50000$) near-infrared spectra oftwo young stars, namely the Herbig Be star HD 200775 and the Be star V1478 Cyg, which exhibit intense emission lines. The spectra were obtained with the new GIANO echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Notably, the high-resolution spectra allowed checking the effects of overlapping telluric absorption lines. A set of various determinations of the Einstein coefficients are compared to show how much the available computations affect extinction derivation. The m...

  18. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Fares, R.; Jardine, M.; Moutou, C.; Donati, J.-F.

    2015-06-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e. the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the Solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD 46375b, HD 73256b, HD 102195b, HD 130322b and HD 179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9-8.0 × 10-13 M⊙ yr-1) and the wind properties at the position of the hot Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are supermagnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrounding these planets. Assuming planetary magnetic fields similar to Jupiter's, we estimate planetary magnetospheric sizes of 4.1-5.6 planetary radii. We also derive the exoplanetary radio emission released in the dissipation of the stellar wind energy. We find radio fluxes ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 mJy, which are challenging to be observed with present-day technology, but could be detectable with future higher sensitivity arrays (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Radio emission from systems having closer hot Jupiters, such as from τ Boo b or HD 189733b, or from nearby planetary systems orbiting young stars, are likely to have higher radio fluxes, presenting better prospects for detecting exoplanetary radio emission.

  19. Planet Formation in Action? - Astronomers may have found the first object clearing its path in the natal disc surrounding a young star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    gap in the dust disc around T Cha was a smoking gun, and we asked ourselves: could we be witnessing a companion digging a gap inside its protoplanetary disc?" However, finding a faint companion so close to a bright star is a huge challenge and the team had to use the VLT instrument NACO in a novel and powerful way, called sparse aperture masking, to reach their goal [4]. After careful analysis they found the clear signature of an object located within the gap in the dust disc, about one billion kilometres from the star - slightly further out than Jupiter is within our Solar System and close to the outer edge of the gap. This is the first detection of an object much smaller than a star within a gap in the planet-forming dust disc around a young star. The evidence suggests that the companion object cannot be a normal star [5] but it could be either a brown dwarf [6] surrounded by dust or, most excitingly, a recently formed planet. Huélamo concludes: "This is a remarkable joint study that combines two different state-of-the-art instruments at ESO's Paranal Observatory. Future observations will allow us to find out more about the companion and the disc, and also understand what fuels the inner dusty disc." Notes [1] The transitional discs can be spotted because they give off less radiation at mid-infrared wavelengths. The clearing of the dust close to the star and the creation of gaps and holes can explain this missing radiation. Recently formed planets may have created these gaps, although there are also other possibilities. [2] T Cha is a T Tauri star, a very young star that is still contracting towards the main sequence. [3] The astronomers used the AMBER instrument (Astronomical Multi-BEam combineR) and the VLTI to combine the light from all four of the 8.2-metre VLT Unit Telescopes and create a "virtual telescope" 130 metres across. [4] NACO (or NAOS-CONICA in full) is an adaptive optics instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope. Thanks to adaptive optics

  20. Stellar Activity on the Young Suns of Orion: COUP Observations of K5-7 Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wolk, S J; Micela, G; Favata, F; Glassgold, A E; Shang, H; Feigelson, E D

    2005-01-01

    In January 2003, the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) detected about 1400 young stars during a 13.2 day observation of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). This paper studies a well-defined sample of 28 solar-mass COUP sources to characterize the magnetic activity of analogs of the young Sun and thereby to improve understanding of the effects of solar X-rays on the solar nebula during the era of planet formation. We find that active young Suns spend 70% of their time in a characteristic state with relatively constant flux and magnetically confined plasma with temperatures kT_2 = 2.1 * kT_1. During characteristic periods, the 0.5-8 keV X-ray luminosity is about 0.03% of the bolometric luminosity. One or two powerful flares per week with peak luminosities logL_x ~ 30-32 erg/s are typically superposed on this characteristic emission accompanied by heating of the hot plasma component from ~2.4 keV to ~7 keV at the flare peak. The energy distribution of flares superposed on the characteristic emission level follo...

  1. Stellar feedback efficiencies: supernovae versus stellar winds

    CERN Document Server

    Fierlinger, Katharina M; Ntormousi, Evangelia; Fierlinger, Peter; Schartmann, Marc; Ballone, Alessandro; Krause, Martin G H; Diehl, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Stellar winds and supernova (SN) explosions of massive stars ("stellar feedback") create bubbles in the interstellar medium (ISM) and insert newly produced heavy elements and kinetic energy into their surroundings, possibly driving turbulence. Most of this energy is thermalized and immediately removed from the ISM by radiative cooling. The rest is available for driving ISM dynamics. In this work we estimate the amount of feedback energy retained as kinetic energy when the bubble walls have decelerated to the sound speed of the ambient medium. We show that the feedback of the most massive star outweighs the feedback from less massive stars. For a giant molecular cloud (GMC) mass of 1e5 solar masses (as e.g. found in the Orion GMCs) and a star formation efficiency of 8% the initial mass function predicts a most massive star of approximately 60 solar masses. For this stellar evolution model we test the dependence of the retained kinetic energy of the cold GMC gas on the inclusion of stellar winds. In our model w...

  2. X-Shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects III. Photospheric and chromospheric properties of Class III objects

    CERN Document Server

    Stelzer, B; Alcala, J M; Manara, C F; Biazzo, K; Covino, E; Rigliaco, E; Testi, L; Covino, S; D'Elia, V

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed X-Shooter/VLT spectra of 24 ClassIII sources from three nearby star-forming regions (sigmaOrionis, LupusIII, and TWHya). We determined the effective temperature, surface gravity, rotational velocity, and radial velocity by comparing the observed spectra with synthetic BT-Settl model spectra. We investigated in detail the emission lines emerging from the stellar chromospheres and combined these data with archival X-ray data to allow for a comparison between chromospheric and coronal emissions. Both X-ray and Halpha luminosity as measured in terms of the bolometric luminosity are independent of the effective temperature for early-M stars but decline toward the end of the spectral M sequence. For the saturated early-M stars the average emission level is almost one dex higher for X-rays than for Halpha: log(L_x/L_bol) = -2.85 +- 0.36 vs. log(L_Halpha/L_bol) = -3.72 +- 0.21. When all chromospheric emission lines (including the Balmer series up to H11, CaII HK, the CaII infrared triplet, and several HeI...

  3. Multiple stellar populations in Magellanic Cloud clusters. IV. The double main sequence of the young cluster NGC1755

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, A P; D'Antona, F; Bedin, L R; Da Costa, G S; Jerjen, H; Mackey, A D

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all the star clusters with ages of ~1-2 Gyr in both Magellanic Clouds exhibit an extended main-sequence turn off (eMSTO) whose origin is under debate. The main scenarios suggest that the eMSTO could be either due to multiple generations of stars with different ages or to coeval stellar populations with different rotation rates. In this paper we use Hubble-Space-Telescope images to investigate the ~80-Myr old cluster NGC1755 in the LMC. We find that the MS is split with the blue and the red MS hosting about the 25% and the 75% of the total number of MS stars, respectively. Moreover, the MSTO of NGC1755 is broadened in close analogy with what is observed in the ~300-Myr-old NGC1856 and in most intermediate-age Magellanic-Cloud clusters. We demonstrate that both the split MS and the eMSTO are not due to photometric errors, field-stars contamination, differential reddening, or non-interacting binaries. These findings make NGC1755 the youngest cluster with an eMSTO. We compare the observed CMD with isochron...

  4. Astrometric follow-up observations of directly imaged sub-stellar companions to young stars and brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Ginski, C; Mugrauer, M; Neuhäuser, R; Vogt, N; Errmann, R; Berndt, A

    2014-01-01

    The formation of massive planetary or brown dwarf companions at large projected separations from their host star is not yet well understood. In order to put constraints on formation scenarios we search for signatures in the orbit dynamics of the systems. We are specifically interested in the eccentricities and inclinations since those parameters might tell us about the dynamic history of the systems and where to look for additional low-mass sub-stellar companions. For this purpose we utilized VLT/NACO to take several well calibrated high resolution images of 6 target systems and analyze them together with available literature data points of those systems as well as Hubble Space Telescope archival data. We used a statistical Least-Squares Monte-Carlo approach to constrain the orbit elements of all systems that showed significant differential motion of the primary star and companion. We show for the first time that the GQ Lup system shows significant change in both separation and position angle. Our analysis yi...

  5. HERSCHEL FINDS EVIDENCE FOR STELLAR WIND PARTICLES IN A PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPE: IS THIS WHAT HAPPENED TO THE YOUNG SUN?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccarelli, C.; López-Sepulcre, A. [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Dominik, C.; Kama, M. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090-GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Padovani, M. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, UMR 5299 du CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, cc072, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Caux, E. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Caselli, P., E-mail: Cecilia.Ceccarelli@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-20

    There is evidence that the young Sun emitted a high flux of energetic (≥10 MeV) particles. The collisions of these particles with the material at the inner edge of the Protosolar Nebula disk induced spallation reactions that formed short-lived radionuclei, like {sup 10}Be, whose trace is now visible in some meteorites. However, it is poorly known exactly when this happened, and whether and how it affected the solar system. Here, we present indirect evidence for an ejection of energetic particles in the young protostar, OMC-2 FIR 4, similar to that experienced by the young solar system. In this case, the energetic particles collide with the material in the protostellar envelope, enhancing the abundance of two molecular ions, HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, whose presence is detected via Herschel observations. The flux of energetic particles at a distance of 1 AU from the emitting source, estimated from the measured abundance ratio of HCO{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +}, can easily account for the irradiation required by meteoritic observations. These new observations demonstrate that the ejection of ≥10 MeV particles is a phenomenon occurring very early in the life of a protostar, before the disappearance of the envelope from which the future star accretes. The whole envelope is affected by the event, which sets constraints on the magnetic field geometry in the source and opens up the possibility that the spallation reactions are not limited to the inner edge of the Protosolar Nebula disk.

  6. THE VVV SURVEY REVEALS CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS TRACING A YOUNG AND THIN STELLAR DISK ACROSS THE GALAXY’S BULGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dékány, I. [Instituto Milenio de Astrofísica, Santiago (Chile); Minniti, D. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Majaess, D. [Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Zoccali, M.; Hajdu, G.; Catelan, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Alonso-García, J. [Unidad de Astronomía, Fac. Cs. Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Avda. U. de Antofagasta 02800, Antofagasta (Chile); Gieren, W. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Borissova, J., E-mail: idekany@astro.puc.cl [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Valparaso (Chile)

    2015-10-20

    Solid insight into the physics of the inner Milky Way is key to understanding our Galaxy’s evolution, but extreme dust obscuration has historically hindered efforts to map the area along the Galactic mid-plane. New comprehensive near-infrared time-series photometry from the VVV Survey has revealed 35 classical Cepheids, tracing a previously unobserved component of the inner Galaxy, namely a ubiquitous inner thin disk of young stars along the Galactic mid-plane, traversing across the bulge. The discovered period (age) spread of these classical Cepheids implies a continuous supply of newly formed stars in the central region of the Galaxy over the last 100 million years.

  7. The origin of S-stars and a young stellar disk: distribution of debris stars of a sinking star cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Michiko; Funato, Yoko; Makino, Junichiro

    2010-01-01

    Within the distance of 1 pc from the Galactic center (GC), more than 100 young massive stars have been found. The massive stars at 0.1--1 pc from the GC are located in one or two disks, while those within 0.1 pc from the GC, S-stars, have an isotropic distribution. How these stars are formed is not well understood, especially for S-stars. Here we propose that a young star cluster with an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) can form both the disks and S-stars. We performed a fully self-consistent $N$-body simulation of a star cluster near the GC. Stars escaped from the tidally disrupted star cluster were carried to the GC due to an 1:1 mean motion resonance with the IMBH formed in the cluster. In the final phase of the evolution, the eccentricity of the IMBH becomes very high. In this phase, stars carried by the 1:1 resonance with the IMBH were dropped from the resonance and their orbits are randomized by a chaotic Kozai mechanism. The mass function of these carried stars is extremely top-heavy within 10''. Th...

  8. Deriving the Extinction to Young Stellar Objects using [Fe II] Near-infrared Emission Lines: Prescriptions from GIANO High-resolution Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchioli, T.; Sanna, N.; Massi, F.; Oliva, E.

    2016-07-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) emission lines of Fe+ at 1.257, 1.321, and 1.644 μm share the same upper level; their ratios can then be exploited to derive the extinction to a line emitting region once the relevant spontaneous emission coefficients are known. This is commonly done, normally from low-resolution spectra, in observations of shocked gas from jets driven by Young Stellar Objects. In this paper we review this method, provide the relevant equations, and test it by analyzing high-resolution (R ∼ 50,000) NIR spectra of two young stars, namely the Herbig Be star HD 200775 and the Be star V1478 Cyg, which exhibit intense emission lines. The spectra were obtained with the new GIANO echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Notably, the high-resolution spectra allowed checking the effects of overlapping telluric absorption lines. A set of various determinations of the Einstein coefficients are compared to show how much the available computations affect extinction derivation. The most recently obtained values are probably good enough to allow reddening determination within 1 visual mag of accuracy. Furthermore, we show that [Fe ii] line ratios from low-resolution pure emission-line spectra in general are likely to be in error due to the impossibility to properly account for telluric absorption lines. If low-resolution spectra are used for reddening determinations, we advice that the ratio 1.644/1.257, rather than 1.644/1.321, should be used, being less affected by the effects of telluric absorption lines.

  9. The Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of the Orion A and B Molecular Clouds. II. The Spatial Distribution and Demographics of Dusty Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.; Muzerolle, J.; Kryukova, E.; Hora, J. L.; Allen, L. E.; Flaherty, K.; Hartmann, L.; Myers, P. C.; Pipher, J. L.; Stauffer, J.; Young, E. T.; Fazio, G. G.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc-2 to over 10,000 pc-2, with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities ≥10 pc-2, we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination of the structural properties of the clusters and groups shows that the peak surface densities of the clusters increase approximately linearly with the number of members. Furthermore, all clusters with more than 70 members exhibit asymmetric and/or highly elongated structures. The ONC becomes azimuthally symmetric in the inner 0.1 pc, suggesting that the cluster is only ˜2 Myr in age. We find that the star formation efficiency (SFE) of the Orion B cloud is unusually low, and that the SFEs of individual groups and clusters are an order of magnitude higher than those of the clouds. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the young low mass stars in the Orion clouds and the Orion OB 1 association, and we determine upper limits to the fraction of disks that may be affected by UV radiation from OB stars or dynamical interactions in dense, clustered regions.

  10. THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE SURVEY OF THE ORION A AND B MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND DEMOGRAPHICS OF DUSTY YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megeath, S. T.; Kryukova, E. [Ritter Astrophsical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hora, J. L.; Myers, P. C.; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomical Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Flaherty, K. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hartmann, L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pipher, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester NY 14627 (United States); Stauffer, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Young, E. T., E-mail: megeath@physics.utoledo.edu [SOFIA-Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc{sup −2} to over 10,000 pc{sup −2}, with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities ≥10 pc{sup −2}, we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination of the structural properties of the clusters and groups shows that the peak surface densities of the clusters increase approximately linearly with the number of members. Furthermore, all clusters with more than 70 members exhibit asymmetric and/or highly elongated structures. The ONC becomes azimuthally symmetric in the inner 0.1 pc, suggesting that the cluster is only ∼2 Myr in age. We find that the star formation efficiency (SFE) of the Orion B cloud is unusually low, and that the SFEs of individual groups and clusters are an order of magnitude higher than those of the clouds. Finally, we discuss the relationship between the young low mass stars in the Orion clouds and the Orion OB 1 association, and we determine upper limits to the fraction of disks that may be affected by UV radiation from OB stars or dynamical interactions in dense, clustered regions.

  11. A FIRST LOOK AT THE AURIGA-CALIFORNIA GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD WITH HERSCHEL AND THE CSO: CENSUS OF THE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS AND THE DENSE GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Paul M. [Astronomy Department, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Fallscheer, Cassandra [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2 (Canada); Ginsburg, Adam [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy PS315, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Andre, Philippe; Koenyves, Vera [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Di Francesco, James; Matthews, Brenda C. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peterson, Dawn E., E-mail: pmh@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: Cassandra.Fallscheer@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: adam.ginsburg@colorado.edu, E-mail: sterebe@calstatela.edu, E-mail: pandre@cea.fr, E-mail: vera.konyves@cea.fr, E-mail: tbourke@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: James.DiFrancesco@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: Brenda.Matthews@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: dpeterson@spacescience.org [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    We have mapped the Auriga/California molecular cloud with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE cameras and the Bolocam 1.1 mm camera on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with the eventual goal of quantifying the star formation and cloud structure in this giant molecular cloud (GMC) that is comparable in size and mass to the Orion GMC, but which appears to be forming far fewer stars. We have tabulated 60 compact 70/160 {mu}m sources that are likely pre-main-sequence objects and correlated those with Spitzer and WISE mid-IR sources. At 1.1 mm, we find 18 cold, compact sources and discuss their properties. The most important result from this part of our study is that we find a modest number of additional compact young objects beyond those identified at shorter wavelengths with Spitzer. We also describe the dust column density and temperature structure derived from our photometric maps. The column density peaks at a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (N {sub H2}) and is distributed in a clear filamentary structure along which nearly all of the pre-main-sequence objects are found. We compare the young stellar object surface density to the gas column density and find a strong nonlinear correlation between them. The dust temperature in the densest parts of the filaments drops to {approx}10 K from values {approx}14-15 K in the low-density parts of the cloud. We also derive the cumulative mass fraction and probability density function of material in the cloud, which we compare with similar data on other star-forming clouds.

  12. Revealing the Chamaeleon: First detection of a low-mass stellar halo around the young open cluster Eta Chamaeleontis

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    We have identified several lithium-rich low-mass (0.08young open cluster Eta Chamaeleontis, nearly four times the radius of previous search efforts. We propose 4 new probable cluster members and 3 possible members requiring further investigation. Candidates were selected on the basis of DENIS and 2MASS photometry, NOMAD astrometry and extensive follow-up spectroscopy. Several of these stars show substantial variation in their H-alpha emission line strengths on timescales of days to months, with at least one event attributable to accretion from a circumstellar disk. These findings are consistent with a dynamical origin for the current configuration of the cluster, without the need to invoke an abnormally top-heavy Initial Mass Function, as proposed by some authors.

  13. Integral Field Spectroscopy of Massive Young Stellar Objects in the N113 H\\,{\\sc ii} Region in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, J L; van Loon, J Th; Sewilo, M

    2015-01-01

    The \\textit{Spitzer} SAGE survey has allowed the identification and analysis of significant samples of Young Stellar Object (YSO) candidates in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). However the angular resolution of \\textit{Spitzer} is relatively poor meaning that at the distance of the LMC, it is likely that many of the \\textit{Spitzer} YSO candidates in fact contain multiple components. We present high resolution \\textit{K}-band integral field spectroscopic observations of the three most prominent massive YSO candidates in the N113 H\\,{\\sc ii} region using VLT/SINFONI. We have identified six \\textit{K}-band continuum sources within the three \\textit{Spitzer} sources and we have mapped the morphology and velocity fields of extended line emission around these sources. Br$\\gamma$, He\\,{\\sc i} and H$_2$ emission is found at the position of all six \\textit{K}-band sources; we discuss whether the emission is associated with the continuum sources or whether it is ambient emission. H$_2$ emission appears to be mostly a...

  14. Detection of Linearly Polarized 6.9 mm Continuum Emission from the Class 0 Young Stellar Object NGC1333 IRAS4A

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Naomi; Rao, Ramprasad; Li, I-Hsiu; Fukagawa, Misato; Girart, Josep M; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    We report new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), 0$"$.5 angular resolution observations of linearly polarized continuum emission at 6.9 mm, towards the Class 0 young stellar object (YSO) NGC1333 IRAS4A. This target source is a collapsing dense molecular core, which was resolved at short wavelengths to have hourglass shaped B-field configuration. We compare these 6.9 mm observations with previous polarization Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 0.88 mm, which have comparable angular resolution ($\\sim$0$"$7). We found that at the same resolution, the observed polarization position angles at 6.9 mm are slightly deviated from those observed at 0.88 mm. Due to the lower optical depth of the emission at 6.9 mm, and the potential effect of dust grain growth, the new JVLA observations are likely probing B-field alignments in regions interior to those sampled by the previous polarization observations at higher frequencies. Our understanding can be improved by more sensitive observations, and observations fo...

  15. The Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of the Orion A and B Molecular Clouds II: the Spatial Distribution and Demographics of Dusty Young Stellar Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Megeath, S T; Muzerolle, J; Kryukova, E; Hora, J L; Allen, L E; Flaherty, K; Hartmann, L; Myers, P C; Pipher, J L; Stauffer, J; Young, E T; Fazio, G G

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the spatial distribution of dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) identified in the Spitzer Survey of the Orion Molecular clouds, augmenting these data with Chandra X-ray observations to correct for incompleteness in dense clustered regions. We also devise a scheme to correct for spatially varying incompleteness when X-ray data are not available. The local surface densities of the YSOs range from 1 pc$^{-2}$ to over 10,000 pc$^{-2}$, with protostars tending to be in higher density regions. This range of densities is similar to other surveyed molecular clouds with clusters, but broader than clouds without clusters. By identifying clusters and groups as continuous regions with surface densities $\\ge10$ pc$^{-2}$, we find that 59% of the YSOs are in the largest cluster, the Orion Nebular Cluster (ONC), while 13% of the YSOs are found in a distributed population. A lower fraction of protostars in the distributed population is evidence that it is somewhat older than the groups and clusters. An examination ...

  16. A SURVEY OF H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, AND CO ICE FEATURES TOWARD BACKGROUND STARS AND LOW-MASS YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS USING AKARI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, J. A. [Aix-Marseille Université, PIIM UMR 7345, F-13397 Marseille (France); Fraser, H. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Aikawa, Y. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Pontoppidan, K. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sakon, I., E-mail: helen.fraser@open.ac.uk [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0003 (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopic observations of 19 molecular clouds made using the AKARI satellite, and the data reduction pipeline written to analyze those observations. The 2.5-5 μm spectra of 30 objects—22 field stars behind quiescent molecular clouds and 8 low-mass young stellar objects in cores—were successfully extracted using the pipeline. Those spectra are further analyzed to calculate the column densities of key solid phase molecular species, including H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, and OCN{sup –}. The profile of the H{sub 2}O ice band is seen to vary across the objects observed and we suggest that the extended red wing may be an evolutionary indicator of both dust and ice mantle properties. The observation of 22 spectra with fluxes as low as < 5 mJy toward background stars, including 15 where the column densities of H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2} were calculated, provides valuable data that could help to benchmark the initial conditions in star-forming regions prior to the onset of star formation.

  17. The c2d Spitzer Spectroscopic Survey of Ices Around Low-Mass Young Stellar Objects. IV. NH3 and CH3OH

    CERN Document Server

    Bottinelli, Sandrine; Bouwman, Jordy; Beckwith, Martha; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Oberg, Karin I; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Linnartz, Harold; Blake, Geoffrey A; Evans, Neal J; Lahuis, Fred

    2010-01-01

    NH3 and CH3OH are key molecules in astrochemical networks leading to the formation of more complex N- and O-bearing molecules, such as CH3CN and HCOOCH3. Despite a number of recent studies, little is known about their abundances in the solid state. (...) In this work, we investigate the ~ 8-10 micron region in the Spitzer IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) spectra of 41 low-mass young stellar objects (YSOs). These data are part of a survey of interstellar ices in a sample of low-mass YSOs studied in earlier papers in this series. We used both an empirical and a local continuum method to correct for the contribution from the 10 micron silicate absorption in the recorded spectra. In addition, we conducted a systematic laboratory study of NH3- and CH3OH-containing ices to help interpret the astronomical spectra. We clearly detect a feature at ~9 micron in 24 low-mass YSOs. Within the uncertainty in continuum determination, we identify this feature with the NH3 nu_2 umbrella mode, and derive abundances with respect to w...

  18. Detection of Linearly Polarized 6.9 mm Continuum Emission from the Class 0 Young Stellar Object NGC 1333 IRAS4A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Lai, Shih-Ping; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Naomi; Rao, Ramprasad; Li, I.-Hsiu; Fukagawa, Misato; Girart, Josep M.; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.

    2016-04-01

    We report new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), 0\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_farcs;5 angular resolution observations of linearly polarized continuum emission at 6.9 mm, toward the class 0 young stellar object NGC 1333 IRAS4A. This target source is a collapsing dense molecular core that was resolved at short wavelengths to have an hourglass shaped B-field configuration. We compare these 6.9 mm observations with previous polarization Submillimeter Array observations at 0.88 mm, which have a comparable angular resolution (∼0\\_\\_AMP\\_\\_farcs;7). We find that at the same resolution, the observed polarization position angles at 6.9 mm are slightly deviated from those observed at 0.88 mm. Due to the lower optical depth of the emission at 6.9 mm, and the potential effect of dust grain growth, the new JVLA observations are likely probing B-field alignments in regions interior to those sampled by the previous polarization observations at higher frequencies. Our understanding can be improved with more sensitive observations, and with observations for the more extended spatial scales.

  19. SPECTRAL TYPING OF LATE-TYPE STELLAR COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS FROM LOW-DISPERSION NEAR-INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD UNIT DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Lewis C.; Beichman, Charles A.; Burruss, Rick; Ligon, E. Robert; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Shao, Michael [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Rice, Emily L.; Brenner, Douglas; Oppenheimer, Ben R. [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Crepp, Justin R.; Dekany, Richard G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Hinkley, Sasha [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); King, David; Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Metchev, Stanimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi, E-mail: lewis.c.roberts@jpl.nasa.gov [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2012-07-15

    We used the Project 1640 near-infrared coronagraph and integral field spectrograph to observe 19 young solar-type stars. Five of these stars are known binary stars and we detected the late-type secondaries and were able to measure their JH spectra with a resolution of R {approx} 30. The reduced, extracted, and calibrated spectra were compared to template spectra from the IRTF spectral library. With this comparison, we test the accuracy and consistency of spectral-type determination with the low-resolution near-infrared spectra from P1640. Additionally, we determine effective temperature and surface gravity of the companions by fitting synthetic spectra calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. We also present several new epochs of astrometry of each of the systems. Together, these data increase our knowledge and understanding of the stellar make up of these systems. In addition to the astronomical results, the analysis presented helps validate the Project 1640 data reduction and spectral extraction processes and the utility of low-resolution, near-infrared spectra for characterizing late-type companions in multiple systems.

  20. The Multiple Young Stellar Objects of HBC 515: An X-ray and Millimeter-wave Imaging Study in (Pre-main Sequence) Diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, D A; Kastner, J H; Wilner, D; Stelzer, B; Micela, G

    2016-01-01

    We present Chandra X-ray Observatory and Submillimeter Array (SMA) imaging of HBC 515, a system consisting of multiple young stellar objects (YSOs). The five members of HBC 515 represent a remarkably diverse array of YSOs, ranging from the low-mass Class I/II protostar HBC 515B, through Class II and transition disk objects (HBC 515D and C, respectively), to the "diskless", intermediate- mass, pre-main sequence binary HBC 515A. Our Chandra/ACIS imaging establishes that all five components are X-ray sources, with HBC 515A - a subarcsecond-separation binary that is partially resolved by Chandra - being the dominant X-ray source. We detect an X-ray flare associated with HBC 515B. In the SMA imaging, HBC 515B is detected as a strong 1.3 mm continuum emission source; a second, weaker mm continuum source is coincident with the position of the transition disk object HBC 515C. These results strongly support the protostellar nature of HBC 515B, and firmly establish HBC 515A as a member of the rare class of relatively m...

  1. A New Method for the Assessment of Age and Age-Spread of Pre-Main Sequence Stars in Young Stellar Associations of the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Da Rio, Nicola; Gennaro, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We present a new method for the evaluation of the age and age-spread among pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars in star-forming regions in the Magellanic Clouds, accounting simultaneously for photometric errors, unresolved binarity, differential extinction, stellar variability, accretion and crowding. The application of the method is performed with the statistical construction of synthetic color-magnitude diagrams using PMS evolutionary models. We convert each isochrone into 2D probability distributions of artificial PMS stars in the CMD by applying the aforementioned biases that dislocate these stars from their original CMD positions. A maximum-likelihood technique is then applied to derive the probability for each observed star to have a certain age, as well as the best age for the entire cluster. We apply our method to the photometric catalog of ~2000 PMS stars in the young association LH 95 in the LMC, based on the deepest HST/ACS imaging ever performed toward this galaxy, with a detection limit of V~28, corresp...

  2. Stellar populations in star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Yuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Li-Cai

    2016-12-01

    Stellar populations contain the most important information about star cluster formation and evolution. Until several decades ago, star clusters were believed to be ideal laboratories for studies of simple stellar populations (SSPs). However, discoveries of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters have expanded our view on stellar populations in star clusters. They have simultaneously generated a number of controversies, particularly as to whether young star clusters may have the same origin as old globular clusters. In addition, extensive studies have revealed that the SSP scenario does not seem to hold for some intermediate-age and young star clusters either, thus making the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters even more complicated. Stellar population anomalies in numerous star clusters are well-documented, implying that the notion of star clusters as true SSPs faces serious challenges. In this review, we focus on stellar populations in massive clusters with different ages. We present the history and progress of research in this active field, as well as some of the most recent improvements, including observational results and scenarios that have been proposed to explain the observations. Although our current ability to determine the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters is unsatisfactory, we propose a number of promising projects that may contribute to a significantly improved understanding of this subject.

  3. IRAS high resolution studies and modeling of closely interacting galaxies. Galaxy collisions: Infrared observations and analysis of numerical models. UV spectroscopy of massive young stellar populations in interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Susan A.

    1993-01-01

    The Final Technical Report covering the period from 15 Aug. 1989 to 14 Aug. 1991 is presented. Areas of research included Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) high resolution studies and modeling of closely interacting galaxies; galaxy collisions: infrared observations and analysis of numerical models; and UV spectroscopy of massive young stellar populations in interacting galaxies. Both observational studies and theoretical modelling of interacting galaxies are covered. As a consequence the report is divided into two parts, one on each aspect of the overall project.

  4. Investigating the transport of angular momentum from young stellar objects: do H2 jets from Class I YSOs rotate?

    CERN Document Server

    Chrysostomou, A; Nisni, B; Ray, T P; Eislöffel, J; Davis, C J; Takami, M

    2008-01-01

    In this pilot study, we examine molecular jets from the embedded Class I sources, HH 26 and HH 72, to search, for the first time, for kinematic signatures of jet rotation from young embedded sources.High resolution long-slit spectroscopy of the H2 1-0 S(1) transition was obtained using VLT/ISAAC, position-velocity (PV) diagrams constructed and intensity-weighted radial velocities transverse to the jet flow measured. Mean intensity-weighted velocities vary between vLSR ~ -90 and -65 km/s for HH 26, and -60 and -10 km/s for HH 72; maxima occur close to the intensity peak and decrease toward the jet borders. Velocity dispersions are ~ 45 and ~ 80 km/s for HH 26 and HH 72, respectively, with gas motions as fast as -100 km/s present. Asymmetric PV diagrams are seen for both objects which a simple empirical model of a cylindrical jet section shows could in principle be reproduced by jet rotation alone. Assuming magneto-centrifugal launching, the observed HH 26 flow may originate at a disk radius of 2-4 AU from the ...

  5. Near-Infrared properties of the X-ray emitting young stellar objects in the Carina Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Preibisch, Thomas; Irwin, Mike; Lewis, James R; King, Robert R; McCaughrean, Mark J; Zinnecker, Hans; Townsley, Leisa; Broos, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Abbreviated Abstract: The near-infrared study of the Carina Nebula in this paper builds on the results of the Chandra Carina Complex Project (CCCP), that detected 14368 X-ray sources in the 1.4 square-degree survey region, an automatic source classification study that classified 10714 of these as very likely young stars in Carina, and an analysis of their clustering properties. We used HAWK-I at the ESO VLT to conduct a very deep near-IR survey with sub-arcsecond angular resolution, covering about 1280 square-arcminutes. The HAWK-I images reveal more than 600000 individual infrared sources, whereby objects as faint as J ~ 23, H ~ 22, and Ks ~ 21 are detected at S/N >= 3. While less than half of the Chandra X-ray sources have counterparts in the 2MASS catalog, the ~5 mag deeper HAWK-I data reveal infrared counterparts to 6636 (= 88.8%) of the 7472 Chandra X-ray sources in the HAWK-I field. We analyze near-infrared color-color and color-magnitude diagrams to derive information about the extinctions, infrared ex...

  6. Triggered Star Formation Surrounding Wolf-Rayet Star HD 211853

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 103 cm-3 and kinematic temperature ~20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core "A," which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the "collect and collapse" process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core "A" seem to be affected by the "radiation-driven implosion" process.

  7. Triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853 is studied in molecular emission, infrared emission, as well as radio and HI emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$ and kinematic temperature $\\sim$20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From SED modeling towards the young stellar objects (YSOs), sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the Wolf-Rayet star to the molecular ring. A small scale sequential star formation is revealed towards core A, which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations is thus suggested. The presence of PDR, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, the large scale sequential star formation indicate the "Collect and Collapse" process functions in this region. The star forming activities in core A seem to be affected by the "Radiation-Driven Implosion" (...

  8. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  9. Herschel-PACS observations of far-IR lines in young stellar objects. I. [OI] and H2O at 63 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Merín, B.; Kamp, I.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Gas plays a major role in the dynamical evolution of young stellar objects (YSOs). Its interaction with the dust is the key to our understanding planet formation later on in the protoplanetary disc stage. Studying the gas content is therefore a crucial step towards understanding YSO and planet formation. Such a study can be made through spectroscopic observations of emission lines in the far-infrared, where some of the most important gas coolants emit, such as the [OI] 3P1 →3P2 transition at 63.18 μm. Aims: We provide a compilation of observations of far-IR lines in 362 YSOs covering all evolutionary stages, from Class 0 to Class III with debris discs. In the present paper we focus on [OI] and o-H2O emission at 63 μm. Methods: We retrieved all the available Herschel-PACS spectroscopic observations at 63 μm that used the dominant observing mode, the chop-nod technique. We provide measurements of line fluxes for the [OI] 3P1 →3P2 and o-H2O808 → 717 transitions at 63 μm computed using different methods. Taking advantage of the PACS IFU, we checked for spatially extended emission and also studied multiple dynamical components in line emission. Results: The final compilation consists of line and continuum fluxes at 63 μm for a total of 362 young stellar objects (YSOs). We detect [OI] line emission at 63 μm in 194 sources out of 362, and line absorption in another five sources. o-H2O was detected in 42 sources. We find evidence of extended [OI] emission in 77 sources, and detect 3σ residual emission in 71 of them. The number of sources showing extended emission decays from Class 0 to Class II. We also searched for different components contributing to the line emission, and found evidence for multiple components in 30 sources. We explored correlations between line emission and continuum emission and found a clear correlation between WISE fluxes from 4.6 to 22 μm and [OI] line emission. We conclude that the observed emission is typically a

  10. Intermittent maser flare around the high-mass young stellar object G353.273+0.641 - I. Data and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motogi, K.; Sorai, K.; Honma, M.; Minamidani, T.; Takekoshi, T.; Akiyama, K.; Tateuchi, K.; Hosaka, K.; Ohishi, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Habe, A.; Kobayashi, H.

    2011-10-01

    We have performed very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) and single-dish monitoring of 22-GHz H2O maser emission from the high-mass young stellar object G353.273+0.641 with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the Tomakamai 11-m radio telescope. Two maser flares have been detected, separated by almost two years. Frequent VLBI monitoring has revealed that the flare activity has been accompanied by structural change of the prominent shock front traced by H2O maser alignments. We have detected only blueshifted emission and all maser features have been distributed within a very small area of 200 × 200 au2, in spite of a wide velocity range (>100 km s-1). The light curve shows notably intermittent variation and suggests that the H2O masers in G353.273+0.641 are excited by an episodic radio jet. The time-scale of ˜2 yr and characteristic velocity of ˜500 km s-1 also support this interpretation. Two isolated velocity components, C50 (-53 ± 7 km s-1) and C70 (-73 ± 7 km s-1), have shown synchronized linear acceleration of the flux-weighted ? values (˜ -5 km s-1 yr-1) during the flare phase. This can be converted to the lower-limit momentum rate of 1.1 × 10-3 M⊙ km s-1 yr-1. The maser properties are quite similar to those of IRAS 20126+4104 especially. This corroborates the previous suggestion that G353.273+0.641 is a candidate high-mass protostellar object. The possible pole-on geometry of the disc-jet system may be suitable for direct imaging of the accretion disc in this case.

  11. Stellar Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-01-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on ne

  12. Stellar remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaler, S D; Srinivasan, G

    1997-01-01

    This volume examines the internal structure, origin and evolution of white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, all objects at the final stage of stellar evolution. It covers topics such as: pulsation of white dwarfs; millisecond pulsars; and the dynamics around black holes.

  13. 2D mapping of young stars in the inner 180 pc of NGC 1068: correlation with molecular gas ring and stellar kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogerio; Diniz, Marlon R; Vale, Tiberio Borges; McGregor, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    We report the first two-dimensional mapping of the stellar population and non-stellar continua within the inner 180 pc (radius) of NGC 1068 at a spatial resolution of 8 pc, using integral field spectroscopy in the near-infrared. We have applied the technique of spectral synthesis to data obtained with the instrument NIFS and the adaptive optics module ALTAIR at the Gemini North Telescope. Two episodes of recent star formation are found to dominate the stellar population contribution: the first occurred 300 Myr ago, extending over most of the nuclear region; the second occurred just 30 Myr ago, in a ring-like structure at ~100 pc from the nucleus, where it is coincident with an expanding ring of H2 emission. Inside the ring, where a decrease in the stellar velocity dispersion is observed, the stellar population is dominated by the 300 Myr age component. In the inner 35 pc, the oldest age component (age > 2Gyr) dominates the mass, while the flux is dominated by black-body components with temperatures in the ran...

  14. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MAPPING OF YOUNG STARS IN THE INNER 180 pc OF NGC 1068: CORRELATION WITH MOLECULAR GAS RING AND STELLAR KINEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogerio; Vale, Tiberio Borges [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, IF, CP 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Riffel, Rogemar A.; Diniz, Marlon R. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); McGregor, Peter J., E-mail: thaisa@ufrgs.br [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2012-08-20

    We report the first two-dimensional mapping of the stellar population and non-stellar continua within the inner 180 pc (radius) of NGC 1068 at a spatial resolution of 8 pc, using integral field spectroscopy in the near-infrared. We have applied the technique of spectral synthesis to data obtained with the instrument NIFS and the adaptive optics module ALTAIR at the Gemini North Telescope. Two episodes of recent star formation are found to dominate the stellar population contribution: the first occurred 300 Myr ago, extending over most of the nuclear region; the second occurred just 30 Myr ago, in a ring-like structure at Almost-Equal-To 100 pc from the nucleus, where it is coincident with an expanding ring of H{sub 2} emission. Inside the ring, where a decrease in the stellar velocity dispersion is observed, the stellar population is dominated by the 300 Myr age component. In the inner 35 pc, the oldest age component (age {>=} 2 Gyr) dominates the mass, while the flux is dominated by blackbody components with temperatures in the range 700 K {<=} T {<=} 800 K which we attribute to the dusty torus. We also find some contribution from blackbody and power-law components beyond the nucleus which we attribute to dust emission and scattered light.

  15. Circumstellar Disks of the Most Vigorously Accreting Young Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Dong, Ruobing; Vorobyov, Eduard I; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Fukagawa, Misato; Tamura, Motohide; Henning, Thomas; Dunham, Michael M; Karr, Jennifer; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Tsuribe, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Young stellar objects (YSOs) may not accumulate their mass steadily, as was previously thought, but in a series of violent events manifesting themselves as sharp stellar brightening. These events can be caused by fragmentation due to gravitational instabilities in massive gaseous disks surrounding young stars, followed by migration of dense gaseous clumps onto the star. We report our high angular resolution, coronagraphic near-infrared polarization imaging observations using the High Contrast Instrument for the Subaru Next Generation Adaptive Optics (HiCIAO) of the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope, towards four YSOs which are undergoing luminous accretion outbursts. The obtained infrared images have verified the presence of several hundred AUs scale arms and arcs surrounding these YSOs. In addition, our hydrodynamics simulations and radiative transfer models further demonstrate that these observed structures can indeed be explained by strong gravitational instabilities occurring at the beginning of the disk formation p...

  16. Circumstellar disks of the most vigorously accreting young stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Takami, Michihiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Jun; Dong, Ruobing; Vorobyov, Eduard I; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Fukagawa, Misato; Tamura, Motohide; Henning, Thomas; Dunham, Michael M; Karr, Jennifer L; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Tsuribe, Toru

    2016-02-01

    Stars may not accumulate their mass steadily, as was previously thought, but in a series of violent events manifesting themselves as sharp stellar brightening. These events can be caused by fragmentation due to gravitational instabilities in massive gaseous disks surrounding young stars, followed by migration of dense gaseous clumps onto the star. Our high-resolution near-infrared imaging has verified the presence of the key associated features, large-scale arms and arcs surrounding four young stellar objects undergoing luminous outbursts. Our hydrodynamics simulations and radiative transfer models show that these observed structures can indeed be explained by strong gravitational instabilities occurring at the beginning of the disk formation phase. The effect of those tempestuous episodes of disk evolution on star and planet formation remains to be understood.

  17. Stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    2013-01-01

    Stellar Evolution, Second Edition covers the significant advances in the understanding of birth, life, and death of stars.This book is divided into nine chapters and begins with a description of the characteristics of stars according to their brightness, distance, size, mass, age, and chemical composition. The next chapters deal with the families, structure, and birth of stars. These topics are followed by discussions of the chemical composition and the evolution of main-sequence stars. A chapter focuses on the unique features of the sun as a star, including its evolution, magnetic fields, act

  18. Stellar Opacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, F J; Iglesias, C A

    1999-11-07

    The monochromatic opacity, {kappa}{sub v}, quantifies the property of a material to remove energy of frequency v from a radiation field. A harmonic average of {kappa}{sub v}, known as the Rosseland mean, {kappa}{sub R}, is frequently used to simplify the calculation of energy transport in stars. The term ''opacity'' is commonly understood to refer to {kappa}{sub R}. Opacity plays an important role in stellar modeling because for most stars radiation is the primary mechanism for transporting energy from the nuclear burning region in the core to the surface. Depending on the mass, convection and electron thermal conduction can also be important modes of stellar energy transport. The efficiency of energy transport is related to the temperature gradient, which is directly proportional to the mean radiative opacity in radiation dominated regions. When the radiative opacity is large, convection can become the more efficient energy transport mechanism. Electron conductive opacity, the resistance of matter to thermal conduction, is inversely proportional to electron thermal conductivity. Thermal conduction becomes the dominant mode of energy transport at high density and low temperature.

  19. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey. The Assembly History of the Stellar Mass in Galaxies: from the Young to the Old Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzetti, L; Lamareille, F; Zamorani, G; Franzetti, P; Le Fèvre, O; Iovino, A; Temporin, S; Ilbert, O; Arnouts, S; Charlot, S; Brinchmann, J; Zucca, E; Tresse, L; Scodeggio, M; Guzzo, L; Bottini, D; Garilli, B; Le Brun, V; MacCagni, D; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Bardelli, S; Cappi, A; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Gavignaud, I; McCracken, H J; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pellò, R; Pollo, A; Radovich, M; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; Gregorini, L; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Vergani, D; Walcher, C J

    2007-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function of galaxies up to z=2.5 as obtained from the VVDS. We estimate the stellar mass from broad-band photometry using 2 different assumptions on the galaxy star formation history and show that the addition of secondary bursts to a continuous star formation history produces systematically higher (up to 40%) stellar masses. At low redshift (z=0.2) we find a substantial population of low-mass galaxies (10^8 Msun at z=1), and a mild mass-dependent average evolution (`mass-downsizing'). In particular our data are consistent with mild/negligible (6x10^10 Msun). For less massive systems the no-evolution scenario is excluded. A large fraction (>=50%) of massive galaxies have been already assembled and converted most of their gas into stars at z=1, ruling out the `dry mergers' as the major mechanism of their assembly history below z=1. This fraction decreases to 33% at z=2. Low-mass systems have decreased continuously in number and mass density (by a factor...

  20. Astrospheres and Solar-like Stellar Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Brian E.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Stellar analogs for the solar wind have proven to be frustratingly difficult to detect directly. However, these stellar winds can be studied indirectly by observing the interaction regions carved out by the collisions between these winds and the interstellar medium (ISM. These interaction regions are called "astrospheres", analogous to the "heliosphere" surrounding the Sun. The heliosphere and astrospheres contain a population of hydrogen heated by charge exchange processes that can produce enough H I Ly alpha absorption to be detectable in UV spectra of nearby stars from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST. The amount of astrospheric absorption is a diagnostic for the strength of the stellar wind, so these observations have provided the first measurements of solar-like stellar winds. Results from these stellar wind studies and their implications for our understanding of the solar wind are reviewed here. Of particular interest are results concerning the past history of the solar wind and its impact on planetary atmospheres.

  1. THE BANANA PROJECT. IV. TWO ALIGNED STELLAR ROTATION AXES IN THE YOUNG ECCENTRIC BINARY SYSTEM EP CRUCIS: PRIMORDIAL ORIENTATION AND TIDAL ALIGNMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N. [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Setiawan, Johny [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    With observations of the EP Cru system, we continue our series of measurements of spin-orbit angles in eclipsing binary star systems, the BANANA project (Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned). We find a close alignment between the sky projections of the rotational and orbital angular momentum vectors for both stars ({beta}{sub p} = -1. Degree-Sign 8 {+-} 1. Degree-Sign 6 and |{beta}{sub s}| < 17 Degree-Sign ). We also derive precise absolute dimensions and stellar ages for this system. The EP Cru and DI Her systems provide an interesting comparison: they have similar stellar types and orbital properties, but DI Her is younger and has major spin-orbit misalignments, raising the question of whether EP Cru also had a large misalignment at an earlier phase of evolution. We show that tidal dissipation is an unlikely explanation for the good alignment observed today, because realignment happens on the same timescale as spin-orbit synchronization, and the stars in EP Cru are far from synchronization (they are spinning nine times too quickly). Therefore it seems that some binaries form with aligned axes, while other superficially similar binaries are formed with misaligned axes.

  2. Magnetic Modulation of Stellar Angular Momentum Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Garraffo, Cecilia; Cohen, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    Angular Momentum Loss is important for understanding astrophysical phenomena such as stellar rotation, magnetic activity, close binaries, and cataclysmic variables. Magnetic breaking is the dominant mechanism in the spin down of young late-type stars. We have studied angular momentum loss as a function of stellar magnetic activity. We argue that the complexity of the field and its latitudinal distribution are crucial for angular momentum loss rates. In this work we discuss how angular momentum is modulated by magnetic cycles, and how stellar spin down is not just a simple function of large scale magnetic field strength.

  3. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  4. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  5. Effects of Turbulence on Cosmic Ray Propagation in Protostars and Young Star/Disk Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fatuzzo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic fields associated with young stellar objects are expected to have an hour-glass geometry, i.e., the magnetic field lines are pinched as they thread the equatorial plane surrounding the forming star but merge smoothly onto a background field at large distances. With this field configuration, incoming cosmic rays experience both a funneling effect that acts to enhance the flux impinging on the circumstellar disk and a magnetic mirroring effect that acts to reduce that flux. To leading order, these effects nearly cancel out for simple underlying magnetic field structures. However, the environments surrounding young stellar objects are expected to be highly turbulent. This paper shows how the presence of magnetic field fluctuations affects the process of magnetic mirroring, and thereby changes the flux of cosmic rays striking circumstellar disks. Turbulence has two principle effects: 1) The (single) location of the magnetic mirror point found in the absence of turbulence is replaced with a wide distr...

  6. Fundamental stellar parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wittkowski, M

    2004-01-01

    I present a discussion of fundamental stellar parameters and their observational determination in the context of interferometric measurements with current and future optical/infrared interferometric facilities. Stellar parameters and the importance of their determination for stellar physics are discussed. One of the primary uses of interferometry in the field of stellar physics is the measurement of the intensity profile across the stellar disk, both as a function of position angle and of wavelength. High-precision fundamental stellar parameters are also derived by characterizations of binary and multiple system using interferometric observations. This topic is discussed in detail elsewhere in these proceedings. Comparison of observed spectrally dispersed center-to-limb intensity variations with models of stellar atmospheres and stellar evolution may result in an improved understanding of key phenomena in stellar astrophysics such as the precise evolutionary effects on the main sequence, the evolution of meta...

  7. THE CLUSTER OF BLUE STARS SURROUNDING THE M31 NUCLEAR BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Bender, Ralf; Kormendy, John [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstrasse 1, Muenchen D-81679 (Germany); Rosenfield, Philip [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Green, Richard F. [Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We obtained U{sub 330}- and B-band images of the M31 nucleus using the High Resolution Camera of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The spatial resolution in the U{sub 330} band, 0.''03 FWHM, or 0.1 pc at M31, is sufficient to resolve the outskirts of the compact cluster (P3) of UV-bright stars surrounding the M31 black hole. The center of the cluster is marked by an extended source that is both brighter and redder than the other point sources within P3; it is likely to be a blend of several bright stars. We hypothesize that it marks the location of the M31 black hole. Both stellar photometry and a surface brightness fluctuation analysis show that the P3 stellar population is consistent with early-type main-sequence stars formed in a {approx}100-200 Myr old starburst population. Evolutionary tracks of post early asymptotic giant branch (PEAGB) stars, associated with late-stage evolution of an old population, also traverse the U and U - B domain occupied by the P3 stars; but we argue that only a few stars could be accounted for that way. PEAGB evolution is very rapid, and there is no progenitor population of red giants associated with P3. The result that P3 comprises young stars is consistent with inferences from earlier HST observations of the integrated light of the cluster. Like the Milky Way, M31 harbors a black hole closely surrounded by apparently young stars.

  8. Accurate determination of accretion and photospheric parameters in Young Stellar Objects: the case of two candidate old disks in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Manara, C F; Da Rio, N; De Marchi, G; Natta, A; Ricci, L; Robberto, M; Testi, L

    2013-01-01

    Current planet formation models are largely based on the observational constraint that protoplanetary disks have lifetime 3Myr. Recent studies, however, report the existence of PMS stars with signatures of accretion (strictly connected with the presence of circumstellar disks)and photometrically determined ages of 30 Myr, or more. Here we present a spectroscopic study of two major age outliers in the ONC. We use broad band, intermediate resolution VLT/X-Shooter spectra combined with an accurate method to determine the stellar parameters and the related age of the targets to confirm their peculiar age estimates and the presence of ongoing accretion.The analysis is based on a multi-component fitting technique, which derives simultaneously SpT, extinction, and accretion properties of the objects. With this method we confirm and quantify the ongoing accretion. From the photospheric parameters of the stars we derive their position on the HRD, and the age given by evolutionary models. Together with other age indica...

  9. Advanced stellarator power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies.

  10. Advanced stellarator power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies.

  11. Mixing in massive stellar mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Gaburov, E; Zwart, S Portegies

    2007-01-01

    The early evolution of dense star clusters is possibly dominated by close interactions between stars, and physical collisions between stars may occur quite frequently. Simulating a stellar collision event can be an intensive numerical task, as detailed calculations of this process require hydrodynamic simulations in three dimensions. We present a computationally inexpensive method in which we approximate the merger process, including shock heating, hydrodynamic mixing and mass loss, with a simple algorithm which is based on conservation laws and a basic qualitative understanding of the hydrodynamics of stellar mergers. The algorithm is based on Archimedes' principle, which dictates the distribution of the fluid in stable equilibrium situation. We calibrate and apply the method to mergers of massive stars, as these are expected to occur in young and dense star clusters. We find that mergers between spectral type B stars ($\\sim$10\\msun) result in substantial mixing, whereas mergers between stars of different sp...

  12. Stellarator status, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, J.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Grieger, G.; Rau, F. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.)); Iiyoshi, A. (National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)); Navarro, A.P. (Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain)); Kovrizhnykh, L.M. (AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Obshchey Fiziki); Pavlichenko, O.S. (AN Ukrain

    1990-07-01

    The present status of stellarator experiments and recent progress in stellarator research (both experimental and theoretical) are reported by groups in the United States, the USSR, Japan, Australia, and the European Community (the Federal Republic of Germany and Spain). Experiments under construction and studies of large, next-generation stellarators are also described. 73 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. F stars: A challenge to stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Suchkov, A A

    2014-01-01

    Many main-sequence F and early G stars are too luminous for their effective temperature, surface gravity, and chemical composition. These {\\it overluminous stars} have two curious properties. First, their kinematics as a function of age from stellar evolution modeling (isochrone fitting) is very different from that of normal stars. Second, while X-ray luminosity of normal stars declines with age, the X-ray luminosity of overluminous F stars changes in the opposite direction, being on average higher for older stars. These properties imply that, in defiance of standard models of stellar evolution, F stars of a given mass and chemical composition can evolve very differently. Assuming that the models correctly describe normal stars, for overluminous F stars they predict too young age and the X-ray emission evolving in the direction opposite to the actually observed trend. This discrepancy between modeling results and observational data suggests that standard stellar evolution models and models of stellar activity...

  14. Chemical evolution in the environment of intermediate mass young stellar objects (IM YSOs): NGC 7129-FIRS 2 and LkHα 234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, A.; Rizzo, J. R.; Neri, R.; Caselli, P.; Bachiller, R.

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out an observational study of the Class 0 IM protostar NGC 7129-FIRS 2 and compared it with the Type I Herbig Be star LkHα 234 using the 30m IRAM telescope. These two stars are located in the same molecular cloud and have similar luminosities. Thus, most of their physical and chemical differences are expected to be due to their different evolutionary stage instead of to different stellar masses or initial conditions. Our results suggest an evolutionary sequence in which as the protostar evolves to become a visible star, the protostellar envelope is being dispersed and warmed up. In addition, the bipolar molecular outflow fades, even disappear, before the star becomes visible. These two physical changes produce important chemical changes in the environment of the IM YSOs. While the abundances of some molecules like N2H+ and NH3 remain constant, the abundance of others like SiO decreases by a factor ~10 from the Class 0 protostar to the HBe star. Significant changes are also found in the abundances of CN, HCN, CH3OH, H2CO and CH3CN. Based on our results in FIRS 2 and LkHα 234, we propose some abundance ratios that can be used as chemical clocks for the envelopes of IM YSOs. The SiO/CS, CN/N2H+ (or HCN/N2H+), DCO+/HCO+ and D2CO/DCO+ ratios seem to be good diagnostics of the protostellar evolutionary stage. In addition to single-dish observations, we have obtained interferometeric images of the Class 0 protostar NGC 7129-FIRS 2 using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our results show the existence of a hot core in this IM Classs 0 object. This is the first hot core detected in an IM protostar. The size of the hot core (~600AU×800AU) is similar to those of the hot cores associated with massive stars. Our interferometric data also reveal a chemistry very rich and complex chemistry in this IM hot core.

  15. The Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of the Orion A & B Molecular Clouds - Part I: A Census of Dusty Young Stellar Objects and a Study of their Mid-IR Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Megeath, S T; Muzerolle, J; Kryukova, E; Flaherty, K; Hora, J; Allen, L E; Hartmann, L; Myers, P C; Pipher, J L; Stauffer, J; Young, E T; Fazio, G G

    2012-01-01

    We present a survey of the Orion A and B molecular clouds undertaken with the IRAC and MIPS instruments onboard Spitzer. In total, five distinct fields were mapped covering 14 sq. degrees in five mid-IR bands spanning 3-24 microns. The survey includes the Orion Nebula Cluster, the Lynds 1641, 1630 and 1622 dark clouds, and the NGC 2023, 2024, 2068 and 2071 nebulae. These data are merged with the 2MASS point source catalog to generate a catalog of eight band photometry. We identify 3479 dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Orion molecular clouds by searching for point sources with mid-IR colors indicative of reprocessed light from dusty disks or infalling envelopes. The YSOs are subsequently classified on the basis of their mid-IR colors and their spatial distributions are presented. We classify 2991 of the YSOs as pre-main sequence stars with disks and 488 as likely protostars. Most of the sources were observed with IRAC in 2-3 epochs over 6 months; we search for variability between the epochs by looking...

  16. The evolution of runaway stellar collision products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glebbeek, E.; Gaburov, E.; de Mink, S.E.; Pols, O.R.; Portegies Zwart, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    In the cores of young dense star clusters, repeated stellar collisions involving the same object can occur. It has been suggested that this leads to the formation of an intermediate-mass black hole. To verify this scenario we compute the detailed evolution of the merger remnant of three sequences, t

  17. APEX-CHAMP+ high-J CO observations of low-mass young stellar objects: III. NGC 1333 IRAS 4A/4B envelope, outflow and UV heating

    CERN Document Server

    Yıldız, Umut A; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Belloche, Arnaud; van Kempen, Tim A; Hogerheijde, Michiel R; Gusten, Rolf; van der Marel, Nienke

    2012-01-01

    NGC 1333 IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B sources are among the best studied Stage 0 low-mass protostars which are driving prominent bipolar outflows. Most studies have so far concentrated on the colder parts (T<30K) of these regions. The aim is to characterize the warmer parts of the protostellar envelope in order to quantify the feedback of the protostars on their surroundings in terms of shocks, UV heating, photodissociation and outflow dispersal. Fully sampled large scale maps of the region were obtained; APEX-CHAMP+ was used for 12CO 6-5, 13CO 6-5 and [CI] 2-1, and JCMT-HARP-B for 12CO 3-2 emissions. Complementary Herschel-HIFI and ground-based lines of CO and its isotopologs, from 1-0 upto 10-9 (Eu/k 300K), are collected at the source positions. Radiative-transfer models of the dust and lines are used to determine temperatures and masses of the outflowing and UV-heated gas and infer the CO abundance structure. Broad CO emission line profiles trace entrained shocked gas along the outflow walls, with typical temper...

  18. A Substantial Dust Disk Surrounding an Actively Accreting First-Ascent Giant Star

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, C; Song, I; Rhee, J H; Metchev, S

    2009-01-01

    We report identification of the first unambiguous example of what appears to be a new class of first-ascent giant stars that are actively accreting gas and dust and that are surrounded by substantial dusty disks. These old stars, who are nearing the end of their lives, are experiencing a rebirth into characteristics typically associated with newborn stars. The F2-type first-ascent giant star TYC 4144 329 2 is in a wide separation binary system with an otherwise normal G8 IV star, TYC 4144 329 1. From Keck near-infrared imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy we are able to determine that these two stars are $\\sim$1 Gyr old and reside at a distance of $\\sim$550 pc. One possible explanation for the origin of the accreting material is common-envelope interaction with a low-mass stellar or sub-stellar companion. The gaseous and dusty material around TYC 4144 329 2, as it is similar to the primordial disks observed around young classical T Tauri stars, could potentially give rise to a new generation of planets an...

  19. A Classification Scheme for Young Stellar Objects Using the WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER ALLWISE Catalog: Revealing Low-Density Star Formation in the Outer Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koening, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.

    2014-01-01

    We present an assessment of the performance of WISE and the AllWISE data release in a section of the Galactic Plane. We lay out an approach to increasing the reliability of point source photometry extracted from the AllWISE catalog in Galactic Plane regions using parameters provided in the catalog. We use the resulting catalog to construct a new, revised young star detection and classification scheme combining WISE and 2MASS near and mid-infrared colors and magnitudes and test it in a section of the Outer Milky Way. The clustering properties of the candidate Class I and II stars using a nearest neighbor density calculation and the two-point correlation function suggest that the majority of stars do form in massive star forming regions, and any isolated mode of star formation is at most a small fraction of the total star forming output of the Galaxy. We also show that the isolated component may be very small and could represent the tail end of a single mechanism of star formation in line with models of molecular cloud collapse with supersonic turbulence and not a separate mode all to itself.

  20. Stellar Properties of Embedded Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    White, R J; Doppmann, G W; Covey, Kevin R; Hillenbrand, L A

    2006-01-01

    (Abridged) High dispersion spectrographs on large aperture telescopes have recently allowed observers to study the stellar and accretion properties of deeply embedded young stars, commonly referred to as Class I stars. We summarize these newly determined properties and compare them with observations of more optically revealed Class II (T Tauri) stars. Class I stars have spectral types and stellar luminosities similar to those of Class II stars, suggesting similar masses and ages. Estimates of stellar luminosity and age, however, are especially uncertain given the large extinctions, scattered light emission and continuum excesses typical of Class I stars. Several candidate Class I brown dwarfs are identified. Class I stars appear to rotate more rapidly than T Tauri stars, by roughly a factor of 2. Likewise, Class I disk accretion rates are only a factor of two larger than those of T Tauri stars, less than the mass infall rates predicted by envelope models by 1-2 orders of magnitude. In at least a few cases the...

  1. Molecular environment of the supernova remnant IC 443: Discovery of the molecular shells surrounding the remnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yang; Fang, Min; Yang, Ji [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhou, Ping; Chen, Yang [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-06-20

    We have carried out {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O observations toward the mixed morphology supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443. The observations cover a 1.°5 × 1.°5 area and allow us to investigate the overall molecular environment of the remnant. Some northern and northeastern partial shell structure of CO gas is around the remnant. One of the partial shells, about 5' extending beyond the northeastern border of the remnant's bright radio shell, seems to just confine the faint radio halo. On the other hand, some faint CO clumps can be discerned along the eastern boundary of the faint remnant's radio halo. Connecting the eastern CO clumps, the northeastern partial shell structures, and the northern CO partial shell, we can see that a half molecular ring structure appears to surround the remnant. The LSR velocity of the half-ring structure is in the range of –5 km s{sup –1} to –2 km s{sup –1}, which is consistent with that of the –4 km s{sup –1} molecular clouds. We suggest that the half-ring structure of the CO emission at V {sub LSR} ∼ –4 km s{sup –1} is associated with the SNR. The structures are possibly swept up by the stellar winds of SNR IC 443's massive progenitor. Based on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-IR database, 62 young stellar object (YSO) candidates are selected within the radio halo of the remnant. These YSO candidates concentrated along the boundary of the remnant's bright radio shell are likely to be triggered by the stellar winds from the massive progenitor of SNR IC 443.

  2. The distribution of stellar populations within galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, P. M.; Sodré, L., Jr.

    2014-10-01

    The study of stellar populations in galaxies is particularly interesting, since they are a fossil record of several physical processes associated with the formation and evolution of galaxies. In this work we present the first results of our approach to study the spatial distribution of stellar populations inside galaxies. We are using ugriz magnitudes and principal component analysis (PCA) to obtain pixel-by-pixel proxies of the stellar populations and their distributions inside each galaxy. The distribution of these populations are then investigated with a variety of statistical tools, including Gini Indices and the Euler-Poincaré characteristic. Our approach aims to be a step forward with respect to the conventional profile fitting, allowing to obtain quantitative estimates on how the different stellar populations are distributed within a galaxy, bringing hints on how galaxies grow and evolve. The pixel-by-pixel analysis of a small sample of 15 galaxies of different types show that the stellar populations tend to evolve from inside to out in spiral and late spiral galaxies, while elliptical galaxies seem to have young stellar populations in the center. This first results show that this approach is effective and will be explored and improve in future works.

  3. Stellar Velocity Dispersion in Mergers: The Effects of Dust and Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Stickley, Nathaniel R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of stellar evolution and dust on measurements of stellar velocity dispersion in mergers of disk galaxies. $N$-body simulations and radiative transfer analysis software are used to obtain mass-weighted and flux-weighted measurements of stellar velocity dispersion. We find that the distribution of dust with respect to the distribution of young stars in such systems is more important than the total degree of attenuation. The presence of dust typically causes flux-weighted measurements of stellar velocity dispersion to be elevated with respect to mass-weighted measurements because dust preferentially obscures young stars, which tend to be dynamically cooler than older stellar populations in such systems. In exceptional situations, in which young stars are not preferentially obscured by dust, flux-weighted velocity dispersion measurements tend to be negatively offset with respect to mass-weighted measurements because the dynamically cool young stellar populations are more luminous, per u...

  4. Stellar winds near massive black holes: The case of the S-stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lützgendorf, Nora; Pelupessy, Inti; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2015-01-01

    The Galactic center provides a unique laboratory to study the interaction of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) with its gaseous and stellar environment. Simulations to determine the accretion of stellar winds from the surrounding O-stars onto the black hole have been performed earlier, but in those the presence of the S-star system was ignored. The S-stars are a group of young massive B-stars in relatively close orbits around the black hole. Here we simulate those stars in order to study their contribution to the accretion rate, without taking the more distant and massive O-stars into account. We use the Astrophysical Multi-purpose Software Environment (AMUSE) to combine gravitational physics, stellar evolution and hydrodynamics in a single simulation of the S-stars orbiting the supermassive black hole, and use this framework to determine the amount of gas that is accreted onto the black hole. We find that the accretion rate is sensitive to the wind properties of the S-stars (rate of mass-loss and terminal vel...

  5. THE SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE SURVEY OF THE ORION A AND B MOLECULAR CLOUDS. I. A CENSUS OF DUSTY YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS AND A STUDY OF THEIR MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megeath, S. T.; Kryukova, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43560 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Flaherty, K. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hora, J. L.; Myers, P. C.; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, L. E. [National Optical Astronomical Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hartmann, L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pipher, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Stauffer, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Young, E. T., E-mail: megeath@physics.utoledo.edu [SOFIA-Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We present a survey of the Orion A and B molecular clouds undertaken with the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board Spitzer. In total, five distinct fields were mapped, covering 9 deg{sup 2} in five mid-IR bands spanning 3-24 {mu}m. The survey includes the Orion Nebula Cluster, the Lynds 1641, 1630, and 1622 dark clouds, and the NGC 2023, 2024, 2068, and 2071 nebulae. These data are merged with the Two Micron All Sky Survey point source catalog to generate a catalog of eight-band photometry. We identify 3479 dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Orion molecular clouds by searching for point sources with mid-IR colors indicative of reprocessed light from dusty disks or infalling envelopes. The YSOs are subsequently classified on the basis of their mid-IR colors and their spatial distributions are presented. We classify 2991 of the YSOs as pre-main-sequence stars with disks and 488 as likely protostars. Most of the sources were observed with IRAC in two to three epochs over six months; we search for variability between the epochs by looking for correlated variability in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands. We find that 50% of the dusty YSOs show variability. The variations are typically small ({approx}0.2 mag) with the protostars showing a higher incidence of variability and larger variations. The observed correlations between the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 {mu}m variability suggests that we are observing variations in the heating of the inner disk due to changes in the accretion luminosity or rotating accretion hot spots.

  6. The Spitzer Space Telescope Survey of the Orion A and B Molecular Clouds. I. A Census of Dusty Young Stellar Objects and a Study of Their Mid-infrared Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.; Muzerolle, J.; Kryukova, E.; Flaherty, K.; Hora, J. L.; Allen, L. E.; Hartmann, L.; Myers, P. C.; Pipher, J. L.; Stauffer, J.; Young, E. T.; Fazio, G. G.

    2012-12-01

    We present a survey of the Orion A and B molecular clouds undertaken with the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board Spitzer. In total, five distinct fields were mapped, covering 9 deg2 in five mid-IR bands spanning 3-24 μm. The survey includes the Orion Nebula Cluster, the Lynds 1641, 1630, and 1622 dark clouds, and the NGC 2023, 2024, 2068, and 2071 nebulae. These data are merged with the Two Micron All Sky Survey point source catalog to generate a catalog of eight-band photometry. We identify 3479 dusty young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Orion molecular clouds by searching for point sources with mid-IR colors indicative of reprocessed light from dusty disks or infalling envelopes. The YSOs are subsequently classified on the basis of their mid-IR colors and their spatial distributions are presented. We classify 2991 of the YSOs as pre-main-sequence stars with disks and 488 as likely protostars. Most of the sources were observed with IRAC in two to three epochs over six months; we search for variability between the epochs by looking for correlated variability in the 3.6 and 4.5 μm bands. We find that 50% of the dusty YSOs show variability. The variations are typically small (~0.2 mag) with the protostars showing a higher incidence of variability and larger variations. The observed correlations between the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 μm variability suggests that we are observing variations in the heating of the inner disk due to changes in the accretion luminosity or rotating accretion hot spots.

  7. Clusters as benchmarks for measuring fundamental stellar parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Cameron P M

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution I will discuss fundamental stellar parameters as determined from young star clusters; specifically those with ages less than or approximately equal to that of the Pleiades. I will focus primarily on the use of stellar evolutionary models to determine the ages and masses of stars, as well as discuss the limitations of such models using a combination of both young clusters and eclipsing binary systems. In addition, I will also highlight a few interesting recent results from large on-going spectroscopic surveys (specifically Gaia-ESO and APOGEE/IN-SYNC) which are continuing to challenge our understanding of the formation and early evolutionary stages of young clusters.

  8. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    : avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  9. Clinical Application of Surrounding Puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yao-jie; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    Surrounding puncture can stop pathogenic qi from spreading, consolidate the connection between local meridians and enrich local qi and blood, which can eventually supplement anti-pathogenic qi and remove pathogenic qi, and consequently remedy diseases. The author of this article summrized and analyzed the clinical application of surrounding puncture for the purpose of studying this technique and improving the therapeutic effect.

  10. INFRARED INTERFEROMETRY OF MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. de Wit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se discuten la interferometría de AMBER y MIDI, además de observaciones de disco-simple en Subaru de objetos estelares masivos jóvenes. Las observaciones muestran tamaños de escalas lineales entre 10 y 100UA como distancia promedio de nuestras fuentes.

  11. INFRARED INTERFEROMETRY OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kraus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Discos circunestelares alrededor de objetos estelares jovenes desempeñan un rol fundamental en el proceso de formación de estrellas y proporcionan una etapa para la formación de planetas. Desde recientemente, la interferometría infrarroja proporciona la resolución espacial requerida para estudiar directamente la distribución del gas y del polvo en la Unidad astroóomica más cercana alrededor de la estrella en formación. Presentamos investigaciones recientes en las cuales empleamos el VLTI e interferométros en infrarrojo cercano y lejano AMBER y MIDI para restringir la geometría y condiciones físicas de discos alrededor de estrellas Herbig Ae/Be y estudiar los procesos del acreción y decreción que ocurren cerca de la estrella central.

  12. Double-helix stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-09-01

    A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A {approx} 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-{beta} MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications.

  13. Trends of Stellar Entropy along Stellar Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    de Avellar, Marcio G B; Horvath, Jorge E

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to discuss the difference in the thermodynamic entropy budget {\\it per baryon} in each type of stellar object found in Universe. We track and discuss the actual {\\it decrease} of the stored baryonic thermodynamic entropy from the most primitive molecular cloud up to the final fate of matter in the black holes, passing through evolved states of matter as found in white dwarfs and neutron stars. We then discuss the case of actual stars of different masses throughout their {\\it evolution}, clarifying the role of virial equilibrium condition for the decrease of the entropy and related issues. Finally, we discuss how gravity ultimately drives composition, hence structural changes along the stellar evolution all the way until the ultimate collapse to black holes, which may increase dramatically their entropy because of the gravitational contribution itself.

  14. The stellar populations of massive galaxies in the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    McDermid, Richard M

    2012-01-01

    I present a brief review of the stellar population properties of massive galaxies, focusing on early-type galaxies in particular, with emphasis on recent results from the ATLAS3D Survey. I discuss the occurrence of young stellar ages, cold gas, and ongoing star formation in early-type galaxies, the presence of which gives important clues to the evolutionary path of these galaxies. Consideration of empirical star formation histories gives a meaningful picture of galaxy stellar population properties, and allows accurate comparison of mass estimates from populations and dynamics. This has recently provided strong evidence of a non-universal IMF, as supported by other recent evidences. Spatially-resolved studies of stellar populations are also crucial to connect distinct components within galaxies to spatial structures seen in other wavelengths or parameters. Stellar populations in the faint outer envelopes of early-type galaxies are a formidable frontier for observers, but promise to put constraints on the ratio...

  15. Stellar ages from asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Lebreton, Yveline

    2008-01-01

    Asteroseismology provides powerful means to probe stellar interiors. The oscillations frequencies are closely related to stellar interior properties via the density and sound speed profiles. Since these are tightly linked with the mass and evolutionary state, we can expect to determine the age and mass of a star from the comparison of its oscillation spectrum with predictions of stellar models. Such a comparison suffers both from the problems we face when modeling a particular star (as the uncertainties on global parameters and chemical composition) and from our misunderstanding of processes at work in stellar interiors (as the transport processes that may lead to core mixing and affect the model ages). For stars where observations have provided precise and numerous oscillation frequencies together with accurate global parameters and additional information (as the radius or the mass if the star is in a binary system, the interferometric radius or the mean density if the star is an exoplanet host), we can also...

  16. Stellar Chromospheric Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Jeffrey C.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sun, stars similar to it, and many rather dissimilar to it, have chromospheres, regions classically viewed as lying above the brilliant photosphere and characterized by a positive temperature gradient and a marked departure from radiative equilibrium. Stellar chromospheres exhibit a wide range of phenomena collectively called activity, stemming largely from the time evolution of their magnetic fields and the mass flux and transfer of radiation through the complex magnetic topology and the increasingly optically thin plasma of the outer stellar atmosphere. In this review, I will (1 outline the development of our understanding of chromospheric structure from 1960 to the present, (2 discuss the major observational programs and theoretical lines of inquiry, (3 review the origin and nature of both solar and stellar chromospheric activity and its relationship to, and effect on, stellar parameters including total energy output, and (4 summarize the outstanding problems today.

  17. A Young Blue Tidal Stream in NGC 5128

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, E W; Freeman, K C; White, R L; Peng, Eric W.; Ford, Holland C.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; White, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    Stellar streams in galaxy halos are the natural consequence of a history of merging and accretion. We present evidence for a blue tidal stream of young stars in the nearest giant elliptical galaxy, NGC 5128 (Centaurus A). Using optical UBVR color maps, unsharp masking, and adaptive histogram equalization, we detect a blue arc in the northwest portion of the galaxy that traces a partial ellipse with an apocenter of 8 kpc. We also report the discovery of numerous young star clusters that are associated with the arc. The brightest of these clusters is spectroscopically confirmed, has an age of 350 Myr, and may be a proto-globular cluster. It is likely that this arc, which is distinct from the surrounding shell system and the young jet-related stars in the northeast, is a tidally disrupted stellar stream orbiting the galaxy. Both the age derived from the integrated optical colors of the stream and its dynamical disruption timescale have values of 200-400 Myr. We propose that this stream of young stars was formed ...

  18. Advanced Stellar Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta;

    1997-01-01

    This document describes all interface properties for the Advanced Stellar Compass, developed for the German Research Satellite "CHAMP". Basic operations, modes, software protocol, calibration methods and closed loop test strategies are described.......This document describes all interface properties for the Advanced Stellar Compass, developed for the German Research Satellite "CHAMP". Basic operations, modes, software protocol, calibration methods and closed loop test strategies are described....

  19. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Samuel Tibber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated weaker surround suppression compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation surround suppression in schizophrenia may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  20. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  1. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  2. Multichannel spatial surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the consideration of being compatible with 5.1 channel horizontal surround sound system, a spatial surround sound system is proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system has a wide listening area. It can not only recreate stable image in the front and rear direction, but also eliminate the defect of poor lateral image of 5.1 channel system. The system can be used to reproduce special 3D sound effect and the spaciousness of hall.

  3. The Stellar Structures around Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Drozdovsky, I; Aparicio, A; Gallart, C; Monelli, M; Hidalgo, S; Bernard, E J; Galazutdinova, O

    2016-01-01

    We present a brief summary of our current results on the stellar distribution and population gradients of the resolved stars in the surroundings of ~50 nearby disk galaxies, observed with space- (Hubble & Spitzer) and ground-based telescopes (Subaru, VLT, BTA, Palomar, CFHT & INT). We examine the radial (in-plane) and vertical (extraplanar) distributions of resolved stars as a function of stellar age and metallicity by tracking changes in the color-magnitude diagram of face-on and edge-on galaxies. Our data show, that the scale length and height of a stellar population increases with age, with the oldest detected stellar populations identified at a large galactocentric radius or extraplanar height, out to typically a few kpc. In the most massive of the studied galaxies there is evidence for a break in number density and color gradients of evolved stars, which plausibly correspond to the thick disk and halo components of the galaxies. The ratio of intermediate-age to old stars in the outermost fields c...

  4. Ambitious Survey Spots Stellar Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Astronomers scanning the skies as part of ESO's VISTA Magellanic Cloud survey have now obtained a spectacular picture of the Tarantula Nebula in our neighbouring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. This panoramic near-infrared view captures the nebula itself in great detail as well as the rich surrounding area of sky. The image was obtained at the start of a very ambitious survey of our neighbouring galaxies, the Magellanic Clouds, and their environment. The leader of the survey team, Maria-Rosa Cioni (University of Hertfordshire, UK) explains: "This view is of one of the most important regions of star formation in the local Universe - the spectacular 30 Doradus star-forming region, also called the Tarantula Nebula. At its core is a large cluster of stars called RMC 136, in which some of the most massive stars known are located." ESO's VISTA telescope [1] is a new survey telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile (eso0949). VISTA is equipped with a huge camera that detects light in the near-infrared part of the spectrum, revealing a wealth of detail about astronomical objects that gives us insight into the inner workings of astronomical phenomena. Near-infrared light has a longer wavelength than visible light and so we cannot see it directly for ourselves, but it can pass through much of the dust that would normally obscure our view. This makes it particularly useful for studying objects such as young stars that are still enshrouded in the gas and dust clouds from which they formed. Another powerful aspect of VISTA is the large area of the sky that its camera can capture in each shot. This image is the latest view from the VISTA Magellanic Cloud Survey (VMC). The project will scan a vast area - 184 square degrees of the sky (corresponding to almost one thousand times the apparent area of the full Moon) including our neighbouring galaxies the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The end result will be a detailed study of the star formation history and three

  5. A Parameter Study of the Dust and Gas Temperature in a Field of Young Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Andrea; Doty, Steven D

    2007-01-01

    We model the thermal effect of young stars on their surrounding environment in order to understand clustered star formation. We take radiative heating of dust, dust-gas collisional heating, cosmic-ray heating, and molecular cooling into account. Using Dusty, a spherical continuum radiative transfer code, we model the dust temperature distribution around young stellar objects with various luminosities and surrounding gas and dust density distributions. We have created a grid of dust temperature models, based on our modeling with Dusty, which we can use to calculate the dust temperature in a field of stars with various parameters. We then determine the gas temperature assuming energy balance. Our models can be used to make large-scale simulations of clustered star formation more realistic.

  6. PREFACE: A Stellar Journey A Stellar Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, M.

    2008-10-01

    The conference A Stellar Journey was held in Uppsala, Sweden, 23 27June 2008, in honour of Professor Bengt Gustafsson's 65th birthday. The choice of Uppsala as the location for this event was obvious given Bengt's long-standing association with the city stemming back to his school days. With the exception of a two-year postdoc stint in Copenhagen, five years as professor at Stockholm University and two years as director of the Sigtuna foundation, Bengt has forged his illustrious professional career at Uppsala University. The symposium venue was Museum Gustavianum, once the main building of the oldest university in Scandinavia. The title of the symposium is a paraphrasing of Bengt's popular astronomy book Kosmisk Resa (in English: Cosmic Journey) written in the early eighties. I think this aptly symbolizes his career that has been an astronomical voyage from near to far, from the distant past to the present. The original book title was modified slightly to reflect that most of his work to date has dealt with stars in one way or another. In addition it also gives credit to Bengt's important role as a guiding light for a very large number of students, colleagues and collaborators, indeed for several generations of astronomers. For me personally, the book Kosmisk Resa bears particular significance as it has shaped my life rather profoundly. Although I had already decided to become an astronomer, when I first read the book as a 14-year-old I made up my mind then and there that I would study under Bengt Gustafsson and work on stars. Indeed I have remained true to this somewhat audacious resolution. I suspect that a great number of us have similar stories how Bengt has had a major influence on our lives, whether on the professional or personal level. Perhaps Bengt's most outstanding characteristic is his enthralling enthusiasm. This is equally true whether he is pondering some scientific conundrum, supervising students or performing in front of an audience, be it an

  7. Origins of Stellar Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kathryn V.

    2016-08-01

    This contribution reviews ideas about the origins of stellar halos. It includes discussion of the theoretical understanding of and observational evidence for stellar populations formed ``in situ'' (meaning formed in orbits close to their current ones), ``kicked-out'' (meaning formed in the inner galaxy in orbits unlike their current ones) and ``accreted'' (meaning formed in a dark matter halo other than the one they currently occupy). At this point there is general agreement that a significant fraction of any stellar halo population is likely ``accreted''. There is modest evidence for the presence of a ``kicked-out'' population around both the Milky Way and M31. Our theoretical understanding of and the observational evidence for an ``in situ'' population are less clear.

  8. Las Campanas Stellar Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, Igor; Zolotukhin, Ivan; Beletsky, Yuri; Worthey, Guy

    2015-08-01

    Stellar libraries are fundamental tools required to understand stellar populations in star clusters and galaxies as well as properties of individual stars. Comprehensive libraries exist in the optical domain, but the near-infrared (NIR) domain stays a couple of decades behind. Here we present the Las Campanas Stellar Library project aiming at obtaining high signal-to-noise intermediate-resolution (R=8000) NIR spectra (0.83libraries, INDO-US and UVES-POP and followed up about 400 non-variable stars in the NIR in order to get complete optical-NIR coverage. Worth mentioning that our current sample includes about 80 AGB stars and a few dozens of bulge/LMC/SMC stars.

  9. Introduction to stellar structure

    CERN Document Server

    Maciel, Walter J

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of this book, the author presents the basic properties of the stellar interior and describes them thoroughly, along with deriving the main stellar structure equations of temperature, density, pressure and luminosity, among others. The process and application of solving these equations is explained, as well as linking these results with actual observations.  The second part of the text describes what happens to a star over time, and how to determine this by solving the same equations at different points during a star’s lifetime. The fate of various stars is quite different depending on their masses, and this is described in the final parts of the book. This text can be used for an upper level undergraduate course or an introductory graduate course on stellar physics.

  10. The evolution of runaway stellar collision products

    CERN Document Server

    Glebbeek, E; de Mink, S E; Pols, O R; Zwart, S F Portegies

    2009-01-01

    In the cores of young dense star clusters repeated stellar collisions involving the same object can occur, which has been suggested to lead to the formation of an intermediate-mass black hole. In order to verify this scenario we compute the detailed evolution of the merger remnant of three sequences. We follow the evolution until the onset of carbon burning and estimate the final remnant mass to determine the ultimate fate of a runaway merger sequence. We use a detailed stellar evolution code to follow the evolution of the collision product. At each collision, we mix the two colliding stars, taking account of mass loss during the collision. During the stellar evolution we apply mass loss rates from the literature, as appropriate for the evolutionary stage of the merger remnant. We compute models for high ($Z=0.02$) and low ($Z=0.001$) metallicity to quantify metallicity effects. We find that the merger remnant becomes a Wolf-Rayet star before the end of core hydrogen burning. Mass loss from stellar winds domi...

  11. Sparse field stellar photometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, N.

    The past few years have seen substantial developments in the capability of high speed measuring machines in the field of automated stellar photometry. In this review, after describing some of the limitations on photometric precision, empirical results are used to demonstrate the sort of accuracies that are possible with the UK Schmidt plate plus COSMOS/APM images-scan combination. The astronomical results obtained to date from these machines are discussed, and some consideration is given to the future role of measuring machines in stellar astronomy.

  12. Gravitational Lensing & Stellar Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Koopmans, L V E

    2005-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing and stellar dynamics provide two complementary and orthogonal constraints on the density profiles of galaxies. Based on spherically symmetric, scale-free, mass models, it is shown that the combination of both techniques is powerful in breaking the mass-sheet and mass-anisotropy degeneracies. Second, observational results are presented from the Lenses Structure & Dynamics (LSD) Survey and the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey collaborations to illustrate this new methodology in constraining the dark and stellar density profiles, and mass structure, of early-type galaxies to redshifts of unity.

  13. Galactic stellar populations with APOGEE and Kepler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. A.; APOKASC Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the history of baryons is key to understanding galaxy formation, as galaxies with very similar stellar mass and/or dark matter halo mass can have markedly different morphologies in their stellar light. Stars are a useful way to study this history, because properties such as their composition, age, and orbital motion can map galaxy formation and evolution. Lightcurves from the Kepler mission, both original and extended, provide asteroseismic parameters, such as Δ ν and ν_max, and rotation periods. The high-resolution near-infrared APOGEE spectroscopic survey is observing an extensive sample of red giants and cool dwarfs in both the Kepler and K2 fields to provide composition and effective temperature measurements. These spectroscopic and seismic parameters can be combined to yield ages, important for dissecting the history of the Milky Way. Results based on this combination have already been published in the first APOKASC catalog. Among the interesting results about stellar populations so far are the presence of a large metallicity spread in the young secondary red clump population at the solar circle, the identification of young, yet α-rich stars, and the detection of a field blue straggler descendant. The K2 fields along the ecliptic will extend the possibilities of these techniques to new lines of sight in the Galaxy and provide a much more representative sample of Galactic populations with seismic and spectroscopic information.

  14. Theory of stellar convection: Removing the Mixing-Length Parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Pasetto, S; Cropper, M; Grebel, E K

    2014-01-01

    Stellar convection is customarily described by Mixing-Length Theory, which makes use of the mixing-length scale to express the convective flux, velocity, and temperature gradients of the convective elements and stellar medium. The mixing-length scale is taken to be proportional to the local pressure scale height, and the proportionality factor (the mixing-length parameter) must be determined by comparing the stellar models to some calibrator, usually the Sun. No strong arguments exist to suggest that the mixing-length parameter is the same in all stars and at all evolutionary phases. Because of this, all stellar models in literature are hampered by this basic uncertainty. The aim of this study is to present a new theory of stellar convection that does not require the mixing length parameter. We present a self-consistent analytical formulation of stellar convection that determines the properties of stellar convection as a function of the physical behaviour of the convective elements themselves and the surround...

  15. The Dual Origin of Galactic Stellar Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Adi

    2011-01-01

    Accreted stellar halos are a natural consequence of galaxy formation in a Lambda-CDM Universe, and contain unique fossil records of hierarchical galaxy formation. The properties of local Milky Way halo stars, however, suggest that the Galaxy's halo is composed of at least two distinct stellar populations, each exhibiting different spatial distributions, orbits, and metallicities. This observed dichotomy is the result of the assembly history of the halo, which likely formed through a process more complex than pure hierarchical accretions. In this talk I will describe the formation of stellar halos surrounding Milky Way-massed disk galaxies simulated using high-resolution cosmological Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics + N-Body simulations. We find that two competing physical processes - accretion of dwarf galaxies and in situ star formation - contribute to the formation of every stellar halo. While the outer regions (r > 20 kpc) of the halos were assembled solely through the accretion and disruption of satellites, in situ star formation supplements accretion in the formation of inner halos. The relative contribution of each stellar population to a halo is shown to be a function of a galaxy's merging history. Galaxies with recent mergers, like M31, will host relatively few in situ stars, while galaxies with more quiescent recent histories, like the Milky Way, will likely have a larger population of such stars. We show how the chemical abundance trends ([Fe/H] vs. [alpha/Fe]) of accreted and in situ stars diverge at the high [Fe/H] end of the metallicity distribution function, and discuss how such trends can be used to study and identify the observable imprints of the Milky Way's formation history.

  16. CO observations and investigation of triggered star formation towards N10 infrared bubble and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Diana; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jinghua; Mendoza, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    We studied the environment of the Galactic bubble N10 in molecular emission. Infrared bubbles, first detected by GLIMPSE at 8.0 $\\mu$m, are ideal regions to investigate the effect of the expansion of the HII region on its surroundings and the possibility of triggered star formation at the border of HII regions. In this work, we present a molecular study of N10. This bubble is especially interesting as it undergoes a burst of star formation while infrared studies of the young stellar content suggest a scenario of ongoing star formation, possibly triggered, on the edge of the HII region. We carried out observations of $^{12}$CO(1-0) and $^{13}$CO(1-0) emission at PMO 13.7-m towards N10. We also analyzed the IR and sub-mm emission on this region and compare those different tracers to obtain a detailed view of the interaction between the expanding HII region and the molecular gas. Bright CO emission was detected. Two molecular clumps were identified, from which we have derived physical features. Star formation co...

  17. The infrared and molecular environment surrounding the Wolf-Rayet star WR130

    CERN Document Server

    Cichowolski, S; Pineault, S; Noriega-Crespo, A; Arnal, E M; Flagey, N

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the molecular CO gas and mid/far infrared radiation arising from the environment surrounding the Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star 130. We use the multi-wavelength data to analyze the properties of the dense gas and dust, and its possible spatial correlation with that of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). We use CO J=1-0 data from the FCRAO survey as tracer of the molecular gas, and mid/far infrared data from the recent WISE and Herschel space surveys to study the dust continuum radiation and to identify a population of associated candidate YSOs. The spatial distribution of the molecular gas shows a ring-like structure very similar to that observed in the HI gas, and over the same velocity interval. The relative spatial distribution of the HI and CO components is consistent with a photo-dissociation region. We have identified and characterized four main and distinct molecular clouds that create this structure. Cold dust is coincident with the dense gas shown in the CO measurements. We have found several ...

  18. Probing the Circumnuclear Stellar Populations of Starburst Galaxies in the Near-infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Dametto, N Z; Pastoriza, M G; Rodríguez-Ardila, A; Hernandez-Jimenez, J A; Carvalho, E A

    2014-01-01

    We employ the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility's near-infrared spectrograph SpeX at 0.8-2.4$\\mu$m to investigate the spatial distribution of the stellar populations (SPs) in four well known Starburst galaxies: NGC34, NGC1614, NGC3310 and NGC7714. We use the STARLIGHT code updated with the synthetic simple stellar populations models computed by Maraston (2005, M05). Our main results are that the NIR light in the nuclear surroundings of the galaxies is dominated by young/intermediate age SPs ($t \\leq 2\\times10^9$yr), summing from $\\sim$40\\% up to 100\\% of the light contribution. In the nuclear aperture of two sources (NGC1614 and NGC3310) we detected a predominant old SP component ($t > 2\\times10^9$yr), while for NGC34 and NGC7714 the younger component prevails. Furthermore, we found evidence of a circumnuclear star formation ring-like structure and a secondary nucleus in NGC1614, in agreement with previous studies. We also suggest that the merger/interaction experienced by three of the galaxies studied, NGC161...

  19. The complex stellar populations in the lines of sight to open clusters in the third Galactic quadrant

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Baume, Gustavo L; Turner, David G

    2015-01-01

    Multi-color photometry of the stellar populations in five fields in the third Galactic quadrant centred on the clusters NGC 2215, NGC 2354, Haffner 22, Ruprecht 11, and ESO489SC01 is interpreted in terms of a warped and flared Galactic disk, without resort to an external entity such as the popular Monoceros or Canis Major overdensities. Except for NGC 2215, the clusters are poorly or unstudied previously. The data generate basic parameters for each cluster, including the distribution of stars along the line of sight. We use star counts and photometric analysis, without recourse to Galactic-model-based predictions or interpretations, and confirms earlier results for NGC 2215 and NGC 2354. ESO489SC01 is not a real cluster, while Haffner~22 is an overlooked cluster aged about 2.5 Gyr. Conclusions for Ruprecht~11 are preliminary, evidence for a cluster being marginal. Fields surrounding the clusters show signatures of young and intermediate-age stellar populations. The young population background to NGC~2354 and ...

  20. Gravitational lensing & stellar dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mamon, GA; Combes, F; Deffayet, C; Fort, B

    2006-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing and stellar dynamics provide two complementary and orthogonal constraints on the density profiles of galaxies. Based on spherically symmetric, scale-free, mass models, it is shown that the combination of both techniques is powerful in breaking the mass-sheet and mass-ani

  1. Few period quasisymmetric stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaev, M.Y.; Mikhailov, M.I.; Shafranov, V.D.; Subbotin, A.A. [Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Cooper, W.A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Medvedev, S.Y. [Keldysh Inst. of Applied Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-06-01

    The results of plasma equilibrium and local stability investigations in two and four-period quasisymmetric stellarators are presented. A near-axis approximation is used for 2-period systems and the 3D codes VMEC and TERPSICHORE are used for four-periods devices to optimise the configurations. (author) 4 figs., 8 refs.

  2. Gravitational lensing & stellar dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mamon, GA; Combes, F; Deffayet, C; Fort, B

    2006-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing and stellar dynamics provide two complementary and orthogonal constraints on the density profiles of galaxies. Based on spherically symmetric, scale-free, mass models, it is shown that the combination of both techniques is powerful in breaking the mass-sheet and

  3. Stellar magnetic cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliunas, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    Is hope for understanding the solar magnetic cycle to be found in stars? Observations of stars with significant sub-surface convective zones -- masses smaller than about 1.5 solar masses on the lower main sequence and many types of cool, post-main-sequence stars -- indicate the presence of surface and atmospheric inhomogeneities analogous to solar magnetic features, making stellar magnetic activity a cosmically widespread phenomenon. Observations have been made primarily in visible wavelengths, and important information has also been derived from the ultraviolet and x-ray spectrum regions. Interannual to interdecadal variability of spectrum indicators of stellar magnetic features is common, and in some cases similar in appearance to the 11-year sunspot cycle. Successful models of the physical processes responsible for stellar magnetic cycles, typically cast as a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo, require advances in understanding not only convection but also the magnetic field's interaction with it. The observed facts that underpin the hope for models will be summarized. Properties of stellar magnetic cycles will be compared and contrasted with those of the sun, including inferences from paleo-environmental reservoirs that contain information on solar century- to millennial-scale magnetic variability. Partial support of this research came from NASA NAG5-7635, NRC COBASE, CRDF 322, MIT-MSG 5710001241, JPL 1236821, AF 49620-02-1-0194, Richard Lounsberry Foundation, Langley-Abbot, Rollins, Scholarly Studies and James Arthur Funds (Smithsonian Institution) and several generous individuals.

  4. Stellar Structure and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kippenhahn, Rudolf; Weiss, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This long-awaited second edition of the classical textbook on Stellar Structure and Evolution by Kippenhahn and Weigert is a thoroughly revised version of the original text. Taking into account modern observational constraints as well as additional physical effects such as mass loss and diffusion, Achim Weiss and Rudolf Kippenhahn have succeeded in bringing the book up to the state-of-the-art with respect to both the presentation of stellar physics and the presentation and interpretation of current sophisticated stellar models. The well-received and proven pedagogical approach of the first edition has been retained. The book provides a comprehensive treatment of the physics of the stellar interior and the underlying fundamental processes and parameters. The models developed to explain the stability, dynamics and evolution of the stars are presented and great care is taken to detail the various stages in a star’s life. Just as the first edition, which remained a standard work for more than 20 years after its...

  5. Gravitational lensing & stellar dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L. V. E.; Mamon, GA; Combes, F; Deffayet, C; Fort, B

    2006-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing and stellar dynamics provide two complementary and orthogonal constraints on the density profiles of galaxies. Based on spherically symmetric, scale-free, mass models, it is shown that the combination of both techniques is powerful in breaking the mass-sheet and mass-ani

  6. Preferred longitudes in solar and stellar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S. V.

    An analysis of the distribution of starspots on the surfaces of very active stars, such as RS CVn- FK Com-type stars as well as young solar analogs, reveals preferred longitudes of spot formation and their quasi-periodic oscillations, i.e. flip-flop cycles. A non-linear migration of the preferred longitudes suggests the presence of the differential rotation and variations of mean spot latitudes. It enables recovering stellar butterfly diagrams. Such phenomena are found to persist in the sunspot activity as well. A comparison of the observed properties of preferred longitudes on the Sun with those detected on more active stars leads to the conclusion that we can learn fine details of the stellar dynamo by studying the Sun, while its global parameters on the evolutionary time scale are provided by a sample of active stars.

  7. Stellar Wind Erosion of Protoplanetary Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Schnepf, Neesha R; Romanova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    An analytic model is developed for the erosion of protoplanetary gas discs by high velocity magnetized stellar winds. The winds are centrifugally driven from the surface of rapidly rotating, strongly magnetized young stars. The presence of the magnetic field in the wind leads to Reynolds numbers sufficiently large to cause a strongly turbulent wind/disk boundary layer which entrains and carries away the disc gas. The model uses the conservation of mass and momentum in the turbulent boundary layer. The time-scale for significant erosion depends on the disc accretion speed, accretion rate and on the wind mass loss rate. The time-scale is estimated to be ~2E6 yr. The stellar wind erosion may act in conjunction with photo-evaporation of the discs.

  8. CO Observations and Investigation of Triggered Star Formation toward the N10 Infrared Bubble and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, D. R. G.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Mendoza, E.; Wu, Y.; Yuan, J.

    2016-10-01

    We studied the environment of the dust bubble N10 in molecular emission. Infrared bubbles, first detected by the GLIMPSE survey at 8.0 μm, are ideal regions to investigate the effect of the expansion of the H ii region on its surroundings and the eventual triggering of star formation at its borders. In this work, we present a multi-wavelength study of N10. This bubble is especially interesting because infrared studies of the young stellar content suggest a scenario of ongoing star formation, possibly triggered on the edge of the H ii region. We carried out observations of 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) emission at PMO 13.7 m toward N10. We also analyzed the IR and sub-millimeter emission on this region and compare those different tracers to obtain a detailed view of the interaction between the expanding H ii region and the molecular gas. We also estimated the parameters of the denser cold dust condensation and the ionized gas inside the shell. Bright CO emission was detected and two molecular clumps were identified from which we have derived physical parameters. We also estimate the parameters for the densest cold dust condensation and for the ionized gas inside the shell. The comparison between the dynamical age of this region and the fragmentation timescale favors the “Radiation-Driven Implosion” mechanism of star formation. N10 is a case of particular interest with gas structures in a narrow frontier between the H ii region and surrounding molecular material, and with a range of ages of YSOs situated in the region, indicating triggered star formation.

  9. Stellar Work of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version This painterly portrait of a star-forming cloud, called NGC 346, is a combination of multiwavelength light from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (infrared), the European Southern Observatory's New Technology Telescope (visible), and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton space telescope (X-ray). The infrared observations highlight cold dust in red, visible data show glowing gas in green, and X-rays show very warm gas in blue. Ordinary stars appear as blue spots with white centers, while young stars enshrouded in dust appear as red spots with white centers. The colorful picture demonstrates that stars in this region are being created by two different types of triggered star formation one involving wind, and the other, radiation. Triggered star formation occurs when massive stars spur new, smaller stars into existence. The first radiation-based mechanism is demonstrated near the center of the cloud. There, radiation from the massive stars is eating away at the surrounding dust cloud, creating shock waves that compress gas and dust into new stars. This compressed material appears as an arc-shaped orange-red filament, while the new stars within this filament are still blanketed with dust and cannot be seen. The second wind-based mechanism is at play higher up in the cloud. The isolated, pinkish blob of stars at the upper left was triggered by winds from a massive star located to the left of it. This massive star blew up in a supernova explosion 50,000 years ago, but before it died, its winds pushed gas and dust together into new stars. While this massive star cannot be seen in the image, a bubble created when it exploded can be seen near the large, white spot with a blue halo at the upper left (this white spot is actually a collection of three stars). NGC 346 is the brightest star-forming region in the Small Magellanic Cloud, an irregular dwarf galaxy that orbits our Milky Way galaxy, 210,000 light-years away.

  10. Stellar Evolution of the Star Cluster NGC 602 and Massive Star Formation in the Low-Density Wing of the SMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Leah; Oskinova, Lida; Ramachandran, Varsha; Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Gallagher, John S.

    2017-01-01

    The young star cluster NGC 602 and its surroundings in the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) exhibit active star formation despite the sparse supply of dense gas from which to form stars. This region is also associated with the huge ionized gas ring DEM167 in the SMC. Using archival optical photometric data from the Uppsala Schmidt Telescope and new near-UV photometric data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, we determine the colors and consequently the relative ages of ~1000 stars in this region. Furthermore, we incorporate spectra obtained with the ESO-VLT to more accurately determine the properties of luminous massive stars. These measurements are combined to explore the recent star formation history of this region near the tip of the SMC and to study how the young stellar populations relate to the ISM.

  11. HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into a neighboring galaxy to reveal details of the formation of new stars. Hubble's target was a newborn star cluster within the Small Magellanic Cloud, a small galaxy that is a satellite of our own Milky Way. The new images show young, brilliant stars cradled within a nebula, or glowing cloud of gas, cataloged as N 81. These massive, recently formed stars inside N 81 are losing material at a high rate, sending out strong stellar winds and shock waves and hollowing out a cocoon within the surrounding nebula. The two most luminous stars, seen in the Hubble image as a very close pair near the center of N 81, emit copious ultraviolet radiation, causing the nebula to glow through fluorescence. Outside the hot, glowing gas is cooler material consisting of hydrogen molecules and dust. Normally this material is invisible, but some of it can be seen in silhouette against the nebular background, as long dust lanes and a small, dark, elliptical-shaped knot. It is believed that the young stars have formed from this cold matter through gravitational contraction. Few features can be seen in N 81 from ground-based telescopes, earning it the informal nick-name 'The Blob.' Astronomers were not sure if just one or a few hot stars were embedded in the cloud, or if it was a stellar nursery containing a large number of less massive stars. Hubble's high-resolution imaging shows the latter to be the case, revealing that numerous young, white-hot stars---easily visible in the color picture---are contained within N 81. This crucial information bears strongly on theories of star formation, and N 81 offers a singular opportunity for a close-up look at the turbulent conditions accompanying the birth of massive stars. The brightest stars in the cluster have a luminosity equal to 300,000 stars like our own Sun. Astronomers are especially keen to study star formation in the Small Magellanic

  12. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies. PMID:23450069

  13. Kinematics of classical Cepheids in the Nuclear Stellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Matsunaga, N; Yamamoto, R; Kobayashi, N; Inno, L; Genovali, K; Bono, G; Baba, J; Fujii, M S; Kondo, S; Ikeda, Y; Hamano, S; Nishiyama, S; Nagata, T; Aoki, W; Tsujimoto, T

    2014-01-01

    Classical Cepheids are useful tracers of the Galactic young stellar population because their distances and ages can be determined from their period-luminosity and period-age relations. In addition, the radial velocities and chemical abundance of the Cepheids can be derived from spectroscopic observations, providing further insights into the structure and evolution of the Galaxy. Here, we report the radial velocities of classical Cepheids near the Galactic Center, three of which were reported in 2011, the other reported for the first time. The velocities of these Cepheids suggest that the stars orbit within the Nuclear Stellar Disk, a group of stars and interstellar matter occupying a region of 200 pc around the Center, although the three-dimensional velocities cannot be determined until the proper motions are known. According to our simulation, these four Cepheids formed within the Nuclear Stellar Disk like younger stars and stellar clusters therein.

  14. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - I. Stellar kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, Rogemar A.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogerio; Dahmer-Hahn, Luis G.; Diniz, Marlon R.; Schönell, Astor J.; Dametto, Natacha Z.

    2017-09-01

    We use the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) to map the stellar kinematics of the inner few hundred parsecs of a sample of 16 nearby Seyfert galaxies, at a spatial resolution of tens of parsecs and spectral resolution of 40 km s- 1. We find that the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity fields for most galaxies are well reproduced by rotating disc models. The kinematic position angle (PA) derived for the LOS velocity field is consistent with the large-scale photometric PA. The residual velocities are correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity, suggesting that more luminous active galactic nuclei have a larger impact in the surrounding stellar dynamics. The central velocity dispersion values are usually higher than the rotation velocity amplitude, what we attribute to the strong contribution of bulge kinematics in these inner regions. For 50 per cent of the galaxies, we find an inverse correlation between the velocities and the h3 Gauss-Hermitte moment, implying red wings in the blueshifted side and blue wings in the redshifted side of the velocity field, attributed to the movement of the bulge stars lagging the rotation. Two of the 16 galaxies (NGC 5899 and Mrk 1066) show an S-shape zero velocity line, attributed to the gravitational potential of a nuclear bar. Velocity dispersion (σ) maps show rings of low-σ values (˜50-80 km s- 1) for four objects and `patches' of low σ for six galaxies at 150-250 pc from the nucleus, attributed to young/ intermediate age stellar populations.

  15. The Diversity of Chemical Composition and the Effects on Stellar Evolution and Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truitt, Amanda; Young, Patrick A.

    2017-01-01

    For my dissertation under the supervision of Dr. Young, I investigate how stars of different mass and composition evolve, and how stellar evolution impacts the location of the habitable zone around a star. Current research into habitability of exoplanets focuses mostly on the concept of the classical HZ - the range of distances from a star over which liquid water could exist on a planet's surface - determined primarily by the host star's luminosity and spectral characteristics. With the ever-accelerating discovery of new exoplanets, it is imperative to develop a more complete understanding of what factors play a role in creating the “habitable” conditions of a planet. I discuss how stellar evolution is integral to how we define a HZ, and how this work will apply to the search for habitable Earth-like planets in the future.I developed a catalog of stellar evolution models for Sun-like stars with variable compositions; masses range from 0.1-1.2 Msol (spectral types M4-F4) at scaled metallicities of 0.1-1.5 Zsol, and O/Fe, C/Fe, and Mg/Fe values of 0.44-2.28, 0.58-1.72, and 0.54-1.84, respectively. I use a spread in abundance values based on observations of variability in nearby stars. It is important to understand how specific elements (and not just total metallicity) can impact evolutionary lifetime. The time-dependent HZ boundaries have also been calculated for each stellar track. Additionally, I recently created a grid of models for M-dwarfs, and I am currently working to make preliminary estimates of stellar activity vs. age for each representative star in the catalog.My results indicate that to gauge the habitability potential of a given system, both the evolutionary history as well as the detailed chemical characterization of the host star must be considered. This work can be used to assess whether a planet discovered in the HZ of its star has had sufficient time to develop a biosphere capable of producing detectable biosignatures. The catalog is designed

  16. The galaxy stellar mass function at 3.5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; Santini, P.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Castellano, M.; Amorin, R.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Barro, G.; Behroozi, P.; Boutsia, K.; Caputi, K. I.; Chary, R. R.; Dekel, A.; Dickinson, M. E.; Faber, S. M.; Fazio, G. G.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Galametz, A.; Giallongo, E.; Giavalisco, M.; Grogin, N. A.; Guo, Y.; Kocevski, D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Koo, D. C.; Lee, K. -S.; Lu, Y.; Merlin, E.; Mobasher, B.; Nonino, M.; Papovich, C.; Paris, D.; Pentericci, L.; Reddy, N.; Renzini, A.; Salmon, B.; Salvato, M.; Sommariva, V.; Song, M.; Vanzella, E.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The form and evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) at high redshifts provide crucial information on star formation history and mass assembly in the young Universe, close or even prior to the epoch of reionization. Aims. We used the unique combination of deep optical/near-infr

  17. Stellar X-ray Sources in the Rosette Nebula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. P. Chen; P. S. Chiang; J. Z. Li

    2004-01-01

    We present optical photometric and spectroscopic studies of ROSAT X-ray stellar sources in the Rosette Nebula star-forming region. The brightest Xray sources are either massive stars or active T Tauri stars associated with the open cluster NGC 2244, or are foreground stars. Some of the spectra of the young stars newly identified in the region are presented.

  18. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Jardine, M; Moutou, C; Donati, J -F

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e., the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD46375b, HD73256b, HD102195b, HD130322b, HD179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9 to 8.0 $\\times 10^{-13} M_{\\odot}$/yr) and the wind properties at the position of the hot-Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are super-magnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrou...

  19. Stellar Population and Star Formation History of the Distant Galactic H II Regions NGC 2282 and Sh2-149

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.; Mondal, S.; Jose, J.; Das, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    We present here the recent results on two distant Galactic H II regions, namely NGC 2282 and Sh2-149, obtained with multiwavelength observations. Our optical spectroscopic analysis of the bright sources have been used to identify the massive members, and to derive the fundamental parameters such as age and distance of these regions. Using IR color-color criteria and Hα-emission properties, we have identified and classified the candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in these regions. The 12CO(1-0) continuum maps along with the K-band extinction maps, and spatial distribution of YSOs are used to investigate the structure and morphology of the molecular cloud associated with these H II regions. Overall analysis of these regions suggests that the star formation occurs at the locations of the denser gas, and we also find possible evidences of the induced star formation due to the feedback from massive stars to its surrounding molecular medium.

  20. On the feedback from super stellar clusters. I. The structure of giant HII regions and HII galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Pérez, E; Silich, S; Telles, E

    2006-01-01

    We review the structural properties of giant extragalactic HII regions and HII galaxies based on 2D hydrodynamic calculations, and propose an evolutionary sequence that accounts for their observed detailed structure. The model assumes a massive and young stellar cluster surrounded by a large collection of clouds. These are thus exposed to the most important star-formation feedback mechanisms: photoionization and the cluster wind. The models show how the two feedback mechanisms compete in the disruption of clouds and lead to two different hydrodynamic solutions: The storage of clouds into a long lasting ragged shell that inhibits the expansion of the thermalized wind, and the steady filtering of the shocked wind gas through channels carved within the cloud stratum. Both solutions are claimed to be concurrently at work in giant HII regions and HII galaxies, causing their detailed inner structure. This includes multiple large-scale shells, filled with an X-ray emitting gas, that evolve to finally merge with each...

  1. Microinstabilities in stellarator plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, T.; Nasim, M.H.; Persson, M. [Department of Electromagnetics and Euratom/VR Association, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Linear stability and localization of ion temperature gradient modes in fully 3-dimensional stellarator plasmas is calculated in the electrostatic limit. A ballooning mode formalism with WKB assumption is applied to reduce the equations into ordinary differential equation along the field lines which are solved numerically for different plasma parameters. The results are correlated with the geometrical effects such as magnetic curvature, local magnetic shear and its integrated value along the field line and the effects of trapped electrons are also investigated. The eigenfunctions of the most unstable modes are found to be localized but the nodes in the amplitude of the eigenfunctions may be large depending upon the location on the magnetic surface. The results are compared and contrasted with calculations in tokamak geometry and the implications on future stellarator design is also discussed. (orig.)

  2. 年轻星天体喷流的近红外成像观测进展%Recent Progress in the Near Infrared Imaging of Jets from Young Stellar Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江治波; 杨戟

    2000-01-01

    The infrared ro-vibrational lines of molecular hydrogen are the most important tracers of mass outflow around young stellar objects (YSOs). Since the first discovery by Gautier et al.in 1976, the molecular hydrogen lines have been detected in almost all star forming regions in the Galaxy over the subsequent decades. Further studies show that H2 line emissions are closely associated with other energetic activities around YSOs such as molecular outflows and optical jets. Infrared and optical jets are two different manifestations of the same jet interaction with ambient media. Such interaction leads to the entrainment of ambient material and subsequently drives molecular outflow. Optical/infrared jets and molecular outflows make up the spectacular scenery in the star forming regions and are the signposts of star forming activities. With the advent of the large array detector such as NICMOS in the 1990's, great progress has been made in near infrared imaging observation. So far about 70 regions have been detected in H2 emission, with the number increasing rapidly. Future development will be in two directions: observation at higher angular resolution should reveal the detailed structure of H2 jets, which will also help to understand the relation between H2 emissions, HH jet, and CO outflows; large scale survey will provide information on the large scale structure and distribution of H2 knots in star forming regions in the Galaxy.%分子氢的红外振动发射线是显现年轻星质量外流的重要谱线之一。自Gautier等人1976年在猎户座发现年轻星质量外流的分子氢发射开始,人们在银河系内几乎所有的恒星形成区都发现了这种线发射。研究表明,分子氢发射与年轻星周围的其它活动现象(如分子外流和光学喷流)之间有着非常密切的联系。红外和光学喷流代表了年轻星剧烈活动的两个侧面,是喷流与周围介质相互作用强弱不同的表现,这种作用还拖带周

  3. DOLPHOT: Stellar photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    DOLPHOT is a stellar photometry package that was adapted from HSTphot for general use. It supports two modes; the first is a generic PSF-fitting package, which uses analytic PSF models and can be used for any camera. The second mode uses ACS PSFs and calibrations, and is effectively an ACS adaptation of HSTphot. A number of utility programs are also included with the DOLPHOT distribution, including basic image reduction routines.

  4. The DEMO Quasisymmetric Stellarator

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Geoffrey B.; Garabedian, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    The NSTAB nonlinear stability code solves differential equations in conservation form, and the TRAN Monte Carlo test particle code tracks guiding center orbits in a fixed background, to provide simulations of equilibrium, stability, and transport in tokamaks and stellarators. These codes are well correlated with experimental observations and have been validated by convergence studies. Bifurcated 3D solutions of the 2D tokamak problem have been calculated that model persistent disruptions, neo...

  5. Oscillations in stellar superflares

    CERN Document Server

    Balona, L A; Kosovichev, A; Nakariakov, V M; Pugh, C E; Van Doorsselaere, T

    2015-01-01

    Two different mechanisms may act to induce quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) in whole-disk observations of stellar flares. One mechanism may be magneto-hydromagnetic (MHD) forces and other processes acting on flare loops as seen in the Sun. The other mechanism may be forced local acoustic oscillations due to the high-energy particle impulse generated by the flare (known as `sunquakes' in the Sun). We analyze short-cadence Kepler data of 257 flares in 75 stars to search for QPP in the flare decay branch or post-flare oscillations which may be attributed to either of these two mechanisms. About 18 percent of stellar flares show a distinct bump in the flare decay branch of unknown origin. The bump does not seem to be a highly-damped global oscillation because the periods of the bumps derived from wavelet analysis do not correlate with any stellar parameter. We detected damped oscillations covering several cycles (QPP), in seven flares on five stars. The periods of these oscillations also do not correlate with any ...

  6. Controversies Surrounding Clostridium difficile Infection in Infants and Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribeth R. Nicholson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a frequent cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults and older children. However, as many as 80% of infants can be asymptomatically colonized. The reasons for this have not been well established but are believed to be due to differences in toxin receptors or toxin internalization. Determining which children who test positive for C. difficile warrant treatment is exceedingly difficult, especially in the setting of increased rates of detection and the rising risk of disease in children lacking classic risk factors for C. difficile.

  7. Radio and infrared properties of young stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagia, Nino

    1987-01-01

    Observing young stars, or more appropriately, pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, in the infrared and at radio frequencies has the advantage over optical observation in that the heavy extinction associated with a star forming region is only a minor problem, so that the whole region can be studied thoroughly. Therefore, it means being able to: (1) search for stars and do statistical studies on the rate of star formation; (2) determine their luminosity, hence, to study luminosity functions and initial mass functions down to low masses; and (3) to study their spectra and, thus, to determine the prevailing conditions at and near the surface of a newly born star and its relations with the surrounding environment. The third point is of principal interest. The report limits itself to a consideration of the observations concerning the processes of outflows from, and accretion onto, PMS stars and the theory necessary to interpret them. Section 2 discusses the radiative processes relevant in stellar outflows. The main observational results are presented in Section 3. A discussion of the statistical properties of stellar winds from PMS stars are given in Section 4.

  8. The Resolved Stellar Population of Leo A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    1996-05-01

    New observations of the resolved stellar population of the extremely metal-poor Magellanic dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A in Thuan-Gunn r, g, i, and narrowband Hα filters are presented. Using the recent Cepheid variable star distance determination to Leo A by Hoessel et al., we are able to create an accurate color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We have used the Bavesian inference method described by Tolstoy & Saha to calculate the likelihood of a Monte Carlo simulation of the stellar population of Leo A being a good match to the data within the well understood errors in the data. The magnitude limits on our data are sensitive enough to look back at ~1 Gyr of star formation history at the distance of Leo A. To explain the observed ratio of red to blue stars in the observed CMD, it is necessary to invoke either a steadily decreasing star formation rate toward the present time or gaps in the star formation history. We also compare the properties of the observed stellar population with the known spatial distribution of the H I gas and H II regions to support the conclusions from CMD modeling. We consider the possibility that currently there is a period of diminished star formation in Leo A, as evidenced by the lack of very young stars in the CMD and the faint H II regions. How the chaotic H I distribution, with no observable rotation, fits into our picture of the evolution of Leo A is as yet unclear.

  9. Better Stars, Better Planets: Using Stellar Rotation to Refine Estimates of Stellar Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Saders, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Rotation is a fundamental property of all stars. Rotation periods are a strong function of age, evolutionary state, and mass for single stars on the main sequence (MS) and subgiant branch (SGB). These rates may differ by up to an order of magnitude when comparing hot or or young stars to cool or evolved stars. Because rotation depends sensitively on underlying stellar parameters that are challenging to measure, namely mass and age, measurements of rotation can be used to constrain and complement stellar parameters inferred through other means. This is particularly crucial in the case of transiting exoplanet host stars. We have produced models of stars with realistic angular momentum loss laws, both on the MS and SGB. Two important features of the rotation distribution are apparent: on the subgiant branch itself, rotation periods can differ by an order of magnitude between stars born above the Kraft break (6250 K) and those born below it. This allows one to infer both masses and radii on the SGB based on rotation. Secondly, subgiants born above the Kraft break can be rapidly rotating and masquerade as young stars in samples in which the luminosity or gravities are not well known. Therefore, when realistic populations of stars are considered, one cannot simply assume that rapid rotation is always an indication of youth. We provide examples with data from Kepler, among other sources, in which the addition of rotation information our understanding of the underlying stellar (and therefore planetary) distribution substantially. Implications for planet demographics are also discussed.

  10. The solar-stellar connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampapa, Mark S.

    2016-07-01

    A review of some principal results achieved in the area of stellar astrophysics with its origins in solar physics - the Solar-Stellar Connection - is presented from the perspective of an observational astronomer. The historical origins of the Solar-Stellar Connection are discussed followed by a review of key results from observations of stellar cycles analogous to the solar cycle in terms of parameters relevant to dynamo theory. A review of facets of angular momentum evolution and irradiance variations, each of which is determined by emergent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields, is given. Recent considerations of the impacts of stellar magnetic activity on the ambient radiative and energetic particle environment of the habitable zone of exoplanet systems are summarized. Some anticipated directions of the Solar-Stellar Connection in the new era of astronomy as defined by the advent of transformative facilities are presented.

  11. The Search for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadsen, Jacqueline Rose

    2017-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may dramatically impact habitability and atmospheric composition of planets around magnetically active stars, including young solar analogs and many M dwarfs. Theoretical predictions of such effects are limited by the lack of observations of stellar CMEs. This thesis addresses this gap through a search for the spectral and spatial radio signatures of CMEs on active M dwarfs. Solar CMEs produce radio bursts with a distinctive spectral signature, narrow-band plasma emission that drifts to lower frequency as a CME expands outward. To search for analogous events on nearby stars, I worked on system design, software, and commissioning for the Starburst project, a wideband single-baseline radio interferometry backend dedicated to stellar observations. In addition, I led a survey of nearby active M dwarfs with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), detecting coherent radio bursts in 13 out of 23 epochs, over a total of 58 hours. This survey's ultra-wide bandwidth (0.23-6.0 GHz) dynamic spectroscopy, unprecedented for stellar observations, revealed diverse behavior in the time-frequency plane. Flare star UV Ceti produced complex, luminous events reminiscent of brown dwarf aurorae; AD Leo sustained long-duration, intense, narrow-band "storms"; and YZ CMi emitted a burst with substructure with rapid frequency drift, resembling solar Type III bursts, which are attributed to electrons moving at speeds of order 10% of the speed of light. To search for the spatial signature of CMEs, I led 8.5-GHz observations with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneous to 24 hours of the VLA survey. This program detected non-thermal continuum emission from the stars in all epochs, as well as continuum flares on AD Leo and coherent bursts on UV Ceti, enabling measurement of the spatial offset between flaring and quiescent emission. These observations demonstrate the diversity of stellar transients that can be expected in time-domain radio surveys, especially

  12. The Search for Stellar Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadsen, Jacqueline; Hallinan, Gregg; Monroe, Ryan; Bourke, Stephen; Starburst Program Team

    2017-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may dramatically impact habitability and atmospheric composition of planets around magnetically active stars, including young solar analogs and many M dwarfs. Theoretical predictions of such effects are limited by the lack of observations of stellar CMEs. My thesis addresses this gap through a search for the spectral and spatial radio signatures of CMEs on active M dwarfs.Solar CMEs produce radio bursts with a distinctive spectral signature, narrow-band plasma emission that drifts to lower frequency as a CME expands outward. To search for analogous events on nearby stars, I worked on system design, software, and commissioning for the Starburst project, a wideband single-baseline radio interferometry backend dedicated to stellar observations. In addition, I led a survey of nearby active M dwarfs with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA), detecting 12 bright (>10 mJy) radio bursts in 58 hours. This survey’s ultra-wide bandwidth (0.23-6.0 GHz) dynamic spectroscopy, unprecedented for stellar observations, revealed diverse behavior in the time-frequency plane. Flare star UV Ceti produced complex, luminous events reminiscent of brown dwarf aurorae; AD Leo sustained long-duration, intense, narrow-band "storms"; and YZ CMi emitted a burst with substructure with rapid frequency drift, resembling solar Type III bursts, which are attributed to electrons moving at speeds of order 10% of the speed of light.To search for the spatial signature of CMEs, I led 8.5-GHz observations with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneous to 24 hours of the JVLA survey. This program detected non-thermal continuum emission from the stars in all epochs, as well as continuum flares on AD Leo and coherent bursts on UV Ceti, enabling measurement of the spatial offset between flaring and quiescent emission.These observations demonstrate the diversity of stellar transients that can be expected in time-domain radio surveys, especially with the advent of large low

  13. THE ADVANCED STELLAR COMPASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1997-01-01

    The science objective of the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite "Ørsted" is to map the magnetic field of the Earth, with a vector precision of a fraction of a nanotesla. This necessitates an attitude reference instrument with a precision of a few arcseconds onboard the satellite. To meet...... this demand the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous miniature star tracker, was developed. This ASC is capable of both solving the "lost in space" problem and determine the attitude with arcseconds precision. The development, principles of operation and instrument autonomy of the ASC...

  14. Stellar structure of magnetars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, JianMin; Zuo, Wei; Gu, JianZhong; Shang, XinLe

    2016-04-01

    Magnetars are strong magnetized neutron stars which could emit quiescent X-ray, repeating burst of soft gamma ray, and even the giant flares. We investigate the effects of magnetic fields on the structure of isolated magnetars. The stellar structure together with the magnetic field configuration can be obtained at the same time within a self-consistent procedure. The magnetar mass and radius are found to be weakly enhanced by the strong magnetic fields. Unlike other previous investigations, the magnetic field is unable to violate the mass limit of the neutron stars.

  15. Stellar magnetism, winds and their effects on planetary environments

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A

    2016-01-01

    Here, I review some recent works on magnetism of cool, main-sequence stars, their winds and potential impact on surrounding exoplanets. The winds of these stars are very tenuous and persist during their lifetime. Although carrying just a small fraction of the stellar mass, these magnetic winds carry away angular momentum, thus regulating the rotation of the star. Since cool stars are likely to be surrounded by planets, understanding the host star winds and magnetism is a key step towards characterisation of exoplanetary environments. As rotation and activity are intimately related, the spin down of stars leads to a decrease in stellar activity with age. As a consequence, as stars age, a decrease in high-energy (X-ray, extreme ultraviolet) irradiation is observed, which can a ect the evaporation of exoplanetary atmospheres and, thus, also altering exoplanetary evolution.

  16. The DEMO Quasisymmetric Stellarator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey B. McFadden

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The NSTAB nonlinear stability code solves differential equations in conservation form, and the TRAN Monte Carlo test particle code tracks guiding center orbits in a fixed background, to provide simulations of equilibrium, stability, and transport in tokamaks and stellarators. These codes are well correlated with experimental observations and have been validated by convergence studies. Bifurcated 3D solutions of the 2D tokamak problem have been calculated that model persistent disruptions, neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs and edge localized modes (ELMs occurring in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER, which does not pass the NSTAB simulation test for nonlinear stability. So we have designed a quasiaxially symmetric (QAS stellarator with similar proportions as a candidate for the demonstration (DEMO fusion reactor that does pass the test [1]. The configuration has two field periods and an exceptionally accurate 2D symmetry that furnishes excellent thermal confinement and good control of the prompt loss of alpha particles. Robust coils are found from a filtered form of the Biot-Savart law based on a distribution of current over a control surface for the coils and the current in the plasma defined by the equilibrium calculation. Computational science has addressed the issues of equilibrium, stability, and transport, so it remains to develop an effective plan to construct the coils and build a diverter.

  17. The elusive stellar halo of the Triangulum Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    McMonigal, B; Brewer, B J; Irwin, M J; Martin, N F; McConnachie, A W; Ibata, R A; Ferguson, A M N; Mackey, A D; Chapman, S C

    2016-01-01

    The stellar halos of large galaxies represent a vital probe of the processes of galaxy evolution. They are the remnants of the initial bouts of star formation during the collapse of the proto-galactic cloud, coupled with imprint of ancient and on-going accretion events. Previously, we have reported the tentative detection of a possible, faint, extended stellar halo in the Local Group spiral, the Triangulum Galaxy (M33). However, the presence of substructure surrounding M33 made interpretation of this feature difficult. Here, we employ the final data set from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS), combined with an improved calibration and a newly derived contamination model for the region to revisit this claim. With an array of new fitting algorithms, fully accounting for contamination and the substantial substructure beyond the prominent stellar disk in M33, we reanalyse the surrounds to separate the signal of the stellar halo and the outer halo substructure. Using more robust search algorithms, we...

  18. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  19. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  20. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  1. Stellar Dymatics in 30 Doradus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Bosch

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available From multislit spectroscopy of 180 stars in the ionising cluster of 30 Doradus, we have obtained reliable stellar radial velocities for 58 stars. With these we calculated the stellar radial velocity dispersion and found it to be 35 km/s. If the cluster is dinamically relaxed the virial mass is ~ 1 × 107 Msolar

  2. A catalog of stellar spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, S. J.; Pyper, D. M.; Shore, S. N.; White, R. E.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A machine-readable catalog of stellar spectrophotometric measurements made with rotating grating scanner is introduced. Consideration is given to the processes by which the stellar data were collected and calibrated with the fluxes of Vega (Hayes and Latham, 1975). A sample page from the spectrophotometric catalog is presented.

  3. Stellar Substructures Around the Hercules Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, T. A.; Jerjen, H.; Mackey, A. D.; Da Costa, G. S.

    2015-05-01

    We present deep g and i band Dark Energy Camera stellar photometry of the Hercules Milky Way satellite galaxy, and its surrounding field, out to a radial distance of 5.4 times the tidal radius. We have identified nine extended stellar substructures associated with the dwarf; preferentially distributed along the major axis of the galaxy. Two significant over-densities lie outside the 95% confidence band for the likely orbital path of the galaxy and appear to be free-floating tidal debris. We estimate the luminosity of the new stellar substructures, and find that approximately the same amount of stellar flux is lying in these extended structures as inside the main body of Hercules. We also analyze the distribution of candidate blue-horizontal-branch stars and find agreement with the alignment of the substructures at a confidence level greater than 98%. Our analysis provides a quantitative demonstration that Hercules is a strongly tidally disrupted system, with noticeable stellar features at least 1.9 kpc away from the galaxy.

  4. On the local stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Klaus; Chini, Rolf; Kaderhandt, Lena; Chen, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of the local stellar populations from a volume-complete all-sky survey of the about 500 bright stars with distances less than 25 pc and down to main-sequence effective temperatures Teff ≥ 5300 K. The sample is dominated by a 93 per cent fraction of Population I stars, only 22 sources (5 per cent) are Population II stars, and 9 sources (2 per cent) are intermediate-disc stars. No source belongs to the halo. By following the mass of the stars instead of their light, the resulting subset of 136 long-lived stars distributes as 22 (16.2 per cent):6 (4.4 per cent):108 (79.4 per cent) for the Population II:intermediate disc:Population I, respectively. Along with the much larger scaleheight reached by Population II, this unbiased census of long-lived stars provides plain evidence for a starburst epoch in the early Milky Way, with the formation of a massive, rotationally supported, and dark Population II. The same conclusion arises from the substantial early chemical enrichment levels, exemplified here by the elements magnesium and iron, as it arises also from the local Population II white dwarfs. The kinematics, metallicity distribution functions, star formation rates, age-metallicity relations, the inventory of young stars, and the occurrence of blue straggler stars are discussed. A potentially new aspect of the survey is the possibility for substructure among the local Population II stars that may further subdivide into metal-poor and metal-rich sources.

  5. On the origin of the central 1" hole in the stellar disk of Sgr A* and the Fermi gamma-ray bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the center of the Galaxy is surrounded by two counter-rotating disks of young, massive stars extending from ~0.04 to 0.4 pc. The stellar surface density increases as ~ r^-2 towards Sgr A* but is truncated within 1" (0.04pc). We explore the origin of this annulus using a model in which star formation occurs in a disk of gas created through the partial capture of a gas cloud as it sweeps through the inner few parsecs of the galaxy and temporarily engulfs Sgr A*. We identify the locations within which star formation and/or accretion onto Sgr A* take place. Within 0.04 pc the disk is magnetically active and the associated heating and enhanced pressure prevents the disk from becoming self gravitating. Instead, it forms a magneto-turbulent disk that drains onto Sgr A* within 3 Myr. Meanwhile, fragmentation of the gas beyond the central 0.04 pc hole creates the observed young stellar disk. The two large scale bubbles of gamma-ray emission extending perpendicular to the Galactic ...

  6. The impact of a massive star cluster on its surrounding matter in the Antennae overlap region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C. N.; Boulanger, F.

    2017-04-01

    Super star clusters (SSCs), likely the progenitors of globular clusters, are one of the most extreme forms of star formation. Understanding how SSCs form is an observational challenge. Theoretical studies establish that, to form such clusters, the dynamical timescale of their parent clouds has to be shorter than the timescale of the disruption of their parent clouds by stellar feedback. However, due to insufficient observational support, it is still unclear how feedback from SSCs acts on the matter surrounding them. Studying feedback in SSCs is essential to understanding how such clusters form. Based on ALMA and VLT observations, we study this process in a SSC in the overlap region of the Antennae galaxies (22 Mpc), a spectacular example of a burst of star formation triggered by the encounter of two galaxies. We analyze a unique massive ( 107M⊙) and young (1-3.5 Myr) SSC, still associated with compact molecular and ionized gas emission, which suggest that it may still be embedded in its parent molecular cloud. The cluster has two CO velocity components, a low-velocity one spatially associated with the cluster, and a high-velocity one distributed in a bubble-like shape around the cluster. Our results on the low-velocity component suggest that this gas did not participate in the formation of the SSC. We propose that most of the parent cloud has already been blown away, accelerated at the early stages of the SSC evolution by radiation pressure, in a timescale 1 Myr. The high-velocity component may trace outflowing molecular gas from the parent cloud. Supporting evidence is found in shock-heated H2 gas and escaping Brγ gas associated with this component. The low-velocity component may be gas that was near the SSC when it formed but not part of its parent cloud or clumps that migrated from the SGMC environment. This gas would be dispersed by stellar winds and supernova explosions. The existing data is inconclusive as to whether or not the cluster is bound and will

  7. Rotation of the Warm Molecular Gas Surrounding Ultracompact HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q

    2009-01-01

    We present molecular line and 1.4 mm continuum observations towards five massive star forming regions at arcsecond resolution using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We find that the warm molecular gas surrounding each HII region (as traced by SO_2 and OCS) appears to be undergoing bulk rotation. From the molecular line emission and thermal component of the continuum emission, we independently derived gas masses for each region which are consistent with each other. From the free-free component of the continuum emission we estimate the minimum stellar mass required to power the HII region and find that this mass, when added to the derived gas mass, is a significant fraction of the dynamical mass for that region.

  8. Alaska Athabascan stellar astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Stellar astronomy is a fundamental component of Alaska Athabascan cultures that facilitates time-reckoning, navigation, weather forecasting, and cosmology. Evidence from the linguistic record suggests that a group of stars corresponding to the Big Dipper is the only widely attested constellation across the Northern Athabascan languages. However, instruction from expert Athabascan consultants shows that the correlation of these names with the Big Dipper is only partial. In Alaska Gwich'in, Ahtna, and Upper Tanana languages the Big Dipper is identified as one part of a much larger circumpolar humanoid constellation that spans more than 133 degrees across the sky. The Big Dipper is identified as a tail, while the other remaining asterisms within the humanoid constellation are named using other body part terms. The concept of a whole-sky humanoid constellation provides a single unifying system for mapping the night sky, and the reliance on body-part metaphors renders the system highly mnemonic. By recognizing one part of the constellation the stargazer is immediately able to identify the remaining parts based on an existing mental map of the human body. The circumpolar position of a whole-sky constellation yields a highly functional system that facilitates both navigation and time-reckoning in the subarctic. Northern Athabascan astronomy is not only much richer than previously described; it also provides evidence for a completely novel and previously undocumented way of conceptualizing the sky---one that is unique to the subarctic and uniquely adapted to northern cultures. The concept of a large humanoid constellation may be widespread across the entire subarctic and have great antiquity. In addition, the use of cognate body part terms describing asterisms within humanoid constellations is similarly found in Navajo, suggesting a common ancestor from which Northern and Southern Athabascan stellar naming strategies derived.

  9. Age Spread in W3 Main: Large Binocular Telescope/LUCI Near-infrared Spectroscopy of the Massive Stellar Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bik, A.; Henning, Th.; Stolte, A.; Brandner, W.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Gennaro, M.; Pasquali, A.; Rochau, B.; Beuther, H.; Ageorges, N.; Seifert, W.; Wang, Y.; Kudryavtseva, N.

    2012-01-01

    We present near-infrared multi-object spectroscopy and JHK s imaging of the massive stellar content of the Galactic star-forming region W3 Main, obtained with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope. We confirm 15 OB stars in W3 Main and derive spectral types between O5V and B4V from their absorption line spectra. Three massive young stellar objects are identified by their emission line spectra and near-infrared excess. The color-color diagram of the detected sources allows a detailed investigation of the slope of the near-infrared extinction law toward W3 Main. Analysis of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram suggests that the Nishiyama extinction law fits the stellar population of W3 Main best (E(J - H)/E(H - K s) = 1.76 and R_{{K_s}} = 1.44). From our spectrophotometric analysis of the massive stars and the nature of their surrounding H II regions, we derive the evolutionary sequence of W3 Main and we find evidence of an age spread of at least 2-3 Myr. While the most massive star (IRS2) is already evolved, indications for high-mass pre-main-sequence evolution are found for another star (IRS N1), deeply embedded in an ultracompact H II (UCH II) region, in line with the different evolutionary phases observed in the corresponding H II regions. We derive a stellar mass of W3 Main of (4 ± 1) × 103 M ⊙ by extrapolating from the number of OB stars using a Kroupa initial mass function and correcting for our spectroscopic incompleteness. We have detected the photospheres of OB stars from the more evolved diffuse H II region to the much younger UCH II regions, suggesting that these stars have finished their formation and cleared away their circumstellar disks very fast. Only in the hyper-compact H II region (IRS5) do the early-type stars seem to be still surrounded by circumstellar material. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in Germany, Italy, and the United States. LBT Corporation

  10. Exploring non-standard stellar physics with lithium depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Garrett

    2017-01-01

    Standard models of stellar evolution generally rely on the assumption that the structure and evolution of stars are uniquely determined by their mass, composition, and age. This assumption is now known to be too simplistic, as there remain numerous features of the observed cluster and field stellar pattern which cannot be explained by standard stellar theory. One such discrepancy pertains to the evolving abundances of the light element lithium, which shows significant dispersions between stars of equal mass and age on the pre-main sequence, in defiance of standard predictions. Lithium is rapidly destroyed by proton capture in the deep interiors of stars, and consequently the Li abundance observed in a star's convective envelope encodes information about the evolution of the temperature of its interior, and about the history of material exchanged between the surface and hot central regions. This makes Li an extremely sensitive diagnostic of stellar physics. Identifying the ways in which standard lithium predictions differ from the observed pattern gives us a crucial laboratory for understanding how non-standard physical effects are influencing stellar structure and evolution. In this talk, I will argue that starspots, correlated with rotation, are the underlying driver of dispersion in lithium abundance on the pre-main sequence. Starspots are ubiquitously found on young, active stars, and may cover up to 50% of their surfaces. By modifying an existing stellar evolution code to account for spot effects on both the surface boundary conditions and the transport of energy in the interior, I will show that heavy spot coverage systematically increases the radii of the fastest spinning young stars. This effect cools their interiors, leading to a reduce rate of lithium destruction on the pre-main sequence. This insight demonstrates that stars of equal mass and age can have different stellar parameters, and holds important consequences for measuring the masses and ages of

  11. Interaction effects on galaxy pairs with Gemini/GMOS- III: stellar population synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, A. C.; Rosa, D. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Hägele, G. F.; Cardaci, M. V.; Dors, O. L., Jr.; Winge, C.

    2017-05-01

    We present an observational study of the impacts of interactions on the stellar population in a sample of galaxy pairs. Long-slit spectra in the wavelength range 3440-7300 Å obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) at Gemini South for 15 galaxies in nine close pairs were used. The spatial distributions of the stellar population contributions were obtained using the stellar population synthesis code starlight. Taking into account the different contributions to the emitted light, we found that most of the galaxies in our sample are dominated by young/intermediate stellar populations. This result differs from the one derived for isolated galaxies, where the old stellar population dominates the disc surface brightness. We interpreted such different behaviour as being due to the effect of gas inflows along the discs of interacting galaxies on the star formation over a time-scale of the order of about 2 Gyr. We also found that, in general, the secondary galaxy of a pair has a higher contribution from the young stellar population than the primary one. We compared the estimated values of stellar and nebular extinction derived from the synthesis method and the Hα/Hβ emission-line ratio, finding that nebular extinctions are systematically higher than stellar ones by about a factor of 2. We did not find any correlation between nebular and stellar metallicities. Neither did we find a correlation between stellar metallicities and ages, while a positive correlation between nebular metallicities and stellar ages was obtained, with older regions being the most metal-rich.

  12. Low-Energy X-ray Emission from Young Isolated Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ruderman, M

    2003-01-01

    A young neutron star with large spin-down power is expected to be closely surrounded by an e+/- pair plasma maintained by the conversion of gamma-rays associated with the star's polar-cap and/or outer-gap accelerators. Cyclotron-resonance scattering by the e- and e+ within several radii of such neutron stars prevents direct observations of thermal X-rays from the stellar surface. Estimates are presented for the parameters of the Planck-like X-radiation which ultimately diffuses out through this region. Comparisons with observations, especially of apparent blackbody emission areas as a function of neutron star age, support the proposition that we are learning about a neutron star's magnetosphere rather than about its surface from observations of young neutron star thermal X-rays.

  13. Enormous disc of cool gas surrounding the nearby powerful radio galaxy NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36)

    CERN Document Server

    Emonts, B H C; Oosterloo, T A; Holt, J; Tadhunter, C N; Van der Hulst, J M; Ojha, R; Sadler, E M

    2008-01-01

    We present the detection of an enormous disc of cool neutral hydrogen (HI) gas surrounding the S0 galaxy NGC 612, which hosts one of the nearest powerful radio sources (PKS 0131-36). Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we detect M_HI = 1.8 x 10^9 M_sun of HI emission-line gas that is distributed in a 140 kpc wide disc-like structure along the optical disc and dust-lane of NGC 612. The bulk of the gas in the disc appears to be settled in regular rotation with a total velocity range of 850 km/s, although asymmetries in this disc indicate that perturbations are being exerted on part of the gas, possibly by a number of nearby companions. The HI disc in NGC 612 suggests that the total mass enclosed by the system is M_enc ~ 2.9 x 10^12 sin^-2(i) M_sun, implying that this early-type galaxy contains a massive dark matter halo. We also discuss an earlier study by Holt et al. that revealed the presence of a prominent young stellar population at various locations throughout the disc of NGC 612, indicating that ...

  14. Stellar Snowflake Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Stellar Snowflake Cluster Combined Image [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 Infrared Array CameraFigure 3 Multiband Imaging Photometer Newborn stars, hidden behind thick dust, are revealed in this image of a section of the Christmas Tree cluster from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, created in joint effort between Spitzer's infrared array camera and multiband imaging photometer instruments. The newly revealed infant stars appear as pink and red specks toward the center of the combined image (fig. 1). The stars appear to have formed in regularly spaced intervals along linear structures in a configuration that resembles the spokes of a wheel or the pattern of a snowflake. Hence, astronomers have nicknamed this the 'Snowflake' cluster. Star-forming clouds like this one are dynamic and evolving structures. Since the stars trace the straight line pattern of spokes of a wheel, scientists believe that these are newborn stars, or 'protostars.' At a mere 100,000 years old, these infant structures have yet to 'crawl' away from their location of birth. Over time, the natural drifting motions of each star will break this order, and the snowflake design will be no more. While most of the visible-light stars that give the Christmas Tree cluster its name and triangular shape do not shine brightly in Spitzer's infrared eyes, all of the stars forming from this dusty cloud are considered part of the cluster. Like a dusty cosmic finger pointing up to the newborn clusters, Spitzer also illuminates the optically dark and dense Cone nebula, the tip of which can be seen towards the bottom left corner of each image. This combined image shows the presence of organic molecules mixed with dust as wisps of green, which have been illuminated by nearby star formation. The larger yellowish dots neighboring the baby red stars in the Snowflake Cluster are massive stellar infants forming from the same cloud. The blue dots

  15. Stellar Presentations (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The AAVSO is in the process of expanding its education, outreach and speakers bureau program. powerpoint presentations prepared for specific target audiences such as AAVSO members, educators, students, the general public, and Science Olympiad teams, coaches, event supervisors, and state directors will be available online for members to use. The presentations range from specific and general content relating to stellar evolution and variable stars to specific activities for a workshop environment. A presentation—even with a general topic—that works for high school students will not work for educators, Science Olympiad teams, or the general public. Each audience is unique and requires a different approach. The current environment necessitates presentations that are captivating for a younger generation that is embedded in a highly visual and sound-bite world of social media, twitter and U-Tube, and mobile devices. For educators, presentations and workshops for themselves and their students must support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Common Core Content Standards, and the Science Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) initiative. Current best practices for developing relevant and engaging powerpoint presentations to deliver information to a variety of targeted audiences will be presented along with several examples.

  16. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, A; Karoff, C

    2014-01-01

    In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by ...

  17. A new type of stellar explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Perets, H B; Mazzali, P; Arnett, D; Kagan, D; Filippenko, A V; Li, W; Cenko, S B; Fox, D B; Leonard, D C; Moon, D -S; Sand, D J; Soderberg, A M; Foley, R J; Ganeshalingam, M; Anderson, J P; James, P A; Ofek, E O; Bildsten, L; Nelemans, G; Shen, K J; Weinberg, N N; Metzger, B D; Piro, A L; Quataert, E; Kiewe, M; Poznanski, D

    2009-01-01

    The explosive deaths of stars (supernovae; SNe) are generally explained by two physical processes. Young massive stars (more than eight solar masses, M_Sun) undergo gravitational core-collapse and appear as type Ib/c and II SNe. Type Ia SNe result from thermonuclear explosions of older, Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (WDs). Even the most underluminous SNe Ia eject ~1 M_Sun of C/O burning products. Here we report our discovery of the faint type Ib SN 2005E in the halo of the nearby isolated galaxy, NGC 1032. The lack of any trace of recent star formation near the SN location, and the very low ejected mass we find (~0.3 M_Sun) argues strongly against a core-collapse origin of this event. Our spectroscopic observations and the derived nucleosynthetic output show that the SN ejecta is dominated by helium-burning products, indicating that SN 2005E was neither a subluminous nor a regular SNe Ia. We have therefore found a new type of stellar explosion, arising from a low-mass, old stellar system. The ...

  18. Stellar subsystems of the galaxy NGC 1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, N. A.; Galazutdinova, O. A.

    2016-07-01

    Based on archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS/WFC images, we have performed stellar photometry for eight fields of the spiral galaxy NGC 1313 and its satellite, the low-mass Sph/Irr galaxy AM0319-662. Stars of various ages have been identified on the constructed Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams: young supergiants, middle-aged stars, and old stars (red giants); their apparent distributions over the body of the galaxy are presented. The red supergiants and giants have been divided into groups with larger and smaller color indices, corresponding to a difference in stellar metallicity. These groups of stars are shown to have different spatial distributions and to belong to two galaxies, NGC1313 itself and the disrupted satellite. We have determined the distance to NGC 1313, D = 3.88 ± 0.07 Mpc, by the TRGB method from six fields. Our photometry of 2014 HST images has revealed an emerged charge transfer inefficiency on the ACS/WFC CCDs, which manifests itself as a dependence of the photometry of stars on their coordinates on the CCD.

  19. Stellar dynamics and black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    David Merritt

    2011-07-01

    Chandrasekhar’s most important contribution to stellar dynamics was the concept of dynamical friction. I briefly review that work, then discuss some implications of Chandrasekhar’s theory of gravitational encounters for motion in galactic nuclei.

  20. Stellar activity and magnetic shielding

    CERN Document Server

    Grießmeier, J -M; Lammer, H; Grenfell, J L; Stadelmann, A; Motschmann, U; 10.1017/S1743921309992961

    2010-01-01

    Stellar activity has a particularly strong influence on planets at small orbital distances, such as close-in exoplanets. For such planets, we present two extreme cases of stellar variability, namely stellar coronal mass ejections and stellar wind, which both result in the planetary environment being variable on a timescale of billions of years. For both cases, direct interaction of the streaming plasma with the planetary atmosphere would entail servere consequences. In certain cases, however, the planetary atmosphere can be effectively shielded by a strong planetary magnetic field. The efficiency of this shielding is determined by the planetary magnetic dipole moment, which is difficult to constrain by either models or observations. We present different factors which influence the strength of the planetary magnetic dipole moment. Implications are discussed, including nonthermal atmospheric loss, atmospheric biomarkers, and planetary habitability.