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Sample records for surrounding tissue increased

  1. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    -depth understanding of the mechanism regulating blood flow and perfusion is necessary if we are to come up with new ideas for intervention and treatment. Method: From fresh born placentas stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end...... and was left untouched in the other end. Then using wire myography they were investigated in terms of contractility and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results: Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue...... compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries with surrounding tissue, when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion: The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi...

  2. Placental vascular responses are dependent on surrounding tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn Halle

    . Materials and methods. From fresh born placentas, stem villi arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided. The surrounding tissue was removed from one end and was left untouched in the other end.Then, using wire myography, they were investigated in terms of contractility...... and sensitivity to physiological relevant human-like agonists. Results. Sensitivity to PGF2α, Tx-analog, 5-HT and endothelin-1 was significantly lower in arteries with intact surrounding tissue compared to arteries stripped of the tissue. The maximal force development was also significantly lower in arteries...... with surrounding tissue when they were depolarized high extracellular [K+] or stimulated with PGF2α or endotheline-1. Conclusion. The perivascular tissue significantly alters stem villi arteries' sensitivity and force development in a suppressive way. This implicates a new aspect of blood flow regulation...

  3. Ultrastructural study of tissues surrounding replanted teeth and dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioya, Kazuhiro; Sawada, Takashi; Miake, Yasuo; Inoue, Sadayuki; Yanagisawa, Takaaki

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the dentogingival border at replanted teeth and implants. Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided into groups for replantation and implantation experiments. In the former, the upper right first molars were extracted and then immediately replanted. In the latter, pure titanium implants were used. All tissues were fixed, demineralized and embedded in epoxy resin for ultrastructural observations. One week after replantation, the junctional epithelium was lost, and the oral sulcular epithelium covered the enamel surface. The amount of the epithelium increased in 2 weeks, and resembled the junctional epithelium, and the internal basal lamina and hemidesmosomes were formed in 4 weeks. One week after implantation, peri-implant epithelium was formed, and in 2 and 4 weeks, this epithelium with aggregated connective tissue cells were observed. In 8 weeks, the peri-implant epithelium receded, and aligned special cells with surrounding elongated fibroblasts and bundles of collagen fibers appeared to seal the implant interface. In replantation of the tooth, the internal basal lamina remained at the surface of the enamel of the replanted tooth, which is likely to be related to regeneration of the junctional epithelium and the attachment apparatus at the epithelium-tooth interface. Following implantation, a layer of cells with characteristics of connective tissue cells, but no junctional epithelium and attachment apparatus, was formed to seal the site of the implant.

  4. Severe blood-brain barrier disruption and surrounding tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Friedman, Beth; Cheng, Qun; Tsai, Phil; Schim, Erica; Kleinfeld, David; Lyden, Patrick D

    2009-12-01

    Blood-brain barrier opening during ischemia follows a biphasic time course, may be partially reversible, and allows plasma constituents to enter brain and possibly damage cells. In contrast, severe vascular disruption after ischemia is unlikely to be reversible and allows even further extravasation of potentially harmful plasma constituents. We sought to use simple fluorescent tracers to allow wide-scale visualization of severely damaged vessels and determine whether such vascular disruption colocalized with regions of severe parenchymal injury. Severe vascular disruption and ischemic injury was produced in adult Sprague Dawley rats by transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1, 2, 4, or 8 hours, followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (2 MDa) was injected intravenously before occlusion. After perfusion-fixation, brain sections were processed for ultrastructure or fluorescence imaging. We identified early evidence of tissue damage with Fluoro-Jade staining of dying cells. With increasing ischemia duration, greater quantities of high molecular weight dextran-fluorescein isothiocyanate invaded and marked ischemic regions in a characteristic pattern, appearing first in the medial striatum, spreading to the lateral striatum, and finally involving cortex; maximal injury was seen in the mid-parietal areas, consistent with the known ischemic zone in this model. The regional distribution of the severe vascular disruption correlated with the distribution of 24-hour 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride pallor (r=0.75; P<0.05) and the cell death marker Fluoro-Jade (r=0.86; P<0.05). Ultrastructural examination showed significantly increased areas of swollen astrocytic foot process and swollen mitochondria in regions of high compared to low leakage, and compared to contralateral homologous regions (ANOVA P<0.01). Dextran extravasation into the basement membrane and surrounding tissue increased significantly from 2 to 8 hours of

  5. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

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    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  6. The surrounding tissue modifies the placental stem villous vascular responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Torbjørn; Forman, Axel; Aalkjær, Christian

    2014-01-01

    is available. In-depth understanding of the mechanisms involved in control of placental vascular tone are needed to develop new tissue targets for therapeutic intervention. Method: From fresh born placentas segments of stem villous arteries were carefully dissected. The artery branches were divided....... The surrounding trophoblast was removed from one end and left intact in the other, and the segment was divided to give two ring preparations, with or without trophoblast. The preparations were mounted in wire myographs and responses to vasoactive agents were compared. Results: pD2values for PGF2α, Tx-analog U...... or endotheline-1. These differences partly disappeared in the presence of L-NAME. Conclusion: The perivascular tissue significantly reduces sensitivity and force development of stem villous arteries, partly due to release of NO This represents a new mechanism for control of human stem villous artery tone....

  7. A synchronous surround increases the motion strength gain of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2013-11-12

    Coherent motion detection is greatly enhanced by the synchronous presentation of a static surround (Linares, Motoyoshi, & Nishida, 2012). To further understand this contextual enhancement, here we measured the sensitivity to discriminate motion strength for several pedestal strengths with and without a surround. We found that the surround improved discrimination of low and medium motion strengths, but did not improve or even impaired discrimination of high motion strengths. We used motion strength discriminability to estimate the perceptual response function assuming additive noise and found that the surround increased the motion strength gain, rather than the response gain. Given that eye and body movements continuously introduce transients in the retinal image, it is possible that this strength gain occurs in natural vision.

  8. Bioimaging of teeth and their surrounding tissues and biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Irene; Spin-Neto, Rubens; Kraft, David Christian Evar

    At the Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, bioimaging is a central part of our research of dental tissues and diseases in the oral cavity. We conduct research in the understanding, preventing, and treating of such diseases and there has been a strategic focus on the image-based investigation...... of clinical problems. For example, because of the etiological role of biofilms in many diseases including dental caries and periodontitis, we have investigated biofilm ecology combining newer molecular techniques such as Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) and fluorescence techniques. These methods...

  9. The dorsal skinfold chamber: window into the dynamic interaction of biomaterials with their surrounding host tissue

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    MW Laschke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The implantation of biomaterials into the human body has become an indispensable part of almost all fields of modern medicine. Accordingly, there is an increasing need for appropriate approaches, which can be used to evaluate the suitability of different biomaterials for distinct clinical indications. The dorsal skinfold chamber is a sophisticated experimental model, which has been proven to be extremely valuable for the systematic in vivo analysis of the dynamic interaction of small biomaterial implants with the surrounding host tissue in rats, hamsters and mice. By means of intravital fluorescence microscopy, this chronic model allows for repeated analyses of various cellular, molecular and microvascular mechanisms, which are involved in the early inflammatory and angiogenic host tissue response to biomaterials during the initial 2-3 weeks after implantation. Therefore, the dorsal skinfold chamber has been broadly used during the last two decades to assess the in vivo performance of prosthetic vascular grafts, metallic implants, surgical meshes, bone substitutes, scaffolds for tissue engineering, as well as for locally or systemically applied drug delivery systems. These studies have contributed to identify basic material properties determining the biocompatibility of the implants and vascular ingrowth into their surface or internal structures. Thus, the dorsal skinfold chamber model does not only provide deep insights into the complex interactions of biomaterials with the surrounding soft tissues of the host but also represents an important tool for the future development of novel biomaterials aiming at an optimisation of their biofunctionality in clinical practice.

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 and decorin expression in old fracture fragments and surrounding tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X G; Wang, D K; Gao, F; Liu, R H; Bi, Z G

    2015-09-21

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) can promote fracture healing. Although the complex role BMP-2 in bone formation is increasingly understood, the role of endogenous BMP-2 in nonunion remains unclear. Decorin (DCN) can promote the formation of bone matrix and calcium deposition to control bone morphogenesis. In this study, tissue composition and expression of BMP-2 and DCN were detected in different parts of old fracture zones to explore inherent anti-fibrotic ability and osteogenesis. Twenty-three patients were selected, including eight cases of delayed union and 15 cases of nonunion. Average duration of delayed union or nonunion was 15 months. Fracture fragments and surrounding tissues, including bone grafts, marrow cavity contents, and sticking scars, were categorically sampled during surgery. Through observation and histological testing, component comparisons were made between fracture fragments and surrounding tissue. The expression levels of DCN and BMP-2 in different tissues were detected by immunohistochemical staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of DCN and BMP- 2 in different parts of the nonunion area showed that, compared with bone graft and marrow cavity contents, sticking scars had the highest expression of BMP-2. Compared with the marrow cavity contents and sticking scars, bone grafts had the highest expression of DCN. The low antifibrotic and osteogenic activity of the nonunion area was associated with non-co-expression of BMP-2 and DCN. Therefore, the co-injection of osteogenic factor BMP and DCN into the nonunion area can improve the induction of bone formation and enhance the conversion of the old scar, thereby achieving better nonunion treatment.

  11. Effect of decimeter waves on brain and surrounding tissue temperature (experimental study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malikova, S.N.; Malyshev, V.L.; Balakyreva, V.N.; Gorban' , L.G.

    Temperature changes in brain and surrounding tissue evoked by decimeter waves (DMW) were studied on phantoms (wood shavings wetted with physiological solution), rabbits and dogs under light nembutal anesthesia and on animal cadavers. The data obtained showed that living organisms, in contrast to phantoms, exhibited a response to heat generation of DMW; this was manifested by maintenance of the temperature at certain level or by a tendency to lower it after about a 10 min exposure to DMW. Thus it was shown that there is a functional cooling system in living organisms: increased local blood flow and a specialized cooling system for the brain. Rabbits showed considerably higher brain temperature elevation than the experimental dogs. Overall, the brain temperature upon exposure to DMW depended on the intensity and duration of DMW action as well as on the state of circulating cooling system of the animals. 4 references, 4 figures.

  12. Controversy surrounding the increased expression of TGFβ1 in asthma

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    Rola-Pleszczynski Marek

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is a waxing and waning disease that leads to structural changes in the airways, such as subepithelial fibrosis, increased mass of airway smooth muscle and epithelial metaplasia. Such a remodeling of the airways futher amplifies asthma symptoms, but its etiology is unknown. Transforming growth factor β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in many fibrotic, oncologic and immunologic diseases and is believed to play an essential role in airway remodeling that occurs in asthmatic patients. Since it is secreted in an inactive form, the overall activity of this cytokine is not exclusively determined by its level of expression, but also by extensive and complex post-translational mechanisms, which are all importanin modulating the magnitude of the TGFβ1 response. Even if TGFβ1 upregulation in asthma is considered as a dogma by certain investigators in the field, the overall picture of the published litterature is not that clear and the cellular origin of this cytokine in the airways of asthmatics is still a contemporaneous debate. On the other hand, it is becoming clear that TGFβ1 signaling is increased in the lungs of asthmatics, which testifies the increased activity of this cytokine in asthma pathogenesis. The current work is an impartial and exhaustive compilation of the reported papers regarding the expression of TGFβ1 in human asthmatics. For the sake of comparison, several studies performed in animal models of the disease are also included. Inconsistencies observed in human studies are discussed and conclusions as well as trends from the current state of the litterature on the matter are proposed. Finally, the different points of regulation that can affect the amplitude of the TGFβ1 response are briefly revised and the possibility that TGFβ1 is disregulated at another level in asthma, rather than simply in its expression, is highlighted.

  13. Electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter system*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Peng; Yang, Bang-hua; Shao, Yong; Yan, Guo-zheng; Liu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the electromagnetic effects on the biological tissue surrounding a transcutaneous transformer for an artificial anal sphincter. The coupling coils and human tissues, including the skin, fat, muscle, liver, and blood, were considered. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and current density were analyzed by a finite-length solenoid model. First, SAR and current density as a function of frequency (10–107 Hz) for an emission current of 1.5 A were calculated under different tissue thickness. Then relations between SAR, current density, and five types of tissues under each frequency were deduced. As a result, both the SAR and current density were below the basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The results show that the analysis of these data is very important for developing the artificial anal sphincter system. PMID:21121071

  14. CT after gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma : significance of soft tissue surrounding the celiac axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Yon; Kim, Hae Young; Choi, Hye Young; Lee, Sun Wha; Ko, Eun Joo; Lee, Myung Sook

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether soft tissue surrounding the celiac axis, as seen on abdominal CT imaging after gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma, should be considered as the recurrence of carcinoma or postoperative change. One hundred and forty-one abdominal CT examinations of 71 patients who had undergone subtotal or total gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma were included in our study. Conventional CT scans were obtained with 1cm thickness and interval from the diaphragm to the kidneys after contrast enhancement. It was considered that carcinoma had not recurred if findings were negative on UGI series, endoscopy with biopsy and a normal level of carcinoembryonic antigen except for soft tissue surrounding the celiac axis on abdominal CT. We then divided subjects into a recurrence group(N=20) and normal group(N=51) and on initial follow-up CT(FU-CT), analyzed the incidence, margin, shape, extent, degree and pattern of attenuation of the soft tissue surrounding the celiac axis in both groups. Since the second FU-CT examination, we observed changes in the soft tissue surrounding the celiac axis. On initial follow-up CT, at mean 308 days after surgery, fifty-five percent(39/71) of total patients (70%(14/20) of the recurrence group and 49%(25/51) of the normal group) showed soft tissue surrounding the celiac axis. The margin was distinct in 12(86%) of the recurrence group and indistinct in 21(84%) of the normal group(p<0.001). Twelve (86%) of the recurrence group showed a nodular or confluent nodular shape and 21(84%) of the normal group showed a permeative shape (p<0.001). Extent was unilateral in eight (57%) of the recurrence group and bilateral in 16(64%) of the normal group. Attenuation was similar to that of the spleen and muscle in seven(50%) of the recurrence group and was similar to that of muscle in 18(72%) of the normal group. The pattern of attenuation was homogeneous in 13(93%) of the recurrence group and 21(84%) of the normal group. There was no significant difference in

  15. Migration of metallic ions from screwposts into dentin and surrounding tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidson, K.; Wroblewski, R.

    1978-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that corrosion and other electrochemical processes occur when different alloys or metals are found together in the same mouth. In the present report, when teeth were restored using non-noble metallic posts, the metals diffused out to surrounding hard and soft connective tissues. The material consisted of extracted teeth with screwposts and surrounding discolored connective tissues. The screwposts had been cemented to the teeth 3-10 years earlier. The distribution of metal ion was determined by means of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Copper and zinc were found in both hard and soft tissues. Relatively high concentrations of copper ions were identified in areas of the teeth with blue-green discolorations. Zinc ions were detected in the dentin; they most probably originated from the screwposts and the cement, but zinc is also found in normal human dentin. Copper, zinc, silver and iron were found in the dark discolorations of the gingiva adjacent to the extracted teeth. (author)

  16. Impact of mechanical stretch on the cell behaviors of bone and surrounding tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sun Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical loading is recognized to play an important role in regulating the behaviors of cells in bone and surrounding tissues in vivo. Many in vitro studies have been conducted to determine the effects of mechanical loading on individual cell types of the tissues. In this review, we focus specifically on the use of the Flexercell system as a tool for studying cellular responses to mechanical stretch. We assess the literature describing the impact of mechanical stretch on different cell types from bone, muscle, tendon, ligament, and cartilage, describing individual cell phenotype responses. In addition, we review evidence regarding the mechanotransduction pathways that are activated to potentiate these phenotype responses in different cell populations.

  17. Impact of mechanical stretch on the cell behaviors of bone and surrounding tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hye-Sun; Kim, Jung-Ju; Kim, Hae-Won; Lewis, Mark P; Wall, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading is recognized to play an important role in regulating the behaviors of cells in bone and surrounding tissues in vivo. Many in vitro studies have been conducted to determine the effects of mechanical loading on individual cell types of the tissues. In this review, we focus specifically on the use of the Flexercell system as a tool for studying cellular responses to mechanical stretch. We assess the literature describing the impact of mechanical stretch on different cell types from bone, muscle, tendon, ligament, and cartilage, describing individual cell phenotype responses. In addition, we review evidence regarding the mechanotransduction pathways that are activated to potentiate these phenotype responses in different cell populations. PMID:26977284

  18. PIXE characterization of tissues surrounding metallic prostheses coated with biological glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbotteau, Y.; Irigaray, J.L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Biological glasses can be used as coatings for metallic prostheses in order to prevent corrosion. According to their composition, these glasses have different properties. We studied, in vivo, two glasses referred to as BVA and BVH. They are used as coatings of Ti6Al4V metallic implant. BVA glass disappears after 3 months of implantation and is replaced by bone. Prostheses initially coated by this glass have a larger osseous contact perimeter compared to the uncoated prostheses. This ensures a better anchoring of the implant and limits the micro-motions which cause wear debris. BVH glass keeps a constant composition during implantation and it is used like a layer which isolates metal implant from biological environment. In order to characterize the bony environment surrounding implants, we have used PIXE and RBS methods. This paper shows results of the behavior of bony tissue under micro-beam, the quality tests of new bone which replaces the BVA glass coating and the evaluation of corrosion effects. Titanium release in bony tissues begins when the metal surface of the prosthesis is exposed to biological fluids. After a few months of implantation, the titanium contamination is stabilized and remains localized within the first tens of micrometers of surrounding bone

  19. The importance of surrounding tissues and window settings for contouring of moving targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borm, Kai Joachim [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Medical School, Munich (Germany); Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany); Oechsner, Markus; Berndt, Johannes; Combs, Stephanie Elisabeth; Molls, Michael; Duma, Marciana Nona [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the importance of surrounding tissues for the delineation of moving targets in tissue-specific phantoms and to find optimal settings for lung, soft tissue, and liver tumors. Tumor movement was simulated by a water-filled table tennis ball (target volume, TV). Three phantoms were created: corkboards to simulate lung tissue (lung phantom, LunPh), animal fat as fatty soft tissue (fatty tissue phantom, FatPh), and water enhanced with contrast medium as the liver tissue (liver phantom, LivPh). Slow planning three-dimensional compute tomography images (3D-CTs) were acquired with and without phantom movements. One-dimensional tumor movement (1D), three-dimensional tumor movement (3D), as well as a real patient's tumor trajectories were simulated. The TV was contoured using two lung window settings, two soft-tissue window settings, and one liver window setting. The volumes were compared to mathematical calculated values. TVs were underestimated in all phantoms due to movement. The use of soft-tissue windows in the LivPh led to a significantunderestimation of the TV (70.8 % of calculated TV). When common window settings [LunPh + 200 HU/-1,000 HU (upper window/lower window threshold); FatPh: + 240 HU/-120 HU; LivPh: + 175 HU/+ 50 HU] were used, the contoured TVs were: LivPh, 84.0 %; LunPh, 93.2 %, and FatPh, 92.8 %. The lower window threshold had a significant impact on the size of the delineated TV, whereas changes of the upper threshold led only to small differences. The decisive factor for window settings is the lower window threshold (for adequate TV delineation in the lung and fatty-soft tissue it should be lower than density values of surrounding tissue). The use of a liver window should be considered. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, den Einfluss des umgebenden Gewebes auf die Konturierung bewegter Objekte zu untersuchen. Um die optimalen CT-Fensterungen fuer Lungen-, Weichteil- und Lebertumoren zu bestimmen

  20. Characterisation by PIXE RBS of metallic contamination of tissues surrounding a metallic prosthesis on a knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, G.; Irigaray, J. L.; Moretto, Ph.; Sauvage, T.; Kemeny, J. L.; Cazenave, A.; Jallot, E.

    2006-09-01

    Implants used as biomaterials have to fulfill conditions of functionality, compatibility and sometimes bioactivity. There are four main families of biomaterials: metals and metal alloys, polymers, bioceramics and natural materials. Because of corrosion and friction in the human body, implants generate debris. This debris may develop toxicity, inflammation and prosthetic unsealing by osseous dissolution. Nature, size, morphology and amount of debris are the parameters influencing the tissue responses. In this paper, we characterised metallic contamination produced by knee prosthesis, composed with TiAl 6V 4 or Co-Cr-Mo alloys, into surrounding capsular tissue by depth migration, in vivo behaviour, content, size and nature of debris by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method associated with RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy). Debris distribution in the whole articulation is very heterogeneous. Debris migrates several thousand micrometers in tissues, with a characteristic decrease. Solid metallic particles of about micrometer size are found in the most polluted samples, in both alloys TiAl 6V 4 and Cr-Co-Mo. In the mean volume analysed by PIXE, the concentration mass ratios [Ti]/[V] and [Co]/[Cr] confirm the chemical stability of TiAl 6V 4 debris and show the chemical evolution of Cr-Co-Mo debris. Development of a protocol to prepare thin targets permits us to correlate PIXE and histological analysis in the same zone. The fibrous tissue (collagen fibres, fibroblasts) and macrophage cells are observed with optical microscope in polluted areas. This protocol could locate other pathologies in ppm contamination range, thanks to the great sensitivity of the PIXE method.

  1. Chronic Expanding Hematoma in the Extremities: A Clinical Problem of Adhesion to the Surrounding Tissues

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    Okamoto, Takeshi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Chronic expanding hematoma is characterized by continuous growth of a blood collection. We analyzed the clinical features of 7 patients with chronic expanding hematomas in the extremities, with an average age of 65.6 years. All lesions occurred in the lower extremities, with 4 seen in the thigh and 3 in the knee region. Six patients had subcutaneous hematomas, while 1 was deep-seated in the thigh. The magnetic resonance features of the lesion were compatible with those of a standard hematoma. A low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted imaging at the pseudocapsule was also characteristic. Cystic features were seen in 5 of 7 patients. All lesions were resected together with their pseudocapsule. In the subcutaneous lesions, it was necessary to resect adherent fascia, with or without involved skin. In the deep-seated thigh lesion, the common peroneal nerve was completely adherent to the pseudocapsule, a phenomenon from absence of the common peroneal nerve which appeared after resection. Chronic expanding hematomas of the extremities are predominantly located in the subcutaneous tissue of the lower extremity. The surrounding pseudocapsule is adherent to the adjacent tissues, and clinicians must be aware of this, especially when resecting a deep-seated lesion. PMID:28642872

  2. Chronic Expanding Hematoma in the Extremities: A Clinical Problem of Adhesion to the Surrounding Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Sakamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic expanding hematoma is characterized by continuous growth of a blood collection. We analyzed the clinical features of 7 patients with chronic expanding hematomas in the extremities, with an average age of 65.6 years. All lesions occurred in the lower extremities, with 4 seen in the thigh and 3 in the knee region. Six patients had subcutaneous hematomas, while 1 was deep-seated in the thigh. The magnetic resonance features of the lesion were compatible with those of a standard hematoma. A low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted imaging at the pseudocapsule was also characteristic. Cystic features were seen in 5 of 7 patients. All lesions were resected together with their pseudocapsule. In the subcutaneous lesions, it was necessary to resect adherent fascia, with or without involved skin. In the deep-seated thigh lesion, the common peroneal nerve was completely adherent to the pseudocapsule, a phenomenon from absence of the common peroneal nerve which appeared after resection. Chronic expanding hematomas of the extremities are predominantly located in the subcutaneous tissue of the lower extremity. The surrounding pseudocapsule is adherent to the adjacent tissues, and clinicians must be aware of this, especially when resecting a deep-seated lesion.

  3. The characteristics of cerebral meningiomas and surrounding tissues on dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinkins, J.R.; Sener, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic CT was utilized to evaluate 11 patients with histologically benign meningiomas. While it was found that all demonstrated macroscopic neovascularity, subtle differences in the dynamic perfusion curves were identified both between different meningiomas and from region to region within the same tumor. Other than basic anatomic differences, these changes may reflect intratumoral ischemia and hypothetically herald cystic/necrotic alteration within the neoplasm. The dynamic calculations over the surrounding brain showed areas of gross hyper- and hypoperfused cerebral cortex, and hypoperfused white matter in regions of peritumoral edema. These latter findings are of uncertain clinical importance. The dynamic examination also confirmed cases of dural venous sinus invasion and calvarial permeation by tumor. In addition, the dynamic series showed macroscopic neovascularity in one case with a completely negative selective cerebral arteriogram. It is felt that certain cases which have previously been evaluated by static CT may benefit from further study utilizing the dynamic method. (orig.)

  4. Diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals for localization in target tissues exhibiting a regional pH shift relative to surrounding tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, M.; Kung, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic radiopharmaceutical compounds are provided which are capable of entering a target tissue or a target organ by passive diffusion through cell walls and which are effectively accumulated and retained within the target tissue or organ due to a regional pH shift. Such compounds are desirably readily accessible synthetically using readily available radionuclides. The compound comprises a radioactive isotope of an element in chemical combination with at least one amine group and preferably with at least two secondary or tertiary amine groups. The radioactive element is an element other than iodine emitting gamma ray, x-ray or positron radiation. When the element is a gamma ray emitting isotope, at least 75 percent of the number of emissions is emitted at energies of between 80 and 400 keV. The half-life of the isotope is usually between two minutes and 15 days. The compound has acid-base characteristics such that the state of ionization of the compound at the pH of the body is significantly different and usually less than its state of ionization at the intracellular pH of the target tissue. The compound has such lipid solubility characteristics that it is capable of ready penetration through cell walls, but within cells its lipid solubility is substantially decreased, whereby the ability of the compound to leave the target tissue is substantially diminished. Specific data relevant to di-beta-(piperidinoethyl)-selenide and di-beta-(morpholinoethyl)-selenide in rat brains are presented

  5. Radiopharmaceuticals for localization in target tissues exhibiting a regional pH shift relative to surrounding tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blau, M.; Kung, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    This patent relates to the preparation and use of radiopharmaceutical chemical compounds comprising a radioactive isotope, other than an isotope of iodine, in chemical combination with at least one primary, secondary or tertiary amino group. The compounds have a lipophilicity sufficiently high at a pH of 7.6 to permit passage of the compound from the blood of a mammal into a target organ or tissue and sufficiently low at a pH of 6.6 to prevent rapid return of the compound from the target organ or tissue to the blood. The compounds have a percent protein binding of less than ninety percent. These compounds may be selectively deposited in at least one target tissue or organ of a mammal, the tissue or organ of which has a significantly different intracellular pH than the blood of the mammal, by introducing the compound of the invention into the bloodstream of the mammal. A plurality of selenide compounds containing Se-75 isotope are claimed in relation to the patent. (U.K.)

  6. Chondromyxoid Fibroma of Two Cervical Vertebrae with Involvement of Surrounding Soft Tissue: Radiologic Diagnostic Dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghipour Zahir, Shokouh; Sefidrokh Sharahjin, Naser; Sadlu Parizi, Farzad; Rahmani, Koorosh

    2015-01-01

    Chondromyxoid fibroma is a rare benign cartilaginous neoplasm that mostly affects the metaphyseal region of the long bones. The tibia, small tubular bones of the foot, the distal femur and pelvis are common locations, but involvement of the vertebral bones, especially the cervical vertebra, is very rare. Radiographic features show typical characteristics and this tumor often presents as a lobulated, eccentric radiolucent lesion with no periosteal reaction. In addition, geographic bone destruction is seen in all cases. We present an adult female with a one-year history of neck pain, and ultrasound findings that suggest a right paravertebral muscular lesion due to inflammatory or neoplastic origins. The histopathological studies confirmed that the biopsied specimen was a chondromyxoid fibroma of the cervical vertebrae laminae and spinous processes (C3 and C4) with abutting soft tissue. Despite the unusual location and soft tissue presentation, a chondromyxoid fibroma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a cervical bone lesion

  7. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to 70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with

  8. Characterisation by PIXE-RBS of metallic contamination of tissues surrounding a metallic prosthesis on a knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibert, G. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, IN2P3/CNRS UMR 6533, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)]. E-mail: geoffroy.guibert@he-arc.ch; Irigaray, J.L. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, IN2P3/CNRS UMR 6533, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Moretto, Ph. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, IN2P3/CNRS UMR 5797, Le Haut Vigneau, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Sauvage, T. [Centre d' Etudes et de Recherches par Irradiation, CNRS Orleans France, 3A rue de la ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Kemeny, J.L. [CHU, Service d' Anatomie et de Cytologie Pathologiques, Universite d' Auvergne, 63100 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cazenave, A. [Institut Calot, 62608 Berck sur Mer Cedex (France); Jallot, E. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, IN2P3/CNRS UMR 6533, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)

    2006-09-15

    Implants used as biomaterials have to fulfill conditions of functionality, compatibility and sometimes bioactivity. There are four main families of biomaterials: metals and metal alloys, polymers, bioceramics and natural materials. Because of corrosion and friction in the human body, implants generate debris. This debris may develop toxicity, inflammation and prosthetic unsealing by osseous dissolution. Nature, size, morphology and amount of debris are the parameters influencing the tissue responses. In this paper, we characterised metallic contamination produced by knee prosthesis, composed with TiAl{sub 6}V{sub 4} or Co-Cr-Mo alloys, into surrounding capsular tissue by depth migration, in vivo behaviour, content, size and nature of debris by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method associated with RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy). Debris distribution in the whole articulation is very heterogeneous. Debris migrates several thousand micrometers in tissues, with a characteristic decrease. Solid metallic particles of about micrometer size are found in the most polluted samples, in both alloys TiAl{sub 6}V{sub 4} and Cr-Co-Mo. In the mean volume analysed by PIXE, the concentration mass ratios [Ti]/[V] and [Co]/[Cr] confirm the chemical stability of TiAl{sub 6}V{sub 4} debris and show the chemical evolution of Cr-Co-Mo debris. Development of a protocol to prepare thin targets permits us to correlate PIXE and histological analysis in the same zone. The fibrous tissue (collagen fibres, fibroblasts) and macrophage cells are observed with optical microscope in polluted areas. This protocol could locate other pathologies in ppm contamination range, thanks to the great sensitivity of the PIXE method.

  9. Pylorus and surrounding tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persigehl, M.

    1980-01-01

    The pylorus function is not that of a digestive sphincter. A zone of manometric high pressure has not been found in any part of the gastroduodenal junction. The process of evacuation of the stomach itself could not be observed accurately enough with the method employed, so that a final statement on pylorus function during evacuation of the stomach cannot be presented. Isolated pylorus contractions without previous contractions of the pyloric canal or the duodenal bulb were observed with neither of the two methods. There are two types of contraction in the pyloric canal: First, a process of annular motility similar to peristalsis; secondly, type B contractions, typically with shortening of the lesser curvature in the pyloric canal, pseudodiverticular protrusion of the greater curvature and tubular constrictions of the pyloric canal accompanied by constriction of the pyloric muscle. When this process takes place in its complete form, pressure changes can be observed in the pyloric canal and always in the pylorus. Independent of the antral contraction processes, there are two forms of bulb contractions. The first type, with complete contractions of the pyloric bulb, influences the pylorus while the second type, with weak annular contractions propagating in both directions from the top of the pyloric bulb, does not. Administration of gastrin or pentagastrin results in more rhythmic contractions of the gastroduodenal junction. The contractions themselves are more pronounced and last longer than without drug administration. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B.Baon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the consequences of poor interaction between the government, private sector and research sector. The aim of this study is to transfer and to implement good agricultural practices of cocoa in surrounding area of mining sites of Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC and Berau Coal (BC, East Kalimantan, in order to increase farmer capacity and cocoa productivity. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute as the developing agent of cocoa technology has established collaboration with corporate social responsibility program of KPC (already 7 years and BC (already 2 years to improve productivity and farmer capacity of cocoa farms surroundings the two cocoa mining companies. This paper discusses the aspects of natural, economic and human resources; baseline study; technology transfers; marketing partnership; cocoa productivity; farmer income after technology implementing; study of cocoa growth on post-coal-mining. It is concluded that improvement of the cocoa productivity and farmer capacity surroundings the two mining sites associated with high adoption of technology by farmers, better access to availability of knowledge for good agricultural practices, extension officers, demonstration plots, cocoa price, and length of market chains, partnership, and competition with oil palm plantations.

  11. Smart Surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Jansen, P.G.; Lijding, M.E.M.; Scholten, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Ambient systems are networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments and supporting people in their activities. These systems will create a Smart Surrounding for people to facilitate and enrich daily life and increase productivity at work. Such systems will be quite different from

  12. Large-scale automated image analysis for computational profiling of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices using Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Somasundar, Vinay; Megjhani, Murad; Xu, Yan; Lu, Yanbin; Padmanabhan, Raghav; Trett, Kristen; Shain, William; Roysam, Badri

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe the use of Python for large-scale automated server-based bio-image analysis in FARSIGHT, a free and open-source toolkit of image analysis methods for quantitative studies of complex and dynamic tissue microenvironments imaged by modern optical microscopes, including confocal, multi-spectral, multi-photon, and time-lapse systems. The core FARSIGHT modules for image segmentation, feature extraction, tracking, and machine learning are written in C++, leveraging widely used libraries including ITK, VTK, Boost, and Qt. For solving complex image analysis tasks, these modules must be combined into scripts using Python. As a concrete example, we consider the problem of analyzing 3-D multi-spectral images of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices, acquired using high-throughput multi-spectral spinning disk step-and-repeat confocal microscopy. The resulting images typically contain 5 fluorescent channels. Each channel consists of 6000 × 10,000 × 500 voxels with 16 bits/voxel, implying image sizes exceeding 250 GB. These images must be mosaicked, pre-processed to overcome imaging artifacts, and segmented to enable cellular-scale feature extraction. The features are used to identify cell types, and perform large-scale analysis for identifying spatial distributions of specific cell types relative to the device. Python was used to build a server-based script (Dell 910 PowerEdge servers with 4 sockets/server with 10 cores each, 2 threads per core and 1TB of RAM running on Red Hat Enterprise Linux linked to a RAID 5 SAN) capable of routinely handling image datasets at this scale and performing all these processing steps in a collaborative multi-user multi-platform environment. Our Python script enables efficient data storage and movement between computers and storage servers, logs all the processing steps, and performs full multi-threaded execution of all codes, including open and closed-source third party libraries.

  13. Large-scale automated image analysis for computational profiling of brain tissue surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices using Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eRey-Villamizar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe use of Python for large-scale automated server-based bio-image analysis in FARSIGHT, a free and open-source toolkit of image analysis methods for quantitative studies of complex and dynamic tissue microenvironments imaged by modern optical microscopes including confocal, multi-spectral, multi-photon, and time-lapse systems. The core FARSIGHT modules for image segmentation, feature extraction, tracking, and machine learning are written in C++, leveraging widely used libraries including ITK, VTK, Boost, and Qt. For solving complex image analysis task, these modules must be combined into scripts using Python. As a concrete example, we consider the problem of analyzing 3-D multi-spectral brain tissue images surrounding implanted neuroprosthetic devices, acquired using high-throughput multi-spectral spinning disk step-and-repeat confocal microscopy. The resulting images typically contain 5 fluorescent channels, 6,000$times$10,000$times$500 voxels with 16 bits/voxel, implying image sizes exceeding 250GB. These images must be mosaicked, pre-processed to overcome imaging artifacts, and segmented to enable cellular-scale feature extraction. The features are used to identify cell types, and perform large-scale analytics for identifying spatial distributions of specific cell types relative to the device. Python was used to build a server-based script (Dell 910 PowerEdge servers with 4 sockets/server with 10 cores each, 2 threads per core and 1TB of RAM running on Red Hat Enterprise Linux linked to a RAID 5 SAN capable of routinely handling image datasets at this scale and performing all these processing steps in a collaborative multi-user multi-platform environment consisting. Our Python script enables efficient data storage and movement between compute and storage servers, logging all processing steps, and performs full multi-threaded execution of all codes, including open and closed-source third party libraries.

  14. Expression of SRY-related HMG Box Transcription Factors (Sox) 2 and 9 in Craniopharyngioma Subtypes and Surrounding Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimsen, Vivian; John, Nora; Buchfelder, Michael; Flitsch, Jörg; Fahlbusch, Rudolf; Stefanits, Harald; Knosp, Engelbert; Losa, Marco; Buslei, Rolf; Hölsken, Annett

    2017-11-20

    Stem cells have been discovered as key players in the genesis of different neoplasms including craniopharyngioma (CP), a rare tumour entity in the sellar region. Sox2 and Sox9 are well-known stem cell markers involved in pituitary development. In this study we analysed the expression of both transcription factors using immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of 64 adamantinomatous (aCP) and 9 papillary CP (pCP) and quantitative PCR in 26 aCP and 7 pCP. Whereas immunohistochemically Sox2+ cells were verifiable in only five aCP (7.8%) and in 39.1% of the respective surrounding cerebral tissue, pCP specimens appeared always negative. In contrast, Sox9 was detectable in all tumours with a significantly higher expression in aCP compared to pCP (protein, p < 0.0001; mRNA p = 0.0484) This was also true for the respective tumour adjacent CNS where 63 aCP (98.4%) and six pCP (66.7%) showed Sox9+ cells. We further confirmed absence of Sox9 expression in nuclear β-catenin accumulating cells of aCP. Our results point to the conclusion that Sox2 and Sox9, seem to play essential roles not only in the specific formation of aCP, but also in processes involving the cerebral tumour environment, which needs to be illuminated in the future.

  15. Bevacizumab Inhibits Breast Cancer-Induced Osteolysis, Surrounding Soft Tissue Metastasis, and Angiogenesis in Rats as Visualized by VCT and MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bäuerle

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an antiangiogenic treatment with the vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab in an experimental model of breast cancer bone metastasis and to monitor osteolysis, soft tissue tumor, and angiogenesis in bone metastasis noninvasively by volumetric computed tomography (VCT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. After inoculation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells into nude rats, bone metastasis was monitored with contrast-enhanced VCT and MRI from day 30 to day 70 after tumor cell inoculation, respectively. Thereby, animals of the treatment group (10 mg/kg bevacizumab IV weekly, n = 15 were compared with sham-treated animals (n = 17. Treatment with bevacizumab resulted in a significant difference versus control in osteolytic as well as soft tissue lesion sizes (days 50 to 70 and 40 to 70 after tumor cell inoculation, respectively; P < .05. This observation was paralleled with significantly reduced vascularization in the treatment group as shown by reduced increase in relative signal intensity in dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI from days 40 to 70 (P < .05. Contrast-enhanced VCT and histology confirmed decreased angiogenesis as well as new bone formation after application of bevacizumab. In conclusion, bevacizumab significantly inhibited osteolysis, surrounding soft tissue tumor growth, and angiogenesis in an experimental model of breast cancer bone metastasis as visualized by VCT and MRI.

  16. Investigation of metalloproteins distributions in cytosol of hepatocellular carcinoma and its surrounding tissues by using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuxi; Chen Chunying; Li Bai; Chai Zhifang; Huang Yuying; He Wei; Deng Guilong; Liu Yingbin

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) spectroscopy is an advanced quantitative multielemental analytical technique with space resolution of several μm and sensitivities in the μ g/g range. It can be used for keeping track of trace elements in biological samples after an electrophoretic separation. In this paper, proteins in cytosol of human hepatocellular carcinoma and the surrounding 'normal' tissue were separated with thin layer isoelectric focusing (IEF). The contents of metal ions in protein bands were determined by SRXRF. The results showed that the metal-containing proteins detected in the two samples were very much alike, but their distribution patterns were easily distinguishable. The contents of iron, zinc, and copper in bands from the surrounding 'normal' tissue were generally higher than that from hepatoma tissue, especially in Fe-containing proteins with pIs of 6.5, 7.7, 8.0 and less than 3.5, Cu-containing proteins with PIs of 3.2, 4.9, 5.5, 5.9 and 6.5, as well as Zn-containing proteins with pI of 5.5 and 6.5. However, Fe contents in Fe-containing proteins of 4.0, and 7.0 from the hepatoma tissue were slight higher than that from the surrounding 'normal' tissue. Further studies are necessary to validate the universality and the biological meaning of the pattern. (authors)

  17. Analyses of the eustachian tube and its surrounding tissues with cross sectional images by high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Haruo; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takasaki, Kenji; Kanda, Yukihiko; Nakao, Yoshiaki; Morikawa, Minoru; Ishimaru, Hideki; Hayashi, Kuniaki

    2000-01-01

    We attempted to image the eustachian tube (ET) and its surrounding tissues by high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). Twenty-two normal subjects (44 ears) without middle ear problems were studied, and a patient with severe patulous ET was also studied as an abnormal case. In our device of multiplanar reconstruction technique, we were able to obtain the clear reconstructed images of the ET lumen as well as of its surrounding tissues (bone, ET cartilage, tensor veli palatini muscle, levator veli palatini muscle, Ostmann's fat tissue, tensor tympani muscle, internal carotid artery) at any desired portion, either parallel or perpendicular to the long axis of the ET. However, the exact borders between the ET cartilage and the muscles, Ostmann's fat tissue and the tubal gland were not clearly identified. In the severe case of patulous ET, the ET lumen was widely opened at each cross-sectional image from the pharyngeal orifice to the tympanic orifice, in contrast with its being closed at the cartilaginous portion in the normal cases. In addition, the fat tissue and glands around the ET lumen were not clearly identified in this case. We suggest that this method will lead to better understanding of the ET-related diseases such as patulous ET. (author)

  18. Analyses of the eustachian tube and its surrounding tissues with cross sectional images by high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Haruo; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Takasaki, Kenji; Kanda, Yukihiko; Nakao, Yoshiaki; Morikawa, Minoru; Ishimaru, Hideki; Hayashi, Kuniaki [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-07-01

    We attempted to image the eustachian tube (ET) and its surrounding tissues by high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). Twenty-two normal subjects (44 ears) without middle ear problems were studied, and a patient with severe patulous ET was also studied as an abnormal case. In our device of multiplanar reconstruction technique, we were able to obtain the clear reconstructed images of the ET lumen as well as of its surrounding tissues (bone, ET cartilage, tensor veli palatini muscle, levator veli palatini muscle, Ostmann's fat tissue, tensor tympani muscle, internal carotid artery) at any desired portion, either parallel or perpendicular to the long axis of the ET. However, the exact borders between the ET cartilage and the muscles, Ostmann's fat tissue and the tubal gland were not clearly identified. In the severe case of patulous ET, the ET lumen was widely opened at each cross-sectional image from the pharyngeal orifice to the tympanic orifice, in contrast with its being closed at the cartilaginous portion in the normal cases. In addition, the fat tissue and glands around the ET lumen were not clearly identified in this case. We suggest that this method will lead to better understanding of the ET-related diseases such as patulous ET. (author)

  19. Increased sympathetic tone in forearm subcutaneous tissue in primary hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn Nielsen, H; Hasselström, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    1987-01-01

    vasoconstriction normally seen after lowering the forearm 40 cm below heart level was absent since SBF only decreased by 4% (+/- 7%, P greater than 0.1) during these conditions. In head-up vertical position we noticed a diminished baroreceptor response as SBF at heart level was reduced by 11% (+/- 7%, P greater...... than 0.1) compared to supine position. After proximal local anaesthesia SBF increased by 351% (+/- 81%, P less than 0.01) and disclosed a normal vasoconstrictor response as SBF was reduced by 53% (+/- 5%, P less than 0.01) during arm lowering. Five of the treated patients were restudied.......02)). In conclusion sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in adipose tissue is markedly increased in primary hypothyroidism. Sympathetic tone and arterial pressure are reduced during treatment....

  20. Analysis of specific absorption rate and internal electric field in human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil-type transcutaneous energy transmission transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Zulkifli, Nur Elina Binti; Ishioka, Yuji

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the internal electric field E and specific absorption rate (SAR) of human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil transcutaneous energy transmission transformer. Using an electromagnetic simulator, we created a model of human biological tissues consisting of a dry skin, wet skin, fat, muscle, and cortical bone. A primary coil was placed on the surface of the skin, and a secondary coil was located subcutaneously inside the body. The E and SAR values for the model representing a 34-year-old male subject were analyzed using electrical frequencies of 0.3-1.5 MHz. The transmitting power was 15 W, and the load resistance was 38.4 Ω. The results showed that the E values were below the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.9 and 1.5 MHz, and SAR values were well below the limit prescribed by the ICNIRP for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.3 and 1.2 MHz.

  1. Increased Expression of Herpes Virus-Encoded hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9-5p in Cancer-Containing Prostate Tissue Compared to That in Benign Prostate Hyperplasia Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Joong Yun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previously, we reported the presence of virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs in the urine of prostate cancer (CaP patients. In this study, we investigated the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs in prostate tissue. Methods: A total of 175 tissue samples from noncancerous benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, 248 tissue samples from patients with CaP and BPH, and 50 samples from noncancerous surrounding tissues from these same patients were analyzed for the expression of two herpes virus-encoded miRNAs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunocytochemistry using nanoparticles as molecular beacons. Results: Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed significantly higher expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miRH9- 5p in surrounding noncancerous and CaP tissues than that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.001. Of note, these miRNA were expressed equivalently in the CaP tissues and surrounding noncancerous tissues. Moreover, immunocytochemistry clearly demonstrated a significant enrichment of both hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H9 beacon-labeled cells in CaP and surrounding noncancerous tissue compared to that in BPH tissue (each comparison, P<0.05 for hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2- miR-H9. Conclusions: These results suggest that increased expression of hsv1-miR-H18 and hsv2-miR-H95p might be associated with tumorigenesis in the prostate. Further studies will be required to elucidate the role of these miRNAs with respect to CaP and herpes viral infections.

  2. Altered tissue mineralization, increased hepatic lipid and inhibited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mineral homeostasis is often disrupted in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) infants. Most studies focus on calcium or phosphorus metabolism of IUGR infants via determining serum mineral concentrations instead of tissues. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of IUGR on the mineralization and ...

  3. Empathic surroundings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihelj, M.; van den Broek, Egon

    2008-01-01

    In his new book (2007), Marvin Minsky states that Artificial Intelligence (AI) needs empathy to become truly smart, as is illustrated through human-human interaction. The latter also holds for Virtual Reality (VR), where the interest increases to unravel the emotional state of users has to be

  4. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Horiuchi, Masatsugu, E-mail: horiuchi@m.ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  5. Irbesartan increased PPARγ activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. → Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. → DNA-binding for PPARγ was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. → Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. → Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPARγ agonistic action of an AT 1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPARγ in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPARγ in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPARγ and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  6. Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4/PADI4 post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline. Recent studies suggest that PADI4 represses expression of p53-regulated genes via citrullination of histones at gene promoters. Methods Expression of PADI4 was investigated in various tumors and non-tumor tissues (n = 1673 as well as in A549, SKOV3 and U937 tumor cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. Levels of PADI4 and citrullinated antithrombin (cAT were investigated in the blood of patients with various tumors by ELISA (n = 1121. Results Immunohistochemistry detected significant PADI4 expression in various malignancies including breast carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinomas, renal cancer cells, ovarian adenocarcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas, bladder carcinomas, chondromas, as well as other metastatic carcinomas. However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. Additionally, PADI4 expression was not detected in non-tumor tissues including cholecystitis, cervicitis and synovitis of osteoarthritis, except in certain acutely inflamed tissues such as in gastritis and appendicitis. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed higher PADI4 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cell cancers and breast cancers (n = 5 for each disease than in the surrounding healthy tissues. Furthermore, western blot analysis detected PADI4 expression in cultured tumor cell lines. ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with

  7. Increased PADI4 expression in blood and tissues of patients with malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xiaotian; Han, Jinxiang; Pang, Li; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Yi; Shen, Zhonglin

    2009-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD4/PADI4) post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline. Recent studies suggest that PADI4 represses expression of p53-regulated genes via citrullination of histones at gene promoters. Expression of PADI4 was investigated in various tumors and non-tumor tissues (n = 1673) as well as in A549, SKOV3 and U937 tumor cell lines by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. Levels of PADI4 and citrullinated antithrombin (cAT) were investigated in the blood of patients with various tumors by ELISA (n = 1121). Immunohistochemistry detected significant PADI4 expression in various malignancies including breast carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinomas, renal cancer cells, ovarian adenocarcinomas, endometrial carcinomas, uterine adenocarcinomas, bladder carcinomas, chondromas, as well as other metastatic carcinomas. However, PADI4 expression was not observed in benign leiomyomas of stomach, uterine myomas, endometrial hyperplasias, cervical polyps, teratomas, hydatidiform moles, trophoblastic cell hyperplasias, hyroid adenomas, hemangiomas, lymph hyperplasias, schwannomas, neurofibromas, lipomas, and cavernous hemangiomas of the liver. Additionally, PADI4 expression was not detected in non-tumor tissues including cholecystitis, cervicitis and synovitis of osteoarthritis, except in certain acutely inflamed tissues such as in gastritis and appendicitis. Quantitative PCR and western blot analysis showed higher PADI4 expression in gastric adenocarcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, esophageal squamous cell cancers and breast cancers (n = 5 for each disease) than in the surrounding healthy tissues. Furthermore, western blot analysis detected PADI4 expression in cultured tumor cell lines. ELISA detected increased PADI4 and cAT levels in the blood of patients with various malignant tumors compared to those in patients

  8. The rate of synthesis and decomposition of tissue proteins in hypokinesia and increased muscular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, I. V.; Chernyy, A. V.; Fedorov, A. I.

    1978-01-01

    During hypokinesia and physical loading (swimming) of rats, the radioactivity of skeletal muscle, liver, kidney, heart, and blood proteins was determined after administration of radioactive amino acids. Tissue protein synthesis decreased during hypokinesia, and decomposition increased. Both synthesis and decomposition increased during physical loading, but anabolic processes predominated in the total tissue balance. The weights of the animals decreased in hypokinesia and increased during increased muscle activity.

  9. Periodontitis increases rheumatic factor serum levels and citrullinated proteins in gingival tissues and alter cytokine balance in arthritic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica G Corrêa

    Full Text Available This study investigated some immunological features by experimental periodontitis (EP and rheumatoid arthritis (RA disease interact in destructive processes in arthritic rats. Rats were assigned to the following groups: EP +RA; RA; EP; and Negative Control. RA was induced by immunizations with type-II collagen and a local immunization with Complete Freund's adjuvant in the paw. Periodontitis was induced by ligating the right first molars. The serum level of rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACCPA were measured before the induction of EP (T1 and at 28 days after (T2 by ELISA assay. ACCPA levels were also measured in the gingival tissue at T2. The specimens were processed for morphometric analysis of bone loss, and the gingival tissue surrounding the first molar was collected for the quantification of interleukin IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α using a Luminex/MAGpix assay. Paw edema was analyzed using a plethysmometer. Periodontitis increased the RF and ACCPA levels in the serum and in the gingival tissue, respectively. Besides, the level of paw swelling was increased by EP and remained in progress until the end of the experiment, when EP was associated with RA. Greater values of IL-17 were observed only when RA was present, in spite of PE. It can be concluded that periodontitis increases rheumatic factor serum levels and citrullinated proteins level in gingival tissues and alter cytokine balance in arthritic rats; at the same time, arthritis increases periodontal destruction, confirming the bidirectional interaction between diseases.

  10. Nanotechnology and picotechnology to increase tissue growth: a summary of in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan E

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ece Alpaslan,1 Thomas J Webster1,21Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: The aim of tissue engineering is to develop functional substitutes for damaged tissues or malfunctioning organs. Since only nanomaterials can mimic the surface properties (ie, roughness of natural tissues and have tunable properties (such as mechanical, magnetic, electrical, optical, and other properties, they are good candidates for increasing tissue growth, minimizing inflammation, and inhibiting infection. Recently, the use of nanomaterials in various tissue engineering applications has demonstrated improved tissue growth compared to what has been achieved until today with our conventional micron structured materials. This short report paper will summarize some of the more relevant advancements nanomaterials have made in regenerative medicine, specifically improving bone and bladder tissue growth. Moreover, this short report paper will also address the continued potential risks and toxicity concerns, which need to be accurately addressed by the use of nanomaterials. Lastly, this paper will emphasize a new field, picotechnology, in which researchers are altering electron distributions around atoms to promote surface energy to achieve similar increased tissue growth, decreased inflammation, and inhibited infection without potential nanomaterial toxicity concerns.Keywords: nanomaterials, tissue engineering, toxicity

  11. Increased PDGFRα Activation Disrupts Connective Tissue Development and Drives Systemic Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Lorin E.; Soriano, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    PDGF signaling regulates the development of mesenchymal cell types in the embryo and in the adult, but the role of receptor activation in tissue homeostasis has not been investigated. We have generated conditional knockin mice with mutations in PDGFRα that drive increased kinase activity under the control of the endogenous PDGFRα promoter. In embryos, increased PDGFRα signaling leads to hyperplasia of stromal fibroblasts that disturbs normal smooth muscle tissue in radially patterned organs. ...

  12. Uric Acid Secretion from Adipose Tissue and Its Increase in Obesity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Yu; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Nagao, Hirofumi; Shirakura, Takashi; Kato, Kenta; Imaizumi, Keiichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Mizuho; Maeda, Norikazu; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, purine metabolism in various tissues, especially regarding uric acid production, has not been fully elucidated. Here we report, using mouse models, that adipose tissue could produce and secrete uric acid through xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and that the production was enhanced in obesity. Plasma uric acid was elevated in obese mice and attenuated by administration of the XOR inhibitor febuxostat. Adipose tissue was one of major organs that had abundant expression and activities of XOR, and adipose tissues in obese mice had higher XOR activities than those in control mice. 3T3-L1 and mouse primary mature adipocytes produced and secreted uric acid into culture medium. The secretion was inhibited by febuxostat in a dose-dependent manner or by gene knockdown of XOR. Surgical ischemia in adipose tissue increased local uric acid production and secretion via XOR, with a subsequent increase in circulating uric acid levels. Uric acid secretion from whole adipose tissue was increased in obese mice, and uric acid secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased under hypoxia. Our results suggest that purine catabolism in adipose tissue could be enhanced in obesity. PMID:23913681

  13. A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases browning in perirenal adipose tissue but not in inguinal adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mayara P; Ferreira, Laís A A; da Silva, Flávia H S; Christoffolete, Marcelo A; Metsios, George S; Chaves, Valéria E; de França, Suélem A; Damazo, Amílcar S; Flouris, Andreas D; Kawashita, Nair H

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the browning and origin of fatty acids (FAs) in the maintenance of triacylglycerol (TG) storage and/or as fuel for thermogenesis in perirenal adipose tissue (periWAT) and inguinal adipose tissue (ingWAT) of rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet. LPHC (6% protein, 74% carbohydrate) or control (C; 17% protein, 63% carbohydrate) diets were administered to rats for 15 d. The tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histologic analysis. The content of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) was determined by immunofluorescence. Levels of T-box transcription factor (TBX1), PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16), adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), glycerokinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose transporter 4, β 3 -adrenergic receptor (AR), β 1 -AR, protein kinase A (PKA), adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and phospho-AMPK were determined by immunoblotting. Serum fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) was measured using a commercial kit (Student's t tests, P diet increased FGF21 levels by 150-fold. The presence of multilocular adipocytes, combined with the increased contents of UCP1, TBX1, and PRDM16 in periWAT of LPHC-fed rats, suggested the occurrence of browning. The contents of β 1 -AR and LPL were increased in the periWAT. The ingWAT showed higher ATGL and PEPCK levels, phospho-AMPK/AMPK ratio, and reduced β 3 -AR and PKA levels. These findings suggest that browning occurred only in the periWAT and that higher utilization of FAs from blood lipoproteins acted as fuel for thermogenesis. Increased glycerol 3-phosphate generation by glyceroneogenesis increased FAs reesterification from lipolysis, explaining the increased TG storage in the ingWAT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate Treatment Increases Glucosinolate Biosynthesis and Quinone Reductase Activity in Kale Leaf Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Kang-Mo; Jeffery, Elizabeth H.; Juvik, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) spray treatments were applied to the kale varieties ‘Dwarf Blue Curled Vates’ and ‘Red Winter’ in replicated field plantings in 2010 and 2011 to investigate alteration of glucosinolate (GS) composition in harvested leaf tissue. Aqueous solutions of 250 µM MeJA were sprayed to saturation on aerial plant tissues four days prior to harvest at commercial maturity. The MeJA treatment significantly increased gluconasturtiin (56%), glucobrassicin (98%), and neoglucobrassicin (150%) concentrations in the apical leaf tissue of these genotypes over two seasons. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) activity, a biomarker for anti-carcinogenesis, was significantly increased by the extracts from the leaf tissue of these two cultivars. Extracts of apical leaf tissues had greater MeJA mediated increases in phenolics, glucosinolate concentrations, GS hydrolysis products, and QR activity than extracts from basal leaf tissue samples. The concentration of the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, sulforphane was significantly increased in apical leaf tissue of the cultivar ‘Red Winter’ in both 2010 and 2011. There was interaction between exogenous MeJA treatment and environmental conditions to induce endogenous JA. Correlation analysis revealed that indole-3-carbanol (I3C) generated from the hydrolysis of glucobrassicin significantly correlated with QR activity (r = 0.800, Pkale leaf tissues of both cultivars in 2011. Correlation analysis of these results indicated that sulforaphane, NI3C, neoascorbigen, I3C, and diindolylmethane were all significantly correlated with QR activity. Thus, increased QR activity may be due to combined increases in phenolics (quercetin and kaempferol) and GS hydrolysis product concentrations rather than by individual products alone. PMID:25084454

  15. Localized increase of tissue oxygen tension by magnetic targeted drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liong, Celine; Ortiz, Daniel; Ao-ieong, Eilleen; Navati, Mahantesh S.; Friedman, Joel M.; Cabrales, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    Hypoxia is the major hindrance to successful radiation therapy of tumors. Attempts to increase the oxygen (O2) tension (PO2) of tissue by delivering more O2 have been clinically disappointing, largely due to the way O2 is transported and released by the hemoglobin (Hb) within the red blood cells (RBCs). Systemic manipulation of O2 transport increases vascular resistance due to metabolic autoregulation of blood flow to prevent over oxygenation. This study investigates a new technology to increase O2 delivery to a target tissue by decreasing the Hb-O2 affinity of the blood circulating within the targeted tissue. As the Hb-O2 affinity decreases, the tissue PO2 to satisfy tissue O2 metabolic needs increases without increasing O2 delivery or extraction. Paramagnetic nanoparticles (PMNPs), synthetized using gadolinium oxide, were coated with the cell permeable Hb allosteric effector L35 (3,5-trichlorophenylureido-phenoxy-methylpropionic acid). L35 decreases Hb affinity for O2 and favors the release of O2. The L35-coated PMNPs (L35-PMNPs) were intravenously infused (10 mg kg-1) to hamsters instrumented with the dorsal window chamber model. A magnetic field of 3 mT was applied to localize the effects of the L35-PMNPs to the window chamber. Systemic O2 transport characteristics and microvascular tissue oxygenation were measured after administration of L35-PMNPs with and without magnetic field. The tissue PO2 in untreated control animals was 25.2 mmHg. L35-PMNPs without magnetic field decreased tissue PO2 to 23.4 mmHg, increased blood pressure, and reduced blood flow, largely due to systemic modification of Hb-O2 affinity. L35-PMNPs with magnetic field increased tissue PO2 to 27.9 mmHg, without systemic or microhemodynamic changes. These results indicate that localized modification of Hb-O2 affinity can increase PO2 of target tissue without affecting systemic O2 delivery or triggering O2 autoregulation mechanisms. This technology can be used to treat local hypoxia and to

  16. Increased tissue oxygenation explains the attenuation of hyperemia upon repetitive pneumatic compression of the lower leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messere, Alessandro; Ceravolo, Gianluca; Franco, Walter; Maffiodo, Daniela; Ferraresi, Carlo; Roatta, Silvestro

    2017-12-01

    The rapid hyperemia evoked by muscle compression is short lived and was recently shown to undergo a rapid decrease even in spite of continuing mechanical stimulation. The present study aims at investigating the mechanisms underlying this attenuation, which include local metabolic mechanisms, desensitization of mechanosensitive pathways, and reduced efficacy of the muscle pump. In 10 healthy subjects, short sequences of mechanical compressions ( n = 3-6; 150 mmHg) of the lower leg were delivered at different interstimulus intervals (ranging from 20 to 160 s) through a customized pneumatic device. Hemodynamic monitoring included near-infrared spectroscopy, detecting tissue oxygenation and blood volume in calf muscles, and simultaneous echo-Doppler measurement of arterial (superficial femoral artery) and venous (femoral vein) blood flow. The results indicate that 1 ) a long-lasting (>100 s) increase in local tissue oxygenation follows compression-induced hyperemia, 2 ) compression-induced hyperemia exhibits different patterns of attenuation depending on the interstimulus interval, 3 ) the amplitude of the hyperemia is not correlated with the amount of blood volume displaced by the compression, and 4 ) the extent of attenuation negatively correlates with tissue oxygenation ( r  = -0,78, P < 0.05). Increased tissue oxygenation appears to be the key factor for the attenuation of hyperemia upon repetitive compressive stimulation. Tissue oxygenation monitoring is suggested as a useful integration in medical treatments aimed at improving local circulation by repetitive tissue compression. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study shows that 1 ) the hyperemia induced by muscle compression produces a long-lasting increase in tissue oxygenation, 2 ) the hyperemia produced by subsequent muscle compressions exhibits different patterns of attenuation at different interstimulus intervals, and 3 ) the extent of attenuation of the compression-induced hyperemia is proportional to the level of

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased in adipose tissue of women with gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Liong

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are two increasingly common and important obstetric complications that are associated with severe long-term health risks to mothers and babies. IL-1β, which is increased in obese and GDM pregnancies, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of these two pregnancy complications. In non-pregnant tissues, endoplasmic (ER stress is increased in diabetes and can induce IL-1β via inflammasome activation. The aim of this study was to determine whether ER stress is increased in omental adipose tissue of women with GDM, and if ER stress can also upregulate inflammasome-dependent secretion of IL-1β. ER stress markers IRE1α, GRP78 and XBP-1s were significantly increased in adipose tissue of obese compared to lean pregnant women. ER stress was also increased in adipose tissue of women with GDM compared to BMI-matched normal glucose tolerant (NGT women. Thapsigargin, an ER stress activator, induced upregulated secretion of mature IL-1α and IL-1β in human omental adipose tissue explants primed with bacterial endotoxin LPS, the viral dsRNA analogue poly(I:C or the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Inhibition of capase-1 with Ac-YVAD-CHO resulted in decreased IL-1α and IL-1β secretion, whereas inhibition of pannexin-1 with carbenoxolone suppressed IL-1β secretion only. Treatment with anti-diabetic drugs metformin and glibenclamide also reduced IL-1α and IL-1β secretion in infection and cytokine-primed adipose tissue. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated ER stress to activate the inflammasome in pregnant adipose tissue. Therefore, increased ER stress may contribute towards the pathophysiology of obesity in pregnancy and GDM.

  18. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  19. Factors promoting increased rate of tissue regeneration: the zebrafish fin as a tool for examining tissue engineering design concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boominathan, Vijay P; Ferreira, Tracie L

    2012-12-01

    Student interest in topics of tissue engineering is increasing exponentially as the number of universities offering programs in bioengineering are on the rise. Bioengineering encompasses all of the STEM categories: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. Inquiry-based learning is one of the most effective techniques for promoting student learning and has been demonstrated to have a high impact on learning outcomes. We have designed program outcomes for our bioengineering program that require tiered activities to develop problem solving skills, peer evaluation techniques, and promote team work. While it is ideal to allow students to ask unique questions and design their own experiments, this can be difficult for instructors to have reagents and supplies available for a variety of activities. Zebrafish can be easily housed, and multiple variables can be tested on a large enough group to provide statistical value, lending them well to inquiry-based learning modules. We have designed a laboratory activity that takes observation of fin regeneration to the next level: analyzing conditions that may impact regeneration. Tissue engineers seek to define the optimum conditions to grow tissue for replacement parts. The field of tissue engineering is likely to benefit from understanding natural mechanisms of regeneration and the factors that influence the rate of regeneration. We have outlined the results of varying temperature on fin regeneration and propose other inquiry modules such as the role of pH in fin regeneration. Furthermore, we have provided useful tools for developing critical thinking and peer review of research ideas, assessment guidelines, and grading rubrics for the activities associated with this exercise.

  20. Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin concentration in healthy overweight and lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Rosenzweig, Mary; Dela, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    -) plasma concentration did not change during exercise in any of the groups, but SCAAT TNF- mRNA increased after exercise in both groups. Furthermore, exercise decreased SCAAT leptin mRNA with no change in resistin mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin...

  1. Association between increased epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary plaque composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kennosuke; Yamamoto, Myong Hwa; Ebara, Seitarou; Okabe, Toshitaka; Saito, Shigeo; Hoshimoto, Koichi; Yakushiji, Tadayuki; Isomura, Naoei; Araki, Hiroshi; Obara, Chiaki; Ochiai, Masahiko

    2014-09-01

    To assess the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) and plaque vulnerability in significant coronary stenosis using a 40-MHz intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging system (iMap-IVUS), we analyzed 130 consecutive patients with coronary stenosis who underwent dual-source computed tomography (CT) and cardiac catheterization. Culprit lesions were imaged by iMap-IVUS before stenting. The iMAP-IVUS system classified coronary plaque components as fibrous, lipid, necrotic, or calcified tissue, based on the radiofrequency spectrum. Epicardial adipose tissue was measured as the tissue ranging from -190 to -30 Hounsfield units. EATV, calculated as the sum of the fat areas on short-axis images, was 85.0 ± 34.0 cm(3). There was a positive correlation between EATV and the percentage of necrotic plaque tissue (R (2) = 0.34, P EATV and the percentage of fibrous tissue (R (2) = 0.24, P EATV (β = 0.14, P = 0.02) were independently associated with the percentage of necrotic plaque tissue. An increase in EATV was associated with the development of coronary atherosclerosis and, potentially, with the most dangerous type of plaque.

  2. [The increasing importance of tumor and tissue banks in the light of genomic and proteomic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschulik, A; Zatloukal, K

    2001-09-01

    Recent technological advances in genome and proteome research offer new perspectives for diagnosis and therapy. The DNA chip technology as well as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometry is able to provide comprehensive information on gene and protein expression patterns, which allow insights into the dynamic and functional aspects of diseases. The application of these techniques depends on the availability of unfixed fresh or cryopreserved tissue with short ischaemia time. For this reason tissue banks are of increasing importance. The pathologist with his expertise and responsibility for histopathological diagnosis, plays a central role in the collection of the human tissues, in accordance with medical, legal and ethical standards, not only for diagnostic purposes, but also for research. The scientific value of a tissue bank is markedly increased if tissue samples are accompanied by detailed patient data as well as blood samples. Informed consent given by the patient is an essential requirement for the use of human tissue banks in biomedical research. The informed consent should not be restricted to scientific investigations but also include the potential commercial use of the data generated.

  3. Various Techniques to Increase Keratinized Tissue for Implant Supported Overdentures: Retrospective Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elkhaweldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this retrospective case series is to describe and compare different surgical techniques that can be utilized to augment the keratinized soft tissue around implant-supported overdentures. Materials and Methods. The data set was extracted as deidentified information from the routine treatment of patients at the Ashman Department of Periodontology and Implant Dentistry at New York University College of Dentistry. Eight edentulous patients were selected to be included in this study. Patients were treated for lack of keratinized tissue prior to implant placement, during the second stage surgery, and after delivery of the final prosthesis. Results. All 8 patients in this study were wearing a complete maxillary and/or mandibular denture for at least a year before the time of the surgery. One of the following surgical techniques was utilized to increase the amount of keratinized tissue: apically positioned flap (APF, pedicle graft (PG, connective tissue graft (CTG, or free gingival graft (FGG. Conclusions. The amount of keratinized tissue should be taken into consideration when planning for implant-supported overdentures. The apical repositioning flap is an effective approach to increase the width of keratinized tissue prior to the implant placement.

  4. Increased activities of mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Vinten, J; Ploug, T

    1991-01-01

    of 8-12 rats were swim trained for 10 wk or served as either sedentary, sham swim-trained, or cold-stressed controls. White adipose tissue was removed, and the activities of the respiratory chain enzyme cytochrome-c oxidase (CCO) and of the enzyme malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which participates...... 0.05). In female rats the CCO activity expressed per milligram protein was increased 4.5-fold in the trained compared with the sedentary control rats (P less than 0.01). Neither cold stress nor sham swim training increased CCO or MDH activities in white adipose tissue (P greater than 0...

  5. Products of neutrophils and eosinophils increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallahan, A R; Armour, C L; Black, J L

    1990-05-01

    This study examines the possibility that products of neutrophils and eosinophils could increase the responsiveness of human isolated bronchial tissue. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The cells were incubated with 1 microM calcium ionophore A23187 for 10-15 min then centrifuged, the supernatant collected and stored at -70 degrees C. Human bronchial rings (2-3 mm diameter, 3-4 mm long) were prepared from specimens resected at thoracotomy. The tissues were suspended in organ baths under a 1 g load and changes in tension measured isometrically. Stable contractions to bolus doses of histamine (0.1-10 microM) or to electrical field stimulation (40-100 V, 4-16 Hz, 1 ms for 20 s) were established. Supernatant from 106 neutrophils or 105 eosinophils was then added and tissue responsiveness reassessed. Neutrophil supernatant increased tissue responsiveness to histamine and electrical field stimulation by 54 +/- 17% (n = 5, p less than 0.05) and 18 +/- 7% (n = 6, p less than 0.05), respectively. Eosinophil supernatant increased the histamine response by 60 +/- 23% (n = 8, p less than 0.05) while tissue responsiveness to electrical field stimulation was unchanged (n = 3). Thus, as neutrophils and eosinophils can change the responsiveness of human bronchus in vitro it is possible that they do this in vivo and may not simply be temporally related to the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

  6. Identification of tissue sites for increased albumin degradation in sarcoma-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, C.; Iresjoe, B.M.L.; Lundholm, K.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma albumin concentration declines in both experimental and clinical cancer. Previous investigations have demonstrated that this is partly explained by increased breakdown of albumin. The present study has identified the tissue sites for increased albumin degradation in a nonmetastasizing sarcoma mouse (C57/BL6J) model. Results have been compared to nontumor-bearing animals either freely fed or food restricted (pair-weighed) so that their body composition was similar to tumor-bearing animals. Tumor-bearing mice had increased albumin degradation (0.13 +/- 0.02 mg/hr/g bw) compared to both freely fed (0.09 +/- 0.007) and pair-weighed control animals (0.05 +/- 0.008). Radioactivity from circulating [3H]raffine aldehyde labeled albumin appeared with maximum peak values in lysosomes isolated from both tumor and nontumor tissues at 48 hr following iv injection. The intralysosomal accumulation of radioactivity was two- to threefold higher in tumor tissue compared to liver tissue, although the specific activity of protease(s) for albumin degradation measured in vitro was not higher in tumor tissue (30.4 +/- 3.6 mg/hr/g tissue) compared to normal liver tissue (36.9 +/- 1.7). Accounting for the entire tumor the proteolytic capacity for albumin breakdown was however much larger in the tumor (161.6 +/- 32.6 mg/organ) compared to both normal liver (37.5 +/- 2.3) and tumor-host liver (56.4 +/- 2.8). Pepstatin inhibited 78 +/- 6% of the proteolytic activity in the tumor measured by 125I-labeled undenatured mouse albumin as the substrate. Leupeptin inhibited 49 +/- 6%. There was a significantly decreased breakdown of albumin in both skeletal muscles and the gastrointestinal tract from tumor-bearing animals

  7. Aging causes collateral rarefaction and increased severity of ischemic injury in multiple tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, James E.; Zhang, Hua; Lassance-Soares, Roberta M.; Prabhakar, Pranay; Najafi, Amir H.; Burnett, Mary Susan; Epstein, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Aging is a major risk factor for increased ischemic tissue injury. Whether collateral rarefaction and impaired remodeling contribute to this is unknown. We quantified the number and diameter of native collaterals, and their remodeling in 3-, 16-, 24-, and 31-months-old mice. Methods and Results Aging caused an “age-dose-dependent” greater drop in perfusion immediately after femoral artery ligation, followed by a diminished recovery of flow and increase in tissue injury. These effects were associated with a decline in collateral number, diameter and remodeling. Angiogenesis was also impaired. Mechanistically, these changes were not accompanied by reduced recruitment of T-cells or macrophages to remodeling collaterals. However, eNOS signaling was dysfunctional, as indicated by increased protein nitrosylation and less phosphorylated eNOS and VASP in collateral wall cells. The cerebral circulation exhibited a similar age-dose-dependent loss of collateral number and diameter and increased tortuosity, resulting in an increase in collateral resistance and infarct volume (e.g., 6- and 3-fold, respectively, in 24-months-old mice) after artery occlusion. This was not associated with rarefaction of similarly-sized arterioles. Collateral remodeling was also reduced. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that aging causes rarefaction and insufficiency of the collateral circulation in multiple tissues, resulting in more severe ischemic tissue injury. PMID:21617137

  8. DUOX2 Expression Is Increased in Barrett Esophagus and Cancerous Tissues of Stomach and Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To detect the expression of dual oxidase (DUOX 2 in Barrett esophagus, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer (CRC. Materials and Methods. The endoscopic biopsies were collected from patients with Barrett esophagus, while the curative resection tissues were obtained from patients with gastric cancer, CRC, or hepatic carcinoma. The DUOX2 protein and mRNA levels were detected with immunohistochemistry (IHC and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR. The correlation of DUOX2 expression with clinicopathological parameters of tumors was identified. Results. Low levels of DUOX2 mRNA were detected in Barrett esophagus and the adjacent normal tissues, and there was no difference between these two groups. DUOX2 protein was found in Barrett esophagus and undetectable in the normal epithelium. The DUOX2 mRNA and protein levels in the gastric cancer and CRC were increased compared to the adjacent nonmalignant tissues. The elevated DUOX2 in the gastric cancer was significantly associated with smoking history. In CRC tissues, the DUOX2 protein expression level in stages II–IV was significantly higher than that in stage I. In both hepatic carcinoma and the adjacent nonmalignant tissue, the DUOX2 was virtually undetectable. Conclusion. DUOX2 in Barrett esophagus, gastric cancer, and CRC may be involved in the tumorigenesis of these tissues.

  9. "Project ACTS": An Intervention to Increase Organ and Tissue Donation Intentions among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Kimberly; Robinson, Dana H.; Thompson, Nancy J.; Perryman, Jennie P.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of "Project ACTS: About Choices in Transplantation and Sharing," which was developed to increase readiness for organ and tissue donation among African American adults. Nine churches (N = 425 participants) were randomly assigned to receive donation education materials currently available to consumers…

  10. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity.Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice.Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice.Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  11. Increased Dapivirine tissue accumulation through vaginal film codelivery of dapivirine and Tenofovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Ayman; Devlin, Brid; Cost, Marilyn; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2014-05-05

    The HIV-1 replication inhibitor dapivirine (DPV) is one of the most promising drug candidates being used in topical microbicide products for prevention of HIV-1 sexual transmission. To be able to block HIV-1 replication, DPV must have access to the viral reverse transcriptase enzyme. The window for DPV to access the enzyme happens during the HIV-1 cellular infection cycle. Thus, in order for DPV to exert its anti-HIV activity, it must be present in the mucosal tissue or cells where HIV-1 infection occurs. A dosage form containing DPV must be able to deliver the drug to the tissue site of action. Polymeric films are solid dosage forms that dissolve and release their payload upon contact with fluids. Films have been used as vaginal delivery systems of topical microbicide drug candidates including DPV. For use in topical microbicide products containing DPV, polymeric films must prove their ability to deliver DPV to the target tissue site of action. Ex vivo exposure studies of human ectocervical tissue to DPV film revealed that DPV was released from the film and did diffuse into the tissue in a concentration dependent manner indicating a process of passive diffusion. Analysis of drug distribution in the tissue revealed that DPV accumulated mostly at the basal layer of the epithelium infiltrating the upper part of the stroma. Furthermore, as a combination microbicide product, codelivery of DPV and TFV from a polymeric film resulted in a significant increase in DPV tissue concentration [14.21 (single entity film) and 31.03 μg/g (combination film)], whereas no impact on TFV tissue concentration was found. In vitro release experiments showed that this observation was due to a more rapid DPV release from the combination film as compared to the single entity film. In conclusion, the findings of this study confirm the ability of polymeric films to deliver DPV and TFV to human ectocervical tissue and show that codelivery of the two agents has a significant impact on DPV

  12. Increased fibrosis: A novel means by which GH influences white adipose tissue function.

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    Householder, Lara A; Comisford, Ross; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Lee, Kevin; Troike, Katie; Wilson, Cody; Jara, Adam; Harberson, Mitchell; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2018-04-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) fibrosis - the buildup of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, primarily collagen - is now a recognized hallmark of tissue dysfunction and is increased with obesity and lipodystrophy. While growth hormone (GH) is known to increase collagen in several tissues, no previous research has addressed its effect on ECM in WAT. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine if GH influences WAT fibrosis. This study examined WAT from four distinct strains of GH-altered mice (bGH and GHA transgenic mice as well as two tissue specific GH receptor gene disrupted lines, fat growth hormone receptor knockout or FaGHRKO and liver growth hormone receptor knockout or LiGHRKO mice). Collagen content and adipocyte size were studied in all cohorts and compared to littermate controls. In addition, mRNA expression of fibrosis-associated genes was assessed in one cohort (6month old male bovine GH transgenic and WT mice) and cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with GH. Collagen stained area was increased in WAT from bGH mice, was depot-dependent, and increased with age. Furthermore, increased collagen content was associated with decreased adipocyte size in all depots but more dramatic changes in the subcutaneous fat pad. Notably, the increase in collagen was not associated with an increase in collagen gene expression or other genes known to promote fibrosis in WAT, but collagen gene expression was increased with acute GH administration in 3T3-LI cells. In contrast, evaluation of 6month old GH antagonist (GHA) male mice showed significantly decreased collagen in the subcutaneous depot. Lastly, to assess if GH induced collagen deposition directly or indirectly (via IGF-1), fat (Fa) and liver (Li) specific GHRKO mice were evaluated. Decreased fibrosis in FaGHRKO and increased fibrosis in LiGHRKO mice suggest GH is primarily responsible for the alterations in collagen. Our results show that GH action is positively associated with an increase in WAT collagen content as

  13. Chronic REM-sleep deprivation of rats elevates metabolic rate and increases UCP1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Michael; Swinson, Kevin L

    2005-07-01

    A cluster of unique pathologies progressively develops during chronic total- or rapid eye movement-sleep deprivation (REM-SD) of rats. Two prominent and readily observed symptoms are hyperphagia and decline in body weight. For body weight to be lost despite a severalfold increase in food consumption suggests that SD elevates metabolism as the subject enters a state of negative energy balance. To test the hypothesis that mediation of this hypermetabolism involves increased gene expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), which dissipates the thermodynamic energy of the mitochondrial proton-motive force as heat instead of ATP formation in brown adipose tissue (BAT), we 1) established the time course and magnitude of change in metabolism by measuring oxygen consumption, 2) estimated change in UCP1 gene expression in BAT by RT-PCR and Western blot, and 3) assayed serum leptin because of its role in regulating energy balance and food intake. REM-SD of male Sprague-Dawley rats was enforced for 20 days with the platform (flowerpot) method, wherein muscle atonia during REM sleep causes contact with surrounding water and awakens it. By day 20, rats more than doubled food consumption while losing approximately 11% of body weight; metabolism rose to 166% of baseline with substantial increases in UCP1 mRNA and immunoreactive UCP1 over controls; serum leptin decreased and remained suppressed. The decline in leptin is consistent with the hyperphagic response, and we conclude that one of the mediators of elevated metabolism during prolonged REM-SD is increased gene expression of UCP1 in BAT.

  14. AAV vector encoding human VEGF165-transduced pectineus muscular flaps increase the formation of new tissue through induction of angiogenesis in an in vivo chamber for tissue engineering: A technique to enhance tissue and vessels in microsurgically engineered tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moimas, Silvia; Manasseri, Benedetto; Cuccia, Giuseppe; Stagno d'Alcontres, Francesco; Geuna, Stefano; Pattarini, Lucia; Zentilin, Lorena; Giacca, Mauro; Colonna, Michele R

    2015-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, new approaches are required for the creation of tissue substitutes, and the interplay between different research areas, such as tissue engineering, microsurgery and gene therapy, is mandatory. In this article, we report a modification of a published model of tissue engineering, based on an arterio-venous loop enveloped in a cross-linked collagen-glycosaminoglycan template, which acts as an isolated chamber for angiogenesis and new tissue formation. In order to foster tissue formation within the chamber, which entails on the development of new vessels, we wondered whether we might combine tissue engineering with a gene therapy approach. Based on the well-described tropism of adeno-associated viral vectors for post-mitotic tissues, a muscular flap was harvested from the pectineus muscle, inserted into the chamber and transduced by either AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 or AAV vector expressing the reporter gene β-galactosidase, as a control. Histological analysis of the specimens showed that muscle transduction by AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 resulted in enhanced tissue formation, with a significant increase in the number of arterioles within the chamber in comparison with the previously published model. Pectineus muscular flap, transduced by adeno-associated viral vectors, acted as a source of the proangiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, thus inducing a consistent enhancement of vessel growth into the newly formed tissue within the chamber. In conclusion, our present findings combine three different research fields such as microsurgery, tissue engineering and gene therapy, suggesting and showing the feasibility of a mixed approach for regenerative medicine.

  15. Age-associated increase in heterochromatic marks in murine and primate tissues.

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    Kreiling, Jill A; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Sexton, Alec N; Jeyapalan, Jessie C; Munoz-Najar, Ursula; Peterson, Abigail L; Manivannan, Jayameenakshi; Rogers, Elizabeth S; Pchelintsev, Nikolay A; Adams, Peter D; Sedivy, John M

    2011-04-01

    Chromatin is highly dynamic and subject to extensive remodeling under many physiologic conditions. Changes in chromatin that occur during the aging process are poorly documented and understood in higher organisms, such as mammals. We developed an immunofluorescence assay to quantitatively detect, at the single cell level, changes in the nuclear content of chromatin-associated proteins. We found increased levels of the heterochromatin-associated proteins histone macro H2A (mH2A) and heterochromatin protein 1 beta (HP1β) in human fibroblasts during replicative senescence in culture, and for the first time, an age-associated increase in these heterochromatin marks in several tissues of mice and primates. Mouse lung was characterized by monophasic mH2A expression histograms at both ages, and an increase in mean staining intensity at old age. In the mouse liver, we observed increased age-associated localization of mH2A to regions of pericentromeric heterochromatin. In the skeletal muscle, we found two populations of cells with either low or high mH2A levels. This pattern of expression was similar in mouse and baboon, and showed a clear increase in the proportion of nuclei with high mH2A levels in older animals. The frequencies of cells displaying evidence of increased heterochromatinization are too high to be readily accounted for by replicative or oncogene-induced cellular senescence, and are prominently found in terminally differentiated, postmitotic tissues that are not conventionally thought to be susceptible to senescence. Our findings distinguish specific chromatin states in individual cells of mammalian tissues, and provide a foundation to investigate further the progressive epigenetic changes that occur during aging. © 2010 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. INCREASED TISSUE TRANSGLUTAMINASE LEVELS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY IN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY AMONG PATIENTS WITH CELIAC DISEASE

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    Sedat IŞIKAY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Celiac disease is an autoimmune systemic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals precipitated by gluten ingestion. Objective - In this study, we aimed to determine asymptomatic spike-and-wave findings on electroencephalography in children with celiac disease. Methods - A total of 175 children with the diagnosis of celiac disease (study group and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy children as controls (control group were included in the study. In order to determine the effects of gluten free diet on laboratory and electroencephalography findings, the celiac group is further subdivided into two as newly-diagnosed and formerly-diagnosed patients. Medical histories of all children and laboratory findings were all recorded and neurologic statuses were evaluated. All patients underwent a sleep and awake electroencephalography. Results - Among 175 celiac disease patients included in the study, 43 were newly diagnosed while 132 were formerly-diagnosed patients. In electroencephalography evaluation of patients the epileptiform activity was determined in 4 (9.3% of newly diagnosed and in 2 (1.5% of formerly diagnosed patients; on the other hand the epileptiform activity was present in only 1 (1.0% of control cases. There was a statistically significant difference between groups in regards to the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that epileptiform activity in both sleep and awake electroencephalography were positively correlated with tissue transglutaminase levels (P=0.014 and P=0.019, respectively. Conclusion - We have determined an increased epileptiform activity frequency among newly-diagnosed celiac disease patients compared with formerly-diagnosed celiac disease patients and control cases. Moreover the tissue transglutaminase levels were also correlated with the presence of epileptiform activity in electroencephalography. Among newly diagnosed celiac disease patients

  17. Radiosensitization In Vivo by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition with No Increase in Early Normal Tissue Radiation Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groselj, Blaz; Ruan, Jia-Ling; Scott, Helen; Gorrill, Jessica; Nicholson, Judith; Kelly, Jacqueline; Anbalagan, Selvakumar; Thompson, James; Stratford, Michael R L; Jevons, Sarah J; Hammond, Ester M; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Kerr, Martin; Kiltie, Anne E

    2018-02-01

    As the population ages, more elderly patients require radiotherapy-based treatment for their pelvic malignancies, including muscle-invasive bladder cancer, as they are unfit for major surgery. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find radiosensitizing agents minimally toxic to normal tissues, including bowel and bladder, for such patients. We developed methods to determine normal tissue toxicity severity in intestine and bladder in vivo , using novel radiotherapy techniques on a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). The effects of panobinostat on in vivo tumor growth delay were evaluated using subcutaneous xenografts in athymic nude mice. Panobinostat concentration levels in xenografts, plasma, and normal tissues were measured in CD1-nude mice. CD1-nude mice were treated with drug/irradiation combinations to assess acute normal tissue effects in small intestine using the intestinal crypt assay, and later effects in small and large intestine at 11 weeks by stool assessment and at 12 weeks by histologic examination. In vitro effects of panobinostat were assessed by qPCR and of panobinostat, TMP195, and mocetinostat by clonogenic assay, and Western blot analysis. Panobinostat resulted in growth delay in RT112 bladder cancer xenografts but did not significantly increase acute (3.75 days) or 12 weeks' normal tissue radiation toxicity. Radiosensitization by panobinostat was effective in hypoxic bladder cancer cells and associated with class I HDAC inhibition, and protein downregulation of HDAC2 and MRE11. Pan-HDAC inhibition is a promising strategy for radiosensitization, but more selective agents may be more useful radiosensitizers clinically, resulting in fewer systemic side effects. Mol Cancer Ther; 17(2); 381-92. ©2017 AACR See all articles in this MCT Focus section, "Developmental Therapeutics in Radiation Oncology." ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Neuropeptide FF increases M2 activation and self-renewal of adipose tissue macrophages

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    Waqas, Syed F. Hassnain; Hoang, Anh Cuong; Ampem, Grace; Azegrouz, Hind; Balogh, Lajos; Thuróczy, Julianna; Gerling, Ivan C.; Nam, Sorim; Lim, Jong-Seok; Martinez-Ibañez, Juncal; Real, José T.; Paschke, Stephan; Quillet, Raphaëlle; Ayachi, Safia; Simonin, Frédéric; Schneider, E. Marion; Brinkman, Jacqueline A.; Seroogy, Christine M.

    2017-01-01

    The quantity and activation state of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) impact the development of obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Appetite-controlling hormones play key roles in obesity; however, our understanding of their effects on ATMs is limited. Here, we have shown that human and mouse ATMs express NPFFR2, a receptor for the appetite-reducing neuropeptide FF (NPFF), and that NPFFR2 expression is upregulated by IL-4, an M2-polarizing cytokine. Plasma levels of NPFF decreased in obese patients and high-fat diet–fed mice and increased following caloric restriction. NPFF promoted M2 activation and increased the proliferation of murine and human ATMs. Both M2 activation and increased ATM proliferation were abolished in NPFFR2-deficient ATMs. Mechanistically, the effects of NPFF involved the suppression of E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF128 expression, resulting in enhanced stability of phosphorylated STAT6 and increased transcription of the M2 macrophage–associated genes IL-4 receptor α (Il4ra), arginase 1 (Arg1), IL-10 (Il10), and alkylglycerol monooxygenase (Agmo). NPFF induced ATM proliferation concomitantly with the increase in N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (Ndrg2) expression and suppressed the transcription of Ifi200 cell-cycle inhibitor family members and MAF bZIP transcription factor B (Mafb), a negative regulator of macrophage proliferation. NPFF thus plays an important role in supporting healthy adipose tissue via the maintenance of metabolically beneficial ATMs. PMID:28581443

  19. Increased endothelial apoptotic cell density in human diabetic erectile tissue--comparison with clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carla; Soares, Raquel; Castela, Angela; Adães, Sara; Hastert, Véronique; Vendeira, Pedro; Virag, Ronald

    2009-03-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common complication of diabetes. Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is one of the main mechanisms of diabetic ED. However, loss of EC integrity has never been assessed in human diabetic corpus cavernosum. To identify and quantify apoptotic cells in human diabetic and normal erectile tissue and to compare these results with each patient's clinical data and erection status. Eighteen cavernosal samples were collected, 13 from diabetics with ED and 5 from nondiabetic individuals. Cavernosal structure and cell proliferation status were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Tissue integrity was assessed by terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay, an index of apoptotic cell density (ACD) established and compared with each patient age, type of diabetes, arterial risk factors number, arterial/veno-occlusive disease, response to intracavernous vasoactive injections (ICI), and penile nitric oxide release test (PNORT). Establish an index of ACD and correlate those results with patient clinical data. Nondiabetic samples presented few scattered cells in apoptosis and an ACD of 7.15 +/- 0.44 (mean apoptotic cells/tissue area mm(2) +/- standard error). The diabetic group showed an increased ACD of 23.82 +/- 1.53, and apoptotic cells were located specifically at vascular sites. Rehabilitation of these endothelial lesions seemed impaired, as no evidence of EC proliferation was observed. Furthermore, higher ACD in diabetic individuals correlated to poor response to PNORT and to ICI. We provided evidence for the first time that loss of cavernosal EC integrity is a crucial event involved in diabetic ED. Furthermore, we were able to establish a threshold between ACD values and cavernosal tissue functionality, as assessed by PNORT and vasoactive ICI.

  20. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

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    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  1. Deficiency of C5L2 increases macrophage infiltration and alters adipose tissue function in mice.

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    Danny Gauvreau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is considered as a systemic chronic low grade inflammation characterized by increased serum pro-inflammatory proteins and accumulation of macrophages within white adipose tissue (WAT of obese patients. C5L2, a 7-transmembrane receptor, serves a dual function, binding the lipogenic hormone acylation stimulating protein (ASP, and C5a, involved in innate immunity. AIM: We evaluated the impact of C5L2 on macrophage infiltration in WAT of wildtype (Ctl and C5L2 knock-out (C5L2(-/- mice over 6, 12 and 24 weeks on a chow diet and moderate diet-induced obesity (DIO conditions. RESULTS: In Ctl mice, WAT C5L2 and C5a receptor mRNA increased (up to 10-fold both over time and with DIO. By contrast, in C5L2(-/-, there was no change in C5aR in WAT. C5L2(-/- mice displayed higher macrophage content in WAT, varying by time, fat depot and diet, associated with altered systemic and WAT cytokine patterns compared to Ctl mice. However, in all cases, the M1 (pro- vs M2 (anti-inflammatory macrophage proportion was unchanged but C5L2(-/- adipose tissue secretome appeared to be more chemoattractant. Moreover, C5L2(-/- mice have increased food intake, increased WAT, and altered WAT lipid gene expression, which is reflected systemically. Furthermore, C5L2(-/- mice have altered glucose/insulin metabolism, adiponectin and insulin signalling gene expression in WAT, which could contribute to development of insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: Disruption of C5L2 increases macrophage presence in WAT, contributing to obesity-associated pathologies, and further supports a dual role of complement in WAT. Understanding this effect of the complement system pathway could contribute to targeting treatment of obesity and its comorbidities.

  2. Inactivation of adipose angiotensinogen reduces adipose tissue macrophages and increases metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMieux, Monique J; Ramalingam, Latha; Mynatt, Randall L; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Kim, Jung Han; Moustaïd-Moussa, Naïma

    2016-02-01

    The adipose renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been linked to obesity-induced inflammation, though mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, adipose-specific angiotensinogen knockout mice (Agt-KO) were generated to determine whether Agt inactivation reduces inflammation and alters the metabolic profile of the Agt-KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. Adipose tissue-specific Agt-KO mice were created using the Cre-LoxP system with both Agt-KO and WT littermates fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet to assess metabolic changes. White adipose tissue was used for gene/protein expression analyses and WAT stromal vascular cells for metabolic extracellular flux assays. No significant differences were observed in body weight or fat mass between both genotypes on either diet. However, improved glucose clearance was observed in Agt-KO compared to WT littermates, consistent with higher expression of genes involved in insulin signaling, glucose transport, and fatty acid metabolism. Furthermore, Agt inactivation reduced total macrophage infiltration in Agt-KO mice fed both diets. Lastly, stroma vascular cells from Agt-KO mice revealed higher metabolic activity compared to WT mice. These findings indicate that adipose-specific Agt inactivation leads to reduced adipose inflammation and increased glucose tolerance mediated in part via increased metabolic activity of adipose cells. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  3. Iodine application increased ascorbic acid content and modified the vascular tissue in opuntia ficus-indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuna, H.T.G.; Morales, R.; Rubio, E.M.; Mendoza, A.B.; Ruvalcaba, R.M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discern the effect of applying both iodide and iodate to Opuntia ficus indica irrigation. The effect of iodate (KIO/sub 3/, 10-4 M) and iodide (KI, 10-4 M) on plant growth, yield and morphology was studied. Experiments were carried in three samples under tunnel conditions. In the last sampling, iodine species (KIO/sub 3/, KI) caused a negative effect in biomass. The amount of ascorbic acid, however, was increased over 51% in both iodine treatments. Phosphorus (0.26%), iron (50 ppm), and magnesium (1402 ppm) increases were also observed with iodate treatment in the first sampling, and increases in potassium (46.8 ppm) were apparent in the second. Iodide treatment increased the amounts of copper (1.02 ppm) and manganese (32.80 ppm) in the first sampling. Iodate treatment modified the number of xylem vessels and increased both the mucilage area and amount of druses. In general this study shows that iodate increases the amount of ascorbic acid and the morphology of the vascular tissue. (author)

  4. Tissue

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    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  5. Fructose increases corticosterone production in association with NADPH metabolism alterations in rat epididymal white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Paula D; Santander, Yanina A; Gerez, Estefania M; Höcht, Christian; Polizio, Ariel H; Mayer, Marcos A; Taira, Carlos A; Fraga, Cesar G; Galleano, Monica; Carranza, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an array of closely metabolic disorders that includes glucose intolerance/insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Fructose, a highly lipogenic sugar, has profound metabolic effects in adipose tissue, and has been associated with the etiopathology of many components of the metabolic syndrome. In adipocytes, the enzyme 11 β-HSD1 amplifies local glucocorticoid production, being a key player in the pathogenesis of central obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11 β-HSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by H6PD inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Our focus was to explore the effect of fructose overload on epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) machinery involved in glucocorticoid production and NADPH and oxidants metabolism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a fructose solution (10% (w/v) in tap water) during 9 weeks developed some characteristic features of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. In addition, high levels of plasma and EWAT corticosterone were detected. Activities and expressions of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, NAPDH content, superoxide anion production, expression of NADPH oxidase 2 subunits, and indicators of oxidative metabolism were measured. Fructose overloaded rats showed an increased potential in oxidant production respect to control rats. In parallel, in EWAT from fructose overloaded rats we found higher expression/activity of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, and NADPH/NADP + ratio. Our in vivo results support that fructose overload installs in EWAT conditions favoring glucocorticoid production through higher H6PD expression/activity supplying NADPH for enhanced 11 β-HSD1 expression/activity, becoming this tissue a potential extra-adrenal source of corticosterone under these experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Extracellular Histones Increase Tissue Factor Activity and Enhance Thrombin Generation by Human Blood Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Travis J; Lysov, Zakhar; Swystun, Laura L; Dwivedi, Dhruva J; Zarychanski, Ryan; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E; Liaw, Patricia C

    2016-12-01

    Sepsis is characterized by systemic activation of inflammatory and coagulation pathways in response to infection. Recently, it was demonstrated that histones released into the circulation by dying/activated cells may contribute to sepsis pathology. Although the ability of extracellular histones to modulate the procoagulant activities of several cell types has been investigated, the influence of histones on the hemostatic functions of circulating monocytes is unknown. To address this, we investigated the ability of histones to modulate the procoagulant potential of THP-1 cells and peripheral blood monocytes, and examined the effects of plasmas obtained from septic patients to induce a procoagulant phenotype on monocytic cells. Tissue factor (TF) activity assays were performed on histone-treated THP-1 cells and blood monocytes. Exposure of monocytic cells to histones resulted in increases in TF activity, TF antigen, and phosphatidylserine exposure. Histones modulate the procoagulant activity via engagement of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and this effect was abrogated with inhibitory antibodies. Increased TF activity of histone-treated cells corresponded to enhanced thrombin generation in plasma determined by calibrated automated thrombography. Finally, TF activity was increased on monocytes exposed to plasma from septic patients, an effect that was attenuated in plasma from patients receiving unfractionated heparin (UFH). Our studies suggest that increased levels of extracellular histones found in sepsis contribute to dysregulated coagulation by increasing TF activity of monocytes. These procoagulant effects can be partially ameliorated in sepsis patients receiving UFH, thereby identifying extracellular histones as a potential therapeutic target for sepsis treatment.

  7. Cause marketing for tissue and organ donation to increase public awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.; Neely, D.; Warnack, K.; Willits, M.; Yriondo, L.

    1999-01-01

    Today the science of marketing is being applied more and more to increase the rate of tissue and organ donation in the United States. To benefit from the proven tools and techniques of successful marketing in the for-profit world transplantation agencies across the country are turning to integrated marketing communications strategies and strategic partnerships to help achieve their goals.The methods used in cause marketing include: Establishing clear and measurable outcomes and goals; building a marketing plan and timeline to achieve the goals; gathering resources (funding, personnel, organizations, partnerships) to execute the plan, implementation, and measurement of outcomes. This session will review the Tissue and Organ Donation campaign implemented in the Northwest and will touch on the national awareness program developed by United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) in the United States. Segments of the Northwest's integrated campaign will include market segmentation strategies and targeted marketing, campaign development, public service advertising and public education campaigns. Media utilized include print, bus signs and billboards, broadcast (radio and TV), video and the internet. Strategies include public service advertising, paid advertising through sponsorships, direct mail, workshops and public speaking. The success of traditional product marketing can be achieved in cause marketing with a long-term, focused public education campaign. The potential benefit to the international community warrants exploration of similar strategies to overcome cultural resistance to life saving transplantation

  8. Suramin Inhibits Osteoarthritic Cartilage Degradation by Increasing Extracellular Levels of Chondroprotective Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanalaris, Anastasios; Doherty, Christine; Marsden, Brian D; Bambridge, Gabriel; Wren, Stephen P; Nagase, Hideaki; Troeberg, Linda

    2017-10-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common degenerative joint disease for which no disease-modifying drugs are currently available. Attempts to treat the disease with small molecule inhibitors of the metalloproteinases that degrade the cartilage matrix have been hampered by a lack of specificity. We aimed to inhibit cartilage degradation by augmenting levels of the endogenous metalloproteinase inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-3, through blocking its interaction with the endocytic scavenger receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). We discovered that suramin (C 51 H 40 N 6 O 23 S 6 ) bound to TIMP-3 with a K D value of 1.9 ± 0.2 nM and inhibited its endocytosis via LRP1, thus increasing extracellular levels of TIMP-3 and inhibiting cartilage degradation by the TIMP-3 target enzyme, adamalysin-like metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5. NF279 (8,8'-[carbonyl bis (imino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino-4,1-phenylenecarbonylimino)] bis -1,3,5-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid hexasodium salt), a structural analog of suramin, has an increased affinity for TIMP-3 and increased ability to inhibit TIMP-3 endocytosis and protect cartilage. Suramin is thus a promising scaffold for the development of novel therapeutics to increase TIMP-3 levels and inhibit cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  9. Oxidative shift in tissue redox potential increases beat-to-beat variability of action potential duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistamás, Kornél; Hegyi, Bence; Váczi, Krisztina; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Magyar, János; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Nánási, Péter P

    2015-07-01

    Profound changes in tissue redox potential occur in the heart under conditions of oxidative stress frequently associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Since beat-to-beat variability (short term variability, SV) of action potential duration (APD) is a good indicator of arrhythmia incidence, the aim of this work was to study the influence of redox changes on SV in isolated canine ventricular cardiomyocytes using a conventional microelectrode technique. The redox potential was shifted toward a reduced state using a reductive cocktail (containing dithiothreitol, glutathione, and ascorbic acid) while oxidative changes were initiated by superfusion with H2O2. Redox effects were evaluated as changes in "relative SV" determined by comparing SV changes with the concomitant APD changes. Exposure of myocytes to the reductive cocktail decreased SV significantly without any detectable effect on APD. Application of H2O2 increased both SV and APD, but the enhancement of SV was the greater, so relative SV increased. Longer exposure to H2O2 resulted in the development of early afterdepolarizations accompanied by tremendously increased SV. Pretreatment with the reductive cocktail prevented both elevation in relative SV and the development of afterdepolarizations. The results suggest that the increased beat-to-beat variability during an oxidative stress contributes to the generation of cardiac arrhythmias.

  10. Increased adsorption of histidine-tagged proteins onto tissue culture polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hansen, Thomas Steen; Lind, Johan Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), as well as adsorption performed at different pH and ionic strength indicates that the high adsorption is caused by electrostatic interaction between negatively charged carboxylate groups on the TCPS surface and positively charged histidine residues in the proteins. Pre......In this study we compare histidine-tagged and native proteins with regards to adsorption properties. We observe significantly increased adsorption of proteins with an incorporated polyhistidine amino acid motif (HIS-tag) onto tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) compared to similar proteins without...... a HIS-tag. The effect is not observed on polystyrene (PS). Adsorption experiments have been performed at physiological pH (7.4) and the effect was only observed for the investigated proteins that have pI values below or around 7.4. Competitive adsorption experiments with imidazole...

  11. Increased FOXP3 expression in tumour-associated tissues of horses affected with equine sarcoid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, K; Hamza, E; Marti, E; Dolf, G; Klukowska, J; Gerber, V; Koch, C

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are associated with disease severity and progression in papilloma virus induced neoplasia. Bovine papilloma virus (BPV) is recognised as the most important aetiological factor in equine sarcoid (ES) disease. The aim of this study was to compare expression levels of Treg markers and associated cytokines in tissue samples of ES-affected equids with skin samples of healthy control horses. Eleven ES-affected, and 12 healthy horses were included in the study. Expression levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), interleukin 10 (IL10), interleukin 4 (IL4) and interferon gamma (IFNG) mRNA in lesional and tumour-distant samples from ES-affected horses, as well as in dermal samples of healthy control horses were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression levels were compared between lesional and tumour-distant as well as between tumour-distant and control samples. Furthermore, BPV-1 E5 DNA in samples of ES-affected horses was quantified using quantitative PCR, and possible associations of viral load, disease severity and gene expression levels were evaluated. Expression levels of FOXP3, IL10 and IFNG mRNA and BPV-1 E5 copy numbers were significantly increased in lesional compared to tumour-distant samples. There was no difference in FOXP3 and cytokine expression in tumour-distant samples from ES- compared with control horses. In tumour-distant samples viral load was positively correlated with IL10 expression and severity score. The increased expression of Treg markers in tumour-associated tissues of ES-affected equids indicates a local, Treg-induced immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spontaneous calcium waves in Bergman glia increase with age and hypoxia and may reduce tissue oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Claus; Brazhe, Alexey; Thomsen, Kirsten; Lauritzen, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Glial calcium (Ca(2+)) waves constitute a means to spread signals between glial cells and to neighboring neurons and blood vessels. These waves occur spontaneously in Bergmann glia (BG) of the mouse cerebellar cortex in vivo. Here, we tested three hypotheses: (1) aging and reduced blood oxygen saturation alters wave activity; (2) glial Ca(2+) waves change cerebral oxygen metabolism; and (3) neuronal and glial wave activity is correlated. We used two-photon microscopy in the cerebellar cortexes of adult (8- to 15-week-old) and aging (48- to 80-week-old) ketamine-anesthetized mice after bolus loading with OGB-1/AM and SR101. We report that the occurrence of spontaneous waves is 20 times more frequent in the cerebellar cortex of aging as compared with adult mice, which correlated with a reduction in resting brain oxygen tension. In adult mice, spontaneous glial wave activity increased on reducing resting brain oxygen tension, and ATP-evoked glial waves reduced the tissue O(2) tension. Finally, although spontaneous Purkinje cell (PC) activity was not associated with increased glia wave activity, spontaneous glial waves did affect intracellular Ca(2+) activity in PCs. The increased wave activity during aging, as well as low resting brain oxygen tension, suggests a relationship between glial waves, brain energy homeostasis, and pathology.

  13. Reduced tissue osmolarity increases TRPV4 expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines in intervertebral disc cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BA Walter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behaviour and cellular metabolism of intervertebral discs (IVDs and articular cartilage are strongly influenced by their proteoglycan content and associated osmotic properties. This osmotic environment is a biophysical signal that changes with disease and may contribute to the elevated matrix breakdown and altered biologic response to loading observed in IVD degeneration and osteoarthritis. This study tested the hypothesis that changes in osmo-sensation by the transient receptor potential vallinoid-4 (TRPV4 ion channel occur with disease and contribute to the inflammatory environment found during degeneration. Immunohistochemistry on bovine IVDs from an inflammatory organ culture model were used to investigate if TRPV4 is expressed in the IVD and how expression changes with degeneration. Western blot, live-cell calcium imaging, and qRT-PCR were used to investigate whether osmolarity changes or tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα regulate TRPV4 expression, and how altered TRPV4 expression influences calcium signalling and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. TRPV4 expression correlated with TNFα expression, and was increased when cultured in reduced medium osmolarity and unaltered with TNFα-stimulation. Increased TRPV4 expression increased the calcium flux following TRPV4 activation and increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β and IL-6 gene expression in IVD cells. TRPV4 expression was qualitatively elevated in regions of aggrecan depletion in degenerated human IVDs. Collectively, results suggest that reduced tissue osmolarity, likely following proteoglycan degradation, can increase TRPV4 signalling and enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production, suggesting changes in TRPV4 mediated osmo-sensation may contribute to the progressive matrix breakdown in disease.

  14. Sparing Healthy Tissue and Increasing Tumor Dose Using Bayesian Modeling of Geometric Uncertainties for Planning Target Volume Personalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschtal, Alan; Te Marvelde, Luc; Mengersen, Kerrie; Foroudi, Farshad; Eade, Thomas; Pham, Daniel; Caine, Hannah; Kron, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop a mathematical tool that can update a patient's planning target volume (PTV) partway through a course of radiation therapy to more precisely target the tumor for the remainder of treatment and reduce dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Methods and Materials: Daily on-board imaging was used to collect large datasets of displacements for patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy for solid tumors. Bayesian statistical modeling of these geometric uncertainties was used to optimally trade off between displacement data collected from previously treated patients and the progressively accumulating data from a patient currently partway through treatment, to optimally predict future displacements for that patient. These predictions were used to update the PTV position and margin width for the remainder of treatment, such that the clinical target volume (CTV) was more precisely targeted. Results: Software simulation of dose to CTV and normal tissue for 2 real prostate displacement datasets consisting of 146 and 290 patients treated with a minimum of 30 fractions each showed that re-evaluating the PTV position and margin width after 8 treatment fractions reduced healthy tissue dose by 19% and 17%, respectively, while maintaining CTV dose. Conclusion: Incorporating patient-specific displacement patterns from early in a course of treatment allows PTV adaptation for the remainder of treatment. This substantially reduces the dose to healthy tissues and thus can reduce radiation therapy–induced toxicities, improving patient outcomes

  15. Sparing Healthy Tissue and Increasing Tumor Dose Using Bayesian Modeling of Geometric Uncertainties for Planning Target Volume Personalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herschtal, Alan, E-mail: Alan.Herschtal@petermac.org [Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); Te Marvelde, Luc [Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Mengersen, Kerrie [School of Mathematical Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Foroudi, Farshad [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Eade, Thomas [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology Department, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, Sydney (Australia); Northern Clinical School, University of Sydney (Australia); Pham, Daniel [Department of Radiation Therapy, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Caine, Hannah [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology Department, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, Sydney (Australia); Kron, Tomas [The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-06-01

    Objective: To develop a mathematical tool that can update a patient's planning target volume (PTV) partway through a course of radiation therapy to more precisely target the tumor for the remainder of treatment and reduce dose to surrounding healthy tissue. Methods and Materials: Daily on-board imaging was used to collect large datasets of displacements for patients undergoing external beam radiation therapy for solid tumors. Bayesian statistical modeling of these geometric uncertainties was used to optimally trade off between displacement data collected from previously treated patients and the progressively accumulating data from a patient currently partway through treatment, to optimally predict future displacements for that patient. These predictions were used to update the PTV position and margin width for the remainder of treatment, such that the clinical target volume (CTV) was more precisely targeted. Results: Software simulation of dose to CTV and normal tissue for 2 real prostate displacement datasets consisting of 146 and 290 patients treated with a minimum of 30 fractions each showed that re-evaluating the PTV position and margin width after 8 treatment fractions reduced healthy tissue dose by 19% and 17%, respectively, while maintaining CTV dose. Conclusion: Incorporating patient-specific displacement patterns from early in a course of treatment allows PTV adaptation for the remainder of treatment. This substantially reduces the dose to healthy tissues and thus can reduce radiation therapy–induced toxicities, improving patient outcomes.

  16. Increased expression of resistin in ectopic endometrial tissue of women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoon Kyung; Ha, Young Ran; Yi, Kyong Wook; Park, Hyun Tae; Shin, Jung-Ho; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun-Young

    2017-11-01

    Inflammation is a key process in the establishment and progression of endometriosis. Resistin, an adipocytokine, has biological properties linked to immunologic functions, but its role in endometriosis is unclear. Resistin gene expression was examined in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues from women with (n=25) or without (n=25) endometriosis. Resistin mRNA and protein levels were determined in endometrial tissue using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, following adipokine profiling arrays. Resistin protein was detected in human endometrial tissues using an adipokine array test. Resistin mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in ectopic endometrial tissue of patients with endometriosis than in normal eutopic endometrial tissue. Our results indicate that resistin is differentially expressed in endometrial tissues from women with endometriosis and imply a role for resistin in endometriosis-associated pelvic inflammation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Bisphosphonate-adsorbed ceramic nanoparticles increase bone formation in an injectable carrier for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegan L Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose acetate isobutyrate (SAIB is a sugar-based carrier. We have previously applied SAIB as a minimally invasive system for the co-delivery of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 and found synergy when co-delivering zoledronic acid (ZA and hydroxyapatite (HA nanoparticles. Alternative bioceramics were investigated in a murine SAIB/rhBMP-2 injection model. Neither beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP nor Bioglass (BG 45S5 had a significant effect on bone volume (BV alone or in combination with the ZA. 14C-labelled ZA binding assays showed particle size and ceramic composition affected binding with nano-HA > micro-HA > TCP > BG. Micro-HA and nano-HA increased BV in a rat model of rhBMP-2/SAIB injection (+278% and +337%, and BV was further increased with ZA–adsorbed micro-HA and nano-HA (+530% and +889%. These data support the use of ZA–adsorbed nanoparticle-sized HA as an optimal additive for the SAIB/rhBMP-2 injectable system for bone tissue engineering.

  18. Increased cytotoxicity and streptolysin O activity in group G streptococcal strains causing invasive tissue infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kittang, Bård R; Chakrakodi, Bhavya

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has emerged as an important cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections, but little is known of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying tissue pathology. Patient samples and a collection of invasive and non-invasive group G SDSE strains (n = 6...

  19. Method for increasing nuclear magnetic resonance signals in living biological tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krongrad, A.

    1995-01-01

    A method of enhancing a magnetic resonance comprising the steps of administering a quantity of a selected magnetic isotope to a living biological tissue at a concentration greater than the naturally occurring concentration of such isotope and detecting magnetic resonance signal from the administered magnetic isotope in the living biological tissue. (author)

  20. Estrogens increase expression of bone morphogenetic protein 8b in brown adipose tissue of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Grefhorst (Aldo); J.C. van den Beukel (Anneke); A.F. van Houten (A.); J. Steenbergen (Jacobie); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A.P.N. Themmen (Axel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fat to produce heat. Several studies showed that females have more active BAT. Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families are expressed

  1. Increased adsorption of histidine-tagged proteins onto tissue culture polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hansen, Thomas Steen; Lind, Johan Ulrik; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene

    2012-04-01

    In this study we compare histidine-tagged and native proteins with regards to adsorption properties. We observe significantly increased adsorption of proteins with an incorporated polyhistidine amino acid motif (HIS-tag) onto tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) compared to similar proteins without a HIS-tag. The effect is not observed on polystyrene (PS). Adsorption experiments have been performed at physiological pH (7.4) and the effect was only observed for the investigated proteins that have pI values below or around 7.4. Competitive adsorption experiments with imidazole and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), as well as adsorption performed at different pH and ionic strength indicates that the high adsorption is caused by electrostatic interaction between negatively charged carboxylate groups on the TCPS surface and positively charged histidine residues in the proteins. Pre-adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) does not decrease the adsorption of HIS-tagged proteins onto TCPS. Our findings identify a potential problem in using HIS-tagged signalling molecule in assays with cells cultured on TCPS, since the concentration of the molecule in solution might be affected and this could critically influence the assay outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p lipids content is greater in subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR.

  3. Study of temperature increase and optic depth penetration in photo irradiated human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolik, Suren; Delgado, Jose A.; Perez, Arllene M.; Anasagasti, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Optical radiation is widely applied in the treatment and diagnosis of different pathologies. If the power density of the incident light is sufficiently high to induce a significant temperature rise in the irradiated tissue, then it is also needed the knowledge of the thermal properties of the tissue for a complete understanding of the therapeutic effects. The thermal penetration depth of several human tissues has been measured applying the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer equation for the distribution of optical radiation. The method, the experimental setup and the results are presented and discussed. (Author)

  4. Increase in tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities in advanced head-and-neck cancer for dose-escalated intensity-modulated photon and proton therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eJakobi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Presently used radio-chemotherapy regimens result in moderate local control rates for patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Dose escalation (DE may be an option to improve patient outcome, but may also increase the risk of toxicities in healthy tissue. The presented treatment planning study evaluated the feasibility of two DE levels for advanced HNSCC patients, planned with either intensity-modulated photon therapy (IMXT or proton therapy (IMPT.Materials and Methods:For 45 HNSCC patients, IMXT and IMPT treatment plans were created including DE via a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB in the high-risk volume, while maintaining standard fractionation with 2 Gy per fraction in the remaining target volume. Two DE levels for the SIB were compared: 2.3 Gy and 2.6 Gy. Treatment plan evaluation included assessment of tumor control probabilities (TCP and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP.Results:An increase of approximately 10% in TCP was estimated between the DE levels. A pronounced high-dose rim surrounding the SIB volume was identified in IMXT treatment. Compared to IMPT, this extra dose slightly increased the TCP values and to a larger extent the NTCP values. For both modalities, the higher DE level led only to a small increase in NTCP values (mean differences < 2% in all models, except for the risk of aspiration, which increased on average by 8% and 6% with IMXT and IMPT, respectively, but showed a considerable patient dependence. Conclusions:Both DE levels appear applicable to patients with IMXT and IMPT since all calculated NTCP values, except for one, increased only little for the higher DE level. The estimated TCP increase is of relevant magnitude. The higher DE schedule needs to be investigated carefully in the setting of a prospective clinical trial, especially regarding toxicities caused by high local doses that lack a sound dose response description, e.g., ulcers.

  5. Increased in vivo glucose utilization in 30-day-old obese Zucker rat: Role of white adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krief, S.; Bazin, R.; Dupuy, F.; Lavau, M.

    1988-01-01

    In vivo whole-body glucose utilization and uptake in multiple individual tissues were investigated in conscious 30-day-old Zucker rats, which when obese are hyperphagic, hyperinsulinemic, and normoglycemic. Whole-body glucose metabolism (assessed by [3- 3 H]glucose) was 40% higher in obese (fa/fa) than in lean (Fa/fa) rats, suggesting that obese rats were quite responsive to their hyperinsulinemia. In obese compared with lean rats, tissue glucose uptake was increased by 15, 12, and 6 times in dorsal, inguinal, perigonadal white depots, respectively; multiplied by 2.5 in brown adipose tissue; increased by 50% in skin from inguinal region but not in that from cranial, thoracic, or dorsal area; and increased twofold in diaphragm but similar in heart in proximal intestine, and in total muscular mass of limbs. The data establish that in young obese rats the hypertrophied white adipose tissue was a major glucose-utilizing tissue whose capacity for glucose disposal compared with that of half the muscular mass. Adipose tissue could therefore play an important role in the homeostasis of glucose in obese rats in the face of their increased carbohydrate intake

  6. Exercise-induced increase in interstitial bradykinin and adenosine concentrations in skeletal muscle and peritendinous tissue in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, H; Bjørn, C; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2002-01-01

    been established. Microdialysis (molecular mass cut-off 5 kDa) was performed simultaneously in calf muscle and peritendinous Achilles tissue at rest and during 10 min periods of incremental (0.75 W, 2 W, 3.5 W and 4.75 W) dynamic plantar flexion exercise in 10 healthy individuals (mean age 27 years...... increased both in muscle (from 0.48 +/- 0.07 micromol l(-1) to 1.59 +/- 0.35 micromol l(-1); P increases the interstitial concentrations......Bradykinin is known to cause vasodilatation in resistance vessels and may, together with adenosine, be an important regulator of tissue blood flow during exercise. Whether tissue concentrations of bradykinin change with exercise in skeletal muscle and tendon-related connective tissue has not yet...

  7. Increasing pro-survival factors within whole brain tissue of Sprague Dawley rats via intracerebral administration of modified valproic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Bates

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural tissue exposure to valproic acid (VPA increases several pro-survival phospho-proteins that can be used as biomarkers for indicating a beneficial drug response (pAktSer473, pGSK3βSer9, pErk1/2Thr202/Tyr204. Unfortunately, targeting VPA to neural tissue is a problem due to severe asymmetrical distribution, wherein the drug tends to remain in peripheral blood rather than localizing within the brain. Intracerebral delivery of an amide-linked VPA–PEG conjugate could address these issues by enhancing retention and promoting cerebro-global increases in pro-survival phospho-proteins. It is necessary to assay for the retained bioactivity of a PEGylated valproic acid molecule, along with locating an intracranial cannula placement that optimizes the increase of a known downstream biomarker for chronic VPA exposure. Here we show an acute injection of VPA–PEG conjugate within brain tissue increased virtually all of the assayed phospho-proteins, including well-known pro-survival factors. In contrast, an acute injection of VPA expectedly decreased signaling throughout the hour. Needle penetration into whole brain tissue is the intentional cause of trauma in this procedure. The trauma to brain tissue was observed to overcome known phospho-protein increases for unmodified VPA in the injected solution, while VPA–PEG conjugate appeared to induce significant increases in pro-survival phospho-proteins, despite the procedural trauma.

  8. Increased and correlated expression of connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1 in surgically removed periodontal tissues with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, T W; Sundararaj, K P; Leite, R S; Huang, Y

    2015-06-01

    Both gingival tissue destruction and regeneration are associated with chronic periodontitis, although the former overwhelms the latter. Studies have shown that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a growth factor largely involved in tissue regeneration and remodeling, is upregulated in chronic periodontitis. However, the gingival expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF or CCN2), a TGF-β1-upregulated gene, in patients with periodontitis remains undetermined. Although both CTGF/CCN2 and TGF-b1 increase the production of extracellular matrix, they have many different biological functions. Therefore, it is important to delineate the impact of periodontitis on gingival CTGF/CCN2 expression. Periodontal tissue specimens were collected from seven individuals without periodontitis (group 1) and from 14 with periodontitis (group 2). The expression of CTGF and TGFβ1 mRNAs were quantified using real-time PCR. Analysis using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test showed that the levels of expression of both CTGF/CCN2 and TGFβ1 mRNAs were significantly increased in individuals with periodontitis compared with individuals without periodontitis. Furthermore, analysis using a nonparametric correlation (Spearman r) test showed a positive correlation between TGFβ1 and CTGF/CCN2 mRNAs. The gingival expression levels of CTGF/CCN2 and TGFβ1 mRNAs in individuals with periodontitis are upregulated and correlated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Increased O-GlcNAcylation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Compromises the Anti-contractile Properties of Perivascular Adipose Tissue in Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Rafael M; da Silva, Josiane F; Alves, Juliano V; Dias, Thiago B; Rassi, Diane M; Garcia, Luis V; Lobato, Núbia de Souza; Tostes, Rita C

    2018-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) negatively modulates vascular contractility. This property is lost in experimental and human obesity and in the metabolic syndrome, indicating that changes in PVAT function may contribute to vascular dysfunction associated with increased body weight and hyperglycemia. The O -linked β-N-acetylglucosamine ( O -GlcNAc) modification of proteins ( O -GlcNAcylation) is a unique posttranslational process that integrates glucose metabolism with intracellular protein activity. Increased flux of glucose through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway and the consequent increase in tissue-specific O -GlcNAc modification of proteins have been linked to multiple facets of vascular dysfunction in diabetes and other pathological conditions. We hypothesized that chronic consumption of glucose, a condition that progresses to metabolic syndrome, leads to increased O -GlcNAc modification of proteins in the PVAT, decreasing its anti-contractile effects. Therefore, the current study was devised to determine whether a high-sugar diet increases O -GlcNAcylation in the PVAT and how increased O -GlcNAc interferes with PVAT vasorelaxant function. To assess molecular mechanisms by which O -GlcNAc contributes to PVAT dysfunction, thoracic aortas surrounded by PVAT were isolated from Wistar rats fed either a control or high sugar diet, for 10 and 12 weeks. Rats chronically fed a high sugar diet exhibited metabolic syndrome features, increased O -GlcNAcylated-proteins in the PVAT and loss of PVAT anti-contractile effect. PVAT from high sugar diet-fed rats for 12 weeks exhibited decreased NO formation, reduced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and increased O -GlcNAcylation of eNOS. High sugar diet also decreased OGA activity and increased superoxide anion generation in the PVAT. Visceral adipose tissue samples from hyperglycemic patients showed increased levels of O -GlcNAc-modified proteins, increased ROS

  10. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: manipulating meat tenderness by increasing the turnover of intramuscular connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purslow, P P; Archile-Contreras, A C; Cha, M C

    2012-03-01

    Controlled reduction of the connective tissue contribution to cooked meat toughness is an objective that would have considerable financial impact in terms of added product value. The amount of intramuscular connective tissue in a muscle appears connected to its in vivo function, so reduction of the overall connective tissue content is not thought to be a viable target. However, manipulation of the state of maturity of the collagenous component is a biologically viable target; by increasing connective tissue turnover, less mature structures can be produced that are functional in vivo but more easily broken down on cooking at temperatures above 60°C, thus improving cooked meat tenderness. Recent work using cell culture models of fibroblasts derived from muscle and myoblasts has identified a range of factors that alter the activity of the principal enzymes responsible for connective tissue turnover, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Fibroblasts cultured from 3 different skeletal muscles from the same animal show different cell proliferation and MMP activity, which may relate to the different connective tissue content and architecture in functionally different muscles. Expression of MMP by fibroblasts is increased by vitamins that can counter the negative effects of oxidative stress on new collagen synthesis. Preliminary work using in situ zymography of myotubes in culture also indicates increased MMP activity in the presence of epinephrine and reactive oxidative species. Comparison of the relative changes in MMP expression from muscle cells vs. fibroblasts shows that myoblasts are more responsive to a range of stimuli. Muscle cells are likely to produce more of the total MMP in muscle tissue as a whole, and the expression of latent forms of the enzymes (i.e., pro-MMP) may vary between oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers within the same muscle. The implication is that the different muscle fiber composition of different muscles eaten as meat may influence the

  11. Milk Fat Globule Membrane Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Increasing Uncoupling Protein 1 Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiange Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM, a protein-lipid complex surrounding the fat globules in milk, has many health benefits. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether MFGM could prevent obesity through inhibiting adipogenesis and promoting brown remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT in mice fed with high-fat diet. C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet (ND, high-fat diet (HFD, HFD plus MFGM at 100 mg/kg BW, 200 mg/kg BW or 400 mg/kg BW for 8 weeks. Results showed that MFGM suppressed body weight gain induced by HFD, reduced white adipose tissue (WAT mass accompanied with the decrease in adipocyte sizes. MFGM was found to have partially improved serum lipid profiles, as well as to have suppressed HFD-induced adipogenesis as shown by reduced expression of peroxisome proliferators-activator receptor-γ (PPARγ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c. MFGM also markedly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, showing activation of AMPK pathway. Moreover, MFGM promoted browning of inguinal WAT by upregulation the protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in HFD mice. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that MFGM may protect against diet-induced adiposity by suppressing adipogenesis and promoting brown-like transformation in WAT.

  12. Increased asthma and adipose tissue inflammatory gene expression with obesity and Inuit migration to a western country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Vibeke; Baines, Katherine J; Powell, Heather; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Gibson, Peter G

    2016-02-01

    An overlap between obesity and asthma exists, and inflammatory cells in adipose tissue could drive the development of asthma. Comparison of adipose tissue gene expression among Inuit living in Greenland to those in Denmark provides an opportunity to assess how changes in adipose tissue inflammation can be modified by migration and diet. To examine mast cell and inflammatory markers in adipose tissue and the association with asthma. Two Inuit populations were recruited, one living in Greenland and another in Denmark. All underwent adipose subcutaneous biopsy, followed by clinical assessment of asthma, and measurement of AHR. Adipose tissue biopsies were homogenised, RNA extracted, and PCR was performed to determine the relative gene expression of mast cell (tryptase, chymase, CPA3) and inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-1β, and CD163). Of the 1059 Greenlandic Inuit participants, 556 were living in Greenland and 6.4% had asthma. Asthma was increased in Denmark (9%) compared to Greenland (3.6%, p Inuit (p Inuit, adipose tissue inflammation is also increased in those who migrate to Denmark, possibly as a result of dietary changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased asthma and adipose tissue inflammatory gene expression with obesity and Inuit migration to a western country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Baines, Katherine J; Powell, Heather

    2016-01-01

    inflammation can be modified by migration and diet. OBJECTIVE: To examine mast cell and inflammatory markers in adipose tissue and the association with asthma. METHODS: Two Inuit populations were recruited, one living in Greenland and another in Denmark. All underwent adipose subcutaneous biopsy, followed...... of mast cell markers in adipose tissue and asthma. Among Greenlandic Inuit, adipose tissue inflammation is also increased in those who migrate to Denmark, possibly as a result of dietary changes....... by clinical assessment of asthma, and measurement of AHR. Adipose tissue biopsies were homogenised, RNA extracted, and PCR was performed to determine the relative gene expression of mast cell (tryptase, chymase, CPA3) and inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-1β, and CD163). RESULTS: Of the 1059 Greenlandic Inuit...

  14. Vitamin D3 increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue after supplementation with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Allan; Burild, Anders; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    stored in all adipose tissue in the body, the median body store was 6.6 mg vitamin D-3 and 0.12 mg 25(OH)D-3 in those given vitamin D-3. Conclusions: Subcutaneous adipose tissue may store large amounts of vitamin D-3. The clinical importance of this storage needs to be determined.......Objective: The objective was to assess the amount of vitamin D-3 stored in adipose tissue after long-term supplementation with high dose vitamin D-3. Design: A cross-sectional study on 29 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with vitamin D-3...... 20 000 IU (500 mu g) per week vs placebo for 3-5 years. Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained by needle biopsy for the measurements of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3). Body fat was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum 25(OH)D-3 level...

  15. Vertical leaf mass per area gradient of mature sugar maple reflects both height-driven increases in vascular tissue and light-driven increases in palisade layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2017-10-01

    A key trait used in canopy and ecosystem function modeling, leaf mass per area (LMA), is influenced by changes in both leaf thickness and leaf density (LMA = Thickness × Density). In tall trees, LMA is understood to increase with height through two primary mechanisms: (i) increasing palisade layer thickness (and thus leaf thickness) in response to light and/or (ii) reduced cell expansion and intercellular air space in response to hydrostatic constraints, leading to increased leaf density. Our objective was to investigate within-canopy gradients in leaf anatomical traits in order to understand environmental factors that influence leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest canopy. We teased apart the effects of light and height on anatomical traits by sampling at exposed and closed canopies that had different light conditions at similar heights. As expected, palisade layer thickness responded strongly to cumulative light exposure. Mesophyll porosity, however, was weakly and negatively correlated with light and height (i.e., hydrostatic gradients). Reduced mesophyll porosity was not likely caused by limitations on cell expansion; in fact, epidermal cell width increased with height. Palisade layer thickness was better related to LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness than was mesophyll porosity. Vein diameter and fraction of vascular tissue also increased with height and LMA, density and thickness, revealing that greater investment in vascular and support tissue may be a third mechanism for increased LMA with height. Overall, decreasing mesophyll porosity with height was likely due to palisade cells expanding into the available air space and also greater investments in vascular and support tissue, rather than a reduction of cell expansion due to hydrostatic constraints. Our results provide evidence that light influences both palisade layer thickness and mesophyll porosity and indicate that hydrostatic gradients influence leaf vascular and support

  16. Increased levels of dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zamora, M A; Mattioli, L; Parera, J; Abad, E; Coloma, J L; van Babel, B; Galceran, M T; Balasch, J; Carmona, F

    2015-05-01

    Are the levels of biologically active and the most toxic dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) higher than in a control group without endometriosis? DIE patients have higher levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adipose tissue compared with controls without endometriosis. Some studies have investigated the levels of dioxin-like substances, in serum samples, in patients with endometriosis, with inconsistent results. Case-control study including two groups of patients. The study group (DIE group) consisted of 30 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery because of DIE. In all patients, an extensive preoperative work-up was performed including clinical exploration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transvaginal sonography. All patients with DIE underwent a confirmatory histological study for DIE after surgery. The non-endometriosis control group (control group), included the next consecutive patient undergoing laparoscopic surgery in our center due to adnexal benign gynecological disease (ovarian or tubal procedures other than endometriosis) after each DIE patient, and who did not present any type of endometriosis. During the surgical procedure 1-2 g of adipose tissue from the omentum were obtained. Dioxin-like substances were analyzed in adipose tissue in DIE patients and controls without endometriosis. The total toxic equivalence and concentrations of both dioxins and PCBs were significantly higher in patients with DIE in comparison with the control group (P dioxins (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [2,3,7,8-TCDD] and 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD]) (P dioxins and PCBs widely vary in different countries. Furthermore, the strict eligibility criteria used may preclude generalization of the results to other populations and the surgery-based sampling frame may induce a selection bias. Finally, adipose tissue was obtained only from the omentum, and not from other

  17. Tissue holding device for use during surgical procedure, has contact body with suction foot and suction mouth that is surrounded by rim, and suction pipe connected to suction chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Vonck, D.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Flipsen, S.F.J.; Jakimowicz, J.J.; Van der Putten, E.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The device has a locking ring (5), a connector (6), and a contact body (1) with a suction foot and a suction mouth (8), where the mouth is surrounded by a rim (10), which is substantially located in a plane of the suction foot. A suction chamber (9) has a sieve-shaped inner wall (2) and a transparent side wall, and a suction pipe (11) is connected to the chamber.

  18. Association between increased epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary plaque composition

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashita, Kennosuke; Yamamoto, Myong Hwa; Ebara, Seitarou; Okabe, Toshitaka; Saito, Shigeo; Hoshimoto, Koichi; Yakushiji, Tadayuki; Isomura, Naoei; Araki, Hiroshi; Obara, Chiaki; Ochiai, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between epicardial adipose tissue volume (EATV) and plaque vulnerability in significant coronary stenosis using a 40-MHz intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging system (iMap-IVUS), we analyzed 130 consecutive patients with coronary stenosis who underwent dual-source computed tomography (CT) and cardiac catheterization. Culprit lesions were imaged by iMap-IVUS before stenting. The iMAP-IVUS system classified coronary plaque components as fibrous, lipid, necrotic, or ...

  19. Multispectral Enhancement Method to Increase the Visual Differences of Tissue Structures in Stained Histopathology Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky A. Bautista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed a multispectral enhancement scheme in which the spectral colors of the stained tissue-structure of interest and its background can be independently modified by the user to further improve their visualization and color discrimination. The colors of the background objects are modified by transforming their N-band spectra through an NxN transformation matrix, which is derived by mapping the representative samples of their original spectra to the spectra of their target colors using least mean square method. On the other hand, the color of the tissue structure of interest is modified by modulating the transformed spectra with the sum of the pixel’s spectral residual-errors at specific bands weighted through an NxN weighting matrix; the spectral error is derived by taking the difference between the pixel’s original spectrum and its reconstructed spectrum using the first M dominant principal component vectors in principal component analysis. Promising results were obtained on the visualization of the collagen fiber and the non-collagen tissue structures, e.g., nuclei, cytoplasm and red blood cells (RBC, in a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained image.

  20. Pathological changes in the subsynovial connective tissue increase with self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Jimmy; Wilson, Katherine E; Keir, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    Fibrosis and thickening of the subysnovial connective tissue are the most common pathological findings in carpal tunnel syndrome. The relationship between subsynovial connective tissue characteristics and self-reported carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms was assessed. Symptoms were characterized using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and Katz hand diagram in twenty-two participants (11 with symptoms, 11 with no symptoms). Using ultrasound, the thickness of the subsynovial connective tissue was measured using a thickness ratio (subsynovial thickness/tendon thickness) and gliding function was assessed using a shear strain index ((Displacement(tendon)-Displacement(subsynovial))/Displacement(tendon)x 100). For gliding function, participants performed 10 repeated flexion-extension cycles of the middle finger at a rate of one cycle per second. Participants with symptoms had a 38.5% greater thickness ratio and 39.2% greater shear strain index compared to participants without symptoms (p<0.05). Ultrasound detected differences the SSCT in symptomatic group that was characterized by low self-reported symptom severity scores. This study found ultrasound useful for measuring structural and functional changes in the SSCT that could provide insight in the early pathophysiology associated with carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is increased in peritoneal dialysis patients with high peritoneal solute transport rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mizutani, Makoto; Ito, Yasuhiko; Mizuno, Masashi; Nishimura, Hayato; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Hattori, Ryohei; Matsukawa, Yoshihisa; Imai, Masaki; Oliver, Noelynn; Goldschmeding, Roel; Aten, Jan; Krediet, Raymond T.; Yuzawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2010-01-01

    Mizutani M, Ito Y, Mizuno M, Nishimura H, Suzuki Y, Hattori R, Matsukawa Y, Imai M, Oliver N, Goldschmeding R, Aten J, Krediet RT, Yuzawa Y, Matsuo S. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is increased in peritoneal dialysis patients with high peritoneal solute transport rate. Am J Physiol

  2. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  3. Global adiposity and thickness of intraperitoneal and mesenteric adipose tissue depots are increased in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borruel, Susana; Fernández-Durán, Elena; Alpañés, Macarena; Martí, David; Alvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2013-03-01

    Sexual dimorphism suggests a role for androgens in body fat distribution. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a mainly androgen excess disorder, often present with abdominal obesity and visceral adiposity. We hypothesized that women with PCOS have a masculinized body fat distribution favoring the deposition of fat in visceral and organ-specific adipose tissue depots. This was a case-control study. The study was conducted at an academic hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 55), women without androgen excess (n = 25), and men (n = 26) presenting with similar body mass index participated in the study. There were no interventions. Ultrasound measurements of adipose tissue depots including sc (minimum and maximum), preperitoneal, ip, mesenteric, epicardial, and perirenal fat thickness were obtained and total body fat mass was estimated using a body fat monitor. Men and patients with PCOS had increased amounts of total body fat compared with control women. Men had increased thickness of intraabdominal adipose tissue depots compared with the control women, with the women with PCOS showing intermediate values that were also higher than those of control women in the case of ip and mesenteric fat thickness and was close to reaching statistical significance in the case of epicardial fat thickness. Women with PCOS also showed increased minimum sc fat thickness compared with the control women. Obesity increased the thickness of all of the adipose tissue depots in the 3 groups of subjects. Women with PCOS have higher global adiposity and increased amounts of visceral adipose tissue compared with control women, especially in the ip and mesenteric depots.

  4. Activation of SF1 Neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus by DREADD Technology Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Peripheral Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eulalia A; Okamoto, Shiki; Ishikawa, Ayako Wendy; Yokota, Shigefumi; Wada, Nobuhiro; Hirabayashi, Takahiro; Saito, Kumiko; Sato, Tatsuya; Takagi, Kazuyo; Wang, Chen-Chi; Kobayashi, Kenta; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Shioda, Seiji; Yoshimura, Yumiko; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko

    2017-09-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) regulates glucose and energy metabolism in mammals. Optogenetic stimulation of VMH neurons that express steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) induces hyperglycemia. However, leptin acting via the VMH stimulates whole-body glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in some peripheral tissues, and this effect of leptin appears to be mediated by SF1 neurons. We examined the effects of activation of SF1 neurons with DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technology. Activation of SF1 neurons by an intraperitoneal injection of clozapine- N -oxide (CNO), a specific hM3Dq ligand, reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure in mice expressing hM3Dq in SF1 neurons. It also increased whole-body glucose utilization and glucose uptake in red-type skeletal muscle, heart, and interscapular brown adipose tissue, as well as glucose production and glycogen phosphorylase a activity in the liver, thereby maintaining blood glucose levels. During hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, such activation of SF1 neurons increased insulin-induced glucose uptake in the same peripheral tissues and tended to enhance insulin-induced suppression of glucose production by suppressing gluconeogenic gene expression and glycogen phosphorylase a activity in the liver. DREADD technology is thus an important tool for studies of the role of the brain in the regulation of insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  5. Increased Inhibitor of Differentiation 4 (Id4 Expression in Glioblastoma: A Tissue Microarray Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weifin Zeng, Elisabeth J. Rushing, Daniel P. Hartmann, Norio Azumi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The inhibitor of differentiation/DNA binding protein family (Id1-4 is involved in cell cycle control, tumorigenesis and angiogenesis through the negative regulation of helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Of these proteins, Id4 is known to play an important role in neural stem cell differentiation, and deregulation has been implicated in glial neoplasia. However, the expression and significance of Id4 in astrocytomas has not been fully addressed. Herein we report the differential expression of Id4 in astrocytomas of various grades using tissue microarrays (TMA and immunohistochemistry (IHC. Design: The GBM TMA was constructed from 53 archival cases at Georgetown University Hospital and a TMA with normal brain controls and grades II-III astrocytoma was obtained from Cybrdi (Rockville, MD. TMA sections were stained with Id4 antibody and the slides were scored according to the percentage of staining astrocytic nuclei (<9% -, 10-50% +, >51% ++. The Fisher Exact test was used to test for statistical significance. Results: Nuclear staining for Id4 was seen in 73.58% GBMs, 25% grade III, and 12.5% grade II astrocytomas; staining was absent in normal brain tissue. There was a statistically significant difference between GBM and grades II, III astrocytoma (p <0.01. Significant Id4 expression was not detected in normal brain. Conclusions: Our study confirms the frequent upregulation of Id4 expression in GBM, which lends support to its role in tumorigenesis, possibly in the transformation of low to high-grade astrocytoma (i.e. GBM. Further studies are warranted to determine the precise role of Id4 in glial neoplasia and its potential use in targeted therapy for GBM.

  6. Increased Visceral Adipose Tissue Is an Independent Predictor for Future Development of Atherogenic Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, You-Cheol; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Kahn, Steven E; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2016-02-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is frequently observed in persons with a greater amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT). However, it is still uncertain whether VAT is independently associated with the future development of atherogenic dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether baseline and changes in VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are associated with future development of atherogenic dyslipidemia independent of baseline lipid levels and standard anthropometric indices. Community-based prospective cohort study with 5 years of follow-up. A total of 452 Japanese Americans (240 men, 212 women), aged 34-75 years were assessed at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. Abdominal fat areas were measured by computed tomography. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as one or more abnormalities in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, or non-HDL cholesterol levels. Baseline VAT and change in VAT over 5 years were independently associated with log-transformed HDL cholesterol, log-transformed triglyceride, and non-HDL cholesterol after 5 years (standardized β = -0.126, 0.277, and 0.066 for baseline VAT, respectively, and -0.095, 0.223, and 0.090 for change in VAT, respectively). However, baseline and change in SAT were not associated with any future atherogenic lipid level. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, incremental change in VAT (odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.73 [1.20-2.48]; P = .003), triglycerides (4.01 [1.72-9.33]; P = .001), HDL cholesterol (0.32 [0.18-0.58]; P dyslipidemia independent of age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance, body mass index (BMI), change in BMI, SAT, and baseline atherogenic lipid levels. Baseline and change in VAT were independent predictors for future development of atherogenic dyslipidemia. However, BMI, waist circumference, and SAT were not associated with future development of atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  7. Endothelial dysfunction in high fructose containing diet fed rats: Increased nitric oxide and decreased endothelin-1 levels in liver tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Arı

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dietary high fructose consumption which is closely associated with endothelial dysfunction via insulin re-sistance has recently increased in developed countries. Insulin resistance has a promoter effect on many metabolic disorders such as syndrome X, polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus etc. Our aim in this study is to understand the impact of increased fructose intake on metabolisms of glucose, insulin and endothelial dysfunction by measuring nitric oxide (NO and endothelin-1 (ET-1 levels in hepatic tissue which is crucial in fructose metabolism.Materials and Methods: We designed an animal study to understand increased fructose intake on hepatic endothe-lium. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; the study group (group 1, n=10 received isocaloric fructose enriched diet (fructose-fed rats, containing 18.3% protein, 60.3% fructose and 5.2% fat while the control group received purified regular chow (group 2, n=10 for 2 weeks. After feeding period, blood and hepatic tissue samples were collected and glucose, insulin, NO and ET-1 levels were analysed.Results: We found increased fasting glucose and insulin levels and impaired glucose tolerance in fructose fed rats. Higher NO and lower ET–1 levels were also detected in hepatic tissue samples of the group 1.Conclusion: Increased fructose consumption has deleterious effects on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and may cause to endothelial dysfunction.

  8. Pathogen Inactivating Properties and Increased Sensitivity in Molecular Diagnostics by PAXgene, a Novel Non-Crosslinking Tissue Fixative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Loibner

    Full Text Available Requirements on tissue fixatives are getting more demanding as molecular analysis becomes increasingly relevant for routine diagnostics. Buffered formaldehyde in pathology laboratories for tissue fixation is known to cause chemical modifications of biomolecules which affect molecular testing. A novel non-crosslinking tissue preservation technology, PAXgene Tissue (PAXgene, was developed to preserve the integrity of nucleic acids in a comparable way to cryopreservation and also to preserve morphological features comparable to those of formalin fixed samples.Because of the excellent preservation of biomolecules by PAXgene we investigated its pathogen inactivation ability and biosafety in comparison to formalin by in-vitro testing of bacteria, human relevant fungi and human cytomegalovirus (CMV. Guidelines for testing disinfectants served as reference for inactivation assays. Furthermore, we tested the properties of PAXgene for detection of pathogens by PCR based assays.All microorganisms tested were similarly inactivated by PAXgene and formalin except Clostridium sporogenes, which remained viable in seven out of ten assays after PAXgene treatment and in three out of ten assays after formalin fixation. The findings suggest that similar biosafety measures can be applied for PAXgene and formalin fixed samples. Detection of pathogens in PCR-based diagnostics using two CMV assays resulted in a reduction of four to ten quantification cycles of PAXgene treated samples which is a remarkable increase of sensitivity.PAXgene fixation might be superior to formalin fixation when molecular diagnostics and highly sensitive detection of pathogens is required in parallel to morphology assessment.

  9. Pathogen Inactivating Properties and Increased Sensitivity in Molecular Diagnostics by PAXgene, a Novel Non-Crosslinking Tissue Fixative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibner, Martina; Buzina, Walter; Viertler, Christian; Groelz, Daniel; Hausleitner, Anja; Siaulyte, Gintare; Kufferath, Iris; Kölli, Bettina; Zatloukal, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Requirements on tissue fixatives are getting more demanding as molecular analysis becomes increasingly relevant for routine diagnostics. Buffered formaldehyde in pathology laboratories for tissue fixation is known to cause chemical modifications of biomolecules which affect molecular testing. A novel non-crosslinking tissue preservation technology, PAXgene Tissue (PAXgene), was developed to preserve the integrity of nucleic acids in a comparable way to cryopreservation and also to preserve morphological features comparable to those of formalin fixed samples. Because of the excellent preservation of biomolecules by PAXgene we investigated its pathogen inactivation ability and biosafety in comparison to formalin by in-vitro testing of bacteria, human relevant fungi and human cytomegalovirus (CMV). Guidelines for testing disinfectants served as reference for inactivation assays. Furthermore, we tested the properties of PAXgene for detection of pathogens by PCR based assays. All microorganisms tested were similarly inactivated by PAXgene and formalin except Clostridium sporogenes, which remained viable in seven out of ten assays after PAXgene treatment and in three out of ten assays after formalin fixation. The findings suggest that similar biosafety measures can be applied for PAXgene and formalin fixed samples. Detection of pathogens in PCR-based diagnostics using two CMV assays resulted in a reduction of four to ten quantification cycles of PAXgene treated samples which is a remarkable increase of sensitivity. PAXgene fixation might be superior to formalin fixation when molecular diagnostics and highly sensitive detection of pathogens is required in parallel to morphology assessment.

  10. Tissue-specific increases in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in normal weight postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Andersson

    Full Text Available With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1 which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11betaHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol+5beta-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05, indicating an increased whole-body 11betaHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11betaHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05. Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion, suggesting higher hepatic 11betaHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11betaHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women.

  11. Her-2/neu expression in node-negative breast cancer: direct tissue quantitation by computerized image analysis and association of overexpression with increased risk of recurrent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, M F; Pike, M C; Chazin, V R; Hung, G; Udove, J A; Markowicz, M; Danyluk, J; Godolphin, W; Sliwkowski, M; Akita, R

    1993-10-15

    The HER-2/neu proto-oncogene (also known as c-erb B-2) is homologous with, but distinct from, the epidermal growth factor receptor. Amplification of this gene in node-positive breast cancers has been shown to correlate with both earlier relapse and shorter overall survival. In node-negative breast cancer patients, the subgroup for which accurate prognostic data could make a significant contribution to treatment decisions, the prognostic utility of HER-2/neu amplification and/or overexpression has been controversial. The purpose of this report is to address the issues surrounding this controversy and to evaluate the prognostic utility of overexpression in a carefully followed group of patients using appropriately characterized reagents and methods. In this report we present data from a study of HER-2/neu expression designed specifically to test whether or not overexpression is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in node-negative breast cancers. From a cohort of 704 women with node-negative breast cancer who experienced recurrent disease (relapsed cases) 105 were matched with 105 women with no recurrence (disease-free controls) after the equivalent follow-up period. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess HER-2/neu expression in archival tissue blocks from both relapsed cases and their matched disease-free controls. Importantly, a series of molecularly characterized breast cancer specimens were used to confirm that the antibody used was of sufficient sensitivity and specificity to identify those cancers overexpressing the HER-2/neu protein in this formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue cohort. In addition, a quantitative approach was developed to more accurately assess the amount of HER-2/neu protein identified by immunostaining tumor tissue. This was done using a purified HER-2/neu protein synthesized in a bacterial expression vector and protein lysates derived from a series of cell lines, engineered to express a defined range of HER-2/neu oncoprotein

  12. Carbogen inhalation increases oxygen transport to hypoperfused brain tissue in patients with occlusive carotid artery disease: increased oxygen transport to hypoperfused brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashkanian, Mahmoud; Gjedde, Albert; Mouridsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    to inhaled oxygen (the mixture known as carbogen). In the present study, we measured CBF by positron emission tomography (PET) during inhalation of test gases (O(2), carbogen, and atmospheric air) in healthy volunteers (n = 10) and in patients with occlusive carotid artery disease (n = 6). Statistical...... and Sa(O2) are readily obtained with carbogen, while oxygen increases only Sa(O2). Thus, carbogen improves oxygen transport to brain tissue more efficiently than oxygen alone. Further studies with more subjects are, however, needed to investigate the applicability of carbogen for long-term inhalation...

  13. Influence of sugars on the dry-weight increase of gamma irradiated Jerusalem artichoke tuber's tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeverbeke-Sacre, J.

    1976-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke tuber's explants after a γ irradiation of 6000 rads couldn't proliferate in a growth medium containing glucose and indolyl acetic acid; their dry weight is increased by an accumulation of sugars [fr

  14. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxic...... (1% and 5% oxygen) culture and trypsinization would augment ASC expression of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines and increase the angiogenic potential of ASC-conditioned media....

  15. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.; Stock, W.D.; Hedderson, T.

    2009-01-01

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar δ 15 N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha -1 a -1 since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa

  16. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stock, W.D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)], E-mail: w.stock@ecu.edu.au; Hedderson, T. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar {delta}{sup 15}N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha{sup -1} a{sup -1} since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  17. Increasing Accuracy of Tissue Shear Modulus Reconstruction Using Ultrasonic Strain Tensor Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, C.

    Previously, we developed three displacement vector measurement methods, i.e., the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method (MCSPGM), the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM), and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM). To increase the accuracies and stabilities of lateral and elevational displacement measurements, we also developed spatially variant, displacement component-dependent regularization. In particular, the regularization of only the lateral/elevational displacements is advantageous for the lateral unmodulated case. The demonstrated measurements of the displacement vector distributions in experiments using an inhomogeneous shear modulus agar phantom confirm that displacement-component-dependent regularization enables more stable shear modulus reconstruction. In this report, we also review our developed lateral modulation methods that use Parabolic functions, Hanning windows, and Gaussian functions in the apodization function and the optimized apodization function that realizes the designed point spread function (PSF). The modulations significantly increase the accuracy of the strain tensor measurement and shear modulus reconstruction (demonstrated using an agar phantom).

  18. The transcriptome and miRNome profiling of glioblastoma tissues and peritumoral regions highlights molecular pathways shared by tumors and surrounding areas and reveals differences between short-term and long-term survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazi, Barbara; Felsani, Armando; Grassi, Luigi; Moles, Anna; D'Andrea, Daniel; Toschi, Nicola; Sicari, Daria; De Bonis, Pasquale; Anile, Carmelo; Guerrisi, Maria Giovanna; Luca, Emilia; Farace, Maria Giulia; Maira, Giulio; Ciafré, Silvia Anna; Mangiola, Annunziato

    2015-09-08

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and deadliest primary brain tumor, driving patients to death within 15 months after diagnosis (short term survivors, ST), with the exception of a small fraction of patients (long term survivors, LT) surviving longer than 36 months. Here we present deep sequencing data showing that peritumoral (P) areas differ from healthy white matter, but share with their respective frankly tumoral (C) samples, a number of mRNAs and microRNAs representative of extracellular matrix remodeling, TGFβ and signaling, of the involvement of cell types different from tumor cells but contributing to tumor growth, such as microglia or reactive astrocytes. Moreover, we provide evidence about RNAs differentially expressed in ST vs LT samples, suggesting the contribution of TGF-β signaling in this distinction too. We also show that the edited form of miR-376c-3p is reduced in C vs P samples and in ST tumors compared to LT ones. As a whole, our study provides new insights into the still puzzling distinction between ST and LT tumors, and sheds new light onto that "grey" zone represented by the area surrounding the tumor, which we show to be characterized by the expression of several molecules shared with the proper tumor mass.

  19. Pericardial adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome is increased in patients with chronic major depressive disorder compared to acute depression and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, K G; Herrmann, J; Stubbs, B; Krüger, T H C; Cordes, J; Deuschle, M; Schweiger, U; Hüper, K; Helm, S; Birkenstock, A; Hartung, D

    2017-01-04

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with an estimated fourfold risk for premature death, largely attributed to cardiovascular disorders. Pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), a fat compartment surrounding the heart, has been implicated in the development of coronary artery disease. An unanswered question is whether people with chronic MDD are more likely to have elevated PAT volumes versus acute MDD and controls (CTRL). The study group consists of sixteen patients with chronic MDD, thirty-four patients with acute MDD, and twenty-five CTRL. PAT and adrenal gland volume were measured by magnetic resonance tomography. Additional measures comprised factors of the metabolic syndrome, cortisol, relative insulin resistance, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6; IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α). PAT volumes were significantly increased in patients with chronic MDD>patients with acute MDD>CTRL. Adrenal gland volume was slightly enlarged in patients with chronic MDD>acute MDD>CTRL, although this difference failed to reach significance. The PAT volume was correlated with adrenal gland volume, and cortisol concentrations were correlated with depression severity, measured by BDI-2 and MADRS. Group differences were found concerning the rate of the metabolic syndrome, being most frequent in chronic MDD>acute MDD>CTRL. Further findings comprised increased fasting cortisol, increased TNF-α concentration, and decreased physical activity level in MDD compared to CTRL. Our results extend the existing literature in demonstrating that patients with chronic MDD have the highest risk for developing cardiovascular disorders, indicated by the highest PAT volume and prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The correlation of PAT with adrenal gland volume underscores the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system as mediator for body-composition changes. Metabolic monitoring, health advices and motivation for the improvement of physical fitness may be recommended in

  20. Growth hormone receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice have increased subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, altered glucose homeostasis, and no change in white adipose tissue cellular senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comisford, Ross; Lubbers, Ellen R.; Householder, Lara; Suer, Ozan; Tchkonia, Tamara; Kirkland, James L.; List, Edward O.; Kopchick, John J.; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Growth hormone (GH) resistant/deficient mice experience improved glucose homeostasis and substantially increased lifespan. Recent evidence suggests long-lived GH resistant/deficient mice are protected from white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, including WAT cellular senescence, impaired adipogenesis and loss of subcutaneous WAT in old age. This preservation of WAT function has been suggested to be a potential mechanism for the extended lifespan of these mice. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to examine white adipose tissue (WAT) senescence, WAT distribution, and glucose homeostasis in dwarf growth hormone receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice, a unique mouse strain having decreased GH action but normal longevity. METHODS 18mo old female GHA mice and wild type (WT) littermate controls were used. Prior to dissection, body composition, fasting blood glucose, and glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. WAT distribution was determined by weighing four distinct WAT depots at the time of dissection. Cellular senescence in four WAT depots was assessed using senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining to quantify the senescent cell burden and real time qPCR to quantify gene expression of senescence markers p16 and IL-6. RESULTS GHA mice had a 22% reduction in total body weight, 33% reduction in lean mass, and a 10% increase in body fat percentage compared to WT controls. GHA mice had normal fasting blood glucose and improved insulin sensitivity; however, they exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, GHA mice displayed enhanced lipid storage in the inguinal subcutaneous WAT depot (p<.05) and a 1.7 fold increase in extra-/intraperitoneal WAT ratio compared to controls (p<.05). Measurements of WAT cellular senescence showed no difference between GHA mice and WT controls. CONCLUSIONS Similar to other mice with decreased GH action, female GHA mice display reduced age-related lipid redistribution and improved insulin

  1. Tissue Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) Increase Pelvic Floor Muscle Mass in Ovariectomized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Suriyan; Sullivan, Ryan D; Thiyagarajan, Thirumagal; Tillmann, Heather; Getzenberg, Robert H; Narayanan, Ramesh

    2017-03-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), a prevalent condition, is represented by an involuntary leakage of urine that results, at least in part, from weakened or damaged pelvic floor muscles and is triggered by physical stress. Current treatment options are limited with no oral therapies available. The pelvic floor is rich in androgen receptor and molecules with anabolic activity including selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may serve as therapeutic options for individuals with SUI. In this study, two SARMs (GTx-024 and GTx-027) were evaluated in a post-menopausal animal model in order to determine their effect on pelvic floor muscles. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and their pelvic muscles allowed to regress. The animals were then treated with vehicle or doses of GTx-024 or GTx-027. Animal total body weight, lean body mass, and pelvic floor muscle weights were measured along with the expression of genes associated with muscle catabolism. Treatment with the SARMs resulted in a restoration of the pelvic muscles to the sham-operated weight. Coordinately, the induction of genes associated with muscle catabolism was inhibited. Although a trend was observed towards an increase in total lean body mass in the SARM-treated groups, no significant differences were detected. Treatment of an ovariectomized mouse model with SARMs resulted in an increase in pelvic floor muscles, which may translate to an improvement of symptoms associated with SUI and serves as the basis for evaluating their clinical use. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 640-646, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Correlation between increasing tissue ischemia and circulating levels of angiogenic growth factors in peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, Juho; Hautero, Olli; Maksimow, Mikael; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Hakovirta, Harri

    2018-04-21

    The aim of the present study was to assess the circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other suggested therapeutic growth factors with the degree of ischemia in patients with different clinical manifestations of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) according to the Rutherford grades. The study cohort consists of 226 consecutive patients admitted to a Department of Vascular Surgery for elective invasive procedures. PAD patients were grouped according to the Rutherford grades after a clinical assessment. Ankle-brachial pressure indices (ABI) and absolute toe pressure (TP) values were measured. Serum levels of circulating VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) were measured from serum and analysed against Rutherford grades and peripheral hemodynamic measurements. The levels of VEGF (P = 0.009) and HGF (P correlations between Rutherford grades was detected as follows; VEGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.183, P = 0.004), HGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.253, P Pearson's correlation = 0.169, P = 0.008) and PDGF (Pearson's correlation = 0.296, P correlation with ABI (Pearson's correlation -0.19, P = 0.009) and TP (Pearson's correlation -0.20, P = 0.005) measurements. Our present observations show that the circulating levels of VEGF and other suggested therapeutic growth factors are significantly increased along with increasing ischemia. These findings present a new perspective to anticipated positive effects of gene therapies utilizing VEGF, HGF, and bFGF, because the levels of these growth factors are endogenously high in end-stage PAD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The modulation of corticosteroid metabolism by hydrocortisone therapy in patients with hypopituitarism increases tissue glucocorticoid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, Mark; Behan, Lucy Ann; Hannon, Mark J; Alonso, Aurora Aragon; Thompson, Christopher J; Murray, Robert D; Crabtree, Nicola; Hughes, Beverly A; Arlt, Wiebke; Agha, Amar; Toogood, Andrew A; Stewart, Paul M

    2015-11-01

    Patients with hypopituitarism have increased morbidity and mortality. There is ongoing debate about the optimum glucocorticoid (GC) replacement therapy. To assess the effect of GC replacement in hypopituitarism on corticosteroid metabolism and its impact on body composition. We assessed the urinary corticosteroid metabolite profile (using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) and body composition (clinical parameters and full body DXA) of 53 patients (19 female, median age 46 years) with hypopituitarism (33 ACTH-deficient/20 ACTH-replete) (study A). The corticosteroid metabolite profile of ten patients with ACTH deficiency was then assessed prospectively in a cross over study using three hydrocortisone (HC) dosing regimens (20/10 mg, 10/10 mg and 10/5 mg) (study B) each for 6 weeks. 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activity was assessed by urinary THF+5α-THF/THE. Endocrine Centres within University Teaching Hospitals in the UK and Ireland. Urinary corticosteroid metabolite profile and body composition assessment. In study A, when patients were divided into three groups - patients not receiving HC and patients receiving HC≤20 mg/day or HC>20 mg/day - patients in the group receiving the highest daily dose of HC had significantly higher waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) than the ACTH replete group. They also had significantly elevated THF+5α-THF/THE (P=0.0002) and total cortisol metabolites (P=0.015). In study B, patients on the highest HC dose had significantly elevated total cortisol metabolites and all patients on HC had elevated THF+5α-THF/THE ratios when compared to controls. In ACTH-deficient patients daily HC doses of >20 mg/day have increased WHR, THF+5α-THF/THE ratios and total cortisol metabolites. GC metabolism and induction of 11β-HSD1 may play a pivitol role in the development of the metabolically adverse hypopituitary phenotype. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. [Studies on the tolerance of the organism to X 5 CrNiMo 18.10 steel (Königsee). II. Light microscopic studies of the surrounding tissue of metal implants (X 5 CrNiMo 18.10 steel) in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhndorf, H; Drössler, K; Stiehl, P

    1977-06-01

    The tissue around X 5 CrNiMo 18.10-steel implantates with different surfaces was examined in 72 guinea-pigs. Aside from controls, these animals were preoperatively sensibilized against chromium and nickel. The results can be summarized since the histologic findings showed no different peculiarities. The authors describe an intussusception of the implantate in connective tissue which evidently depends on time and surface. Further the spreading of alien material in the surrounding of the implantate, and morphologic findings are reported. The morphologic evidences are described and discussed in detail, since they are interpreted as signs of cell-mediated immune reactions. The presence of lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, histiocytes (mostly carrying alien material), and granulocytes, as well as proliferations at the arterioles suggest an overlapping of immune reactions.

  5. Lymphatic Filariasis Increases Tissue Compressibility and Extracellular Fluid in Lower Limbs of Asymptomatic Young People in Central Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Douglass

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When normal lymphatic function is hampered, imperceptible subcutaneous edema can develop and progress to overt lymphedema. Low-cost reliable devices for objective assessment of lymphedema are well accepted in clinical practice and research on breast-cancer related lymphedema but are untested in populations with lymphatic filariasis (LF. This is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data in a longitudinal study on asymptomatic, LF antigen-positive and -negative young people in Myanmar. Rapid field screening was used to identify antigen-positive cases and a group of antigen-negative controls of similar age and gender were invited to continue in the study. Tissue compressibility was assessed with three tissue tonometers, and free fluids were assessed using bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS. Infection status was confirmed by Og4C3 antigen assay. At baseline (n = 98, antigen-positive cases had clinically relevant increases in tissue compressibility at the calf using a digital Indurometer (11.1%, p = 0.021, and in whole-leg free fluid using BIS (9.2%, p = 0.053. Regression analysis for moderating factors (age, gender, hydration reinforced the between-infection group differences. Results demonstrate that sub-clinical changes associated with infection can be detected in asymptomatic cases. Further exploration of these low-cost devices in clinical and research settings on filariasis-related lymphedema are warranted.

  6. Increased adipose tissue lipolysis after a 2-week high-fat diet in sedentary overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Harold R; Heidal, Kimberly; Choi, Myung Dong; Kraus, Ray M; Boyle, Kristen; Hickner, Robert C

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a high-fat diet would result in a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous adipose tissue than a lower-fat diet in sedentary nonlean men. Six participants (healthy males; 18-40 years old; body mass index, 25-37 kg/m(2)) underwent 2 weeks on a high-fat or well-balanced diet of similar energy content (approximately 6695 kJ) in randomized order with a 10-day washout period between diets. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis was determined over the course of a day using microdialysis after both 2-week diet sessions. Average interstitial glycerol concentrations (index of lipolysis) as determined using microdialysis were higher after the high-fat diet (210.8 ± 27.9 μmol/L) than after a well-balanced diet (175.6 ± 23.3 μmol/L; P = .026). There was no difference in adipose tissue microvascular blood flow as determined using the microdialysis ethanol technique. These results demonstrate that healthy nonlean men who diet on the high-fat plan have a higher lipolytic rate in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue than when they diet on a well-balanced diet plan. This higher rate of lipolysis may result in a higher rate of fat mass loss on the high-fat diet; however, it remains to be determined if this higher lipolytic rate in men on the high-fat diet results in a more rapid net loss of triglyceride from the abdominal adipose depots, or if the higher lipolytic rate is counteracted by an increased rate of lipid storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of prostaglandin E2 in growing rats - Increased metaphyseal hard tissue and cortico-endosteal bone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, W. S. S.; Ueno, K.; Deng, Y. P.; Woodbury, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The role of in vivo prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in bone formation is investigated. Twenty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 223-267 g were injected subcutaneously with 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 mg of PGE2-kg daily for 21 days. The processing of the tibiae for observation is described. Radiographs and histomorphometric analyses are also utilized to study bone formation. Body weight, weights of soft tissues and bones morphometry are evaluated. It is observed that PGE2 depressed longitudinal bone growth, increased growth cartilage thickness, decreased degenerative cartilage cell size and cartilage cell production, and significantly increased proximal tibial metaphyseal hard tissue mass. The data reveal that periosteal bone formation is slowed down at higher doses of PGE2 and endosteal bone formation is slightly depressed less than 10 days post injection; however, here is a late increase (10 days after post injection) in endosteal bone formation and in the formation of trabecular bone in the marrow cavity of the tibial shaft. It is noted that the effects of PGE2 on bone formation are similar to the responses of weaning rats to PGE2.

  8. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Janle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose.

  9. Genetic Ablation of miR-33 Increases Food Intake, Enhances Adipose Tissue Expansion, and Promotes Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan L. Price

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While therapeutic modulation of miRNAs provides a promising approach for numerous diseases, the promiscuous nature of miRNAs raises concern over detrimental off-target effects. miR-33 has emerged as a likely target for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the deleterious effects of long-term anti-miR-33 therapies and predisposition of miR-33−/− mice to obesity and metabolic dysfunction exemplify the possible pitfalls of miRNA-based therapies. Our work provides an in-depth characterization of miR-33−/− mice and explores the mechanisms by which loss of miR-33 promotes insulin resistance in key metabolic tissues. Contrary to previous reports, our data do not support a direct role for SREBP-1-mediated lipid synthesis in promoting these effects. Alternatively, in adipose tissue of miR-33−/− mice, we observe increased pre-adipocyte proliferation, enhanced lipid uptake, and impaired lipolysis. Moreover, we demonstrate that the driving force behind these abnormalities is increased food intake, which can be prevented by pair feeding with wild-type animals.

  10. Fluoxetine induces lean phenotype in rat by increasing the brown/white adipose tissue ratio and UCP1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A I; Braz, G R F; Pedroza, A A; Nascimento, L; Freitas, C M; Ferreira, D J S; Manhães de Castro, R; Lagranha, C J

    2015-08-01

    The serotonergic system plays a crucial role in the energy balance regulation. Energy balance is mediated by food intake and caloric expenditure. Thus, the present study investigated the mechanisms that might be associated with fluoxetine treatment-induced weight reduction. Wistar male rat pups received daily injections with subcutaneous fluoxetine (Fx-group) or vehicle solution (Ct-group) from day 1 until 21 days of age. Several analyses were conducted to verify the involvement of mitochondria in weight reduction. We found that body weight in the Fx-group was lower compared to control. In association to lower fat mass in the Fx-group (25%). Neither neonatal caloric intake nor food intake reveals significant differences. Evaluating caloric expenditure (locomotor activity and temperature after stimulus), we did not observe differences in locomotor activity. However, we observed that the Fx group had a higher capacity to maintain body temperature in a cold environment compared with the Ct-group. Since brown adipose tissue-(BAT) is specialized for heat production and the rate of heat production is related to mitochondrial function, we found that Fx-treatment increases respiration by 36%, although after addition of GDP respiration returned to Ct-levels. Examining ROS production we observe that Fx-group produced less ROS than control group. Evaluating uncoupling protein (UCP) expression we found that Fx-treatment increases the expression by 23%. Taken together, our results suggest that modulation of serotonin system results in positive modulation of UCP and mitochondrial bioenergetics in brown fat tissue.

  11. Circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schievink, W. I.; Karemaker, J. M.; Hageman, L. M.; van der Werf, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances surrounding aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were investigated in a group of 500 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosurgical center. Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred during stressful events in 42.8% of the patients, during nonstrenuous activities in 34.4%, and during rest or

  12. Effect of experimentally increased protein supply to postpartum dairy cows on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M; Røntved, C M; Theil, P K; Khatun, M; Lauridsen, C; Kristensen, N B

    2017-05-01

    The effect of experimentally increasing the postpartum protein supply on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis was studied using 8 periparturient Holstein cows in a complete randomized design. At calving, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (CTRL) or casein (CAS) in addition to a lactation diet. Casein infusion was gradually decreased from 696 ± 1 g/d at +2 d relative to calving (DRTC) to 212 ± 10 g/d at +29 DRTC to avoid excessive supply. Synthesis rate of plasma proteins was measured at -14, +4, +15, and +29 DRTC by measuring [C]Phe isotopic enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[C]Phe infusion. Plasma volume was determined at +4 and +29 DRTC by dilution of a [I]BSA dose. Synthesis rate of tissue protein in biopsied rumen papillae was determined by measuring [C]Phe isotopic enrichment, and mRNA expression of selected genes was measured by real-time qPCR. Total and differential leukocyte counts were performed and immune responsiveness of monocytes was evaluated by tumor necrosis factor ɑ (TNFɑ) concentration on ex vivo whole blood stimulation with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and responsiveness of T-lymphocytes by interferon γ (IFNγ) concentration on stimulation with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin β (SEB). Further, ELISA plasma concentrations of IgM, IgA, and IgG were determined. The DRTC affected the majority of investigated parameters as expected. The CAS treatment increased milk protein yield (P = 0.04), and tended to lower TNFɑ (P = 0.06), and lowered IFNγ (P = 0.03) responsiveness per monocyte and lymphocyte, respectively, compared with CTRL. Further, fractional synthesis rate of albumin was greater at +4 DRTC for CAS compared with CTRL but did not differ by +29 DRTC (interaction: P = 0.01). In rumen papillae, synthesis rate of tissue protein was greater for CAS compared with CTRL (P protein supply seem to

  13. Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Transgenic Mice Have Increased Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Mass, Altered Glucose Homeostasis and No Change in White Adipose Tissue Cellular Senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comisford, Ross; Lubbers, Ellen R; Householder, Lara A; Suer, Ozan; Tchkonia, Tamara; Kirkland, James L; List, Edward O; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-resistant/deficient mice experience improved glucose homeostasis and substantially increased lifespan. Recent evidence suggests that long-lived GH-resistant/deficient mice are protected from white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, including WAT cellular senescence, impaired adipogenesis and loss of subcutaneous WAT in old age. This preservation of WAT function has been suggested to be a potential mechanism for the extended lifespan of these mice. The objective of this study was to examine WAT senescence, WAT distribution and glucose homeostasis in dwarf GH receptor antagonist (GHA) transgenic mice, a unique mouse strain having decreased GH action but normal longevity. 18-month-old female GHA mice and wild-type (WT) littermate controls were used. Prior to dissection, body composition, fasting blood glucose as well as glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. WAT distribution was determined by weighing four distinct WAT depots at the time of dissection. Cellular senescence in four WAT depots was assessed using senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining to quantify the senescent cell burden, and real-time qPCR to quantify gene expression of senescence markers p16 and IL-6. GHA mice had a 22% reduction in total body weight, a 33% reduction in lean mass and a 10% increase in body fat percentage compared to WT controls. GHA mice had normal fasting blood glucose and improved insulin sensitivity; however, they exhibited impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, GHA mice displayed enhanced lipid storage in the inguinal subcutaneous WAT depot (p < 0.05) and a 1.7-fold increase in extra-/intraperitoneal WAT ratio compared to controls (p < 0.05). Measurements of WAT cellular senescence showed no difference between GHA mice and WT controls. Similar to other mice with decreased GH action, female GHA mice display reduced age-related lipid redistribution and improved insulin sensitivity, but no change in cellular senescence. The similar abundance of

  14. Increased variability of bone tissue mineral density resulting from estrogen deficiency influences creep behavior in a rat vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Navalgund, Anand R; Tee, Boon Ching; Noble, Garrett J; Hart, Richard T; Lee, Hye Ri

    2012-11-01

    Progressive vertebral deformation increases the fracture risk of a vertebral body in the postmenopausal patient. Many studies have observed that bone can demonstrate creep behavior, defined as continued time-dependent deformation even when mechanical loading is held constant. Creep is a characteristic of viscoelastic behavior, which is common in biological materials. We hypothesized that estrogen deficiency-dependent alteration of the mineral distribution of bone at the tissue level could influence the progressive postmenopausal vertebral deformity that is observed as the creep response at the organ level. The objective of this study was thus to examine whether the creep behavior of vertebral bone is changed by estrogen deficiency, and to determine which bone property parameters are responsible for the creep response of vertebral bone at physiological loading levels using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. Correlations of creep parameters with bone mineral density (BMD), tissue mineral density (TMD) and architectural parameters of both OVX and sham surgery vertebral bone were tested. As the vertebral creep was not fully recovered during the post-creep unloading period, there was substantial residual displacement for both the sham and OVX groups. A strong positive correlation between loading creep and residual displacement was found (r=0.868, pcreep behavior of the OVX group (pcreep caused progressive, permanent reduction in vertebral height for both the sham and OVX groups. In addition, estrogen deficiency-induced active bone remodeling increased variability of trabecular TMD in the OVX group. Taken together, these results suggest that increased variability of trabecular TMD resulting from high bone turnover influences creep behavior of the OVX vertebrae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of experimentally increased protein supply to postpartum dairy cows on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Røntved, Christine Maria; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2017-01-01

    The effect of experimentally increasing the postpartum protein supply on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis was studied using 8 periparturient Holstein cows in a complete randomized design. At calving, cows were assigned to abomasal infusion of water (CTRL......) or casein (CAS) in addition to a lactation diet. Casein infusion was gradually decreased from 696 ± 1 g/d at +2 d relative to calving (DRTC) to 212 ± 10 g/d at +29 DRTC to avoid excessive supply. Synthesis rate of plasma proteins was measured at –14, +4, +15, and +29 DRTC by measuring [13C]Phe isotopic...... enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[13C]Phe infusion. Plasma volume was determined at +4 and +29 DRTC by dilution of a [125I]BSA dose. Synthesis rate of tissue protein in biopsied rumen papillae was determined by measuring [13C...

  16. Lack of retinoic acid leads to increased langerin-expressing dendritic cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sun-Young; Cha, Hye-Ran; Chang, Jae-Hoon; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Yang, Hyungjun; Malissen, Bernard; Iwata, Makoto; Kweon, Mi-Na

    2010-04-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is a crucial factor for maintaining homeostasis in the gut, including lymphocyte homing, immunoglobulin (Ig) A production, and T regulatory cells (Treg) and T helper cell 17 (T(H)17) generation. Until now, most attention has focused on the function of dendritic cells (DCs) to initiate adaptive immunity including T and B lymphocytes through RA. To investigate the effects of RA on DCs of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), we analyzed the phenotype and function of DC subsets from GALT of vitamin A-deficient (VAD) mice. VAD mice were prepared by feeding them a VAD diet over 12 weeks from gestational days 10-14. Here, we report that tremendous increase of langerin(+) DCs occurred in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and gut lamina propria of VAD mice dependent on CCR7 signaling. Langerin(+) DCs have phenotypes more similar to those of bone marrow-derived dermal langerin(+) DCs than epidermal Langerhans cells. Moreover, RA receptor antagonists enhance the differentiation of langerin(+) DCs from mouse and human precursors of bone marrow and peripheral blood. Langerin(+) DCs were highly differentiated but less inflammatory than langerin(-) DCs of MLNs of VAD mice. Moreover, tolerance to orally delivered antigen was completely abrogated by depletion of langerin(+) DCs in the VAD mice. These results suggest that generation of langerin(+) DCs in the GALT is tightly regulated by RA and that the microenvironment of tissues determines the phenotype of DCs. 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fat gain with physical detraining is correlated with increased glucose transport and oxidation in periepididymal white adipose tissue in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sertié, R.A.L.; Andreotti, S. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Proença, A.R.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Limeira, SP (Brazil); Campaña, A.B.; Lima, F.B. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-26

    As it is a common observation that obesity tends to occur after discontinuation of exercise, we investigated how white adipocytes isolated from the periepididymal fat of animals with interrupted physical training transport and oxidize glucose, and whether these adaptations support the weight regain seen after 4 weeks of physical detraining. Male Wistar rats (45 days old, weighing 200 g) were divided into two groups (n=10): group D (detrained), trained for 8 weeks and detrained for 4 weeks; and group S (sedentary). The physical exercise was carried out on a treadmill for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks, at 50-60% of the maximum running capacity. After the training protocol, adipocytes isolated from the periepididymal adipose tissue were submitted to glucose uptake and oxidation tests. Adipocytes from detrained animals increased their glucose uptake capacity by 18.5% compared with those from sedentary animals (P<0.05). The same cells also showed a greater glucose oxidation capacity in response to insulin stimulation (34.55%) compared with those from the S group (P<0.05). We hypothesize that, owing to the more intense glucose entrance into adipose cells from detrained rats, more substrate became available for triacylglycerol synthesis. Furthermore, this increased glucose oxidation rate allowed an increase in energy supply for triacylglycerol synthesis. Thus, physical detraining might play a role as a possible obesogenic factor for increasing glucose uptake and oxidation by adipocytes.

  18. Fat gain with physical detraining is correlated with increased glucose transport and oxidation in periepididymal white adipose tissue in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sertié, R.A.L.; Andreotti, S.; Proença, A.R.G.; Campaña, A.B.; Lima, F.B.

    2015-01-01

    As it is a common observation that obesity tends to occur after discontinuation of exercise, we investigated how white adipocytes isolated from the periepididymal fat of animals with interrupted physical training transport and oxidize glucose, and whether these adaptations support the weight regain seen after 4 weeks of physical detraining. Male Wistar rats (45 days old, weighing 200 g) were divided into two groups (n=10): group D (detrained), trained for 8 weeks and detrained for 4 weeks; and group S (sedentary). The physical exercise was carried out on a treadmill for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks, at 50-60% of the maximum running capacity. After the training protocol, adipocytes isolated from the periepididymal adipose tissue were submitted to glucose uptake and oxidation tests. Adipocytes from detrained animals increased their glucose uptake capacity by 18.5% compared with those from sedentary animals (P<0.05). The same cells also showed a greater glucose oxidation capacity in response to insulin stimulation (34.55%) compared with those from the S group (P<0.05). We hypothesize that, owing to the more intense glucose entrance into adipose cells from detrained rats, more substrate became available for triacylglycerol synthesis. Furthermore, this increased glucose oxidation rate allowed an increase in energy supply for triacylglycerol synthesis. Thus, physical detraining might play a role as a possible obesogenic factor for increasing glucose uptake and oxidation by adipocytes

  19. Troglitazone treatment increases bone marrow adipose tissue volume but does not affect trabecular bone volume in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Mosekilde, Leif; Justesen, J

    2001-01-01

    proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibia was performed in order to quantitate the amount of trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV %), adipose tissue volume per total volume (AV/TV %), and hematopoietic marrow volume per total volume (HV......Aging is associated with decreased trabecular bone mass and increased adipocyte formation in bone marrow. As osteoblasts and adipocytes share common precursor cells present in the bone marrow stroma, it has been proposed that an inverse relationship exists between adipocyte and osteoblast....../TV %) using the point-counting technique. Bone size did not differ between the two groups. In troglitazone-treated mice, AV/TV was significantly higher than in control mice (4.7+/-2.1% vs. 0.2+/-0.3%, respectively, mean +/- SD, P

  20. Leading Efforts to Increase Organ Donation Through Professionalization of Organ Procurement Organizations and Establishment of Organ and Tissue Donor Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertanous, T; Czer, L S C; de Robertis, M; Kiankhooy, A; Kobashigawa, J; Esmailian, F; Trento, A

    2016-01-01

    The influence of new donor registrations through the California Organ and Tissue Donor Registry on the local OneLegacy Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) was examined during a 6-year period. Publicly available data from Donate Life America for California were examined for the 6 calendar years of 2009-2014. Performance data from OneLegacy for the same 6 years for organ donors and number of transplants were also examined. The donor designation rate (DDR) was defined as the rate at which new individuals joined the state donor registry as a percentage of all driver licenses and ID cards issued within a calendar year. The total donor designation (TDD) was defined as the sum of the new and existing people who were registered organ donors. Donor designation share (DDS) was the total number of designated donors as a percentage of all residents of the state who were ≥18 years old. The business practices and educational efforts of the OneLegacy OPO were examined as well. In California, from 2009 through 2014, the DDR was 25.5%-28%. When added to the existing donor registrations, the TDD and DDS increased each year from 2009 through 2014. With the current level of growth, it is projected that California will be able to reach a DDS of 50% by 2017. For the OneLegacy OPO, designated donors from the California Organ and Tissue Donor Registry made up 15% of the total donations in 2009, and 39% of the total donations in 2014, increasing by ∼5% each year since 2009. By increasing professionalization and transparency, and widening its educational and training efforts, OneLegacy was able to take advantage of an increasing percentage of donors who were designated donors and to increase the overall number of donors and organs transplanted, becoming one of the largest OPOs in the nation. This can be a model for OPOs in other donor service areas, and it may set the stage for the United States to serve as an example to the global community in the practice of organ donation. Copyright

  1. In uncontrolled diabetes, thyroid hormone and sympathetic activators induce thermogenesis without increasing glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen, Miles E; Thaler, Joshua P; Wisse, Brent E; Guyenet, Stephan J; Meek, Thomas H; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Cubelo, Alex; Fischer, Jonathan D; Kaiyala, Karl J; Schwartz, Michael W; Morton, Gregory J

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in human brown adipose tissue (BAT) imaging technology have renewed interest in the identification of BAT activators for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. In uncontrolled diabetes (uDM), activation of BAT is implicated in glucose lowering mediated by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of leptin, which normalizes blood glucose levels in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The potent effect of icv leptin to increase BAT glucose uptake in STZ-diabetes is accompanied by the return of reduced plasma thyroxine (T4) levels and BAT uncoupling protein-1 (Ucp1) mRNA levels to nondiabetic controls. We therefore sought to determine whether activation of thyroid hormone receptors is sufficient in and of itself to lower blood glucose levels in STZ-diabetes and whether this effect involves activation of BAT. We found that, although systemic administration of the thyroid hormone (TR)β-selective agonist GC-1 increases energy expenditure and induces further weight loss in STZ-diabetic rats, it neither increased BAT glucose uptake nor attenuated diabetic hyperglycemia. Even when GC-1 was administered in combination with a β(3)-adrenergic receptor agonist to mimic sympathetic nervous system activation, glucose uptake was not increased in STZ-diabetic rats, nor was blood glucose lowered, yet this intervention potently activated BAT. Similar results were observed in animals treated with active thyroid hormone (T3) instead of GC-1. Taken together, our data suggest that neither returning normal plasma thyroid hormone levels nor BAT activation has any impact on diabetic hyperglycemia, and that in BAT, increases of Ucp1 gene expression and glucose uptake are readily dissociated from one another in this setting.

  2. CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophils, alternative macrophage activation, and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolus, W Reid; Gutierrez, Dario A; Kennedy, Arion J; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2015-10-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation during obesity is mediated by immune cells and closely correlates with systemic insulin resistance. In lean AT, eosinophils are present in low but significant numbers and capable of promoting alternative macrophage activation in an IL-4/IL-13-dependent manner. In WT mice, obesity causes the proportion of AT eosinophils to decline, concomitant with inflammation and classical activation of AT macrophages. In this study, we show that CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophil accumulation in AT. Furthermore, in contrast to WT mice, the increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) AT is sustained and even amplified during obesity. Interestingly, a significant portion of eosinophils is found in CLSs in AT of obese CCR2(-/-) mice, which is the first time eosinophils have been shown to localize to these inflammatory hot spots. CCR2(-/-) bone marrow precursors displayed increased expression of various key eosinophil genes during in vitro differentiation to eosinophils, suggesting a potentially altered eosinophil phenotype in the absence of CCR2. In addition, the proportion of eosinophils in AT positively correlated with local expression of Il5, a potent eosinophil stimulator. The increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) mice was detected in all white fat pads analyzed and in the peritoneal cavity but not in bone marrow, blood, spleen, or liver. In AT of CCR2(-/-) mice, an increased eosinophil number positively correlated with M2-like macrophages, expression of the Treg marker Foxp3, and type 2 cytokines, Il4, Il5, and Il13. This is the first study to link CCR2 function with regulation of AT eosinophil accumulation. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  3. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  4. Increased tissue factor, MMP-8, and D-dimer expression in diabetic patients with unstable advanced carotid atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Krupinski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Jerzy Krupinski1,2, Marta M Turu1,2, M Angels Font1, Nesser Ahmed3, Matthew Sullivan3, Ana Luque1,2, Francisco Rubio1, Lina Badimon2, Mark Slevin31Department of Neurology, Stroke Unit, University Hospital of Bellvitge (HUB, Fundacio IDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain; 2Cardiovascular Research Centre, IIBB/CSIC-HSCSP-UAB, Barcelona, Spain; 3School of Biology, Chemistry and Health Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United KingdomAbstract: Advanced atherogenesis is characterized by the presence of markers of enhanced prothrombotic capacity, attenuated fibrinolysis, and by clinical conditions associated with defective coagulation. Diabetes may be associated with enhanced lesion instability and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Plaques obtained from 206 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were divided into diabetic (type 2 and nondiabetic and analyzed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry to detect tissue factor (TF, metalloproteinases (MMP-2, -8, -9, and fibrin/fibrinogen related antigens, and in situ zymography to detect MMP activity. Plasma samples were quantified for TF procoagulant activity, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and D-dimer. Diabetic and symptomatic patients with hypoechogenic plaques had increased plasma TF activity and D-dimer, compared with those with hyperechogenic plaques (p = 0.03, p = 0.007, respectively. Diabetic, symptomatic patients had higher plasma D-dimer levels than asymptomatic patients (p = 0.03. There was a significant correlation between intramural TF levels and D-dimer in diabetic patients with symptomatic disease (p = 0.001, r2 = 0.4. In diabetic patients, plasma fibrinogen levels were higher in patients with hypoechogenic plaques (p = 0.007. Diabetic patients with ulcerated plaques had higher plasma D-dimer and MMP-8 levels than those with fibrous plaques (p = 0.02, p = 0.01, respectively. This data suggests that currently available circulating markers may be clinically useful to select

  5. Inhibition of Intracellular Triglyceride Lipolysis Suppresses Cold-Induced Brown Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Increases Shivering in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Denis P; Frisch, Frédérique; Phoenix, Serge; Guérin, Brigitte; Turcotte, Éric E; Haman, François; Richard, Denis; Carpentier, André C

    2017-02-07

    Indirect evidence from human studies suggests that brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is fueled predominantly by fatty acids hydrolyzed from intracellular triglycerides (TGs). However, no direct experimental evidence to support this assumption currently exists in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the role of intracellular TG in BAT thermogenesis, in cold-exposed men. Using positron emission tomography with 11 C-acetate and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose, we showed that oral nicotinic acid (NiAc) administration, an inhibitor of intracellular TG lipolysis, suppressed the cold-induced increase in BAT oxidative metabolism and glucose uptake, despite no difference in BAT blood flow. There was a commensurate increase in shivering intensity and shift toward a greater reliance on glycolytic muscle fibers without modifying total heat production. Together, these findings show that intracellular TG lipolysis is critical for BAT thermogenesis and provides experimental evidence for a reciprocal role of BAT thermogenesis and shivering in cold-induced thermogenesis in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet increases glucose uptake and fatty acid synthesis in brown adipose tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparecida de França, Suélem; Pavani Dos Santos, Maísa; Nunes Queiroz da Costa, Roger Vinícius; Froelich, Mendalli; Buzelle, Samyra Lopes; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia; Giordani, Morenna Alana; Pereira, Mayara Peron; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Marlise Balbinotti Andrade, Cláudia; Kawashita, Nair Honda

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate glucose uptake and the contribution of glucose to fatty acid (FA) synthesis and the glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) of triacylglycerol synthesis by interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diet-fed rats. LPHC (6% protein; 74% carbohydrate) or control (17% protein; 63% carbohydrate) diets were administered to rats (∼ 100 g) for 15 d. Total FA and G3P synthesis and the synthesis of FA and G3P from glucose were evaluated in vivo by (3)H2O and (14)C-glucose. Sympathetic neural contribution for FA synthesis was evaluated by comparing the synthesis in denervated (7 d before) IBAT with that of the contralateral innervated side. The insulin signaling and β3 adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) contents, as well as others, were determined by Western blot (Student's t test or analysis of variance; P ≤ 0.05). Total FA synthesis in IBAT was 133% higher in the LPHC group and was reduced 85% and 70% by denervation for the LPHC and control groups, respectively. Glucose uptake was 3.5-fold higher in the IBAT of LPHC rats than in that of the control rats, and the contribution of glucose to the total FA synthesis increased by 12% in control rats compared with 18% in LPHC rats. The LPHC diet increased the G3P generation from glucose by 270% and the insulin receptor content and the p-AKT insulin stimulation in IBAT by 120% and reduced the β3-AR content by 50%. The LPHC diet stimulated glucose uptake, both the total rates and the rates derived from glucose-dependent FA and G3P synthesis, by increasing the insulin sensitivity and the sympathetic flux, despite a reduction in the β3-AR content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Matthias J; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Mauracher, Brigitte; Abplanalp, William; Müller, Hans-Helge; Pieper, Korbinian; Ramisch, Juliane; Tschöp, Matthias H; Beuschlein, Felix; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Slawik, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein): control (64.3/16.7/19), LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5), LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1), and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7). Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience) and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint), explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by increased adaptive thermogenesis in BAT.

  8. Isoenergetic feeding of low carbohydrate-high fat diets does not increase brown adipose tissue thermogenic capacity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J Betz

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein: control (64.3/16.7/19, LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5, LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1, and a high fat diet with carbohydrates ("high fat", 19.4/61.9/18.7. RESULTS: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat diets increased expression of PGC1α and ADRB3 in BAT indicating higher SNS outflow. However, UCP1 mRNA expression and expression of UCP1 assessed by immunohistochemistry was not different between diet groups. In accordance, analysis of mitochondrial function in-vitro by extracellular flux analyser (Seahorse Bioscience and measurement of inducible thermogenesis in vivo (primary endpoint, explored by indirect calorimetry following norepinephrine injection, did not show significant differences between groups. Histology of BAT revealed increased lipid droplet size in rats fed the high-fat diet and both LC-HF diets. CONCLUSION: All experimental diets upregulated expression of genes which are indicative for increased BAT activity. However, the functional measurements in vivo revealed no increase of inducible BAT thermogenesis. This indicates that lower body weight gain with LC-HF diets and a high fat diet in a pair-feeding setting is not caused by

  9. Type I iodothyronine 5′-deiodinase mRNA and activity is increased in adipose tissue of obese subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortega, F.J.; Jílková, Zuzana; Moreno-Navarrete, J.M.; Pavelka, S.; Rodriguez-Hermosa, J.I.; Kopecký, Jan; Fernández-Real, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2012), s. 320-324 ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adipose tissue * thyroid hormones * deiodinases * tissue expression * enzyme activity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.221, year: 2012

  10. Increased Interleukin-32 Levels in Obesity Promote Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling: Effect of Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Valentí, Víctor; Moncada, Rafael; Landecho, Manuel F; Silva, Camilo; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2016-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-32 is a recently described cytokine involved in the regulation of inflammation. We aimed to explore whether IL-32 could function as an inflammatory and angiogenic factor in human obesity and obesity-associated type 2 diabetes. Samples obtained from 90 subjects were used in the study. Obese patients exhibited higher expression levels of IL-32 in visceral adipose tissue (AT) as well as in subcutaneous AT and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. IL32 was mainly expressed by stromovascular fraction cells, and its expression was significantly enhanced by inflammatory stimuli and hypoxia, whereas no changes were found after the incubation with anti-inflammatory cytokines. The addition of exogenous IL-32 induced the expression of inflammation and extracellular matrix-related genes in human adipocyte cultures, and IL32-silenced adipocytes showed a downregulation of inflammatory genes. Furthermore, adipocyte-conditioned media obtained from obese patients increased IL32 gene expression in human monocyte cultures, whereas the adipocyte-conditioned media from lean volunteers had no effect on IL32 mRNA levels. These findings provide evidence, for the first time, about the inflammatory and remodeling properties of IL-32 in AT, implicating this cytokine in obesity-associated comorbidities. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. Altered features and increased chemosensitivity of human breast cancer cells mediated by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerova, Lucia; Skolekova, Svetlana; Matuskova, Miroslava; Bohac, Martin; Kozovska, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent heterogeneous cell population suitable for cell therapies in regenerative medicine. MSCs can also substantially affect tumor biology due to their ability to be recruited to the tumor stroma and interact with malignant cells via direct contacts and paracrine signaling. The aim of our study was to characterize molecular changes dictated by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) and the effects on drug responses in human breast cancer cells SKBR3. The tumor cells were either directly cocultured with AT-MSCs or exposed to MSCs-conditioned medium (MSC-CM). Changes in cell biology were evaluated by kinetic live cell imaging, fluorescent microscopy, scratch wound assay, expression analysis, cytokine secretion profiling, ATP-based viability and apoptosis assays. The efficiency of cytotoxic treatment in the presence of AT-MSCs or MSCs-CM was analyzed. The AT-MSCs altered tumor cell morphology, induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, increased mammosphere formation, cell confluence and migration of SKBR3. These features were attributed to molecular changes induced by MSCs-secreted cytokines and chemokines in breast cancer cells. AT-MSCs significantly inhibited the proliferation of SKBR3 cells in direct cocultures which was shown to be dependent on the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling axis. MSC-CM-exposed SKBR3 or SKBR3 in direct coculture with AT-MSCs exhibited increased chemosensitivity and induction of apoptosis in response to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil. Our work further highlights the multi-level nature of tumor-stromal cell interplay and demonstrates the capability of AT-MSCs and MSC-secreted factors to alter the anti-tumor drug responses

  14. Epicardial fat tissue thickness is increased in patients with lichen planus and is linked to inflammation and dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Ahmet Goktug; Erdogan, Mehmet; Koseoglu, Cemal; Akoglu, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Elcin; Koseoglu, Gamze; Sivri, Serkan; Keles, Telat; Durmaz, Tahir; Aktas, Akın; Bozkurt, Engin

    2016-10-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous inflammatory disease. Inflammation plays a major role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Epicardial fat tissue (EFT) has been shown to produce and secrete various proatherogenic and proinflammatory hormones and cytokines. The aim of this study was to assess EFT in patients with lichen planus. Fifty-four patients with LP and 50 controls were enrolled in the study. LP was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria. EFT was measured on the free wall of the right ventricle in parasternal long-axis view, as previously described and validated. There were positive correlations between EFT thickness and platelet/lymphocyte ratio, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, duration of LP, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, after adjustments for relevant confounders, LDL cholesterol, hsCRP, platelet/lymphocyte ratio and duration of LP were independent predictors of EFT thickness in patients with LP (β=0.231, p=0.014; β=0.205, p=0.037; β=0.361, p=0.001 and β=0.133, p=0.047, respectively). EFT is increased in patients with LP compared to control subjects. Duration of LP is correlated with EFT, and duration of LP is also an independent predictor of increased EFT, which is a predictor of subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. AAV vector encoding human VEGF165–transduced pectineus muscular flaps increase the formation of new tissue through induction of angiogenesis in an in vivo chamber for tissue engineering: A technique to enhance tissue and vessels in microsurgically engineered tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Moimas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In regenerative medicine, new approaches are required for the creation of tissue substitutes, and the interplay between different research areas, such as tissue engineering, microsurgery and gene therapy, is mandatory. In this article, we report a modification of a published model of tissue engineering, based on an arterio-venous loop enveloped in a cross-linked collagen–glycosaminoglycan template, which acts as an isolated chamber for angiogenesis and new tissue formation. In order to foster tissue formation within the chamber, which entails on the development of new vessels, we wondered whether we might combine tissue engineering with a gene therapy approach. Based on the well-described tropism of adeno-associated viral vectors for post-mitotic tissues, a muscular flap was harvested from the pectineus muscle, inserted into the chamber and transduced by either AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 or AAV vector expressing the reporter gene β-galactosidase, as a control. Histological analysis of the specimens showed that muscle transduction by AAV vector encoding human VEGF165 resulted in enhanced tissue formation, with a significant increase in the number of arterioles within the chamber in comparison with the previously published model. Pectineus muscular flap, transduced by adeno-associated viral vectors, acted as a source of the proangiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor, thus inducing a consistent enhancement of vessel growth into the newly formed tissue within the chamber. In conclusion, our present findings combine three different research fields such as microsurgery, tissue engineering and gene therapy, suggesting and showing the feasibility of a mixed approach for regenerative medicine.

  16. Increased lipids in non-lipogenic tissues are indicators of the severity of type 2 diabetes in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell-Tofte, J.; Hansen, H.S.; Mu, Huiling

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesised that the molecular changes triggered in type 2 diabetes might cause phenotypic changes in the lipid fraction of tissues. We compared tissue lipid profiles of inbred lean B6-Bom with those of the obese B6-ob/ob and diabetic BKS-db/db mice and found that genetically diabetic mice...... significantly accumulate fat (especially monounsaturated fatty acids, MUFA) in non-lipogenic tissues such as the eye (MUFA, 2-fold), skeletal muscle (MUFA, 13-fold) and pancreas (MUFA, 16-fold). In contrast, the B6-ob/ob mice which manifest a milder form of type 2 diabetes use the liver as their predominant...

  17. Genes encoding novel lipid transporters and their use to increase oil production in vegetative tissues of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changcheng; Fan, Jilian; Yan, Chengshi; Shanklin, John

    2017-12-26

    The present invention discloses a novel gene encoding a transporter protein trigalactosyldiacylglycerol-5 (TGD5), mutations thereof and their use to enhance TAG production and retention in plant vegetative tissue.

  18. Increased COX-2 expression in epithelial and stromal cells of high mammographic density tissues and in a xenograft model of mammographic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, G L; Huo, C W; Huang, D; Hill, P; Cawson, J; Frazer, H; Hopper, J L; Haviv, I; Henderson, M A; Britt, K; Thompson, E W

    2015-08-01

    Mammographic density (MD) adjusted for age and body mass index is one of the strongest known risk factors for breast cancer. Given the high attributable risk of MD for breast cancer, chemoprevention with a safe and available agent that reduces MD and breast cancer risk would be beneficial. Cox-2 has been implicated in MD-related breast cancer risk, and was increased in stromal cells in high MD tissues in one study. Our study assessed differential Cox-2 expression in epithelial and stromal cells in paired samples of high and low MD human breast tissue, and in a validated xenograft biochamber model of MD. We also examined the effects of endocrine treatment upon Cox-2 expression in high and low MD tissues in the MD xenograft model. Paired high and low MD human breast tissue samples were immunostained for Cox-2, then assessed for differential expression and staining intensity in epithelial and stromal cells. High and low MD human breast tissues were separately maintained in biochambers in mice treated with Tamoxifen, oestrogen or placebo implants, then assessed for percentage Cox-2 staining in epithelial and stromal cells. Percentage Cox-2 staining was greater for both epithelial (p = 0.01) and stromal cells (p tissues. In high MD biochamber tissues, percentage Cox-2 staining was greater in stromal cells of oestrogen-treated versus placebo-treated tissues (p = 0.05).

  19. In pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis IL-10 deficiency leads to increased immunity and regressive infection without enhancing tissue pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia A Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cellular immunity is the main defense mechanism in paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. Th1 immunity and IFN-γ activated macrophages are fundamental to immunoprotection that is antagonized by IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Both in human and experimental PCM, several evidences indicate that the suppressive effect of IL-10 causes detrimental effects to infected hosts. Because direct studies have not been performed, this study was aimed to characterize the function of IL-10 in pulmonary PCM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild type (WT and IL-10(-/- C57BL/6 mice were used to characterize the role of IL-10 in the innate and adaptive immunity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb infection. We verified that Pb-infected peritoneal macrophages from IL-10(-/- mice presented higher phagocytic and fungicidal activities than WT macrophages, and these activities were associated with elevated production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO and MCP-1. For in vivo studies, IL-10(-/- and WT mice were i.t. infected with 1×10(6 Pb yeasts and studied at several post-infection periods. Compared to WT mice, IL-10(-/- mice showed increased resistance to P. brasiliensis infection as determined by the progressive control of pulmonary fungal loads and total clearance of fungal cells from dissemination organs. This behavior was accompanied by enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions, precocious humoral immunity and controlled tissue pathology resulting in increased survival times. In addition, IL-10(-/- mice developed precocious T cell immunity mediated by increased numbers of lung infiltrating effector/memory CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. The inflammatory reactions and the production of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines were reduced at late phases of infection, paralleling the regressive infection of IL-10(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work demonstrates for the first time that IL-10 plays a

  20. Testosterone depletion increases the susceptibility of brain tissue to oxidative damage in a restraint stress mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seung-Wan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Kim, Dong-Woon; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2016-01-01

    Among sex hormones, estrogen is particularly well known to act as neuroprotective agent. Unlike estrogen, testosterone has not been well investigated in regard to its effects on the brain, especially under psychological stress. To investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. BALB/c mice were subjected to either an orchiectomy or sham operation. After allowing 15 days for recovery, mice were re-divided into four groups according to exposure of restraint stress: sham, sham plus stress, orchiectomy, and orchiectomy plus stress. Serum testosterone was undetectable in orchiectomized groups and restraint-induced stress significantly reduced testosterone levels in sham plus stress group. The serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline were notably elevated by restraint stress, and these elevated hormones were markedly augmented by orchiectomy. Two oxidative stressors and biomarkers for lipid and protein peroxidation were significantly increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus by restraint stress, while the reverse pattern was observed in antioxidant enzymes. These results were supported by histopathological findings, with 4-hydroxynonenal staining for oxidative injury and Fluoro-Jade B staining showing the degenerating neurons. The aforementioned patterns of oxidative injury were accelerated by orchiectomy. These findings strongly suggest the conclusion that testosterone exerts a protective effect against oxidative brain damage, especially under stressed conditions. Unlike estrogen, the effects of testosterone on the brain have not been thoroughly investigated. In order to investigate the role of testosterone in oxidative brain injuries under psychological stress, we adapted an orchiectomy and restraint stress model. Orchiectomy markedly augmented the restraint stress-induced elevation of serum corticosterone and adrenaline levels as well as oxidative alterations

  1. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  2. Stimulus size dependence of hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christian Johannes; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround induces a change in the perceived hue of a stimulus. This shift in hue depends on the chromatic difference between the stimulus and the surround. We investigated how chromatic induction varies with stimulus size and whether the size dependence depends on the surround hue. Subjects performed asymmetric matching of color stimuli with different sizes in surrounds of different chromaticities. Generally, induced hue shifts decreased with increasing stimulus size. This decrease was quantitatively different for different surround hues. However, when size effects were normalized to an overall induction strength, the chromatic specificity was largely reduced. The separability of inducer chromaticity and stimulus size suggests that these effects are mediated by different neural mechanisms.

  3. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Woo Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE- based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard tumor and surrounding tissue (soft. The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.

  4. Ultrasound Shear Wave Simulation of Breast Tumor Using Nonlinear Tissue Elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Woo

    2015-01-01

    Shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) can assess the elasticity of tissues, but the shear modulus estimated in SWEI is often less sensitive to a subtle change of the stiffness that produces only small mechanical contrast to the background tissues. Because most soft tissues exhibit mechanical nonlinearity that differs in tissue types, mechanical contrast can be enhanced if the tissues are compressed. In this study, a finite element- (FE-) based simulation was performed for a breast tissue model, which consists of a circular (D: 10 mm, hard) tumor and surrounding tissue (soft). The SWEI was performed with 0% to 30% compression of the breast tissue model. The shear modulus of the tumor exhibited noticeably high nonlinearity compared to soft background tissue above 10% overall applied compression. As a result, the elastic modulus contrast of the tumor to the surrounding tissue was increased from 0.46 at 0% compression to 1.45 at 30% compression.

  5. Whey protein and essential amino acids promote the reduction of adipose tissue and increased muscle protein synthesis during caloric restriction-induced weight loss in elderly, obese individuals

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    Coker Robert H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess adipose tissue and sarcopenia presents a multifaceted clinical challenge that promotes morbidity and mortality in the obese, elderly population. Unfortunately, the mortality risks of muscle loss may outweigh the potential benefits of weight loss in the elderly. We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of whey protein and essential amino acids towards the preservation of lean tissue, even under the conditions of strict bedrest in the elderly. Methods In the context of caloric restriction-based weight loss, we hypothesized that a similar formulation given as a meal replacement (EAAMR would foster the retention of lean tissue through an increase in the skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR. We also proposed that EAAMR would promote the preferential loss of adipose tissue through the increased energy cost of skeletal muscle FSR. We recruited and randomized 12 elderly individuals to an 8 week, caloric restriction diet utilizing equivalent caloric meal replacements (800 kcal/day: 1 EAAMR or a 2 competitive meal replacement (CMR in conjunction with 400 kcal of solid food that totaled 1200 kcal/day designed to induce 7% weight loss. Combined with weekly measurements of total body weight and body composition, we also measured the acute change in the skeletal muscle FSR to EAAMR and CMR. Results By design, both groups lost ~7% of total body weight. While EAAMR did not promote a significant preservation of lean tissue, the reduction in adipose tissue was greater in EAAMR compared to CMR. Interestingly, these results corresponded to an increase in the acute skeletal muscle protein FSR. Conclusion The provision of EAAMR during caloric restriction-induced weight loss promotes the preferential reduction of adipose tissue and the modest loss of lean tissue in the elderly population.

  6. Sucrose counteracts the anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil in adipose tissue and increases obesity development in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Tao; Liaset, Bjørn; Hao, Qin

    2011-01-01

    Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are reported to protect against high fat diet-induced obesity and inflammation in adipose tissue. Here we aimed to investigate if the amount of sucrose in the background diet influences the ability of n-3 PUFAs to protect against diet-induced obesity, a...

  7. Injection of marinade with actinidin increases tenderness of porcine M. biceps femoris and affects myofibrils and connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M.; Torngren, M. A.; Gunvig, A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marination of beef muscles with brine solutions containing proteolytic enzymes from fruit extracts has been shown to tenderize meat. However, the effect of marination with actinidin on tenderness of pork muscles has not been investigated. Tenderness and eating quality of porcine M. bi...... indicate that actinidin tenderizes pork M. biceps femoris by affecting both the myofibrils and connective tissue....

  8. Prolonged hypoxic culture and trypsinization increase the pro-angiogenic potential of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Grøndahl; Frøbert, Ole; Pilgaard, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), including adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), is a promising option in the treatment of vascular disease. Short-term hypoxic culture of MSC augments secretion of anti-apoptotic and angiogenic cytokines. We hypothesized that prolonged hypoxi...

  9. Increased neck soft tissue mass and worsening of obstructive sleep apnea after growth hormone treatment in men with abdominal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Koranyi, Josef; Franco, Celina

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are male gender, obesity and abnormalities in neck soft tissue mass. OSA is associated with both growth hormone (GH) excess and severe GH deficiency in adults. Adults with abdominal obesity have markedly suppressed GH secretion....

  10. Olanzapine promotes fat accumulation in male rats by decreasing physical activity, repartitioning energy and increasing adipose tissue lipogenesis while impairing lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaugh, V L; Judson, J G; She, P; Lang, C H; Maresca, K P; Joyal, J L; Lynch, C J

    2011-05-01

    Olanzapine and other atypical antipsychotics cause metabolic side effects leading to obesity and diabetes; although these continue to be an important public health concern, their underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, an animal model of these side effects was developed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Chronic administration of olanzapine elevated fasting glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased fat mass but, in contrast to female rats, did not increase body weight or food intake. Acute studies were conducted to delineate the mechanisms responsible for these effects. Olanzapine markedly decreased physical activity without a compensatory decline in food intake. It also acutely elevated fasting glucose and worsened oral glucose and insulin tolerance, suggesting that these effects are adiposity independent. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies measuring (14)C-2-deoxyglucose uptake revealed tissue-specific insulin resistance. Insulin sensitivity was impaired in skeletal muscle, but either unchanged or increased in adipose tissue depots. Consistent with the olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia, there was a tendency for increased (14)C-2-deoxyglucose uptake into fat depots of fed rats and, surprisingly, free fatty acid (FFA) uptake into fat depots was elevated approximately twofold. The increased glucose and FFA uptake into adipose tissue was coupled with increased adipose tissue lipogenesis. Finally, olanzapine lowered fasting plasma FFA, and as it had no effect on isoproterenol-stimulated rises in plasma glucose, it blunted isoproterenol-stimulated in vivo lipolysis in fed rats. Collectively, these results suggest that olanzapine exerts several metabolic effects that together favor increased accumulation of fuel into adipose tissue, thereby increasing adiposity.

  11. No evidence of increased risk of soft tissue sarcomas in the neighborhood of a steel foundry in Verona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Benedetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible association between occurrence of soft tissue sarcomas in Verona (Italy and residence near a steel foundry, whose emissions of dioxin-like compounds may be relevant. Exposure to total suspended particulate (TSP emitted from the plant as estimated by ADMS-urban dispersion model was used as an indirect index of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Verona municipality was divided in six subareas according to the decreasing levels of estimated TSP exposure, and soft tissue sarcomas cases were mapped according to residence at time of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios were computed. No statistically significant departures between observed and expected cases were detected as illustrated by trend-test results.

  12. Targeted Overexpression of Inducible 6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase in Adipose Tissue Increases Fat Deposition but Protects against Diet-induced Insulin Resistance and Inflammatory Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yuqing; Guo, Xin; Li, Honggui; Xu, Hang; Halim, Vera; Zhang, Weiyu; Wang, Huan; Fan, Yang-Yi; Ong, Kuok Teong; Woo, Shih-Lung; Chapkin, Robert S.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Chen, Yanming; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fuer; Wei, Lai; Wu, Chaodong

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates the dissociation of fat deposition, the inflammatory response, and insulin resistance in the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases. As a regulatory enzyme of glycolysis, inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (iPFK2, encoded by PFKFB3) protects against diet-induced adipose tissue inflammatory response and systemic insulin resistance independently of adiposity. Using aP2-PFKFB3 transgenic (Tg) mice, we explored the ability of targeted adipocyte PFKFB3/iPFK2 overexpression to modulate diet-induced inflammatory responses and insulin resistance arising from fat deposition in both adipose and liver tissues. Compared with wild-type littermates (controls) on a high fat diet (HFD), Tg mice exhibited increased adiposity, decreased adipose inflammatory response, and improved insulin sensitivity. In a parallel pattern, HFD-fed Tg mice showed increased hepatic steatosis, decreased liver inflammatory response, and improved liver insulin sensitivity compared with controls. In both adipose and liver tissues, increased fat deposition was associated with lipid profile alterations characterized by an increase in palmitoleate. Additionally, plasma lipid profiles also displayed an increase in palmitoleate in HFD-Tg mice compared with controls. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, overexpression of PFKFB3/iPFK2 recapitulated metabolic and inflammatory changes observed in adipose tissue of Tg mice. Upon treatment with conditioned medium from iPFK2-overexpressing adipocytes, mouse primary hepatocytes displayed metabolic and inflammatory responses that were similar to those observed in livers of Tg mice. Together, these data demonstrate a unique role for PFKFB3/iPFK2 in adipocytes with regard to diet-induced inflammatory responses in both adipose and liver tissues. PMID:22556414

  13. Exercise training favors increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in contrast to adipose tissue: a randomized study using FDG PET imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichkendler, M. H.; Auerbach, P.; Rosenkilde, M.

    2013-01-01

    abdominal SAT compared with CON but not in either intra- or retroperitoneal VAT. Total adipose tissue mass decreased in both exercise groups, and the decrease was distributed equally among subcutaneous and intra-abdominal depots. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training increases insulin-stimulated glucose...

  14. Obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue but not liver inflammation and insulin resistance after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmitz

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: These results demonstrate that although sustained weight loss improves systemic glucose homeostasis, primarily through improved inflammation and insulin action in liver, a remarkable obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice as well as in a significant subpopulation of obese patients.

  15. GSK3β is increased in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from women with gestational diabetes where it regulates the inflammatory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lappas

    Full Text Available Infection and inflammation, through their ability to increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and adhesion molecules, are thought to play a central role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have shown that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 plays a central role in regulating this inflammation. There are, however, no studies on the role of GSK3 in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Thus, the aims of this study were (i to determine whether GSK3 is increased in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from women with GDM; and (ii to investigate the effect of GSK3 inhibition on inflammation in the presence of inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS or the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. Human omental adipose tissue and skeletal muscle were obtained from normal glucose tolerant (NGT women and BMI-matched women with diet-control GDM at the time of Caesarean section. Western blotting was performed to determine GSK3 protein expression. Tissue explants were performed to determine the effect of the GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021 on markers of inflammation. When compared to women with NGT, omental adipose tissue and skeletal muscle obtained from women with diet-controlled GDM had significantly higher GSK3β activity as evidenced by a decrease in the expression of GSK3β phosphorylated at serine 9. The GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021 significantly reduced the gene expression and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6; the pro-inflammatory chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1; and the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in tissues stimulated with LPS or IL-1β. In conclusion, GSK3 activity is increased in GDM adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and regulates infection- and inflammation-induced pro-inflammatory mediators.

  16. Morphology of urethral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Herzen, Julia; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Bormann, Therese; Beckmann, Felix; Püschel, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Micro computed tomography has been developed to a powerful technique for the characterization of hard and soft human and animal tissues. Soft tissues including the urethra, however, are difficult to be analyzed, since the microstructures of interest exhibit X-ray absorption values very similar to the surroundings. Selective staining using highly absorbing species is a widely used approach, but associated with significant tissue modification. Alternatively, one can suitably embed the soft tissue, which requires the exchange of water. Therefore, the more recently developed phase contrast modes providing much better contrast of low X-ray absorbing species are especially accommodating in soft tissue characterization. The present communication deals with the morphological characterization of sheep, pig and human urethras on the micrometer scale taking advantage of micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast modes. The performance of grating-based tomography is demonstrated for freshly explanted male and female urethras in saline solution. The micro-morphology of the urethra is important to understand how the muscles close the urethra to reach continence. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing, the function under static and, more important, under stress conditions has to be uncovered for the realization of artificial urinary sphincters, which needs sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  17. Expression and activity levels of chymase in mast cells of burn wound tissues increase during the healing process in a hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xianglin; Xu, Tao; Ma, Shaolin; Wen, Hao

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the changes in the expression levels and activity of mast cell chymase in the process of burn wound healing in a hamster model of deep second-degree burn. The hamster model was established by exposing a ~3 cm diameter area of bare skin to hot water (75°C) for 0, 6, 8, 10 or 12 sec. Tissue specimens were collected 24 h after burning and histological analysis revealed that hot water contact for 12 sec was required to produce a deep second-degree burn. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and a radioimmunoassay were used to the determine changes in chymase mRNA expression levels and activity. The mRNA expression levels and activity of chymase were increased in the burn wound tissues when compared with the normal skin. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in mast cell chymase activity amongst the various post-burn stages. Chymase mRNA expression levels peaked at day 1 post-burn, subsequently decreasing at days 3 and 7 post-burn and finally increasing again at day 14 post-burn. In summary, a hamster model of deep second-degree burn can be created by bringing the skin into contact with water at 75°C for 12 sec. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels and activity of chymase in the burn wound tissues increased when compared with those in normal skin tissues.

  18. Bone Tissue Collagen Maturity and Mineral Content Increase With Sustained Hyperglycemia in the KK-Ay Murine Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Heather B; Pearl, Jared C; Diaz, David R; King, Karen B; Donnelly, Eve

    2018-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases fracture risk for a given bone mineral density (BMD), which suggests that T2DM changes bone tissue properties independently of bone mass. In this study, we assessed the effects of hyperglycemia on bone tissue compositional properties, enzymatic collagen crosslinks, and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the KK-Ay murine model of T2DM using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Compared to KK-aa littermate controls (n = 8), proximal femoral bone tissue of KK-Ay mice (n = 14) exhibited increased collagen maturity, increased mineral content, and less heterogeneous mineral properties. AGE accumulation assessed by the concentration of pentosidine, as well as the concentrations of the nonenzymatic crosslinks hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), did not differ in the proximal femurs of KK-Ay mice compared to controls. The observed differences in tissue-level compositional properties in the KK-Ay mice are consistent with bone that is older and echo observations of reduced remodeling in T2DM. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. Hypoxia enhances the interaction between pancreatic stellate cells and cancer cells via increased secretion of connective tissue growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Daiki; Ikenaga, Naoki; Ohuchida, Kenoki; Kozono, Shingo; Cui, Lin; Fujiwara, Kenji; Fujino, Minoru; Ohtsuka, Takao; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Masao

    2013-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC), a hypovascular tumor, thrives under hypoxic conditions. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote PC progression by secreting soluble factors, but their functions in hypoxia are poorly understood. This study aimed to clarify the effects of hypoxic conditions on the interaction between PC cells and PSCs. We isolated human PSCs from fresh pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and analyzed functional differences in PSCs between normoxia (21% O2) and hypoxia (1% O2), including expression of various factors related to tumor-stromal interactions. We particularly analyzed effects on PC invasiveness of an overexpressed molecule-connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)-in PSCs under hypoxic conditions, using RNA interference techniques. Conditioned media from hypoxic PSCs enhanced PC cell invasiveness more intensely than that from normoxic PSCs (P cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adipose tissue inflammation and reduced insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized mice occurs in the absence of increased adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Potter, Victoria J; Strissel, Katherine J; Xie, Chen; Chang, Eugene; Bennett, Grace; Defuria, Jason; Obin, Martin S; Greenberg, Andrew S

    2012-09-01

    Menopause promotes central obesity, adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR). Both obesity and the loss of estrogen can activate innate and adaptive immune cells (macrophages, T cells). The respective impacts of weight gain and loss of ovarian hormones on AT inflammation and IR are poorly understood. Here we determined the temporal kinetics of fat accretion, AT inflammation, and IR over a 26-wk time course in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, a model of menopause. OVX and sham-operated (SHM) C57BL6 mice were fed a normal chow diet. Weight, body composition (magnetic resonance imaging), total and regional adiposity, activity, food intake, AT crown-like structures, biohumoral measures, and insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance testing and homeostatic model assessment) were determined at wk 12, 20, and 26. Macrophages and T cells from perigonadal AT were immunophenotyped by fluorescence-associated cell sorting, and perigonadal adipose tissue (PGAT) gene expression was quantified by quantitative PCR. OVX mice (≈ 31 g) became fatter than SHM mice (≈ 26 g) by wk 12, but mice were equally insulin sensitive. PGAT of OVX mice contained more T cells but expressed higher levels of M2-MΦ (arginase-1) and T cell-regulatory (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4) genes. At wk 20, both OVX and SHM mice weighed approximately 35 g and were equally insulin sensitive with comparable amounts of PGAT and total body fat. OVX mice became less insulin sensitive than SHM mice by wk 26, coincident with the down-regulation of PGAT arginase-1 (-20-fold) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (2-fold) and up-regulation of M1/Th1 genes CD11c (+2-fold), IL12p40 (+2-fold), and interferon-γ (+78-fold). Ovarian hormone loss in mice induces PGAT inflammation and IR by mechanisms that can be uncoupled from OVX-induced obesity.

  1. Replacement of soybean oil by fish oil increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats fed a high-carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angélica Heringer; Moreira, Carolina Campos Lima; Neves, Maria José; Botion, Leida Maria; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2018-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that fish oil consumption improves metabolic syndrome and comorbidities, as insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidaemia and hypertension induced by high-fat diet ingestion. Previously, we demonstrated that administration of a fructose-rich diet to rats induces liver lipid accumulation, accompanied by a decrease in liver cytosolic lipases activities. In this study, the effect of replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in a high-fructose diet (FRUC, 60% fructose) for 8 weeks on lipid metabolism in liver and epididymal adipose tissue from rats was investigated. The interaction between fish oil and FRUC diet increased glucose tolerance and decreased serum levels of triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL-TAG secretion and lipid droplet volume of hepatocytes. In addition, the fish oil supplementation increased the liver cytosolic lipases activities, independently of the type of carbohydrate ingested. Our results firmly establish the physiological regulation of liver cytosolic lipases to maintain lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. In epididymal adipose tissue, the replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in FRUC diet did not change the tissue weight and lipoprotein lipase activity; however, there was increased basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake. Increased cytosolic lipases activities were observed, despite the decreased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated glycerol release to the incubation medium. These findings suggest that fish oil increases the glycerokinase activity and glycerol phosphorylation from endogenous TAG hydrolysis. Our findings are the first to show that the fish oil ingestion increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats treated with high-carbohydrate diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  3. Increased expression of Interleukin-13 and connective tissue growth factor, and their potential roles during foreign body encapsulation of subcutaneous implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, W Kenneth; Li, Allen G; Siddiqui, Yasmin; Federiuk, Isaac F; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand whether interleukin-13 (IL-13) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are highly expressed during foreign body encapsulation of subcutaneous devices. Mock biosensors were implanted into rats for three lengths of time (7-, 21- and 48-55 days) to address different stages of the foreign body response. Using quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence, the expression of IL13, CTGF, collagen 1, decorin and fibronectin were measured in this tissue. IL-13, a product of Th2 cells, was highly expressed at all time points, with greatest expression at day 21. The IL-13 expression was paralleled by increased presence of T-cells at all time points. CTGF was also found to be more highly expressed in foreign body tissue than in controls. Collagen and decorin were highly expressed at the middle and later stages. Given the increased expression of IL-13 and CTGF in foreign body tissue, and their roles in other fibrotic disorders, these cytokines may well contribute to the formation of the foreign body capsule. Since the peak gene expression of IL-13 occurred later than the previously-reported TGFbeta expression peak, IL-13 is probably not the major stimulus to TGFbeta expression during foreign body encapsulation and may contribute to fibrosis independently.

  4. Increased uncoupling protein-2 mRNA abundance and glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue in the sheep fetus during late gestation is dependent on plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanalingham, MG; Mostyn, A; Forhead, AJ; Fowden, AL; Symonds, ME; Stephenson, T

    2005-01-01

    The endocrine regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2), an inner mitochondrial protein, in fetal adipose tissue remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine if fetal plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine (T3) influenced the mRNA abundance of UCP2, glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) and 2 (11βHSD2) in fetal adipose tissue in the sheep during late gestation. Perirenal–abdominal adipose tissue was sampled from ovine fetuses to which either cortisol (2–3 mg kg−1 day−1) or saline was infused for 5 days up to 127–130 days gestation, or near term fetuses (i.e. 142–145 days gestation) that were either adrenalectomised (AX) or remained intact. Fetal plasma cortisol and T3 concentrations were higher in the cortisol infused animals and lower in AX fetuses compared with their corresponding control group, and increased with gestational age. UCP2 and GR mRNA abundance were significantly lower in AX fetuses compared with age-matched controls, and increased with gestational age and by cortisol infusion. Glucocorticoid action in fetal adipose tissue was augmented by AX and suppressed by cortisol infusion, the latter also preventing the gestational increase in 11βHSD1 mRNA and decrease in 11βHSD2 mRNA. When all treatment groups were combined, both fetal plasma cortisol and T3 concentrations were positively correlated with UCP2, GR and 11βHSD2 mRNA abundance, but negatively correlated with 11βHSD1 mRNA abundance. In conclusion, plasma cortisol and T3 are both required for the late gestation rise in UCP2 mRNA and differentially regulate glucocorticoid action in fetal adipose tissue in the sheep during late gestation. PMID:15961419

  5. Vitamin K supplementation increases vitamin K tissue levels but fails to counteract ectopic calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgels, Theo G M F; Waarsing, Jan H; Herfs, Marjolein; Versteeg, Daniëlle; Schoensiegel, Frank; Sato, Toshiro; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Ivandic, Boris; Vermeer, Cees; Schurgers, Leon J; Bergen, Arthur A B

    2011-11-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which calcification of connective tissue leads to pathology in skin, eye and blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in ABCC6. High expression of this transporter in the basolateral hepatocyte membrane suggests that it secretes an as-yet elusive factor into the circulation which prevents ectopic calcification. Utilizing our Abcc6 (-/-) mouse model for PXE, we tested the hypothesis that this factor is vitamin K (precursor) (Borst et al. 2008, Cell Cycle). For 3 months, Abcc6 (-/-) and wild-type mice were put on diets containing either the minimum dose of vitamin K required for normal blood coagulation or a dose that was 100 times higher. Vitamin K was supplied as menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Ectopic calcification was monitored in vivo by monthly micro-CT scans of the snout, as the PXE mouse model develops a characteristic connective tissue mineralization at the base of the whiskers. In addition, calcification of kidney arteries was measured by histology. Results show that supplemental MK-7 had no effect on ectopic calcification in Abcc6 ( -/- ) mice. MK-7 supplementation increased vitamin K levels (in skin, heart and brain) in wild-type and in Abcc6 (-/-) mice. Vitamin K tissue levels did not depend on Abcc6 genotype. In conclusion, dietary MK-7 supplementation increased vitamin K tissue levels in the PXE mouse model but failed to counteract ectopic calcification. Hence, we obtained no support for the hypothesis that Abcc6 transports vitamin K and that PXE can be cured by increasing tissue levels of vitamin K.

  6. Intra-operative tissue oxygen tension is increased by local insufflation of humidified-warm CO2 during open abdominal surgery in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean K Marshall

    Full Text Available Maintenance of high tissue oxygenation (PtO2 is recommended during surgery because PtO2 is highly predictive of surgical site infection and colonic anastomotic leakage. However, surgical site perfusion is often sub-optimal, creating an obstructive hurdle for traditional, systemically applied therapies to maintain or increase surgical site PtO2. This research tested the hypothesis that insufflation of humidified-warm CO2 into the abdominal cavity would increase sub-peritoneal PtO2 during open abdominal surgery.15 Wistar rats underwent laparotomy under general anesthesia. Three sets of randomized cross-over experiments were conducted in which the abdominal cavity was subjected to alternating exposure to 1 humidified-warm CO2 & ambient air; 2 humidified-warm CO2 & dry-cold CO2; and 3 dry-cold CO2 & ambient air. Sub-peritoneal PtO2 and tissue temperature were measured with a polarographic oxygen probe.Upon insufflation of humidified-warm CO2, PtO2 increased by 29.8 mmHg (SD 13.3; p<0.001, or 96.6% (SD 51.9, and tissue temperature by 3.0°C (SD 1.7 p<0.001, in comparison with exposure to ambient air. Smaller, but significant, increases in PtO2 were seen in experiments 2 and 3. Tissue temperature decreased upon exposure to dry-cold CO2 compared with ambient air (-1.4°C, SD 0.5, p = 0.001.In a rat model, insufflation of humidified-warm CO2 into the abdominal cavity during open abdominal surgery causes an immediate and potentially clinically significant increase in PtO2. The effect is an additive result of the delivery of CO2 and avoidance of evaporative cooling via the delivery of the CO2 gas humidified at body temperature.

  7. Interleukin 4 increases CCR9 expression and homing of lymphocytes to gut-associated lymphoid tissue in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Thavamathi; Selvaraj, Ramesh K

    2012-01-15

    The effects of in vitro and in vivo IL-4 supplementation on thymocyte and splenocyte CCR9 mRNA amount and migration were studied. Thymocytes, splenocytes, splenocytes+thymocytes (2:1), and splenocytes+bursocyte cells (2:1) were supplemented with either 0 or 5 ng/ml IL-4 for 5d. CCR9 mRNA was undetectable in all experimental groups supplemented with 0 ng/ml IL-4. IL-4 treatment (5 ng/ml) upregulated (P=0.01) CCR9 mRNA only in the splenocyte+thymocyte cell culture. IL-4-mediated CCR9 mRNA induction in the splenocyte+thymocyte cell culture was dependent on the in vitro dose of IL-4 supplementation. IL-4-treated splenocyte+thymocyte cells when injected in vivo preferentially migrated to cecal tonsils. In vivo supplementation of IL-4 was achieved through in ovo injection of recombinant chicken IL-4 plasmid. Cecal tonsils in chicks hatched from IL-4-plasmid-injected eggs weighed more, had a higher amount of CCR9 mRNA, and had a higher percentage of CD8(+) cells than cecal tonsils from chicks hatched from PBS-injected eggs. It could be concluded that IL-4 induces CCR9 mRNA in thymocytes and splenocytes and directs the migration of cells to gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Brown adipose tissue (BAT specific vaspin expression is increased after obesogenic diets and cold exposure and linked to acute changes in DNA-methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Weiner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies have demonstrated anti-diabetic and anti-obesogenic properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin and so evoked its potential use for treatment of obesity-related diseases. The aim of the study was to unravel physiological regulators of vaspin expression and secretion with a particular focus on its role in brown adipose tissue (BAT biology. Methods: We analyzed the effects of obesogenic diets and cold exposure on vaspin expression in liver and white and brown adipose tissue (AT and plasma levels. Vaspin expression was analyzed in isolated white and brown adipocytes during adipogenesis and in response to adrenergic stimuli. DNA-methylation within the vaspin promoter was analyzed to investigate acute epigenetic changes after cold-exposure in BAT. Results: Our results demonstrate a strong induction of vaspin mRNA and protein expression specifically in BAT of both cold-exposed and high-fat (HF or high-sugar (HS fed mice. While obesogenic diets also upregulated hepatic vaspin mRNA levels, cold exposure tended to increase vaspin gene expression of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT depots. Concomitantly, vaspin plasma levels were decreased upon obesogenic or thermogenic triggers. Vaspin expression was increased during adipogenesis but unaffected by sympathetic activation in brown adipocytes. Analysis of vaspin promoter methylation in AT revealed lowest methylation levels in BAT, which were acutely reduced after cold exposure. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate a novel BAT-specific regulation of vaspin gene expression upon physiological stimuli in vivo with acute epigenetic changes that may contribute to cold-induced expression in BAT. We conclude that these findings indicate functional relevance and potentially beneficial effects of vaspin in BAT function. Keywords: Brown adipose tissue, Browning, Cold exposure, DNA methylation, High-fat diet, High-sucrose diet, SerpinA12, Thermogenesis

  9. Teripang Pasir Meningkatkan Kandungan Antioksidan Superoksida Dismutase pada Pankreas Tikus Diabetes (SEA CUCUMBER INCREASED ANTIOXIDANT SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN THE PANCREATIC TISSUE OF DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Wresdiyati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High level of blood glucose is an indicator for diabetes mellitus (DM condition. The condition iscaused by low level of insulin secretion or impairement of insulin receptor. The number of DM patientincreases every year. The World Health Organization reported that the number of DM patient in Indonesiawas the 4th highest in the world, after following China, India, and the United States of America, respectively.This study was conducted to analyze the effect of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra J on the profile ofantioxidant copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD in the pancreatic tissues of diabetic rats. Atotal of 25 male white rats (Sprague Dawley were used in this study. They were divided into five groups;(1 negative control (KN, (2 positive control, diabetic rats (KP, (3 diabetic rats treated with hydrolyzatedprotein of sea cucumber (HDL, (4 diabetic rats treated with concentrated protein of sea cucumber (KST,and (5 diabetic rats treated with isolated protein of sea cucumber (ISL, respectively. Diabetic conditionwas obtained by alloxan injection 110 mg/kg bw. The treatments were done for 28 days. At the end oftreatment period, the rats were sacrificed and pancreatic tissues were collected and fixed in Bouin solution and then processed to paraffin embedding standard method. The tissues were then stained withimmunohistochemical staining techniques using monoclonal antibody of Cu, Zn-SOD. The results showedthat treatment of HDL, KST, and ISL of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra J increased the content ofantioxidant Cu, Zn-SOD either in Langerhans islets and acinar cells of pancreatic tissues-diabetic rats.The HDL of sea cucumber treatment gave the best effect in increasing the antioxidant content of Cu, Zn-SOD in pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats.

  10. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003–1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. PMID:25209263

  11. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Increased technetium-99 m hydroxy diphosphonate soft tissue uptake on bone scintigraphy in chronic kidney disease patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn; Heaf, James Goya; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    In bone scan patients with dialysis-treated chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperparathyroidism, soft tissue accumulation of technetium-99 m hydroxy/methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99 m-HDP/MDP) has been reported primarily in case reports and usually explained by hypercalcaemia and/or hyperphosphata......In bone scan patients with dialysis-treated chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperparathyroidism, soft tissue accumulation of technetium-99 m hydroxy/methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99 m-HDP/MDP) has been reported primarily in case reports and usually explained by hypercalcaemia and...... patients diagnosed with secondary hyperparathyroidism admitted for Tc-99 m-HDP bone scan. Baseline characteristics and mean concentrations of biochemical markers (including P-calcium and P-phosphate) taken 0-3 months prior to the bone scans were collected. Soft tissue uptake was detected on bone scans....../or hyperphosphataemia. As human vascular smooth muscle cells produce hydroxyapatite during cell culture with increased phosphate levels and as Tc-99 m-HDP/MDP primarily binds to hydroxyapatite, we hypothesized that soft tissue accumulation would be found in patients with hyperphosphataemia. We identified 63 CKD...

  13. Effect of Puumala hantavirus infection on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell hemostatic function: platelet interactions, increased tissue factor expression and fibrinolysis regulator release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Goeijenbier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Puumala virus (PUUV infection causes over 5000 cases of hemorrhagic fever in Europe annually and can influence the hemostatic balance extensively. Infection might lead to hemorrhage, while a recent study showed an increased risk of myocardial infarction during or shortly after PUUV infection. The mechanism by which this hantavirus influences the coagulation system remains unknown. Therefore we aimed to elucidate mechanisms explaining alterations seen in primary and secondary hemostasis during PUUV infection. By using low passage PUUV isolates to infect primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs we were able to show alterations in the regulation of primary- and secondary hemostasis and in the release of fibrinolysis regulators. Our main finding was an activation of secondary hemostasis due to increased tissue factor expression leading to increased thrombin generation in a functional assay. Furthermore, we showed that during infection platelets adhered to HUVECs and subsequently specifically to PUUV virus particles. Infection of HUVECs with PUUV did not result in increased von Willebrand factor while they produced more plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1 compared to controls. The PAI-1 produced in this model formed complexes with vitronectin. This is the first report that reveals a potential mechanism behind the pro-coagulant changes in PUUV patients, which could be the result of increased thrombin generation due to an increased tissue factor expression on endothelial cells during infection. Furthermore, we provide insight into the contribution of endothelial cell responses regarding hemostasis in PUUV pathogenesis.

  14. Increased lipolysis but diminished gene expression of lipases in subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy young males with intrauterine growth retardation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Alibegovic, Amra C; Sonne, Mette P

    2011-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with a central fat distribution and risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adults when exposed to a sedentary Western lifestyle. Increased lipolysis is an early defect of metabolism in IUGR subjects, but the sites and molecular mechanisms involv...

  15. PPAR-alpha agonist treatment increases trefoil factor family-3 expression and attenuates apoptosis in the liver tissue of bile duct-ligated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakan, Tarkan; Kerem, Mustafa; Cindoruk, Mehmet; Engin, Doruk; Alper, Murat; Akın, Okan

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha activation modulates cholesterol metabolism and suppresses bile acid synthesis. The trefoil factor family comprises mucin-associated proteins that increase the viscosity of mucins and help protect epithelial linings from insults. We evaluated the effect of short-term administration of fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha agonist, on trefoil factor family-3 expression, degree of apoptosis, generation of free radicals, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the liver tissue of bile duct-ligated rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1 = sham operated, 2 = bile duct ligation, 3 = bile duct-ligated + vehicle (gum Arabic), and 4 = bile duct-ligated + fenofibrate (100 mg/kg/day). All rats were sacrificed on the 7 th day after obtaining blood samples and liver tissue. Liver function tests, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1 beta in serum, and trefoil factor family-3 mRNA expression, degree of apoptosis (TUNEL) and tissue malondialdehyde (malondialdehyde, end-product of lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species) in liver tissue were evaluated. Fenofibrate administration significantly reduced serum total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1β levels. Apoptosis and malondialdehyde were significantly reduced in the fenofibrate group. Trefoil factor family-3 expression increased with fenofibrate treatment in bile duct-ligated rats. The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha agonist fenofibrate significantly increased trefoil factor family-3 expression and decreased apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in the liver and attenuated serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in bile duct-ligated rats. Further studies are needed to determine the protective role of fenofibrate in human cholestatic disorders.

  16. Increased expression and activity of group IIA and X secretory phospholipase A2 in peritumoral versus central colon carcinoma tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribler, Line; Jensen, Lotte T.; Jørgensen, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) type IIA and X was analyzed in tumors from 22 patients with colon adenocarcinomas in order to determine the involvement and activity of sPLA2 in colon cancer. Evaluation of immunoreactive sPLA2 IIA by Western blotting showed a significantly higher level...... in the periphery of the tumors, compared to central tumor regions. Increased levels of sPLA2 IIA protein correlated with a two-fold increase in sPLA2 enzymatic activity in the peripheral regions compared to central regions. Nineteen out of 22 tumors showed high levels of sPLA2 IIA, whereas 7 out of the 22 tumors...... showed sPLA2 type X. These data demonstrate that both sPLA2 type IIA and X are present in human colon cancer and suggest a role for sPLA2 in colon cancer tumor immunology and tumorigenesis....

  17. Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion's relationship with social boundaries surrounding gender. ... is associated with segregation, marginalization and differentiation between men and women. ... are necessary in the society it should not be mistaken for gender inequality.

  18. Increased abundance of ADAM9 transcripts in the blood is associated with tissue damage [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darawan Rinchai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Members of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain family have emerged as critical regulators of cell-cell signaling during development and homeostasis. ADAM9 is consistently overexpressed in various human cancers, and has been shown to play an important role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the involvement of ADAM9 during immune-mediated processes. Results: Mining of an extensive compendium of transcriptomic datasets identified important gaps in knowledge regarding the possible role of ADAM9 in immunological homeostasis and inflammation: 1 The abundance of ADAM9 transcripts in the blood was increased in patients with acute infection but, 2 changed very little after in vitro exposure to a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. 3 Furthermore it was found to increase significantly in subjects as a result of tissue injury or tissue remodeling, in absence of infectious processes. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that ADAM9 may constitute a valuable biomarker for the assessment of tissue damage, especially in clinical situations where other inflammatory markers are confounded by infectious processes.

  19. Increased tenascin C and Toll-like receptor 4 levels in visceral adipose tissue as a link between inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Victoria; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Amaia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Rotellar, Fernando; Valentí, Victor; Silva, Camilo; Gil, María J; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is associated with an altered inflammatory and extracellular matrix (ECM) profile. Tenascin C (TNC) is an ECM glycoprotein with proinflammatory effects. We aimed to explore the expression levels of TNC in adipose tissue analyzing the contribution of adipocytes and stromovascular fraction cells (SVFC) as well as its impact on inflammation and ECM regulation. We also analyzed the effect of the stimulation with TNF-α and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on both SVFC and adipocytes. Samples obtained from 75 subjects were used in the study. Expression levels of TNC, TLR4, MMP2, and MMP9 were analyzed in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) as well as in both adipocytes and SVFC. In addition, Tnc expression was measured in two mice models of obesity. We show, for the first time, that VAT expression levels of TNC are increased in normoglycemic and type 2 diabetic obese patients (Pobese patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (Pobesity were significantly increased (Pexogenous TNC induced (Pobesity via visceral adipose tissue inflammation representing a link with ECM remodeling.

  20. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Cappelli

    Full Text Available Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10 that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14 and a control group (n = 15. Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced, and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  1. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  2. Increased p50/p50 NF-κB Activation in Human Papillomavirus Type 6- or Type 11-Induced Laryngeal Papilloma Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancurova, Ivana; Wu, Rong; Miskolci, Veronika; Sun, Shishinn

    2002-01-01

    We have observed elevated NF-κB DNA-binding activity in nuclear extracts from human papillomavirus type 6- and 11-infected laryngeal papilloma tissues. The predominant DNA-binding species is the p50/p50 homodimer. The elevated NF-κB activity could be correlated with a reduced level of cytoplasmic IκBβ and could be associated with the overexpression of p21CIP1/WAF1 in papilloma cells. Increased NF-κB activity and cytoplasmic accumulation of p21CIP1/WAF1 might counteract death-promoting effects elicited by overexpressed PTEN and reduced activation of Akt and STAT3 previously noted in these tissues. PMID:11773428

  3. UCAO (UNILATERAL CEREBRAL ARTERY OCCLUSSION METHOD INCREASES THE LEVEL OF MMP- 9 BRAIN TISSUE IN RATS MODEL OF ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasjad Indra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. For the last 5 years, 15.4% of total population died because of stroke, which 42.9% of those are caused by ischemic stroke. UCAO (Unilateral Cerebral Artery Occlusion is a stroke induction method by ligating mice’s carotid artery for 45 minutes. Thus, giving a hypoxic condition similar to stroke attack in human. This method is less complicated and far more efficient. MMP-9 is a stroke marker which is assayed by ELISA from the blood of test animal. Objective. This research was conducted to prove UCAO (Unilateral Cerebral Artery Occlusion method is capable to raise MMP-9 concentration in mice’s blood. Methods. This research was an experimental laboratory research with post-test only controlled group design. 8 male rats (8-10 weeks were divided into 2 groups, control and treatment which would be inducted into stroke by UCAO method. A day after the treatment group had been induced to stroke, both group were tested to measure the MMP-9 blood concentration through ELISA. Results. In this research, UCAO method had increased MMP-9 blood concentration in treatment group, compared to the control group. It is proved by the statistic tests, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis, which showed a significant increase in treatment group (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Based on this result, it can be concluded that UCAO method is accepted as a method to create an ischemic stroke mice model.

  4. Obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue but not liver inflammation and insulin resistance after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, J; Evers, N; Awazawa, M; Nicholls, H T; Brönneke, H S; Dietrich, A; Mauer, J; Blüher, M; Brüning, J C

    2016-05-01

    Obesity represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and certain cancer entities. Treatment of obesity is hindered by the long-term maintenance of initially reduced body weight, and it remains unclear whether all pathologies associated with obesity are fully reversible even upon successfully maintained weight loss. We compared high fat diet-fed, weight reduced and lean mice in terms of body weight development, adipose tissue and liver insulin sensitivity as well as inflammatory gene expression. Moreover, we assessed similar parameters in a human cohort before and after bariatric surgery. Compared to lean animals, mice that demonstrated successful weight reduction showed increased weight gain following exposure to ad libitum control diet. However, pair-feeding weight-reduced mice with lean controls efficiently stabilized body weight, indicating that hyperphagia was the predominant cause for the observed weight regain. Additionally, whereas glucose tolerance improved rapidly after weight loss, systemic insulin resistance was retained and ameliorated only upon prolonged pair-feeding. Weight loss enhanced insulin action and resolved pro-inflammatory gene expression exclusively in the liver, whereas visceral adipose tissue displayed no significant improvement of metabolic and inflammatory parameters compared to obese mice. Similarly, bariatric surgery in humans (n = 55) resulted in massive weight reduction, improved hepatic inflammation and systemic glucose homeostasis, while adipose tissue inflammation remained unaffected and adipocyte-autonomous insulin action only exhibit minor improvements in a subgroup of patients (42%). These results demonstrate that although sustained weight loss improves systemic glucose homeostasis, primarily through improved inflammation and insulin action in liver, a remarkable obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in mice as

  5. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) specific vaspin expression is increased after obesogenic diets and cold exposure and linked to acute changes in DNA-methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Juliane; Rohde, Kerstin; Krause, Kerstin; Zieger, Konstanze; Klöting, Nora; Kralisch, Susan; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Böttcher, Yvonne; Heiker, John T

    2017-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated anti-diabetic and anti-obesogenic properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) and so evoked its potential use for treatment of obesity-related diseases. The aim of the study was to unravel physiological regulators of vaspin expression and secretion with a particular focus on its role in brown adipose tissue (BAT) biology. We analyzed the effects of obesogenic diets and cold exposure on vaspin expression in liver and white and brown adipose tissue (AT) and plasma levels. Vaspin expression was analyzed in isolated white and brown adipocytes during adipogenesis and in response to adrenergic stimuli. DNA-methylation within the vaspin promoter was analyzed to investigate acute epigenetic changes after cold-exposure in BAT. Our results demonstrate a strong induction of vaspin mRNA and protein expression specifically in BAT of both cold-exposed and high-fat (HF) or high-sugar (HS) fed mice. While obesogenic diets also upregulated hepatic vaspin mRNA levels, cold exposure tended to increase vaspin gene expression of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) depots. Concomitantly, vaspin plasma levels were decreased upon obesogenic or thermogenic triggers. Vaspin expression was increased during adipogenesis but unaffected by sympathetic activation in brown adipocytes. Analysis of vaspin promoter methylation in AT revealed lowest methylation levels in BAT, which were acutely reduced after cold exposure. Our data demonstrate a novel BAT-specific regulation of vaspin gene expression upon physiological stimuli in vivo with acute epigenetic changes that may contribute to cold-induced expression in BAT. We conclude that these findings indicate functional relevance and potentially beneficial effects of vaspin in BAT function.

  6. A Chronic Autoimmune Dry Eye Rat Model with Increase in Effector Memory T Cells in Eyeball Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Aihua; Bose, Tanima; Chandy, K George; Tong, Louis

    2017-06-07

    Dry eye disease is a very common condition that causes morbidity and healthcare burden and decreases the quality of life. There is a need for a suitable dry eye animal model to test novel therapeutics to treat autoimmune dry eye conditions. This protocol describes a chronic autoimmune dry eye rat model. Lewis rats were immunized with an emulsion containing lacrimal gland extract, ovalbumin, and complete Freund's adjuvant. A second immunization with the same antigens in incomplete Freund's adjuvant was administered two weeks later. These immunizations were administered subcutaneously at the base of the tail. To boost the immune response at the ocular surface and lacrimal glands, lacrimal gland extract and ovalbumin were injected into the forniceal subconjunctiva and lacrimal glands 6 weeks after the first immunization. The rats developed dry eye features, including reduced tear production, decreased tear stability, and increased corneal damage. Immune profiling by flow cytometry showed a preponderance of CD3 + effector memory T cells in the eyeball.

  7. Endurance training blocks uncoupling protein 1 up-regulation in brown adipose tissue while increasing uncoupling protein 3 in the muscle tissue of rats fed with a high-sugar diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Karina Barbosa; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; de Lima, Daniel Carvalho; Coimbra, Cândido Celso; Evangelista, Elísio Alberto; Guerra-Sá, Renata

    2012-09-01

    The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) and of muscles play important roles in energy balance. For instance, the expression of UCP1 and UCP3 are modulated by free fatty acid gradients induced by high-sugar diets and acute exercise that is dependent on sympathetic stimulation. However, the effects of endurance training in animals fed with high-sugar diets are unknown. This study aims to evaluate the long-term effects of diet and exercise on UCP1 and UCP3 levels and energy balance efficiency. Rats fed with standard or high-sugar (HSD) diets were simultaneously subjected to running training over an 8-week period. After the training period, the rats were decapitated, and the iBAT and gastrocnemius muscle tissues were removed for evaluation of the β₃-receptor, Ucp1, and Ucp3 mRNA and protein expression, which were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. Groups fed with an HSD displayed a higher adiposity index and iBAT weight (P < .05), whereas exhibited an up-regulation of Ucp1 mRNA and protein levels (P < .05). Training increased β₃-receptor mRNA in iBAT and reduced the Ucp3 mRNA in muscle tissues. In association with an HSD, training restored the increasing β₃-receptor mRNA and greatly up-regulated the levels of Ucp3 mRNA. Therefore, training blocked the HSD-induced up-regulation of UCP1 expression in iBAT, whereas it up-regulated the expression of Ucp3 mRNA in muscle. These results suggest that training enhances the relationship between Ucp1/Ucp3 mRNA levels, which could result in higher energy efficiency, but not when HSD-induced elevated sympathetic activity is maintained. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Plasma and adipose tissue level of angiopoietin-like 7 (ANGPTL7) are increased in obesity and reduced after physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Farha, Mohamed; Cherian, Preethi; Al-Khairi, Irina; Madhu, Dhanya; Tiss, Ali; Warsam, Samia; Alhubail, Asma; Sriraman, Devarajan; Al-Refaei, Faisal; Abubaker, Jehad

    2017-01-01

    ANGPTL7 is a member of the Angiopoietin-like (ANGPTL) protein family that is composed of eight proteins (1-8). Increasing evidence is associating ANGPTL proteins to obesity and insulin resistance. The biological role of ANGPTL7 is yet to be understood except for a recently proposed role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. This study was designed to shed light on the function of ANGPTL7 in obesity and its modulation by physical exercise as well as its potential association with lipid profile. A total of 144 subjects were enrolled in this study and finished three months of physical exercise. The participants were classified based on their BMI, 82 subjects were non-obese and 62 obese. ANGPTL7 levels in plasma and adipose tissue were measured by ELISA, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. In this study, we showed that ANGPTL7 level was increased in the plasma of obese subjects (1249.05± 130.39 pg/mL) as compared to non-obese (930.34 ± 87.27 pg/mL) (p-Value = 0.032). ANGPTL7 Gene and protein expression levels in adipose tissue also showed over two fold increase. Physical exercise reduced circulating level of ANGPTL7 in the obese subjects to 740.98± 127.18 pg/mL, (p-Value = 0.007). ANGPTL7 expression in adipose tissue was also reduced after exercise. Finally, ANGPTL7 circulating level showed significant association with TG level in the obese subjects (R2 = 0.183, p-Value = 0.03). In conclusion, our data shows for the first time that obesity increases the level of ANGPTL7 in both plasma and adipose tissue. Increased expression of ANGPTL7 might play a minor role in the regulation of TG level in obese subjects either directly or through interaction with other ANGPTL protein members. Physical exercise reduced the level of ANGPTL7 highlighting the potential for targeting this protein as a therapeutic target for regulating dyslipidemia.

  9. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) expression is increased in the subsynovial connective tissues of patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikenji, Takako; Gingery, Anne; Zhao, Chunfeng; Passe, Sandra M; Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Larson, Dirk; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Non-inflammatory fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) is a hallmark of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The etiology of this finding and its relationship to the development of CTS remain poorly understood. Recent studies have found that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a central role in fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of TGF-β and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a downstream mediator of TGF-β, in the pathogenesis of CTS. We compared SSCT specimens from 26 idiopathic CTS patients with specimens from 10 human cadaver controls with no previous diagnosis of CTS. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine levels TGF-β1, CTGF, collagen 1(Col1) and collagen 3 (Col3) expression. TGF-β1 (p tissue. In addition, a strong positive correlation was found between TGF-β1 and CTGF, (R(2) = 0.80, p < 0.01) and a moderate positive correlation between Col3 and TGF-β1 (R(2) = 0.49, p < 0.01). These finding suggest that there is an increased expression of TGF-β and CTGF, a TGF-β regulated protein, and that this TGF-β activation may be responsible for SSCT fibrosis in CTS patients. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  11. Heparin functionalization increases retention of TGF-β2 and GDF5 on biphasic silk fibroin scaffolds for tendon/ligament-to-bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font Tellado, Sònia; Chiera, Silvia; Bonani, Walter; Poh, Patrina S P; Migliaresi, Claudio; Motta, Antonella; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; van Griensven, Martijn

    2018-05-01

    The tendon/ligament-to-bone transition (enthesis) is a highly specialized interphase tissue with structural gradients of extracellular matrix composition, collagen molecule alignment and mineralization. These structural features are essential for enthesis function, but are often not regenerated after injury. Tissue engineering is a promising strategy for enthesis repair. Engineering of complex tissue interphases such as the enthesis is likely to require a combination of biophysical, biological and chemical cues to achieve functional tissue regeneration. In this study, we cultured human primary adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMCs) on biphasic silk fibroin scaffolds with integrated anisotropic (tendon/ligament-like) and isotropic (bone/cartilage like) pore alignment. We functionalized those scaffolds with heparin and explored their ability to deliver transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) and growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5). Heparin functionalization increased the amount of TGF-β2 and GDF5 remaining attached to the scaffold matrix and resulted in biological effects at low growth factor doses. We analyzed the combined impact of pore alignment and growth factors on AdMSCs. TGF-β2 and pore anisotropy synergistically increased the expression of tendon/ligament markers and collagen I protein content. In addition, the combined delivery of TGF-β2 and GDF5 enhanced the expression of cartilage markers and collagen II protein content on substrates with isotropic porosity, whereas enthesis markers were enhanced in areas of mixed anisotropic/isotropic porosity. Altogether, the data obtained in this study improves current understanding on the combined effects of biological and structural cues on stem cell fate and presents a promising strategy for tendon/ligament-to-bone regeneration. Regeneration of the tendon/ligament-to-bone interphase (enthesis) is of significance in the repair of ruptured tendons/ligaments to bone to improve implant integration and

  12. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattijs M. Heemskerk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT.

  13. Increased US emergency department visits for skin and soft tissue infections, and changes in antibiotic choices, during the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallin, Daniel J; Egan, Daniel J; Pelletier, Andrea J; Espinola, Janice A; Hooper, David C; Camargo, Carlos A

    2008-03-01

    Test the hypotheses that emergency department (ED) visits for skin and soft tissue infections became more frequent during the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and that antibiotics typically active against community-associated MRSA were chosen increasingly. From merged National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data for 1993-2005, we identified ED visits with diagnosis of cellulitis, abscess, felon, impetigo, hidradenitis, folliculitis, infective mastitis, nonpurulent mastitis, breast abscess, or carbuncle and furuncle. Main outcomes were change over time in rate of ED visits with such a diagnosis and proportion of antibiotic regimens including an agent typically active against community-associated MRSA. We report national estimates derived from sample weights. We tested trends with least squares linear regression. In 1993, infections of interest were diagnosed at 1.2 million visits (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96 to 1.5 million) versus 3.4 million in 2005 (95% CI 2.8 to 4.1 million; P for trend trend trend skin and soft tissue infections increased markedly from 1993 to 2005, contemporaneously with the emergence of community-associated MRSA. ED clinicians prescribed more antibiotics typically active against community-associated MRSA, especially trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Possible confounders are discussed, such as increasing diabetes or shifts in locus of care.

  14. Enhancement of Afterimage Colors by Surrounding Contours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Sato

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Presenting luminance contours surrounding the adapted areas in test phase enhances color afterimages in both duration and color appearance. The presence of surrounding contour is crucial to some color phenomenon such as van Lier's afterimage, but the contour-effect itself has not been seriously examined. In this paper, we compared the contour-effect to color afterimages and to actually colored patches to examine the nature of color information subserving color-aftereffect. In the experiment, observers were adapted for 1 sec to a small colored square (red, green, yellow, or blue presented on a gray background. Then, a test field either with or without surrounding contour was presented. Observers matched the color of a test-patch located near the afterimage to the color of afterimage. It was found that the saturation of negative afterimage was almost doubled by the presence of surrounding contours. There was no effect of luminance contrast or polarity of contours. In contrast, no enhancement of saturation by surrounding contours was observed for actually colored patches even though the colors of patches were equalized to that of afterimage without contours. This dissociation in the contour-effect demonstrates the crucial difference between the color information for aftereffects and for ordinary bottom-up color perception.

  15. In Inflamed Intestinal Tissues and Epithelial Cells, Interleukin 22 Signaling Increases Expression of H19 Long Noncoding RNA, Which Promotes Mucosal Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hua; Bu, Heng-Fu; Liu, Fangyi; Wu, Longtao; Pfeifer, Karl; Chou, Pauline M; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Jiaren; Lu, Lu; Pandey, Ashutosh; Bartolomei, Marisa S; De Plaen, Isabelle G; Wang, Peng; Yu, Jindan; Qian, Jiaming; Tan, Xiao-Di

    2018-04-03

    Inflammation affects regeneration of the intestinal epithelia; long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate cell functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and migration. We investigated the mechanisms by which the lncRNA H19, imprinted maternally expressed transcript (H19) regulates regeneration of intestinal epithelium using cell cultures and mouse models of inflammation. We performed RNA-sequencing transcriptome analyses of intestinal tissues from mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis to identify lncRNAs associated with inflammation; findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization analyses of intestinal tissues from mice with sepsis or dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mucosal wound healing and patients with ulcerative colitis compared to healthy individuals (controls). We screened cytokines for their ability to induce expression of H19 in HT-29 cells and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), and confirmed findings in crypt epithelial organoids derived from mouse small intestine. IECs were incubated with different signal transduction inhibitors and effects on H19 lncRNA levels were measured. We assessed intestinal epithelial proliferation or regeneration in H19 ΔEx1/+ mice given LPS or DSS vs wild-type littermates (control mice). H19 was overexpressed in IECs using lentiviral vectors and cell proliferation was measured. We performed RNA antisense purification, RNA immunoprecipitation, and luciferase reporter assays to study functions of H19 in IECs. In RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis of lncRNA expression in intestinal tissues from mice, we found levels of H19 only changed significantly with LPS exposure. Levels of H19 lncRNA increased in intestinal tissues of patients with ulcerative colitis, mice with LPS-induced sepsis, or mice with DSS-induced colitis, compared with controls. Increased H19 lncRNA localized to epithelial cells in the intestine, regardless of Lgr5 messenger RNA

  16. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions......: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  17. Post-processing of polymer foam tissue scaffolds with high power ultrasound: A route to increased pore interconnectivity, pore size and fluid transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, N.J.; Johal, R.K.; Glover, Z.; Reinwald, Y.; White, L.J.; Ghaemmaghami, A.M.; Morgan, S.P.; Rose, F.R.A.J.; Povey, M.J.W.; Parker, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate that the structural and fluidic properties of polymer foam tissue scaffolds, post-fabrication but prior to the introduction of cells, can be engineered via exposure to high power ultrasound. Our analysis is supported by measurements of fluid uptake during insonification and imaging of the scaffold microstructure via X-ray computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and acoustic microscopy. The ultrasonic treatment is performed with a frequency of 30 kHz, average intensities up to 80,000 Wm −2 and exposure times up to 20 h. The treatment is found to increase the mean pore size by over 10%. More striking is the improvement in fluid uptake: for scaffolds with only 40% water uptake via standard immersion techniques, we can routinely achieve full saturation of the scaffold over approximately one hour of exposure. These desirable modifications occur with negligible loss of scaffold integrity and mass, and are optimized when the ultrasound treatment is coupled to a pre-wetting stage with ethanol. Our findings suggest that high power ultrasound is highly targeted towards flow obstructions in the scaffold architecture, thereby providing an efficient means to promote pore interconnectivity and fluid transport in thick foam tissue scaffolds. - Highlights: • We expose thick PLA foam tissue scaffolds to high power ultrasound. • This treatment both accelerates and enhances the uptake of fluid into the scaffold. • It leads to significant increases in the mean pore size, pore interconnectivity and porosity. • The ultrasonic treatment is most effective when the scaffold is pre-wet with ethanol. • We demonstrate the use of acoustic microscopy to characterize the scaffold microstructure

  18. Cyclosporine, a P-glycoprotein modulator, increases [18F]MPPF uptake in rat brain and peripheral tissues: microPET and ex vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacan, Goran; Way, Baldwin M.; Plenevaux, Alain; Defraiteur, Caroline; Lemaire, Christian; Aerts, Joel; Luxen, Andre; Rubins, Daniel J.; Cherry, Simon R.; Melega, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Pretreatment with cyclosporine, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulator increases brain uptake of 4-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-(N-2''-pyridinyl)-p-[ 18 F] fluorobenzamido] ethylpiper azine ([ 18 F]MPPF) for binding to hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT 1A ) receptors. Those increases were quantified in rat brain with in vivo microPET and ex vivo tissue studies. Each Sprague-Dawley rat (n=4) received a baseline [ 18 F]MPPF microPET scan followed by second scan 2-3 weeks later that included cyclosporine pretreatment (50 mg/kg, i.p.). Maximum a posteriori reconstructed images and volumetric ROIs were used to generate dynamic radioactivity concentration measurements for hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum, with simplified reference tissue method (SRTM) analysis. Western blots were used to semiquantify P-gp regional distribution in brain. MicroPET studies showed that hippocampus uptake of [ 18 F]MPPF was increased after cyclosporine; ex vivo studies showed similar increases in hippocampus and frontal cortex at 30 min, and for heart and kidney at 2.5 and 5 min, without concomitant increases in [ 18 F]MPPF plasma concentration. P-gp content in cerebellum was twofold higher than in hippocampus or frontal cortex. These studies confirm and extend prior ex vivo results (J. Passchier, et al., Eur J Pharmacol, 2000) that showed [ 18 F]MPPF as a substrate for P-gp. Our microPET results showed that P-gp modulation of [ 18 F]MPPF binding to 5-HT 1A receptors can be imaged in rat hippocampus. The heterogeneous brain distribution of P-gp appeared to invalidate the use of cerebellum as a nonspecific reference region for SRTM modeling. Regional quantitation of P-gp may be necessary for accurate PET assessment of 5-HT 1A receptor density when based on tracer uptake sensitive to P-gp modulation. (orig.)

  19. Increased technetium-99 m hydroxy diphosphonate soft tissue uptake on bone scintigraphy in chronic kidney disease patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: correlation with hyperphosphataemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enevoldsen, Lotte Hahn; Heaf, James; Højgaard, Liselotte; Zerahn, Bo; Hasbak, Philip

    2017-03-01

    In bone scan patients with dialysis-treated chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperparathyroidism, soft tissue accumulation of technetium-99 m hydroxy/methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99 m-HDP/MDP) has been reported primarily in case reports and usually explained by hypercalcaemia and/or hyperphosphataemia. As human vascular smooth muscle cells produce hydroxyapatite during cell culture with increased phosphate levels and as Tc-99 m-HDP/MDP primarily binds to hydroxyapatite, we hypothesized that soft tissue accumulation would be found in patients with hyperphosphataemia. We identified 63 CKD patients diagnosed with secondary hyperparathyroidism admitted for Tc-99 m-HDP bone scan. Baseline characteristics and mean concentrations of biochemical markers (including P-calcium and P-phosphate) taken 0-3 months prior to the bone scans were collected. Soft tissue uptake was detected on bone scans in 37 of 63 (59%) patients. Primary locations were in the heart (27/37 = 73%), muscles (12/37 = 32%), lung (9/37 = 24%) and gastrointestinal tract (6/37 = 16%), and 13 of 37 (35%) patients had simultaneous uptake in more than one location. Regarding biochemical markers, patients with soft tissue uptake only differed from patients without in terms of plasma phosphate levels (1·95 ± 0·15 (n = 37) versus 1·27 ± 0·08 (n = 26), P = 0·0012). All patients with myocardial uptake (n = 27) had a coronary arteriography-verified history of coronary artery disease (CAD), whereas CAD was only present in six of the 36 patients without myocardial uptake. In conclusion, dialysis-treated CKD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism have a high incidence of soft tissue uptake, and this finding is strongly correlated with elevated phosphate, but not calcium values. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Increased tissue leptin hormone level and mast cell count in skin tags: A possible role of adipoimmune in the growth of benign skin growths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Safoury Omar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags (ST are common tumors. They mainly consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Decrease in endocrine, hormone level and other factors are thought to play a role in the evolution of ST. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that acts as a major regulatory hormone for food intake and energy homeostasis. Leptin deficiency or resistance can result in profound obesity and diabetes in humans. A role of mast cell in the pathogenesis of ST is well recognized. Aims: To investigate the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of ST and to clarify whether there is a correlation between mast cell count and leptin level in ST. Methods: Forty-five skin biopsies were taken from 15 patients with ST. From each patient, a biopsy of a large ST (length >4 mm, a small ST (length <2 mm and a normal skin biopsy (as a control were taken. The samples were processed for leptin level. Skin biopsies were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue-uranyl nitrate metachromatic method for mast cell count was used. Results: There was a significant increased level of leptin in the ST compared to the normal skin. It was highly significant in small ST than in big ST (P = 0.0001 and it was highly significant in small and big ST compared to controls, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively. There was a significant increase in mast cell count in the ST, which did not correlate with the increased levels of leptin. Conclusion: This is the first report to demonstrate that tissue leptin may play a role in the pathogenesis of ST. The significant increase in the levels of leptin and mast cell count in ST may indicate a possible role of adipoimmune in the benign skin growths.

  1. Capsinoids activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) with increased energy expenditure associated with subthreshold 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in BAT-positive humans confirmed by positron emission tomography scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Camps, Stefan G; Goh, Hui Jen; Govindharajulu, Priya; Schaefferkoetter, Joshua D; Townsend, David W; Verma, Sanjay K; Velan, S Sendhil; Sun, Lei; Sze, Siu Kwan; Lim, Su Chi; Boehm, Bernhard Otto; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing

    2018-01-01

    Capsinoids are reported to increase energy expenditure (EE) via brown adipose tissue (BAT) stimulation. However, imaging of BAT activation by capsinoids remains limited. Because BAT activation is a potential therapeutic strategy for obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to prove that capsinoid-induced BAT activation can be visualized by 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We compared capsinoids and cold exposure on BAT activation and whole-body EE. Twenty healthy participants (8 men, 12 women) with a mean age of 26 y (range: 21-35 y) and a body mass index (kg/m2) of 21.7 (range: 18.5-26.0) underwent 18F-FDG PET and whole-body calorimetry after ingestion of 12 mg capsinoids or ≤2 h of cold exposure (∼14.5°C) in a crossover design. Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs) of the region of interest and BAT volumes were calculated. Blood metabolites were measured before and 2 h after each treatment. All of the participants showed negligible 18F-FDG uptake post-capsinoid ingestion. Upon cold exposure, 12 participants showed avid 18F-FDG uptake into supraclavicular and lateral neck adipose tissues (BAT-positive group), whereas the remaining 8 participants (BAT-negative group) showed undetectable uptake. Capsinoids and cold exposure increased EE, although cold induced a 2-fold increase in whole-body EE and higher fat oxidation, insulin sensitivity, and HDL cholesterol compared with capsinoids. Capsinoids only increased EE in BAT-positive participants, which suggests that BAT mediates EE evoked by capsinoids. This implies that capsinoids stimulate BAT to a lesser degree than cold exposure as evidenced by 18F-FDG uptake below the presently accepted SUV thresholds defining BAT activation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02964442. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  2. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings -- 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, G.K.; van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it

  3. Childhood Suicide and Myths Surrounding It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Dorothea B.

    1994-01-01

    Dispels five misconceptions surrounding the suicide of children: that children under the age of six do not commit suicide; that suicide in latency years is extremely rare; that psychodynamically and developmentally true depression is not possible in childhood; that child cannot understand finality of death; and that children are cognitively and…

  4. Endoglin Expression and The Level of TGF- β are Increased in The Placental Tissue and Correlated with Low Fetal Weight in Malaria Infected Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujarot Dwi Sasmito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria infection during pregnancy can cause accumulation of infected red blood cells in placental intervillous space and induces placental tissue inflammation and hypoxia. This condition triggers endoglin expressionand release of soluble endoglin that can interfere TGF-β binding with the receptor. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between placental endoglin expression and TGF-β level with low fetal weight (LFW in malaria-infected mice. Nine pregnant mice infected with Plasmodium berghei on the day ninth post mating (malaria-infected group and eight normal pregnant mice (non-infected group were used in this study. The mice were sacrificed on the day 18th post mating, and all fetal body weights were measured by analytical scale. Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was done to determine the level of placental TGF-β while immunohistochemical staining was performed to examine endoglin expression in placental tissue. The mean of fetal body weights of malaria-infected group was significantly lower than non-infected group (p= 0,002, while the expression of placental endoglin in malaria- infected group was substantially higher than non-infected group (p= 0.003. The level of placental TGF-β in malaria-infected group was also considerably higher than non-infected group, but the difference was not significant (p= 0.064. Pearson correlation test showed that there were significant negative correlations between fetal body weights with the level of placental TGF-β (p= 0.017, r= -0.568 and the expression of placental endoglin (p= 0.002, r= -0.694. Malaria infection in pregnant mice will increase both TGF-β and endoglin in placenta tissue and correlate with low fetal weight.

  5. Increased MiR-221 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and its role in enhancing cell growth and inhibiting apoptosis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Minhua; Chen, Gang; Dang, Yiwu

    2013-01-01

    MiR-221 is over-expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its clinical significance and function in HCC remains uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between miR-221 overexpression and clinicopathological parameters in HCC formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, and the effect of miR-221 inhibitor and mimic on different HCC cell lines in vitro. MiR-221 expression was detected using real time RT-qPCR in FFPE HCC and the adjacent noncancerous liver tissues. The relationship between miR-221 level and clinicopathological features was also analyzed. Furthermore, miR-221 inhibitor and mimic were transfected into HCC cell lines HepB3, HepG2 and SNU449. The effects of miR-221 on cell growth, cell cycle, caspase activity and apoptosis were also investigated by spectrophotometry, fluorimetry, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The relative expression of miR-221 in clinical TNM stages III and IV was significantly higher than that in the stages I and II. The miR-221 level was also upregulated in the metastatic group compared to the nonmetastatic group. Furthermore, miR-221 over-expression was related to the status of tumor capsular infiltration in HCC clinical samples. Functionally, cell growth was inhibited, cell cycle was arrested in G1/S-phase and apoptosis was increased by miR-221 inhibitor in vitro. Likewise, miR-221 mimic accelerated the cell growth. Expression of miR-221 in FFPE tissues could provide predictive significance for prognosis of HCC patients. Moreover, miR-221 inhibitor could be useful to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in HCC cells. Thus miR-221 might be a critical targeted therapy strategy for HCC

  6. Identification of β-SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    β-SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman ... Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its .... intensity implies very low graphite content in thin film. In.

  7. Soft tissue grafting to improve implant esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawia M Kassab

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Moawia M KassabDivision of Periodontics, Marquette University, School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: Dental implants are becoming the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restorations. When minimal bone width is present, implant placement becomes a challenge and often resulting in recession and dehiscence around the implant that leads to subsequent gingival recession. To correct such defect, the author turned to soft tissue autografting and allografting to correct a buccal dehiscence around tooth #24 after a malpositioned implant placed by a different surgeon. A 25-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession and exposure of implant threads around tooth #24. The patient received three soft tissue grafting procedures to augment the gingival tissue. The first surgery included a connective tissue graft to increase the width of the keratinized gingival tissue. The second surgery included the use of autografting (connective tissue graft to coronally position the soft tissue and achieve implant coverage. The third and final surgery included the use of allografting material Alloderm to increase and mask the implant from showing through the gingiva. Healing period was uneventful for the patient. After three surgical procedures, it appears that soft tissue grafting has increased the width and height of the gingiva surrounding the implant. The accomplished thickness of gingival tissue appeared to mask the showing of implant threads through the gingival tissue and allowed for achieving the desired esthetic that the patient desired. The aim of the study is to present a clinical case with soft tissue grafting procedures.Keywords: case report, connective tissue, dental implants, allograft, coronally positioned flap

  8. Novel GLP-1 Analog Supaglutide Reduces HFD-Induced Obesity Associated with Increased Ucp-1 in White Adipose Tissue in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wan

    2017-05-01

    supaglutide increased tolerance of the mice to cold environment associated with up-regulation of Ucp1 in the inguinal fat. Furthermore, supaglutide improved glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity in the obese mice suggesting improved glucose and energy homeostasis. Our findings suggest that supaglutide exerts beneficial effect on established obesity through reducing energy intake and is associated with brown remodeling of white adipose tissue.

  9. Endurance Exercise Mobilizes Developmentally Early Stem Cells into Peripheral Blood and Increases Their Number in Bone Marrow: Implications for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise has been reported to increase the number of circulating hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs in peripheral blood (PB as well as in bone marrow (BM. We therefore became interested in whether endurance exercise has the same effect on very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs, which have been described as a population of developmentally early stem cells residing in BM. Mice were run daily for 1 hour on a treadmill for periods of 5 days or 5 weeks. Human volunteers had trained in long-distance running for one year, six times per week. FACS-based analyses and RT-PCR of murine and human VSELs and HSPCs from collected bone marrow and peripheral blood were performed. We observed that endurance exercise increased the number of VSELs circulating in PB and residing in BM. In parallel, we observed an increase in the number of HSPCs. These observations were subsequently confirmed in young athletes, who showed an increase in circulating VSELs and HSPCs after intensive running exercise. We provide for the first time evidence that endurance exercise may have beneficial effects on the expansion of developmentally early stem cells. We hypothesize that these circulating stem cells are involved in repairing minor exercise-related tissue and organ injuries.

  10. The Increasing Prevalence in Intersex Variation from Toxicological Dysregulation in Fetal Reproductive Tissue Differentiation and Development by Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa L. Rich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of children are born with intersex variation (IV; ambiguous genitalia/hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphroditism, etc.. Evidence shows that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs in the environment can cause reproductive variation through dysregulation of normal reproductive tissue differentiation, growth, and maturation if the fetus is exposed to EDCs during critical developmental times in utero. Animal studies support fish and reptile embryos exhibited IV and sex reversal when exposed to EDCs. Occupational studies verified higher prevalence of offspring with IV in chemically exposed workers (male and female. Chemicals associated with endocrine-disrupting ability in humans include organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins, and furans. Intersex individuals may have concurrent physical disorders requiring lifelong medical intervention and experience gender dysphoria. An urgent need exists to determine which chemicals possess the greatest risk for IV and the mechanisms by which these chemicals are capable of interfering with normal physiological development in children.

  11. Depletion of H2S during obesity enhances store-operated Ca2+ entry in adipose tissue macrophages to increase cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Gopal V; Huang, Huiya; Sun, Hongbin; Candela, Joseph; Jaiswal, Mukesh K; Beaman, Kenneth D; Yamashita, Megumi; Prakriya, Murali; White, Carl

    2015-12-15

    The increased production of proinflammatory cytokines by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) contributes to chronic, low-level inflammation during obesity. We found that obesity in mice reduced the bioavailability of the gaseous signaling molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Steady-state, intracellular concentrations of H2S were lower in ATMs isolated from mice with diet-induced obesity than in ATMs from lean mice. In addition, the intracellular concentration of H2S in the macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was reduced during an acute inflammatory response evoked by the microbial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Reduced intracellular concentrations of H2S led to increased Ca(2+) influx through the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) pathway, which was prevented by the exogenous H2S donor GYY4137. Furthermore, GYY4137 inhibited the Orai3 channel, a key component of the SOCE machinery. The enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines by RAW264.7 cells and ATMs from obese mice was reduced by exogenous H2S or by inhibition of SOCE. Together, these data suggest that the depletion of macrophage H2S that occurs during acute (LPS-induced) or chronic (obesity) inflammation increases SOCE through disinhibition of Orai3 and promotes the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  13. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  14. Functional Characterization of Preadipocytes Derived from Human Periaortic Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue can affect the metabolic control of the cardiovascular system, and its anatomic location can affect the vascular function differently. In this study, biochemical and phenotypical characteristics of adipose tissue from periaortic fat were evaluated. Periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues were obtained from areas surrounding the ascending aorta and sternotomy incision, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from patients undergoing myocardial revascularization or mitral valve replacement surgery. Morphological studies with hematoxylin/eosin and immunohistochemical assay were performed in situ to quantify adipokine expression. To analyze adipogenic capacity, adipokine expression, and the levels of thermogenic proteins, adipocyte precursor cells were isolated from periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues and induced to differentiation. The precursors of adipocytes from the periaortic tissue accumulated less triglycerides than those from the subcutaneous tissue after differentiation and were smaller than those from subcutaneous adipose tissue. The levels of proteins involved in thermogenesis and energy expenditure increased significantly in periaortic adipose tissue. Additionally, the expression levels of adipokines that affect carbohydrate metabolism, such as FGF21, increased significantly in mature adipocytes induced from periaortic adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that precursors of periaortic adipose tissue in humans may affect cardiovascular events and might serve as a target for preventing vascular diseases.

  15. Crust Structure Data of Seas Surrounding Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maden, N.; Gelisli, K.

    2007-01-01

    Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterranean and Marmara Sea, which surround the Turkey, have not been examined with respect to the Geological, Geophysical and other natural sciences sufficiently. In fact, it is not attach importance the Turkish seas adequately and abandoned with respect to the scientific researches. The most important reason of this situation is the lack of the education of the Marine Sciences in the Turkish Universities. In this study, it is tried to construct a crustal structure data base of the surrounding seas of the Turkey by collecting crustal structure data sets done by different authors in different times so far. The data acquired in the base are collected from different data base sources by dragging. The Moho depth in the eastern and western basin of the Black sea is 22 km and 19 km, respectively. In the Marmara Sea the Moho depth is 24 km. The moho value in the southern Aegean is 20 km, in the northern Aegean the moho depth is 30 km. on the other hand, the moho depth value in the eastern and western basin of the Mediterranean Sea are 15-20 km and 25-30 km, respectively

  16. Increased synovial tissue NF-kappa B1 expression at sites adjacent to the cartilage-pannus junction in rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benito, M.J.; Murphy, E.P.; Berg, W.B. van den; Fitzgerald, O.; Bresnihan, B.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the expression of the Rel/NF-kappa B subunits, NF-kappa B1 (p50) and RelA (p65), in paired synovial tissue samples selected from sites adjacent to and remote from the cartilage-pannus junction (CPJ) in patients with inflammatory arthritis. METHODS: Synovial tissue was selected

  17. Biomaterials for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Timothy J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2014-06-01

    With advancements in biological and engineering sciences, the definition of an ideal biomaterial has evolved over the past 50 years from a substance that is inert to one that has select bioinductive properties and integrates well with adjacent host tissue. Biomaterials are a fundamental component of tissue engineering, which aims to replace diseased, damaged, or missing tissue with reconstructed functional tissue. Most biomaterials are less than satisfactory for pediatric patients because the scaffold must adapt to the growth and development of the surrounding tissues and organs over time. The pediatric community, therefore, provides a distinct challenge for the tissue engineering community. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in breast cancer cells is associated with increased migration and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wenwen; O'Kelly, James; Lu, Daning; Leiter, Amanda; Sohn, Julia; Yin, Dong; Karlan, Beth; Vadgama, Jay; Lyons, Karen M; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2011-06-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) belongs to the CCN family of matricellular proteins, comprising Cyr61, CTGF, NovH and WISP1-3. The CCN proteins contain an N-terminal signal peptide followed by four conserved domains sharing sequence similarities with the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins, von Willebrand factor type C repeat, thrombospondin type 1 repeat, and a C-terminal growth factor cysteine knot domain. To investigate the role of CCN2 in breast cancer, we transfected MCF-7 cells with full-length CCN2, and with four mutant constructs in which one of the domains had been deleted. MCF-7 cells stably expressing full-length CCN2 demonstrated reduced cell proliferation, increased migration in Boyden chamber assays and promoted angiogenesis in chorioallantoic membrane assays compared to control cells. Deletion of the C-terminal cysteine knot domain, but not of any other domain-deleted mutants, abolished activities mediated by full-length CCN2. We have dissected the role of CCN2 in breast tumorigenesis on a structural basis.

  19. Numerical Simulation on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks.

  20. Numerical simulation on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuguang; Wang, Yuan; Mei, Yu; Zhang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Zonal disintegration have been discovered in many underground tunnels with the increasing of embedded depth. The formation mechanism of such phenomenon is difficult to explain under the framework of traditional rock mechanics, and the fractured shape and forming conditions are unclear. The numerical simulation was carried out to research the generating condition and forming process of zonal disintegration. Via comparing the results with the geomechanical model test, the zonal disintegration phenomenon was confirmed and its mechanism is revealed. It is found to be the result of circular fracture which develops within surrounding rock mass under the high geostress. The fractured shape of zonal disintegration was determined, and the radii of the fractured zones were found to fulfill the relationship of geometric progression. The numerical results were in accordance with the model test findings. The mechanism of the zonal disintegration was revealed by theoretical analysis based on fracture mechanics. The fractured zones are reportedly circular and concentric to the cavern. Each fracture zone ruptured at the elastic-plastic boundary of the surrounding rocks and then coalesced into the circular form. The geometric progression ratio was found to be related to the mechanical parameters and the ground stress of the surrounding rocks.

  1. Increased Pathogen Identification in Vascular Graft Infections by the Combined Use of Tissue Cultures and 16S rRNA Gene Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Ajdler-Schaeffler

    2018-06-01

    /or broad-range PCR-positive specimens (n = 96, 74 (77% were monomicrobial and 22 (23% polymicrobial, whereas the rate of polymicrobial samples was higher in broad-range PCR-positive specimens (93%.Conclusions: Combined cultures and broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR from periprosthetic tissue and/or explanted vascular grafts increased the diagnostic accuracy in VGI, particularly in patients already under antimicrobial treatment at the time of redo surgery. Ideally, antimicrobial treatment should be withheld until surgical sampling in order to optimize microbiological diagnostics.Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT01821664

  2. Glucose intolerance and the amount of visceral adipose tissue contribute to an increase in circulating triglyceride concentrations in Caucasian obese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berings, Margot; Wehlou, Charline; Verrijken, An; Deschepper, Ellen; Mertens, Ilse; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Van Gaal, Luc F; Ouwens, D Margriet; Ruige, Johannes B

    2012-01-01

    Lipotoxicity is a risk factor for developing obesity-related metabolic complications, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes (DM2), cardiovascular disease and stroke. Yet, the mechanisms underlying the development of lipotoxicity itself remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether glucose intolerance aggravates lipotoxicity by evaluating the association between triglyceride (TG) concentrations and glucose tolerance status in a cross-sectional study on obese Caucasian women at risk for DM2. 913 obese females unknown to have diabetes were recruited (mean age: 41.2 ± SD 12.3; median BMI: 36.2, IQR 32.9-40.2). Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue volumes were quantified with computed tomography. Glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were determined in fasting state and following a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test. Based on fasting and 2 h post-load glucose levels, 27% of the women had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 8% had newly diagnosed DM2. Fasting TG concentrations were similar between the IGT- and DM2-groups, and increased as compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Even when adjusting for age, hip circumference and VAT, fasting TG concentrations remained elevated as compared to NGT. Mixed modelling analysis of post-load responses showed that TG concentrations declined more slowly in the DM2-group as compared to IGT and NGT. However, when adjusting for VAT the difference in decline between the glucose tolerance groups disappeared. Glucose intolerance associates with elevated fasting TG concentrations in obese Caucasian women. We propose that glucose intolerance and increased VAT reduce lipid disposal mechanisms and may accelerate lipotoxicity.

  3. Glucose intolerance and the amount of visceral adipose tissue contribute to an increase in circulating triglyceride concentrations in Caucasian obese females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Berings

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Lipotoxicity is a risk factor for developing obesity-related metabolic complications, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes (DM2, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Yet, the mechanisms underlying the development of lipotoxicity itself remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether glucose intolerance aggravates lipotoxicity by evaluating the association between triglyceride (TG concentrations and glucose tolerance status in a cross-sectional study on obese Caucasian women at risk for DM2. METHODS: 913 obese females unknown to have diabetes were recruited (mean age: 41.2 ± SD 12.3; median BMI: 36.2, IQR 32.9-40.2. Visceral (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue volumes were quantified with computed tomography. Glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations were determined in fasting state and following a 75 gram oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Based on fasting and 2 h post-load glucose levels, 27% of the women had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and 8% had newly diagnosed DM2. Fasting TG concentrations were similar between the IGT- and DM2-groups, and increased as compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT. Even when adjusting for age, hip circumference and VAT, fasting TG concentrations remained elevated as compared to NGT. Mixed modelling analysis of post-load responses showed that TG concentrations declined more slowly in the DM2-group as compared to IGT and NGT. However, when adjusting for VAT the difference in decline between the glucose tolerance groups disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: Glucose intolerance associates with elevated fasting TG concentrations in obese Caucasian women. We propose that glucose intolerance and increased VAT reduce lipid disposal mechanisms and may accelerate lipotoxicity.

  4. Increased melatonin in oral mucosal tissue of oral lichen planus (OLP) patients: A possible link between melatonin and its role in oral mucosal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengtrakoon, Kirawut; Wannakasemsuk, Worraned; Vichitrananda, Vilasinee; Klanrit, Poramaporn; Hormdee, Doosadee; Noisombut, Rajda; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham

    2017-06-01

    The existence of extra-pineal melatonin has been observed in various tissues. No prior studies of melatonin in human oral mucosal tissue under the condition of chronic inflammation have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of melatonin in oral mucosal tissue of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) which was considered as a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease causing oral mucosal damage and ulcerations. Sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded oral mucosal tissue of OLP patients (n=30), and control subjects (n=30) were used in this study. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and the semiquantitative scoring system was used to assess the levels of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT: a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of melatonin), melatonin, and melatonin receptor 1 (MT1) in oral mucosa of OLP patients and normal oral mucosa of control subjects. AANAT, melatonin, and MT1were detected in oral mucosal tissue of OLP patients and control subjects. Immunostaining scores of AANAT, melatonin, and MT1 in oral mucosal tissue of OLP patients were significantly higher than those in control subjects (p=0.002, poral mucosal tissue of OLP patients imply that chronic inflammation may induce the local biosynthesis of melatonin via AANAT, and may enhance the action of melatonin via MT1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, L; Häussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S

    2015-02-01

    In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243±33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas

  6. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  7. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  8. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock.

  9. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction. North is at the top. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock.

  11. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. Towards Semantic Understanding of Surrounding Vehicular Maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of multiple low-cost visual sensors to obtain a surround view of the ego-vehicle for semantic understanding. A multi-perspective view will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies (NDS), by automating the task of data reduction of the observed sequences...... into events. A user-centric vision-based framework is presented using a vehicle detector and tracker in each separate perspective. Multi-perspective trajectories are estimated and analyzed to extract 14 different events, including potential dangerous behaviors such as overtakes and cut-ins. The system...... is tested on ten sequences of real-world data collected on U. S. highways. The results show the potential use of multiple low-cost visual sensors for semantic understanding around the ego-vehicle....

  14. Lovelock black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa); Centre for Theoretical Physics, Multidisciplinary Centre for Advanced Research and Studies (MCARS), New Delhi (India); Maharaj, Sunil D.; Baboolal, Dharmanand; Lee, Tae-Hun [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2018-02-15

    Lovelock gravity consisting of the dimensionally continued Euler densities is a natural generalization of general relativity to higher dimensions such that equations of motion are still second order, and the theory is free of ghosts. A scalar field with a positive potential that yields an accelerating universe has been termed quintessence. We present exact black hole solutions in D-dimensional Lovelock gravity surrounded by quintessence matter and also perform a detailed thermodynamical study. Further, we find that the mass, entropy and temperature of the black hole are corrected due to the quintessence background. In particular, we find that a phase transition occurs with a divergence of the heat capacity at the critical horizon radius, and that specific heat becomes positive for r{sub h} < r{sub c} allowing the black hole to become thermodynamically stable. (orig.)

  15. Lovelock black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Baboolal, Dharmanand; Lee, Tae-Hun

    2018-02-01

    Lovelock gravity consisting of the dimensionally continued Euler densities is a natural generalization of general relativity to higher dimensions such that equations of motion are still second order, and the theory is free of ghosts. A scalar field with a positive potential that yields an accelerating universe has been termed quintessence. We present exact black hole solutions in D-dimensional Lovelock gravity surrounded by quintessence matter and also perform a detailed thermodynamical study. Further, we find that the mass, entropy and temperature of the black hole are corrected due to the quintessence background. In particular, we find that a phase transition occurs with a divergence of the heat capacity at the critical horizon radius, and that specific heat becomes positive for r_h

  16. Influence of surrounding environment on subcritical crack growth in marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Yoshitaka; Kashiwaya, Koki; Nishida, Yuki; , Toshinori, Ii

    2017-06-01

    Understanding subcritical crack growth in rock is essential for determining appropriate measures to ensure the long-term integrity of rock masses surrounding structures and for construction from rock material. In this study, subcritical crack growth in marble was investigated experimentally, focusing on the influence of the surrounding environment on the relationship between the crack velocity and stress intensity factor. The crack velocity increased with increasing temperature and/or relative humidity. In all cases, the crack velocity increased with increasing stress intensity factor. However, for Carrara marble (CM) in air, we observed a region in which the crack velocity still increased with temperature, but the increase in the crack velocity with increasing stress intensity factor was not significant. This is similar to Region II of subcritical crack growth observed in glass in air. Region II in glass is controlled by mass transport to the crack tip. In the case of rock, the transport of water to the crack tip is important. In general, Region II is not observed for subcritical crack growth in rock materials, because rocks contain water. Because the porosity of CM is very low, the amount of water contained in the marble is also very small. Therefore, our results imply that we observed Region II in CM. Because the crack velocity increased in both water and air with increasing temperature and humidity, we concluded that dry conditions at low temperature are desirable for the long-term integrity of a carbonate rock mass. Additionally, mass transport to the crack tip is an important process for subcritical crack growth in rock with low porosity.

  17. Interleukins 6 and 15 Levels Are Higher in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, but Obesity Is Associated with Their Increased Content in Visceral Fat Depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Izabela Jonas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excess adiposity is associated with chronic inflammation, which takes part in the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish whether subcutaneous (SAT or visceral (VAT adipose tissue plays a major role in synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Concentrations of interleukins (IL: 1β, 6, 8 and 15 were measured at the protein level by an ELISA-based method and on the mRNA level by real-time PCR in VAT and SAT samples obtained from 49 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 and 16 normal-weight (BMI 20–24.9 kg/m2 controls. IL-6 and IL-15 protein concentrations were higher in SAT than in VAT for both obese (p = 0.003 and p < 0.0001, respectively and control individuals (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively, while for IL-1β this was observed only in obese subjects (p = 0.047. What characterized obese individuals was the higher expression of IL-6 and IL-15 at the protein level in VAT compared to normal-weight controls (p = 0.047 and p = 0.016, respectively. Additionally, obese individuals with metabolic syndrome had higher IL-1β levels in VAT than did obese individuals without this syndrome (p = 0.003. In conclusion, concentrations of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in SAT than in VAT, but it was the increased pro-inflammatory activity of VAT that was associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  18. Increased expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene transcript in relation to IL-6 promoter hypomethylation in gingival tissue from patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Ishida, Kohei; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2016-09-01

    DNA methylation of the cytokine genes may play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the alteration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene promoter methylation in the gingival tissue (GT) and peripheral blood (PB) is unique to chronic periodontitis (CP). DNA isolated from the GT and PB of 25 patients with (CP) and 20 healthy controls (H) was modified with sodium bisulfite and analyzed for IL-6 promoter methylation with direct sequencing. The levels of IL-6 mRNA and serum IL-6 protein were evaluated by a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The CP group showed that the overall methylation rates of IL-6 promoter that contained 19 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs were significantly decreased in GT in comparison to PB (p<0.001), which was significantly negatively correlated with the probing depth (p=0.003). The GT and PB of the H group displayed similar overall methylation rates. No significant difference was observed in the methylation rates at each CpG in GT in comparison to the PB in both groups. The levels of IL-6 mRNA in the GT and PB and serum IL-6 of the two groups were comparable. The ratio of IL-6 mRNA in the GT relative to the PB was significantly higher in the CP group than in the H group (p=0.03). The increased expression of IL-6 gene transcription may be related to IL-6 promoter hypomethylation in the GT from CP patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of Surrounding Colors in the Illuminant-Color Mode on Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuho Fukuda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On color constancy, we showed that brighter surrounding colors had greater influence than dim colors (Uchikawa, Kitazawa, MacLeod, Fukuda, 2010 APCV. Increasing luminance of a stimulus causes the change in appearance from the surface-color to the illuminant-color mode. However it is unknown whether the visual system considers such color appearance mode of surrounding colors to achieve color constancy. We investigated the influence of surrounding colors that appeared illuminant on color constancy. The stimulus was composed of a central test stimulus and surrounding six colors: bright and dim red, green and blue. The observers adjusted the chromaticity of the test stimulus to be appeared as an achromatic surface. The luminance balance of three bright surrounding colors was equalized with that of the optimal colors in three illuminant conditions, then, the luminance of one of the three bright colors was varied in the range beyond the critical luminance of color appearance mode transition. The results showed that increasing luminance of a bright surrounding color shifted the observers' achromatic setting toward its chromaticity, but this effect diminished for the surrounding color in the illuminant-color mode. These results suggest that the visual system considers color appearance mode of surrounding colors to accomplish color constancy.

  20. Combination of ethylene glycol with sucrose increases survival rate after vitrification of somatic tissue of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana A. Borges

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The cryopreservation of somatic tissue in collared peccaries promotes an alternative source of genetic material of this specie. The solid-surface vitrification (SSV is a great option for tissue conservation; nevertheless, the optimization of SSV requirements is necessary, especially when referred to cryoprotectants that will compose the vitrification solution. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate the effect of the presence of 0.25 M sucrose in addition to different combinations (only or association and concentrations (1.5 M or 3.0 M of ethylene glycol (EG and/or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO in the somatic tissue vitrification of collared peccaries. Subsequently, we tested six combinations of cryoprotectants with or without sucrose in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM plus 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Thus, 3.0 M EG with sucrose was able to maintain normal tissue characteristics compared with non-vitrified (control, especially for the volumetric ratio of epidermis (61.2 vs. 58.7% and dermis (34.5 vs. 36.6%, number of fibroblast (90.3 vs. 127.0, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR ratio (0.09 vs. 0.17% and nucleus area (15.4 vs. 14.5 μm2 respectively. In conclusion, 3.0 M EG with 0.25 M sucrose and 10% FBS resulted in a better cryoprotectant composition in the SSV for somatic tissue of collared peccaries.

  1. Increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 ratio in smokers with airway hyperresponsiveness and accelerated lung function decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo CY

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chun-Yu Lo,1 Hung-Yu Huang,1 Jung-Ru He,1 Tzu-Ting Huang,1 Chih-Chen Heh,1 Te-Fang Sheng,1 Kian Fan Chung,2 Han-Pin Kuo,1 Chun-Hua Wang1 1Department of Thoracic Medicine, Chang Gung Medical Foundation, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Airways Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK Background: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR is associated with airway inflammation and a rapid decline in lung function and is a predictor of future risk of COPD among smokers. Alveolar macrophages (AMs from patients with COPD release a greater amount of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9. We hypothesized that the imbalance between MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 is related to AHR in smokers.Patients and methods: Healthy smokers with AHR (AHR + S or smokers without AHR (AHR - S; divided according to a methacholine challenge test and nonsmokers without AHR (AHR - NS were enrolled. Spirometry was performed during enrollment and repeated after 5 years. Initially, AMs recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid were cultured in the presence of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitor (SB203580, MAPK kinase (MEK 1/2 (the MEK of extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] inhibitor, PD98059, or medium alone for 24 h. The release of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in culture supernatants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: A greater reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1 (as a percentage of the predicted value [%pred], and maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF was observed among AHR + S in the 5-year period. There was a higher proportion of neutrophils and a lower proportion of AMs in BAL fluid recovered from AHR + S. Compared to AMs from AHR - NS and AHR - S, AMs from nonsmokers with AHR (AHR + NS released more MMP-9 and less TIMP-1, with an increase in MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios. The MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in smokers

  2. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1798 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11850 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,798th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 13, 2009). North is on top. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 111 meters (364 feet) southward on the preceding sol. Tracks from that drive recede northward in this view. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1818 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11846 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,818th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 5, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 80.3 meters (263 feet) southward earlier on that sol. Tracks from the drive recede northward in this view. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  4. Opportunity's Surroundings on Sol 1687 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11739 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11739 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo, 360-degree view of the rover's surroundings on the 1,687th Martian day, or sol, of its surface mission (Oct. 22, 2008). The view appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses. Opportunity had driven 133 meters (436 feet) that sol, crossing sand ripples up to about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The tracks visible in the foreground are in the east-northeast direction. Opportunity's position on Sol 1687 was about 300 meters southwest of Victoria Crater. The rover was beginning a long trek toward a much larger crater, Endeavour, about 12 kilometers (7 miles) to the southeast. This panorama combines right-eye and left-eye views presented as cylindrical-perspective projections with geometric seam correction.

  5. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11841 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Aoudia, A.; Pontevivo, A.; Chimera, G.; Raykova, R.

    2003-02-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea, likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria. (author)

  7. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  8. INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD SURROUNDING THE HELIOPAUSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, Y. C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional analytical solution, in the limit of very low plasma β-ratio, for the distortion of the interstellar magnetic field surrounding the heliopause. The solution is obtained using a line dipole method that is the integration of point dipole along a semi-infinite line; it represents the magnetic field caused by the presence of the heliopause. The solution allows the variation of the undisturbed magnetic field at any inclination angle. The heliosphere is considered as having blunt-nosed geometry on the upwind side and it asymptotically approaches a cylindrical geometry having an open exit for the continuous outflow of the solar wind on the downwind side. The heliopause is treated as a magnetohydrodynamic tangential discontinuity; the interstellar magnetic field lines at the boundary are tangential to the heliopause. The interstellar magnetic field is substantially distorted due to the presence of the heliopause. The solution shows the draping of the field lines around the heliopause. The magnetic field strength varies substantially near the surface of the heliopause. The effect on the magnetic field due to the presence of the heliopause penetrates very deep into the interstellar space; the depth of penetration is of the same order of magnitude as the scale length of the heliosphere.

  9. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A McDaniel

    Full Text Available In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization.We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales.Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative.Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  10. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  11. Vitamin K supplementation increases vitamin K tissue levels but fails to counteract ectopic calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; Waarsing, Jan H.; Herfs, Marjolein; Versteeg, Daniëlle; Schoensiegel, Frank; Sato, Toshiro; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; Ivandic, Boris; Vermeer, Cees; Schurgers, Leon J.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which calcification of connective tissue leads to pathology in skin, eye and blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in ABCC6. High expression of this transporter in the basolateral hepatocyte membrane suggests that it secretes

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at the sn-2 position of triacylglycerols increases DHA incorporation in brown, but not in white adipose tissue, of hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paula A; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Martins, Susana V; Madeira, Marta S; Ferreira, Júlia; Guil-Guerrero, José L; Prates, José A M

    2018-06-01

    We hypothesised that the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) across adipose tissues will be higher when it is ingested as triacylglycerols (TAG) structured at the sn-2 position. Ten-week old male hamsters were allocated to 4 dietary treatments (n = 10): linseed oil (LSO-control group), fish oil (FO), fish oil ethyl esters (FO-EE) and structured DHA at the sn-2 position of TAG (DHA-SL) during 12 weeks. In opposition to the large variations found for fatty acid composition in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) was less responsive to diets. DHA was not found in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal WAT depots but it was successfully incorporated in BAT reaching the highest percentage in DHA-SL. The PCA on plasma hormones (insulin, leptin, adiponectin) and fatty acids discriminated BAT from WATs pointing towards an individual signature on fatty acid deposition, but did not allow for full discrimination of dietary treatments within each adipose tissue.

  13. Vitamin K supplementation increases vitamin K tissue levels but fails to counteract ectopic calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.G.M.F. Gorgels (Theo); J.H. Waarsing (Jan); M. Herfs (Marjolein); D. Versteeg (Daniëlle); F. Schoensiegel (Frank); T. Sato (Toshiro); R.O. Schlingemann (Reinier); B. Ivandic (Boris); C. Vermeer (Cees); L.J. Schurgers (Leon); A.A.B. Bergen (Arthur)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which calcification of connective tissue leads to pathology in skin, eye and blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in ABCC6. High expression of this transporter in the basolateral hepatocyte membrane suggests that

  14. Cholinergic enhancement reduces orientation-specific surround suppression but not visual crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kosovicheva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh reduces the spatial spread of excitatory fMRI responses in early visual cortex and the receptive field sizes of V1 neurons. We investigated the perceptual consequences of these physiological effects of ACh with surround suppression and crowding, two tasks that involve spatial interactions between visual field locations. Surround suppression refers to the reduction in perceived stimulus contrast by a high-contrast surround stimulus. For grating stimuli, surround suppression is selective for the relative orientations of the center and surround, suggesting that it results from inhibitory interactions in early visual cortex. Crowding refers to impaired identification of a peripheral stimulus in the presence of flankers and is thought to result from excessive integration of visual features. We increased synaptic ACh levels by administering the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil to healthy human subjects in a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In Exp. 1, we measured surround suppression of a central grating using a contrast discrimination task with three conditions: 1 surround grating with the same orientation as the center (parallel, 2 surround orthogonal to the center, or 3 no surround. Contrast discrimination thresholds were higher in the parallel than in the orthogonal condition, demonstrating orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS. Cholinergic enhancement reduced thresholds only in the parallel condition, thereby reducing OSSS. In Exp. 2, subjects performed a crowding task in which they reported the identity of a peripheral letter flanked by letters on either side. We measured the critical spacing between the target and flanking letters that allowed reliable identification. Cholinergic enhancement had no effect on critical spacing. Our findings suggest that ACh reduces spatial interactions in tasks involving segmentation of visual field locations but that these effects may be limited to early visual cortical

  15. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  16. Regulatory T Cells in HIV-Infected Immunological Nonresponders Are Increased in Blood but Depleted in Lymphoid Tissue and Predict Immunological Reconstitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Ronit, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected immunological nonresponders fail to immune reconstitute despite optimal treatment. We hypothesized that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in immunological reconstitution. Tregs and Treg subpopulations were measured in blood and Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue......, and the impact of Tregs on immunological reconstitution was determined. METHODS: HIV-infected individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy for a minimum of 2 years were included. The study population included 14 immunological nonresponders (INR; CD4 T-cell count .... In contrast, responders resembled healthy controls. Finally, in INR, high level of Tregs in blood and Foxp3 cells in lymphoid tissue were associated with higher level of immunological reconstitution after 1 year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, altered distribution of Tregs was found in INR...

  17. Increasing the number of unloading/reambulation cycles does not adversely impact body composition and lumbar bone mineral density but reduces tissue sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Manske, Sarah L.; Judex, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    A single exposure to hindlimb unloading leads to changes in body mass, body composition and bone, but the consequences of multiple exposures are not yet understood. Within a 18 week period, adult C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 1 (1x-HLU), 2 (2x-HLU) or 3 (3x-HLU) cycles of 2 weeks of hindlimb unloading (HLU) followed by 4 weeks of reambulation (RA), or served as ambulatory age-matched controls. In vivo μCT longitudinally tracked changes in abdominal adipose and lean tissues, lumbar vertebral apparent volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and upper hindlimb muscle cross-sectional area before and after the final HLU and RA cycle. During the final HLU cycle, significant decreases in total adipose tissue and vertebral vBMD in the three experimental groups occurred such that there were no significant between-group differences at the beginning of the final RA cycle. However, the magnitude of the HLU induced losses diminished in mice undergoing their 2nd or 3rd HLU cycle. Irrespective of the number of HLU/RA cycles, total adipose tissue and vertebral vBMD recovered and were no different from age-matched controls after the final RA period. In contrast, upper hindlimb muscle cross-sectional area was significantly lower than controls in all unloaded groups after the final RA period. These results suggest that tissues in the abdominal region are more resilient to multiple bouts of unloading and more amenable to recovery during reambulation than the peripheral musculoskeletal system.

  18. REMOTE SENSING EFFICIENCY FOR URBAN ANALYSIS OF MECCA AND SURROUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Imam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Situated in the southwest of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is considered the spiritual capital of one and a half billion worldwide Muslims. The city is visited by millions of pilgrims every year. It has undergone significant changes in land cover (LC since the government first embarked on a series of ambitious development projects 20 years ago to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims and citizens. The main objective of our study is to detect, identify, analyze and measure the evolving land cover and urban morphology composition from multi-temporal satellite images. To characterize the morphological change during a period of twenty years, four satellite images, acquired in 1998 by Landsat TM and in 2003, 2008 and 2013 by Landsat ETM+, were classified into five main categories: Urban, Street, Soil and Vegetation. In addition, DEM has been extracted and included as Mountain. Change detection (CD analysis is applied using post-classification comparison and GIS. As part of the study, morphological index, such as, Entropy is included for better understanding of urban structures behaviour. Mecca and its surroundings show a noticeable increase in urban and vegetation cover. Urban cover (UC changes were divided into five radial directions: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, East, and Northwest. These changes are influenced by mountain ranges surrounding the city and the highways. These revelations can play a significant role towards future planning and development activities, which may further promote urban growth.

  19. Remote Sensing Efficiency for Urban Analysis of Mecca and Surrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Ayman; Alhaddad, Bahaa; Roca, Josep

    2016-06-01

    Situated in the southwest of Saudi Arabia, Mecca is considered the spiritual capital of one and a half billion worldwide Muslims. The city is visited by millions of pilgrims every year. It has undergone significant changes in land cover (LC) since the government first embarked on a series of ambitious development projects 20 years ago to accommodate the growing number of pilgrims and citizens. The main objective of our study is to detect, identify, analyze and measure the evolving land cover and urban morphology composition from multi-temporal satellite images. To characterize the morphological change during a period of twenty years, four satellite images, acquired in 1998 by Landsat TM and in 2003, 2008 and 2013 by Landsat ETM+, were classified into five main categories: Urban, Street, Soil and Vegetation. In addition, DEM has been extracted and included as Mountain. Change detection (CD) analysis is applied using post-classification comparison and GIS. As part of the study, morphological index, such as, Entropy is included for better understanding of urban structures behaviour. Mecca and its surroundings show a noticeable increase in urban and vegetation cover. Urban cover (UC) changes were divided into five radial directions: Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, East, and Northwest. These changes are influenced by mountain ranges surrounding the city and the highways. These revelations can play a significant role towards future planning and development activities, which may further promote urban growth.

  20. MRI of normal pituitary glands and their surrounding structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshiyuki

    1991-01-01

    Normal MRI appearances of the pituitary glands and their surrounding structures were evaluated in 332 patients without sellar and parasellar diseases. The height of the pituitary gland was maximum at 10-19 years of age reflecting hormonal activity. The width of the pituitary gland decreased, while that of the cavernous sinus increased with aging. This is probably due to atherosclerotic change of the internal carotid artery. Females younger than 30 years of age tended to show a convex upper surface of the pituitary gland and the displacement of the pituitary stalk was common after 50 years of age. Almost all of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland showed isointensity relative to the pons or cerebral cortex and the majority (85.1%) of the posterior lobe showed hyperintensity. However, the anterior lobe in 2 newborns showed hyperintensity similar to the normal posterior lobe in adults. The posterior lobe was located off the midline in 19.1% of the subjects. One case of pars intermedia cyst was discovered among 14 subjects who were administered Gd-DTPA. The dural membrane between the pituitary gland and cavernous sinus was recognizable only in 8.6% on the right side and 7.5% on the left side. Primary empty sella was identified in 4.5%. Knowledge of the above normal ranges and variations of the pituitary gland and its surrounding structures is important in diagnosing sellar and parasellar lesions. (author) 52 refs

  1. Histologic assessment of peritumoral edema in soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Lawrence M.; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.; O'Sullivan, Brian; Catton, Charles; Ferguson, Peter; Blackstein, Martin; Kandel, Rita A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether satellite tumor cells can be identified histologically in the tissues surrounding a soft tissue sarcoma and whether their presence correlates with increased T 2 -weighted signal intensity on MRI. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with a high-grade extremity or truncal soft tissue sarcoma underwent preoperative MRI. The extent of high T 2 -weighted signal changes in the tissues surrounding tumor, thought to represent peritumoral edema/reactive changes, was determined. Twelve patients received i.v. gadolinium, and contrast enhancement was determined. All patients underwent surgical resection in the absence of preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The presence of tumor cells in the surrounding tissues was determined histologically in representative paraffin-embedded sections and correlated with the MRI findings. Results: The extent of peritumoral T 2 -weighted MRI signal changes ranged from 0 to 7.1 cm (mean, 2.5 cm); contrast enhancement ranged from 0 to 5.3 cm (mean, 1.1 cm). Sarcoma cells were identified histologically in the tissues beyond the tumor in 10 of 15 cases. In 6 cases, tumor cells were located within 1 cm of the tumor margin, and in 4 cases, malignant cells were found at a distance >1 cm and up to a maximum of 4 cm. The location of tumor cells beyond the margin did not correlate with tumor size nor did it correlate with the location or extent of peritumoral changes. Conclusion: The ability to identify tumor cells beyond the margin of a soft tissue sarcoma has important implications in planning appropriate targets for treatment. This could influence the use of new radiotherapy technologies such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy that aim to minimize treatment volumes through conformal planning

  2. A fish protein hydrolysate alters fatty acid composition in liver and adipose tissue and increases plasma carnitine levels in a mouse model of chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Berge, Christ; Ramsvik, Marie Sannes; Svardal, Asbjørn; Bohov, Pavol; Skorve, Jon; Berge, Rolf K

    2013-10-07

    There is growing evidence that fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) diets affect mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in animals. The aim of the study was to determine if FPH could influence fatty acid metabolism and inflammation in transgene mice expressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNFα). hTNFα mice (C57BL/6 hTNFα) were given a high-fat (23%, w/w) diet containing 20% casein (control group) or 15% FPH and 5% casein (FPH group) for two weeks. After an overnight fast, blood, adipose tissue, and liver samples were collected. Gene expression and enzyme activity was analysed in liver, fatty acid composition was analyzed in liver and ovarian white adipose tissue, and inflammatory parameters, carnitine, and acylcarnitines were analyzed in plasma. The n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio was higher in mice fed the FPH diet than in mice fed the control diet in both adipose tissue and liver, and the FPH diet affected the gene expression of ∆6 and ∆9 desaturases. Mice fed this diet also demonstrated lower hepatic activity of fatty acid synthase. Concomitantly, a lower plasma INF-γ level was observed. Plasma carnitine and the carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine was higher in the FPH-group compared to control, as was plasma short-chained and medium-chained acylcarnitine esters. The higher level of plasma acetylcarnitine may reflect a stimulated mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, as the hepatic activities of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II were higher in the FPH-fed mice. The FPH diet was shown to influence hepatic fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid composition. This indicates that effects on fatty acid metabolism are important for the bioactivity of protein hydrolysates of marine origin.

  3. A Study of the Flow Field Surrounding Interacting Line Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Maynard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which results from a momentum imbalance triggered by fire geometry. The model was validated by measuring the velocity field surrounding stationary alcohol pool fires. The flow field was seeded with high-contrast colored smoke, and the motion of smoke structures was analyzed using a cross-correlation optical flow technique. The measured velocities and flame angles are found to compare reasonably with the predicted values, and an analogy between merging fires and wind-blown flames is proposed.

  4. Increased expression of heat shock protein 70 and heat shock factor 1 in chronic dermal ulcer tissues treated with laser-aided therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-da; Luo, Cheng-qun; Xie, Hui-qing; Nie, Xin-min; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Wang, Shao-hua; Xu, Yi; Pokharel, Pashupati Babu; Xu, Dan

    2008-07-20

    Chronic dermal ulcers are also referred to as refractory ulcers. This study was conducted to elucidate the therapeutic effect of laser on chronic dermal ulcers and the induced expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in wound tissues. Sixty patients with 84 chronic dermal ulcers were randomly divided into traditional therapy and laser therapy groups. Laser treatment was performed in addition to traditional therapy in the laser therapy group. The treatment efficacy was evaluated after three weeks. Five tissue sections of healing wounds were randomly collected along with five normal skin sections as controls. HSP70-positive cells from HSP70 immunohistochemical staining were counted and the gray scale of positive cells was measured for statistical analysis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expressions of HSF1 and HSP70. The cure rate of the wounds and the total efficacy in the laser therapy group were significantly higher than those in the traditional therapy group (P ulcers plays a facilitating role in healing due to the mechanism of laser-activated endogenous heat shock protection in cells in wound surfaces.

  5. Brain tissue strains vary with head impact location: A possible explanation for increased concussion risk in struck versus striking football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Benjamin S; Gabler, Lee F; Panzer, Matthew B; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2018-03-29

    On-field football helmet impacts over a large range of severities have caused concussions in some players but not in other players. One possible explanation for this variability is the struck player's helmet impact location. We examined the effect of impact location on regional brain tissue strain when input energy was held constant. Laboratory impacts were performed at 12 locations distributed over the helmet and the resulting head kinematics were simulated in two finite element models of the brain: the Simulated Injury Monitor and the Global Human Body Model Consortium brain model. Peak kinematics, injury metrics and brain strain varied significantly with impact location. Differences in impact location explained 33 to 37% of the total variance in brain strain for the whole brain and cerebrum, considerably more than the variance explained by impact location for the peak resultant head kinematics (8 to 23%) and slightly more than half of the variance explained by the difference in closing speed (57 to 61%). Both finite element models generated similar strain results, with minor variations for impacts that generated multi-axial rotations, larger variations in brainstem strains for some impact locations and a small bias for the cerebellum. Based on this experimental and computational simulation study, impact location on the football helmet has a large effect on regional brain tissue strain. We also found that the lowest strains consistently occurred in impacts to the crown and forehead, helmet locations commonly associated with the striking player. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Socioeconomic Factors between Surrounding and Non-Surrounding Areas of the Qinghai–Tibet Railway before and after Its Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s highest railway, and the longest highland railway, the Qinghai–Tibet Railway (QTR has been paid considerable attention by researchers. However, most attention has been paid to the ecological and environmental issues affecting it, and sustainable ecological, social, and economic development-related studies of the QTR are rare. In this study, by analyzing the passenger traffic, freight traffic, passenger-kilometers, and freight-kilometers of the QTR for the period 1982–2013 and the transport structure of the Tibetan Plateau (TP for 1990–2013, the evolutionary process of the transport system in the TP following the construction of the QTR has been revealed. Subsequently, by comparing Gross Domestic Product (GDP, population, industrial structure, and urbanization level at the county and 1 km scales between surrounding and non-surrounding areas of the QTR, the differences in socioeconomic performance before and after its construction were detected. The results show that (1 in the TP, the highway-dominated transport system will break up and an integrated and sustainable transport system will form; (2 at the county scale, the annual growth rates of GDP of counties surrounding the QTR were greater than those of non-surrounding counties for the period 2000–2010. At the 1 km scale, following the opening of the completed line, the GDP of surrounding areas had a greater growth rate than before; (3 analysis at the county and 1 km scales indicated that population was not aggregated into the surrounding areas of the QTR in the period 2000–2010; (4 in terms of industrial structure, the proportion of primary industry decreased continuously, while the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries increased overall in the period 1984–2012. The QTR had no obvious impact on changes in the urbanization level of its surrounding areas.

  7. Issues surrounding the money laundering crime

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Money laundering took advantage of the increasing openness and expanding markets to improve their techniques, taking advantage of the vulnerability of the weaker countries. In an evolutionary perspective, we understand how this phenomenon has progressed and how countries and referenced organizations have an important role to play in its prevention. This crime was defined and framed in an evolutionary perspective, whether legislative, or jurisprudential doctrine in order to better understand t...

  8. CT assisted follow-up of arthroscopically placed hydroxylapatite grafts in repair of fracture of the tibial head. Initial results of a CT assisted, quantitative assessment of the incorporation of the calcium hydroxylapatite graft and the reactions of the surrounding tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebig, T.; Schedel, H.; Kodadadyan, Z.; Ricke, J.; Hoffmann, R.; Haas, N.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    Four patients bearing a hydroxylapatite graft in repair of tibial head fracture have been examined by CT immediately after surgery and several times in the post operative period of up to 24 months. Density measurements of the graft, the spongiosa immediately next to it, and the spongiosa in fibula and tibia reveal the integration and ossous connection of the graft, quantifiable by the X-ray density. The spongiosa in immediate contact with the graft shows an initial density increase related to the first post-operative data, followed by a density decrease observed by subsequent measurements. These results are in agreement with animal experimental data and histomorphologic studies of other authors, which show that porous hydroxylapatite is used by the bone as a matrix serving as a pathway for osteoblast migration and subsequent ossification of the graft. Thus CT is capable of showing the post-operative integration process by quantifying and reproducible data. (orig.) [de

  9. Increased expression of C-reactive protein gene in inflamed gingival tissues could be derived from endothelial cells stimulated with interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Tomoki; Tabeta, Koichi; Kajita-Okui, Keiko; Nakajima, Takako; Yamazaki, Kazuhisa

    2011-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested periodontitis as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a predictor of cardiovascular risk, is elevated in periodontitis patients. Therefore, local infection-induced elevation of systemic CRP could account for the relationship between the 2 diseases. However, the underlying mechanism of CRP production in the periodontal tissues has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the mechanism of CRP production in periodontal tissues. Gene expression of CRP in gingival biopsies was analysed by quantitative PCR. Human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs), human gingival fibroblasts (HGFBs), and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were characterized for CRP-producing ability by incubating with interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), and Porphyromonas gingivalis strain W83. Gene expression of CRP is significantly elevated in periodontitis lesions compared with gingivitis lesions. HCAECs, but not HGECs and HGFBs, produced CRP in response to IL-6 and IL-1β in the presence of sIL-6R. In contrast to IL-6, the effect of IL-1β on CRP production was indirect via induction of IL-6. IL-1β was produced by HGECs and HGFBs with stimulation of P. gingivalis antigens. These results suggest that CRP induced locally by periodontal infection may play another role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, and to a much lesser extent, has the potential to modulate systemic CRP level by extra-hepatic CRP production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Overexpression of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase increases the expression of neurogenic differentiation markers in the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graser, Stephanie; Mentrup, Birgit; Schneider, Doris; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Jakob, Franz; Hofmann, Christine

    2015-10-01

    Patients suffering from the rare hereditary disease hypophosphatasia (HPP), which is based on mutations in the ALPL gene, tend to develop central nervous system (CNS) related issues like epileptic seizures and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and depression, in addition to well-known problems with the mineralization of bones and teeth. Analyses of the molecular role of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in transgenic SH-SY5Y(TNAPhigh) neuroblastoma cells compared to SH-SY5Y(TNAPlow) cells indicate that the enzyme influences the expression levels of neuronal marker genes like RNA-binding protein, fox-1 homolog 3 (NEUN) and enolase 2, gamma neuronal (NSE) as well as microtubule-binding proteins like microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and microtubule-associated protein tau (TAU) during neurogenic differentiation. Fluorescence staining of SH-SY5Y(TNAPhigh) cells reveals TNAP localization throughout the whole length of the developed projection network and even synapsin Ι co-localization with strong TNAP signals at some spots at least at the early time points of differentiation. Additional immunocytochemical staining shows higher MAP2 expression in SH-SY5Y(TNAPhigh) cells and further a distinct up-regulation of tau and MAP2 in the course of neurogenic differentiation. Interestingly, transgenic SH-SY5Y(TNAPhigh) cells are able to develop longer cellular processes compared to control cells after stimulation with all-trans retinoic acid (RA). Current therapies for HPP prioritize improvement of the bone phenotype. Unraveling the molecular role of TNAP in extraosseous tissues, like in the CNS, will help to improve treatment strategies for HPP patients. Taking this rare disease as a model may also help to dissect TNAP's role in neurodegenerative diseases and even improve future treatment of common pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Motor training reduces surround inhibition in the motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkad, Haya; Di Stasio, Flavio; Tibold, Robert; Kassavetis, Panagiotis; Rothwell, John C; Edwards, Mark J

    2016-06-01

    Surround inhibition (SI) is thought to facilitate focal contraction of a hand muscle by keeping nearby muscles silent. Unexpectedly, SI is reduced in skilled pianists. We tested whether repeated practice of focal contraction in non-pianists could reduce SI. Motor-evoked potentials were elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation in the relaxed abductor digiti minimi randomly at the onset and 5s after offset of a 2s focal contraction (10% maximum) of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI). Over 5 blocks of 40 trials participants obtained points for increasing contraction speed and stability in FDI. In a final block, the interval between contractions was varied randomly to increase attention to the task. Over the first 5 blocks, SI declined as performance (points scored) improved. In the final "attention" block SI increased towards baseline without affecting performance. Although SI may be useful during the early stages of learning, skilled focal finger movement does not require SI to prevent activity in non-involved muscles. This could be due to better targeting of the excitatory command to move. Results from the final block suggest that increased attention can re-engage SI when task parameters change. SI is not necessary for successful focal contraction, but may contribute during learning and during attention to task. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An experimental investigation of transient heat transfer in surrounding rock mass of high geothermal roadway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-designed experimental installation for transient heat transfer in the modelling surrounding rock mass of high geothermal roadways was elaborated in this paper. By utilizing the new installation, the temperature variation rules in surrounding rock mass of the high geothermal roadway during mechanical ventilation were studied. The results show that the roadway wall temperature decreases dramatically at the early stage of ventilation, and the temperature at every position of the surrounding rock mass is decreasing constantly with time passing by. From roadway wall to deep area, the temperature gradually increases until reaching original rock temperature. The relationship between dimensionless temperature and dimensionless radius demonstrates approximately exponential function. Meanwhile, the temperature disturbance range in the simulated surrounding rock mass extends gradually from the roadway wall to deep area in the surrounding rock mass. Besides, as the air velocity increases, heat loss in the surrounding rock mass rises and the ratio of temperature reduction becomes larger, the speed of disturbance range expansion also gets faster.

  13. Quasars Probing Quasars: the Circumgalactic Medium Surrounding z ~ 2 Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Marie; Quasars Probing Quasars survey

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the circumgalactic medium--the gaseous halo surrounding a galaxy, is an integral part to understanding galaxy evolution. The z ~ 2-3 universe is interesting as this is when the star formation rate and AGN activity peak. My thesis concludes the decade-long Quasars Probing Quasars survey designed for studying massive galaxy formation and quasar feedback. I use background quasar sightlines that pass close to foreground quasars to study the circumgalactic medium of quasar-host galaxies in absorption. My sample of 149 quasar pairs involve spectra taken with 17 different optical and near IR instruments. I present results on the statistical and physical properties of the circumgalactic medium. The circumgalactic medium is enriched even beyond the virial radius. The alpha/Fe abundance ratio is enhanced, suggesting enrichment from core-collapse supernovae. The cool gas mass within the virial radius is enough to fuel star formation for another Gyr, and may account for 1/3 of the baryonic budget of the galaxy halo. The ionization state increases with projected distance from the quasar, which implies the quasar does not dominate the ionizing radiation flux. However, detection of fluorescent Lyman-alpha emission and NV absorption imply these transverse absorbers are partially illuminated by the quasar. In one peculiar case, the absorbing clump has density >100 cm^-3 and sub-parsec size. The average absorption in the circumgalactic medium exhibits large velocity widths, and is asymmetric about the systemic redshift of the galaxies. The widths are consistent with gravitational motions and Hubble flow, and outflows are not required to explain them. The asymmetry can be explained if the ionizing radiation from the quasar is anisotropic or intermittent and the gas is not in inflow. My results pose challenges for cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to produce a substantial cool gas reservoir surrounding quasars, that is also enriched and shows extreme kinematics.

  14. MicroCT Bone Densitometry: Context Sensitivity, Beam Hardening Correction and the Effect of Surrounding Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip L. Salmon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The context-sensitivity of microCT bone densitometry due to beam hardening artefacts was assessed. Bones and teeth are scanned with varying thickness of surrounding media (water, alcohol, biological tissue and it is important to understand how this affects reconstructed attenuation (“density” of the mineralized tissue. Aluminium tubes and rods with thickness 0.127mm–5mm were scanned both in air or surrounded by up to 2cm of water. Scans were performed with different energy filters and degrees of software beam hardening correction (BHC. Also tested were the effects of signal-to-noise ratio, magnification and truncation. The thickness of an aluminium tube significantly affected its mean reconstructed attenuation. This effect of thickness could be reduced substantially by BHC for scans in air, but not for scans in water. Varying thickness of surrounding water also changed the mean attenuation of an aluminium tube. This artefact could be almost eliminated by an optimal BHC value. The “cupping” artefact of heterogeneous attenuation (elevated at outer surfaces could be corrected if aluminium was scanned in air, but in water BHC was much less effective. Scan truncation, changes to magnification and signal-to-noise ratio also caused artificial changes to measured attenuation. Measurement of bone mineral density by microCT is highly context sensitive. A surrounding layer of liquid or biological tissue reduces the ability of software BHC to remove bone density artefacts. Sample thickness, truncation, magnification and signal to noise ratio also affect reconstructed attenuation. Thus it is important for densitometry that sample and calibration phantom dimensions and mounting materials are standardised.

  15. Sound Environments Surrounding Preterm Infants Within an Occupied Closed Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Aya; Matsuo, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants often exhibit functional disorders due to the stressful environment in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The sound pressure level (SPL) in the NICU is often much higher than the levels recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Our study aims to describe the SPL and sound frequency levels surrounding preterm infants within closed incubators that utilize high frequency oscillation (HFO) or nasal directional positive airway pressure (nasal-DPAP) respiratory settings. This is a descriptive research study of eight preterm infants (corrected agenoise levels were observed and the results were compared to the recommendations made by neonatal experts. Increased noise levels, which have reported to affect neonates' ability to self-regulate, could increase the risk of developing attention deficit disorder, and may result in tachycardia, bradycardia, increased intracranial pressure, and hypoxia. The care provider should closely assess for adverse effects of higher sound levels generated by different modes of respiratory support and take measures to ensure that preterm infants are protected from exposure to noise exceeding the optimal safe levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. HIV behavioural surveillance among refugees and surrounding host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used a standardised behavioural surveillance survey (BSS), modified to be directly relevant to populations in conflict and post-conflict settings as well as to their surrounding host populations, to survey the populations of a refugee settlement in south-western Uganda and its surrounding area. Two-stage probability ...

  17. Investigation of the readout electronics of DELPHI surround muon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khovanskij, N.; Krumshtejn, Z.; Ol'shevskij, A.; Sadovskij, A.; Sedykh, Yu.; Molnar, J.; Sicho, P.; Tomsa, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristics of the readout electronics of the DELPHI surround muon chambers with various AMPLEX chips (AMPLEX 16 and AMPLEX-SICAL) are presented. This electronics is studied in a cosmic rays test of the real surround muon chamber model. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  19. Optimized path planning for soft tissue resection via laser vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Weston; Cornwell, Neil; Tucker, Matthew; Mann, Brian; Codd, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Robotic and robotic-assisted surgeries are becoming more prevalent with the promise of improving surgical outcomes through increased precision, reduced operating times, and minimally invasive procedures. The handheld laser scalpel in neurosurgery has been shown to provide a more gentle approach to tissue manipulation on or near critical structures over classical tooling, though difficulties of control have prevented large scale adoption of the tool. This paper presents a novel approach to generating a cutting path for the volumetric resection of tissue using a computer-guided laser scalpel. A soft tissue ablation simulator is developed and used in conjunction with an optimization routine to select parameters which maximize the total resection of target tissue while minimizing the damage to surrounding tissue. The simulator predicts the ablative properties of tissue from an interrogation cut for tuning and simulates the removal of a tumorous tissue embedded on the surface of healthy tissue using a laser scalpel. We demonstrate the ability to control depth and smoothness of cut using genetic algorithms to optimize the ablation parameters and cutting path. The laser power level, cutting rate and spacing between cuts are optimized over multiple surface cuts to achieve the desired resection volumes.

  20. Cold thyroid nodules show a marked increase in proliferation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Knut; Stricker, Ingo; Emmrich, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas and adenomatous thyroid nodules are a frequent finding in geographical areas with iodine deficiency. They occur as hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot) nodules. Their predominant clonal origin suggests that they result from clonal expansion of a single cell, which is very likely the result of a prolonged increase in proliferation compared with non-affected surrounding cells. To test whether increased cell proliferation is detectable in cold thyroid nodules, we studied paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 cold thyroid nodules and their surrounding normal thyroid tissue for the occurrence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (MIB-1 antibody) epitopes as markers for cell proliferation. All 40 thyroid nodules were histologically well characterized and have been studied for molecular characteristics before. The labeling index (number of labeled cells versus total cell number) for nodular and surrounding tissue was calculated. In 33 cold thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid epithelial cell proliferation is a uniform feature common to most cold nodules. However, the increase of proliferation markers shows a heterogeneity that is not correlated with histopathologic, molecular, or clinical characteristics.

  1. Perfusion pattern and time of vascularisation with CEUS increase accuracy in differentiating between benign and malignant tumours in 216 musculoskeletal soft tissue masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marchi, Armanda, E-mail: armanda.demarchi@tiscali.it [Department of Imaging, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Prever, Elena Brach del, E-mail: elena.brach@unito.it [Department of OrthopaedicOncology and ReconstructiveSurgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Cavallo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cavallo@unito.it [Department of Public health and Paediatrics, University of Turin, Via Santena 5-bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Pozza, Simona, E-mail: simona.pozza@tin.it [Department of Imaging, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Linari, Alessandra, E-mail: linaralessandra@libero.it [Department of Pathology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, Regina Margherita Hospital, Piazza Polonia, 10126 Torino (Italy); Lombardo, Paolo, E-mail: pao.lombardo82@gmail.com [Department of DiagnosticImaging and Radiotherapy of the University of Turin, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Via Genova 3, 10126 Torino (Italy); Comandone, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.comandone@gradenigo.it [Department of Oncology, Gradenigo Hospital, Corso Regina Margherita, 8/10.10153 Torino (Italy); Piana, Raimondo, E-mail: raimondo.piana@libero.it [Department of OrthopaedicOncology and ReconstructiveSurgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Faletti, Carlo [Department of Imaging, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Introduction: Musculoskeletal Soft Tissue Tumours (STT) are frequent heterogeneous lesions. Guidelines consider a mass larger than 5 cm and deep with respect to the deep fascia potentially malignant. Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) can detect both vascularity and tumour neoangiogenesis. We hypothesised that perfusion patterns and vascularisation time could improve the accuracy of CEUS in discriminating malignant tumours from benign lesions. Materials and methods: 216 STT were studied: 40% benign lesions, 60% malignant tumours, 56% in the lower limbs. Seven CEUS perfusion patterns and three types of vascularisation (arterial-venous uptake, absence of uptake) were applied. Accuracy was evaluated by comparing imaging with the histological diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analysis, Chi-square test and t-test for independent variables were applied; significance was set at p < 0.05 level, 95% computed CI. Results: CEUS pattern 6 (inhomogeneous perfusion), arterial uptake and location in the lower limb were associated with high risk of malignancy. CEUS pattern has PPV 77%, rapidity of vascularisation PPV 69%; location in the limbs is the most sensitive indicator, but NPV 52%, PPV 65%. The combination of CEUS-pattern and vascularisation has 74% PPV, 60% NPV, 70% sensitivity. No correlation with size and location in relation to the deep fascia was found. Conclusion: US with CEUS qualitative analysis could be an accurate technique to identify potentially malignant STT, for which second line imaging and biopsy are indicated in Referral Centers. Intense inhomogeneous enhancement with avascular areas and rapid vascularisation time could be useful in discriminating benign from malignant SST, overall when the lower limbs are involved.

  2. Increased Age, but Not Parity Predisposes to Higher Bacteriuria Burdens Due to Streptococcus Urinary Tract Infection and Influences Bladder Cytokine Responses, Which Develop Independent of Tissue Bacterial Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Matthew J; Carey, Alison J; Leclercq, Sophie Y; Tan, Chee K; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant adults, non-pregnant adults, immune-compromised individuals and the elderly. The pathogenesis of S. agalactiae UTI in distinct patient populations is poorly understood. In this study, we used murine models of UTI incorporating young mice, aged and dam mice to show that uropathogenic S. agalactiae causes bacteriuria at significantly higher levels in aged mice compared to young mice and this occurs coincident with equivalent levels of bladder tissue colonisation at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). In addition, aged mice exhibited significantly higher bacteriuria burdens at 48 h compared to young mice, confirming a divergent pattern of bacterial colonization in the urinary tract of aged and young mice. Multiparous mice, in contrast, exhibited significantly lower urinary titres of S. agalactiae compared to age-matched nulliparous mice suggesting that parity enhances the ability of the host to control S. agalactiae bacteriuria. Additionally, we show that both age and parity alter the expression levels of several key regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to be important the immune response to UTI, including Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12(p40), and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1). Finally, we demonstrate that other cytokines, including IL-17 are induced significantly in the S. agalactiae-infected bladder regardless of age and parity status. Collectively, these findings show that the host environment plays an important role in influencing the severity of S. agalactiae UTI; infection dynamics, particularly in the context of bacteriuria, depend on age and parity, which also affect the nature of innate immune responses to infection.

  3. Increase in covalent binding of 5-hydroxydiclofenac to hepatic tissues in rats co-treated with lipopolysaccharide and diclofenac: involvement in the onset of diclofenac-induced idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Tomoyuki; Onozato, Tomoya; Kanazawa, Toru; Tanaka, Satoru; Kuroda, Junji

    2012-01-01

    Diclofenac (DCF), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is well known to induce idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Although there remains much to be elucidated about its onset mechanism, it is widely accepted as a hypothesis that idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity arises from a specific immune response to a hapten formed by covalent binding of drugs or their reactive metabolites to hepatic tissues. In this study, we investigated the effects of covalent binding of DCF reactive metabolites to hepatic tissues using a rat model of liver injury induced by co-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a non-hepatotoxic dose. In studies done in vitro using hepatic microsomes prepared from rats treated with LPS alone, 4'- and 5-hydroxylation activities on DCF metabolism and adducts of reactive metabolites to dansyl glutathione (dGSH) were markedly decreased associated with a decrease in total P450 content. However, in studies done in vivo, the LPS/DCF co-treatment significantly increased adducts of 5-hydroxydiclofenac (5-OH-DCF) to rat hepatic tissues and delayed the elimination of 5-OH-DCF from plasma. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of co-treatment on hepatic GSH level in rats. A decrease of hepatic GSH was observed with the LPS/DCF co-treatment but not with LPS or DCF alone. The results suggest that covalent binding of reactive metabolites via 5-OH-DCF to hepatic tissues may play an important role in the onset of DCF-induced idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, especially under decreased GSH conditions.

  4. Non-apoptotic role for caspase-7 in hair follicles and the surrounding tissue

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselá, Barbora; Švandová, Eva; Vanden Berghe, T.; Tucker, A. S.; Vandenabeele, P.; Matalová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, 4-5 (2015), s. 443-455 ISSN 1567-2379 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37368G Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : caspase-7 * development * hair follicles Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.221, year: 2015

  5. Serum levels of RBP4 and adipose tissue levels of PTP1B are increased in obese men resident in northeast Scotland without associated changes in ER stress response genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoggard N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nigel Hoggard1, Abdelali Agouni2, Nimesh Mody2, Mirela Delibegovic21Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, 2Integrative Physiology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UKBackground: Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 is an adipokine identified as a marker of insulin resistance in mice and humans. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B expression levels as well as other genes involved in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response are increased in adipose tissue of obese, high-fat-diet-fed mice. In this study we investigated if serum and/or adipose tissue RBP4 protein levels and expression levels of PTP1B and other ER stress-response genes are altered in obese and obese/diabetic men resident in northeast Scotland.Methods: We studied three groups of male volunteers: (1 normal/overweight (body mass index [BMI] < 30, (2 obese (BMI > 30, and (3 obese/diabetic (BMI > 30 controlling their diabetes either by diet or the antidiabetic drug metformin. We analyzed their serum and adipose tissue RBP4 protein levels as well as adipose tissue mRNA expression of PTP1B, binding immunoglobulin protein (BIP, activated transcription factor 4 (ATF4, and glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94 alongside other markers of adiposity (percentage body fat, leptin, cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance (oral glucose tolerance tests, insulin, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin.Results: We found that obese Scottish subjects had significantly higher serum RBP4 protein levels in comparison to the normal/overweight subjects (P < 0.01. Serum RBP4 levels were normalized in obese/diabetic subjects treated with diet or metformin (P < 0.05. Adipose tissue RBP4 protein levels were comparable between all three groups of subjects as were serum and adipose transthyretin levels. Adipose tissue PTP1B mRNA levels were increased in obese subjects in comparison to normal/overweight subjects (P < 0.05; however diet and/or metformin

  6. Changes in unique hues induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround can have a strong influence on the perceived hue of a stimulus. We investigated whether chromatic induction has similar effects on the perception of colors that appear pure and unmixed (unique red, green, blue, and yellow) as on other colors. Subjects performed unique hue settings of stimuli in isoluminant surrounds of different chromaticities. Compared with the settings in a neutral gray surround, unique hue settings altered systematically with chromatic surrounds. The amount of induced hue shift depended on the difference between stimulus and surround hues, and was similar for unique hue settings as for settings of nonunique hues. Intraindividual variability in unique hue settings was roughly twice as high as for settings obtained in asymmetric matching experiments, which may reflect the presence of a reference stimulus in the matching task. Variabilities were also larger with chromatic surrounds than with neutral gray surrounds, for both unique hue settings and matching of nonunique hues. The results suggest that the neural representations underlying unique hue percepts are influenced by the same neural processing mechanisms as the percepts of other colors.

  7. Long-term follow-up of changing practice patterns in breast reconstruction due to increased use of tissue expanders and perforator flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan, Michele A; Prucz, Roni B; Shridharani, Sachin M; Baltodano, Pablo A; Rosson, Gedge D

    2014-11-01

    As the science of breast reconstruction evolves, significant changes in reconstruction strategies and outcomes are expected. The purpose of this study is to determine the changes in breast reconstruction trends and outcomes that occurred at a multidisciplinary academic institution during the last decade. We compared 265 patients over two distinct 6-month intervals separated by 5 years (2002 vs. 2007) and performed long-term follow-up (4.75 ± 3.38 years 2002, 2.99 ± 2.25 years 2007). We studied patients seeking prophylactic mastectomy, patients with early breast cancer, and patients with locally advanced disease. We analyzed demographic data, breast cancer history and treatment, type and timing of reconstruction, and complications. Implant to flap reconstruction ratio was 48:49 in 2002 and 76:102 in 2007. Use of transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap declined from 57 to 4%; conversely, deep inferior epigastric perforator flap increased from 27 to 91% (P < 0.001). Correspondingly, donor site chronic pain (4 vs. 0, P = 0.012) and postoperative abdominal wall bulge (9 vs. 3, P = 0.004) rates decreased. Timing of reconstruction showed increased staged cases in 2007 compared to 2002 (P = 0.045). Post-final reconstruction radiation therapy was reduced in 2007 (P = 0.016), with subsequent lower rates of implant rupture (P < 0.001). At our institution and over the last decade, increasing staged reconstructions have successfully reduced the rates of post-final reconstruction radiotherapy with optimized outcomes. Contrary to national trends, the rates of autologous flap reconstructions have increased with reduced donor site morbidity. This suggests that academic breast reconstruction trends are independent from national trends. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Structure and function of the interphotoreceptor matrix surrounding retinal photoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Sawada, Yu; Yoshitomi, Takeshi

    2015-04-01

    The interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) is a highly organized structure with interconnected domains surrounding cone and rod photoreceptor cells and extends throughout the subretinal space. Based on known roles of the extracellular matrix in other tissues, the IPM is thought to have several prominent functions including serving as a receptor for growth factors, regulating retinoid transport, participating in cytoskeletal organization in surrounding cells, and regulation of oxygen and nutrient transport. In addition, a number of studies suggest that the IPM also may play a significant role in the etiology of retinal degenerative disorders. In this review, we describe the present knowledge concerning the structure and function of the IPM under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Tissue factor-factor VIIa-specific up-regulation of IL-8 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells is mediated by PAR-2 and results in increased cell migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortoe, Gertrud M; Petersen, Lars C; Albrektsen, Tatjana

    2004-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF), the cellular receptor for factor VIIa (FVIIa), besides initiating blood coagulation, is believed to play an important role in tissue repair, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis. Like TF, the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) is shown to play a critical role...... in these processes. To elucidate the potential mechanisms by which TF contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis, we investigated the effect of FVIIa on IL-8 expression and cell migration in a breast carcinoma cell line, MDA-MB-231, a cell line that constitutively expresses abundant TF. Expression of IL-8 m......RNA in MDA-MB-231 cells was markedly up-regulated by plasma concentrations of FVII or an equivalent concentration of FVIIa (10 nM). Neither thrombin nor other proteases involved in hemostasis were effective in stimulating IL-8 in these cells. Increased transcriptional activation of the IL-8 gene...

  10. Albuminuria is associated with an increased prostasin in urine while aldosterone has no direct effect on urine and kidney tissue abundance of prostasin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenburg Oxlund, Christina; Kurt, Birgül; Schwarzensteiner, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    The proteinase prostasin is a candidate mediator for aldosterone-driven proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). It was hypothesized that the aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway stimulates prostasin abundance in kidney and urine. Prostasin was measured...... spironolactone compared to control. Urinary prostasin and albumin related directly and were reduced by spironolactone. In patients with nephrotic syndrome, urinary prostasin protein was elevated compared to controls. In rat nephrosis, proteinuria coincided with increased urinary prostasin, unchanged kidney...... the result of an improved glomerular filtration barrier function and generally reduced proteinuria....

  11. The cancer drug Dasatinib increases PGC-1α in adipose tissue but has adverse effects on glucose tolerance in obese mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Lykke; Long, Jonathan; Lokurkar, Isha A

    2016-01-01

    Dasatinib (Sprycel) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this study we identify dasatinib as a potent inducer of PGC-1α mRNA. Dasatinib increased PGC-1α mRNA expression up to 6-fold in 3T3-F442A adipocytes, primary adipocytes, and epididymal ......, dasatinib significantly impaired glucose tolerance in obese, but not lean mice. As far as we are aware, this is the first study to show that dasatinib regulates PGC-1α and causes glucose intolerance in obese mice. This should be considered in the treatment of CML....

  12. Endogenous substance P production in the Achilles tendon increases with loading in an in vivo model of tendinopathy-peptidergic elevation preceding tendinosis-like tissue changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, L J; Andersson, G; Wennstig, G; Forsgren, S; Danielson, P

    2011-06-01

    To quantify the intratendinous levels of substance P (SP) at different stages of overload in an established model for Achilles tendinopathy (rabbit). Also, to study the distribution of the SP-receptor, the NK-1R, and the source of SP, in the tendon. Animals were subjected to the overuse protocol for 1, 3 or 6 weeks. One additional group served as unexercised controls. Immunoassay (EIA), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridisation (ISH) were performed. EIA revealed increased SP-levels in the Achilles tendon of the exercised limb in all the experimental groups as compared to in the controls (statistically significant; p=0.01). A similar trend in the unexercised Achilles tendon was observed but was not statistically significant (p=0.14). IHC and in ISH illustrated reactions of both SP and NK-1R mainly in blood vessel walls, but the receptor was also found on tenocytes. Achilles tendon SP-levels are elevated already after 1 week of loading. This shows that increased SP-production precedes tendinosis, as tendinosis-like changes occur only after a minimum of 3 weeks of exercise, as shown in a recent study using this model. We propose that central neuronal mechanism may be involved as similar trends were observed in the contralateral Achilles tendon.

  13. Hydrogenated fat intake during pregnancy and lactation caused increase in TRAF-6 and reduced AdipoR1 in white adipose tissue, but not in muscle of 21 days old offspring rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oller do Nascimento Claudia M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although lipids transfer through placenta is very limited, modification in dietary fatty acids can lead to implications in fetal and postnatal development. Trans fatty acid (TFA intake during gestation and lactation have been reported to promote dyslipidemia and increase in pro- inflammatory adipokines in offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the alterations on pro-inflammatory cytokines and dyslipidemia observed previously in 21-d-old offspring of rats fed a diet containing hydrogenated vegetable fat during gestation and lactation were related to alterations in TLR-4, TRAF-6 and adipo-R1 receptor in white adipose tissue and muscle. On the first day of gestation, rats were randomly divided into two groups: (C received a control diet, and (T received a diet enriched with hydrogenated vegetable fat, rich in trans fatty acids. The diets were maintained throughout gestation and lactation. Each mother was given eight male pups. On the 21st day of life the offspring were killed. Blood, soleus and extensor digital longus (EDL muscles, and retroperitoneal (RET white adipose tissue were collected. Results 21-d-old of T rats had higher serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, and insulin. The Adipo R1 protein expression was lower in RET and higher in EDL of T group than C. TLR-4 protein content in all studied tissues were similar between groups, the same was verified in TRAF-6 protein expression in soleus and EDL. However, TRAF-6 protein expression in RET was higher in T than C. Conclusion These results demonstrated that maternal ingestion of hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in TFAs during gestation and lactation decrease in Adipo R1 protein expression and increase in TRAF-6 protein expression in retroperitoneal adipose tissue, but not in skeletal muscle, which could contributed for hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia observed in their 21-d-old offspring.

  14. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  15. Contamination of nebulisers and surrounding air at the bedside of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An air sampler was used to collect air samples from the surrounding bedside environment. .... individualised resealable plastic bags and stored upside down in a cooler .... conventional and mesh technology nebulisers used at home by adults.

  16. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  17. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  18. M-CSF deficiency leads to reduced metallothioneins I and II expression and increased tissue damage in the brain stem after 6-aminonicotinamide treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Poulsen, Christian; Carrasco, Javier

    2002-01-01

    6-Aminonicotinamide (6-AN) is a niacin antagonist, which leads to degeneration of gray-matter astrocytes followed by a vigorous inflammatory response. Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is important during inflammation, and in order to further clarify the roles for M-CSF...... in neurodegeneration and brain cell death, we have examined the effect of 6-AN on osteopetrotic mice with genetic M-CSF deficiency (op/op mice). The 6-AN-induced degeneration of gray-matter areas was comparable in control and op/op mice, but the numbers of reactive astrocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes...... for caspases and cytochrome c) were significantly increased in 6-AN-injected op/op mice relative to controls. From a number of antioxidant factors assayed, only metallothioneins I and II (MT-I+II) were decreased in op/op mice in comparison to controls. Thus, the present results indicate that M-CSF...

  19. Complex interactions between human myoblasts and the surrounding 3D fibrin-based matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Chiron

    Full Text Available Anchorage of muscle cells to the extracellular matrix is crucial for a range of fundamental biological processes including migration, survival and differentiation. Three-dimensional (3D culture has been proposed to provide a more physiological in vitro model of muscle growth and differentiation than routine 2D cultures. However, muscle cell adhesion and cell-matrix interplay of engineered muscle tissue remain to be determined. We have characterized cell-matrix interactions in 3D muscle culture and analyzed their consequences on cell differentiation. Human myoblasts were embedded in a fibrin matrix cast between two posts, cultured until confluence, and then induced to differentiate. Myoblasts in 3D aligned along the longitudinal axis of the gel. They displayed actin stress fibers evenly distributed around the nucleus and a cortical mesh of thin actin filaments. Adhesion sites in 3D were smaller in size than in rigid 2D culture but expression of adhesion site proteins, including α5 integrin and vinculin, was higher in 3D compared with 2D (p<0.05. Myoblasts and myotubes in 3D exhibited thicker and ellipsoid nuclei instead of the thin disk-like shape of the nuclei in 2D (p<0.001. Differentiation kinetics were faster in 3D as demonstrated by higher mRNA concentrations of α-actinin and myosin. More important, the elastic modulus of engineered muscle tissues increased significantly from 3.5 ± 0.8 to 7.4 ± 4.7 kPa during proliferation (p<0.05 and reached 12.2 ± 6.0 kPa during differentiation (p<0.05, thus attesting the increase of matrix stiffness during proliferation and differentiation of the myocytes. In conclusion, we reported modulations of the adhesion complexes, the actin cytoskeleton and nuclear shape in 3D compared with routine 2D muscle culture. These findings point to complex interactions between muscle cells and the surrounding matrix with dynamic regulation of the cell-matrix stiffness.

  20. Monitoring program of surrounding of the NPP SE-EBO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobis, L.; Kostial, J.

    1997-01-01

    The paper dealt with monitoring program of radiation control of surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, which has the aim: (1) to ensure the control of influence of work of the NPP Bohunice on the environment in their surrounding; (2) to ensure the back-ground for regular brief of control and supervisory organs about condition of the environment in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice; (3) to maintain the expected technical level of control of the NPP Bohunice and to exploit optimally the technical means; (4) to solicit permanently the data about the radioactivity of environment in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice for forming of files of the data; (5) to exploit purposefully the technical equipment, technical workers and to maintain their in permanent emergency and technical eligibility for the case of the breakdown; (6) to obtain permanently the files of the values for qualification of the reference levels. This program of monitoring includes the radiation control of surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, in the time of normal work of power-station's blocks, inclusively of all types of trouble-shooting and repairer works in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, up to distance 20 km from power-station. The monitoring includes: outlets from the NPP Bohunice, monitoring of radiation characteristics in surrounding of the NPP Bohunice, (aerosols, fall-outs, soil), the links of food chains: (grass and fodder, milk, agriculture products), hydrosphere in surrounding (surface waters, drink water, bores of radiation control in complex of the NPP Bohunice, components of the hydrosphere), measurement of radiation from external sources (measurement of the dose rates, measurement of the doses [sk

  1. Chromatic induction from surrounding stimuli under perceptual suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Koji; Kuriki, Ichiro; Tokunaga, Rumi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    The appearance of colors can be affected by their spatiotemporal context. The shift in color appearance according to the surrounding colors is called color induction or chromatic induction; in particular, the shift in opponent color of the surround is called chromatic contrast. To investigate whether chromatic induction occurs even when the chromatic surround is imperceptible, we measured chromatic induction during interocular suppression. A multicolor or uniform color field was presented as the surround stimulus, and a colored continuous flash suppression (CFS) stimulus was presented to the dominant eye of each subject. The subjects were asked to report the appearance of the test field only when the stationary surround stimulus is invisible by interocular suppression with CFS. The resulting shifts in color appearance due to chromatic induction were significant even under the conditions of interocular suppression for all surround stimuli. The magnitude of chromatic induction differed with the surround conditions, and this difference was preserved regardless of the viewing conditions. The chromatic induction effect was reduced by CFS, in proportion to the magnitude of chromatic induction under natural (i.e., no-CFS) viewing conditions. According to an analysis with linear model fitting, we revealed the presence of at least two kinds of subprocesses for chromatic induction that reside at higher and lower levels than the site of interocular suppression. One mechanism yields different degrees of chromatic induction based on the complexity of the surround, which is unaffected by interocular suppression, while the other mechanism changes its output with interocular suppression acting as a gain control. Our results imply that the total chromatic induction effect is achieved via a linear summation of outputs from mechanisms that reside at different levels of visual processing.

  2. Sardine protein diet increases plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and prevents tissue oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Zohra; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J; Dalila, Ait Yahia

    2015-11-01

    The current study investigated whether sardine protein mitigates the adverse effects of fructose on plasma glucagon‑like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxidative stress in rats. Rats were fed casein (C) or sardine protein (S) with or without high‑fructose (HF) for 2 months. Plasma glucose, insulin, GLP‑1, lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes were assayed. HF rats developed obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and oxidative stress despite reduced energy and food intakes. High plasma creatinine and uric acid levels, in addition to albuminuria were observed in the HF groups. The S‑HF diet reduced plasma glucose, insulin, creatinine, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment‑insulin resistance index levels, however increased GLP‑1 levels compared with the C‑HF diet. Hydroperoxides were reduced in the liver, kidney, heart and muscle of S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. A reduction in liver, kidney and heart carbonyls was observed in S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. Reduced levels of nitric oxide (NO) were detected in the liver, kidney and heart of the S‑HF fed rats compared with C‑HF fed rats. The S diet compared with the C diet reduced levels of liver hydroperoxides, heart carbonyls and kidney NO. The S‑HF diet compared with the C‑HF diet increased the levels of liver and kidney superoxide dismutase, liver and muscle catalase, liver, heart and muscle glutathione peroxidase and liver ascorbic acid. The S diet prevented and reversed insulin resistance and oxidative stress, and may have benefits in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  3. Ischemia and reperfusion of the lung tissues induced increase of lung permeability and lung edema is attenuated by dimethylthiourea (PP69).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K H; Chao, D; Liu, C F; Chen, C F; Wang, D

    2010-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether oxygen radical scavengers of dimethylthiourea (DMTU), superoxide dismutase (SOD), or catalase (CAT) pretreatment attenuated ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced lung injury. After isolation from a Sprague-Dawley rat, the lungs were perfused through the pulmonary artery cannula with rat whole blood diluted 1:1 with a physiological salt solution. An acute lung injury was induced by 10 minutes of hypoxia with 5% CO2-95% N2 followed by 65 minutes of ischemia and then 65 minutes of reperfusion. I/R significantly increased microvascular permeability as measured by the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight-to-body weight ratio (LW/BW), and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (PCBAL). DMTU pretreatment significantly attenuated the acute lung injury. The capillary filtration coefficient (P<.01), LW/BW (P<.01) and PCBAL (P<.05) were significantly lower among the DMTU-treated rats than hosts pretreated with SOD or CAT. The possible mechanisms of the protective effect of DMTU in I/R-induced lung injury may relate to the permeability of the agent allowing it to scavenge intracellular hydroxyl radicals. However, whether superoxide dismutase or catalase antioxidants showed protective effects possibly due to their impermeability of the cell membrane not allowing scavenging of intracellular oxygen radicals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 文婷; 卢天健; Seffen; Keith

    2008-01-01

    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great...

  5. Phase-specific Surround suppression in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex Correlates with Figure Detection Behavior Based on Phase Discontinuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengling; Jiang, Weiqian; Wang, Tian-Yi; Xie, Taorong; Yao, Haishan

    2018-05-21

    In the primary visual cortex (V1), neuronal responses to stimuli within the receptive field (RF) are modulated by stimuli in the RF surround. A common effect of surround modulation is surround suppression, which is dependent on the feature difference between stimuli within and surround the RF and is suggested to be involved in the perceptual phenomenon of figure-ground segregation. In this study, we examined the relationship between feature-specific surround suppression of V1 neurons and figure detection behavior based on figure-ground feature difference. We trained freely moving mice to perform a figure detection task using figure and ground gratings that differed in spatial phase. The performance of figure detection increased with the figure-ground phase difference, and was modulated by stimulus contrast. Electrophysiological recordings from V1 in head-fixed mice showed that the increase in phase difference between stimuli within and surround the RF caused a reduction in surround suppression, which was associated with an increase in V1 neural discrimination between stimuli with and without RF-surround phase difference. Consistent with the behavioral performance, the sensitivity of V1 neurons to RF-surround phase difference could be influenced by stimulus contrast. Furthermore, inhibiting V1 by optogenetically activating either parvalbumin (PV)- or somatostatin (SOM)-expressing inhibitory neurons both decreased the behavioral performance of figure detection. Thus, the phase-specific surround suppression in V1 represents a neural correlate of figure detection behavior based on figure-ground phase discontinuity. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solar Proton Transport within an ICRU Sphere Surrounded by a Complex Shield: Combinatorial Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Slaba, Tony C.; Badavi, Francis F.; Reddell, Brandon D.; Bahadori, Amir A.

    2015-01-01

    The 3DHZETRN code, with improved neutron and light ion (Z (is) less than 2) transport procedures, was recently developed and compared to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using simplified spherical geometries. It was shown that 3DHZETRN agrees with the MC codes to the extent they agree with each other. In the present report, the 3DHZETRN code is extended to enable analysis in general combinatorial geometry. A more complex shielding structure with internal parts surrounding a tissue sphere is considered and compared against MC simulations. It is shown that even in the more complex geometry, 3DHZETRN agrees well with the MC codes and maintains a high degree of computational efficiency.

  7. Quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Feng; Wen Ting; Lu Tianjian; Seffen Keith

    2008-01-01

    Skin thermal damage or skin burns are the most commonly encountered type of trauma in civilian and military communities. Besides, advances in laser, microwave and similar technologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments for disease and damage involving skin tissue, where the objective is to induce thermal damage precisely within targeted tissue structures but without affecting the surrounding, healthy tissue. Further, extended pain sensation induced by thermal damage has also brought great problem for burn patients. Thus, it is of great importance to quantify the thermal damage in skin tissue. In this paper, the available models and experimental methods for quantification of thermal damage in skin tissue are discussed.

  8. Hardwiring Stem Cell Communication through Tissue Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-03-10

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function, but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hardwiring stem cell communication through tissue structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. PMID:26967287

  10. Evaluating the effect of the space surrounding the condenser of a household refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassiouny, Ramadan [Dept. of Mech. Power Eng. and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia 61111 (Egypt)

    2009-11-15

    The paper presents an analytical and computational modeling of the effect of the space surrounding the condenser of a household refrigerator on the rejected heat. The driving force for rejecting the heat carried by the refrigerant from the interior of a refrigerator is the temperature difference between the condenser outer surface and surrounding air. The variation of this difference, because of having an insufficient space, increasing the room air temperature, or blocking this space, is of interest to quantify its effect The results showed that having an enough surrounding space width (s > 200 mm) leads to a decrease in the temperature of the air flowing vertically around the condenser coil. Accordingly, this would significantly increase the amount of heat rejected. Moreover, blocking this space retards the buoyant flow up the condenser surface, and hence increases the air temperature around the condenser. This would also decrease the heat rejected from the condenser. Predicted temperature contours are displayed to visualize the air plumes' variation surrounding the condenser in all cases. (author)

  11. Deregulation of miR-100, miR-99a and miR-199b in tissues and plasma coexists with increased expression of mTOR kinase in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Anna; Torres, Kamil; Pesci, Anna; Ceccaroni, Marcello; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Cassandrini, Paola; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Maciejewski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    Alterations of mTOR gene expression have been implicated in the pathogenesis of endometrioid endometrial cancer however only few studies explored the cause of increased mTOR activation in this malignancy. miRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs, which were proven to regulated gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. The study aimed to explore deregulation of miRNAs targeting mTOR kinase (miR-99a, miR-100 and miR-199b) as a possible cause of its altered expression in EEC tissues. In addition expression of the three miRNAs was investigated in plasma of EEC patients and was assessed in terms of diagnostic and prognostic utility. We investigated expression of mTOR kinase transcripts in 46 fresh tissue samples. Expression of miR-99a, miR-100 and miR-199b was investigated in the same group of fresh samples, and in additional 58 FFPE sections as well as in 48 plasma samples using qPCR. Relative quantification was performed using experimentally validated endogenous controls. mTOR kinase expression was increased in EEC tissues and was accompanied by decreased expression of all three miRNAs. Down-regulation of the investigated miRNAs was discovered in plasma of EEC patients and miRNA signatures classified EEC tissues (miR-99a/miR-100/miR-199b) and plasma (miR-99a/miR-199b) samples with higher accuracy in comparison to single miRNAs. We also revealed that miR-100 was an independent prognostic marker of overall survival. We conclude that increased expression of mTOR kinase coexists with down-regulation of its targeting miRNAs, which could suggest a new mechanism of mTOR pathway alterations in EEC. In addition, our findings implicate that miRNA signatures can be considered promising biomarkers for early detection and prognosis of endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

  12. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  13. Surrounding rock stress analysis of underground high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengang; Wang Ju; Wang Guangdi

    2006-01-01

    During decay of nuclear waste, enormous energy was released, which results in temperature change of surrounding rock of depository. Thermal stress was produced because thermal expansion of rock was controlled. Internal structure of surrounding rock was damaged and strength of rock was weakened. So, variation of stress was a dynamic process with the variation of temperature. BeiShan region of Gansu province was determined to be the depository field in the future, it is essential to make research on granite in this region. In the process of experiment, basic physical parameters of granite were analyzed preliminary with MTS. Long range temperature and stress filed was simulated considering the damage effect of surrounding rock, and rules of temperature and stress was achieved. (authors)

  14. Computer tomography for rare soft tissue tumours of the extremities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, E.; Semerak, M.; Stoltze, D.; Rossak, K.

    1979-01-01

    Five patients with undiagnosed soft tissue masses in the extremities were examined and in two a pathological diagnosis could be made. One was an extensive, invasive fibroma (desmoid) 22 cm long which could be followed from the thigh almost into the pelvis. It was sharply demarkated form the surrounding muscles and of higher density. The second case was a 12 cm long cavernous haemangioma in the semi-membranosus muscle. This was originally hypo-dense, but showed marked increase in its density after the administration of contrast. (orig.) [de

  15. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergomas, Francesca [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Grizzi, Fabio [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Laghi, Luigi [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Allavena, Paola [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan 20089 (Italy); Marchesi, Federica, E-mail: federica.marchesi@humanitasresearch.it [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy)

    2011-12-28

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21{sup +} follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  16. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Marchesi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic (or tertiary lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC. We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS. B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV. Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  17. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergomas, Francesca; Grizzi, Fabio; Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha; Laghi, Luigi; Allavena, Paola; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21 + follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response

  18. In vivo bone tissue response to a canasite glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Barros, V M; Salata, L A; Sverzut, C E; Xavier, S P; van Noort, R; Johnson, A; Hatton, P V

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biocompatibility and osteoconductive potential of a high-strength canasite glass ceramic. Glass-ceramic rods were produced using the lost-wax casting technique and implanted in the mid-shafts rabbit femurs. Implants were harvested at 4, 13 and 22 weeks and prepared for light and electron microscopy. Hydroxyapatite was used as a control material. Hydroxyapatite implants were surrounded by new mineralised bone tissue after 4 weeks of implantation. The amount of bone surrounding the implant increased slightly at 13 weeks. In contrast, canasite glass and glass ceramic implants were almost entirely surrounded by soft tissue during all the time periods. Close contact between bone and canasite glass-ceramic implant without the intervening fibrous tissue was observed in only a few regions. The canasite formulation evaluated was not osteoconductive and appeared to degrade in the biological environment. It was therefore concluded that the canasite formulation used was unsuitable for use as implant. Further work is required to improve the biocompatibility of these materials with bone tissue. It is possible that this could be achieved by reducing the solubility of the glass and glass ceramic.

  19. Ornitocenosis of the Sursky pond and its close the surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacko, J.; Ambrus, B.; Fupso, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper focuses on the qualitative-quantitative research of fishpond bird community of the Sursky and its surroundings as well as on analysis of seasonal population dynamics of the avifauna as well as on placing the determined species into environmental groups and guilds. Another object is the comparison of our results with recent work focused on research of bird communities on this site.

  20. Review of Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and his Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschwin de Wolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthony de Jasay is among the most important social thinkers of our time. His oeuvre offers a sustained critique of government and its defenders. In the book Ordered Anarchy: Jasay and His Surroundings, colleagues and friends pay tribute to the man in the form of an inspiring collection of essays.

  1. Neutron spectrum in small iron pile surrounded by lead reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Itsuro; Hayashi, S.A.; Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Matsumura, Tetsuo; Nishihara, Hiroshi.

    1978-01-01

    In order to save the quantity of sample material, a possibility to assess group constants of a reactor material through measurement and analysis of neutron spectrum in a small sample pile surrounded by a reflector of heavy moderator, was investigated. As the sample and the reflector, we chose iron and lead, respectively. Although the time dispersion in moderation of neutrons was considerably prolonged by the lead reflector, this hardly interferes with the assessment of group constants. Theoretical calculation revealed that both the neutron flux spectrum and the sensitivity coefficient of group constants in an iron sphere, 35 cm in diameter surrounded by the lead reflector, 25 cm thick, were close to those of the bare iron sphere, 108 cm in diameter. The neutron spectra in a small iron pile surrounded by a lead reflector were experimentally obtained by the time-of-flight method with an electron linear accelerator and the result was compared with the predicted values. It could be confirmed that a small sample pile surrounded by a reflector, such as lead, was as useful as a much larger bulk pile for the assessment of group constants of a reactor material. (auth.)

  2. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...

  3. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  4. The bird species of pandam wildlife park and the surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of time of day as well as vegetation variables on bird species diversity in the park and surrounding farmlands was also conducted. 10 transects in each study site were surveyed twice between during the dry season and vegetation variables (trees, fingers, finger-rings two- hand, grazing, farming, canopy cover, ...

  5. Experiences during the decontamination process of areas surrounding to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, G.

    2014-10-01

    In this work the experience gained during the decontamination of areas surrounding to Fukushima NPP, rugged during the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and caused the contamination with fission products in these areas is described. Actions taken by the Japanese government are reported and some of the techniques used, the intervention levels and the progress made and disposal techniques considered are presented. (Author)

  6. Traditional Indian customs surrounding birth A review | Chalmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1960, only a few studies have been made of traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. Very few of these have described customs followed by Indians in South Africa. A review of these publications is presented here. Customs described include religious, social and psychological aspects of behaviour in ...

  7. Evaluation of Tissue Interactions with Mechanical Elements of a Transscleral Drug Delivery Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Borenstein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate tissue-device interactions due to implantation of a mechanically operated drug delivery system onto the posterior sclera. Two test devices were designed and fabricated to model elements of the drug delivery device—one containing a free-spinning ball bearing and the other encasing two articulating gears. Openings in the base of test devices modeled ports for drug passage from device to sclera. Porous poly(tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membranes were attached to half of the gear devices to minimize tissue ingrowth through these ports. Test devices were sutured onto rabbit eyes for 10 weeks. Tissue-device interactions were evaluated histologically and mechanically after removal to determine effects on device function and changes in surrounding tissue. Test devices were generally well-tolerated during residence in the animal. All devices encouraged fibrous tissue formation between the sclera and the device, fibrous tissue encapsulation and invasion around the device, and inflammation of the conjunctiva. Gear devices encouraged significantly greater inflammation in all cases and a larger rate of tissue ingrowth. PTFE membranes prevented tissue invasion through the covered drug ports, though tissue migrated in through other smaller openings. The torque required to turn the mechanical elements increased over 1000 times for gear devices, but only on the order of 100 times for membrane-covered gear devices and less than 100 times for ball bearing devices. Maintaining a lower device profile, minimizing microscale motion on the eye surface and covering drug ports with a porous membrane may minimize inflammation, decreasing the risk of damage to surrounding tissues and minimizing disruption of device operation.

  8. A Molecular and Whole Body Insight of the Mechanisms Surrounding Glucose Disposal and Insulin Resistance with Hypoxic Treatment in Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. A. Mackenzie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the mechanisms are largely unidentified, the chronic or intermittent hypoxic patterns occurring with respiratory diseases, such as chronic pulmonary disease or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and obesity, are commonly associated with glucose intolerance. Indeed, hypoxia has been widely implicated in the development of insulin resistance either via the direct action on insulin receptor substrate (IRS and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt or indirectly through adipose tissue expansion and systemic inflammation. Yet hypoxia is also known to encourage glucose transport using insulin-dependent mechanisms, largely reliant on the metabolic master switch, 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. In addition, hypoxic exposure has been shown to improve glucose control in type 2 diabetics. The literature surrounding hypoxia-induced changes to glycemic control appears to be confusing and conflicting. How is it that the same stress can seemingly cause insulin resistance while increasing glucose uptake? There is little doubt that acute hypoxia increases glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle and does so using the same pathway as muscle contraction. The purpose of this review paper is to provide an insight into the mechanisms underpinning the observed effects and to open up discussions around the conflicting data surrounding hypoxia and glucose control.

  9. Polyploidization of glia in neural development links tissue growth to blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unhavaithaya, Yingdee; Orr-Weaver, Terry L

    2012-01-01

    Proper development requires coordination in growth of the cell types composing an organ. Many plant and animal cells are polyploid, but how these polyploid tissues contribute to organ growth is not well understood. We found the Drosophila melanogaster subperineurial glia (SPG) to be polyploid, and ploidy is coordinated with brain mass. Inhibition of SPG polyploidy caused rupture of the septate junctions necessary for the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the increased SPG cell size resulting from polyploidization is required to maintain the SPG envelope surrounding the growing brain. Polyploidization likely is a conserved strategy to coordinate tissue growth during organogenesis, with potential vertebrate examples.

  10. Vasculature surrounding a nodule: A novel lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Leader, Joseph K; Wang, Renwei; Wilson, David; Herman, James; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pu, Jiantao

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether the vessels surrounding a nodule depicted on non-contrast, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can discriminate benign and malignant screen detected nodules. We collected a dataset consisting of LDCT scans acquired on 100 subjects from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening study (PLuSS). Fifty subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer and 50 subjects had suspicious nodules later proven benign. For the lung cancer cases, the location of the malignant nodule in the LDCT scans was known; while for the benign cases, the largest nodule in the LDCT scan was used in the analysis. A computer algorithm was developed to identify surrounding vessels and quantify the number and volume of vessels that were connected or near the nodule. A nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on a single nodule per subject to assess the discriminability of the surrounding vessels to provide a lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) were computed to determine the probability of a nodule being lung cancer based on the vessel features. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for vessel count and vessel volume were 0.722 (95% CI=0.616-0.811, plung cancer group 9.7 (±9.6) compared to the non-lung cancer group 4.0 (±4.3) CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results showed that malignant nodules are often surrounded by more vessels compared to benign nodules, suggesting that the surrounding vessel characteristics could serve as lung cancer biomarker for indeterminate nodules detected during LDCT lung cancer screening using only the information collected during the initial visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of food supplements in increasing fat-free tissue accretion in children with moderate acute malnutrition: A randomised 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial in Burkina Faso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fabiansen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS or corn-soy blend (CSB. We assessed the effectiveness of (a matrix, i.e., LNS or CSB, (b soy quality, i.e., soy isolate (SI or dehulled soy (DS, and (c percentage of total protein from dry skimmed milk, i.e., 0%, 20%, or 50%, in increasing fat-free tissue accretion.Between September 9, 2013, and August 29, 2014, a randomised 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial recruited 6- to 23-month-old children with MAM in Burkina Faso. The intervention comprised 12 weeks of food supplementation providing 500 kcal/day as LNS or CSB, each containing SI or DS, and 0%, 20%, or 50% of protein from milk. Fat-free mass (FFM was assessed by deuterium dilution technique. By dividing FFM by length squared, the primary outcome was expressed independent of length as FFM index (FFMI accretion over 12 weeks. Other outcomes comprised recovery rate and additional anthropometric measures. Of 1,609 children, 4 died, 61 were lost to follow-up, and 119 were transferred out due to supplementation being switched to non-experimental products. No children developed allergic reaction. At inclusion, 95% were breastfed, mean (SD weight was 6.91 kg (0.93, with 83.5% (5.5 FFM. In the whole cohort, weight increased 0.90 kg (95% CI 0.88, 0.93; p 0.05. LNS compared to CSB resulted in 128 g (95% CI 67, 190; p < 0.01 greater weight gain if both contained SI, but there was no difference between LNS and CSB if both contained DS (mean difference 22 g; 95% CI -40, 84; p = 0.49 (interaction p = 0.017. Accordingly, SI compared to DS increased weight by 89 g (95% CI 27, 150; p = 0.005 when combined with LNS, but not when combined with CSB. A limitation of this and other food supplementation trials is that it is not possible to collect reliable data on individual adherence.Based on this study, children with MAM mainly gain fat-free tissue when rehabilitated. Nevertheless, LNS yields more fat-free tissue and

  12. Gradient of structural traits drives hygroscopic movements of scarious bracts surrounding Helichrysum bracteatum capitulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska-Wykret, Dorota; Rypien, Aleksandra; Dulski, Mateusz; Grelowski, Michal; Wrzalik, Roman; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

    2017-06-01

    The capitulum of Helichrysum bracteatum is surrounded by scarious involucral bracts that perform hygroscopic movements leading to bract bending toward or away from the capitulum, depending on cell wall water status. The present investigation aimed at explaining the mechanism of these movements. Surface strain and bract shape changes accompanying the movements were quantified using the replica method. Dissection experiments were used to assess the contribution of different tissues in bract deformation. Cell wall structure and composition were examined with the aid of light and electron microscopy as well as confocal Raman spectroscopy. At the bract hinge (organ actuator) longitudinal strains at opposite surfaces differ profoundly. This results in changes of hinge curvature that drive passive displacement of distal bract portions. The distal portions in turn undergo nearly uniform strain on both surfaces and also minute shape changes. The hinge is built of sclerenchyma-like abaxial tissue, parenchyma and adaxial epidermis with thickened outer walls. Cell wall composition is rather uniform but tissue fraction occupied by cell walls, cell wall thickness, compactness and cellulose microfibril orientation change gradually from abaxial to adaxial hinge surface. Dissection experiments show that the presence of part of the hinge tissues is enough for movements. Differential strain at the hinge is due to adaxial-abaxial gradient in structural traits of hinge tissues and cell walls. Thus, the bract hinge of H. bracteatum is a structure comprising gradually changing tissues, from highly resisting to highly active, rather than a bi-layered structure with distinct active and resistance parts, often ascribed for hygroscopically moving organs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  14. Effects of wave energy converters on the surrounding soft-bottom macrofauna (west coast of Sweden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhamer, O

    2010-06-01

    Offshore wave energy conversion is expected to develop, thus contributing to an increase in submerged constructions on the seabed. An essential concern related to the deployment of wave energy converters (WECs) is their possible impact on the surrounding soft-bottom habitats. In this study, the macrofaunal assemblages in the seabed around the wave energy converters in the Lysekil research site on the Swedish west coast and a neighbouring reference site were examined yearly during a period of 5 years (2004-2008). Macrobenthic communities living in the WECs' surrounding seabed were mainly composed by organisms typical for the area and depth off the Swedish west coast. At both sites the number of individuals, number of species and biodiversity were low, and were mostly small, juvenile organisms. The species assemblages during the first years of sampling were significantly different between the Lysekil research site and the nearby reference site with higher species abundance in the research site. The high contribution to dissimilarities was mostly due to polychaetes. Sparse macrofaunal densities can be explained by strong hydrodynamic forces and/or earlier trawling. WECs may alter the surrounding seabed with an accumulation of organic matter inside the research area. This indicates that the deployment of WECs in the Lysekil research site tends to have rather minor direct ecological impacts on the surrounding benthic community relative to the natural high variances.

  15. Demands for improvement in working surroundings for older workers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizawa, Yasuhiro; Sakuda, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Tomoki

    2003-01-01

    Workers in three nuclear power plants belonging to Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. were asked to complete a questionnaire. According to the accident reports, workers aged 50 or older had more accidents than those in 30s or 40s. Moreover, it is predicted that the average age of workers in Japan will increase during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, investigations into working surroundings in which older workers can better perform their work would be useful. To this end, a questionnaire addressing issues related to working surroundings was conducted among workers in nuclear power plants and the demands for improvement of working surroundings for older workers are summarized. The demands of 'better lighting', 'making things less heavy', and installation of an elevator' were correlated with age, indicating that younger people have a tendency not to notice these issues. Thus, if the authority deciding on improvements in working surroundings is not an older worker, it is especially important that lighting, the weights of objects to be moved, and methods of moving between floors is taken into account. Findings specific to nuclear power plants were also reported. For example, employees who worked in the non-radiation controlled area demanded the installation of air conditioning and those who worked in the radiation controlled area demanded the establishment of a rest area. Further, we have developed a guidebook entitled 'a guidebook supporting workers' cooperation among all generations' to promote cooperation between older and younger workers. (author)

  16. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the

  17. Cadmium triggers Elodea canadensis to change the surrounding water pH and thereby Cd uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M Tariq; Greger, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of Elodea canadensis shoots on surrounding water pH in the presence of cadmium and the effect of plant-induced pH on cadmium uptake. The pH change in the surrounding nutrient solution and Cd uptake by Elodea shoots were investigated after cultivation of various plant densities (1, 3, 6 plants per 500 ml) in hydroponics at a starting pH of 4.0 and in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium (0, 0.1, 0.5 microM). Cadmium uptake was also investigated at different constant pH (4.0, 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5). To investigate if the pH change arose from photosynthetic activities, plants were grown under light, darkness or in the presence of a photosynthetic inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), and 0.5 microM cadmium in the solution. Elodea had an ability to increase the surrounding water pH, when the initial pH was low, which resulted in increased accumulation of Cd. The higher the plant density, the more pronounced was the pH change. The pH increase was not due to the photosynthetic activity since the pH rise was more pronounced under darkness and in the presence of DCMU. The pH increase by Elodea was triggered by cadmium.

  18. Medical image of the week: granulation tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 57 year old woman presented with a tickling sensation in the back of throat and intermittent bleeding from the healing stoma one month after decannulation of her tracheostomy tube. On bronchoscopy a granuloma with surrounding granulation tissue was present in the subglottic space (Figure 1. Argon plasma coagulation (APC was performed to cauterize the granulation tissue (Figure 2. Formation of granulation tissue after tracheostomy is a common complication which can result in tracheal stenosis. APC and electrocautery using flexible bronchoscopy has been shown to safely and effectively remove the granulation tissue.

  19. Ultrastructural relationship of the phagophore with surrounding organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazik, Joanna; Ylä-Anttila, Päivi; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Phagophore nucleates from a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) termed the omegasome and also makes contact with other organelles such as mitochondria, Golgi complex, plasma membrane and recycling endosomes during its formation. We have used serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SB-EM) and electron tomography (ET) to image phagophore biogenesis in 3 dimensions and to determine the relationship between the phagophore and surrounding organelles at high resolution. ET was performed to confirm whether membrane contact sites (MCSs) are evident between the phagophore and those surrounding organelles. In addition to the known contacts with the ER, we identified MCSs between the phagophore and membranes from putative ER exit sites, late endosomes or lysosomes, the Golgi complex and mitochondria. We also show that one phagophore can have simultaneous MCSs with more than one organelle. Future membrane flux experiments are needed to determine whether membrane contacts also signify lipid translocation.

  20. Trajectories and Maneuvers of Surrounding Vehicles with Panoramic Camera Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Jacob Velling; Kristoffersen, Miklas Strøm; Satzoda, Ravi K.

    2016-01-01

    Vision-based research for intelligent vehicles have traditionally focused on specific regions around a vehicle, such as a front looking camera for, e.g., lane estimation. Traffic scenes are complex and vital information could be lost in unobserved regions. This paper proposes a framework that uses...... four visual sensors for a full surround view of a vehicle in order to achieve an understanding of surrounding vehicle behaviors. The framework will assist the analysis of naturalistic driving studies by automating the task of data reduction of the observed trajectories. To this end, trajectories...... are estimated using a vehicle detector together with a multiperspective optimized tracker in each view. The trajectories are transformed to a common ground plane, where they are associated between perspectives and analyzed to reveal tendencies around the ego-vehicle. The system is tested on sequences from 2.5 h...

  1. Mechanical Characteristics Analysis of Surrounding Rock on Anchor Bar Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuan-cheng; Zhou, Pan; Huang, Rong-bin

    2018-03-01

    Through the homogenization method, the composite of rock and anchor bar is considered as the equivalent material of continuous, homogeneous, isotropic and strength parameter enhancement, which is defined as reinforcement body. On the basis of elasticity, the composite and the reinforcement are analyzed, Based on strengthening theory of surrounding rock and displacement equivalent conditions, the expression of reinforcement body strength parameters and mechanical parameters is deduced. The example calculation shows that the theoretical results are close to the results of the Jia-mei Gao[9], however, closer to the results of FLAC3D numerical simulation, it is proved that the model and surrounding rock reinforcement body theory are reasonable. the model is easy to analyze and calculate, provides a new way for determining reasonable bolt support parameters, can also provides reference for the stability analysis of underground cavern bolting support.

  2. Chitin Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Rangasamy; Chennazhi, Krishna Prasad; Srinivasan, Sowmya; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tamura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:21673928

  3. Diversity of vascular plants of Piestany and surroundings (presentation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzesova, A.; Galusova, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation is a summary of the results of floristic research aimed at determining diversity of vascular plants of Piestany and its surroundings. Plant taxa we determined using the designation keys. We have compiled a list of plant species occurring in the monitored area, we evaluated the selected botanical-phytogeographical characteristics of flora, we've put together a list of local protected, endangered and rare species and a list of local invasive and expansive species according to sources. (Authors)

  4. Methods of Assessing Noise Nuisance of Real Estate Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szopińska Kinga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Testing what factors create the market value of real estate is key information when preparing property valuations as well as other opinions and professional evaluations on the basis of which court verdicts or administrative decisions are made. One of the factors influencing the value of some real estate is the level of noise present in the surroundings, which can lead to the occurrence of noise nuisance negatively affecting social relations.

  5. Enhanced sources of acoustic power surrounding AR 11429

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donea, Alina; Hanson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Multi-frequency power maps of the local acoustic oscillations show acoustic enhancements (''acoustic-power halos'') at high frequencies surrounding large active region. Computational seismic holography reveals a high-frequency ''acoustic-emission halo'', or ''seismic glory'' surrounding large active regions. In this study, we have applied computational seismic holography to map the seismic seismic source density surrounding AR 11429. Studies of HMI/SDO Doppler data, shows that the ''acoustic halos'' and the ''seismic glories'' are prominent at high frequencies 5–8 mHz. We investigate morphological properties of acoustic-power and acoustic emission halos around an active region to see if they are spatially correlated. Details about the local magnetic field from vectormagnetograms of AR 11429 are included. We identify a 15'' region of seismic deficit power (dark moat) shielding the white-light boundary of the active region. The size of the seismic moat is related to region of intermediate magnetic field strength. The acoustic moat is circled by the halo of enhanced seismic amplitude as well as enhanced seismic emission. Overall, the results suggest that features are related. However, if we narrow the frequency band to 5.5 – 6.5 mHz, we find that the seismic source density dominates over the local acoustic power, suggesting the existence of sources that emit more energy downward into the solar interior than upward toward the solar surface.

  6. Controversies surrounding Human Papilloma Virus infection, head & neck vs oral cancer, implications for prophylaxis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Campisi, G.; Giovannelli, L.

    2009-01-01

    Head & Neck Cancer (HNC) represents the sixth most common malignancy worldwide and it is historically linked to well-known behavioural risk factors, i.e., tobacco smoking and/or the alcohol consumption. Recently, substantial evidence has been mounting that Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is playing an increasing important role in oral cancer. Because of the attention and clamor surrounding oral HPV infection and related cancers, as well as the use of HPV prophylactic vaccines, in this in...

  7. Effectiveness of food supplements in increasing fat-free tissue accretion in children with moderate acute malnutrition: A randomised 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Iuel-Brockdorf, Ann-Sophie; Cichon, Bernardette; Rytter, Maren J H; Kurpad, Anura; Wells, Jonathan C; Ritz, Christian; Ashorn, Per; Filteau, Suzanne; Briend, André; Shepherd, Susan; Christensen, Vibeke B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Friis, Henrik

    2017-09-01

    Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are treated with lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) or corn-soy blend (CSB). We assessed the effectiveness of (a) matrix, i.e., LNS or CSB, (b) soy quality, i.e., soy isolate (SI) or dehulled soy (DS), and (c) percentage of total protein from dry skimmed milk, i.e., 0%, 20%, or 50%, in increasing fat-free tissue accretion. Between September 9, 2013, and August 29, 2014, a randomised 2 × 2 × 3 factorial trial recruited 6- to 23-month-old children with MAM in Burkina Faso. The intervention comprised 12 weeks of food supplementation providing 500 kcal/day as LNS or CSB, each containing SI or DS, and 0%, 20%, or 50% of protein from milk. Fat-free mass (FFM) was assessed by deuterium dilution technique. By dividing FFM by length squared, the primary outcome was expressed independent of length as FFM index (FFMI) accretion over 12 weeks. Other outcomes comprised recovery rate and additional anthropometric measures. Of 1,609 children, 4 died, 61 were lost to follow-up, and 119 were transferred out due to supplementation being switched to non-experimental products. No children developed allergic reaction. At inclusion, 95% were breastfed, mean (SD) weight was 6.91 kg (0.93), with 83.5% (5.5) FFM. In the whole cohort, weight increased 0.90 kg (95% CI 0.88, 0.93; p increased by 0.083 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.003, 0.163; p = 0.042) in those who received LNS. In contrast, SI did not increase FFMI compared to DS (mean difference 0.038 kg/m2; 95% CI -0.041, 0.118; p = 0.35), irrespective of matrix. Having 20% milk protein was associated with 0.097 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.002, 0.196) greater FFMI accretion than having 0% milk protein, although this difference was not significant (p = 0.055), and there was no effect of 50% milk protein (0.049 kg/m2; 95% CI -0.047, 0.146; p = 0.32). There was no effect modification by season, admission criteria, or baseline FFMI, stunting, inflammation, or breastfeeding (p > 0.05). LNS compared to CSB resulted

  8. Surrounding land cover types as predictors of palustrine wetland vegetation quality in conterminous USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Gara, Brian; Schumacher, William

    2018-01-01

    The loss of wetland habitats and their often-unique biological communities is a major environmental concern. We examined vegetation data obtained from 380 wetlands sampled in a statistical survey of wetlands in the USA. Our goal was to identify which surrounding land cover types best predict two indices of vegetation quality in wetlands at the regional scale. We considered palustrine wetlands in four regions (Coastal Plains, North Central East, Interior Plains, and West) in which the dominant vegetation was emergent, forested, or scrub-shrub. For each wetland, we calculated weighted proportions of eight land cover types surrounding the area in which vegetation was assessed, in four zones radiating from the edge of the assessment area to 2 km. Using Akaike's Information Criterion, we determined the best 1-, 2- and 3-predictor models of the two indices, using the weighted proportions of the land cover types as potential predictors. Mean values of the two indices were generally higher in the North Central East and Coastal Plains than the other regions for forested and emergent wetlands. In nearly all cases, the best predictors of the indices were not the dominant surrounding land cover types. Overall, proportions of forest (positive effect) and agriculture (negative effect) surrounding the assessment area were the best predictors of the two indices. One or both of these variables were included as predictors in 65 of the 72 models supported by the data. Wetlands surrounding the assessment area had a positive effect on the indices, and ranked third (33%) among the predictors included in supported models. Development had a negative effect on the indices and was included in only 28% of supported models. These results can be used to develop regional management plans for wetlands, such as creating forest buffers around wetlands, or to conserve zones between wetlands to increase habitat connectivity.

  9. Surrounding information consideration promotes cooperation in Prisoner’s dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Gang; Du, Xia; Li, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method of strategy updating is proposed in the Prisoner’s dilemma game. • The stochastic players only consider their neighbor’s payoff and update strategy by classical Fermi rule. • The advanced player would consider not only the neighbor’s payoff but also the neighbors’ local surrounding information. • The simulation result illustrates that with the increase of advanced players in the network, the fraction of cooperation increases. - Abstract: Evolutionary game theory provides a useful, integrative framework for studying the evolution of cooperation. A new strategy updating method is proposed in our model. Due to people with diversified thinking, players are divided into two categories based on their different strategy updating method: ordinary players and advanced players. The former players only consider their neighbor’s payoff and updating strategy by classical Fermi rule, while the latter players take both the neighbors’ surrounding information and payoff into account. The results show that the neighbors surrounding information consideration contributes to the evolution of cooperation and finds the fraction of cooperation grows evidently with the increase of advanced players numbers. Our model may provide a pragmatic approach to the research of cooperation in social network.

  10. Radiological impact of phosphogypsum in the Surrounding Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Attar, L.; Al-Oudat, M.; Budier, Y.; Khalili, H.; Hamwi, A.; Kanakri, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the radiological impact of Syrian PG piles in the compartments of the surrounding ecosystem. Therefore, estimating the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (i.e. 2 26 Ra, 2 38 U, 2 32 Th, 2 10 Po and 2 10 Pb) in the raw materials, product and by-product of the Syrian phosphate fertilizer industry was essential. The obtained data revealed that 2 26 Ra retained in PG with a mean activity of 318 Bq kg-1. Uranium content in PG was low since it remained in the produced phosphoric acid. However, over 80% of 2 32 Th, 2 10 Po and 2 10 Pb partitioned in PG. The presence of PG piles did not increase the concentration of 2 22 Rn nor gamma rays exposure dose in the studied area. The annual effective dose was only 0.082 mSv y-1. The geometric mean of total suspended solids was ca. 85 g m-3. The concentration of the radionuclides in filtration and runoff waters were below the detection limits; and were much lower than the permissible limits set for drinking water by the WHO in ground and Qattina Lake waters. Eastern sites soil samples of PG piles were of the highest activity concentrations, due to the characterised western and north-western wind in the area, but remained within the natural levels reported in Syrian soil. The impact of PG piles on plants varied upon the plant species. Significantly, higher concentrations of the radionuclides were recorded for grass in comparison to broad-leaved plants. Among the species that naturally grown on PG piles, Inula, Ecballium and Polygonium may be radionuclides accumulators. Nevertheless, a determined effort is needed on national level to achieve a common and coherent approach to regulate PG piles or to consider it a resource material rather than waste or residue. The presence of PG piles did not increase the concentration of 2 22 Rn nor gamma rays exposure dose in the studied area. The annual effective dose was only 0.082 mSv y -1 . The geometric mean of total suspended solids was ca

  11. Tissue bioengineering and artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llames, Sara; García, Eva; Otero Hernández, Jesús; Meana, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    The scarcity of organs and tissues for transplant and the need of immunosuppressive drugs to avoid rejection constitute two reasons that justify organ and tissue production in the laboratory. Tissue engineering based tissues (TE) could allow to regenerate the whole organ from a fragment or even to produce several organs from an organ donor for grafting purposes. TE is based in: (1) the ex vivo expansion of cells, (2) the seeding of these expanded cells in tridimensional structures that mimic physiological conditions and, (3) grafting the prototype. In order to graft big structures it is necessary that the organ or tissue produced "ex vivo" bears a vascular tree to ensure the nutrition of its deep layers. At present, no technology has been developed to provide this vascular tree to TE derived products. Thus, these tissues must be thin enough to acquire nutrients during the first days by diffusion from surrounding tissues. This fact constitutes nowadays the greatest limitation of technologies for organ development in the laboratory.In this chapter, all these problems and their possible solutions are commented. Also, the present status of TE techniques in the regeneration of different organ systems is reviewed.

  12. Direct-to-PCR tissue preservation for DNA profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Amy; Berry, Clare; Bruce, David; Gahan, Michelle Elizabeth; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; McNevin, Dennis

    2016-05-01

    Disaster victim identification (DVI) often occurs in remote locations with extremes of temperatures and humidities. Access to mortuary facilities and refrigeration are not always available. An effective and robust DNA sampling and preservation procedure would increase the probability of successful DNA profiling and allow faster repatriation of bodies and body parts. If the act of tissue preservation also released DNA into solution, ready for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the DVI process could be further streamlined. In this study, we explored the possibility of obtaining DNA profiles without DNA extraction, by adding aliquots of preservative solutions surrounding fresh human muscle and decomposing human muscle and skin tissue samples directly to PCR. The preservatives consisted of two custom preparations and two proprietary solutions. The custom preparations were a salt-saturated solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and TENT buffer (Tris, EDTA, NaCl, Tween 20). The proprietary preservatives were DNAgard (Biomatrica(®)) and Tissue Stabilising Kit (DNA Genotek). We obtained full PowerPlex(®) 21 (Promega) and GlobalFiler(®) (Life Technologies) DNA profiles from fresh and decomposed tissue preserved at 35 °C for up to 28 days for all four preservatives. The preservative aliquots removed from the fresh muscle tissue samples had been stored at -80 °C for 4 years, indicating that long-term archival does not diminish the probability of successful DNA typing. Rather, storage at -80 °C seems to reduce PCR inhibition.

  13. An anatomical and histological study of the structures surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bellmunt, Albert; Miguel-Pérez, Maribel; Brugué, Marc Blasi; Cabús, Juan Blasi; Casals, Martí; Martinoli, Carlo; Kuisma, Raija

    2015-06-01

    The proximal attachment of hamstring muscles has a very high incidence of injuries due to a wide number of factors and its morphology may be one of the underlying factors as scientific literature points out. The connective tissue component of the attachment of hamstring muscles is not well known. For this reason the aim of this study is to describe the anatomy and histology surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles (PAHM) and its direct anatomic relations. Forty-eight cryopreserved lower limbs have sequentially been studied by means of dissection, anatomical sections and histology. All specimens studied presented an annular connective tissue structure that resembles a retinaculum, which covers and adapts to the attachment of hamstring muscles on the ischial tuberosity. The results show how this retinaculum is continuous with the long head of biceps femoris muscle, however there is a layer of loose connective tissue between the retinaculum and the semitendinosus muscle. Furthermore, this structure receives expansions of the anterior epimysium of the gluteus maximus muscle (GIM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical tomography of tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimnyakov, D A; Tuchin, Valerii V

    2002-01-01

    Methods of optical tomography of biological tissues are considered, which include pulse-modulation and frequency-modulation tomography, diffusion tomography with the use of cw radiation sources, optical coherent tomography, speckle-correlation tomography of nonstationary media, and optoacoustic tomography. The method for controlling the optical properties of tissues is studied from the point of view of increasing a probing depth in optical coherent tomography. The modern state and prospects of the development of optical tomography are discussed. (review)

  15. Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membrane alters tissue response to implanted Ahmed glaucoma valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCroos, Francis Char; Ahmad, Sameer; Kondo, Yuji; Chow, Jessica; Mordes, Daniel; Lee, Maria Regina; Asrani, Sanjay; Allingham, R Rand; Olbrich, Kevin C; Klitzman, Bruce

    2009-07-01

    Long-term intraocular pressure control by glaucoma drainage implants is compromised by the formation of an avascular fibrous capsule that surrounds the glaucoma implant and increases aqueous outflow resistance. It is possible to alter this fibrotic tissue reaction and produce a more vascularized and potentially more permeable capsule around implanted devices by enclosing them in a porous membrane. Ahmed glaucoma implants modified with an outer 5-microm pore size membrane (termed porous retrofitted implant with modified enclosure or PRIME-Ahmed) and unmodified glaucoma implants were implanted into paired rabbit eyes. After 6 weeks, the devices were explanted and subject to histological analysis. A tissue response containing minimal vascularization, negligible immune response, and a thick fibrous capsule surrounded the unmodified Ahmed glaucoma implant. In comparison, the tissue response around the PRIME-Ahmed demonstrated a thinner fibrous capsule (46.4 +/- 10.8 microm for PRIME-Ahmed versus 94.9 +/- 21.2 microm for control, p vascularized near the tissue-material interface. A prominent chronic inflammatory response was noted as well. Encapsulating the aqueous outflow pathway with a porous membrane produces a more vascular tissue response and thinner fibrous capsule compared with a standard glaucoma implant plate. Enhanced vascularity and a thinner fibrous capsule may reduce aqueous outflow resistance and improve long-term glaucoma implant performance.

  16. Impact of the Surrounding Built Environment on Energy Consumption in Mixed-Use Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Eun Woo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available While a mixture of residential and non-residential uses in urban development has advantages in reducing transportation energy consumption and improving efficiency of land utilization, the patterns of energy consumption in mixed-use buildings are largely unknown. To understand associations between the built environment and energy consumption and to find effective strategies for energy saving, this study aims to examine how the gas and electricity energy consumption of mixed-use properties is influenced by the characteristics of the immediate surroundings of the building as well as by the building’s attributes. The sample for this study is 22,109 mixed-use buildings in Seoul, Korea and the main source of outcome is electricity and gas energy consumption data retrieved from the open system of building data in 2015 and 2016. The regression results showed that a higher proportion of non-residential uses in mixed-use buildings was positively associated with higher electricity consumption overall but that it reduced gas energy use during the winter. In particular, increased restaurant and service use significantly influenced electricity consumption in the buildings. With regard to surrounding built environment, higher impervious surfaces and dense development near the buildings increased the electricity consumption of the buildings but it reduced gas energy consumption. Our results imply that, through the mediating effects of UHIs, the built environment characteristics of immediate surroundings may have indirect effects on energy consumption in mixed-use buildings.

  17. Analysis of DCE-MRI features in tumor and the surrounding stroma for prediction of Ki-67 proliferation status in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yuanzhe; Cheng, Hu; Zhang, Juan; Shao, Guoliang; Li, Lihua

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer, with its high heterogeneity, is the most common malignancies in women. In addition to the entire tumor itself, tumor microenvironment could also play a fundamental role on the occurrence and development of tumors. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of heterogeneity within a tumor and the surrounding stromal tissue in predicting the Ki-67 proliferation status of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients. To this end, we collected 62 patients imaged with preoperative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for analysis. The tumor and the peritumoral stromal tissue were segmented into 8 shells with 5 mm width outside of tumor. The mean enhancement rate in the stromal shells showed a decreasing order if their distances to the tumor increase. Statistical and texture features were extracted from the tumor and the surrounding stromal bands, and multivariate logistic regression classifiers were trained and tested based on these features. An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated to evaluate performance of the classifiers. Furthermore, the statistical model using features extracted from boundary shell next to the tumor produced AUC of 0.796+/-0.076, which is better than that using features from the other subregions. Furthermore, the prediction model using 7 features from the entire tumor produced an AUC value of 0.855+/-0.065. The classifier based on 9 selected features extracted from peritumoral stromal region showed an AUC value of 0.870+/-0.050. Finally, after fusion of the predictive model obtained from entire tumor and the peritumoral stromal regions, the classifier performance was significantly improved with AUC of 0.920. The results indicated that heterogeneity in tumor boundary and peritumoral stromal region could be valuable in predicting the indicator associated with prognosis.

  18. The Effects of GH Transgenic Goats on the Microflora of the Intestine, Feces and Surrounding Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekun Bao

    Full Text Available The development of genetically engineered animals has brought with it increasing concerns about biosafety issues. We therefore evaluated the risks of growth hormone from transgenic goats, including the probability of horizontal gene transfer and the impact on the microbial community of the goats' gastrointestinal tracts, feces and the surrounding soil. The results showed that neither the GH nor the neoR gene could be detected in the samples. Moreover, there was no significant change in the microbial community of the gastrointestinal tracts, feces and soil, as tested with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, phylogenetic analysis showed that the intestinal content, feces and soil samples all contained the same dominant group of bacteria. These results demonstrated that expression of goat growth hormone in the mammary of GH transgenic goat does not influence the microflora of the intestine, feces and surrounding soil.

  19. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  20. Blooming Trees: Substructures and Surrounding Groups of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Heng; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Serra, Ana Laura; Baldi, Marco

    2018-06-01

    We develop the Blooming Tree Algorithm, a new technique that uses spectroscopic redshift data alone to identify the substructures and the surrounding groups of galaxy clusters, along with their member galaxies. Based on the estimated binding energy of galaxy pairs, the algorithm builds a binary tree that hierarchically arranges all of the galaxies in the field of view. The algorithm searches for buds, corresponding to gravitational potential minima on the binary tree branches; for each bud, the algorithm combines the number of galaxies, their velocity dispersion, and their average pairwise distance into a parameter that discriminates between the buds that do not correspond to any substructure or group, and thus eventually die, and the buds that correspond to substructures and groups, and thus bloom into the identified structures. We test our new algorithm with a sample of 300 mock redshift surveys of clusters in different dynamical states; the clusters are extracted from a large cosmological N-body simulation of a ΛCDM model. We limit our analysis to substructures and surrounding groups identified in the simulation with mass larger than 1013 h ‑1 M ⊙. With mock redshift surveys with 200 galaxies within 6 h ‑1 Mpc from the cluster center, the technique recovers 80% of the real substructures and 60% of the surrounding groups; in 57% of the identified structures, at least 60% of the member galaxies of the substructures and groups belong to the same real structure. These results improve by roughly a factor of two the performance of the best substructure identification algorithm currently available, the σ plateau algorithm, and suggest that our Blooming Tree Algorithm can be an invaluable tool for detecting substructures of galaxy clusters and investigating their complex dynamics.

  1. Muscle biopsies off-set normal cellular signaling in surrounding musculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Hauerslev, Simon; Dahlqvist, Julia R

    2013-01-01

    muscle tissue for at least 3 weeks after the biopsy was performed and magnetic resonance imaging suggests that an effect of a biopsy may persist for at least 5 months. Cellular signaling after a biopsy resembles what is seen in severe limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I with respect to protein......Studies of muscle physiology and muscular disorders often require muscle biopsies to answer questions about muscle biology. In this context, we have often wondered if muscle biopsies, especially if performed repeatedly, would affect interpretation of muscle morphology and cellular signaling. We...... hypothesized that muscle morphology and cellular signaling involved in myogenesis/regeneration and protein turnover can be changed by a previous muscle biopsy in close proximity to the area under investigation. Here we report a case where a past biopsy or biopsies affect cellular signaling of the surrounding...

  2. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S

    2008-12-15

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007. During this period, 531 earthquakes and 92 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, 30 are aftershocks of the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel in December of 2006. With 20 events with {mu}{sub {iota}} {>=} 2.5, four of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2007 was far below the average over the previous 32 years. (author)

  3. Isoperimetric inequalities in surround system and space science

    OpenAIRE

    JiaJin Wen; Jun Yuan; ShanHe Wu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract By means of the algebraic, analysis, convex geometry, computer, and inequality theories we establish the following isoperimetric inequality in the centered 2-surround system S ( 2 ) { P , Γ , l } $S^{(2)} \\{P,\\varGamma ,l \\}$ : ( 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ r ¯ P p ) 1 / p ⩽ | Γ | 4 π sin l π | Γ | [ csc l π | Γ | + cot 2 l π | Γ | ln ( tan l π | Γ | + sec l π | Γ | ) ] , ∀ p ⩽ − 2 . $$\\begin{aligned}& \\biggl(\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\bar{r}_{P}^{p} \\biggr)^{1/p}\\leqslant\\frac{|\\varG...

  4. Induced radioactivity in a 4 MW target and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, Stefano; Otto, Thomas; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump was performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation.

  5. Mutual seismic interaction between tunnels and the surrounding granular soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-12-01

    Study results show that the maximum exerted straining actions in tunnel lining are directly proportional to the relative stiffness between tunnel and surrounding soil (lining thickness and soil shear modulus. Moreover, it is highly affected by the peak ground acceleration and the tunnel location (embedment depth. A comprehensive study is performed to show the effect of tunnel thickness and tunnel diameter on both the induced bending moment and lining deformation. In general, it is concluded that seismic analysis should be considered in regions subjected to peak ground acceleration greater than 0.15g.

  6. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007. During this period, 531 earthquakes and 92 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, 30 are aftershocks of the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel in December of 2006. With 20 events with Μ ι ≥ 2.5, four of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2007 was far below the average over the previous 32 years. (author)

  7. Diversity of vascular plants of Piestany and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzesova, A.; Galusova, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the present work is a summary of the results of floristic research aimed at determining diversity of vascular plants of Piestany and its surroundings. Plant taxa we determined using the designation keys. We have compiled a list of plant species occurring in the monitored area, we evaluated the selected botanical-phytogeographical characteristics of flora, we've put together a list of local protected, endangered and rare species and a list of local invasive and expansive species according to sources. (Authors)

  8. One Japanese case on taxation surrounding foreign trust

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, Yuya

    2015-01-01

    Taxation surrounding trust at cross-border situation is paid attention to byworldwide basis. Japan is not exception. According to recent Japanesejurisprudence, where a trust had been established in accordance with State law ofNew Jersey, the U.S., it was disputed whether or not the act settling that trust fellwithin “shintaku koui (an act of trust)” and one of the related members, who had beena minor child at that time, fell within “jyueki sha (beneficiary)” under JapaneseInheritance Tax Act....

  9. Effects of large pressure amplitude low frequency noise in the parotid gland perivasculo-ductal connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pedro; Brito, José; Mendes, João; da Fonseca, Jorge; Águas, Artur; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    In tissues and organs exposed to large pressure amplitude low frequency noise fibrosis occurs in the absence of inflammatory signs, which is thought to be a protective response. In the parotid gland the perivasculo-ductal connective tissue surrounds arteries, veins and the ductal tree. Perivasculo-ductal connective tissue is believed to function as a mechanical stabilizer of the glandular tissue. In order to quantify the proliferation of perivasculo-ductal connective tissue in large pressure amplitude low frequency noise-exposed rats we used sixty Wistar rats which were equally divided into 6 groups. One group kept in silence, and the remaining five exposed to continuous large pressure amplitude low frequency noise: g1-168h (1 week); g2-504h (3 weeks); g3-840h (5 weeks); g4-1512h (9 weeks); and g5-2184h (13 weeks). After exposure, parotid glands were removed and the perivasculo-ductal connective tissue area was measured in all groups. We applied ANOVA statistical analysis, using SPSS 13.0. The global trend is an increase in the average perivasculo-ductal connective tissue areas, that develops linearly and significantly with large pressure amplitude low frequency noise exposure time (p connective tissue. Hence, these results show that in response to large pressure amplitude low frequency noise exposure, rat parotid glands increase their perivasculo-ductal connective tissue.

  10. Orientation-specific surround suppression in the primary visual cortex varies as a function of autistic tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V Flevaris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD exhibit superior performance on tasks that rely on local details in an image, and they exhibit deficits in tasks that require integration of local elements into a unified whole. These perceptual abnormalities have been proposed to underlie many of the characteristic features of ASD, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the degree to which orientation-specific surround suppression, a well-known form of contextual modulation in visual cortex, is associated with autistic tendency in neurotypical individuals. Surround suppression refers to the phenomenon that the response to a stimulus in the receptive field of a neuron is suppressed when it is surrounded by stimuli just outside the receptive field. The suppression is greatest when the center and surrounding stimuli share perceptual features such as orientation. Surround suppression underlies a number of fundamental perceptual processes that are known to be atypical in individuals with ASD, including perceptual grouping and perceptual pop-out. However, whether surround suppression in the primary visual cortex (V1 is related to autistic traits has not been directly tested before. We used fMRI to measure the neural response to a center Gabor when it was surrounded by Gabors having the same or orthogonal orientation, and calculated a suppression index (SI for each participant that denoted the magnitude of suppression in the same versus orthogonal conditions. SI was positively correlated with degree of autistic tendency in each individual, as measured by the Autism Quotient (AQ scale, a questionnaire designed to assess autistic traits in the general population. Age also correlated with SI and with autistic tendency in our sample, but did not account for the correlation between SI and autistic tendency. These results suggest a reduction in orientation-specific surround suppression in V1 with increasing autistic

  11. Synovial tissue research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orr, Carl; Sousa, Elsa; Boyle, David L

    2017-01-01

    The synovium is the major target tissue of inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis. The study of synovial tissue has advanced considerably throughout the past few decades from arthroplasty and blind needle biopsy to the use of arthroscopic and ultrasonographic technologies that enable...... easier visualization and improve the reliability of synovial biopsies. Rapid progress has been made in using synovial tissue to study disease pathogenesis, to stratify patients, to discover biomarkers and novel targets, and to validate therapies, and this progress has been facilitated by increasingly...... diverse and sophisticated analytical and technological approaches. In this Review, we describe these approaches, and summarize how their use in synovial tissue research has improved our understanding of rheumatoid arthritis and identified candidate biomarkers that could be used in disease diagnosis...

  12. Cortical Surround Interactions and Perceptual Salience via Natural Scene Statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Coen-Cagli

    Full Text Available Spatial context in images induces perceptual phenomena associated with salience and modulates the responses of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1. However, the computational and ecological principles underlying contextual effects are incompletely understood. We introduce a model of natural images that includes grouping and segmentation of neighboring features based on their joint statistics, and we interpret the firing rates of V1 neurons as performing optimal recognition in this model. We show that this leads to a substantial generalization of divisive normalization, a computation that is ubiquitous in many neural areas and systems. A main novelty in our model is that the influence of the context on a target stimulus is determined by their degree of statistical dependence. We optimized the parameters of the model on natural image patches, and then simulated neural and perceptual responses on stimuli used in classical experiments. The model reproduces some rich and complex response patterns observed in V1, such as the contrast dependence, orientation tuning and spatial asymmetry of surround suppression, while also allowing for surround facilitation under conditions of weak stimulation. It also mimics the perceptual salience produced by simple displays, and leads to readily testable predictions. Our results provide a principled account of orientation-based contextual modulation in early vision and its sensitivity to the homogeneity and spatial arrangement of inputs, and lends statistical support to the theory that V1 computes visual salience.

  13. Effectively Communicating the Uncertainties Surrounding Ebola Virus Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Kilianski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak-potentially, the largest of its kind-as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises.

  14. Effectively Communicating the Uncertainties Surrounding Ebola Virus Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilianski, Andy; Evans, Nicholas G

    2015-10-01

    The current Ebola virus outbreak has highlighted the uncertainties surrounding many aspects of Ebola virus virology, including routes of transmission. The scientific community played a leading role during the outbreak-potentially, the largest of its kind-as many of the questions surrounding ebolaviruses have only been interrogated in the laboratory. Scientists provided an invaluable resource for clinicians, public health officials, policy makers, and the lay public in understanding the progress of Ebola virus disease and the continuing outbreak. Not all of the scientific communication, however, was accurate or effective. There were multiple instances of published articles during the height of the outbreak containing potentially misleading scientific language that spurred media overreaction and potentially jeopardized preparedness and policy decisions at critical points. Here, we use articles declaring the potential for airborne transmission of Ebola virus as a case study in the inaccurate reporting of basic science, and we provide recommendations for improving the communication about unknown aspects of disease during public health crises.

  15. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  16. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Qin Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10 3 cm –3 and kinematic temperature ∼20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  17. Cytoplasmic movement profiles of mouse surrounding nucleolus and not-surrounding nucleolus antral oocytes during meiotic resumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Thu Hien; Belli, Martina; Fassina, Lorenzo; Vigone, Giulia; Merico, Valeria; Garagna, Silvia; Zuccotti, Maurizio

    2017-05-01

    Full-grown mouse antral oocytes are classified as surrounding nucleolus (SN) or not-surrounding nucleolus (NSN), depending on the respective presence or absence of a ring of Hoechst-positive chromatin surrounding the nucleolus. In culture, both types of oocytes resume meiosis and reach the metaphase II (MII) stage, but following insemination, NSN oocytes arrest at the two-cell stage whereas SN oocytes may develop to term. By coupling time-lapse bright-field microscopy with image analysis based on particle image velocimetry, we provide the first systematic measure of the changes to the cytoplasmic movement velocity (CMV) occurring during the germinal vesicle-to-MII (GV-to-MII) transition of these two types of oocytes. Compared to SN oocytes, NSN oocytes display a delayed GV-to-MII transition, which can be mostly explained by retarded germinal vesicle break down and first polar body extrusion. SN and NSN oocytes also exhibit significantly different CMV profiles at four main time-lapse intervals, although this difference was not predictive of SN or NSN oocyte origin because of the high variability in CMV. When CMV profile was analyzed through a trained artificial neural network, however, each single SN or NSN oocyte was blindly identified with a probability of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively. Thus, the CMV profile recorded during meiotic resumption may be exploited as a cytological signature for the non-invasive assessment of the oocyte developmental potential, and could be informative for the analysis of the GV-to-MII transition of oocytes of other species. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Correlation of non-mass-like abnormal MR signal intensity with pathological findings surrounding pediatric osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrouha, Karim Z.; Haidar, Rachid; Saghieh, Said; Musallam, Khaled M.; Samra, Alexis Bou; Tawil, Ayman; Chakhachiro, Zaher; Abdallah, Abeer; Khoury, Nabil J.; Saab, Raya; Muwakkit, Samar; Abboud, Miguel R.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the role of MRI in interpreting abnormal signals within bones and soft tissues adjacent to tumor bulk of osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma in a pediatric population by correlating MR findings with histopathology. Thirty patients met the inclusion criteria, which included (1) osteosarcoma or Ewing's sarcoma, (2) MR studies no more than 2 months prior to surgery, (3) presence of abnormal MR signal surrounding the tumor bulk, (4) pathological material from resected tumor. The patients received standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Using grid maps on gross pathology specimens, the abnormal MR areas around the tumor were matched with the corresponding grid sections. Histopathology slides of these sections were then analyzed to determine the nature of the regions of interest. The MR/pathological correlation was evaluated using Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher's exact test. Twenty-seven patients had osteosarcoma and three patients had Ewing's sarcoma. Of the studied areas, 17.4% were positive for tumor (viable or necrotic). There was no statistically significant correlation between areas positive for tumor and age, gender, signal extent and intensity on MRI, or tissue type. There was, however, a statistically significant correlation between presence of tumor and the appearance of abnormal soft tissue signals. A feathery appearance correlated with tumor-negative areas whereas a bulky appearance correlated with tumor-positive regions. MR imaging is helpful in identifying the nature of abnormal signal areas surrounding bone sarcomas that are more likely to be tumor-free, particularly when the signal in the soft tissues surrounding the tumor is feathery and edema-like in appearance. (orig.)

  19. Preconditioning of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells with deferoxamine increases the production of pro-angiogenic, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory factors: Potential application in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oses, Carolina; Olivares, Belén; Ezquer, Marcelo; Acosta, Cristian; Bosch, Paul; Donoso, Macarena; Léniz, Patricio; Ezquer, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is one of the most frequent and troublesome complications of diabetes mellitus. Evidence from diabetic animal models and diabetic patients suggests that reduced availability of neuroprotective and pro-angiogenic factors in the nerves in combination with a chronic pro-inflammatory microenvironment and high level of oxidative stress, contribute to the pathogenesis of DN. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of great interest as therapeutic agents for regenerative purposes, since they can secrete a broad range of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory factors. Therefore, the use of the MSC secretome may represent a promising approach for DN treatment. Recent data indicate that the paracrine potential of MSCs could be boosted by preconditioning these cells with an environmental or pharmacological stimulus, enhancing their therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we observed that the preconditioning of human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) with 150μM or 400μM of the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFX) for 48 hours, increased the abundance of the hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in a concentration dependent manner, without affecting MSC morphology and survival. Activation of HIF-1α led to the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of pro-angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor alpha and angiopoietin 1. Furthermore this preconditioning increased the expression of potent neuroprotective factors, including nerve growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3, and cytokines with anti-inflammatory activity like IL4 and IL5. Additionally, we observed that these molecules, which could also be used as therapeutics, were also increased in the secretome of MSCs preconditioned with DFX compared to the secretome obtained from non-preconditioned cells. Moreover, DFX preconditioning significantly increased the total antioxidant capacity of the MSC secretome and they showed neuroprotective effects when

  20. Quantification and validation of soft tissue deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Christensen, Lars Bager

    2009-01-01

    We present a model for soft tissue deformation derived empirically from 10 pig carcases. The carcasses are subjected to deformation from a known single source of pressure located at the skin surface, and the deformation is quantified by means of steel markers injected into the tissue. The steel...... markers are easy to distinguish from the surrounding soft tissue in 3D computed tomography images. By tracking corresponding markers using methods from point-based registration, we are able to accurately quantify the magnitude and propagation of the induced deformation. The deformation is parameterised...

  1. MAPPING THE SURROUNDINGS AS A REQUIREMENT FOR AUTONOMOUS DRIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steininger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the hype around driverless cars and the challenges of the sensor integration and data processing, this paper presents a model for using a XBox One Microsoft Kinect stereo camera as sensor for mapping the surroundings. Today, the recognition of the environment of the car is mostly done by a mix of sensors like LiDAR, RADAR and cameras. In the case of the outdoor delivery challenge Robotour 2016 with model cars in scale 1:5, it is our goal to solve the task with one camera only. To this end, a three-stage approach was developed. The test results show that our approach can detect and locate objects at a range of up to eight meters in order to incorporate them as barriers in the navigation process.

  2. Natural occurring radioactivity in Palmyra and its surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Shwekani, R.; Raja, G.; Hushari, M.; Al-Hent, R.; Issa, M.

    2006-06-01

    In this work, the natural radiation background has been carried out for Palmyra city and its surroundings area. The study has covered gamma radiation measurements, indoor radon gas concentration and radionuclides levels in environmental samples (soil, water, plat). The results showed that indoor radon gas concentrations and radiation exposure rates are within the background levels. Also, the results showed that there is no artificial radiation in the area and there is no correlation between the natural radiation levels and the reported cancer cases. Therefore, the reported cancer cases in this area may be due to non-radiation cases, which must be investigated, or they are within the natural levels in Syria unless accurate statistics proves the opposite. (author)

  3. Physical geography of the Nete basin and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerten, K.

    2011-01-01

    The report briefly describes the main features of the physical geography of the Nete basin (Campine region, Belgium) and its immediate surroundings. First, an integrated overview of the topography, morphology and hydrography is given. This overview serves as the basis for the assessment of the morphological stability of the region and also explains the relationship between the topography and the hydrology. Furthermore, special attention is paid to soil science including a quantitative survey of some soil characteristics data. Another part of this report deals with erosion processes caused by water and wind action, and the (potential) impact on the morphology. Finally, the palaeogeographical evolution during the Quaternary is discussed. This evolution shows that the environment is stable over 10 000 years or more in the current and similar climatic conditions. Altering climatic conditions, notably glacial-interglacial periods, have impacted erosion with periods of strong erosion.

  4. Precision Security: Integrating Video Surveillance with Surrounding Environment Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Video surveillance plays a vital role in maintaining the social security although, until now, large uncertainty still exists in danger understanding and recognition, which can be partly attributed to intractable environment changes in the backgrounds. This article presents a brain-inspired computing of attention value of surrounding environment changes (EC with a processes-based cognition model by introducing a ratio value λ of EC-implications within considered periods. Theoretical models for computation of warning level of EC-implications to the universal video recognition efficiency (quantified as time cost of implication-ratio variations from λk to λk+1, k=1,2,… are further established. Imbedding proposed models into the online algorithms is suggested as a future research priority towards precision security for critical applications and, furthermore, schemes for a practical implementation of such integration are also preliminarily discussed.

  5. Teacher Leadership: Everyday Practices Surrounding Work- Related Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiweshe Nigel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This interpretivist study contributes to our scholarly understanding of how everyday practices surrounding work-related stress in education affect teacher leadership and successful learning outcomes. Insights are drawn from our long-standing engagement in the field where we observed how teaching staff, students, and management interacted. These observations were supplemented by in-depth interviews with 20 teaching staff. Our findings reveal competing demands and practices across the individual intrapersonal environment and the work related environment. There were three key themes that emerged in answer to the core research question: 1 the role of relational practices in managing teacher burnout, 2 the role of surveillance practices in education and 3 the role of assimilating practices in education. Drawing insights from these practices, we develop a conceptual framework that will help us to see relations at work anew, and develop a deeper understanding of ‘sickies’, motivation, learning outcomes and teacher leadership opportunities in education

  6. Biogeography of azooxanthellate corals in the Caribbean and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, J.

    2002-04-01

    Biogeographic patterns for azooxanthellate corals are not as well known as those of zooxanthellate (primarily reef-building) corals. I analyzed occurrences of 129 species of azooxanthellate corals in 19 geopolitical regions in the Caribbean and surrounding areas. I performed an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis using Bray-Curtis' similarity measure on the complete data set and shallow- and deep-water subsets of the data. The results indicate two provinces, each with a widespread (tropical and subtropical distributions) component to its fauna. One province has a tropical and primarily insular component to it, while the other has a subtropical and primarily continental component. By contrast, zooxanthellate corals have a uniform faunal composition throughout the Caribbean. Moreover, zooxanthellate corals have half as many species in the Caribbean as the azooxanthellate corals even though their global diversities are equal. These differences in diversity and geographic distribution patterns should be considered when developing conservation strategies.

  7. How A Black Hole Lights Up Its Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-10-01

    How do the supermassive black holes that live at the centers of galaxies influence their environments? New observations of a distant active galaxy offer clues about this interaction.Signs of CoevolutionPlot demonstrating the m-sigma relation, the empirical correlation between the stellar velocity dispersion of a galactic bulge and the mass of the supermassive black hole at its center. [Msigma]We know that the centers of active galaxies host supermassive black holes with masses of millions to billions of suns. One mystery surrounding these beasts is that they are observed to evolve simultaneously with their host galaxies for instance, an empirical relationship is seen between the growth of a black hole and the growth of its host galaxys bulge. This suggests that there must be a feedback mechanism through which the evolution of a black hole is linked to that of its host galaxy.One proposed source of this coupling is the powerful jets emitted from the poles of these supermassive black holes. These jets are thought to be produced as some of the material accreting onto the black hole is flung out, confined by surrounding gas and magnetic fields. Because the jets of hot gas and radiation extend outward through the host galaxy, they provide a means for the black hole to influence the gas and dust of its surroundings.In our current model of a radio-loud active galactic nuclei,a region of hot, ionized gas the narrow-line region lies beyond the sphere of influence of the supermassive black hole. [C.M. Urry and P. Padovani]Clues in the Narrow-Line RegionThe region of gas thought to sit just outside of the black holes sphere of influence (at a distance of perhaps a thousand to a few thousand light-years) is known as the narrow line region so named because we observe narrow emission lines from this gas. Given its hot, ionized state, this gas must somehow be being pummeled with energy. In the canonical picture, radiation from the black hole heats the gas directly in a process

  8. Mechanic effect of pulsed focused ultrasound in tumor and muscle tissue evaluated by MRI, histology, and microarray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, Walter; Yuh, Esther L.; Steinbach, Silke; Bednarski, Mark D.; Guccione, Samira

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to tumor and muscle tissue. Pulsed HIFU was applied to tumor and muscle tissue in C3H/Km mice. Three hours after HIFU treatment pre- and post-contrast T1-wt, T2-wt images and a diffusion-wt STEAM-sequence were obtained. After MR imaging, the animals were euthenized and the treated tumor and muscle was taken out for histology and functional genomic analysis. In the tumor tissue a slight increase of the diffusion coefficient could be found. In the muscle tissue T2 images showed increased signal intensity and post-contrast T1 showed a decreased contrast uptake in the center and a severe contrast uptake in the surrounding muscle tissue. A significant increase of the diffusion coefficient was found. Gene expression analysis revealed profound changes in the expression levels of 29 genes being up-regulated and 3 genes being down-regulated in the muscle tissue and 31 genes being up-regulated and 15 genes being down-regulated in the SCCVII tumor tissue. Seven genes were up-regulated in both tissue types. The highest up-regulated gene in the tumor and muscle tissue encoded for Mouse histone H2A.1 gene (FC = 13.2 ± 20.6) and Apolipoprotein E (FC = 12.8 ± 27.4) respectively MHC class III (FC = 83.7 ± 67.4) and hsp70 (FC = 75.3 ± 85.0). Immunoblot confirmed the presence of HSP70 protein in the muscle tissue. Pulsed HIFU treatment on tumor and muscle tissue results in dramatic changes in gene expression, indicating that the effect of pulsed HIFU is in some regard dependent and also independent of the tissue type.

  9. Mechanical stimulation increases proliferation, differentiation and protein expression in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Yadav, Kavita; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2007-01-01

    Myogenesis is a complex sequence of events, including the irreversible transition from the proliferation-competent myoblast stage into fused, multinucleated myotubes. Myogenic differentiation is regulated by positive and negative signals from surrounding tissues. Stimulation due to stretch- or load...... to elucidate also the signaling pathway by which this mechanical stimulation can causes an increase in protein expression. When mechanically stimulated via laminin receptors on cell surface, C(2)C(12) cells showed an increase in cell proliferation and differentiation. Populations undergoing mechanical...... stimulation through laminin receptors show an increase in expression of Myo-D, myogenin and an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Cells stimulated via fibronectin receptors show no significant increases in fusion competence. We conclude that load induced signalling through integrin containing laminin...

  10. Effects of tissue mechanical properties on susceptibility to histotripsy-induced tissue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaisavljevich, Eli; Kim, Yohan; Owens, Gabe; Roberts, William; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive tissue ablation method capable of fractionating tissue by controlling acoustic cavitation. To determine the fractionation susceptibility of various tissues, we investigated histotripsy-induced damage on tissue phantoms and ex vivo tissues with different mechanical strengths. A histotripsy bubble cloud was formed at tissue phantom surfaces using 5-cycle long ultrasound pulses with peak negative pressure of 18 MPa and PRFs of 10, 100, and 1000 Hz. Results showed significantly smaller lesions were generated in tissue phantoms of higher mechanical strength. Histotripsy was also applied to 43 different ex vivo porcine tissues with a wide range of mechanical properties. Gross morphology demonstrated stronger tissues with higher ultimate stress, higher density, and lower water content were more resistant to histotripsy damage in comparison to weaker tissues. Based on these results, a self-limiting vessel-sparing treatment strategy was developed in an attempt to preserve major vessels while fractionating the surrounding target tissue. This strategy was tested in porcine liver in vivo. After treatment, major hepatic blood vessels and bile ducts remained intact within a completely fractionated liver volume. These results identify varying susceptibilities of tissues to histotripsy therapy and provide a rational basis to optimize histotripsy parameters for treatment of specific tissues.

  11. Vertebral osteoid osteoma masquerading as a malignant bone or soft-tissue tumor on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefton, D.R.; Torrisi, J.M.; Haller, J.O.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose. Four pediatric patients were sent to our institution with the diagnosis of soft-tissue/malignant bone tumor. In all cases an MRI was the initial study performed for neck or back pain. All were surgically proven to have an osteoid osteoma/osteoblastoma (OO) as a final diagnosis. The MRI findings are reviewed. Methods. Four patients, three boys and one girl, ranging in age from 5 to 17 years, presented with symptoms of neck or back pain for 2 months to 2 years. Two had neurological findings. All patients underwent MRI. Results. All MRIs demonstrated decreased T1 signal and increased T2 signal in the soft tissues and bone surrounding the lesions consistent with edema. Enhancement was observed in the adjacent soft tissues and in the lesion nidus retrospectively. Conclusion. Investigating neck or back pain with an initial MRI may lead to misleading diagnoses unless the radiologist is aware of the typical MRI appearance of vertebral osteoid osteoma. (orig.)

  12. Effects of gas produced by degradation of Mg–Zn–Zr Alloy on cancellous bone tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingbo; Jiang, Hongfeng [Tianjin Hospital, 300211 Tianjin (China); Bi, Yanze; Sun, Jin e; Chen, Minfang; Liu, Debao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, 300384 Tianjin (China)

    2015-10-01

    Mg–Zn–Zr alloy cylinders were implanted into the femoral condyles of Japanese big-ear white rabbits. X-ray showed that by 12 weeks following implantation the implant became obscure, around which the low-density area appeared and enlarged. By 24 weeks, the implant was more obscure and the density of the surrounding cancellous bone increased. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed bone tissue on the surface of the alloy attached by living fibers at 12 weeks. Micro-CT confirmed that new bone tissue on the surface of the residual alloy implant increased from 12 weeks to 24 weeks. By 12 weeks, many cavities in the cancellous bone tissue around the implant were noted with a CT value, similar to gas value, and increasing by 24 weeks (P < 0.01). Histological examination of hard tissue slices showed that bone tissue was visibly attached to the alloy in the femoral condyle at 12 weeks. The trabecular bone tissues became more intact and dense, and the cavities were filled with soft tissue at 24 weeks. In general, gas produced by the degradation of the Mg–Zn–Zr alloy can cause cavitation within cancellous bone, which does not affect osteogenesis of Mg alloy. - Highlights: • The degradation of Mg alloy in cancellous bone causes cavitation around the alloy. • At first, the CT value of the cavities is similar to the gas value. • The area of the cavities enlarges gradually by 12 weeks. • The cavities are filled with bone tissue and soft tissue gradually.

  13. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  14. Cellular proliferation and regeneration following tissue damage. Progress report. [Eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, C.V.

    1976-10-01

    Results are reported from a study of wound healing in tissues of the eye, particularly lens, cornea, and surrounding tissues. The reactions of these tissues to mechanical injuries, as well as injuries induced by chemotoxic agents were studied. It is postulated that a better understanding of the basic reactions of the eye to injurious agents may be of importance in the evaluation of potential environmental hazards.

  15. Musculoskeletal Application of Ultrasound Elastography: Soft Tissue Lipoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ja Young; Hong, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Su Jin

    2010-01-01

    Real-time freehand elastography. Conventional ultrasonography (US) and real-time freehand US elastography were performed in nine patients (M:F = 4:5: mean age, 53 years: 29-64 years) with soft-tissue lipoma confirmed by surgical resection. The elastogram was color-coded by 256 scales according to the degree of strain induced by light compression. The relative strains for lipoma and surrounding soft tissue were measured and mean strains were examined by using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. The elastograms showed red to sky-blue color in all lipomas and predominantly black in surrounding soft tissue. The mean relative strain (±standard deviation) was 67.9±28.5, 77.1±25.3, 63.3±31.2, and 15.7±18.3 for total, intramuscular, and subcutaneous lipoma, and surrounding soft tissue, respectively. The mean strain of the lipoma was significantly higher than one of surrounding soft tissue (p = .008, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Real-time elastography yields characteristic elastographic features of soft tissue lipoma distinguishing from those of adjacent soft tissues

  16. A nebula of gases from Io surrounding Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M; Mitchell, Donald G; Hamilton, Douglas C; Dandouras, Jannis; Armstrong, Thomas P; Bolton, Scott J; Cheng, Andrew F; Gloeckler, George; Hsieh, K C; Keath, Edwin P; Krupp, Norbert; Lagg, Andreas; Lanzerotti, Louis J; Livi, Stefano; Mauk, Barry H; McEntire, Richard W; Roelof, Edmond C; Wilken, Berend; Williams, Donald J

    2002-02-28

    Several planetary missions have reported the presence of substantial numbers of energetic ions and electrons surrounding Jupiter; relativistic electrons are observable up to several astronomical units (au) from the planet. A population of energetic (>30[?]keV) neutral particles also has been reported, but the instrumentation was not able to determine the mass or charge state of the particles, which were subsequently labelled energetic neutral atoms. Although images showing the presence of the trace element sodium were obtained, the source and identity of the neutral atoms---and their overall significance relative to the loss of charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere---were unknown. Here we report the discovery by the Cassini spacecraft of a fast (>103[?]km[?]s-1) and hot magnetospheric neutral wind extending more than 0.5[?]au from Jupiter, and the presence of energetic neutral atoms (both hot and cold) that have been accelerated by the electric field in the solar wind. We suggest that these atoms originate in volcanic gases from Io, undergo significant evolution through various electromagnetic interactions, escape Jupiter's magnetosphere and then populate the environment around the planet. Thus a 'nebula' is created that extends outwards over hundreds of jovian radii.

  17. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Braunmiller, J.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S

    2007-12-15

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006. During this period, 572 earthquakes and 91 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, two occurred in conjunction with the construction of the new Gotthard railway tunnel and 165 were induced artificially by the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel. With 20 events with {mu}{sub {iota}} {>=} 2.5, five of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2006 was far below the average over the previous 31 years. Nevertheless, six events were felt by the public, most prominently the strongest of the induced Basel events ({mu}{sub {iota}} 3.4), which caused some non-structural building damage. Noteworthy are also the two earthquakes near Cortaillod ({mu}{sub {iota}} 3.2), on the shore of Lake Neuchatel, and in Val Mora ({mu}{sub {iota}} 3.5), between the Engadin and Val Muestair, as well as the 42 aftershocks of the {mu}{sub {iota}} 4.9 Vallorcine earthquake, between Martigny and Chamonix, of September 2005. (author)

  18. Mercury's interior, surface, and surrounding environment latest discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief details the MESSENGER Mission, the findings of which present challenges to widely held conventional views and remaining mysteries surrounding the planet. The work answers the question of why Mercury is so dense, and the implications from geochemical data on its planetary formation. It summarizes imaging and compositional data from the terrestrial planet surface processes and explains the geologic history of Mercury.  It also discusses the lack of southern hemisphere coverage. Our understanding of the planet Mercury has been in a transitional phase over the decades since Mariner 10. The influx of new data from the NASA MESSENGER Mission since it was inserted into the orbit of Mercury in March of 2011 has greatly accelerated that shift. The combined compositional data of relatively high volatiles (S, K), relatively low refractories (Al, Ca), and low crustal iron, combined with an active, partially molten iron rich core, has major implications for Mercury and Solar System formation. From a s...

  19. Groundwater quality in Taiz City and surrounding area, Yemen Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwali, R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty one water samples were collected from production wells used for human consumption from Taiz City and its surroundings, Yemen Republic. The water quality was investigated with respect to bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters. The achieved results revealed that most water samples, especially from private wells, contain a high number of total coliforms (TC) which exceed the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization, WHO (1996). Also faecal coliforms (FC) were recorded in the majority of polluted samples. A quantitative estimation was done for each of temperature (18-26C), pH (6.12-8.79), total hardness (58-2200 mg/L), electrical conductivity (218-4600 m.Mohs), total dissolved solids (117-3700mg/L), nitrate (10-187mg/L) and type of aquifer (rocky and alluvium). It is worthy to notice that from the total of fifty-one wells, there was pollution in (65%) of them. Recommendations were suggested for the treatment of the water of such polluted wells and rigid government control in a trial to prevent human and animal illness. (author)

  20. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  2. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jü rgen P.; Acevedo-Feliz, Daniel; Mangan, John; Prudhomme, Andrew; Nguyen, Phi Khanh; Weber, Philip P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Braunmiller, J.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2007-01-01

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006. During this period, 572 earthquakes and 91 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, two occurred in conjunction with the construction of the new Gotthard railway tunnel and 165 were induced artificially by the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel. With 20 events with Μ ι ≥ 2.5, five of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2006 was far below the average over the previous 31 years. Nevertheless, six events were felt by the public, most prominently the strongest of the induced Basel events (Μ ι 3.4), which caused some non-structural building damage. Noteworthy are also the two earthquakes near Cortaillod (Μ ι 3.2), on the shore of Lake Neuchatel, and in Val Mora (Μ ι 3.5), between the Engadin and Val Muestair, as well as the 42 aftershocks of the Μ ι 4.9 Vallorcine earthquake, between Martigny and Chamonix, of September 2005. (author)

  4. What can offer us reclaimed landscape surrounding future lake Medard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrajnohova-Gillarova, H.; Kazmierski, T.; Martis, M. [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Pecharova, E. [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); South-Bohemian Univ., Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    Soon after closing down a mine, the landscape that had been systematically disturbed by mining, should start to serve people from neighbouring towns and villages. This study characterized the Medard site located in the western part of the Czech Republic. The future Lake Medard includes the area of the former Medard-Libik Mine. Medard was an opencast brown coal mine, where mining finished in 2000 and reclamation plans involve its flooding until the year 2013. Forestry reclamation was also in progress. This paper presented a survey that was designed to help determine what the reclaimed landscape surrounding the future Lake Medard could offer. The paper provided background information on Medard Lake and outlined the methodology and results of the study. The methodology involved use of recent orthophotomaps, a study of the future lake Medard and data from the field survey. The study examined the long-term impacts on the social and environmental situation in the area. It was concluded that, once the reclamations are finished, there should be natural trails with information and educational infrastructure so that visitors to the area can learn about the places of interest. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Initial clinical results with the ThermoCool® SmartTouch® Surround Flow catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonna, Hanney; Domenichini, Giulia; Zuberi, Zia; Norman, Mark; Kaba, Riyaz; Grimster, Alexander; Gallagher, Mark M

    2017-08-01

    The Biosense Webster ThermoCool® SmartTouch® Surround Flow (STSF) catheter is a recently developed ablation catheter incorporating Surround Flow (SF) technology to ensure efficient cooling and force sensing to quantify tissue contact. In our unit, it superseded the ThermoCool® SF catheter from the time of its introduction in May 2015. Procedure-related data were collected prospectively for the first 100 ablation procedures performed in our department using the STSF catheter. From a database of 654 procedures performed in our unit using the SF catheter, we selected one to match each STSF procedure, matching for procedure type, operator experience, patient age, and gender. The groups were well matched for patient age, gender, and procedure type. Procedure duration was similar in both groups (mean 225.5 vs. 221.4 min, IQR 106.5 vs. 91.5, P = 0.55), but fluoroscopy duration was shorter in the STSF group (mean 25.8 vs. 30.0, IQR 19.6 vs. 18.5, P = 0.03). No complication occurred in the STSF group. Complications occurred in two cases in the SF group (one pericardial effusion requiring drainage and one need for permanent pacing). Complete procedural success was achieved in 98 cases in the STSF group and 94 cases in the SF group (P = 0.15). The composite endpoint of procedure failure or acute complication was less common in the STSF group (2 vs. 8, P = 0.05). The STSF catheter is safe and effective in treating a range of arrhythmias. Compared with the SF catheter, it shows a trend towards improved safety-efficacy balance. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Morphologic alterations in normal and neoplastic tissues following hyperthermia treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badylak, S.F.; Babbs, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The sequential morphologic alterations in normal skeletal muscle in rats, Walker 256 tumors in rats, and transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) in dogs following microwave-induced hyperthermia (43 0 C and 45 0 for 20 minutes) were studied by light and electron microscopy. Normal muscle and Walker 256 tumors showed vascular damage at 5 minutes post-heating (PH), followed by suppuration and thrombosis at 6 and 48 hours PH, and by regeneration and repair at 7 days PH. Endothelial damage and parenchymal degeneration were present 5 minutes PH. Progressive ischemic injury occurred for at least 48 hours PH. Two hyperthermia treatments, separated by a 30 or 60 minute cooling interval, were applied to rats implanted with Walker 256 tumors. Increased selective heating of tumor tissue versus surrounding normal tissue, and increased intratumoral temperatures were found during the second hyperthermia treatment. Canine TVTs were resistant to hyperthermia damage. These results characterized the sequential morphologic alterations following hyperthermia treatment and showed that: 1) vascular damage contributed to the immediate and latent cytotoxic effects of hyperthermia, 2) selective heating occurred in the neoplastic tissue disrupted by prior heat treatment, and 3) not all neoplasms are responsive to hyperthermia treatment

  7. [Connective tissue and inflammation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Lajos

    2014-03-23

    The author summarizes the structure of the connective tissues, the increasing motion of the constituents, which determine the role in establishing the structure and function of that. The structure and function of the connective tissue are related to each other in the resting as well as inflammatory states. It is emphasized that cellular events in the connective tissue are part of the defence of the organism, the localisation of the damage and, if possible, the maintenance of restitutio ad integrum. The organism responds to damage with inflammation, the non specific immune response, as well as specific, adaptive immunity. These processes are located in the connective tissue. Sterile and pathogenic inflammation are relatively similar processes, but inevitable differences are present, too. Sialic acids and glycoproteins containing sialic acids have important roles, and the role of Siglecs is also highlighted. Also, similarities and differences in damages caused by pathogens and sterile agents are briefly summarized. In addition, the roles of adhesion molecules linked to each other, and the whole event of inflammatory processes are presented. When considering practical consequences it is stressed that the structure (building up) of the organism and the defending function of inflammation both have fundamental importance. Inflammation has a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and the unimpaired somato-psychological state of the organism. Thus, inflammation serves as a tool of organism identical with the natural immune response, inseparably connected with the specific, adaptive immune response. The main events of the inflammatory processes take place in the connective tissue.

  8. Groundwater quality surrounding Lake Texoma during short-term drought conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampbell, Donald H.; An, Youn-Joo; Jewell, Ken P.; Masoner, Jason R.

    2003-01-01

    Stressors such as nitrates and total salts in ground water could potentially become a health or environmental problem during drought conditions. - Water quality data from 55 monitoring wells during drought conditions surrounding Lake Texoma, located on the border of Oklahoma and Texas, was compared to assess the influence of drought on groundwater quality. During the drought month of October, water table levels were three feet (0.9 m) lower compared with several months earlier under predrought climate conditions. Detection frequencies of nitrate (> 0.1 mg/l), orthophosphates (> 0.1 mg/l), chlorides (> MCL), and sulfates (> MCL) all increased during drought. Orthophosphate level was higher during drought. Largest increases in concentration were nitrate under both agriculture lands and in septic tank areas. An increase in ammonium-nitrogen was only detected in the septic tank area. The study showed that stressors such as nitrate and total salts could potentially become a health or environmental problem during drought

  9. Morphological Segregation in the Surroundings of Cosmic Voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardelli, Elena; Tamone, Amelie [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cava, Antonio [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Varela, Jesus, E-mail: elena.ricciardelli@epfl.ch [Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragón (CEFCA), Plaza San Juan 1, E-44001 Teruel (Spain)

    2017-09-01

    We explore the morphology of galaxies living in the proximity of cosmic voids, using a sample of voids identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. At all stellar masses, void galaxies exhibit morphologies of a later type than galaxies in a control sample, which represent galaxies in an average density environment. We interpret this trend as a pure environmental effect, independent of the mass bias, due to a slower galaxy build-up in the rarefied regions of voids. We confirm previous findings about a clear segregation in galaxy morphology, with galaxies of a later type being found at smaller void-centric distances with respect to the early-type galaxies. We also show, for the first time, that the radius of the void has an impact on the evolutionary history of the galaxies that live within it or in its surroundings. In fact, an enhanced fraction of late-type galaxies is found in the proximity of voids larger than the median void radius. Likewise, an excess of early-type galaxies is observed within or around voids of a smaller size. A significant difference in galaxy properties in voids of different sizes is observed up to 2 R {sub void}, which we define as the region of influence of voids. The significance of this difference is greater than 3 σ for all the volume-complete samples considered here. The fraction of star-forming galaxies shows the same behavior as the late-type galaxies, but no significant difference in stellar mass is observed in the proximity of voids of different sizes.

  10. Isoperimetric inequalities in surround system and space science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaJin Wen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By means of the algebraic, analysis, convex geometry, computer, and inequality theories we establish the following isoperimetric inequality in the centered 2-surround system S ( 2 { P , Γ , l } $S^{(2} \\{P,\\varGamma ,l \\}$ : ( 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ r ¯ P p 1 / p ⩽ | Γ | 4 π sin l π | Γ | [ csc l π | Γ | + cot 2 l π | Γ | ln ( tan l π | Γ | + sec l π | Γ | ] , ∀ p ⩽ − 2 . $$\\begin{aligned}& \\biggl(\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\bar{r}_{P}^{p} \\biggr^{1/p}\\leqslant\\frac{|\\varGamma |}{4\\pi}\\sin\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggl[ \\csc \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\cot^{2} \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\ln \\biggl(\\tan \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\sec\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr \\biggr], \\\\& \\quad \\forall p\\leqslant -2. \\end{aligned}$$ As an application of the inequality in space science, we obtain the best lower bounds of the mean λ-gravity norm ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ $\\overline{\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\Vert }$ as follows: ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ ≜ 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ 1 ∥ A − P ∥ λ ⩾ ( 2 π | Γ | λ , ∀ λ ⩾ 2 . $$\\overline{\\bigl\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\bigr\\Vert } \\triangleq\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\frac{1}{\\|A-P\\|^{\\lambda }}\\geqslant \\biggl(\\frac{2\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr^{\\lambda},\\quad \\forall \\lambda\\geqslant2. $$

  11. Rain Simulation for the Test of Automotive Surround Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Riener, Andreas; Doric, Igor

    2017-04-01

    The WHO Global Health Observatory data indicates that over 1.25 million people die in traffic accidents annually. To save lives, car manufacturers spend lot of efforts on the development of novel safety systems aiming to avoid or mitigate accidents and provide maximum protection for vehicle occupants as well as vulnerable road users. All the safety features mainly rely on data from surround sensors such as radar, lidar and camera and intelligent vehicles today use these environmental data for instant decision making and vehicle control. As already small errors in sensor data measurements could lead to catastrophes like major injuries or road traffic fatalities, it is of utmost importance to ensure high reliability and accuracy of sensors and safety systems. This work focuses on the influence of environmental factors such as rain conditions, as it is known that rain drops scatter the electromagnetic waves. The result is incorrect measurements with a direct negative impact on environment detection. To identify potential problems of sensors under varying environmental conditions, systems are today tested in real-world settings with two main problems: First, tests are time-consuming and second, environmental conditions are not reproducible. Our approach to test the influence of weather on automotive sensors is to use an indoor rain simulator. Our artificial rain maker, installed at CARISSMA (Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area), is parametrized with rain characteristics measured in the field using a standard disdrometer. System behavior on artificial rain is compared and validated with natural rainfall. With this simulator it is finally possible to test environmental influence at various levels and under reproducible conditions. This saves lot of efforts required for the test process itself and furthermore has a positive impact on the reliability of sensor systems due to the fact that test driven development is enabled.

  12. Issues surrounding orphan disease and orphan drug policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Alain; Mergaert, Lut; Fostier, Christel; Cleemput, Irina; Simoens, Steven

    2010-01-01

    An orphan disease is a disease with a very low prevalence. Although there are 5000-7000 orphan diseases, only 50 orphan drugs (i.e. drugs developed to treat orphan diseases) were marketed in the EU by the end of 2008. In 2000, the EU implemented policies specifically designed to stimulate the development of orphan drugs. While decisions on orphan designation and the marketing authorization of orphan drugs are made at the EU level, decisions on drug reimbursement are made at the member state level. The specific features of orphan diseases and orphan drugs make them a high-priority issue for policy makers. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss several issues surrounding orphan disease and drug policies in Europe. The present system of orphan designation allows for drugs for non-orphan diseases to be designated as orphan drugs. The economic factors underlying orphan designation can be questioned in some cases, as a low prevalence of a certain indication does not equal a low return on investment for the drug across its indications. High-quality evidence about the clinical added value of orphan drugs is rarely available at the time of marketing authorization, due to the low number of patients. A balance must be struck between ethical and economic concerns. To this effect, there is a need to initiate a societal dialogue on this issue, to clarify what society wants and accepts in terms of ethical and economic consequences. The growing budgetary impact of orphan drugs puts pressure on drug expenditure. Indications can be extended for an orphan drug and the total prevalence across indications is not considered. Finally, cooperation needs to be fostered in the EU, particularly through a standardized approach to the creation and use of registries. These issues require further attention from researchers, policy makers, health professionals, patients, pharmaceutical companies and other stakeholders with a view to optimizing orphan disease and drug policies in

  13. Can the Hydroxyapatite-Coated Skin-Penetrating Abutment for Bone Conduction Hearing Implants Integrate with the Surrounding Skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Marc; Wigren, Stina; Duimel, Hans; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Flynn, Mark; Stokroos, Robert Jan

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous implants, such as bone conduction hearing implants, suffer from complications that include inflammation of the surrounding skin. A sealed skin-abutment interface can prevent the ingress of bacteria, which should reduce the occurrence of peri-abutment dermatitis. It was hypothesized that a hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated abutment in conjunction with soft tissue preservation surgery should enable integration with the adjacent skin. Previous research has confirmed that integration is never achieved with as-machined titanium abutments. Here, we investigate, in vivo, if skin integration is achievable in patients using a HA-coated abutment. One titanium abutment (control) and one HA-coated abutment (case) together with the surrounding skin were surgically retrieved from two patients who had a medical indication for this procedure. Histological sections of the skin were investigated using light microscopy. The abutment was qualitatively analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The titanium abutment only had a partial and thin layer of attached amorphous biological material. The HA-coated abutment was almost fully covered by a pronounced thick layer of organized skin, composed of different interconnected structural layers. Proof-of-principle evidence that the HA-coated abutment can achieve integration with the surrounding skin was presented for the first time.

  14. Conserving Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and surrounding grasslands: evaluating effects on amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.; Neau, Jordan L.

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of viable and genetically diverse populations of amphibians in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States depends on upland as well as wetland over-wintering and landscape level habitat features.Prairie pothole wetlands provide important amphibian breeding habitat while grasslands surrounding these wetlands provide foraging habitat for adults, overwintering habitat for some species, and important connectivity among breeding wetlands.Grasslands surrounding wetlands were found to be especially important for wood frogs and northern leopard frogs, while croplands dominated habitat utilized by Great Plains toads and Woodhouse’s toads.Habitat suitability mapping highlighted (1) the influence of deep-water overwintering wetlands on suitable habitat for four of five anuran species encountered; (2) the lack of overlap between areas of core habitat for both the northern leopard frog and wood frog compared to the core habitat for both toad species; and (3) the importance of conservation programs in providing grassland components of northern leopard frog and wood frog habitat.Currently, there are approximately 7.2 million acres (2.9 million hectares, ha) of habitat in the PPR identified as suitable for amphibians. WRP and CRP wetland and grassland habitats accounted for approximately 1.9 million acres (0.75 million ha) or 26 percent of this total area.Continued loss of amphibian habitat resulting from an ongoing trend of returning PPR conservation lands to crop production, will likely have significant negative effects on the region’s ability to maintain amphibian biodiversity. Conversely, increases in conservation wetlands and surrounding grasslands on the PPR landscape have great potential to positively influence the region’s amphibian populations.

  15. Intraoperative detection of 18F-FDG-avid tissue sites using the increased probe counting efficiency of the K-alpha probe design and variance-based statistical analysis with the three-sigma criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoski, Stephen P; Chapman, Gregg J; Murrey, Douglas A; Lee, Robert; Martin, Edward W; Hall, Nathan C

    2013-01-01

    Intraoperative detection of 18 F-FDG-avid tissue sites during 18 F-FDG-directed surgery can be very challenging when utilizing gamma detection probes that rely on a fixed target-to-background (T/B) ratio (ratiometric threshold) for determination of probe positivity. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the counting efficiency and the success rate of in situ intraoperative detection of 18 F-FDG-avid tissue sites (using the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method and the ratiometric threshold criteria method) for three different gamma detection probe systems. Of 58 patients undergoing 18 F-FDG-directed surgery for known or suspected malignancy using gamma detection probes, we identified nine 18 F-FDG-avid tissue sites (from amongst seven patients) that were seen on same-day preoperative diagnostic PET/CT imaging, and for which each 18 F-FDG-avid tissue site underwent attempted in situ intraoperative detection concurrently using three gamma detection probe systems (K-alpha probe, and two commercially-available PET-probe systems), and then were subsequently surgical excised. The mean relative probe counting efficiency ratio was 6.9 (± 4.4, range 2.2–15.4) for the K-alpha probe, as compared to 1.5 (± 0.3, range 1.0–2.1) and 1.0 (± 0, range 1.0–1.0), respectively, for two commercially-available PET-probe systems (P < 0.001). Successful in situ intraoperative detection of 18 F-FDG-avid tissue sites was more frequently accomplished with each of the three gamma detection probes tested by using the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method than by using the ratiometric threshold criteria method, specifically with the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method being significantly better than the ratiometric threshold criteria method for determining probe positivity for the K-alpha probe (P = 0.05). Our results suggest that the improved probe counting efficiency of the K-alpha probe design used in conjunction with the three

  16. Intraoperative detection of ¹⁸F-FDG-avid tissue sites using the increased probe counting efficiency of the K-alpha probe design and variance-based statistical analysis with the three-sigma criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povoski, Stephen P; Chapman, Gregg J; Murrey, Douglas A; Lee, Robert; Martin, Edward W; Hall, Nathan C

    2013-03-04

    Intraoperative detection of (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites during 18F-FDG-directed surgery can be very challenging when utilizing gamma detection probes that rely on a fixed target-to-background (T/B) ratio (ratiometric threshold) for determination of probe positivity. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the counting efficiency and the success rate of in situ intraoperative detection of (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites (using the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method and the ratiometric threshold criteria method) for three different gamma detection probe systems. Of 58 patients undergoing (18)F-FDG-directed surgery for known or suspected malignancy using gamma detection probes, we identified nine (18)F-FDG-avid tissue sites (from amongst seven patients) that were seen on same-day preoperative diagnostic PET/CT imaging, and for which each (18)F-FDG-avid tissue site underwent attempted in situ intraoperative detection concurrently using three gamma detection probe systems (K-alpha probe, and two commercially-available PET-probe systems), and then were subsequently surgical excised. The mean relative probe counting efficiency ratio was 6.9 (± 4.4, range 2.2-15.4) for the K-alpha probe, as compared to 1.5 (± 0.3, range 1.0-2.1) and 1.0 (± 0, range 1.0-1.0), respectively, for two commercially-available PET-probe systems (P < 0.001). Successful in situ intraoperative detection of 18F-FDG-avid tissue sites was more frequently accomplished with each of the three gamma detection probes tested by using the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method than by using the ratiometric threshold criteria method, specifically with the three-sigma statistical threshold criteria method being significantly better than the ratiometric threshold criteria method for determining probe positivity for the K-alpha probe (P = 0.05). Our results suggest that the improved probe counting efficiency of the K-alpha probe design used in conjunction with the three-sigma statistical

  17. Formation of proteoglycan and collagen-rich scaffold-free stiff cartilaginous tissue using two-step culture methods with combinations of growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Tatsuya; Miyauchi, Satoshi; Matsuzaka, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Chie; Kobayashi, Kohei

    2010-05-01

    Tissue-engineered cartilage may be expected to serve as an alternative to autologous chondrocyte transplantation treatment. Several methods for producing cartilaginous tissue have been reported. In this study, we describe the production of scaffold-free stiff cartilaginous tissue of pig and human, using allogeneic serum and growth factors. The tissue was formed in a mold using chondrocytes recovered from alginate bead culture and maintained in a medium with transforming growth factor-beta and several other additives. In the case of porcine tissue, the tear strength of the tissue and the contents of proteoglycan (PG) and collagen per unit of DNA increased dose-dependently with transforming growth factor-beta. The length of culture was significantly and positively correlated with thickness, tear strength, and PG and collagen contents. Tear strength showed positive high correlations with both PG and collagen contents. A positive correlation was also seen between PG content and collagen content. Similar results were obtained with human cartilaginous tissue formed from chondrocytes expanded in monolayer culture. Further, an in vivo pilot study using pig articular cartilage defect model demonstrated that the cartilaginous tissue was well integrated with surrounding tissue at 13 weeks after the implantation. In conclusion, we successfully produced implantable scaffold-free stiff cartilaginous tissue, which characterized high PG and collagen contents.

  18. How patients experience the surroundings in relation to patient participation: a qualitative study of inpatients with intestinal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyssen GD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gunvor Dichmann Thyssen, Anne BeckDepartment of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkIntroduction: Patient participation is known to improve patients' motivation, compliance, treatment results, and satisfaction with the received care. It is well known that the physical environment is of great importance in supporting patient involvement. A systematic literature search has shown a lack of articles on the subject of “surroundings” in relation to patient participation, for all patient groups.Aim: We aimed to investigate how patients with intestinal failure experience their hospital surroundings in relation to patient participation.Methods: The study included eight patients admitted for at least 2 weeks at the Intestinal Failure Unit, H8, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom. Included patients had a good level of consciousness with no confusion. The included patients participated in a semistructured interview. The interviews were analyzed using Malterud's principles of systematic text condensation.Results: The patients described that the surroundings enabled them to participate in their treatment and care. The surroundings made it possible for them and encouraged them to participate through: the possibility to seek and get information and the possibility to participate in daily activities. This led to a feeling of independence, reassurance, normality, control, responsibility, and confidence.Conclusion: The findings in this study indicate that the hospital surroundings are essential for the patients with respect to their ability to participate in their own care and treatment. The surroundings, in relation to patient participation, should be considered when planning and organizing nursing care. Further research is needed to increase the understanding of the surroundings in relation to patient participation - this research could, for eg, include the nurse's perspective

  19. Brief Communication: Tissue-engineered Microenvironment Systems for Modeling Human Vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourovskaia, Anna; Fauver, Mark; Kramer, Gregory; Simonson, Sara; Neumann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The high attrition rate of drug candidates late in the development process has led to an increasing demand for test assays that predict clinical outcome better than conventional 2D cell culture systems and animal models. Government agencies, the military, and the pharmaceutical industry have started initiatives for the development of novel in-vitro systems that recapitulate functional units of human tissues and organs. There is growing evidence that 3D cell arrangement, co-culture of different cell types, and physico-chemical cues lead to improved predictive power. A key element of all tissue microenvironments is the vasculature. Beyond transporting blood the microvasculature assumes important organ-specific functions. It is also involved in pathologic conditions, such as inflammation, tumor growth, metastasis, and degenerative diseases. To provide a tool for modeling this important feature of human tissue microenvironments, we developed a microfluidic chip for creating tissue-engineered microenvironment systems (TEMS) composed of tubular cell structures. Our chip design encompasses a small chamber that is filled with an extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding one or more tubular channels. Endothelial cells seeded into the channels adhere to the ECM walls and grow into perfusable tubular tissue structures that are fluidically connected to upstream and downstream fluid channels in the chip. Using these chips we created models of angiogenesis, the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), and tumor-cell extravasation. Our angiogenesis model recapitulates true angiogenesis, in which sprouting occurs from a “parent” vessel in response to a gradient of growth factors. Our BBB model is composed of a microvessel generated from brain-specific endothelial cells (ECs) within an ECM populated with astrocytes and pericytes. Our tumor-cell extravasation model can be utilized to visualize and measure tumor-cell migration through vessel walls into the surrounding matrix. The described

  20. Highly Enriched Uranium Metal Cylinders Surrounded by Various Reflector Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard Jones; J. Blair Briggs; Leland Monteirth

    2007-01-01

    A series of experiments was performed at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1958 to determine critical masses of cylinders of Oralloy (Oy) reflected by a number of materials. The experiments were all performed on the Comet Universal Critical Assembly Machine, and consisted of discs of highly enriched uranium (93.3 wt.% 235U) reflected by half-inch and one-inch-thick cylindrical shells of various reflector materials. The experiments were performed by members of Group N-2, particularly K. W. Gallup, G. E. Hansen, H. C. Paxton, and R. H. White. This experiment was intended to ascertain critical masses for criticality safety purposes, as well as to compare neutron transport cross sections to those obtained from danger coefficient measurements with the Topsy Oralloy-Tuballoy reflected and Godiva unreflected critical assemblies. The reflector materials examined in this series of experiments are as follows: magnesium, titanium, aluminum, graphite, mild steel, nickel, copper, cobalt, molybdenum, natural uranium, tungsten, beryllium, aluminum oxide, molybdenum carbide, and polythene (polyethylene). Also included are two special configurations of composite beryllium and iron reflectors. Analyses were performed in which uncertainty associated with six different parameters was evaluated; namely, extrapolation to the uranium critical mass, uranium density, 235U enrichment, reflector density, reflector thickness, and reflector impurities. In addition to the idealizations made by the experimenters (removal of the platen and diaphragm), two simplifications were also made to the benchmark models that resulted in a small bias and additional uncertainty. First of all, since impurities in core and reflector materials are only estimated, they are not included in the benchmark models. Secondly, the room, support structure, and other possible surrounding equipment were not included in the model. Bias values that result from these two simplifications were determined and associated

  1. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  2. The influence of Cellular Interactions in Tissue Engineering for Cartilage Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, J.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Tissues are complex 3-dimensional structures with a highly organized architecture made up of cells and matrix. The cells and matrix in a tissue are continuously interacting with each other and (cells from) their surrounding tissues to maintain their form and function. Interactions of cells with

  3. Increased hydrostatic pressure enhances motility of lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Chiu; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Kuo, Po-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial fluid pressures within most solid tumors are significantly higher than that in the surrounding normal tissues. Therefore, cancer cells must proliferate and migrate under the influence of elevated hydrostatic pressure while a tumor grows. In this study, we developed a pressurized cell culture device and investigated the influence of hydrostatic pressure on the migration speeds of lung cancer cells (CL1-5 and A549). The migration speeds of lung cancer cells were increased by 50-60% under a 20 mmHg hydrostatic pressure. We also observed that the expressions of aquaporin in CL1-5 and A549 cells were increased under the hydrostatic pressure. Our preliminary results indicate that increased hydrostatic pressure plays an important role in tumor metastasis.

  4. Detained and Dying: Ethical Issues Surrounding End-of-Life Care in Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Meredith; Sanders, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being called upon to provide end-of-life (EOL) care within the restrictive correctional environment. Several relatively recent phenomena have brought medical ethics to the forefront of prison EOL care-including aging behind bars, a paradigm shift in prison culture, the increasing rate of in-prison deaths, and the corresponding prison hospice movement. This article examines prominent ethical issues that emerge for prison personnel who are tasked with providing care to terminally ill offenders by presenting three offender composite characters that exemplify dying offenders and emergent ethical issues surrounding their care. Identification and critical analysis of these ethical issues demonstrate the need for strong commitment to ethical practice and highlights specific issues for prisons to examine in their own EOL care practice.

  5. Correlation of primary middle and distal esophageal cancers motion with surrounding tissues using four-dimensional computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang W

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wei Wang,1 Jianbin Li,1 Yingjie Zhang,1 Qian Shao,1 Min Xu,1 Bing Guo,1 Dongping Shang2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Big Bore CT Room, Shandong Cancer Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the correlation of gross tumor volume (GTV motion with the structure of interest (SOI motion and volume variation for middle and distal esophageal cancers using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT.Patients and methods: Thirty-three patients with middle or distal esophageal carcinoma underwent 4DCT simulation scan during free breathing. All image sets were registered with 0% phase, and the GTV, apex of diaphragm, lung, and heart were delineated on each phase of the 4DCT data. The position of GTV and SOI was identified in all 4DCT phases, and the volume of lung and heart was also achieved. The phase relationship between the GTV and SOI was estimated through Pearson’s correlation test.Results: The mean peak-to-peak displacement of all primary tumors in the lateral (LR, anteroposterior (AP, and superoinferior (SI directions was 0.13 cm, 0.20 cm, and 0.30 cm, respectively. The SI peak-to-peak motion of the GTV was defined as the greatest magnitude of motion. The displacement of GTV correlated well with heart in three dimensions and significantly associated with bilateral lung in LR and SI directions. A significant correlation was found between the GTV and apex of the diaphragm in SI direction (rleft=0.918 and rright=0.928. A significant inverse correlation was found between GTV motion and varying lung volume, but the correlation was not significant with heart (rLR=–0.530, rAP=–0.531, and rSI=–0.588 during respiratory cycle.Conclusion: For middle and distal esophageal cancers, GTV should expand asymmetric internal margins. The primary tumor motion has quite good correlation with diaphragm, heart, and lung. Keywords: esophageal neoplasms, 4D-CT, gross tumor volume, displacement correlation

  6. Correlation of primary middle and distal esophageal cancers motion with surrounding tissues using four-dimensional computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Jianbin; Zhang, Yingjie; Shao, Qian; Xu, Min; Guo, Bing; Shang, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the correlation of gross tumor volume (GTV) motion with the structure of interest (SOI) motion and volume variation for middle and distal esophageal cancers using four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT). Thirty-three patients with middle or distal esophageal carcinoma underwent 4DCT simulation scan during free breathing. All image sets were registered with 0% phase, and the GTV, apex of diaphragm, lung, and heart were delineated on each phase of the 4DCT data. The position of GTV and SOI was identified in all 4DCT phases, and the volume of lung and heart was also achieved. The phase relationship between the GTV and SOI was estimated through Pearson's correlation test. The mean peak-to-peak displacement of all primary tumors in the lateral (LR), anteroposterior (AP), and superoinferior (SI) directions was 0.13 cm, 0.20 cm, and 0.30 cm, respectively. The SI peak-to-peak motion of the GTV was defined as the greatest magnitude of motion. The displacement of GTV correlated well with heart in three dimensions and significantly associated with bilateral lung in LR and SI directions. A significant correlation was found between the GTV and apex of the diaphragm in SI direction (r left=0.918 and r right=0.928). A significant inverse correlation was found between GTV motion and varying lung volume, but the correlation was not significant with heart (r LR=-0.530, r AP=-0.531, and r SI=-0.588) during respiratory cycle. For middle and distal esophageal cancers, GTV should expand asymmetric internal margins. The primary tumor motion has quite good correlation with diaphragm, heart, and lung.

  7. Effects of Induced Electric Fields on Tissues and Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequin, Emily Katherine

    Cancer remains a substantial health burden in the United States. Traditional treatments for solid malignancies may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapies, or surgical resection. Improved surgical outcomes coincide with increased information regarding the tumor extent in the operating room. Furthermore, pathological examination and diagnosis is bettered when the pathologist has additional information about lesion locations on the large resected specimens from which they take a small sample for microscopic evaluation. Likewise, cancer metastasis is a leading cause of cancer death. Fully understanding why a particular tumor becomes metastatic as well as the mechanisms of cell migration are critical to both preventing metastasis and treating it. This dissertation utilizes the complex interactions of induced electric fields with tissues and cells to meet two complementary research goals. First, eddy currents are induced in tissues using a coaxial eddy current probe (8mm diameter) in order to distinguish tumor tissue from surrounding normal tissue to address the needs of surgeons performing curative cancer resections. Measurements on animal tissue phantoms characterize the eddy current measurement finding that the effective probing area corresponds to about twice the diameter of the probe and that the specimen temperature must be constant for reliable measurements. Measurements on ten fresh tissue specimens from human patients undergoing surgical resection for liver metastases from colorectal cancer showed that the eddy current measurement technique can be used to differentiate tumors from surrounding liver tissue in a non-destructive, non-invasive manner. Furthermore, the differentiation between the tumor and normal tissues required no use of contrast agents. Statistically significant differences between eddy current measurements in three tissue categories, tumor, normal, and interface, were found across patients using a Tukey's pairwise