WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding protoplanetary disks

  1. Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of gas, solids and molecular ices in protoplanetary disks. Key findings related to disk physics and chemistry, both observationally and theoretically, are highlighted. We discuss which molecular probes are used to derive gas temperature, density, ionization state, kinematics, deuterium fractionation, and study organic matter in protoplanetary disks.

  2. Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks (PPDs) surrounding young stars are short-lived (~0.3-10 Myr), compact (~10-1000 AU) rotating reservoirs of gas and dust. PPDs are believed to be birthplaces of planetary systems, where tiny grains are assembled into pebbles, then rocks, planetesimals, and eventually planets, asteroids, and comets. Strong variations of physical conditions (temperature, density, ionization rate, UV/X-rays intensities) make a variety of chemical processes active in disks, producing simple molecules in the gas phase and complex polyatomic (organic) species on the surfaces of dust particles. In this entry, we summarize the major modern observational methods and theoretical paradigms used to investigate disk chemical composition and evolution, and present the most important results. Future research directions that will become possible with the advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and other forthcoming observational facilities are also discussed.

  3. Silica in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, B A; Tayrien, C; McClure, M K; Li, A; Basu, A R; Manoj, P; Watson, D M; Bohac, C J; Furlan, E; Kim, K H; Green, J D; Sloan, G C

    2008-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectra of a few T Tauri stars (TTS) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope show prominent narrow emission features indicating silica (crystalline silicon dioxide). Silica is not a major constituent of the interstellar medium; therefore, any silica present in the circumstellar protoplanetary disks of TTS must be largely the result of processing of primitive dust material in the disks surrouding these stars. We model the silica emission features in our spectra using the opacities of various polymorphs of silica and their amorphous versions computed from earth-based laboratory measurements. This modeling indicates that the two polymorphs of silica, tridymite and cristobalite, which form at successively higher temperatures and low pressures, are the dominant forms of silica in the TTS of our sample. These high temperature, low pressure polymorphs of silica present in protoplanetary disks are consistent with a grain composed mostly of tridymite named Ada found...

  4. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters L.B.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness, the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution, a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014.

  5. Volatiles in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Bergin, Edwin A; Brittain, Sean; Marty, Bernard; Mousis, Olvier; Oberg, Karin L

    2014-01-01

    Volatiles are compounds with low sublimation temperatures, and they make up most of the condensible mass in typical planet-forming environments. They consist of relatively small, often hydrogenated, molecules based on the abundant elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Volatiles are central to the process of planet formation, forming the backbone of a rich chemistry that sets the initial conditions for the formation of planetary atmospheres, and act as a solid mass reservoir catalyzing the formation of planets and planetesimals. This growth has been driven by rapid advances in observations and models of protoplanetary disks, and by a deepening understanding of the cosmochemistry of the solar system. Indeed, it is only in the past few years that representative samples of molecules have been discovered in great abundance throughout protoplanetary disks - enough to begin building a complete budget for the most abundant elements after hydrogen and helium. The spatial distributions of key volatiles are being mapped...

  6. The structure of the protoplanetary disk surrounding three young intermediate mass stars. II. Spatially resolved dust and gas distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Fedele, D; Acke, B; van der Plas, G; Van Boekel, R; Wittkowski, M; Henning, T; Bouwman, J; Meeus, G; Rafanelli, P

    2008-01-01

    [Abridged] We present the first direct comparison of the distribution of the gas, as traced by the [OI] 6300 AA emission, and the dust, as traced by the 10 micron emission, in the protoplanetary disk around three intermediate-mass stars: HD 101412, HD 135344 B and HD 179218. N-band visibilities were obtained with VLTI/MIDI. Simple geometrical models are used to compare the dust emission to high-resolution optical spectra in the 6300 AA [OI] line of the same targets. The disks around HD 101412 and HD 135344 B appear strongly flared in the gas, but self-shadowed in the dust beyond ~ 2 AU. In both systems, the 10 micron emission is rather compact (< 2 AU) while the [OI] brightness profile shows a double peaked structure. The inner peak is strongest and is consistent with the location of the dust, the outer peak is fainter and is located at 5-10 AU. Spatially extended PAH emission is found in both disks. The disk around HD 179218 is flared in the dust. The 10 micron emission emerges from a double ring-like str...

  7. CID: Chemistry in disks VI.sulfur-bearing molecules in the protoplanetary disks surrounding LkCa15, MWC480, DM Tau, and GO Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Dutrey, Anne; Boehler, Yann; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Hersant, Franck; Semenov, Dmitry; Chapillon, Edwige; Henning, Thomas; Piétu, Vincent; Launhardt, Ralf; Gueth, Frederic; Schreyer, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    We study the content in S-bearing molecules of protoplanetary disks around low-mass stars. We used the new IRAM 30-m receiver EMIR to perform simultaneous observations of the $1_{10}-1_{01}$ line of H$_2$S at 168.8 GHz and $2_{23}-1_{12}$ line of SO at 99.3 GHz. We compared the observational results with predictions coming from the astrochemical code NAUTILUS, which has been adapted to protoplanetary disks. The data were analyzed together with existing CS J=3-2 observations. We fail to detect the SO and H$_2$S lines, although CS is detected in LkCa15, DM\\,Tau, and GO\\,Tau but not in MWC\\,480. However, our new upper limits are significantly better than previous ones and allow us to put some interesting constraints on the sulfur chemistry. Our best modeling of disks is obtained for a C/O ratio of 1.2, starting from initial cloud conditions of H density of $2\\times 10^5$ cm$^{-3}$ and age of $10^6$ yr. The results agree with the CS data and are compatible with the SO upper limits, but fail to reproduce the H$_2$...

  8. Physical processes in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Armitage, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    This review introduces physical processes in protoplanetary disks relevant to accretion and the initial stages of planet formation. After reprising the elementary theory of disk structure and evolution, I discuss the gas-phase physics of angular momentum transport through turbulence and disk winds, and how this may be related to episodic accretion observed in Young Stellar Objects. Turning to solids, I review the evolution of single particles under aerodynamic forces, and describe the conditions necessary for the development of collective gas-particle instabilities. Observations show that disks are not always radially smooth axisymmetric structures, and I discuss how gas and particle processes can interact to form observable large-scale structure (at ice lines, vortices and in zonal flows). I conclude with disk dispersal.

  9. Dust Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Testi, Leonardo; Ricci, Luca; Andrews, Sean; Blum, Juergen; Carpenter, John; Dominik, Carsten; Isella, Andrea; Natta, Antonella; Williams, Jonathan; Wilner, David

    2014-01-01

    (abridged) In the core accretion scenario for the formation of planetary rocky cores, the first step toward planet formation is the growth of dust grains into larger and larger aggregates and eventually planetesimals. Although dust grains are thought to grow from the submicron sizes typical of interstellar dust to micron size particles in the dense regions of molecular clouds and cores, the growth from micron size particles to pebbles and kilometre size bodies must occur in protoplanetary disks. This step in the formation of planetary systems is the last stage of solids evolution that can be observed directly in young extrasolar systems. In this chapter we review the constraints on the physics of grain-grain collisions as they have emerged from laboratory experiments and numerical computations. We then review the current theoretical understanding of the global processes governing the evolution of solids in protoplanetary disks, including dust settling, growth, and radial transport. The predicted observational...

  10. Evolution of magnetized protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the global evolution of a turbulent protoplanetary disk in its viscous stage, incorporating the effects of Maxwell stress due to a large-scale magnetic field permeating disk. We assume that the viscous stress is given by an alpha model. A magnetic field is produced contemporaneously by an alpha omega dynamo mechanism and the resultant Maxwell stress assists the viscous stress in providing the means for disk evolution. The aim of this work is to compare the evolution of magnetized and nonmagnetized disks driven by turbulent viscosity of the same magnitude and thus assess the effects of a self-generated magnetic field on the structure and dynamical evolution of protoplanetary disks. Two illustrative examples corresponding to two different initial conditions are considered: a high-mass case that starts with a disk of 0.245 solar mass and angular momentum of 5.6 x 10(exp 52)g sq cm/s, and a low-mass that case starts with a disk of 0.11 solar mass and angular momentum of 1.8 x 10(exp 52)g sq cm/s. For each of these two cases the radial development of a disk is calculated numerically assuming a fiducial value of the dimensionless viscosity parameter alpha(sub ss) = 0.01, as well as alpha(sub ss) = 2 x 10(exp -3). In all cases the central star has a mass equal to 1 solar mass. The most striking feature of magnetized disk evolution is the presence of the surface density bulge located in the region of the disk where the dynamo mechanism cannot support a magnetic field. The bulge persists for a time of the order of 10(exp 5)-10(exp 6) yr. The presence and persistence of the surface density bulge may have important implications for the process of planet formation and the overall characteristics of resultant planetary systems.

  11. Dust Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, L.; Birnstiel, T.; Ricci, L.; Andrews, S.; Blum, J.; Carpenter, J.; Dominik, C.; Isella, A.; Natta, A.; Williams, J. P.; Wilner, D. J.

    In the core-accretion scenario for the formation of planetary rocky cores, the first step toward planet formation is the growth of dust grains into larger and larger aggregates and eventually planetesimals. Although dust grains are thought to grow up to micrometer-sized particles in the dense regions of molecular clouds, the growth to pebbles and kilometer-sized bodies must occur at the high densities within protoplanetary disks. This critical step is the last stage of solids evolution that can be observed directly in extrasolar systems before the appearance of large planetary-sized bodies. In this chapter we review the constraints on the physics of grain-grain collisions as they have emerged from laboratory experiments and numerical computations. We then review the current theoretical understanding of the global processes governing the evolution of solids in protoplanetary disks, including dust settling, growth, and radial transport. The predicted observational signatures of these processes are summarized. We briefly discuss grain growth in molecular cloud cores and in collapsing envelopes of protostars, as these likely provide the initial conditions for the dust in protoplanetary disks. We then review the observational constraints on grain growth in disks from millimeter surveys, as well as the very recent evidence for radial variations of the dust properties in disks. We also include a brief discussion on the small end of the grain size distribution and dust settling as derived from optical, near-, and mid-infrared observations. Results are discussed in the context of global dust-evolution models; in particular, we focus on the emerging evidence for a very efficient early growth of grains and the radial distribution of maximum grain sizes as the result of growth barriers. We also highlight the limits of the current models of dust evolution in disks, including the need to slow the radial drift of grains to overcome the migration/fragmentation barrier.

  12. Chondrule Transport in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberg, Aaron Z; Jacquet, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Chondrule formation remains one of the most elusive early Solar System events. Here, we take the novel approach of employing numerical simulations to investigate chondrule origin beyond purely cosmochemical methods. We model the transport of generically-produced chondrules and dust in a 1D viscous protoplanetary disk model, in order to constrain the chondrule formation events. For a single formation event we are able to match analytical predictions of the memory chondrule and dust populations retain of each other (complementarity), finding that a large mass accretion rate ($\\gtrsim 10^{-7}$~M$_\\odot$~yr$^{-1}$) allows for delays on the order of the disk's viscous timescale between chondrule formation and chondrite accretion. Further, we find older disks to be severely diminished of chondrules, with accretion rates $\\lesssim 10^{-9}$~M$_\\odot$~yr$^{-1}$ for nominal parameters. We then characterize the distribution of chondrule origins in both space and time, as functions of disk parameters and chondrule format...

  13. Snow Line Localization in Classical Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, S.

    2014-04-01

    Protoplanetary disks are volatile-rich environments capable of producing the essential conditions that make planet formation viable. Establishing a molecular inventory of dominant volatile species, such as water, in the planet-forming zones surrounding young, solar-type stars elevates our understanding of the chemistry involved with planet formation, composition and disk evolution. For this study we measure the water vapor content and determine the location of the condensation front, or snow line, for four classical disks selected for the strong water emission present in their mid-infrared spectra. To accomplish this we combine deep Herschel PACS observations with high resolution Spitzer IRS spectra to create molecular maps comprised of water lines with excitation temperatures that trace the disks' surfaces from 1-100 AU. We use two-dimensional, axisymmetric radiative transfer modeling to retrieve the disks' dust structures and the RADLite raytracer to render model spectra for each disk. A simple step function is used to define the abundance structure and the model spectra are fit to the observed water lines. Preliminary results will be discussed, including the inner disk chemical content, snow line radius and fractional water vapor abundances for the classical disk RNO 90.

  14. Dust amorphization in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Glauser, Adrian M; Watson, Dan M; Henning, Thomas; Schegerer, Alexander A; Wolf, Sebastian; Audard, Marc; Baldovin-Saavedra, Carla

    2009-01-01

    High-energy irradiation of the circumstellar material might impact the structure and the composition of a protoplanetary disk and hence the process of planet formation. In this paper, we present a study on the possible influence of the stellar irradiation, indicated by X-ray emission, on the crystalline structure of the circumstellar dust. The dust crystallinity is measured for 42 class II T Tauri stars in the Taurus star-forming region using a decomposition fit of the 10 micron silicate feature, measured with the Spitzer IRS instrument. Since the sample includes objects with disks of various evolutionary stages, we further confine the target selection, using the age of the objects as a selection parameter. We correlate the X-ray luminosity and the X-ray hardness of the central object with the crystalline mass fraction of the circumstellar dust and find a significant anti-correlation for 20 objects within an age range of approx. 1 to 4.5 Myr. We postulate that X-rays represent the stellar activity and consequ...

  15. Spiral Density Waves in a Young Protoplanetary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Laura M; Andrews, Sean M; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea; Linz, Hendrik; Sargent, Anneila I; Wilner, David J; Henning, Thomas; Deller, Adam T; Chandler, Claire J; Dullemond, Cornelis P; Lazio, Joseph; Menten, Karl M; Corder, Stuartt A; Storm, Shaye; Testi, Leonardo; Tazzari, Marco; Kwon, Woojin; Calvet, Nuria; Greaves, Jane S; Harris, Robert J; Mundy, Lee G

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational forces are expected to excite spiral density waves in protoplanetary disks, disks of gas and dust orbiting young stars. However, previous observations that showed spiral structure were not able to probe disk midplanes, where most of the mass is concentrated and where planet formation takes place. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array we detected a pair of trailing symmetric spiral arms in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star Elias 2-27. The arms extend to the disk outer regions and can be traced down to the midplane. These millimeter-wave observations also reveal an emission gap closer to the star than the spiral arms. We argue that the observed spirals trace shocks of spiral density waves in the midplane of this young disk.

  16. Effects of inclined star-disk encounter on protoplanetary disk size

    CERN Document Server

    Bhandare, Asmita; Pfalzner, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Most, if not all, young stars are initially surrounded by protoplanetary disks. Owing to the preferential formation of stars in stellar clusters, the protoplanetary disks around these stars may potentially be affected by the cluster environment. Various works have investigated the influence of stellar fly-bys on disks, although many of them consider only the effects due to parabolic, coplanar encounters often for equal-mass stars, which is only a very special case. We perform numerical simulations to study the fate of protoplanetary disks after the impact of parabolic star-disk encounter for the less investigated case of inclined up to coplanar, retrograde encounters, which is a much more common case. Here, we concentrate on the disk size after such encounters because this limits the size of the potentially forming planetary systems. In addition, with the possibilities that ALMA offers, now a direct comparison to observations is possible. Covering a wide range of periastron distances and mass ratios between t...

  17. Protoplanetary disks and exoplanets in scattered light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, T.

    2017-01-01

    High-contrast imaging facilitates the direct detection of protoplanetary disks in scattered light and self-luminous exoplanets on long-period orbits. The combined power of extreme adaptive optics and differential imaging techniques delivers high spatial resolution images of disk morphologies down to

  18. Early Phases of Protoplanetary Disk Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Inga; Macchetto, FD

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that planetary systems form from protoplanetary disks, and observations of the dust reveal significant grain growth over timescales of a few million years. However, we know little about the gas processing in the first 10-20 Myr of disk evolution. This is the phase where protopl

  19. Vortex migration in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Paardekooper, S -J; Papaloizou, J C B

    2010-01-01

    We consider the radial migration of vortices in two-dimensional isothermal gaseous disks. We find that a vortex core, orbiting at the local gas velocity, induces velocity perturbations that propagate away from the vortex as density waves. The resulting spiral wave pattern is reminiscent of an embedded planet. There are two main causes for asymmetries in these wakes: geometrical effects tend to favor the outer wave, while a radial vortensity gradient leads to an asymmetric vortex core, which favors the wave at the side that has the lowest density. In the case of asymmetric waves, which we always find except for a disk of constant pressure, there is a net exchange of angular momentum between the vortex and the surrounding disk, which leads to orbital migration of the vortex. Numerical hydrodynamical simulations show that this migration can be very rapid, on a time scale of a few thousand orbits, for vortices with a size comparable to the scale height of the disk. We discuss the possible effects of vortex migrat...

  20. Complex Organic Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine; Millar, T. J.; Nomura, H.; Herbst, E.; Widicus-Weaver, S.

    2013-06-01

    Protoplanetary disks are vital objects in star and planet formation. In addition to aiding mass accretion onto the central star and angular momentum dissipation, they also contain all material which may form an orbiting planetary system. Of great interest to the astrochemistry and astrobiology communities is the origin of prebiotic molecules, considered the "building blocks" of Life. Is it possible for complex molecules to form in protoplanetary disks and survive assimilation into planets and other planetary system objects, such as, comets? We explore the synthesis of large complex organic molecules (COMs) in protoplanetary disks which encompass young stars. We use a chemical network primarily developed for use in hot core models to calculate the abundance and distribution of gas-phase and grain-mantle (ice) COMs and discuss the potential of observing the gas-phase form of these species with new facilities, such as, ALMA.

  1. The short circuit instability in protoplanetary disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubbard, A.; McNally, C.P.; Mac Low, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a magneto-hydrodynamic instability which occurs, among other locations, in the inner, hot regions of protoplanetary disks, and which alters the way in which resistive dissipation of magnetic energy into heat proceeds. This instability can be likened to both an electrical short circuit...... and lightning, as it concentrates the dissipation of magnetic energy by means of the enhanced release of free electrons. This instability can generate very high temperatures, making it an excellent candidate for thermally processing protoplanetary disk solids, from annealing silicates to melting chondrules...

  2. Scattered light mapping of protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Stolker, T; Min, M; Garufi, A; Mulders, G D; Avenhaus, H

    2016-01-01

    High-contrast scattered light observations have revealed the surface morphology of several dozens of protoplanetary disks at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. Inclined disks offer the opportunity to measure part of the phase function of the dust grains that reside in the disk surface which is essential for our understanding of protoplanetary dust properties and the early stages of planet formation. We aim to construct a method which takes into account how the flaring shape of the scattering surface of an (optically thick) protoplanetary disk projects onto the image plane of the observer. This allows us to map physical quantities (scattering radius and scattering angle) onto scattered light images and retrieve stellar irradiation corrected (r^2-scaled) images and dust phase functions. We apply the method on archival polarized intensity images of the protoplanetary disk around HD 100546 that were obtained with VLT/SPHERE in R'-band and VLT/NACO in H- and Ks-band. The brightest side of the r^2-scaled R'-ban...

  3. Carbon isotope fractionation in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Paul M

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the gas-phase and grain-surface chemistry in the inner 30 AU of a typical protoplanetary disk using a new model which calculates the gas temperature by solving the gas heating and cooling balance and which has an improved treatment of the UV radiation field. We discuss inner-disk chemistry in general, obtaining excellent agreement with recent observations which have probed the material in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks. We also apply our model to study the isotopic fractionation of carbon. Results show that the fractionation ratio, 12C/13C, of the system varies with radius and height in the disk. Different behaviour is seen in the fractionation of different species. We compare our results with 12C/13C ratios in the Solar System comets, and find a stark contrast, indicative of reprocessing.

  4. Ionization and Dust Charging in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ivlev, A V; Caselli, P

    2016-01-01

    Ionization-recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field and the development of magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary disks. We present a self-consistent analytical model which allows us to exactly calculate abundances of charged species in dusty gas, in the regime where the dust-phase recombination dominates over the gas-phase recombination. The model is employed to verify applicability of a conventional approximation of low dust charges in protoplanetary disks, and to discuss the implications for the dust coagulation and the development of the "dead zone" in the disk. Furthermore, the importance of mutually consistent models for the ionization and dust evolution is addressed: These processes are coupled via several mechanisms operating in the disk, and therefore their interplay can be crucial for the ultimate ...

  5. Imaging Protoplanetary Disks with a Square Kilometer Array

    CERN Document Server

    Wilner, D J

    2004-01-01

    The recent detections of extrasolar giant planets has revealed a surprising diversity of planetary system architectures, with many very unlike our Solar System. Understanding the origin of this diversity requires multi-wavelength studies of the structure and evolution of the protoplanetary disks that surround young stars. Radio astronomy and the Square Kilometer Array will play a unique role in these studies by imaging thermal dust emission in a representative sample of protoplanetary disks at unprecedented sub-AU scales in the innermost regions, including the ``habitable zone'' that lies within a few AU of the central stars. Radio observations will probe the evolution of dust grains up to centimeter-sized ``pebbles'', the critical first step in assembling giant planet cores and terrestrial planets, through the wavelength dependence of dust emissivity, which provides a diagnostic of particle size. High resolution images of dust emission will show directly mass concentrations and features in disk surface densi...

  6. Scattered light mapping of protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolker, T.; Dominik, C.; Min, M.; Garufi, A.; Mulders, G. D.; Avenhaus, H.

    2016-12-01

    Context. High-contrast scattered light observations have revealed the surface morphology of several dozen protoplanetary disks at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. Inclined disks offer the opportunity to measure part of the phase function of the dust grains that reside in the disk surface which is essential for our understanding of protoplanetary dust properties and the early stages of planet formation. Aims: We aim to construct a method which takes into account how the flaring shape of the scattering surface of an optically thick protoplanetary disk projects onto the image plane of the observer. This allows us to map physical quantities (e.g., scattering radius and scattering angle) onto scattered light images and retrieve stellar irradiation corrected images (r2-scaled) and dust phase functions. Methods: The scattered light mapping method projects a power law shaped disk surface onto the detector plane after which the observed scattered light image is interpolated backward onto the disk surface. We apply the method on archival polarized intensity images of the protoplanetary disk around HD 100546 that were obtained with VLT/SPHERE in the R' band and VLT/NACO in the H and Ks bands. Results: The brightest side of the r2-scaled R' band polarized intensity image of HD 100546 changes from the far to the near side of the disk when a flaring instead of a geometrically flat disk surface is used for the r2-scaling. The decrease in polarized surface brightness in the scattering angle range of 40°-70° is likely a result of the dust phase function and degree of polarization which peak in different scattering angle regimes. The derived phase functions show part of a forward scattering peak, which indicates that large, aggregate dust grains dominate the scattering opacity in the disk surface. Conclusions: Projection effects of a protoplanetary disk surface need to be taken into account to correctly interpret scattered light images. Applying the correct scaling for the

  7. Warm gas in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Gerrit

    2010-12-01

    This thesis presents a study of warm CO, [OI] and H2 gas coming from the disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These various gas tracers are each a proxy for a different radial and vertical region of the PP disk surface. Our sample consists of disks whose shape (based on modeling of the the disk dust emission) can be divided into flaring and self-shadowed (flat). We find [1] evidence for the vertical decoupling of gas and dust in one disks (Chapter 2); [2] That disk geometry has a large influence on the spatial distribution and excitation mechanism of the CO emission (chapters 3,4); [3] Near-IR H 2 emission around 2 (out of 14) HAEBE stars, probably originating from large (±50AU) radii of the disk (chapter 5). In chapter 6 we investigate the trends between CO emission and disk geometry as noted in Chapter 3 and 4.

  8. Ionization and Dust Charging in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivlev, A. V.; Akimkin, V. V.; Caselli, P.

    2016-12-01

    Ionization-recombination balance in dense interstellar and circumstellar environments is a key factor for a variety of important physical processes, such as chemical reactions, dust charging and coagulation, coupling of the gas with magnetic field, and development of instabilities in protoplanetary disks. We determine a critical gas density above which the recombination of electrons and ions on the grain surface dominates over the gas-phase recombination. For this regime, we present a self-consistent analytical model, which allows us to calculate exactly the abundances of charged species in dusty gas, without making assumptions on the grain charge distribution. To demonstrate the importance of the proposed approach, we check whether the conventional approximation of low grain charges is valid for typical protoplanetary disks, and discuss the implications for dust coagulation and development of the “dead zone” in the disk. The presented model is applicable for arbitrary grain-size distributions and, for given dust properties and conditions of the disk, has only one free parameter—the effective mass of the ions, shown to have a small effect on the results. The model can be easily included in numerical simulations following the dust evolution in dense molecular clouds and protoplanetary disks.

  9. Formulas for Radial Transport in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Steven J.; Estrada, Paul R.; Kalyaan, Anusha; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.

    2017-05-01

    The quantification of the radial transport of gaseous species and solid particles is important to many applications in protoplanetary disk evolution. An especially important example is determining the location of the water snow lines in a disk, which requires computing the rates of outward radial diffusion of water vapor and the inward radial drift of icy particles; however, the application is generalized to evaporation fronts of all volatiles. We review the relevant formulas using a uniform formalism. This uniform treatment is necessary because the literature currently contains at least six mutually exclusive treatments of radial diffusion of gas, only one of which is correct. We derive the radial diffusion equations from first principles using Fick's law. For completeness, we also present the equations for radial transport of particles. These equations may be applied to studies of diffusion of gases and particles in protoplanetary and other accretion disks.

  10. Photophoresis in protoplanetary disks: a numerical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cuello, Nicolas; Gonzalez, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that rocky planets form in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks (PPD) about 1 - 10 AU from the star. However, theoretical calculations show that when particles reach the size for which the radial migration is the fastest they tend to be accreted very efficiently by the star. This is known as the radial-drift barrier. We explore the photophoresis in the inner regions of PPD as a possible mechanism for preventing the accretion of solid bodies onto the star. Photophoresis is the thermal creep induced by the momentum exchange of an illuminated solid particle with the surrounding gas. Recent laboratory experiments predict that photophoresis would be able to stop the inward drift of macroscopic bodies (from 1 mm to 1 m in size). This extra force has been included in our two-fluid (gas+dust) SPH code in order to study its efficiency. We show that the conditions of pressure and temperature encountered in the inner regions of PPD result in strong dynamical effects on the dust particles due t...

  11. Chemistry in evolving protoplanetary disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkheid, Bastiaan Johan

    2006-01-01

    Planets form in disks of gas and dust around young stars. Since the gas makes up 99 % of the disk mass, it is critical for our understanding of planet formation to gain direct information from the gas, independently of what can be learned from dust emission. In this thesis, calculations are presente

  12. Protoplanetary Disks, Jets, and the Birth of the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglada, G.

    2017-03-01

    Young stars are surrounded by rotating disks of gas and dust. These disks play an essential role in regulating the mass accretion onto the star and are the precursors of exoplanetary systems. Accretion disks also play an important role in driving the bipolar collimated ejections (jets) that remove the excess of angular momentum and allow the star to reach its final mass. Jets are partially ionized and their continuum free-free emission at centimeter wavelengths is a powerful tool to study at small scale (10-100 au) the region where they originate. Observations of the dust thermal emission at centimeter wavelengths are also well suited to study the distribution of dust grains that have evolved up to centimeter sizes and trace the signatures of planet formation in protoplanetary disks. I will present some recent results from VLA and ALMA observations of disks and jets in young stellar objects, and I will discuss future prospects with the SKA in this field.

  13. High-Temperature Ionization in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Desch, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the abundances of electrons and ions in the hot (> 500 K), dusty parts of protoplanetary disks, treating for the first time the effects of thermionic and ion emission from the dust grains. High-temperature ionization modeling has involved simply assuming that alkali elements such as potassium occur as gas-phase atoms and are collisionally ionized following the Saha equation. We show that the Saha equation often does not hold, because free charges are produced by thermionic and ion emission and destroyed when they stick to grain surfaces. This means the ionization state depends not on the first ionization potential of the alkali atoms, but rather on the grains' work functions. The charged species' abundances typically rise abruptly above about 800 K, with little qualitative dependence on the work function, gas density, or dust-to-gas mass ratio. Applying our results, we find that protoplanetary disks' dead zone, where high diffusivities stifle magnetorotational turbulence, has its inner edge locat...

  14. Understanding Gas-Phase Ammonia Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Lauren; Oberg, Karin I.; Cleeves, Lauren Ilsedore

    2017-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are dynamic regions of gas and dust around young stars, the remnants of star formation, that evolve and coagulate over millions of years in order to ultimately form planets. The chemical composition of protoplanetary disks is affected by both the chemical and physical conditions in which they develop, including the initial molecular abundances in the birth cloud, the spectrum and intensity of radiation from the host star and nearby systems, and mixing and turbulence within the disk. A more complete understanding of the chemical evolution of disks enables a more complete understanding of the chemical composition of planets that may form within them, and of their capability to support life. One element known to be essential for life on Earth is nitrogen, which often is present in the form of ammonia (NH3). Recent observations by Salinas et al. (2016) reveal a theoretical discrepancy in the gas-phase and ice-phase ammonia abundances in protoplanetary disks; while observations of comets and protostars estimate the ice-phase NH3/H2O ratio in disks to be 5%, Salinas reports a gas-phase NH3/H2O ratio of ~7-84% in the disk surrounding TW Hydra, a young nearby star. Through computational chemical modeling of the TW Hydra disk using a reaction network of over 5000 chemical reactions, I am investigating the possible sources of excess gas-phase NH3 by determining the primary reaction pathways of NH3 production; the downstream chemical effects of ionization by ultraviolet photons, X-rays, and cosmic rays; and the effects of altering the initial abundances of key molecules such as N and N2. Beyond providing a theoretical explanation for the NH3 ice/gas discrepancy, this new model may lead to fuller understanding of the gas-phase formation processes of all nitrogen hydrides (NHx), and thus fuller understanding of the nitrogen-bearing molecules that are fundamental for life as we know it.

  15. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Fujun

    2014-01-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyman alpha photons, since the Lyman alpha line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more ...

  16. Low EUV Luminosities Impinging on Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pascucci, I; Gorti, U; Hollenbach, D; Hendler, N P; Brooks, K J; Contreras, Y

    2014-01-01

    The amount of high-energy stellar radiation reaching the surface of protoplanetary disks is essential to determine their chemistry and physical evolution. Here, we use millimetric and centimetric radio data to constrain the EUV luminosity impinging on 14 disks around young (~2-10Myr) sun-like stars. For each object we identify the long-wavelength emission in excess to the dust thermal emission, attribute that to free-free disk emission, and thereby compute an upper limit to the EUV reaching the disk. We find upper limits lower than 10$^{42}$ photons/s for all sources without jets and lower than $5 \\times 10^{40}$ photons/s for the three older sources in our sample. These latter values are low for EUV-driven photoevaporation alone to clear out protoplanetary material in the timescale inferred by observations. In addition, our EUV upper limits are too low to reproduce the [NeII] 12.81 micron luminosities from three disks with slow [NeII]-detected winds. This indicates that the [NeII] line in these sources prima...

  17. Complex organic molecules in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine; Nomura, Hideko; Herbst, Eric; Weaver, Susanna L Widicus; Aikawa, Yuri; Laas, Jake C; Vasyunin, Anton I

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) Protoplanetary disks are vital objects in star and planet formation, possessing all the material which may form a planetary system orbiting the new star. We investigate the synthesis of complex organic molecules (COMs) in disks to constrain the achievable chemical complexity and predict species and transitions which may be observable with ALMA. We have coupled a 2D model of a protoplanetary disk around a T Tauri star with a gas-grain chemical network including COMs. We compare compare synthesised line intensities and calculated column densities with observations and determine those COMs which may be observable in future. COMs are efficiently formed in the disk midplane via grain-surface chemical reactions, reaching peak grain-surface fractional abundances 1e-6 - 1e-4 that of the H nuclei number density. COMs formed on grain surfaces are returned to the gas phase via non-thermal desorption; however, gas-phase species reach lower fractional abundances than their grain-surface equivalents, 1e-12 - 1e-...

  18. Accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Takayuki [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Maruta, Akito; Machida, Masahiro N., E-mail: tanigawa@pop.lowtem.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from heliocentric orbits rotating in protoplanetary disks, which is a key process for the formation of regular satellite systems. In the late stage of the gas-capturing phase of giant planet formation, the accreting gas from protoplanetary disks forms circumplanetary disks. Since the accretion flow toward the circumplanetary disks affects the particle motion through gas drag force, we use hydrodynamic simulation data for the gas drag term to calculate the motion of solid materials. We consider a wide range of size for the solid particles (10{sup –2}-10{sup 6} m), and find that the accretion efficiency of the solid particles peaks around 10 m sized particles because energy dissipation of drag with circum-planetary disk gas in this size regime is most effective. The efficiency for particles larger than 10 m becomes lower because gas drag becomes less effective. For particles smaller than 10 m, the efficiency is lower because the particles are strongly coupled with the background gas flow, which prevents particles from accretion. We also find that the distance from the planet where the particles are captured by the circumplanetary disks is in a narrow range and well described as a function of the particle size.

  19. SPH simulations of structures in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova, T. V.; Grinin, V. P.

    2017-02-01

    Using the GADGET-2 code modified by us, we have computed hydrodynamic models of a protoplanetary disk perturbed by a low-mass companion. We have considered the cases of circular and eccentric orbits coplanar with the disk and inclined relative to its midplane. During our simulations we computed the column density of test particles on the line of sight between the central star and observer. On this basis we computed the column density of circumstellar dust by assuming the dust and gas to be well mixed with a mass ratio of 1: 100. To study the influence of the disk orientation relative to the observer on the interstellar extinction, we performed our computations for four inclinations of the line of sight to the disk plane and eight azimuthal directions. The column densities in the circumstellar disk of the central star and the circumbinary disk were computed separately. Our computations have shown that periodic column density oscillations can arise in both inner and circumbinary disks. The amplitude and shape of these oscillations depend on the system's parameters (the orbital eccentricity and inclination, the component mass ratio) and its orientation in space. The results of our simulations can be used to explain the cyclic brightness variations of young UX Ori stars.

  20. Streaming Instabilities in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Youdin, A N; Youdin, Andrew N.; Goodman, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Interpenetrating streams of solids and gas in a Keplerian disk produce a local, linear instability. The two components mutually interact via aerodynamic drag, which generates radial drift and triggers unstable modes. The secular instability does not require self-gravity, yet it generates growing particle density perturbations that could seed planetesimal formation. Growth rates are slower than dynamical, but faster than radial drift, timescales. Growth rates, like streaming velocities, are maximized for marginal coupling (stopping times comparable dynamical times). Fastest growth occurs when the solid to gas density ratio is order unity and feedback is strongest. Curiously, growth is strongly suppressed when the densities are too nearly equal. The relation between background drift and wave properties is explained by analogy with Howard's semicircle theorem. The three-dimensional, two-fluid equations describe a sixth order (in the complex frequency) dispersion relation. A terminal velocity approximation allows...

  1. Anatomy of a flaring proto-planetary disk around a young intermediate-mass star

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Doucet, Coralie; Pantin, Eric; Habart, Emilie; Duchene, Gaspard; Menard, Francois; Pinte, Christophe; Charnoz, Sebastien; Pel, Jan-Willem

    2006-01-01

    Although planets are being discovered around stars more massive than the Sun, information about the proto-planetary disks where such planets have built up is sparse. We have imaged mid-infrared emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at the surface of the disk surrounding the young

  2. H2O in Protoplanetary Disks: the Snow Line and the Planets' Nest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonellini, Stefano; Kamp, Inga; Woitke, Peter; Thi, Wing-Fai

    2013-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks represent the stage between the pre-stellar collapse of the molecolar cloud and the formation of a planetary system surrounding a main sequence star. The goal of the DIANA FP7 project (P.I.: P.Woitke) is to investigate the disks in multiwavelengths, considering available data of

  3. H2O in Protoplanetary Disks : The Snow Line and the Planets' Nest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonellini, Stefano; Kamp, Inga; Woitke, Peter; Thi, Wing-Fai

    2013-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks represent the stage between the pre-stellar collapse of the molecolar cloud and the formation of a planetary system surrounding a main sequence star. The goal of the DIANA FP7 project (P.I.: P.Woitke) is to investigate the disks in multiwavelengths, considering available data of

  4. Radially Magnetized Protoplanetary Disk: Vertical Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Russo, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the response of a thin accretion disk to an external radial magnetic field. Our focus is on protoplanetary disks (PPDs), which are exposed during their later evolution to an intense, magnetized wind from the central star. A radial magnetic field is mixed into a thin surface layer, is wound up by the disk shear, and is pushed downward by a combination of turbulent mixing and ambipolar and Ohmic drift. The toroidal field reaches much greater strengths than the seed vertical field that is usually invoked in PPD models, even becoming superthermal. Linear stability analysis indicates that the disk experiences the magnetorotational instability (MRI) at a higher magnetization than a vertically magnetized disk when both the effects of ambipolar and Hall drift are taken into account. Steady vertical profiles of density and magnetic field are obtained at several radii between 0.06 and 1 AU in response to a wind magnetic field $B_r \\sim (10^{-4}$-$10^{-2})(r/{\\rm AU})^{-2}$ G. Careful attention is giv...

  5. Computing Temperatures in Optically Thick Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuder, Lawrence F.. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We worked with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simulate the transfer of energy through protoplanetary disks, where planet formation occurs. The code tracks photons from the star into the disk, through scattering, absorption and re-emission, until they escape to infinity. High optical depths in the disk interior dominate the computation time because it takes the photon packet many interactions to get out of the region. High optical depths also receive few photons and therefore do not have well-estimated temperatures. We applied a modified random walk (MRW) approximation for treating high optical depths and to speed up the Monte Carlo calculations. The MRW is implemented by calculating the average number of interactions the photon packet will undergo in diffusing within a single cell of the spatial grid and then updating the packet position, packet frequencies, and local radiation absorption rate appropriately. The MRW approximation was then tested for accuracy and speed compared to the original code. We determined that MRW provides accurate answers to Monte Carlo Radiative transfer simulations. The speed gained from using MRW is shown to be proportional to the disk mass.

  6. The Inner Rim in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Mario; Turner, Neal J.

    2016-10-01

    Many stars host planets orbiting within one astronomical unit (AU). These close planets origins are a mystery that motivates investigating protoplanetary disks central regions.A key factor governing the conditions near the star is the silicate sublimation front, which largely determines where the starlight is absorbed, and which is often called the inner rim. We present the first radiation hydrodynamical modeling of the sublimation front in the disks around the young intermediate-mass stars called Herbig Ae stars. The models are axisymmetric, and include starlight heating, silicate grains sublimating and condensing to equilibrium at the local, timedependent temperature and density, and accretion stresses parametrizing the results of MHD magneto-rotational turbulence models.The results show for the first time the dynamical stability of the rim. Passing the model disks into Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations allows us to directly compare with observational constraints. The inner rim has a substantial radial extent, corresponding to several disk scale heights. A pressure maximum develops at the position of thermal ionization at temperatures about 1000 K. The pressure maximum is capable of halting solid pebbles radial drift and concentrating them in a zone where temperatures are sufficiently high for annealing to form crystalline silicates.

  7. Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks: A Sensitivity Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Vasyunin, A I; Henning, T; Wakelam, V; Herbst, E; Sobolev, A M

    2007-01-01

    We study how uncertainties in the rate coefficients of chemical reactions in the RATE06 database affect abundances and column densities of key molecules in protoplanetary disks. We randomly varied the gas-phase reaction rates within their uncertainty limits and calculated the time-dependent abundances and column densities using a gas-grain chemical model and a flaring steady-state disk model. We find that key species can be separated into two distinct groups according to the sensitivity of their column densities to the rate uncertainties. The first group includes CO, C$^+$, H$_3^+$, H$_2$O, NH$_3$, N$_2$H$^+$, and HCNH$^+$. For these species, the column densities are not very sensitive to the rate uncertainties but the abundances in specific regions are. The second group includes CS, CO$_2$, HCO$^+$, H$_2$CO, C$_2$H, CN, HCN, HNC and other, more complex species, for which high abundances and abundance uncertainties co-exist in the same disk region, leading to larger scatters in the column densities. However, ...

  8. Magneto-thermal Disk Wind from Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Goodman, Jeremy; Yuan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Global evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is governed by disk angular momentum transport and mass-loss processes. Recent numerical studies suggest that angular momentum transport in the inner region of PPDs is largely driven by magnetized disk wind, yet the wind mass-loss rate remains unconstrained. On the other hand, disk mass loss has conventionally been attributed to photoevaporation, where external heating on the disk surface drives a thermal wind. We unify the two scenarios by developing a 1D model of magnetized disk winds with a simple treatment of thermodynamics as a proxy for external heating. The wind properties largely depend on 1) the magnetic field strength at the wind base, characterized by the poloidal Alfv\\'en speed $v_{Ap}$, 2) the sound speed $c_s$ near the wind base, and 3) how rapidly poloidal field lines diverge (achieve $R^{-2}$ scaling). When $v_{Ap}\\gg c_s$, corotation is enforced near the wind base, resulting in centrifugal acceleration. Otherwise, the wind is accel...

  9. CID: Chemistry In Disks VII. First detection of HC3N in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Chapillon, E; Guilloteau, S; Pietu, V; Wakelam, V; Hersant, F; Gueth, F; Henning, T; Launhardt, R; Schreyer, K; Semenov, D

    2012-01-01

    Molecular line emission from protoplanetary disks is a powerful tool to constrain their physical and chemical structure. Nevertheless, only a few molecules have been detected in disks so far. We take advantage of the enhanced capabilities of the IRAM 30m telescope by using the new broad band correlator (FTS) to search for so far undetected molecules in the protoplanetary disks surrounding the TTauri stars DM Tau, GO Tau, LkCa 15 and the Herbig Ae star MWC 480. We report the first detection of HC3N at 5 sigma in the GO Tau and MWC 480 disks with the IRAM 30-m, and in the LkCa 15 disk (5 sigma), using the IRAM array, with derived column densities of the order of 10^{12}cm^{-2}. We also obtain stringent upper limits on CCS (N < 1.5 x 10^{12} cm^{-3}). We discuss the observational results by comparing them to column densities derived from existing chemical disk models (computed using the chemical code Nautilus) and based on previous nitrogen and sulfur-bearing molecule observations. The observed column densiti...

  10. Giant planet formation at the pressure maxima of protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Guilera, O M

    2016-01-01

    Context. In the classical core-accretion planet formation scenario, rapid inward migration and accretion timescales of kilometer size planetesimals may not favour the formation of massive cores of giant planets before the dissipation of protoplanetary disks. On the other hand, the existence of pressure maxima in the disk could act as migration traps and locations for solid material accumulation, favoring the formation of massive cores. Aims. We aim to study the radial drift of planetesimals and planet migration at pressure maxima in a protoplanetary disk and their implications for the formation of massive cores as triggering a gaseous runaway accretion phase. Methods. The time evolution of a viscosity driven accretion disk is solved numerically introducing a a dead zone as a low-viscosity region in the protoplanetary disk. A population of planetesimals evolving by radial drift and accretion by the planets is also considered. Finally, the embryos embedded in the disk grow by the simultaneous accretion of plane...

  11. Magneto-thermal Disk Winds from Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Ye, Jiani; Goodman, Jeremy; Yuan, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The global evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are governed by disk angular-momentum transport and mass-loss processes. Recent numerical studies suggest that angular-momentum transport in the inner region of PPDs is largely driven by magnetized disk wind, yet the wind mass-loss rate remains unconstrained. On the other hand, disk mass loss has conventionally been attributed to photoevaporation, where external heating on the disk surface drives a thermal wind. We unify the two scenarios by developing a one-dimensional model of magnetized disk winds with a simple treatment of thermodynamics as a proxy for external heating. The wind properties largely depend on (1) the magnetic field strength at the wind base, characterized by the poloidal Alfvén speed vAp, (2) the sound speed cs near the wind base, and (3) how rapidly poloidal field lines diverge (achieve {R}-2 scaling). When {v}{Ap}\\gg {c}{{s}}, corotation is enforced near the wind base, resulting in centrifugal acceleration. Otherwise, the wind is accelerated mainly by the pressure of the toroidal magnetic field. In both cases, the dominant role played by magnetic forces likely yields wind outflow rates that exceed purely hydrodynamical mechanisms. For typical PPD accretion-rate and wind-launching conditions, we expect vAp to be comparable to cs at the wind base. The resulting wind is heavily loaded, with a total wind mass-loss rate likely reaching a considerable fraction of the wind-driven accretion rate. Implications for modeling global disk evolution and planet formation are also discussed.

  12. Evidence for Magnetically Driven Protoplanetary Disk Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Molly; Pascucci, Ilaria; Edwards, Suzan; Feng, Wanda; Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Gorti, Uma; Hollenbach, David J.; Tuttle Keane, James

    2017-01-01

    We present Keck high resolution (~7km/s) optical spectra from a sample of 32 pre-main sequence T-Tauri stars in Taurus-Auriga plus TW Hya. We focus on low-excitation forbidden emission lines like the [O I] 6300 Å and 5577 Å lines, whose high-velocity component, with blueshifts between ~30 - 150 km/s, is known to trace fast outflowing material in the form of jets (e.g. Hartigan et al. 1995). The origin of the low-velocity component (LVC), with blueshifts on the order of ~5 km/s, has been long debated. We demonstrate that the LVC can be described by a combination of a broad and a narrow line emitting region. We show that the broad line emitting region is very common, arises within ~0.5 AU from the star, and shows the expected disk wind signature, i.e. larger blueshifts associated with narrower lines and lower disc inclinations. Such winds must be magnetically driven given that the emitting region is well inside the gravitational potential well of the central star. The origin of the narrow line emitting region remains difficult to assess, in particular we cannot exclude that it traces a thermally driven (photoevaporative) wind. Disk winds, both thermally and magnetically driven, might play a major role in the evolution and eventual dispersal of protoplanetary material, which has implications for solar system architectures and planet formation more generally. Hence, it is critical to determine the rate at which mass is lost via disk winds.

  13. Levitation of Dust at the Surface of Protoplanetary Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurm, Gerhard; Haack, Henning

    In recent years photophoretic forces acting on dust particles have been shown to be important for optically thin parts of protoplanetary disks. The optical surface (photosphere) of protoplanetary disks is a transitional region where the thermal radiation of the disk can escape. We show here that ...... disks. In general these are small particles with low thermal conductivity, probably highly porous dust aggregates. If optical properties vary strongly for given dust aggregatesthe more absorbing aggregates are lifted the highest. Overall, levitationby thermal radiation introduces a bias...

  14. Reflected Light from Sand Grains in the Terrestrial Zone of a Protoplanetary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Herbst, William; LeDuc, Katherine; Winn, Joshua N; Johns-Krull, Christopher M; Mundt, Reinhard; Ibrahimov, Mansur

    2008-01-01

    We show that grains have grown to ~mm size (sand sized) or larger in the terrestrial zone (within ~3 AU) of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the 3 Myr old binary star KH 15D. We also argue that the reflected light in the system reaches us by back scattering off the far side of the same ring whose near side causes the obscuration.

  15. Aggregate growth in a protoplanetary disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Chuchu; Carballido, Augusto; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2017-01-01

    We present a method to model the growth of neutral and charged dusts in a turbulent protoplanetary disk, and analyze their collision probabilities. Coagulation of dust aggregates plays an important role in the formation of planets and is of key importance to the evolution of protoplanetary disks. In our method, the temporal evolution of the dusts is followed by Monte Carlo algorithm, and the inter-particle interactions are calculated by Aggregate_Builder (AB), which is a code used to model the collision process of aggregates. First an aggregate library is built and all the aggregates are binned according to their sizes. In each iteration, the collision rate for aggregates from any two bins are computed, which determines the time it takes for the next collision to happen and which two aggregates are selected for collision. Then the AB codes are used to calculate the interaction of the two aggregates. The relative velocity between the two aggregates is the vector sum of Brownian velocity and the turbulent velocity. The latter is calculated by ATHENA, which is a grid-based code for astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics. In each iteration, it’s determined whether the two aggregates hit or miss. In the case of hit, it either sticks or bounces as determined by the critical velocity. As a result, the neutral aggregates are more porous than the charged ones. For a certain size of incoming aggregates, the neutral ones have a higher collision probability than the charged ones. Also, similarly-sized aggregates have lower collision probabilities than aggregates with large size dispersions. This research enables us to determine which physical properties have a greater impact on the collision rate. By tracing the dust size distribution, we can identify the stage when they settle out to the mid-plane and how long it takes to develop to that stage. In the hit-stick regime, our results are consistent with the experiments which shows that when the velocity is smaller than the

  16. Dead Zones in protoplanetary disks : accumulation and coagulation of dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnoz, S.; Taillifet, E.

    2011-10-01

    The growth of micronic dust to macroscopical sizes (>meter) in a turbulent protoplanetary disk is still largely debated. In particular the dust coagulation process must go through two barriers imposed by their coupling with the gas: the "meter" barrier due to an efficient radial migration of dust when their Stokes number is about one and the "fragmentation barrier" implied by the critical fragmentation velocity (around cm/s) preventing any further growth of particle when they reach a macroscopic size due to the two fast relative velocities of particles. So, paradoxically, a protoplanetary disks may seem quite a hostile place for dust-growth, despite the frequent detection of exoplanets showing that planetary formation is in fact an efficient process. We then explore a new possibility suggested by the stratified nature of a protoplanetary disk. Protoplanetary disks are expected to harbour nonionized regions in their mid-plane, the so called "dead zone" inside which the gas flow should be laminar. Dust coagulation in these regions could be quite effective and in addition, since they are regions of low diffusivity, they are expected to be able to accumulate efficiently dust. Using hybrid numerical simulations, coupling dustgrowth and dust dynamics, we explore how dust penetrate a dead-zone and how dust coagulate up to macroscopic sizes and compare it to coagulation efficiency in the active layers of the disk, subject to turbulence. Different disk structures will be explored and discussed. Implication for observations by ALMA will be also presented.

  17. Evidence for magnesium isotope heterogeneity in the solar protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Kolbjørn; Trinquier, Anne Marie-Pierre Emilie; Paton, Chad

    2011-01-01

    With a half-life of 0.73 Myr, the 26Al-to-26Mg decay system is the most widely used short-lived chronometer for understanding the formation and earliest evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk. However, the validity of 26Al–26Mg ages of meteorites and their components relies on the critical......, and planets demonstrating the existence of widespread heterogeneity in the mass-independent 26Mg composition (µ26Mg*) of bulk solar system reservoirs with solar or near-solar Al/Mg ratios. This variability may represent heterogeneity in the initial abundance of 26Al across the solar protoplanetary disk...

  18. Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton Accretion onto a Protoplanetary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Moeckel, Nickolas

    2009-01-01

    Young stellar systems orbiting in the potential of their birth cluster can accrete from the dense molecular interstellar medium during the period between the star's birth and the dispersal of the cluster's gas. Over this time, which may span several Myr, the amount of material accreted can rival the amount in the initial protoplanetary disk; the potential importance of this `tail-end' accretion for planet formation was recently highlighted by Throop & Bally (2008). While accretion onto a point mass is successfully modeled by the classical Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton solutions, the more complicated case of accretion onto a star-disk system defies analytic solution. In this paper we investigate via direct hydrodynamic simulations the accretion of dense interstellar material onto a star with an associated gaseous protoplanetary disk. We discuss the changes to the structure of the accretion flow caused by the disk, and vice versa. We find that immersion in a dense accretion flow can redistribute disk material such ...

  19. New Approach to Diagnosing Properties of Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that subjecting the observationally derived properties of protoplanetary disks to the evolutionary interpretation yields new insights into the working of those disks, and offers valuable constraints on their models. We propose that the global properties of individual disks, such as their accretion rates and disk masses, sorted by the mass of the central star, can be indexed by the age of the star to simulate the evolution of a single disk. Using data from published surveys of T Tauri stars, we show that accretion rate data, and disk mass data for the lowest mass stars, form well-defined evolutionary tracks. The higher mass stars show a definitive negative correlation between accretion rates and star ages. We use the time-dependent alpha-disk model of the viscous protoplanetary disk to link the theory to observations. The data are consistent with the standard theoretical paradigm, but not with the layered accretion model. The best fits to the data are obtained for the standard models that start with disks that are about one-third of the mass of the central star and have their angular momenta, j, and alpha-coefficients linked by the relationship j varies as Solar mass(exp 3/2)alpha(exp 1/3). The proportionality constant in this relationship, when derived from the accretion rate data, differs from the constant derived from the disk mass data. We argue that the accretion rate data are more reliable. Taking into account typical values of the specific angular momentum of disk-forming matter, we obtain alpha is greater than or equal to 10(exp -2). A complete time-dependent standard disk model, built on the parameters determined from the best-fit procedure, is presented. Such a model constitutes a good point of departure for various theoretical studies aimed at the issue of formation of planetary systems and the character of protoplanetary disks.

  20. Molecular line emission from a protoplanetary disk irradiated externally by a nearby massive star

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine; Nomura, Hideko; 10.1088/2041-8205/766/2/L23

    2013-01-01

    Star formation often occurs within or nearby stellar clusters. Irradiation by nearby massive stars can photoevaporate protoplanetary disks around young stars (so-called proplyds) which raises questions regarding the ability of planet formation to take place in these environments. We investigate the two-dimensional physical and chemical structure of a protoplanetary disk surrounding a low-mass (T Tauri) star which is irradiated by a nearby massive O-type star to determine the survivability and observability of molecules in proplyds. Compared with an isolated star-disk system, the gas temperature ranges from a factor of a few (in the disk midplane) to around two orders of magnitude (in the disk surface) higher in the irradiated disk. Although the UV flux in the outer disk, in particular, is several orders of magnitude higher, the surface density of the disk is sufficient for effective shielding of the disk midplane so that the disk remains predominantly molecular in nature. We also find that non-volatile molecu...

  1. Five steps in the evolution from protoplanetary to debris disk

    CERN Document Server

    Wyatt, Mark C; Kennedy, Grant M; Matra, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The protoplanetary disks of Herbig Ae stars eventually dissipate leaving a tenuous debris disk comprised of planetesimals and dust, as well as possibly gas and planets. This paper uses the properties of 10-20Myr A star debris disks to consider the protoplanetary to debris disk transition. The physical distinction between these two classes is argued to rest on the presence of primordial gas in sufficient quantities to dominate the motion of small dust grains (not the secondary nature of the dust or its level of stirring). This motivates an observational classification based on the dust spectrum, empirically defined so that A star debris disks require fractional excesses <3 at 12um and <2000 at 70um. We also propose a hypothesis to test, that the main sequence planet/planetesimal structures are already in place (but obscured) during the protoplanetary disk phase. This may be only weakly true if planetary architectures change until frozen during disk dispersal, or completely false if planets and planetesim...

  2. Radiation thermo-chemical models of protoplanetary disks I. Hydrostatic disk structure and inner rim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woitke, P.; Kamp, I.; Thi, W. -F.

    Context. Emission lines from protoplanetary disks originate mainly in the irradiated surface layers, where the gas is generally warmer than the dust. Therefore, interpreting emission lines requires detailed thermo-chemical models, which are essential to converting line observations into

  3. The Cosmic-Ray Dominated Region of Protoplanetary Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molano, G. Chaparro; Kamp, I.; Torres, Diego F.; Reimer, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    - We investigate the chemical evolution in the midplane of protoplanetary disks in the region 1 AU ≤ r ≤ 10 AU, focusing on cosmic ray induced processes. These processes drive the chemical pathways of formation of gas phase molecules which later can be adsorbed onto the surface of grains

  4. Formation models of cometary ices in protoplanetary disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaparro Molano, G.; Kamp, I.

    2014-01-01

    We set out to constrain the chemical conditions in the early Solar System by analyzing chemical evolution models of protoplanetary disks and comparing them to our current knowledge of Solar System bodies, such as comets. We propose that the region located at 10 AU≤r≤30 AU is ideal for the formation

  5. The Cosmic-Ray Dominated Region of Protoplanetary Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molano, G. Chaparro; Kamp, I.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the chemical evolution in the midplane of protoplanetary disks in the region 1 AU ≤ r ≤ 10 AU, focusing on cosmic ray induced processes. These processes drive the chemical pathways of formation of gas phase molecules which later can be adsorbed onto the surface of grains. We improve o

  6. Low extreme-ultraviolet luminosities impinging on protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascucci, I.; Hendler, N. P. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ricci, L. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D. [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave., Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Brooks, K. J.; Contreras, Y., E-mail: pascucci@lpl.arizona.edu [Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    The amount of high-energy stellar radiation reaching the surface of protoplanetary disks is essential to determine their chemistry and physical evolution. Here, we use millimetric and centimetric radio data to constrain the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) luminosity impinging on 14 disks around young (∼2-10 Myr) sun-like stars. For each object we identify the long-wavelength emission in excess to the dust thermal emission, attribute that to free-free disk emission, and thereby compute an upper limit to the EUV reaching the disk. We find upper limits lower than 10{sup 42} photons s{sup –1} for all sources without jets and lower than 5 × 10{sup 40} photons s{sup –1} for the three older sources in our sample. These latter values are low for EUV-driven photoevaporation alone to clear out protoplanetary material in the timescale inferred by observations. In addition, our EUV upper limits are too low to reproduce the [Ne II] 12.81 μm luminosities from three disks with slow [Ne II]-detected winds. This indicates that the [Ne II] line in these sources primarily traces a mostly neutral wind where Ne is ionized by 1 keV X-ray photons, implying higher photoevaporative mass loss rates than those predicted by EUV-driven models alone. In summary, our results suggest that high-energy stellar photons other than EUV may dominate the dispersal of protoplanetary disks around sun-like stars.

  7. Mineral processing by short circuits in protoplanetary disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcnally, C.P.; Hubbard, A.; Mac Low, M.-M.

    2013-01-01

    the magnetic fields amplified by a disk dynamo. We suggest that it is possible to heat precursor grains for chondrules and other high-temperature minerals in current sheets that have been concentrated by our recently described short-circuit instability. We extend our work on this process by including...... global models. This mechanism could provide an efficient means of tapping the gravitational potential energy of the protoplanetary disk to heat grains strongly enough to form high-temperature minerals. The volume-filling nature of turbulent magnetic reconnection is compatible with constraints from...... chondrule-matrix complementarity, chondrule-chondrule complementarity, the occurrence of igneous rims, and compound chondrules. The same short-circuit mechanism may perform other high-temperature mineral processing in protoplanetary disks such as the production of crystalline silicates and CAIs....

  8. Multiwavelength optical properties of compact dust aggregates in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Min, M; Woitke, P; Dominik, C; Ménard, F

    2015-01-01

    In protoplanetary disks micron-size dust grains coagulate to form larger structures with complex shapes and compositions. The coagulation process changes the absorption and scattering properties of particles in the disk in significant ways. To properly interpret observations of protoplanetary disks and to place these observations in the context of the first steps of planet formation, it is crucial to understand the optical properties of these complex structures. We derive the optical properties of dust aggregates using detailed computations of aggregate structures and compare these computa- tionally demanding results with approximate methods that are cheaper to compute in practice. In this way we wish to understand the merits and problems of approximate methods and define the context in which they can or cannot be used to analyze observations of objects where significant grain growth is taking place. For the detailed computations we used the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), a method able to compute the in...

  9. Radiation thermo-chemical models of protoplanetary disks I. Hydrostatic disk structure and inner rim

    CERN Document Server

    Woitke, Peter; Thi, Wing-Fai

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new disk code, called ProDiMo, to calculate the thermo-chemical structure of protoplanetary disks and to interpret gas emission lines from UV to sub-mm. We combine frequency-dependent 2D dust continuum radiative transfer, kinetic gas-phase and UV photo-chemistry, ice formation, and detailed non-LTE heating & cooling balance with the consistent calculation of the hydrostatic disk structure. We include FeII and CO ro-vibrational line heating/cooling relevant for the high-density gas close to the star, and apply a modified escape probability treatment. The models are characterized by a high degree of consistency between the various physical, chemical and radiative processes, where the mutual feedbacks are solved iteratively. In application to a T Tauri disk extending from 0.5AU to 500AU, the models are featured by a puffed-up inner rim and show that the dense, shielded and cold midplane (z/r<0.1, Tg~Td) is surrounded by a layer of hot (5000K) and thin (10^7 to 10^8 cm^-3) atomic ga...

  10. Viscous Instability Triggered by Layered Accretion in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Layered accretion is one of the inevitable ingredients in protoplanetary disks when disk turbulence is excited by magnetorotational instabilities (MRIs). In the accretion, disk surfaces where MRIs fully operate have a high value of disk accretion rate ($\\dot{M}$), while the disk midplane where MRIs are generally quenched ends up with a low value of $\\dot{M}$. Significant progress on understanding MRIs has recently been made by a number of dedicated MHD simulations, which requires improvement of the classical treatment of $\\alpha$ in 1D disk models. To this end, we obtain a new expression of $\\alpha$ by utilizing an empirical formula that is derived from recent MHD simulations of stratified disks with Ohmic diffusion. It is interesting that this new formulation can be regarded as a general extension of the classical $\\alpha$. Armed with the new $\\alpha$, we perform a linear stability analysis of protoplanetary disks that undergo layered accretion, and find that a viscous instability can occur around the outer ...

  11. Surface Chemistry and Growth of Large Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine; Aikawa, Yuri; Herbst, Eric; Millar, Tom; Widicus Weaver, Susanna; Nomura, Hideko

    Protoplanetary disks are vital objects in star and planet formation, possessing all the material - dust, gas, and ice - which may form a planetary system orbiting the new star. To date, a handful of small and relatively simple molecules have been observed in nearby disks reflecting the limitations of existing telescopes. However, in the era of ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, we expect the molecular inventory of protoplanetary disks to significantly increase. Of particular interest are so-called complex organic molecules (COMs) which are thought to be necessary precursors to molecules important for prebiotic chemistry, such as, amino acids. The formation of COMs remains one of the puzzles of astrochemistry. Under the physical conditions in interstellar and circumstellar environments, COMs do not have efficient gas-phase routes to formation. Instead, they are postulated to form via association reactions on and within ice mantles on the the surfaces of dust grains and released to the gas phase via either thermal desorption (sublimation) or desorpton triggered by the absorption of UV radiation (photodesorption). In this presentation, I will discuss the synthesis of COMs in protoplanetary disks to investigate the potential origin of complex molecules in planetary systems. I will present results from exploratory models of a protoplanetary disk around a low-mass star including a large grain-surface chemical network to model the formation of large complex organic molecules. I will compare the resulting abundances of COMs in the gas phase and in the solid phase with existing observations towards nearby low-mass star-disk systems and comets, respectively. I will also discuss how the formation of COMs is influenced by the birth environment of the young stellar system.

  12. Diffractive telescope for protoplanetary disks study in UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, W.; Koechlin, L.

    2015-12-01

    The direct observation of exoplanetary systems and their environment remains a technological challenge: on the one hand, because of the weak luminosity of objects surrounding the central star, and on the other hand, because of their small size compared to the distance from Earth. The fresnel imager is a concept of space telescope based on focusing by diffraction, developed by our team in Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie (IRAP). Its high photometric dynamics and its low angular resolution make it a competitive candidate. Currently we propose a space mission on board the International Space Station (ISS), observing in the ultraviolet band, in order to validate its capabilities in space and so increase the Technological Readiness Level (TRL), anticipating a larger mission in the future. To reach this goal, we have to provide some evolutions, like improving the design of Fresnel arrays or conceive a new chromatism corrector. This paper presents the evolutions for the ISS prototype and its possible applications like protoplanetary disks imaging.

  13. Migration of anticyclonic vortices in the protoplanetary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Surville, Clément

    2012-01-01

    This contribution describes the evolution of the protoplanetary disk using 2D numerical simulations. The 2D Euler equations are solved with the finite volume method. The numerical simulations are used to study the persistence and migration of anticyclonic vortices. Two cases are presented : (1) vortices produced by a Rossby wave instability, (2) a non-linear vortex model initially implemented into the disk. The migration of the vortices is due to spiral density waves excited by the vortex in the gas of the disk

  14. A numerical study of self-gravitating protoplanetary disks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazem Faghei

    2012-01-01

    The effect of self-gravity on protoplanetary disks is investigated.The mechanisms of angular momentum transport and energy dissipation are assumed to be the viscosity due to turbulence in the accretion disk.The energy equation is considered in a situation where the released energy by viscosity dissipation is balanced with cooling processes.The viscosity is obtained by equality of dissipation and cooling functions,and is used to derive the angular momentum equation.The cooling rate of the flow is calculated by a prescription,du/dt =-u/τcool,where u and τcool are the internal energy and cooling timescale,respectively.The ratio of local cooling to dynamical timescales Ωτcool is assumed to be a constant and also a function of the local temperature.The solutions for protoplanetary disks show that in the case of Ωτcool =constant,the disk does not exhibit any gravitational instability over small radii for a typical mass accretion rate,M =10-6M☉ yr-1,but when choosing Ωτcool to be a function of temperature,gravitational instability can occur for this value of mass accretion rate or even less in small radii.Also,by studying the viscosity parameter α,we find that the strength of turbulence in the inner part of self-gravitating protoplanetary disks is very low.These results are qualitatively consistent with direct numerical simulations of protoplanetary disks.Also,in the case of cooling with temperature dependence,the effect of physical parameters on the structure of the disk is investigated.These solutions demonstrate that disk thickness and the Toomre parameter decrease by adding the ratio of disk mass to central object mass.However,the disk thickness and the Toomre parameter increase by adding mass accretion rate.Furthermore,for typical input parameters such as mass accretion rate 10-6M☉ yr-1,the ratio of the specific heat γ =5/3 and the ratio of disk mass to central object mass q =0.1,gravitational instability can occur over the whole radius of the disk

  15. A Dwarf Protoplanetary Disk around XZ Tau B

    CERN Document Server

    Osorio, Mayra; Anglada, Guillem; Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos; Galvan-Madrid, Roberto; Zapata, Luis; Calvet, Nuria; Gomez, Jose F; Nagel, Erick; Rodriguez, Luis F; Torrelles, Jose M; Zhu, Zhaohuan

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a dwarf protoplanetary disk around the star XZ Tau B that shows all the features of a classical transitional disk but on a much smaller scale. The disk has been imaged with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), revealing that its dust emission has a quite small radius of ~ 3.4 au and presents a central cavity of ~ 1.3 au in radius that we attribute to clearing by a compact system of orbiting (proto)planets. Given the very small radii involved, evolution is expected to be much faster in this disk (observable changes in a few months) than in classical disks (observable changes requiring decades) and easy to monitor with observations in the near future. From our modeling we estimate that the mass of the disk is large enough to form a compact planetary system.

  16. Protoplanetary Disks in Multiple Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert J.

    Most stars are born in multiple systems, so the presence of a stellar companion may commonly influence planet formation. Theory indicates that companions may inhibit planet formation in two ways. First, dynamical interactions can tidally truncate circumstellar disks. Truncation reduces disk lifetimes and masses, leaving less time and material for planet formation. Second, these interactions might reduce grain-coagulation efficiency, slowing planet formation in its earliest stages. I present three observational studies investigating these issues. First is a spatially resolved Submillimeter Array (SMA) census of disks in young multiple systems in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region to study their bulk properties. With this survey, I confirmed that disk lifetimes are preferentially decreased in multiples: single stars have detectable millimeter-wave continuum emission twice as often as components of multiples. I also verified that millimeter luminosity (proportional to disk mass) declines with decreasing stellar separation. Furthermore, by measuring resolved-disk radii, I quantitatively tested tidal-truncation theories: results were mixed, with a few disks much larger than expected. I then switch focus to the grain-growth properties of disks in multiple star systems. By combining SMA, Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA), and Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the circumbinary disk in the UZ Tau quadruple system, I detected radial variations in the grain-size distribution: large particles preferentially inhabit the inner disk. Detections of these theoretically predicted variations have been rare. I related this to models of grain coagulation in gas disks and find that our results are consistent with growth limited by radial drift. I then present a study of grain growth in the disks of the AS 205 and UX Tau multiple systems. By combining SMA, Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), and VLA observations, I detected radial

  17. Hydrocarbon Emission Rings in Protoplanetary Disks Induced by Dust Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Edwin A.; Du, Fujun; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Blake, G. A.; Schwarz, K.; Visser, R.; Zhang, K.

    2016-11-01

    We report observations of resolved C2H emission rings within the gas-rich protoplanetary disks of TW Hya and DM Tau using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. In each case the emission ring is found to arise at the edge of the observable disk of millimeter-sized grains (pebbles) traced by submillimeter-wave continuum emission. In addition, we detect a C3H2 emission ring with an identical spatial distribution to C2H in the TW Hya disk. This suggests that these are hydrocarbon rings (i.e., not limited to C2H). Using a detailed thermo-chemical model we show that reproducing the emission from C2H requires a strong UV field and C/O > 1 in the upper disk atmosphere and outer disk, beyond the edge of the pebble disk. This naturally arises in a disk where the ice-coated dust mass is spatially stratified due to the combined effects of coagulation, gravitational settling and drift. This stratification causes the disk surface and outer disk to have a greater permeability to UV photons. Furthermore the concentration of ices that transport key volatile carriers of oxygen and carbon in the midplane, along with photochemical erosion of CO, leads to an elemental C/O ratio that exceeds unity in the UV-dominated disk. Thus the motions of the grains, and not the gas, lead to a rich hydrocarbon chemistry in disk surface layers and in the outer disk midplane.

  18. Protoplanetary Disk Structure With Grain Evolution: the ANDES Model

    CERN Document Server

    Akimkin, V; Wiebe, D; Semenov, D; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya; Vasyunin, A; Birnstiel, T; Henning, Th

    2013-01-01

    We present a self-consistent model of a protoplanetary disk: 'ANDES' ('AccretioN disk with Dust Evolution and Sedimentation'). ANDES is based on a flexible and extendable modular structure that includes 1) a 1+1D frequency-dependent continuum radiative transfer module, 2) a module to calculate the chemical evolution using an extended gas-grain network with UV/X-ray-driven processes surface reactions, 3) a module to calculate the gas thermal energy balance, and 4) a 1+1D module that simulates dust grain evolution. For the first time, grain evolution and time-dependent molecular chemistry are included in a protoplanetary disk model. We find that grain growth and sedimentation of large grains to the disk midplane lead to a dust-depleted atmosphere. Consequently, dust and gas temperatures become higher in the inner disk (R 50 AU), in comparison with the disk model with pristine dust. The response of disk chemical structure to the dust growth and sedimentation is twofold. First, due to higher transparency a partl...

  19. Are cosmic rays effective for ionization of protoplanetary disks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolginov, Arkady Z.; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1994-01-01

    The principal uncertainty in studying the magnetic properties of protoplanetary disks concerns the ionization levels of the disk's gas. The low gas temperature precludes thermal ionization, leaving cosmic rays as the dominant source of ionization. It has been shown that the resulting electrical conductivity is just high enough for a MHD dynamo to produce contemporaneously a magnetic field in most of the extended parts of a turbulent protoplanetary disk. Here we argue that the effectiveness of cosmic rays to ionize the bulk of the gas is impaired by the influence of the generated magnetic field on the propagation of cosmic rays within a disk. Cosmic rays scatter on magnetic inhomogeneities, and, as a result, their penetration depth decreases to only a fraction of the disk half-thickness, resulting in a severe depletion of free charge from the midplane regions of a disk. That, in turn, undercuts the dynamo mechanism, so extended parts of the disk are free from a dynamically significant magnetic field. We also point out that any additional, even small, in situ source of ionization, such as radioactive Al-26, may again make a dynamo a viable regeneration process capable of producing a dynamically important magnetic field.

  20. The snowline in the protoplanetary disk and extrasolar planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Jian; Yao, Zhen; Ding, Wen-Bo

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the behavior of the snowline in a protoplanetary disk and the relationship between the radius of the snowline and properties of molecular cloud cores. In our disk model, we consider mass influx from the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud core, irradiation from the central star, and thermal radiation from the ambient molecular cloud gas. As the protoplanetary disk evolves, the radius of the snowline increases first to a maximum value R max, and then decreases in the late stage of evolution of the protoplanetary disk. The value of R max is dependent on the properties of molecular cloud cores (mass M core, angular velocity ω and temperature T core). Many previous works found that solid material tends to accumulate at the location of the snowline, which suggests that the snowline is the preferred location for giant planet formation. With these conclusions, we compare the values of R max with semimajor axes of giant planets in extrasolar systems, and find that R max may provide an upper limit for the locations of the formation of giant planets which are formed by the core accretion model.

  1. TOWARD A GLOBAL EVOLUTIONARY MODEL OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue-Ning, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    A global picture of the evolution  of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is key to understanding almost every aspect of planet formation, where standard α-disk models have been continually employed for their simplicity. In the meantime, disk mass loss has been conventionally attributed to photoevaporation, which controls disk dispersal. However, a paradigm shift toward accretion driven by magnetized disk winds has taken place in recent years, thanks to studies of non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects in PPDs. I present a framework of global PPD evolution aiming to incorporate these advances, highlighting the role of wind-driven accretion and wind mass loss. Disk evolution is found to be largely dominated by wind-driven processes, and viscous spreading is suppressed. The timescale of disk evolution is controlled primarily by the amount of external magnetic flux threading the disks, and how rapidly the disk loses the flux. Rapid disk dispersal can be achieved if the disk is able to hold most of its magnetic flux during the evolution. In addition, because wind launching requires a sufficient level of ionization at the disk surface (mainly via external far-UV (FUV) radiation), wind kinematics is also affected by the FUV penetration depth and disk geometry. For a typical disk lifetime of a few million years, the disk loses approximately the same amount of mass through the wind as through accretion onto the protostar, and most of the wind mass loss proceeds from the outer disk via a slow wind. Fractional wind mass loss increases with increasing disk lifetime. Significant wind mass loss likely substantially enhances the dust-to-gas mass ratio and promotes planet formation.

  2. The innermost astronomical unit of protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kluska, J; Benisty, M

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar disks around young stars are the birthsites of planets. It is thus fundamental to study the disks in which they form, their structure and the physical conditions therein. The first astronomical unit is of great interest because this is where the terrestrial-planets form and the angular momentum is controled via massloss through winds/jets. With its milli-arcsecond resolution, optical interferometry is the only technic able to spatially resolve the first few astronomical units of the disk. In this review, we will present a broad overview of studies of young stellar objects with interferometry, and discuss prospects for the future.

  3. On the Likelihood of Supernova Enrichment of Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jonathan P.; Gaidos, Eric

    2007-07-01

    We estimate the likelihood of direct injection of supernova ejecta into protoplanetary disks using a model in which the number of stars with disks decreases linearly with time, and clusters expand linearly with time such that their surface density is independent of stellar number. The similarity of disk dissipation and main-sequence lifetimes implies that the typical supernova progenitor is very massive, ~75-100 Msolar. Such massive stars are found only in clusters with >~104 members. Moreover, there is only a small region around a supernova within which disks can survive the blast yet be enriched to the level observed in the solar system. These two factors limit the overall likelihood of supernova enrichment of a protoplanetary disk to radionucleides in meteorites is to be explained in this way, however, the solar system most likely formed in one of the largest clusters in the Galaxy, more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than Orion, where multiple supernovae impacted many disks in a short period of time.

  4. PROTOPLANETARY DISK STRUCTURE WITH GRAIN EVOLUTION: THE ANDES MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimkin, V.; Wiebe, D.; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya. [Institute of Astronomy of the RAS, Pyatnitskaya str. 48, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhukovska, S.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Vasyunin, A. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Virginia, VA (United States); Birnstiel, T., E-mail: akimkin@inasan.ru, E-mail: dwiebe@inasan.ru, E-mail: pavyar@inasan.ru, E-mail: zhukovska@mpia.de, E-mail: semenov@mpia.de, E-mail: henning@mpia.de, E-mail: anton.vasyunin@gmail.com, E-mail: tbirnstiel@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-03-20

    We present a self-consistent model of a protoplanetary disk: 'ANDES' ('AccretioN disk with Dust Evolution and Sedimentation'). ANDES is based on a flexible and extendable modular structure that includes (1) a 1+1D frequency-dependent continuum radiative transfer module, (2) a module to calculate the chemical evolution using an extended gas-grain network with UV/X-ray-driven processes and surface reactions, (3) a module to calculate the gas thermal energy balance, and (4) a 1+1D module that simulates dust grain evolution. For the first time, grain evolution and time-dependent molecular chemistry are included in a protoplanetary disk model. We find that grain growth and sedimentation of large grains onto the disk midplane lead to a dust-depleted atmosphere. Consequently, dust and gas temperatures become higher in the inner disk (R {approx}< 50 AU) and lower in the outer disk (R {approx}> 50 AU), in comparison with the disk model with pristine dust. The response of disk chemical structure to the dust growth and sedimentation is twofold. First, due to higher transparency a partly UV-shielded molecular layer is shifted closer to the dense midplane. Second, the presence of big grains in the disk midplane delays the freeze-out of volatile gas-phase species such as CO there, while in adjacent upper layers the depletion is still effective. Molecular concentrations and thus column densities of many species are enhanced in the disk model with dust evolution, e.g., CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}CN, HNO, H{sub 2}O, HCOOH, HCN, and CO. We also show that time-dependent chemistry is important for a proper description of gas thermal balance.

  5. Observations of Solids in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the state of research that employs astronomical (remote sensing) observations of solids ("dust") in young circumstellar disks to learn about planet formation. The intention is for it to serve as an accessible, introductory, pedagogical resource for junior scientists interested in the subject. After some historical background and a basic observational primer, the focus is shifted to the three fundamental topics that broadly define the field: (1) demographics -- the relationships between disk properties and the characteristics of their environments and hosts; (2) structure -- the spatial distribution of disk material and its associated physical conditions and composition; and (3) evolution -- the signposts of key changes in disk properties, including the growth and migration of solids and the impact of dynamical interactions with young planetary systems. Based on the state of the art results in these areas, suggestions are made for potentially fruitful lines of work in the near future.

  6. Vortex generation in protoplanetary disks with an embedded giant planet

    CERN Document Server

    de Val-Borro, M; D'Angelo, G; Peplinski, A

    2007-01-01

    Vortices in protoplanetary disks can capture solid particles and form planetary cores within shorter timescales than those involved in the standard core-accretion model. We investigate vortex generation in thin unmagnetized protoplanetary disks with an embedded giant planet with planet to star mass ratio $10^{-4}$ and $10^{-3}$. Two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of a protoplanetary disk with a planet are performed using two different numerical methods. The results of the non-linear simulations are compared with a time-resolved modal analysis of the azimuthally averaged surface density profiles using linear perturbation theory. Finite-difference methods implemented in polar coordinates generate vortices moving along the gap created by Neptune-mass to Jupiter-mass planets. The modal analysis shows that unstable modes are generated with growth rate of order $0.3 \\Omega_K$ for azimuthal numbers m=4,5,6, where $\\Omega_K$ is the local Keplerian frequency. Shock-capturing Cartesian-grid codes do not generat...

  7. Disk Winds Driven by Magnetorotational Instability and Dispersal of Proto-Planetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, T K

    2008-01-01

    By performing local three-dimensional MHD simulations of stratified accretion disks, we investigate disk winds driven by MHD turbulence. Initially given weak vertical magnetic fields are effectively amplified by magnetorotational instability and winding due to differential rotation. Large scale channel flows develop most effectively at 1.5 - 2 times the scale heights where the magnetic pressure is comparable to but slightly smaller than the gas pressure. The breakup of these channel flows drives structured disk winds by transporting the Poynting flux to the gas. These features are universally observed in the simulations of various initial fields. This disk wind process should play an essential role in the dynamical evaporation of proto-planetary disks. The breakup of channel flows also excites the momentum fluxes associated with Alfvenic and (magneto-)sonic waves toward the mid-plane, which possibly contribute to the sedimentation of small dust grains in protoplanetary disks.

  8. Non-LTE Infrared Emission from Protoplanetary Disk Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, A.; Blake, G.

    2011-05-01

    Accurately characterizing protoplanetary disks (proplyds) is integral to understanding the formation and evolution of planetary systems. The chemical reactions and physical processes within a disk determine the abundances and variety of molecular building blocks available for planet formation. Observations at infrared to millimeter wavelengths confirm a plethora of organic molecules exist in proplyds, including H2O, OH, HCN, C2H2, CO, and CO2 (Carr & Najita, 2008; Pontoppidan et al., 2010). These molecules not only provide the solid material for ice+rock planetary cores, their line emission dominates the thermal balance in the disk and provides robust signatures to examine the dynamical evolution of protoplanetary environments. Thus, it is critical to understand molecular abundance profiles in disks and the processes that affect them. We aim to model molecular excitation in a sample of proplyds and thereby verify certain disk properties. Densities in the warm molecular layers of a disk are insufficient to ensure the conditions for local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), so the state of the gas must be computed precisely. We utilize a radiative transfer code to model the radiation field in the disk, coupled with an escape probability code to determine the excitation of a given molecule, to derive the non-LTE level populations. We then utilize a raytracer to generate spectral image cubes covering the entire disk. We will present results for CO, whose relatively stable abundance and strong emission features provide a good foundation from which we can further constrain the parameters of a disk. Using infrared spectra from the NIRSPEC instrument on the Keck Telescope, we constrain column densities, temperatures, and emitting radii for a suite of nearby proplyds.

  9. Migration and Growth of Protoplanetary Embryos I: Convergence of Embryos in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaojia; Lin, Douglas N C; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    According to the core-accretion scenario, planets form in protostellar disks through the condensation of dust, coagulation of planetesimals, and emergence of protoplanetary embryos. At a few AU in a minimum mass nebula, embryos' growth is quenched by dynamical isolation due to the depletion of planetesimals in their feeding zone. However, embryos with masses ($M_p$) in the range of a few Earth masses ($M_\\oplus$) migrate toward a transition radius between the inner viscously heated and outer irradiated regions of their natal disk. Their limiting isolation mass increases with the planetesimals surface density. When $M_p > 10 M_\\oplus$, embryos efficiently accrete gas and evolve into cores of gas giants. We use numerical simulation to show that, despite streamline interference, convergent embryos essentially retain the strength of non-interacting embryos' Lindblad and corotation torque by their natal disks. In disks with modest surface density (or equivalently accretion rates), embryos capture each other in the...

  10. Formation of Water in the Warm Atmospheres of Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Glassgold, A E; Najita, J R

    2009-01-01

    The gas-phase chemistry of water in protoplanetary disks is analyzed with a model based on X-ray heating and ionization of the disk atmosphere. Several uncertain processes appear to play critical roles in generating the column densities of warm water that are detected from disks at infrared wavelengths. The dominant factors are the reactions that form molecular hydrogen, including formation on warm grains, and the ionization and heating of the atmosphere. All of these can work together to produce a region of high water abundances in the molecular transition layer of the inner disk atmosphere, where atoms are transformed into molecules, the temperature drops from thousands to hundreds of Kelvins, and the ionization begins to be dominated by the heavy elements. Grain formation of molecular hydrogen and mechanical heating of the atmosphere can play important roles in this region and directly affect the amount of warm water in protoplanetary disk atmospheres. Thus it may be possible to account for the existing me...

  11. On the likelihood of supernova enrichment of protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jonathan P

    2007-01-01

    We estimate the likelihood of direct injection of supernova ejecta into protoplanetary disks using a model in which the number of stars with disks decreases linearly with time, and clusters expand linearly with time such that their surface density is independent of stellar number. The similarity of disk dissipation and main sequence lifetimes implies that the typical supernova progenitor is very massive, ~ 75-100 Msun. Such massive stars are found only in clusters with > 10^4 members. Moreover, there is only a small region around a supernova within which disks can survive the blast yet be enriched to the level observed in the Solar System. These two factors limit the overall likelihood of supernova enrichment of a protoplanetary disk to < 1%. If the presence of short lived radionucleides in meteorites is to be explained in this way, however, the Solar System most likely formed in one of the largest clusters in the Galaxy, more than two orders of magnitude greater than Orion, where multiple supernovae impac...

  12. The Dead Zones of Protoplanetary Disks are Not Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassanzadeh Pedram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that the “dead” zone of a protoplanetary disk fills with robust 3D vortices from a purely hydrodynamic instability. This new instability is not linear and requires a weak finite-amplitude initial perturbation. The instability was not seen previously either due to a lack of numerical spatial resolution, or because many previous simulations either ignored vertical gravity or had initial flows with constant density. Our new finite-amplitude instability is due to a family of previously-unknown critical layers that form in rotating, shearing, vertically stratified flows like those in protoplanetary disks. Initial perturbations of white noise (with Mach numbers much less than unity, waves, or vortices can trigger the instability. A small-volume, small-amplitude initial vortex confined to one part of the disk can fill the disk with vortices by exciting a nearby critical layer. The critical layer produces an intense vortex layer that rolls-up to form vortices with large-amplitudes and volumes. This 1st generation of vortices then sheds waves that excite nearby critical layers, which in turn, create a 2nd generation of vortices with large amplitudes and volumes. The mechanism of exciting nearby critical layers and turning them into large vortices self-similarly, self-replicates until large vortices fill the disk at all radii.

  13. Shadows and spirals in the protoplanetary disk HD 100453

    CERN Document Server

    Benisty, M; Pohl, A; de Boer, J; Lesur, G; Dominik, C; Dullemond, C P; Langlois, M; Min, M; Wagner, K; Henning, T; Juhasz, A; Pinilla, P; Apai, D; van Boekel, R; Garufi, A; Ginski, C; Ménard, F; Pinte, C; Quanz, S P; Zurlo, A; Boccaletti, A; Bonnefoy, M; Beuzit, J L; Chauvin, G; Cudel, M; Desidera, S; Feldt, M; Fontanive, C; Gratton, R; Kasper, M; Lagrange, A -M; LeCoroller, H; Mouillet, D; Mesa, D; Sissa, E; Vigan, A; Antichi, J; Buey, T; Fusco, T; Gisler, D; Llored, M; Magnard, Y; Moeller-Nilsson, O; Pragt, J; Roelfsema, R; Sauvage, J -F; Wildi, F

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diversity of planets requires to study the morphology and the physical conditions in the protoplanetary disks in which they form. We observed and spatially resolved the disk around the ~10 Myr old protoplanetary disk HD 100453 in polarized scattered light with SPHERE/VLT at optical and near-infrared wavelengths, reaching an angular resolution of ~0.02", and an inner working angle of ~0.09". We detect polarized scattered light up to ~0.42" (~48 au) and detect a cavity, a rim with azimuthal brightness variations and inclined by 38 degrees, two shadows and two symmetric spiral arms. The spiral arms originate near the location of the shadows, close to the semi major axis. We detect a faint spiral-like feature in the SW that can be interpreted as the scattering surface of the bottom side of the disk, if the disk is tidally truncated by the M-dwarf companion currently seen at a projected distance of ~119 au. We construct a radiative transfer model that accounts for the main characteristics of the ...

  14. Hydrocarbon emission rings in protoplanetary disks induced by dust evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Bergin, Edwin A; Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Blake, Geoffrey A; Schwarz, Kamber; Visser, Ruud; Zhang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    We report observations of resolved C2H emission rings within the gas-rich protoplanetary disks of TW Hya and DM Tau using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). In each case the emission ring is found to arise at the edge of the observable disk of mm-sized grains (pebbles) traced by (sub)mm-wave continuum emission. In addition, we detect a C3H2 emission ring with an identical spatial distribution to C2H in the TW Hya disk. This suggests that these are hydrocarbon rings (i.e. not limited to C2H). Using a detailed thermo-chemical model we show that reproducing the emission from C2H requires a strong UV field and C/O > 1 in the upper disk atmosphere and outer disk, beyond the edge of the pebble disk. This naturally arises in a disk where the ice-coated dust mass is spatially stratified due to the combined effects of coagulation, gravitational settling and drift. This stratification causes the disk surface and outer disk to have a greater permeability to UV photons. Furthermore the concentration of ices that ...

  15. Dust Evolution Can Produce Scattered Light Gaps in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Birnstiel, Tilman; Pinilla, Paola; Kama, Mihkel

    2015-01-01

    Recent imaging of protoplanetary disks with high resolution and contrast have revealed a striking variety of substructure. Of particular interest are cases where near-infrared scattered light images show evidence for low-intensity annular "gaps". The origins of such structures are still uncertain, but the interaction of the gas disk with planets is a common interpretation. We study the impact that the evolution of the solid material can have on the observable properties of disks in a simple scenario without any gravitational or hydrodynamical disturbances to the gas disk structure. Even with a smooth and continuous gas density profile, we find that the scattered light emission produced by small dust grains can exhibit ring-like depressions similar to those presented in recent observations. The physical mechanisms responsible for these features rely on the inefficient fragmentation of dust particles. The occurrence and position of the proposed "gap" features depend most strongly on the dust-to-gas ratio, the f...

  16. Spirals in protoplanetary disks from photon travel time

    CERN Document Server

    Kama, M; Heays, A N

    2016-01-01

    Spiral structures are a common feature in scattered-light images of protoplanetary disks, and of great interest as possible tracers of the presence of planets. However, other mechanisms have been put foward to explain them, including self-gravity, disk-envelope interactions, and dead zone boundaries. These mechanisms explain many spirals very well, but are unable to easily account for very loosely wound spirals and single spiral arms. We study the effect of light travel time on the shape of a shadow cast by a clump orbiting close (within ${\\sim}1\\,$au) of the central star, where there can be significant orbital motion during the light travel time from the clump to the outer disk and then to the sky plane. This delay in light rays reaching the sky plane gives rise to a variety of spiral- and arc-shaped shadows, which we describe with a general fitting formula for a flared, inclined disk.

  17. MINERAL PROCESSING BY SHORT CIRCUITS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, Colin P. [Niels Bohr International Academy, Niels Bohr Institute, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Hubbard, Alexander; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Ebel, Denton S. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); D' Alessio, Paola, E-mail: cmcnally@nbi.dk, E-mail: ahubbard@amnh.org, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: debel@amnh.org, E-mail: p.dalessio@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 58089 Morelia, MICH (Mexico)

    2013-04-10

    Meteoritic chondrules were formed in the early solar system by brief heating of silicate dust to melting temperatures. Some highly refractory grains (Type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) also show signs of transient heating. A similar process may occur in other protoplanetary disks, as evidenced by observations of spectra characteristic of crystalline silicates. One possible environment for this process is the turbulent magnetohydrodynamic flow thought to drive accretion in these disks. Such flows generally form thin current sheets, which are sites of magnetic reconnection, and dissipate the magnetic fields amplified by a disk dynamo. We suggest that it is possible to heat precursor grains for chondrules and other high-temperature minerals in current sheets that have been concentrated by our recently described short-circuit instability. We extend our work on this process by including the effects of radiative cooling, taking into account the temperature dependence of the opacity; and by examining current sheet geometry in three-dimensional, global models of magnetorotational instability. We find that temperatures above 1600 K can be reached for favorable parameters that match the ideal global models. This mechanism could provide an efficient means of tapping the gravitational potential energy of the protoplanetary disk to heat grains strongly enough to form high-temperature minerals. The volume-filling nature of turbulent magnetic reconnection is compatible with constraints from chondrule-matrix complementarity, chondrule-chondrule complementarity, the occurrence of igneous rims, and compound chondrules. The same short-circuit mechanism may perform other high-temperature mineral processing in protoplanetary disks such as the production of crystalline silicates and CAIs.

  18. Selections from 2016: Gaps in HL Tau's Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2016, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.Gas Gaps in the Protoplanetary Disk Around the Young Protostar HL TauPublished March 2016The dust (left) and gas (right) emission from HL Tau show that the gaps in its disk match up. [Yen et al. 2016]Main takeaway:At the end of last year, the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array released some of its first data including a spectacular observation of a dusty protoplanetary disk around the young star HL Tau. In this follow-up study, a team led by Hsi-Wei Yen (Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taiwan) analyzed the ALMA data and confirmed the presence of two gaps in the gas of HL Taus disk, at radii of 28 and 69 AU.Why its interesting:The original ALMA image of HL Taus disk suggests the presence of gaps in disk, but scientists werent sure if they were caused by effects like gravitational instabilities or dust clumping, or if the gaps were created by the presence of young planets. Yen and collaborators showed that gaps in the disks gas line up with gaps in its dust, supporting the model in which these gaps have been carved out by newly formed planets.Added intrigue:The evidence for planets in this disk came as a bit of a surprise, since it was originally believed that it takes tens of millions of years to form planets from the dust of protoplanetary disks but HL Tau is only a million years old. These observations therefore suggest that planets start to form much earlier than we thought.CitationHsi-Wei Yen et al 2016 ApJL 820 L25. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/820/2/L25

  19. Investigating FP Tau’s protoplanetary disk structure through modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinjikji, Marah; Espaillat, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    This project presents a study aiming to understand the structure of the protoplanetary disk around FP Tau, a very young, very low mass star in the Taurus star-forming region. We have gathered existing optical, Spitzer, Herschel and submillimeter observations to construct the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FP Tau. We have used the D’Alessio et al (2006) physically self-consistent irradiated accretion disk model including dust settling to model the disk of FP Tau. Using this method, the best fit for the SED of FP Tau is a model that includes a gap located 10-20 AU away from the star. This gap is filled with optically thin dust that separates the optically thick dust in the outer disk from the optically thick dust in the inner disk. These characteristics indicate that FP Tau’s protostellar system is best classified as a pre-transitional disk. Near-infrared interferometry in the K-Band from Willson et al 2016 indicates that FP Tau has a small gap located 10-20 AU from the star, which is consistent with the model we produced, lending further support to the pre-transitional disk interpretation. The most likely explanation for the existence of a gap in the disk is a forming planet.

  20. Cooling Requirements for the Vertical Shear Instability in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Min-Kai

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to understand how cold circumstellar disks accrete onto their central stars. A hydrodynamic mechanism, the vertical shear instability (VSI), offers a means to drive angular momentum transport in cold accretion disks such as protoplanetary disks (PPDs). The VSI is driven by a weak vertical gradient in the disk's orbital motion. In order to grow, the VSI must overcome vertical buoyancy, a strongly stabilizing influence in cold disks, where heating is dominated by external irradiation. Rapid cooling, via radiative losses, reduces the effective buoyancy and allows the VSI to operate. In this paper, we quantify the cooling timescale, $t_c$, needed for growth of the VSI. We perform a linear analysis of the VSI with cooling in vertically global and radially local disk models. For irradiated disks, we find that the VSI is most vigorous for rapid cooling with $t_c < \\Omega_\\mathrm{K}^{-1} h |q| / (\\gamma -1)$ in terms of the Keplerian orbital frequency, $\\Omega_\\mathrm{K}$, the disk's aspect ratio, ...

  1. Searching for Prebiotically Important Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Erika L.; Brown, L. R.; Sudholt, E.

    2012-05-01

    Understanding how prebiotic molecules form and are distributed around young stars is an important step in determining how and where life can form in planetary systems. In general, protoplanetary disks consist of a cold, dense midplane where, beyond the frost line, water and organic molecules will condense onto dust grains as icy coatings. The surface of the disk is exposed to stellar and interstellar radiation, giving rise to a photon-dominated region characterized by ionization and dissociation products. Between these two layers is a warm molecular layer where a rich molecular chemistry is predicted to occur. The warm molecular layer is somewhat protected from ionizing radiation by the dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface region. We present a high-resolution (λ / Δλ 25,000), near-infrared spectroscopic survey of the L-band toward T Tauri star GV Tau N. The data were acquired with the NIRSPEC instrument on the Keck II telescope, located on Mauna Kea, HI. We detected strong HCN absorption lines that we interpret to be located in the warm molecular layer of a nearly edge-on protoplanetary disk. We discuss significant differences in spectra acquired in 2006 and 2010 and implications for the material in the disk of GV Tau N, including rotational temperatures, abundances, and inferred location. This work was supported by the NSF Stellar Astronomy Program (Grant #0908230) and the NASA Exobiology program (NNX11AG44G).

  2. Radiation hydrodynamical models of the inner rim in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Flock, M; Turner, N J; Benisty, M

    2016-01-01

    Many stars host planets orbiting within a few astronomical units (AU). The occurrence rate and distributions of masses and orbits vary greatly with the host stars mass. These close planets origins are a mystery that motivates investigating protoplanetary disks central regions. A key factor governing the conditions near the star is the silicate sublimation front, which largely determines where the starlight is absorbed, and which is often called the inner rim. We present the first radiation hydrodynamical modeling of the sublimation front in the disks around the young intermediate-mass stars called Herbig Ae stars. The models are axisymmetric, and include starlight heating, silicate grains sublimating and condensing to equilibrium at the local, time-dependent temperature and density, and accretion stresses parametrizing the results of MHD magneto-rotational turbulence models. The results compare well with radiation hydrostatic solutions, and prove to be dynamically stable. Passing the model disks into Monte Ca...

  3. Chemistry in protoplanetary disks (short review in Russian)

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, Dmitry A

    2012-01-01

    (English) In this lecture I discuss recent progress in the understanding of the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks that resemble our Solar system during the first ten million years. At the verge of planet formation, strong variations of temperature, density, and radiation intensities in these disks lead to a layered chemical structure. In hot, dilute and heavily irradiated atmosphere only simple radicals, atoms, and atomic ions can survive, formed and destroyed by gas-phase processes. Beneath the atmosphere a partly UV-shielded, warm molecular layer is located, where high-energy radiation drives rich chemistry, both in the gas phase and on dust surfaces. In a cold, dense, dark disk midplane many molecules are frozen out, forming thick icy mantles where surface chemistry is active and where complex (organic) species are synthesized.

  4. On the Outer Edges of Protoplanetary Dust Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Birnstiel, Tilman

    2013-01-01

    The expectation that aerodynamic drag will force the solids in a gas-rich protoplanetary disk to spiral in toward the host star on short timescales is one of the fundamental problems in planet formation theory. The nominal efficiency of this radial drift process is in conflict with observations, suggesting that an empirical calibration of solid transport mechanisms in a disk is highly desirable. However, the fact that both radial drift and grain growth produce a similar particle size segregation in a disk (such that larger particles are preferentially concentrated closer to the star) makes it difficult to disentangle a clear signature of drift alone. We highlight a new approach, by showing that radial drift leaves a distinctive "fingerprint" in the dust surface density profile that is directly accessible to current observational facilities. Using an analytical framework for dust evolution, we demonstrate that the combined effects of drift and (viscous) gas drag naturally produce a sharp outer edge in the dust...

  5. Water vapor in the protoplanetary disk of DG Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Podio, L; Codella, C; Cabrit, S; Nisini, B; Dougados, C; Sandell, G; Williams, J P; Testi, L; Thi, W -F; Woitke, P; Meijerink, R; Spaans, M; Aresu, G; Menard, F; Pinte, C

    2013-01-01

    Water is key in the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of comets and icy/water planets. While high excitation water lines originating in the hot inner disk have been detected in several T Tauri stars (TTSs), water vapor from the outer disk, where most of water ice reservoir is stored, was only reported in the closeby TTS TW Hya. We present spectrally resolved Herschel/HIFI observations of the young TTS DG Tau in the ortho- and para- water ground-state transitions at 557, 1113 GHz. The lines show a narrow double-peaked profile, consistent with an origin in the outer disk, and are ~19-26 times brighter than in TW Hya. In contrast, CO and [C II] lines are dominated by emission from the envelope/outflow, which makes H2O lines a unique tracer of the disk of DG Tau. Disk modeling with the thermo-chemical code ProDiMo indicates that the strong UV field, due to the young age and strong accretion of DG Tau, irradiates a disk upper layer at 10-90 AU from the star, heating it up to temperatures of 600 K...

  6. Consistent dust and gas models for protoplanetary disks. I. Disk shape, dust settling, opacities, and PAHs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woitke, P.; Min, M.; Pinte, C.; Thi, W. -F; Kamp, I.; Rab, C.; Anthonioz, F.; Antonellini, S.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Carmona, A.; Dominik, C.; Dionatos, O.; Greaves, J.; Güdel, M.; Ilee, J. D.; Liebhart, A.; Ménard, F.; Rigon, L.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a set of standard assumptions for the modelling of Class II and III protoplanetary disks, which includes detailed continuum radiative transfer, thermo-chemical modelling of gas and ice, and line radiative transfer from optical to cm wavelengths. The first paper of this series focuses on

  7. Consistent dust and gas models for protoplanetary disks. I. Disk shape, dust settling, opacities, and PAHs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woitke, P.; Min, M.; Pinte, C.; Thi, W. -F; Kamp, I.; Rab, C.; Anthonioz, F.; Antonellini, S.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Carmona, A.; Dominik, C.; Dionatos, O.; Greaves, J.; Güdel, M.; Ilee, J. D.; Liebhart, A.; Ménard, F.; Rigon, L.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a set of standard assumptions for the modelling of Class II and III protoplanetary disks, which includes detailed continuum radiative transfer, thermo-chemical modelling of gas and ice, and line radiative transfer from optical to cm wavelengths. The first paper of this series focuses on t

  8. Radiation thermo-chemical models of protoplanetary disks I. Hydrostatic disk structure and inner rim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woitke, P.; Kamp, I.; Thi, W. -F.

    2009-01-01

    Context. Emission lines from protoplanetary disks originate mainly in the irradiated surface layers, where the gas is generally warmer than the dust. Therefore, interpreting emission lines requires detailed thermo-chemical models, which are essential to converting line observations into understandin

  9. Non-azimuthal linear polarization in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Canovas, H; de Boer, J; Pinte, C; Avenhaus, H; Schreiber, M R

    2015-01-01

    Several studies discussing imaging polarimetry observations of protoplanetary disks use the so-called radial Stokes parameters Q_phi and U_phi to discuss the results. This approach has the advantage of providing a direct measure of the noise in the polarized images under the assumption that the polarization is azimuthal only, i.e., perpendicular to the direction towards the illuminating source. However, a detailed study of the validity of this assumption is currently missing. We aim to test whether departures from azimuthal polarization can naturally be produced by scattering processes in optically thick protoplanetary disks at near infrared wavelengths. We use the radiative transfer code MCFOST to create a generic model of a transition disk using different grain size distributions and dust masses. From these models we generate synthetic polarized images at 2.2\\mum. We find that even for moderate inclinations (e.g., i = 40degr), multiple scattering alone can produce significant (up to ~4.5% of the Q_phi image...

  10. Shadows and spirals in the protoplanetary disk HD 100453

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benisty, M.; Stolker, T.; Pohl, A.; de Boer, J.; Lesur, G.; Dominik, C.; Dullemond, C. P.; Langlois, M.; Min, M.; Wagner, K.; Henning, T.; Juhasz, A.; Pinilla, P.; Facchini, S.; Apai, D.; van Boekel, R.; Garufi, A.; Ginski, C.; Ménard, F.; Pinte, C.; Quanz, S. P.; Zurlo, A.; Boccaletti, A.; Bonnefoy, M.; Beuzit, J. L.; Chauvin, G.; Cudel, M.; Desidera, S.; Feldt, M.; Fontanive, C.; Gratton, R.; Kasper, M.; Lagrange, A.-M.; LeCoroller, H.; Mouillet, D.; Mesa, D.; Sissa, E.; Vigan, A.; Antichi, J.; Buey, T.; Fusco, T.; Gisler, D.; Llored, M.; Magnard, Y.; Moeller-Nilsson, O.; Pragt, J.; Roelfsema, R.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Wildi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Understanding the diversity of planets requires studying the morphology and physical conditions in the protoplanetary disks in which they form. Aims: We aim to study the structure of the 10 Myr old protoplanetary disk HD 100453, to detect features that can trace disk evolution and to understand the mechanisms that drive these features. Methods: We observed HD 100453 in polarized scattered light with VLT/SPHERE at optical (0.6 μm, 0.8 μm) and near-infrared (1.2 μm) wavelengths, reaching an angular resolution of 0.02'', and an inner working angle of 0.09''. Results: We spatially resolve the disk around HD 100453, and detect polarized scattered light up to 0.42'' ( 48 au). We detect a cavity, a rim with azimuthal brightness variations at an inclination of 38° with respect to our line of sight, two shadows and two symmetric spiral arms. The spiral arms originate near the location of the shadows, close to the semi major axis. We detect a faint feature in the SW that can be interpreted as the scattering surface of the bottom side of the disk, if the disk is tidally truncated by the M-dwarf companion currently seen at a projected distance of 119 au. We construct a radiative transfer model that accounts for the main characteristics of the features with an inner and outer disk misaligned by 72°. The azimuthal brightness variations along the rim are well reproduced with the scattering phase function of the model. While spirals can be triggered by the tidal interaction with the companion, the close proximity of the spirals to the shadows suggests that the shadows could also play a role. The change in stellar illumination along the rim induces an azimuthal variation of the scale height that can contribute to the brightness variations. Conclusions: Dark regions in polarized images of transition disks are now detected in a handful of disks and often interpreted as shadows due to a misaligned inner disk. However, the origin of such a misalignment in HD 100453, and

  11. GASPS—A Herschel Survey of Gas and Dust in Protoplanetary Disks: Summary and Initial Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dent, W. R. F.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Williams, J. P.; Menard, F.; Andrews, S.; Ardila, D.; Aresu, G.; Augereau, J.-C.; Navascues, D. Barrado y.; Brittain, S.; Carmona, A.; Ciardi, D.; Danchi, W.; Donaldson, J.; Duchene, G.; Eiroa, C.; Fedele, D.; Grady, C.; de Gregorio-Molsalvo, I.; Howard, C.; Huélamo, N.; Krivov, A.; Lebreton, J.; Liseau, R.; Martin-Zaidi, C.; Mathews, G.; Meeus, G.; Mendigutía, I.; Montesinos, B.; Morales-Calderon, M.; Mora, A.; Nomura, H.; Pantin, E.; Pascucci, I.; Phillips, N.; Pinte, C.; Podio, L.; Ramsay, S. K.; Riaz, B.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Roberge, A.; Sandell, G.; Solano, E.; Tilling, I.; Torrelles, J. M.; Vandenbusche, B.; Vicente, S.; White, G. J.; Woitke, P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a large-scale far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary disk through to young debris disk systems carried out using the ACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. This Open Time Key program, known as GASPS (Gas Survey of Protoplanetary Systems), targeted ~250 young

  12. Zooming in on the formation of protoplanetary disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordlund, Åke; Haugbølle, Troels; Küffmeier, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We use the adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES to model the formation of protoplanetary disks in realistic star formation environments. The resolution scales over up to 29 powers of two ($\\sim$ 9 orders of magnitude) covering a range from outer scales of 40 pc to inner scales of 0.015 AU....... The accretion rate from a 1.5 solar mass envelope peaks near $10^{-4}$ $\\mspy$ about 6 kyr after sink particle formation and then decays approximately exponentially, reaching $10^{-6}$ $\\mspy$ in 100 kyr. The models suggest universal scalings of physical properties with radius during the main accretion phase...

  13. Critical layers and protoplanetary disk turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Umurhan, Orkan M; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N

    2016-01-01

    A linear analysis of the zombie vortex instability is performed in a stratified shearing sheet setting for three model barotropic shear flows: the vorticity step, the shear layer and the asymmetric jet. The examination assumes that both disk-normal gravity and stratification is constant. The aim is to better understand the instability of so-called Z-modes and the subsequent nonlinear self-reproduction process discussed in the literature. We report several results: The instability is the result of a resonant interaction between a Rossby wave and a gravity wave. The associated critical layer is the location where the Doppler shifted frequency of a distant Rossby wave equals the local Brunt-Vaisala frequency. For the shear flow model we confirm the minimum required Rossby number (Ro) for instability to be 0.2. It is also found that the shear layer supports the instability in the limit where stratification vanishes. The zombie vortex instability as well as the Rossby wave instability are examined for the first ti...

  14. Modeling Mid-Infrared Polarization from Protoplanetary Disks and YSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Pantin, Eric; Li, Dan; Telesco, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Imaging polarimetry has demonstrated its potential to map magnetic fields in star formation regions. To interpret high-resolution, mid-infrared (mid-IR) observations obtained with present or forthcoming instruments, such as GTC/CanariCam and SOFIA/HAWC+, we have developed a new package of codes to model mid-IR polarization from protoplanetary disks and YSOs. Based on RADMC-3D and DDSCAT, our package is the first of its kind that takes into account all polarization mechanisms known to be present in the mid-IR, including dichroic absorption, dichroic emission, and scattering. Mid-IR polarization arising from a disk or YSO depends on dust properties (e.g., the size distribution, shape, and composition), magnetic field configurations, and the geometry of the disk and/or envelope, all of which can be customized in our model. We have created synthetic maps of mid-IR linear polarization for a series of fiducial disk and YSO models to compare with observations. In general, we find 1) that emissive polarization arising from aligned dust grains in disk magnetic fields is at the level of a few percent and lower than previous expectations, and 2) that micron-sized dust particles are required to reproduce the observed level of polarization from dust scattering in the mid-IR for a typical Herbig Ae/Be disk. The research was support in part by NSF awards AST -0903672, AST-0908624, and AST-1515331 to CMT.

  15. Protoplanetary disks in the hostile environment of Carina

    CERN Document Server

    Mesa-Delgado, A; Henney, W J; Puzia, T H; Tsamis, Y G

    2016-01-01

    We report the first direct imaging of protoplanetary disks in the star-forming region of Carina, the most distant, massive cluster in which disks have been imaged. Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA), disks are observed around two young stellar objects (YSOs) that are embedded inside evaporating gaseous globules and exhibit jet activity. The disks have an average size of 120 AU and total masses of 30 and 50 M_Jup. Given the measured masses, the minimum timescale required for planet formation (~1-2 Myr) and the average age of the Carina population (~1-4 Myr), it is plausible that young planets are present or their formation is currently ongoing in these disks. The non-detection of millimeter emission above the 4sigma threshold (~7 M_Jup) in the core of the massive cluster Trumpler~14, an area containing previously identified proplyd candidates, suggest evidence for rapid photo-evaporative disk destruction in the cluster's harsh radiation field. This would prevent the formation of gia...

  16. Fragmentation of protoplanetary disks around M-dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Backus, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the conditions required for planet formation via gravitational instability (GI) and protoplanetary disk (PPD) fragmentation around M-dwarfs. Using a suite of 64 SPH simulations with $10^6$ particles, the parameter space of disk mass, temperature, and radius is explored, bracketing reasonable values based on theory and observation. Our model consists of an equilibrium, gaseous, and locally isothermal disk orbiting a central star of mass $M_*=M_{sol}/3$. Disks with a minimum Toomre $Q$ of $Q_{min} \\lesssim 0.9$ will fragment and form gravitationally bound clumps. Some previous literature has found $Q_{min} < 1.3-1.5$ to be sufficient for fragmentation. Increasing disk height tends to stabilize disks, and when incorporated into $Q$ as $Q_{eff}\\propto Q(H/R)^\\alpha$ for $\\alpha=0.18$ is sufficient to predict fragmentation. Some discrepancies in the literature regarding $Q_{crit}$ may be due to different methods of generating initial conditions (ICs). A series of 15 simulations demonstrates that ...

  17. Determining protoplanetary disk gas masses from CO isotopologues line observations

    CERN Document Server

    Miotello, Anna; Kama, Mihkel; Bruderer, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Despite intensive studies of protoplanetary disks, there is still no reliable way to determine their total mass and their surface density distribution, quantities that are crucial for describing both the structure and the evolution of disks up to the formation of planets. The goal of this work is to use less abundant CO isotopologues, whose detection is routine for ALMA, to infer the gas mass of disks. Isotope-selective effects need to be taken into account in the analysis, because they can significantly modify CO isotopologues line intensities. CO isotope-selective photodissociation has been implemented in the physical-chemical code DALI and 800 disk models have been run for a range of disk and stellar parameters. Dust and gas temperature structures have been computed self-consistently, together with a chemical calculation of the main species. Both disk structure and stellar parameters have been investigated. Total fluxes have been ray-traced for different CO isotopologues and for various transitions for dif...

  18. Measuring protoplanetary disk gas surface density profiles with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    McPartland, Jonathan P Williams Conor

    2016-01-01

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams & Best (2014) to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity 13CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, Mgas = 0.048 solar masse, and accretion disk characteristic size Rc = 213au and gradient gamma = 0.39. The same parameters match the C18O 2--1 image and indicates an abundance ratio [13CO]/[C18O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large 13CO 2--1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3-10 Jupiter masses at 150pc, ALMA observations with a resolutio...

  19. An Efficient Monte Carlo Method for Modeling Radiative Transfer in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods have been shown to be effective and versatile in modeling radiative transfer processes to calculate model temperature profiles for protoplanetary disks. Temperatures profiles are important for connecting physical structure to observation and for understanding the conditions for planet formation and migration. However, certain areas of the disk such as the optically thick disk interior are under-sampled, or are of particular interest such as the snow line (where water vapor condenses into ice) and the area surrounding a protoplanet. To improve the sampling, photon packets can be preferentially scattered and reemitted toward the preferred locations at the cost of weighting packet energies to conserve the average energy flux. Here I report on the weighting schemes developed, how they can be applied to various models, and how they affect simulation mechanics and results. We find that improvements in sampling do not always imply similar improvements in temperature accuracies and calculation speeds.

  20. Gas Dynamic Simulations of Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks in Young Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateeva, A. M.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Kaygorodov, P. V.; Sytov, A. Y.

    2012-04-01

    We have carried out 2D and 3D numerical simulations (Kaigorodov et al 2010, Fateeva et al. 2011, Sytov et al. 2011) of accretion processes in binary T Tauri stars (TTSs) DQ Tau, UZ Tau E, V4046 Sgr, GW Ori, RoXs 42C using a finite-difference Roe-Osher-Einfeld TVD scheme. The morphology of the flow pattern for UZ Tau E is shown in Fig. 1 (left panel). The flow structure includes accretion disks surrounding the components, bow-shocks in front of both the components, a shock wave (``bridge'') between the circumstellar accretion disks and a gap containing rarefied gas in the inner part of the protoplanetary disk.

  1. Evolution of protoplanetary disks with dynamo magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1994-01-01

    The notion that planetary systems are formed within dusty disks is certainly not a new one; the modern planet formation paradigm is based on suggestions made by Laplace more than 200 years ago. More recently, the foundations of accretion disk theory where initially developed with this problem in mind, and in the last decade astronomical observations have indicated that many young stars have disks around them. Such observations support the generally accepted model of a viscous Keplerian accretion disk for the early stages of planetary system formation. However, one of the major uncertainties remaining in understanding the dynamical evolution of protoplanetary disks is the mechanism responsible for the transport of angular momentum and subsequent mass accretion through the disk. This is a fundamental piece of the planetary system genesis problem since such mechanisms will determine the environment in which planets are formed. Among the mechanisms suggested for this effect is the Maxwell stress associated with a magnetic field treading the disk. Due to the low internal temperatures through most of the disk, even the question of the existence of a magnetic field must be seriously studied before including magnetic effects in the disk dynamics. On the other hand, from meteoritic evidence it is believed that magnetic fields of significant magnitude existed in the earliest, PP-disk-like, stage of our own solar system's evolution. Hence, the hypothesis that PP disks are magnetized is not made solely on the basis of theory. Previous studies have addressed the problem of the existence of a magnetic field in a steady-state disk and have found that the low conductivity results in a fast diffusion of the magnetic field on timescales much shorter than the evolutionary timescale. Hence the only way for a magnetic field to exist in PP disks for a considerable portion of their lifetimes is for it to be continuously regenerated. In the present work, we present results on the self

  2. An alternative look at the snowline in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kornet, K; Stepinski, T F; Kornet, Kacper; Rozyczka, Michal; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    2004-01-01

    We have calculated an evolution of protoplanetary disk from an extensive set of initial conditions using a time-dependent model capable of simultaneously keeping track of the global evolution of gas and water-ice. A number of simplifications and idealizations allows for an embodiment of gas-particle coupling, coagulation, sedimentation, and evaporation/condensation processes. We have shown that, when the evolution of ice is explicitly included, the location of the snowline has to be calculated directly as the inner edge of the region where ice is present and not as the radius where disk's temperature equals the evaporation temperature of water-ice. The final location of the snowline is set by an interplay between all involved processes and is farther from the star than implied by the location of the evaporation temperature radius. The evolution process naturally leads to an order of magnitude enhancement in surface density of icy material.

  3. Global streaming instability in ring-shaped protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Mir Abbas

    2013-01-01

    We use the Fokker-Planck equation and model the dispersive dynamics of solid particles in annular protoplanetary disks whose gas component is more massive than the particle phase. We model particle--gas interactions as hard sphere collisions, determine the functional form of diffusion coefficients, and show the existence of global unstable modes in the particle phase. These modes have spiral patterns with the azimuthal wavenumber $m=1$ and rotate slowly. We show that in ring-shaped disks, solid particles subject to gas drag never fall into the central star and instabilities occur for particles of all sizes. Therefore, planetesimals and planetary cores can be efficiently produced through the accumulation of smaller objects near the peaks of unstable density waves.

  4. Turbulence in weakly-ionized proto-planetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Flock, M; Klahr, H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the characteristic properties of self-sustained MRI turbulence in low-ionized proto-planetary disks. We study the transition regime between active and dead-zone, performing 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations of stratified disk covering range of magnetic Reynolds number between 2700 5000 with a strength of alpha ~ 0.01. Below Rm < 5000 the MRI starts to decay at the midplane, having Elsasser numbers below one. We find a transition regime between 3300 < Rm < 5000 where the MRI turbulence is still sustained but damped. At around Rm < 3000 the MRI turbulence decays but could reestablished due to the accumulation of toroidal magnetic field or the radial transport of magnetic field from the active region. Below Rm < 3000 the MRI cannot be sustained and is decaying. Here hydro-dynamical motions, like density waves dominate. We observe anti-cyclonic vortices in the transition between dead-zone and active zone.

  5. Fossilized condensation lines in the Solar System protoplanetary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, A; Crida, A; Gounelle, M; Guillot, T; Jacobson, S; Johansen, A; Lambrechts, M; Lega, E

    2015-01-01

    The terrestrial planets and the asteroids dominant in the inner asteroid belt are water poor. However, in the protoplanetary disk the temperature should have decreased below water condensation level well before the disk was photoevaporated. Thus, the global water depletion of the inner Solar System is puzling. We show that, even if the inner disk becomes cold, there cannot be direct condensation of water. This is because the snowline moves towards the Sun more slowly than the gas itself. The appearance of ice in a range of heliocentric distances swept by the snowline can only be due to the radial drift of icy particles from the outer disk. However, if a sufficiently massive planet is present, the radial drift of particles is interrupted, because the disk acquires a superKeplerian rotation just outside of the planetary orbit. From this result, we propose that the precursor of Jupiter achieved about 20 Earth masses when the snowline was still around 3 AU. This effectively fossilized the snowline at that locatio...

  6. Hall Effect–Mediated Magnetic Flux Transport in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M.

    2017-02-01

    The global evolution of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) has recently been shown to be largely controlled by the amount of poloidal magnetic flux threading the disk. The amount of magnetic flux must also coevolve with the disk, as a result of magnetic flux transport, a process that is poorly understood. In weakly ionized gas as in PPDs, magnetic flux is largely frozen in the electron fluid, except when resistivity is large. When the disk is largely laminar, we show that the relative drift between the electrons and ions (the Hall drift), and the ions and neutral fluids (ambipolar drift) can play a dominant role on the transport of magnetic flux. Using two-dimensional simulations that incorporate the Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion (AD) with prescribed diffusivities, we show that when large-scale poloidal field is aligned with disk rotation, the Hall effect rapidly drags magnetic flux inward at the midplane region, while it slowly pushes flux outward above/below the midplane. This leads to a highly radially elongated field configuration as a global manifestation of the Hall-shear instability. This field configuration further promotes rapid outward flux transport by AD at the midplane, leading to instability saturation. In quasi-steady state, magnetic flux is transported outward at approximately the same rate at all heights, and the rate is comparable to the Hall-free case. For anti-aligned field polarity, the Hall effect consistently transports magnetic flux outward, leading to a largely vertical field configuration in the midplane region. The field lines in the upper layer first bend radially inward and then outward to launch a disk wind. Overall, the net rate of outward flux transport is about twice as fast as that of the aligned case. In addition, the rate of flux transport increases with increasing disk magnetization. The absolute rate of transport is sensitive to disk microphysics, which remains to be explored in future studies.

  7. Magnetically Self-regulated Formation of Early Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennebelle, Patrick; Commerçon, Benoît; Chabrier, Gilles; Marchand, Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The formation of protoplanetary disks during the collapse of molecular dense cores is significantly influenced by angular momentum transport, notably by the magnetic torque. In turn, the evolution of the magnetic field is determined by dynamical processes and non-ideal MHD effects such as ambipolar diffusion. Considering simple relations between various timescales characteristic of the magnetized collapse, we derive an expression for the early disk radius, r≃ 18 {au} {({η }{AD}/0.1{{s}})}2/9{({B}z/0.1{{G}})}-4/9{(M/0.1{M}⊙ )}1/3, where M is the total disk plus protostar mass, {η }{AD} is the ambipolar diffusion coefficient, and B z is the magnetic field in the inner part of the core. This is significantly smaller than the disks that would form if angular momentum was conserved. The analytical predictions are confronted against a large sample of 3D, non-ideal MHD collapse calculations covering variations of a factor 100 in core mass, a factor 10 in the level of turbulence, a factor 5 in rotation, and magnetic mass-to-flux over critical mass-to-flux ratios 2 and 5. The disk radius estimates are found to agree with the numerical simulations within less than a factor 2. A striking prediction of our analysis is the weak dependence of circumstellar disk radii upon the various relevant quantities, suggesting weak variations among class-0 disk sizes. In some cases, we note the onset of large spiral arms beyond this radius.

  8. PAHs in protoplanetary disks: emission and X-ray destruction

    CERN Document Server

    Siebenmorgen, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    We study the PAH emission from protoplanetary disks. First, we discuss the dependence of the PAH band ratios on the hardness of the absorbed photons and the temperature of the stars. We show that the photon energy together with a varying degree of the PAH hydrogenation accounts for most of the observed PAH band ratios without the need to change the ionization degree of the molecules. We present an accurate treatment of stochastic heated grains in a vectorized three dimensional Monte Carlo dust radiative transfer code. The program is verified against results using ray tracing techniques. Disk models are presented for T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars. Particular attention is given to the photo-dissociation of the molecules. We consider beside PAH destruction also the survival of the molecules by vertical mixing within the disk. By applying typical X-ray luminosities the model accounts for the low PAH detection probability observed in T Tauri and the high PAH detection statistics found in Herbig Ae disks. Spherical h...

  9. Protoplanetary Disk Masses in the Young NGC 2024 Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Rita K; Eisner, Josh A; Williams, Jonathan P; Meyer, Michael R; Di Francesco, James; Carpenter, John M; Johnstone, Doug

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from a Submillimeter Array survey of the 887 micron continuum emission from the protoplanetary disks around 95 young stars in the young cluster NGC 2024. Emission was detected from 22 infrared sources, with flux densities from ~5 to 330 mJy; upper limits (at 3sigma) for the other 73 sources range from 3 to 24 mJy. For standard assumptions, the corresponding disk masses range from ~0.003 to 0.2Msolar, with upper limits at 0.002--0.01Msolar. The NGC 2024 sample has a slightly more populated tail at the high end of its disk mass distribution compared to other clusters, but without more information on the nature of the sample hosts it remains unclear if this difference is statistically significant or a superficial selection effect. Unlike in the Orion Trapezium, there is no evidence for a disk mass dependence on the (projected) separation from the massive star IRS2b in the NGC 2024 cluster. We suggest that this is due to either the cluster youth or a comparatively weaker photoionizing radia...

  10. Mass measurements in protoplanetary disks from hydrogen deuteride

    CERN Document Server

    McClure, Melissa; Cleeves, Ilse; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Blake, Geoff; Evans, Neal; Green, Joel; Henning, Thomas; Öberg, Karin; Pontoppidan, Klaus; Salyk, Colette

    2016-01-01

    The total gas mass of a protoplanetary disk is a fundamental, but poorly determined, quantity. A new technique \\citep{bergin+13} has been demonstrated to assess directly the bulk molecular gas reservoir of molecular hydrogen using the HD J=1-0 line at 112 $\\mu$m. In this work we present a {\\it Herschel} Space Observatory\\footnote{Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.} survey of six additional T Tauri disks in the HD line. Line emission is detected at $>$3$\\sigma$ significance in two cases: DM Tau and GM Aur. For the other four disks, we establish upper limits to the line flux. Using detailed disk structure and ray tracing models, we calculate the temperature structure and dust mass from modeling the observed spectral energy distributions, and include the effect of UV gas heating to determine the amount of gas required to fit the HD line. The range of gas masses are 1.0-4.7$\\times10^{-2...

  11. Spirals in protoplanetary disks from photon travel time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, M.; Pinilla, P.; Heays, A. N.

    2016-09-01

    Spiral structures are a common feature in scattered-light images of protoplanetary disks, and of great interest as possible tracers of the presence of planets. However, other mechanisms have been put forward to explain them, including self-gravity, disk-envelope interactions, and dead zone boundaries. These mechanisms explain many spirals very well, but are unable to easily account for very loosely wound spirals and single spiral arms. We study the effect of light travel time on the shape of a shadow cast by a clump orbiting close (within ~ 1 au) of the central star, where there can be significant orbital motion during the light travel time from the clump to the outer disk and then to the sky plane. This delay in light rays reaching the sky plane gives rise to a variety of spiral- and arc-shaped shadows, which we describe with a general fitting formula for a flared, inclined disk. The three movies are available at http://www.aanda.org

  12. On the Grain-Modified Magnetic Diffusivities in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Weakly ionized protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are subject to non-ideal-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects including Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion (AD), and the resulting magnetic diffusivities ($\\eta_O, \\eta_H$ and $\\eta_A$) largely control the disk gas dynamics. The presence of grains not only strongly reduces disk ionization fraction, but also modify the scalings of $\\eta_H$ and $\\eta_A$ with magnetic field strength. We derive analytically asymptotic expressions of $\\eta_H$ and $\\eta_A$ in both strong and weak field limits and show that towards strong field, $\\eta_H$ can change sign (at a threshold field strength $B_{\\rm th}$), mimicking a flip of field polarity, and AD is substantially reduced. Applying to PPDs, we find that when small $\\sim0.1$ ($0.01$)$\\mu$m grains are sufficiently abundant [mass ratio $\\sim0.01$ ($10^{-4}$)], $\\eta_H$ can change sign up to $\\sim2-3$ scale heights above midplane at modest field strength (plasma $\\beta\\sim100$) over a wide range of disk radii. Red...

  13. X-ray impact on the protoplanetary disks around T Tauri stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aresu, G; Meijerink, R; Woitke, P; Thi, W -F; Spaans, M

    2010-01-01

    Context: T Tauri stars have X-ray luminosities ranging from $L_{\\rm X} = 10^{28}-10^{32}\\,\\mathrm{erg\\,s^{-1}}$. These luminosities are similar to UV luminosities ($L_{\\rm UV} \\sim 10^{30}-10^{31} \\rm erg\\,s^{-1}$) and therefore X-rays are expected to affect the physics and chemistry of the upper layers of their surrounding protoplanetary disks. Aim: The effects and importance of X-rays on the chemical and hydrostatic structure of protoplanetary disks are investigated, species tracing X-ray irradiation (for $L_{\\rm X} \\geq 10^{29}\\mathrm{erg \\,s^{-1}}$) are identified and predictions for [O\\,{\\sc i}], [C\\,{\\sc ii}] and [N\\,{\\sc ii}] fine structure line fluxes are provided. Methods: We have implemented X-ray physics and chemistry into the chemo-physical disk code ProDiMo. We include Coulomb heating and $\\mathrm{H_2}$ ionization as heating processes and primary and secondary ionization due to X-rays in the chemistry. Results: X-rays heat up the gas causing it to expand in the optically thin surface layers. Neut...

  14. Radiation thermo-chemical models of protoplanetary disks. I. Hydrostatic disk structure and inner rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitke, P.; Kamp, I.; Thi, W.-F.

    2009-07-01

    Context: Emission lines from protoplanetary disks originate mainly in the irradiated surface layers, where the gas is generally warmer than the dust. Therefore, interpreting emission lines requires detailed thermo-chemical models, which are essential to converting line observations into understanding disk physics. Aims: We aim at hydrostatic disk models that are valid from 0.1 AU to 1000 AU to interpret gas emission lines from UV to sub-mm. In particular, our interest lies in interpreting far IR gas emission lines, such as will be observed by the Herschel observatory, related to the Gasps open time key program. This paper introduces a new disk code called ProDiMo. Methods: We combine frequency-dependent 2D dust continuum radiative transfer, kinetic gas-phase and UV photo-chemistry, ice formation, and detailed non-LTE heating & cooling with the consistent calculation of the hydrostatic disk structure. We include Fe ii and CO ro-vibrational line heating/cooling relevant to the high-density gas close to the star, and apply a modified escape-probability treatment. The models are characterised by a high degree of consistency between the various physical, chemical, and radiative processes, where the mutual feedbacks are solved iteratively. Results: In application to a T Tauri disk extending from 0.5 AU to 500 AU, the models show that the dense, shielded and cold midplane (z/r ⪉ 0.1, T g≈ T d) is surrounded by a layer of hot (T g≈ 5000 K) and thin (n ≈10 7 to 10 8 cm-3) atomic gas that extends radially to about 10 AU and vertically up to z/r≈0.5. This layer is predominantly heated by the stellar UV (e.g. PAH-heating) and cools via Fe ii semi-forbidden and Oi 630 nm optical line emission. The dust grains in this “halo” scatter the starlight back onto the disk, which affects the photochemistry. The more distant regions are characterised by a cooler flaring structure. Beyond r ⪆ 100 AU, T g decouples from T d even in the midplane and reaches values of about T

  15. Determining protoplanetary disk gas masses from CO isotopologues line observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotello, A.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kama, M.; Bruderer, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Despite intensive studies of protoplanetary disks, there is still no reliable way to determine their total (gast+dust) mass and their surface density distribution, quantities that are crucial for describing both the structure and the evolution of disks up to the formation of planets. Aims: The goal of this work is to use less-abundant CO isotopologues, such as 13CO, C18O and C17O, detection of which is routine for ALMA, to infer the gas mass of disks. Isotope-selective effects need to be taken into account in the analysis, because they can significantly modify CO isotopologues' line intensities. Methods: CO isotope-selective photodissociation has been implemented in the physical-chemical code DALI (Dust And LInes) and more than 800 disk models have been run for a range of disk and stellar parameters. Dust and gas temperature structures have been computed self-consistently, together with a chemical calculation of the main atomic and molecular species. Both disk structure and stellar parameters have been investigated by varying the parameters in the grid of models. Total fluxes have been ray-traced for different CO isotopologues and for various low J-transitions for different inclinations. Results: A combination of 13CO and C18O total intensities allows inference of the total disk mass, although with non-negligible uncertainties. These can be overcome by employing spatially resolved observations, that is the disk's radial extent and inclination. Comparison with parametric models shows differences at the level of a factor of a few, especially for extremely low and high disk masses. Finally, total line intensities for different CO isotopologue and for various low-J transitions are provided and are fitted to simple formulae. The effects of a lower gas-phase carbon abundance and different gas-to-dust ratios are investigated as well, and comparison with other tracers is made. Conclusions: Disk masses can be determined within a factor of a few by comparing CO

  16. Chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks - the effects of viscous accretion, turbulent mixing and disk winds

    CERN Document Server

    Heinzeller, Dominikus; Walsh, Catherine; Millar, Tom J

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks considering radial viscous accretion, vertical turbulent mixing and vertical disk winds. We study the effects on the disk chemical structure when different models for the formation of molecular hydrogen on dust grains are adopted. Our gas-phase chemistry is extracted from the UMIST Database for Astrochemistry (Rate06) to which we have added detailed gas-grain interactions. We use our chemical model results to generate synthetic near- and mid-infrared LTE line emission spectra and compare these with recent Spitzer observations. Our results show that if H2 formation on warm grains is taken into consideration, the H2O and OH abundances in the disk surface increase significantly. We find the radial accretion flow strongly influences the molecular abundances, with those in the cold midplane layers particularly affected. On the other hand, we show that diffusive turbulent mixing affects the disk chemistry in the warm molecular layers, influencing the line ...

  17. Temperature Fluctuations driven by Magnetorotational Instability in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    McNally, Colin P; Yang, Chao-Chin; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2014-01-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) drives magnetized turbulence in sufficiently ionized regions of protoplanetary disks, leading to mass accretion. The dissipation of the potential energy associated with this accretion determines the thermal structure of accreting regions. Until recently, the heating from the turbulence has only been treated in an azimuthally averaged sense, neglecting local fluctuations. However, magnetized turbulence dissipates its energy intermittently in current sheet structures. We study this intermittent energy dissipation using high resolution numerical models including a treatment of radiative thermal diffusion in an optically thick regime. Our models predict that these turbulent current sheets drive order unity temperature variations even where the MRI is damped strongly by Ohmic resistivity. This implies that the current sheet structures where energy dissipation occurs must be well resolved to correctly capture the flow structure in numerical models. Higher resolutions are requ...

  18. On the aerodynamic redistribution of chondrite components in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Fromang, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    Despite being all roughly of solar composition, primitive meteorites (chondrites) present a diversity in their chemical, isotopic and petrographic properties, and in particular a first-order dichotomy between carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous chondrites. We investigate here analytically the dynamics of their components (chondrules, refractory inclusions, metal/sulfide and matrix grains) in protoplanetary disks prior to their incorporation in chondrite parent bodies. We find the dynamics of the solids, subject to gas drag, to be essentially controlled by the "gas-solid decoupling parameter" $S\\equiv \\textrm{St}/\\alpha$, the ratio of the dimensionless stopping time to the turbulence parameter. The decoupling of the solid particles relative to the gas is significant when $S$ exceeds unity. $S$ is expected to increase with time and heliocentric distance. On the basis of (i) abundance of refractory inclusions (ii) proportion of matrix (iii) lithophile element abundances and (iv) oxygen isotopic composition of chon...

  19. XENON IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK (PPD-Xe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti, K.; Mathew, K. J., E-mail: kattathu.mathew@srs.gov [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    Relationships among solar system Xe components as observed in the solar wind, in planetary atmospheres, and in meteorites are investigated using isotopic correlations. The term PPD-Xe is used for components inferred to have been present in the molecular cloud material that formed the protoplanetary disk (PPD). The evidence of the lack of simple relationships between terrestrial atmospheric Xe and solar or meteoritic components is confirmed. Xe isotopic correlations indicate a heterogeneous PPD composition with variable mixing ratios of the nucleosynthetic component Xe-HL. Solar Xe represents a bulk PPD component, and the isotopic abundances did not change from the time of incorporation into the interior of Mars through times of regolith implantations to the present.

  20. Temperature fluctuations driven by magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, Colin P. [Niels Bohr International Academy, Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Hubbard, Alexander; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Yang, Chao-Chin, E-mail: cmcnally@nbi.dk, E-mail: ahubbard@amnh.org, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: ccyang@astro.lu.se [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-08-10

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) drives magnetized turbulence in sufficiently ionized regions of protoplanetary disks, leading to mass accretion. The dissipation of the potential energy associated with this accretion determines the thermal structure of accreting regions. Until recently, the heating from the turbulence has only been treated in an azimuthally averaged sense, neglecting local fluctuations. However, magnetized turbulence dissipates its energy intermittently in current sheet structures. We study this intermittent energy dissipation using high resolution numerical models including a treatment of radiative thermal diffusion in an optically thick regime. Our models predict that these turbulent current sheets drive order-unity temperature variations even where the MRI is damped strongly by Ohmic resistivity. This implies that the current sheet structures where energy dissipation occurs must be well-resolved to correctly capture the flow structure in numerical models. Higher resolutions are required to resolve energy dissipation than to resolve the magnetic field strength or accretion stresses. The temperature variations are large enough to have major consequences for mineral formation in disks, including melting chondrules, remelting calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, and annealing silicates; and may drive hysteresis: current sheets in MRI active regions could be significantly more conductive than the remainder of the disk.

  1. Compact dust concentration in the MWC 758 protoplanetary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, S; Perez, S; Lyra, W; Roman, P E; Avenhaus, H; Wright, C M; Maddison, S T

    2015-01-01

    The formation of planetesimals requires that primordial dust grains grow from micron- to km-sized bodies. Dust traps caused by gas pressure maxima have been proposed as regions where grains can concentrate and grow fast enough to form planetesimals, before radially migrating onto the star. We report new VLA Ka & Ku observations of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae/Be star MWC 758. The Ka image shows a compact emission region in the outer disk indicating a strong concentration of big dust grains. Tracing smaller grains, archival ALMA data in band 7 continuum shows extended disk emission with an intensity maximum to the north-west of the central star, which matches the VLA clump position. This segregation of grains sizes is expected in the context of dust trapping, where big grains are trapped more easily than smaller grains in gas pressure maxima. We develop a non-axisymmetric parametric model inspired by a steady state vortex solution which reproduces the observations, including the spectral en...

  2. COMPACT DUST CONCENTRATION IN THE MWC 758 PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, S.; Casassus, S.; Perez, S.; Avenhaus, H. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Lyra, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Roman, P. E. [Millenium Nucleus “Protoplanetary Disks in ALMA Early Science,” Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Wright, C. M. [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, UNSW@ADFA, Canberra ACT 2600 (Australia); Maddison, S. T., E-mail: smarino@das.uchile.cl [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2015-11-01

    The formation of planetesimals requires that primordial dust grains grow from micron- to kilometer-sized bodies. Dust traps caused by gas pressure maxima have been proposed as regions where grains can concentrate and grow fast enough to form planetesimals, before radially migrating onto the star. We report new VLA Ka and Ku observations of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae/Be star MWC 758. The Ka image shows a compact emission region in the outer disk, indicating a strong concentration of big dust grains. Tracing smaller grains, archival ALMA data in band 7 continuum shows extended disk emission with an intensity maximum to the northwest of the central star, which matches the VLA clump position. The compactness of the Ka emission is expected in the context of dust trapping, as big grains are trapped more easily than smaller grains in gas pressure maxima. We develop a nonaxisymmetric parametric model inspired by a steady-state vortex solution with parameters adequately selected to reproduce the observations, including the spectral energy distribution. Finally, we compare the radio continuum with SPHERE scattered light data. The ALMA continuum spatially coincides with a spiral-like feature seen in scattered light, while the VLA clump is offset from the scattered light maximum. Moreover, the ALMA map shows a decrement that matches a region devoid of scattered polarized emission. Continuum observations at a different wavelength are necessary to conclude whether the VLA-ALMA difference is an opacity or a real dust segregation.

  3. Coupling Dynamical And Collisional Evolution Of Dust In Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnoz, Sebastien

    2010-10-01

    Gaseous circumstellar disks are rich in dust and are thought to be both accretionaly and dynamically active. Unfortunately large bodies that could be embedded in these disks are still difficult to observe and their putative properties are indirectly inferred from the observable small dust content. It is why constraining the size distribution coupled with dust-dynamics is so critical. Unfortunately, coupling effects such as a realistic time-dependant dynamics, fragmentation and coagulation, has been recognized as numerically challenging and almost no attempt really succeeded with a generic approach. In these disks, the dust dynamics is driven by a variety of processes (gravity, gas drag, radiation pressure..) inducing a size-dependant dynamics, and, at the same time collisional evolution changes the local size distributions. These two effects are intimately coupled because the local dynamics and size-distribution determines the local collision rates, that, in-turn, determines the size-distribution and modifies the particle's dynamics. Here we report on a new algorithm that overcomes these difficulties by using a hybrid approach extending the work of Charnoz & Morbidelli (Icarus, 2004, 2007). We will briefly present the method and focus on gaseous protoplanetary disks either laminar or turbulent (the time dependant transport and dust evolution will be shown) . We will show how the taking into account of a 3D dynamics helps to determine disantengle the dust size-distribution in the disk's photosphere and in the midplane and thus may provide observational signatures of accretion. We will show how the coupling of turbulence with fragmentation may significantly affect the dust/ratio for the smallest bodies. Finally, we will show that an accurate description of the time dependant dynamics of larger dusts (those with Stokes numbers >= 1) may provide a possible path to the formation of bodies larger than the accretion barrier, through accretion in a transitory regime.

  4. PLANET FORMATION IN STELLAR BINARIES. I. PLANETESIMAL DYNAMICS IN MASSIVE PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron, E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    About 20% of exoplanets discovered by radial velocity surveys reside in stellar binaries. To clarify their origin one has to understand the dynamics of planetesimals in protoplanetary disks within binaries. The standard description, accounting for only gas drag and gravity of the companion star, has been challenged recently, as the gravity of the protoplanetary disk was shown to play a crucial role in planetesimal dynamics. An added complication is the tendency of protoplanetary disks in binaries to become eccentric, giving rise to additional excitation of planetesimal eccentricity. Here, for the first time, we analytically explore the secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries such as α Cen and γ Cep under the combined action of (1) gravity of the eccentric protoplanetary disk, (2) perturbations due to the (coplanar) eccentric companion, and (3) gas drag. We derive explicit solutions for the behavior of planetesimal eccentricity e {sub p} in non-precessing disks (and in precessing disks in certain limits). We obtain the analytical form of the distribution of the relative velocities of planetesimals, which is a key input for understanding their collisional evolution. Disk gravity strongly influences relative velocities and tends to push the sizes of planetesimals colliding with comparable objects at the highest speed to small values, ∼1 km. We also find that planetesimals in eccentric protoplanetary disks apsidally aligned with the binary orbit collide at lower relative velocities than in misaligned disks. Our results highlight the decisive role that disk gravity plays in planetesimal dynamics in binaries.

  5. Fossilized condensation lines in the Solar System protoplanetary disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, A.; Bitsch, B.; Crida, A.; Gounelle, M.; Guillot, T.; Jacobson, S.; Johansen, A.; Lambrechts, M.; Lega, E.

    2016-03-01

    The terrestrial planets and the asteroids dominant in the inner asteroid belt are water poor. However, in the protoplanetary disk the temperature should have decreased below water-condensation level well before the disk was photo-evaporated. Thus, the global water depletion of the inner Solar System is puzzling. We show that, even if the inner disk becomes cold, there cannot be direct condensation of water. This is because the snowline moves towards the Sun more slowly than the gas itself. Thus the gas in the vicinity of the snowline always comes from farther out, where it should have already condensed, and therefore it should be dry. The appearance of ice in a range of heliocentric distances swept by the snowline can only be due to the radial drift of icy particles from the outer disk. However, if a planet with a mass larger than 20 Earth mass is present, the radial drift of particles is interrupted, because such a planet gives the disk a super-Keplerian rotation just outside of its own orbit. From this result, we propose that the precursor of Jupiter achieved this threshold mass when the snowline was still around 3 AU. This effectively fossilized the snowline at that location. In fact, even if it cooled later, the disk inside of Jupiter's orbit remained ice-depleted because the flow of icy particles from the outer system was intercepted by the planet. This scenario predicts that planetary systems without giant planets should be much more rich in water in their inner regions than our system. We also show that the inner edge of the planetesimal disk at 0.7 AU, required in terrestrial planet formation models to explain the small mass of Mercury and the absence of planets inside of its orbit, could be due to the silicate condensation line, fossilized at the end of the phase of streaming instability that generated the planetesimal seeds. Thus, when the disk cooled, silicate particles started to drift inwards of 0.7 AU without being sublimated, but they could not be

  6. Phyllosilicate Emission from Protoplanetary Disks: Is the Indirect Detection of Extrasolar Water Possible?

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Melissa A; 10.1089/ast.2008.0316

    2013-01-01

    Phyllosilicates are hydrous minerals formed by interaction between rock and liquid water and are commonly found in meteorites originating in the asteroid belt. Collisions between asteroids contribute to zodiacal dust, which therefore reasonably could include phyllosilicates. Collisions between planetesimals in protoplanetary disks may also produce dust containing phyllosilicates. These minerals possess characteristic emission features in the mid-infrared and could be detectable in extrasolar protoplanetary disks. Here we determine whether phyllosilicates in protoplanetary disks are detectable in the infrared using instruments such as those on board the Spitzer Space Telescope and SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy). We calculate opacities for the phyllosilicates most common in meteorites and compute the emission of radiation from a protoplanetary disk using a 2-layer radiative transfer model. We find that phyllosilicates present at the 3% level lead to observationally significant differen...

  7. On the Evolution of Dust Mineralogy, From Protoplanetary Disks to Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Isa; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Merin, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Mineralogical studies of silicate features emitted by dust grains in protoplanetary disks and Solar System bodies can shed light on the progress of planet formation. The significant fraction of crystalline material in comets, chondritic meteorites and interplanetary dust particles indicates a modification of the almost completely amorphous ISM dust from which they formed. The production of crystalline silicates thus must happen in protoplanetary disks, where dust evolves to build planets and planetesimals. Different scenarios have been proposed, but it is still unclear how and when this happens. This paper presents dust grain mineralogy of a complete sample of protoplanetary disks in the young Serpens cluster. These results are compared to those in the young Taurus region and to sources that have retained their protoplanetary disks in the older Upper Scorpius and Eta Chamaeleontis stellar clusters, using the same analysis technique for all samples. This comparison allows an investigation of the grain mineralo...

  8. Evolution of Coated Grains in Spiral Shocks of Self-Gravitating Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Podolak, M; Quinn, T

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of grains composed of an ice shell surrounding an olivine core as they pass through a spiral shock in a protoplanetary disk. We use published three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of massive self-gravitating protoplanetary disks to extract the thermodynamics of spiral shocks in the region between $10$ and $20$ AU from the central star. As the density wave passes, it heats the grains, causing them to lose their ice shell and resulting in a lowering of the grain opacity. In addition, since grains of different sizes will have slightly different temperatures, there will be a migration of ice from the hotter grains to the cooler ones. The rate of migration depends on the temperature of the background gas, so a grain distribution that is effectively stable for low temperatures, can undergo an irreversible change in opacity if the gas is temporarily heated to above $\\sim 150$\\,K. We find that the opacity can drop more, and at a significantly faster rate throughout the spi...

  9. Millimeter emission from protoplanetary disks : dust, cold gas, and relativistic electrons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salter, Demerese Marie

    2010-01-01

    Star formation occurs when a dense cloud of interstellar gas and dust gravitationally collapses. Rotation during this collapse leads naturally to the formation of a flattened circumstellar disk around the forming star. These disks are additionally known as protoplanetary disks because the orbiting c

  10. Measurements of water surface snow lines in classical protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Blevins, Sandra M; Banzatti, Andrea; Zhang, Ke; Najita, Joan R; Carr, John S; Salyk, Colette; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    We present deep Herschel-PACS spectroscopy of far-infrared water lines from a sample of four protoplanetary disks around solar-mass stars, selected to have strong water emission at mid-infrared wavelengths. By combining the new Herschel spectra with archival Spitzer-IRS spectroscopy, we retrieve a parameterized radial surface water vapor distribution from 0.1-100 AU using two-dimensional dust and line radiative transfer modeling. The surface water distribution is modeled with a step model comprising of a constant inner and outer relative water abundance and a critical radius at which the surface water abundance is allowed to change. We find that the four disks have critical radii of $\\sim 3-11$ AU, at which the surface water abundance decreases by at least 5 orders of magnitude. The measured values for the critical radius are consistently smaller than the location of the surface snow line, as predicted by the observed spectral energy distribution. This suggests that the sharp drop-off of the surface water abu...

  11. Zoom-Simulations of Protoplanetary Disks starting from GMC scales

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffmeier, Michael; Nordlund, Åke

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the formation of protoplanetary disks around nine solar mass stars formed in the context of a 40 pc Giant Molecular Cloud model, using \\ramses \\ adaptive-mesh resolution simulations extending over a scale range of about 4 million, from an outer scale of 40 pc to a smallest cell size of 2 AU. Our most important qualitative result is that the accretion process is heterogeneous in multiple ways; in time, in space, and among protostars of otherwise similar mass. Accretion is heterogeneous in time, in the sense that accretion rates vary in time, with generally decreasing profiles, whose slopes can vary over a wide range, and where accretion can increase again if a protostar enters a region with increased density and low speed. Accretion is heterogeneous in space, because of the distribution of mass in space, with mass approaching the accreting star and disk in filaments and sheets. Finally, accretion is heterogeneous among stars, since the detailed conditions and dynamics in the neighborhood of each...

  12. Water in Protoplanetary Disks: Deuteration and Turbulent Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Furuya, Kenji; Nomura, Hideko; Hersant, Franck; Wakelam, Valentine

    2013-01-01

    We investigate water and deuterated water chemistry in turbulent protoplanetary disks. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking turbulent mixing in vertical direction. Water near the midplane is transported to the disk atmosphere by turbulence and destroyed by photoreactions to produce atomic oxygen, while the atomic oxygen is transported to the midplane and reforms water and/or other molecules. We find that this cycle significantly decreases column densities of water ice at r < 30 AU, where dust temperatures are too high to reform water ice effectively. The radial extent of such region depends on the desorption energy of atomic hydrogen. Our model indicates that water ice could be deficient even outside the sublimation radius. Outside this radius, the cycle decreases the D/H ratio of water ice from 2x10^-2, which is set by the collapsing core model, to 10^-4-10^-2 in 10^6 yr, without significantly decreasing the water ice column density. The resultant D/H ratios depend on the ...

  13. From Birth to Death of Protoplanetary Disks: Modeling Their Formation, Evolution, and Dispersal

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Shigeo S; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z

    2016-01-01

    Formation, evolution, and dispersal processes of protoplanetary disks are investigated and the disk lifetime is estimated. Gravitational collapse of a pre-stellar core forms both a central star and a protoplanetary disk. The central star grows by accretion from the disk, and irradiation by the central star heats up the disk and generates thermal wind, which results in the disk dispersal. We calculate the evolution of protoplanetary disks from their parent pre-stellar cores to dispersal of the disks. We find that the disk lifetimes of typical pre-stellar cores are around 2--4 million years (Myr). A pre-stellar core with high angular momentum forms a larger disk whose lifetime is long, while a disk around a X-ray luminous star has a short lifetime. Integrating the disk lifetimes under various mass and angular velocity of prestellar cores and X-ray luminosities of young stellar objects, we obtain disk fraction at a given stellar age and mean lifetime of the disks. Our model indicates that the mean lifetime of pr...

  14. A SEMI-ANALYTICAL DESCRIPTION FOR THE FORMATION AND GRAVITATIONAL EVOLUTION OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8602 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N., E-mail: takahashi.sanemichi@a.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: inutsuka@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: sanemichi@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: machida.masahiro.018@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2013-06-10

    We investigate the formation process of self-gravitating protoplanetary disks in unmagnetized molecular clouds. The angular momentum is redistributed by the action of gravitational torques in the massive disk during its early formation. We develop a simplified one-dimensional accretion disk model that takes into account the infall of gas from the envelope onto the disk and the transfer of angular momentum in the disk with an effective viscosity. First we evaluate the gas accretion rate from the cloud core onto the disk by approximately estimating the effects of gas pressure and gravity acting on the cloud core. We formulate the effective viscosity as a function of the Toomre Q parameter that measures the local gravitational stability of the rotating thin disk. We use a function for viscosity that changes sensitively with Q when the disk is gravitationally unstable. We find a strong self-regulation mechanism in the disk evolution. During the formation stage of protoplanetary disks, the evolution of the surface density does not depend on the other details of the modeling of effective viscosity, such as the prefactor of the viscosity coefficient. Next, to verify our model, we compare the time evolution of the disk calculated with our formulation with that of three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. The structures of the resultant disks from the one-dimensional accretion disk model agree well with those of the three-dimensional simulations. Our model is a useful tool for the further modeling of chemistry, radiative transfer, and planet formation in protoplanetary disks.

  15. Mid-IR water and silicate relation in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonellini, S.; Bremer, J.; Kamp, I.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Lahuis, F.; Thi, W.-F.; Woitke, P.; Meijerink, R.; Aresu, G.; Spaans, M.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Mid-IR water lines from protoplanetary disks around T Tauri stars have a detection rate of 50%. Models have identified multiple physical properties of disks such as dust-to-gas mass ratio, dust size power law distribution, disk gas mass, disk inner radius, and disk scale height as potential explanations for the current detection rate. Aims: In this study, we aim to break degeneracies through constraints obtained from observations. We search for a connection between mid-IR water line fluxes and the strength of the 10 μm silicate feature. Methods: We analyze observed water line fluxes from three blends at 15.17, 17.22 and 29.85 μm published earlier and compute the 10 μm silicate feature strength from Spitzer spectra to search for possible trends. We use a series of published ProDiMo thermo-chemical models, to explore disk dust and gas properties, and also the effects of different central stars. In addition, we produced two standard models with different dust opacity functions, and one with a parametric prescription for the dust settling. Results: Our series of models that vary properties of the grain size distribution suggest that mid-IR water emission anticorrelates with the strength of the 10 μm silicate feature. The models also show that the increasing stellar bolometric luminosity simultaneously enhance the strength of this dust feature and the water lines fluxes. No correlation is found between the observed mid-IR water lines and the 10 μm silicate strength. Two-thirds of the targets in our sample show crystalline dust features, and the disks are mainly flaring. Our sample shows the same difference in the peak strength between amorphous and crystalline silicates that was noted in earlier studies, but our models do not support this intrinsic difference in silicate peak strength. Individual properties of our models are not able to reproduce the most extreme observations, suggesting that more complex dust properties (e.g., vertically changing) are

  16. Phyllosilicate emission from protoplanetary disks: is the indirect detection of extrasolar water possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Melissa A; Desch, Steven J

    2009-12-01

    Phyllosilicates are hydrous minerals formed by interaction between rock and liquid water, and are commonly found in meteorites that originate in the asteroid belt. Collisions between asteroids contribute to zodiacal dust, which therefore reasonably could include phyllosilicates. Collisions between planetesimals in protoplanetary disks may also produce dust that contains phyllosilicates. These minerals possess characteristic emission features in the mid-infrared and could be detectable in extrasolar protoplanetary disks. We have determined whether phyllosilicates in protoplanetary disks are detectable in the infrared, using instruments such as those on board the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). We calculated opacities for the phyllosilicates most common in meteorites and, using a two-layer radiative transfer model, computed the emission of radiation from a protoplanetary disk. We found that phyllosilicates present at the 3% level lead to observationally significant differences in disk spectra and should therefore be detectable with the use of infrared observations and spectral modeling. Detection of phyllosilicates in a protoplanetary disk would be diagnostic of liquid water in planetesimals in that disk and would demonstrate similarity to our own Solar System. We also discuss use of phyllosilicate emission to test the "water worlds" hypothesis, which proposes that liquid water in planetesimals should correlate with the inventory of short-lived radionuclides in planetary systems, especially (26)Al.

  17. Far-ultraviolet and X-ray irradiated protoplanetary disks : a grid of models I. The disk structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, R.; Aresu, G.; Kamp, I.; Spaans, M.; Thi, W. -F.; Woitke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Planets are thought to eventually form from the mostly gaseous (similar to 99% of the mass) disks around young stars. The density structure and chemical composition of protoplanetary disks are affected by the incident radiation field at optical, far-ultraviolet (FUV), and X-ray wavelengths,

  18. PHOTOPHORESIS IN A DILUTE, OPTICALLY THICK MEDIUM AND DUST MOTION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, Colin P. [Niels Bohr International Academy, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Hubbard, Alexander, E-mail: cmcnally@nbi.dk, E-mail: ahubbard@amnh.org [American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We derive expressions for the photophoretic force on opaque spherical particles in a dilute gas in the optically thick regime where the radiation field is in local thermal equilibrium. Under those conditions, the radiation field has a simple form, leading to well defined analytical approximations for the photophoretic force that also consider both the internal thermal conduction within the particle, and the effects of heat conduction and radiation to the surrounding gas. We derive these results for homogeneous spherical particles; and for the double layered spheres appropriate for modeling solid grains with porous aggregate mantles. Then, as a specific astrophysical application of these general physical results, we explore the parameter space relevant to the photophoresis driven drift of dust in protoplanetary disks. We show that highly porous silicate grains have sufficiently low thermal conductivities that photophoretic effects, such as significant relative velocities between particles with differing porosity or levitation above the midplane, are expected to occur.

  19. Photophoresis in a Dilute, Optically Thick Medium and Dust Motion in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    McNally, Colin P

    2015-01-01

    We derive expressions for the photophoretic force on opaque spherical particles in a dilute gas in the optically thick regime where the radiation field is in local thermal equilibrium. Under those conditions, the radiation field has a simple form, leading to well defined analytical approximations for the photophoretic force that also consider both the internal thermal conduction within the particle, and the effects of heat conduction and radiation to the surrounding gas. We derive these results for homogeneous spherical particles; and for the double layered spheres appropriate for modeling solid grains with porous aggregate mantles. Then, as a specific astrophysical application of these general physical results, we explore the parameter space relevant to the photophoresis driven drift of dust in protoplanetary disks. We show that highly porous silicate grains have sufficiently low thermal conductivities that photophoretic effects, such as significant relative velocities between particles with differing porosi...

  20. Chemistry in Disks X: The Molecular Content of Proto-planetary Disks in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Guilloteau, S; Dutrey, A; Chapillon, E; Wakelam, V; Piétu, V; Di Folco, E; Semenov, D; Henning, Th

    2016-01-01

    (abridged) We used the IRAM 30-m to perform a sensitive wideband survey of 30 protoplanetary disks in the Taurus Auriga region. We simultaneously observed HCO$^+$(3-2), HCN(3-2), C$_2$H(3-2), CS(5-4), and two transitions of SO. We combine the results with a previous survey which observed $^{13}$CO (2-1), CN(2-1), two o-H$_2$CO lines and one of SO. We use available interferometric data to derive excitation temperatures of CN and C$_2$H in several sources. We determine characteristic sizes of the gas disks and column densities of all molecules using a parametric power-law disk model. Our study is mostly sensitive to molecules at 200-400 au from the stars. We compare the derived column densities to the predictions of an extensive gas-grain chemical disk model, under conditions representative of T Tauri disks. This survey provides 20 new detections of HCO$^+$ in disks, 18 in HCN, 11 in C$_2$H, 8 in CS and 4 in SO. HCO$^+$ is detected in almost all sources, and its J=3-2 line is essentially optically thick, provid...

  1. Submillimeter Polarization Observation of the Protoplanetary Disk around HD 142527

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake; Nagai, Hiroshi; Muto, Takayuki; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Pohl, Adriana; Fukagawa, Misato; Shibai, Hiroshi; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Murakawa, Koji

    2016-11-01

    We present the polarization observations toward the circumstellar disk around HD 142527 by using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at the frequency of 343 GHz. The beam size is 0.″51 × 0.″44, which corresponds to the spatial resolution of ∼71 × 62 au. The polarized intensity displays a ring-like structure with a peak located on the east side with a polarization fraction of P = 3.26 ± 0.02%, which is different from the peak of the continuum emission from the northeast region. The polarized intensity is significantly weaker at the peak of the continuum where P = 0.220 ± 0.010%. The polarization vectors are in the radial direction in the main ring of the polarized intensity, while there are two regions outside at the northwest and northeast areas where the vectors are in the azimuthal direction. If the polarization vectors represent the magnetic field morphology, the polarization vectors indicate the toroidal magnetic field configuration on the main ring and the poloidal fields outside. On the other hand, the flip of the polarization vectors is predicted by the self-scattering of thermal dust emission due to the change of the direction of thermal radiation flux. Therefore, we conclude that self-scattering of thermal dust emission plays a major role in producing polarization at millimeter wavelengths in this protoplanetary disk. Also, this puts a constraint on the maximum grain size to be approximately 150 μm if we assume compact spherical dust grains.

  2. REEXAMINATION OF INDUCTION HEATING OF PRIMITIVE BODIES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Raymond L.; Roberge, Wayne G., E-mail: menzer@rpi.edu, E-mail: roberw@rpi.edu [New York Center for Astrobiology and Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    We reexamine the unipolar induction mechanism for heating asteroids originally proposed in a classic series of papers by Sonett and collaborators. As originally conceived, induction heating is caused by the 'motional electric field' that appears in the frame of an asteroid immersed in a fully ionized, magnetized solar wind and drives currents through its interior. However, we point out that classical induction heating contains a subtle conceptual error, in consequence of which the electric field inside the asteroid was calculated incorrectly. The problem is that the motional electric field used by Sonett et al. is the electric field in the freely streaming plasma far from the asteroid; in fact, the motional field vanishes at the asteroid surface for realistic assumptions about the plasma density. In this paper we revisit and improve the induction heating scenario by (1) correcting the conceptual error by self-consistently calculating the electric field in and around the boundary layer at the asteroid-plasma interface; (2) considering weakly ionized plasmas consistent with current ideas about protoplanetary disks; and (3) considering more realistic scenarios that do not require a fully ionized, powerful T Tauri wind in the disk midplane. We present exemplary solutions for two highly idealized flows that show that the interior electric field can either vanish or be comparable to the fields predicted by classical induction depending on the flow geometry. We term the heating driven by these flows 'electrodynamic heating', calculate its upper limits, and compare them to heating produced by short-lived radionuclides.

  3. Global simulations of protoplanetary disks with ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Gressel, Oliver; Nelson, Richard P; McNally, Colin P

    2015-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are believed to accrete onto their central T Tauri star because of magnetic stresses. Recently published shearing box simulations indicate that Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect all play important roles in disk evolution. In the presence of a vertical magnetic field, the disk remains laminar between 1-5au, and a magnetocentrifugal disk wind forms that provides an important mechanism for removing angular momentum. Questions remain, however, about the establishment of a true physical wind solution in the shearing box simulations because of the symmetries inherent in the local approximation. We present global MHD simulations of protoplanetary disks that include Ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion, where the time-dependent gas-phase electron and ion fractions are computed under FUV and X-ray ionization with a simplified recombination chemistry. Our results show that the disk remains laminar, and that a physical wind solution arises naturally in global disk model...

  4. A deeply embedded young protoplanetary disk around L1489 IRS observed by the Submillimeter Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, C.; Crapsi, A.; Jørgensen, J. K.;

    2007-01-01

    aim to identify whether an embedded Keplerian protoplanetary disk resides in the L1489 IRS system. Given the amount of envelope material still present, such a disk would respresent a very young example of a protoplanetary disk. Methods. Using the Submillimeter Array we have observed the HCO + J = 3....... This misalignment of the angular momentum axes may be caused by a gradient within the angular momentum in the parental cloud, or if L1489 IRS is a binary system rather than just a single star. In the latter case, future observations looking for variability at sub-arcsecond scales may be able to constrain...

  5. Thermodynamics of the dead-zone inner edge in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Faure, Julien; Latter, Henrik N

    2014-01-01

    In protoplanetary disks, the inner boundary between the turbulent and laminar regions could be a promising site for planet formation, thanks to the trapping of solids at the boundary itself or in vortices generated by the Rossby wave instability. At the interface, the disk thermodynamics and the turbulent dynamics are entwined because of the importance of turbulent dissipation and thermal ionization. Numerical models of the boundary, however, have neglected the thermodynamics, and thus miss a part of the physics. The aim of this paper is to numerically investigate the interplay between thermodynamics and dynamics in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks by properly accounting for turbulent heating and the dependence of the resistivity on the local temperature. Using the Godunov code RAMSES, we performed a series of 3D global numerical simulations of protoplanetary disks in the cylindrical limit, including turbulent heating and a simple prescription for radiative cooling. We find that waves excited by the ...

  6. Generation of a dynamo magnetic field in a protoplanetary accretion disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T.; Levy, E. H.

    1987-01-01

    A new computational technique is developed that allows realistic calculations of dynamo magnetic field generation in disk geometries corresponding to protoplanetary and protostellar accretion disks. The approach is of sufficient generality to allow, in the future, a wide class of accretion disk problems to be solved. Here, basic modes of a disk dynamo are calculated. Spatially localized oscillatory states are found to occur in Keplerain disks. A physical interpretation is given that argues that spatially localized fields of the type found in these calculations constitute the basic modes of a Keplerian disk dynamo.

  7. Residence Times of Particles in Diffusive Protoplanetary Disk Environments I. Vertical Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Ciesla, Fred J

    2010-01-01

    The chemical and physical evolution of primitive materials in protoplanetary disks are determined by the types of environments they are exposed to and their residence times within each environment. Here a method for calculating representative paths of materials in diffusive protoplanetary disks is developed and applied to understanding how the vertical trajectories that particles take impact their overall evolution. The methods are general enough to be applied to disks with uniform diffusivity, the so-called "constant-$\\alpha$" cases, and disks with a spatially varying diffusivity, such as expected in "layered-disks." The average long-term dynamical evolution of small particles and gaseous molecules is independent of the specific form of the diffusivity in that they spend comparable fractions of their lifetimes at different heights in the disk. However, the paths that individual particles and molecules take depend strongly on the form of the diffusivity leading to a different range of behavior of particles in...

  8. The Distribution of Water in a Viscous Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, F. J.; Cuzzi, J. N.

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of water in the solar nebula is important to understand for a number of reasons. Firstly, in the inner regions of the solar nebula, the concentration of water vapor is expected to have played a major role in determining its oxidation state, and therefore would control which minerals would form there. Secondly, in the outer nebula, water would be a major condensable, making up nearly 50% of the mass of the solids and thus possibly playing a role in determining where giant planets formed. Lastly, liquid water is important for forming and sustaining life, and therefore understanding where and how water was transported to the habitable zone of a a star is critical to understanding how common life may be in the galaxy. Because of its importance, the distribution of water in the solar nebula has been studied by a number of authors. The main transport mechanisms which would determine the distribution of water would be diffusion and gas drag migration. Water vapor and small solids would diffuse in the nebula, moving away from areas of high concentrations. Larger bodies, while also subject to diffusion, though to a lesser extent, would experience gas drag migration, causing them to move inwards with time. The bodies most affected by this transport mechanism would be on the order of 1 meter in size. As objects continued to grow larger, their inertia would also grow, making them nearly immobile to gas drag. While efforts have been made to understand how water would be distributed in a protoplanetary disk, none of the published models simultaneously consider the effects of nebular evolution, transport of material throughout the nebula, and the existence of solids of various sizes at a given location of the nebula. We are currently developing a model which allows for these effects and is consistent with models for the accretion of bodies in the solar nebula.

  9. Consistent dust and gas models for protoplanetary disks. I. Disk shape, dust settling, opacities, and PAHs

    CERN Document Server

    Woitke, P; Pinte, C; Thi, W -F; Kamp, I; Rab, C; Anthonioz, F; Antonellini, S; Baldovin-Saavedra, C; Carmona, A; Dominik, C; Dionatos, O; Greaves, J; Güdel, M; Ilee, J D; Liebhart, A; Ménard, F; Rigon, L; Waters, L B F M; Aresu, G; Meijerink, R; Spaans, M

    2015-01-01

    We propose a set of standard assumptions for the modelling of Class II and III protoplanetary disks, which includes detailed continuum radiative transfer, thermo-chemical modelling of gas and ice, and line radiative transfer from optical to cm wavelengths. We propose new standard dust opacities for disk models, we present a simplified treatment of PAHs sufficient to reproduce the PAH emission features, and we suggest using a simple treatment of dust settling. We roughly adjust parameters to obtain a model that predicts typical Class II T Tauri star continuum and line observations. We systematically study the impact of each model parameter (disk mass, disk extension and shape, dust settling, dust size and opacity, gas/dust ratio, etc.) on all continuum and line observables, in particular on the SED, mm-slope, continuum visibilities, and emission lines including [OI] 63um, high-J CO lines, (sub-)mm CO isotopologue lines, and CO fundamental ro-vibrational lines. We find that evolved dust properties (large grains...

  10. GASPS—A Herschel Survey of Gas and Dust in Protoplanetary Disks: Summary and Initial Statistics : Summary and Initial Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dent, W. R. F.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Williams, J. P.; Menard, F.; Andrews, S.; Ardila, D.; Aresu, G.; Augereau, J. -C.; Barrado y Navascues, D.; Brittain, S.; Carmona, A.; Ciardi, D.; Danchi, W.; Donaldson, J.; Duchene, G.; Eiroa, C.; Fedele, D.; Grady, C.; de Gregorio-Molsalvo, I.; Howard, C.; Huelamo, N.; Krivov, A.; Lebreton, J.; Liseau, R.; Martin-Zaidi, C.; Mathews, G.; Meeus, G.; Mendigutia, I.; Montesinos, B.; Morales-Calderon, M.; Mora, A.; Nomura, H.; Pantin, E.; Pascucci, I.; Phillips, N.; Pinte, C.; Podio, L.; Ramsay, S. K.; Riaz, B.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Roberge, A.; Sandell, G.; Solano, E.; Tilling, I.; Torrelles, J. M.; Vandenbusche, B.; Vicente, S.; White, G. J.; Woitke, P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a large-scale far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary disk through to young debris disk systems carried out using the ACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. This Open Time Key program, known as GASPS (Gas Survey of Protoplanetary Systems), targeted ~250 young

  11. Consistent dust and gas models for protoplanetary disks. I. Disk shape, dust settling, opacities, and PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitke, P.; Min, M.; Pinte, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Kamp, I.; Rab, C.; Anthonioz, F.; Antonellini, S.; Baldovin-Saavedra, C.; Carmona, A.; Dominik, C.; Dionatos, O.; Greaves, J.; Güdel, M.; Ilee, J. D.; Liebhart, A.; Ménard, F.; Rigon, L.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.

    2016-02-01

    We propose a set of standard assumptions for the modelling of Class II and III protoplanetary disks, which includes detailed continuum radiative transfer, thermo-chemical modelling of gas and ice, and line radiative transfer from optical to cm wavelengths. The first paper of this series focuses on the assumptions about the shape of the disk, the dust opacities, dust settling, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In particular, we propose new standard dust opacities for disk models, we present a simplified treatment of PAHs in radiative equilibrium which is sufficient to reproduce the PAH emission features, and we suggest using a simple yet physically justified treatment of dust settling. We roughly adjust parameters to obtain a model that predicts continuum and line observations that resemble typical multi-wavelength continuum and line observations of Class II T Tauri stars. We systematically study the impact of each model parameter (disk mass, disk extension and shape, dust settling, dust size and opacity, gas/dust ratio, etc.) on all mainstream continuum and line observables, in particular on the SED, mm-slope, continuum visibilities, and emission lines including [OI] 63 μm, high-J CO lines, (sub-)mm CO isotopologue lines, and CO fundamental ro-vibrational lines. We find that evolved dust properties, i.e. large grains, often needed to fit the SED, have important consequences for disk chemistry and heating/cooling balance, leading to stronger near- to far-IR emission lines in general. Strong dust settling and missing disk flaring have similar effects on continuum observations, but opposite effects on far-IR gas emission lines. PAH molecules can efficiently shield the gas from stellar UV radiation because of their strong absorption and negligible scattering opacities in comparison to evolved dust. The observable millimetre-slope of the SED can become significantly more gentle in the case of cold disk midplanes, which we find regularly in our T Tauri models

  12. Evidence for Dynamical Changes in a Transitional Protoplanetary Disk with Mid-infrared Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Muzerolle, James; Balog, Zoltan; Furlan, Elise; Smith, Paul S; Allen, Lori; Calvet, Nuria; D'Alessio, Paola; Megeath, S Thomas; Muench, August; Rieke, George H; Sherry, William H

    2009-01-01

    We present multi-epoch Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transitional disk LRLL 31 in the 2-3 Myr-old star forming region IC 348. Our measurements show remarkable mid-infrared variability on timescales as short as one week. The infrared continuum emission exhibits systematic wavelength-dependent changes that suggest corresponding dynamical changes in the inner disk structure and variable shadowing of outer disk material. We propose several possible sources for the structural changes, including a variable accretion rate or a stellar or planetary companion embedded in the disk. Our results indicate that variability studies in the infrared can provide important new constraints on protoplanetary disk behavior.

  13. A "Rosetta Stone" for protoplanetary disks: The synergy of multi-wavelength observations

    CERN Document Server

    Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Carmona, A; Stolker, T; Kama, M; Mendigutía, I; Garufi, A; Flaherty, K; van der Marel, N; Greaves, J

    2016-01-01

    The recent progress in instrumentation and telescope development has brought us different ways to observe protoplanetary disks, including interferometers, space missions, adaptive optics, polarimetry, and time- and spectrally-resolved data. While the new facilities have changed the way we can tackle the existing open problems in disk structure and evolution, there is a substantial lack of interconnection between different observing techniques and their user communities. Here, we explore the complementarity of some of the state-of-the-art observing techniques, and how they can be brought together in a collective effort to understand how disks evolve and disperse at the time of planet formation. This paper was born at the "Protoplanetary Discussions" meeting in Edinburgh, 2016. Its goal is to clarify where multi-wavelength observations of disks converge in unveiling disk structure and evolution, and where they diverge and challenge our current understanding. We discuss caveats that should be considered when lin...

  14. Protoplanetary Disk Heating and Evolution Driven by the Spiral Density Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Rafikov, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution imaging of some protoplanetary disks in scattered light reveals presence of the global spiral arms of significant amplitude, likely excited by massive planets or stellar companions. Assuming that these arms are density waves, evolving into spiral shocks, we assess their effect on the thermodynamics, accretion, and global evolution of the disk. We derive analytical expressions for the direct (irreversible) heating, angular momentum transport, and mass accretion rate induced by the disk shocks of arbitrary strength. We find these processes to be very sensitive to the shock amplitude. Focusing on the waves of moderate strength (density jump at the shock $\\Delta\\Sigma/\\Sigma\\sim 1$) we show the associated disk heating to be negligible (contributing at $\\sim 1\\%$ level to the energy budget) in passive, irradiated protoplanetary disks on $\\sim 100$ AU scales, but becoming important within several AU from the star. At the same time, shock heating can be a significant (or even dominant) energy source ...

  15. Magnetorotational Instability in Protoplanetary Disks; 2, Ionization State and Unstable Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, T; Umebayashi, T; Nakano, T; Sano, Takayoshi; Miyama, Shoken M.; Umebayashi, Toyoharu; Nakano, Takenori

    2000-01-01

    We investigate where in protoplanetary disks magnetorotational instability operates, which can cause angular momentum transport in the disks. We investigate the spatial distribution of various charged particles and the unstable regions for a variety of models for protoplanetary disks taking into account the recombination of ions and electrons at grain surfaces, which is an important process in most parts of the disks. We find that for all the models there is an inner region which is magnetorotationally stable due to ohmic dissipation. This must make the accretion onto the central star non-steady. For the model of the minimum-mass solar nebula, the critical radius, inside of which the disk is stable, is about 20 AU, and the mass accretion rate just outside the critical radius is 10^{-7} - 10^{-6} M_{\\odot} yr^{-1}. The stable region is smaller in a disk of lower column density. Dust grains in protoplanetary disks may grow by mutual sticking and may sediment toward the midplane of the disks. We find that the st...

  16. SHADOWS CAST BY A WARP IN THE HD 142527 PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, S.; Perez, S.; Casassus, S., E-mail: smarino@das.uchile.cl [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D Santiago (Chile)

    2015-01-10

    Detailed observations of gaps in protoplanetary disks have revealed structures that drive current research on circumstellar disks. One such feature is the two intensity nulls seen along the outer disk of the HD 142527 system, which are particularly well traced in polarized differential imaging. Here we propose that these are shadows cast by the inner disk. The inner and outer disk are thick, in terms of the unit-opacity surface in the H band, so that the shape and orientation of the shadows inform on the three-dimensional structure of the system. Radiative transfer predictions on a parametric disk model allow us to conclude that the relative inclination between the inner and outer disks is 70° ± 5°. This finding taps the potential of high-contrast imaging of circumstellar disks, and bears consequences on the gas dynamics of gapped disks, as well as on the physical conditions in the shadowed regions.

  17. An ALMA Survey of CO Isotopologue Emission from Protoplanetary Disks in Chamaeleon I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feng; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Testi, Leonardo; Apai, Daniel; Hendler, Nathan; Henning, Thomas; Manara, Carlo F.; Mulders, Gijs D.

    2017-08-01

    The mass of a protoplanetary disk limits the formation and future growth of any planet. Masses of protoplanetary disks are usually calculated from measurements of the dust continuum emission by assuming an interstellar gas-to-dust ratio. To investigate the utility of CO as an alternate probe of disk mass, we use ALMA to survey 13CO and C18O J = 3-2 line emission from a sample of 93 protoplanetary disks around stars and brown dwarfs with masses from in the nearby Chamaeleon I star-forming region. We detect 13CO emission from 17 sources and C18O from only one source. Gas masses for disks are then estimated by comparing the CO line luminosities to results from published disk models that include CO freeze-out and isotope-selective photodissociation. Under the assumption of a typical interstellar medium CO-to-H2 ratio of 10-4, the resulting gas masses are implausibly low, with an average gas mass of ˜0.05 M Jup as inferred from the average flux of stacked 13CO lines. The low gas masses and gas-to-dust ratios for Cha I disks are both consistent with similar results from disks in the Lupus star-forming region. The faint CO line emission may instead be explained if disks have much higher gas masses, but freeze-out of CO or complex C-bearing molecules is underestimated in disk models. The conversion of CO flux to CO gas mass also suffers from uncertainties in disk structures, which could affect gas temperatures. CO emission lines will only be a good tracer of the disk mass when models for C and CO depletion are confirmed to be accurate.

  18. Inward Radial Mixing of Interstellar Water Ices in the Solar Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, Lionel G.; Marrocchi, Yves; Verdier-Paoletti, Maximilien J.; Villeneuve, Johan; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-08-01

    The very wide diversity of asteroid compositions in the main belt suggests significant material transport in the solar protoplanetary disk and hints at the presence of interstellar ices in hydrated bodies. However, only a few quantitative estimations of the contribution of interstellar ice in the inner solar system have been reported, leading to considerable uncertainty about the extent of radial inward mixing in the solar protoplanetary disk 4.56 Ga ago. We show that the pristine CM chondrite Paris contains primary Ca-carbonates whose O-isotopic compositions require an 8%–35% contribution from interstellar water. The presence of interstellar water in Paris is confirmed by its bulk D/H isotopic composition that shows significant D enrichment (D/H = (167 ± 0.2) × 10‑6) relative to the mean D/H of CM chondrites ((145 ± 3) × 10‑6) and the putative D/H of local CM water ((82 ± 1.5) × 10‑6). These results imply that (i) efficient radial mixing of interstellar ices occurred from the outer zone of the solar protoplanetary disk inward and that (ii) chondrites accreted water ice grains from increasing heliocentric distances in the solar protoplanetary disk.

  19. The effect of dust settling on the appearance of protoplanetary disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullemond, C.P.; Dominik, C.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze how the process of dust settling affects the spectral energy distribution and optical appearance of protoplanetary disks. Using simple analytic estimates on the one hand, and detailed 1+1-D models on the other hand, we show that, while the time scale for settling down to the equator may e

  20. Location and sizes of forsterite grains in protoplanetary disks: Interpretation from the Herschel DIGIT programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Maaskant; B.L. de Vries; M. Min; L.B.F.M. Waters; C. Dominik; F. Molster; A.G.G.M. Tielens

    2015-01-01

    Context. The spectra of protoplanetary disks contain mid- and far- infrared emission features produced by forsterite dust grains. The spectral features contain information about the forsterite temperature, chemical composition and grain size. Aims. We aim to characterize how the 23 and 69 μm feature

  1. The role of OH in the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks : II. Gas-rich environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaparro-Molano, German; Kamp, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. We present a method for including gas extinction of cosmic-ray-generated UV photons in chemical models of the midplane of protoplanetary disks, focusing on its implications on ice formation and chemical evolution. Aims. Our goal is to improve on chemical models by treating cosmic rays, the

  2. The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the solar protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connelly, James Norman; Bizzarro, Martin; Krot, Alexander N.;

    2012-01-01

    Transient heating events that formed calcium-aluminum - rich inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules are fundamental processes in the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk, but their chronology is not understood. Using U-corrected Pb-Pb dating, we determined absolute ages of individual CAIs...

  3. Protoplanetary disk formation and evolution models: DM Tau and GM Aur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Guillot, T.

    2002-09-01

    We study the formation and evolution of protoplanetary disks using an axisymmetric turbulent disk model. We compare model results with observational parameters derived for the DM Tau and GM Aur systems. These are relatively old T Tauri stars with large and massive protoplanetary disks. Early disk formation is studied in the standard scenario of slowly rotating isothermal collapsing spheres and is strongly dependent on the initial angular momentum and the collapse accretion rate. The viscous evolution of the disk is integrated in time using the classical Alpha prescription of turbulence. We follow the temporal evolution of the disks until their characteristics fit the observed characteristics of DM Tau and GM Aur. We therefore obtain the set of model parameters that are able to explain the present state of these disks. We also study the disk evolution under the Beta parameterization of turbulence, recently proposed for sheared flows on protoplanetary disks. Both parameterizations allow explaining the present state of both DM Tau and GM Aur. We infer a value of Alpha between 5x10-3 to 0.02 for DM Tau and one order of magnitude smaller for GM Aur. Values of the Beta parameter are in accordance with theoretical predictions of Beta around 2x10-5 but with a larger dispersion on other model parameters, which make us favor the Alpha parameterization of turbulence. Implications for planetary system development in these systems are presented. In particular, GM Aur is a massive and slowly evolving disk where conditions are very favorable for planetesimal growth. The large value of present disk mass and the relatively small observed accretion rate of this system may also be indicative of the presence of an inner gas giant planet. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by Programme Nationale de Planetologie. R. Hueso acknowledges a post-doctoral fellowship from Gobierno Vasco.

  4. Signatures of Hot Molecular Hydrogen Absorption from Protoplanetary Disks. I. Non-thermal Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Keri; France, Kevin; Arulanantham, Nicole; Parke Loyd, R. O.; Kruczek, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    The environment around protoplanetary disks (PPDs) regulates processes that drive the chemical and structural evolution of circumstellar material. We perform a detailed empirical survey of warm molecular hydrogen (H2) absorption observed against H i-Lyα (Lyα: λ1215.67) emission profiles for 22 PPDs, using archival Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet (UV) spectra to identify H2 absorption signatures and quantify the column densities of H2 ground states in each sightline. We compare thermal equilibrium models of H2 to the observed H2 rovibrational level distributions. We find that, for the majority of targets, there is a clear deviation in high-energy states (T exc ≳ 20,000 K) away from thermal equilibrium populations (T(H2) ≳ 3500 K). We create a metric to estimate the total column density of non-thermal H2 (N(H2)nLTE) and find that the total column densities of thermal (N(H2)) and N(H2)nLTE correlate for transition disks and targets with detectable C iv-pumped H2 fluorescence. We compare N(H2) and N(H2)nLTE to circumstellar observables and find that N(H2)nLTE correlates with X-ray and far-UV luminosities, but no correlations are observed with the luminosities of discrete emission features (e.g., Lyα, C iv). Additionally, N(H2) and N(H2)nLTE are too low to account for the H2 fluorescence observed in PPDs, so we speculate that this H2 may instead be associated with a diffuse, hot, atomic halo surrounding the planet-forming disk. We create a simple photon-pumping model for each target to test this hypothesis and find that Lyα efficiently pumps H2 levels with T exc ≥ 10,000 K out of thermal equilibrium.

  5. Demographics Of Protoplanetary Disks In Nearby Molecular Clouds (A Submm View)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieza, Lucas

    2016-07-01

    Recent observations from ALMA and extreme AO near-IR imagers are revolutionizing our view of disk evolution and planet formation. Resolved disk observations show intriguing features, such as spiral arms, rings, narrow gaps, and asymmetries. These features are often interpreted as evidence for planet formation processes. However, resolved studies have so far been very biased toward the brightest systems and/or transition objects (protoplanetary disks with inner holes and gaps), which are clearly not representative of the entire disk population. Since current statistics on extrasolar planets imply that most circumstellar disks should be forming planets (big or small), it is important to investigate the full distribution of disk properties present in star-forming regions. In this talk, I will review the results from demographic studies in nearby molecular clouds and the constraints they impose to both disk evolution and planet formation theory.

  6. Evidence for a correlation between mass accretion rates onto young stars and the mass of their protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Manara, C F; Testi, L; Natta, A; Alcalá, J M; Williams, J P; Ansdell, M; Miotello, A; van der Marel, N; Tazzari, M; Carpenter, J; Guidi, G; Mathews, G S; Oliveira, I; Prusti, T; van Dishoeck, E F

    2016-01-01

    A relation between the mass accretion rate onto the central young star and the mass of the surrounding protoplanetary disk has long been theoretically predicted and observationally sought. For the first time, we have accurately and homogeneously determined the photospheric parameters, the mass accretion rate, and the disk mass for an essentially complete sample of young stars with disks in the Lupus clouds. Our work combines the results of surveys conducted with VLT/X-Shooter and ALMA. With this dataset we are able to test a basic prediction of viscous accretion theory, the existence of a linear relation between the mass accretion rate onto the central star and the total disk mass. We find a correlation between the mass accretion rate and the disk dust mass, with a ratio that is roughly consistent with the expected viscous timescale when assuming an ISM gas-to-dust ratio. This confirms that mass accretion rates are related to the properties of the outer disk. We find no correlation between mass accretion rate...

  7. Gas and dust structures in protoplanetary disks hosting multiple planets

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla, P; Ataiee, S; Benisty, M; Birnstiel, T; van Dishoeck, E F; Min, M

    2014-01-01

    Transition disks have dust depleted inner regions and may represent an intermediate step of an on-going disk dispersal process, where planet formation is probably in progress. Recent millimetre observations of transition disks reveal radially and azimuthally asymmetric structures, where micron- and millimetre-sized dust particles may not spatially coexist. These properties can be the result of particle trapping and grain growth in pressure bumps originating from the disk interaction with a planetary companion. The multiple features observed in some transition disks such as SR 21 suggest the presence of more than one planet. We study the gas and dust distributions of a disk hosting two massive planets as function of different disk and dust parameters. Observational signatures such as the spectral energy distribution, sub-millimetre, and polarised images are simulated for the various parameters. We confirm that planets can lead to particle trapping, although for a disk with high viscosity ($\\alpha_{\\rm{turb}}=1...

  8. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks I: Dust and Gas Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Ansdell, Megan; van der Marel, Nienke; Carpenter, John M; Guidi, Greta; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Mathews, Geoff S; Manara, Carlo F; Miotello, Anna; Natta, Antonella; Oliveira, Isa; Tazzari, Marco; Testi, Leonardo; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; van Terwisga, Sierk E

    2016-01-01

    We present the first high-resolution sub-mm survey of both dust and gas for a large population of protoplanetary disks. Characterizing fundamental properties of protoplanetary disks on a statistical level is critical to understanding how disks evolve into the diverse exoplanet population. We use ALMA to survey 89 protoplanetary disks around stars with $M_{\\ast}>0.1$ $M_{\\odot}$ in the young ($\\sim$1-3 Myr), nearby ($\\sim$150-200 pc) Lupus complex. Our observations cover the 890 $\\mu$m continuum and the $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O 3-2 lines. We use the sub-mm continuum to constrain $M_{\\rm dust}$ to a few Martian masses (0.2-0.4 $M_{\\oplus}$) and the CO isotopologue lines to constrain $M_{\\rm gas}$ to roughly a Jupiter mass (assuming ISM-like $\\rm {[CO]/[H_2]}$ abundance). Of 89 sources, we detect 62 in the continuum, 36 in $^{13}$CO, and 11 in C$^{18}$O at $>3\\sigma$ significance. Several new "transition disks" are found with relatively bright continuum and CO isotopologue emission. Stacking the individually unde...

  9. Self-organisation in protoplanetary disks: global, non-stratified Hall-MHD simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Béthune, William; Ferreira, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations revealed organised structures in protoplanetary disks, such as axisymmetric rings or horseshoe concen- trations evocative of large-scale vortices. These structures are often interpreted as the result of planet-disc interactions. However, these disks are also known to be unstable to the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) which is believed to be one of the dominant angular momentum transport mechanism in these objects. It is therefore natural to ask if the MRI itself could produce these structures without invoking planets. The nonlinear evolution of the MRI is strongly affected by the low ionisation fraction in protoplanetary disks. The Hall effect in particular, which is dominant in dense and weakly ionised parts of these objects, has been shown to spontaneously drive self- organising flows in shearing box simulations. Here, we investigate the behaviour of global MRI-unstable disc models dominated by the Hall effect and characterise their dynamics. We perform 3D unstratified Hall-MHD simu...

  10. The Motion of Chondrules and Other Particles in a Protoplanetary Disk with Temperature Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Loesche, Christoph; Kelling, Thorben; Teiser, Jens; Ebel, Denton S

    2016-01-01

    We consider the mechanism of photophoretic transport in protoplanetary disks that are optically thick to radiation. Here, photophoresis is not caused by the central star but by temperature fluctuations that subject suspended solid particles, including chondrules, to non-isotropic thermal radiation within the disk. These short-lived temperature fluctuations can explain time-of-flight size sorting and general number density enhancements. The same mechanism will also lead to velocity fluctuations of dust aggregates beyond $100\\,\\mathrm{m\\,s^{-1}}$ for mm-sized particles in protoplanetary disks. Applying this in future research will change our understanding of the early phases of collisional dust evolution and aggregate growth as particles cross the bouncing barrier and as mass transfer rates are altered.

  11. Vortex cycles at the inner edges of dead zones in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Faure, Julien; latter, Henrik; Meheut, Heloise

    2014-01-01

    In protoplanetary disks, the inner boundary between the turbulent and laminar regions is a promising site for planet formation because solids may become trapped at the interface itself or in vortices generated by the Rossby wave instability. The disk thermodynamics and the turbulent dynamics at that location are entwined because of the importance of turbulent dissipation on thermal ionization and, conversely, of thermal ionisation on the turbulence. However, most previous work has neglected this dynamical coupling and have thus missed a key element of the physics in this region. In this paper, we aim to determine how the the interplay between ionization and turbulence impacts on the formation and evolution of vortices at the interface between the active and the dead zones. Using the Godunov code RAMSES, we have performed a 3D magnetohydrodynamic global numerical simulation of a cylindrical model of an MRI--turbulent protoplanetary disk, including thermodynamical effects as well as a temperature-dependant resi...

  12. Magnetic fields in protoplanetary disks: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bertrang, Gesa H -M; Wolf, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary disks, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to ALMA observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disk regions.

  13. Photophoretic Levitation and Trapping of Dust in the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    McNally, Colin P

    2016-01-01

    In protoplanetary disks, the differential gravity-driven settling of dust grains with respect to gas and with respect to grains of varying sizes determines the observability of grains, and sets the conditions for grain growth and eventually planet formation. In this work we explore the effect of photophoresis on the settling of large dust grains in the inner regions of actively accreting protoplanetary disks. Photophoretic forces on dust grains result from the collision of gas molecules with differentially heated grains. We undertake one dimensional dust settling calculations to determine the equilibrium vertical distribution of dust grains in each column of the disk. In the process we introduce a new treatment of the photophoresis force which is consistent at all optical depths with the representation of the radiative intensity field in a two-stream radiative transfer approximation. The levitation of large dust grains creates a photophoretic dust trap several scale heights above the mid-plane in the inner re...

  14. Constraints on the radial distribution of the dust properties in the CQ Tau protoplanetary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Trotta, F; Natta, A; Isella, A; Ricci, L

    2013-01-01

    Grain growth in protoplanetary disks is the first step towards the formation of the rocky cores of planets. Models predict that grains grow, migrate, and fragment in the disk and predict varying dust properties as a function of radius, age, and physical properties. High-angular resolution observations at more than one (sub-)mm wavelength are the essential tool for constraining grain growth and migration on the disk midplane. We developed a procedure to analyze self-consistently multi wavelength (sub-)mm continuum interferometric observations of protoplanetary disks to constrain the radial distribution of dust properties. We apply this technique to existing multi frequency continuum mm observations of the disk around CQ Tau, a A8 pre-main sequence star with a well-studied disk. We demonstrate that our models can be used to simultaneously constrain the disk and dust structure. In CQ Tau, the best-fitting model has a radial dependence of the maximum grain size, which decreases from a few cm in the inner disk (&l...

  15. The HST/ACS Atlas of Protoplanetary Disks in the Great Orion Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, Luca; Soderblom, David R

    2008-01-01

    We present the atlas of protoplanetary disks in the Orion Nebula based on the ACS/WFC images obtained for the HST Treasury Program on the Orion Nebula Cluster. The observations have been carried out in 5 photometric filters nearly equivalent to the standard B, V, Halpha, I, and z passbands. Our master catalog lists 178 externally ionized proto-planetary disks (proplyds), 28 disks seen only in absorption against the bright nebular background (silhouette disks), 8 disks seen only as dark lanes at the midplane of extended polar emission (bipolar nebulae or reflection nebulae) and 5 sources showing jet emission with no evidence of neither external ionized gas emission nor dark silhouette disks. Many of these disks are associated with jets seen in Halpha and circumstellar material detected through reflection emission in our broad-band filters; approximately 2/3 have identified counterparts in x-rays. A total of 47 objects (29 proplyds, 7 silhouette disks, 6 bipolar nebulae, 5 jets with no evidence of proplyd emiss...

  16. Chemical Processes in Protoplanetary Disks II. On the importance of photochemistry and X-ray ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine; Millar, T J; Aikawa, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the impact of photochemistry and X-ray ionization on the molecular composition of, and ionization fraction in, a protoplanetary disk surrounding a typical T Tauri star. We use a sophisticated physical model, which includes a robust treatment of the radiative transfer of UV and X-ray radiation, and calculate the time-dependent chemical structure using a comprehensive chemical network. In previous work, we approximated the photochemistry and X-ray ionization, here, we recalculate the photoreaction rates using the explicit UV wavelength spectrum and wavelength-dependent reaction cross sections. We recalculate the X-ray ionization rate using our explicit elemental composition and X-ray energy spectrum. We find photochemistry has a larger influence on the molecular composition than X-ray ionization. Observable molecules sensitive to the photorates include OH, HCO+, N2H+, H2O, CO2 and CH3OH. The only molecule significantly affected by the X-ray ionization is N2H+ indicating it is safe to adopt existi...

  17. A `Rosetta Stone' for Protoplanetary Disks: The Synergy of Multi-Wavelength Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Banzatti, A.; Carmona, A.; Stolker, T.; Kama, M.; Mendigutía, I.; Garufi, A.; Flaherty, K.; van der Marel, N.; Greaves, J.

    2016-12-01

    Recent progress in telescope development has brought us different ways to observe protoplanetary disks: interferometers, space missions, adaptive optics, polarimetry, and time- and spectrally-resolved data. While the new facilities have changed the way we can tackle open problems in disk structure and evolution, there is a substantial lack of interconnection between different observing communities. Here, we explore the complementarity of some of the state-of-the-art observing techniques, and how they can be brought together to understand disk dispersal and planet formation.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ionization as a tracer of gas flows through protoplanetary disk gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Maaskant, K. M.; Min, M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Planet-forming disks of gas and dust around young stars contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aims. We aim to characterize how the charge state of PAHs can be used as a probe of flows of gas through protoplanetary gaps. In this context, our goal is to understand the PAH spectra of four transitional disks. In addition, we want to explain the observed correlation between PAH ionization (traced by the I6.2/I11.3 feature ratio) and the disk mass (traced by the 1.3 mm luminosit...

  19. WIND-ACCRETION DISKS IN WIDE BINARIES, SECOND-GENERATION PROTOPLANETARY DISKS, AND ACCRETION ONTO WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perets, Hagai B. [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Kenyon, Scott J., E-mail: hperets@physics.technion.ac.il [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    Mass transfer from an evolved donor star to its binary companion is a standard feature of stellar evolution in binaries. In wide binaries, the companion star captures some of the mass ejected in a wind by the primary star. The captured material forms an accretion disk. Here, we study the evolution of wind-accretion disks, using a numerical approach which allows us to follow the long-term evolution. For a broad range of initial conditions, we derive the radial density and temperature profiles of the disk. In most cases, wind accretion leads to long-lived stable disks over the lifetime of the asymptotic giant branch donor star. The disks have masses of a few times 10{sup -5}-10{sup -3} M {sub Sun }, with surface density and temperature profiles that follow broken power laws. The total mass in the disk scales approximately linearly with the viscosity parameter used. Roughly, 50%-80% of the mass falling into the disk accretes onto the central star; the rest flows out through the outer edge of the disk into the stellar wind of the primary. For systems with large accretion rates, the secondary accretes as much as 0.1 M {sub Sun }. When the secondary is a white dwarf, accretion naturally leads to nova and supernova eruptions. For all types of secondary star, the surface density and temperature profiles of massive disks resemble structures observed in protoplanetary disks, suggesting that coordinated observational programs might improve our understanding of uncertain disk physics.

  20. Childhood to adolescence: dust and gas clearing in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joanna Margaret

    Disks are ubiquitous around young stars. Over time, disks dissipate, revealing planets that formed hidden by their natal dust. Since direct detection of young planets at small orbital radii is currently impossible, other tracers of planet formation must be found. One sign of disk evolution, potentially linked to planet formation, is the opening of a gap or inner hole in the disk. In this thesis, I have identified and characterized several cold disks with large inner gaps but retaining massive primordial outer disks. While cold disks are not common, with ~5% of disks showing signs of inner gaps, they provide proof that at least some disks evolve from the inside-out. These large gaps are equivalent to dust clearing from inside the Earth's orbit to Neptune's orbit or even the inner Kuiper belt. Unlike more evolved systems like our own, the central star is often still accreting and a large outer disk remains. I identified four cold disks in Spitzer 5-40 μm spectra and modeled these disks using a 2-D radiative transfer code to determine the gap properties. Outer gap radii of 20-45 AU were derived. However, spectrophotometric identification is indirect and model-dependent. To validate this interpretation, I observed three disks with a submillimeter interferometer and obtained the first direct images of the central holes. The images agree well with the gap sizes derived from the spectrophotometry. One system, LkH&alpha 330, has a very steep outer gap edge which seems more consistent with gravitational perturbation rather than gradual processes, such as grain growth and settling. Roughly 70% of cold disks show CO v=1&rarr 0 gas emission from the inner 1 AU and therefore are unlikely to have evolved due to photoevaporation. The derived rotation temperatures are significantly lower for the cold disks than disks without gaps. Unresolved (sub)millimeter photometry shows that cold disks have steeper colors, indicating that they are optically thin at these wavelengths, unlike

  1. Long-term Evolution of Photoevaporating Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Jaehan; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Gammie, Clarles

    2013-01-01

    We perform calculations of our one-dimensional, two-zone disk model to study the long-term evolution of the circumstellar disk. In particular, we adopt published photoevaporation prescriptions and examine whether the photoevaporative loss alone, coupled with a range of initial angular momenta of the protostellar cloud, can explain the observed decline of the frequency of optically-thick dusty disks with increasing age. In the parameter space we explore, disks have accreting and/or non-accreting transitional phases lasting of $\\lesssim20 %$ of their lifetime, which is in reasonable agreement with observed statistics. Assuming that photoevaporation controls disk clearing, we find that initial angular momentum distribution of clouds needs to be weighted in favor of slowly rotating protostellar cloud cores. Again, assuming inner disk dispersal by photoevaporation, we conjecture that this skewed angular momentum distribution is a result of fragmentation into binary or multiple stellar systems in rapidly-rotating c...

  2. Probing the turbulent mixing strength in protoplanetary disks across the stellar mass range: no significant variations

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, Gijs D

    2012-01-01

    Dust settling and grain growth are the first steps in the planet-formation process in protoplanetary disks. These disks are observed around stars with different spectral types, and there are indications that the disks around lower mass stars are significantly flatter, which could indicate that they settle and evolve faster, or in a different way. We aim to test this assumption by modeling the median spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three samples of protoplanetary disks: around Herbig stars, T Tauri stars and brown dwarfs. We focus on the turbulent mixing strength to avoid a strong observational bias from disk and stellar properties that depend on stellar mass. We generated SEDs with the radiative transfer code MCMax, using a hydrostatic disk structure and settling the dust in a self-consistent way with the alpha-prescription to probe the turbulent mixing strength. We are able to fit all three samples with a disk with the same input parameters, scaling the inner edge to the dust evaporation radius and d...

  3. Mass constraint for a planet in a protoplanetary disk from the gap width

    CERN Document Server

    Kanagawa, Kazuhiro D; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Tanigawa, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Taku; Tsukagoshi, Takashi; Momose, Munetake

    2016-01-01

    A giant planet creates a gap in a protoplanetary disk, which might explain the observed gaps in protoplanetary disks. The width and depth of the gaps depend on the planet mass and disk properties. We have performed two--dimensional hydrodynamic simulations for various planet masses, disk aspect ratios and viscosities, to obtain an empirical formula for the gap width. The gap width is proportional to the square root of the planet mass, -3/4 power of the disk aspect ratio and -1/4 power of the viscosity. This empirical formula enables us to estimate the mass of a planet embedded in the disk from the width of an observed gap. We have applied the empirical formula for the gap width to the disk around HL~Tau, assuming that each gap observed by ALMA observations is produced by planets, and discussed the planet masses within the gaps. The estimate of planet masses from the gap widths is less affected by the observational resolution and dust filtration than that from the gap depth.

  4. ROTATIONAL LINE EMISSION FROM WATER IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, R.; Poelman, D. R.; Spaans, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Glassgold, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Circumstellar disks provide the material reservoir for the growth of young stars and for planet formation. We combine a high-level radiative transfer program with a thermal-chemical model of a typical T Tauri star disk to investigate the diagnostic potential of the far-infrared lines of water for pr

  5. Probing protoplanetary disk evolution with the HI 21 cm line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Inga; Freudling, Wolfram; Robberto, Massimo; Chengalur, Jayaram; Keto, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the gas disk dispersal timescales in the planet formation process. Disks have a complex chemical structure and a wide range of excitation conditions, making the interpretation of line observations difficult. Here, we use detailed chemo-physical models to predict the Hi abundanc

  6. Dust growth in protoplanetary disks - a comprehensive experimental/theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jürgen

    2010-12-01

    More than a decade of dedicated experimental work on the collisional physics of protoplanetary dust has brought us to a point at which the growth of dust aggregates can — for the first time — be self-consistently and reliably modeled. In this article, the emergent collision model for protoplanetery dust aggregates, as well as the numerical model for the evolution of dust aggregates in protoplanetary disks, is reviewed. It turns out that, after a brief period of rapid collisional growth of fluffy dust aggregates to sizes of a few centimeters, the protoplanetary dust particles are subject to bouncing collisions, in which their porosity is considerably decreased. The model results also show that low-velocity fragmentation can reduce the final mass of the dust aggregates but that it does not trigger a new growth mode as discussed previously. According to the current stage of our model, the direct formation of kilometer-sized planetesimals by collisional sticking seems unlikely, implying that collective effects, such as the streaming instability and the gravitational instability in dust-enhanced regions of the protoplanetary disk, are the best candidates for the processes leading to planetesimals.

  7. High-Temperature Mineral Formation by Short Circuits in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Hubbard, A.; McNally, C.; Ebel, D.; D'Alessio, P.

    2013-01-01

    Intermittent heating of solid materials in protoplanetary disks is attested to by meteoritical components such as chondrules and calcium-aluminum inclusions, by the presence of high temperature minerals in comet dust sampled by the Stardust mission, and by the observation of crystalline silicates at substantial radii in disks around young stars. Such heating requires an energy source and a physical mechanism to explain it. One plausible energy source is the differential rotation of a Keplerian disk. In most models of protoplanetary disks, this energy drives magnetized turbulence through magnetorotational instability everywhere outside of a transient dead zone. Magnetized turbulence very generally forms current sheets as energy cascades to smaller scales. In resistive media such as the gas in disks, these currents act as a heating source. The density of charge carriers in cold disks is too low for these currents to raise the gas to rock-melting temperatures immediately. However, temperatures can be raised to the range of 1000 K, sufficient to being ionizing alkali metals, locally decreasing the resistivity and increasing the turbulence. This triggers an exponential instability, leading to a narrow sheet of highly ionized, high temperature gas. The strongly varying resistivity acts as an anti-diffusive term in the induction equation, concentrating field in the sheet. Preliminary calculations using a one-dimensional simulation including both non-ideal MHD and radiative transfer suggest that rock-melting or vaporizing temperatures above 1800 K can easily be reached in these sheets. This could provide a widespread, intermittent, heating mechanism in protoplanetary disks sufficient to produce the observed high-temperature minerals.

  8. Vortices in stratified protoplanetary disks : from baroclinic instability to vortex layers

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, S; Dizes, S Le

    2016-01-01

    Large scale vortices could play a key role in the evolution of protoplanetary disks, particularly in the dead-zone where no turbulence associated with magnetic field is expected. Their possible formation by the subcritical baroclinic instability is a complex issue due to the vertical structure of the disk and to the elliptical instability.} {In two-dimensional disks the baroclinic instability is studied as a function of the thermal transfer efficiency. In three-dimensional disks we explore the importance of radial and vertical stratification on the processes of vortex formation and amplification.} {Numerical simulations are performed using a fully compressible hydrodynamical code based on a second order finite volume method. We assume a perfect gas law in inviscid disk models in which heat transfer is due to either relaxation or diffusion.} {In 2D, the baroclinic instability with thermal relaxation leads to the formation of large-scale vortices, which are unstable with respect to the elliptic instability. In ...

  9. Diagnosing the Structure of the HD 163296 Protoplanetary Disk Via Coronagraphic Imaging Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Clampin, M.; Grady, C. A.; Sitko, M. L.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Fukagawa, M.; Hines, D. C.; Katoh, E.; Whitney, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Coronagraphic imaging polarimetry is a high contrast imaging technique which can diagnose both the spatial distribution and size distribution of dust grains which comprise primordial protoplanetary disks. It can therefore be a useful tool to test our understanding of how the structure of young disks evolves through the era of gas giant planet formation. We report our initial analysis of the H-band polarized and total intensity of the nearby Herbig Ae star HD 163296, and characterize the morphology of the scattered light disk in the context of previous optical HST coronagraphic imagery. Our observations were obtained as part of a multi-epoch campaign designed to diagnose and correlate the behavior of the inner and outer regions of select protoplanetary disks. This campaign will help test recent suggestions (Sitko et al. 2008; Wisniewski et al. 2008) that that HD 163296 dis experiences the novel phenomenon of time-variable self-shadowing, whereby occasional changes in the scale height of the inner disk wall induces changes in the illumination of the outer disk.

  10. DETECTION OF N{sub 2}D{sup +} IN A PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jane; Öberg, Karin I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Observations of deuterium fractionation in the solar system, and in interstellar and circumstellar material, are commonly used to constrain the formation environment of volatiles. Toward protoplanetary disks, this approach has been limited by the small number of detected deuterated molecules, i.e., DCO{sup +} and DCN. Based on ALMA Cycle 2 observations toward the disk around the T Tauri star AS 209, we report the first detection of N{sub 2}D{sup +} (J = 3–2) in a protoplanetary disk. These data are used together with previous Submillimeter Array observations of N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 3–2) to estimate a disk-averaged D/H ratio of 0.3–0.5, an order of magnitude higher than disk-averaged ratios previously derived for DCN/HCN and DCO{sup +}/HCO{sup +} around other young stars. The high fractionation in N{sub 2}H{sup +} is consistent with model predictions. The presence of abundant N{sub 2}D{sup +} toward AS 209 also suggests that N{sub 2}D{sup +} and the N{sub 2}D{sup +}/N{sub 2}H{sup +} ratio can be developed into effective probes of deuterium chemistry, kinematics, and ionization processes outside the CO snow line of disks.

  11. Microwave Observations of Edge-on Protoplanetary Disks: Program Overview and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, Carl; Chomiuk, Laura; Palmer, Patrick; Perrin, M D; Maddison, S T; Menard, F; Stapelfeldt, K; Pinte, C; Duvert, G

    2011-01-01

    We are undertaking a multi-frequency Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) survey of edge-on protoplanetary disks to probe the growth of solids in each disk, sedimentation of such material into the disk midplane, and the connection of these phenomena to the planet formation process. The projection of edge-on disk systems along our line of sight enables a study of the vertical stratification of large grains with fewer model dependencies than would be required for disks that are more face-on. Robust studies of the spatial distribution of grains up to ~1 cm in size are possible with the wavelength range and sensitivity of the EVLA. In this contribution we describe target selection and observational strategies. First results concerning the Class 0 source IRAS04368+2557 (L1527 IRS) are presented, including a study of this source's 8.46 GHz continuum variability over short and long time baselines and an indication that its protoplanetary disk may have a dearth of pebble-sized grains.

  12. Dead Zones as Thermal Barriers to Rapid Planetary Migration in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Planetary migration in standard models of gaseous protoplanetary disks is known to be very rapid ($\\sim 10^5$ years) jeopardizing the existence of planetary systems. We present a new mechanism for significantly slowing rapid planetary migration, discovered by means of radiative transfer calculations of the thermal structure of protoplanetary disks irradiated by their central stars. Rapid dust settling in a disk's dead zone - a region with very little turbulence - leaves a dusty wall at its outer edge. We show that the back-heating of the dead zone by this irradiated wall produces a positive gradient of the disk temperature which acts as a thermal barrier to planetary migration which persists for the disk lifetime. Although we analyze in detail the migration of a Super-Earth in a low mass disk around an M star, our findings can apply to wide variety of young planetary systems. We compare our findings with other potentially important stopping mechanisms and show that there are large parameter spaces for which d...

  13. The Thermal Regulation of Gravitational Instabilities in Protoplanetary Disks. IV. Simulations with Envelope Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Kai; Boley, Aaron C; Pickett, Megan K; Mejia, Annie C

    2007-01-01

    It is generally thought that protoplanetary disks embedded in envelopes are more massive and thus more susceptible to gravitational instabilities (GIs) than exposed disks. We present three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamics simulations of protoplanetary disks with the presence of envelope irradiation. For a disk with a radius of 40 AU and a mass of 0.07 Msun around a young star of 0.5 Msun, envelope irradiation tends to weaken and even suppress GIs as the irradiating flux is increased. The global mass transport induced by GIs is dominated by lower-order modes, and irradiation preferentially suppresses higher-order modes. As a result, gravitational torques and mass inflow rates are actually increased by mild irradiation. None of the simulations produce dense clumps or rapid cooling by convection, arguing against direct formation of giant planets by disk instability, at least in irradiated disks. However, dense gas rings and radial mass concentrations are produced, and these might be conducive to accelerated p...

  14. Diagnosing the Structure of the HD 163296 Protoplanetary Disk Via Coronagraphic Imaging Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Clampin, M.; Grady, C. A.; Sitko, M. L.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Fukagawa, M.; Hines, D. C.; Katoh, E.; Whitney, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Coronagraphic imaging polarimetry is a high contrast imaging technique which can diagnose both the spatial distribution and size distribution of dust grains which comprise primordial protoplanetary disks. It can therefore be a useful tool to test our understanding of how the structure of young disks evolves through the era of gas giant planet formation. We report our initial analysis of the H-band polarized and total intensity of the nearby Herbig Ae star HD 163296, and characterize the morphology of the scattered light disk in the context of previous optical HST coronagraphic imagery. Our observations were obtained as part of a multi-epoch campaign designed to diagnose and correlate the behavior of the inner and outer regions of select protoplanetary disks. This campaign will help test recent suggestions (Sitko et al. 2008; Wisniewski et al. 2008) that that HD 163296 dis experiences the novel phenomenon of time-variable self-shadowing, whereby occasional changes in the scale height of the inner disk wall induces changes in the illumination of the outer disk.

  15. A Possible Mechanism for Overcoming the Electrostatic Barrier Against Dust Growth in Protoplanetary disks

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The coagulation of dust particles under the conditions in protoplanetary disks is investigated. The study focuses on the repulsive electrostatic barrier against growth of charged dust grains. Taking into account the photoelectric effect leads to the appearance of a layer at intermediate heights where the dust has a close to zero charge, enabling the dust grains to grow efficiently. An increase in the coagulation rate comes about not only due to the lowering of the Coulomb barrier, but also be...

  16. Accretion through the inner edges of protoplanetary disks by a giant solid state pump

    CERN Document Server

    Kelling, Thorben

    2013-01-01

    At the inner edge of a protoplanetary disk solids are illuminated by stellar light. This illumination heats the solids and creates temperature gradients along their surfaces. Interactions with ambient gas molecules lead to a radial net gas flow. Every illuminated solid particle within the edge is an individual small gas pump transporting gas inward. In total the inner edge can provide local mass flow rates as high as $\\dot{M} = 10^{-5} M_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$.

  17. Sensitive limits on the abundance of cold water vapor in the DM Tauri protoplanetary disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergin, E.A.; Hogerheijde, M.R.; Brinch, C.; Fogel, J.; Yıldız, U.A.; Kristensen, L.E.; van Dishoeck, E.F.; Bell, T.A.; Blake, G.A.; Cernicharo, J.; Dominik, C.; Lis, D.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Panić, O.; Pearson, J.C.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Benz, A.O.; Bjerkeli, P.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Bruderer, S.; Caselli, P.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; Di Giorgio, A.M.; Doty, S.D.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J.R.; de Graauw, T.; Helmich, F.; Herczeg, G.J.; Herpin, F.; Jacq, T.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J.K.; Larsson, B.; Liseau, R.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Parise, B.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Shipman, R.; Tafalla, M.; van Kempen, T.A.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S.F.; Wyrowski, F.; van der Tak, F.; Jellema, W.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Hartogh, P.; Stützki, J.; Szczerba, R.

    2010-01-01

    We performed a sensitive search for the ground-state emission lines of ortho-and para-water vapor in the DM Tau protoplanetary disk using the Herschel/HIFI instrument. No strong lines are detected down to 3 sigma levels in 0.5 km s(-1) channels of 4.2 mK for the 1(10)-1(01) line and 12.6 mK for the

  18. The Evolution of Gas and Dust in Protoplanetary Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Birnstiel, T

    2011-01-01

    Dust constitutes only about one percent of the mass of circumstellar disks, yet it is of crucial importance for the modeling of planet formation, disk chemistry, radiative transfer and observations. The initial growth of dust from sub-micron sized grains to planetesimals and also the radial transport of dust in disks around young stars is the topic of this thesis. Circumstellar dust is subject to radial drift, vertical settling, turbulent mixing, collisional growth, fragmentation and erosion. We approach this subject from three directions: analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and comparison to observations. We describe the physical and numerical concepts that go into a model which is able to simulate the radial and size evolution of dust in a gas disk which is viscously evolving over several million years. The resulting dust size distributions are compared to our analytical predictions and a simple recipe for obtaining steady-state dust size distributions is derived. With the numerical model at han...

  19. DETECTIONS OF TRANS-NEPTUNIAN ICE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Bergin, E.; Cleeves, L. I. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, 830 Dennison Bldg., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Espaillat, C. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); D' Alessio, P. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad NacionalAUtónoma de México, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Watson, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Sargent, B., E-mail: melisma@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: ebergin@umich.edu, E-mail: cleeves@umich.edu, E-mail: cce@bu.edu, E-mail: p.dalessio@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: manoj.puravankara@tifr.res.in, E-mail: baspci@rit.edu [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of T Tauri stars, in which we detect amorphous and crystalline water ice features. Using irradiated accretion disk models, we determine the disk structure and ice abundance in each of the systems. Combining a model-independent comparison of the ice feature strength and disk size with a detailed analysis of the model ice location, we estimate that the ice emitting region is at disk radii >30 AU, consistent with a proto-Kuiper belt. Vertically, the ice emits most below the photodesorption zone, consistent with Herschel observations of cold water vapor. The presence of crystallized water ice at a disk location (1) colder than its crystallization temperature and (2) where it should have been re-amorphized in ∼1 Myr suggests that localized generation is occurring; the most likely cause appears to be micrometeorite impact or planetesimal collisions. Based on simple tests with UV models and different ice distributions, we suggest that the SED shape from 20 to 50 μm may probe the location of the water ice snowline in the disk upper layers. This project represents one of the first extra-solar probes of the spatial structure of the cometary ice reservoir thought to deliver water to terrestrial planets.

  20. A New All-Sky Catalogue of Candidate Protoplanetary Disks from Aggregated Optical and Infrared Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horenstein, Daniel; Lepine, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    We present a catalogue of 199,460 sources with optical and infrared colors that are consistent with protoplanetary disks. First, a list of known protoplanetary disks is compiled from the literature, and lists of field stars are selected from regions presumed to have little ongoing star formation. Optical and infrared magnitudes from multiple photometric surveys, covering up to 14 different bands, are then combined for these sources and used to define color-color cuts that reliably distinguish stars with known disks from other field objects. These cuts are applied in an all-sky search of the AllWISE catalogue. Of the sources returned by this query, 11.4% are listed in SIMBAD; their classifications and aggregated magnitudes are used to define additional color-color cuts that efficiently distinguish known young stellar objects from sources of various other types. These further cuts are applied to all targets either not listed in SIMBAD or with inconclusive SIMBAD types to form the new catalogue of 199,460 stars with likely warm circumstellar disks. An estimated false positive rate of 36.1% implies the detection of approximately 127,000 heretofore unidentified protoplanetary disks. The positions of these candidates on the sky are largely consistent with a spatial distribution in the young Galactic disk, showing a high density of sources in the Galactic plane and a low density in the Galactic bulge and at high Galactic latitudes. In addition, a number of nearby star-forming regions are successfully recovered through this process, and they include many sources not previously reported to be young stellar objects.

  1. Herschel survey and modelling of externally-illuminated photoevaporating protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, J.; Berné, O.; Vicente, S.; Kamp, I.; Le Petit, F.; Gusdorf, A.; Joblin, C.; Goicoechea, J. R.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Protoplanetary disks undergo substantial mass-loss by photoevaporation, a mechanism that is crucial to their dynamical evolution. However, the processes regulating the gas energetics have not so far been well constrained by observations. Aims: We aim to study the processes involved in disk photoevaporation when it is driven by far-UV photons (i.e. 6 http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A69

  2. Protoplanetary Disk Masses from Stars to Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Mortlock, Daniel; Pascucci, Ilaria; Scholz, Aleks; Thompson, Mark; Apai, Daniel; Lodato, Giuseppe; Looper, Dagny

    2013-01-01

    We present SCUBA-2 850um observations for 7 very low mass stars (VLMS) and brown dwarfs (BDs): 3 in Taurus, 4 in the TWA, and all classical T Tauri (cTT) analogs. We detect 2 of the 3 Taurus disks, but none of the TWA ones. Our 3sigma limits correspond to a dust mass of 1.2 MEarth in Taurus and a mere 0.2 MEarth in the TWA (3--10x deeper than previous work). We combine our data with other sub-mm/mm surveys of Taurus, rho Oph and the TWA to investigate trends in disk mass and grain growth during the cTT phase. We find : (1) The minimum disk outer radius required to explain the upper envelope of sub-mm/mm fluxes is 100 AU for intermediate-mass stars, solar-types and VLMS, and 20 AU for BDs. (2) While the upper envelope of disk masses increases with Mstar from BDs to VLMS to solar-types, no increase is seen from solar-type to intermediate-mass stars. We propose this is due to enhanced photoevaporation around intermediate masses. (3) Many disks around Taurus and rho Oph intermediate-mass and solar-type stars evin...

  3. Accretion Outbursts in Self-gravitating Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Jaehan; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Nelson, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    We improve on our previous treatments of long-term evolution of protostellar disks by explicitly solving disk self-gravity in two dimensions. The current model is an extension of the one-dimensional layered accretion disk model of Bae et al. We find that gravitational instability (GI)-induced spiral density waves heat disks via compressional heating (i.e. $P\\rm{d}V$ work), and can trigger accretion outbursts by activating the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the magnetically inert disk dead-zone. The GI-induced spiral waves propagate well inside of gravitationally unstable region before they trigger outbursts at $R \\lesssim 1$ AU where GI cannot be sustained. This long-range propagation of waves cannot be reproduced with the previously used local $\\alpha$ treatments for GI. In our standard model where zero dead-zone residual viscosity ($\\alpha_{\\rm rd}$) is assumed, the GI-induced stress measured at the onset of outbursts is locally as large as $0.01$ in terms of the generic $\\alpha$ parameter. However,...

  4. Near infrared and the inner regions of protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Vinkovic, D; Jurkic, T; Elitzur, M; Vinkovic, Dejan; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jurkic, Tomislav; Elitzur, Moshe

    2005-01-01

    We examine the ``puffed-up inner disk'' model (Dullemond, Dominik & Natta 2001), proposed for explaining the near-IR excess radiation from Herbig Ae/Be stars. Detailed model re-computations and comparison with the observed distribution of near-IR excess show that the model requires fine tuning of free parameters. In particular, only perfectly gray dust opacity can produce the observed near-IR excess, yet such dust is in conflict with the observed 10$\\mu$m spectral feature. We find that an alternative model consisting of a compact ($\\sim$ 10 AU) tenuous dusty halo around the disk inner regions readily explains the observed near-IR excess. Furthermore, this model also resolves the puzzling relationship noted by Monnier and Millan-Gabet (2002) between luminosity and the interferometric inner radii of disks.

  5. Low-Mass Star Formation: From Molecular Cloud Cores to Protostars and Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inutsuka, S.-I.; Machida, M.; Matsumoto, T.; Tsukamoto, Y.; Iwasaki, K.

    2015-05-01

    This review describes realistic evolution of magnetic field and rotation of the protostars, dynamics of outflows and jets, and the formation and evolution of protoplanetary disks. Recent advances in the protostellar collapse simulations cover a huge dynamic range from molecular cloud core density to stellar density in a self-consistent manner and account for all the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical effects, such as Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion, and Hall current. We explain the emergence of the first core, i.e., the quasi-hydrostatic object that consists of molecular gas, and the second core, i.e., the protostar. Ohmic dissipation largely removes the magnetic flux from the center of a collapsing cloud core. A fast well-collimated bipolar jet along the rotation axis of the protostar is driven after the magnetic field is re-coupled with warm gas (˜103 K) around the protostar. The circumstellar disk is born in the "dead zone", a region that is de-coupled from the magnetic field, and the outer radius of the disk increases with that of the dead zone during the early accretion phase. The rapid increase of the disk size occurs after the depletion of the envelope of molecular cloud core. The effect of Hall current may create two distinct populations of protoplanetary disks.

  6. PLANETARY SYSTEM FORMATION IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND HL TAURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Eiji; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Masahiko; Iguchi, Satoru, E-mail: eiji.akiyama@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: yasuhiro.hasegawa@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-02-20

    We reprocess the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) long-baseline science verification data taken toward HL Tauri. Assuming the observed gaps are opened up by currently forming, unseen bodies, we estimate the mass of such hypothetical bodies based on the following two approaches: the Hill radius analysis and a more elaborate approach developed from the angular momentum transfer analysis in gas disks. For the former, the measured gap widths are used for estimating the mass of the bodies, while for the latter, the measured gap depths are utilized. We show that their masses are comparable to or less than the mass of Jovian planets. By evaluating Toomre’s gravitational instability (GI) condition and cooling effect, we find that the GI might be a mechanism to form the bodies in the outer region of the disk. As the disk might be gravitationally unstable only in the outer region of the disk, inward planetary migration would be needed to construct the current architecture of the observed disk. We estimate the gap-opening mass and show that type II migration might be able to play such a role. Combining GIs with inward migration, we conjecture that all of the observed gaps may be a consequence of bodies that might have originally formed at the outer part of the disk, and have subsequently migrated to the current locations. While ALMA’s unprecedented high spatial resolution observations can revolutionize our picture of planet formation, more dedicated observational and theoretical studies are needed to fully understand the HL Tauri images.

  7. Chemistry in a Forming Protoplanetary Disk: Main Accretion Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Haruaki; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the chemistry in a radiation-hydrodynamics model of a star-forming core that evolves from a cold (˜10 K) prestellar core to the main accretion phase in ˜105 years. A rotationally supported gravitationally unstable disk is formed around a protostar. We extract the temporal variation of physical parameters in ˜1.5 × 103 SPH particles that end up in the disk, and perform post-processing calculations of the gas-grain chemistry adopting a three-phase model. Inside the disk, the SPH particles migrate both inward and outward. Since a significant fraction of volatiles such as CO can be trapped in the water-dominant ice in the three-phase model, the ice mantle composition depends not only on the current position in the disk, but also on whether the dust grain has ever experienced higher temperatures than the water sublimation temperature. Stable molecules such as H2O, CH4, NH3, and CH3OH are already abundant at the onset of gravitational collapse and are simply sublimated as the fluid parcels migrate inside the water snow line. On the other hand, various molecules such as carbon chains and complex organic molecules (COMs) are formed in the disk. The COMs abundance sensitively depends on the outcomes of photodissociation and diffusion rates of photofragments in bulk ice mantle. As for S-bearing species, H2S ice is abundant in the collapse phase. In the warm regions in the disk, H2S is sublimated to be destroyed, while SO, H2CS, OCS, and SO2 become abundant.

  8. Modelling the Gas Dynamics of Protoplanetary Disks by the SPH Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova, T. V.

    2016-12-01

    A modification of the GADGET-2 program package is proposed for three-dimensional modelling of gasdynamic flows in protoplanetary disks when perturbing objects (components of a binary system, brown dwarfs, protoplanets) are present. In these systems, the matter in the common disk falls onto the central star and companions to form accretion disks around them. The GADGET-2 code has been supplemented for calculating the accretion rate to each massive object and the line density of matter in the direction toward the central star as functions of the phase of the orbital period. The orbital parameters of the companion are specified as initial conditions for the problem. These orbits can be circular, eccentric, or inclined relative to the plane of the disk. With the aid of the modified code, details in the inner parts of the disk can be calculated with high accuracy: the accretion disks of the star and the companion are identified, as well as the gas bridge between them, flows of matter from the common disk which fill the accretion disks with matter, and density waves in the accretion and common disks.

  9. Constrained Evolution of a Radially Magnetized Protoplanetary Disk: Implications for Planetary Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Russo, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    We consider the inner $\\sim$ AU of a protoplanetary disk (PPD), at a stage where angular momentum transport is driven by the mixing of a radial magnetic field into the disk from a T-Tauri wind. Because the radial profile of the imposed magnetic field is well constrained, a deterministic calculation of the disk mass flow becomes possible. The vertical disk profiles obtained in Paper I imply a stronger magnetization in the inner disk, faster accretion, and a secular depletion of the disk material. Inward transport of solids allows the disk to maintain a broad optical absorption layer even when the grain abundance becomes too small to suppress its ionization. Thus a PPD may show a strong middle-to-near infrared spectral excess even while its mass profile departs radically from the minimum-mass solar nebula. The disk surface density is buffered at $\\sim 30$ g cm$^{-2}$: below this, X-rays trigger strong enough magnetorotational turbulence at the midplane to loft mm-cm sized particles high in the disk, followed by...

  10. Particle transport in evolving protoplanetary disks: Implications for results from Stardust

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Anna L H

    2010-01-01

    Samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by Stardust confirm that substantial quantities of crystalline silicates were incorporated into the comet at formation. We investigate the constraints that this observation places upon protoplanetary disk physics, assuming that outward transport of particles processed at high temperatures occurs via advection and turbulent diffusion in an evolving disk. We also look for constraints on particle formation locations. Our results are based upon 1D disk models that evolve with time under the action of viscosity and photoevaporation, and track solid transport using an ensemble of individual particle trajectories. We find that two classes of disk model are consistent with the Stardust findings. One class features a high particle diffusivity (a Schmidt number Sc 1, such models are unlikely to be viable, and significant outward transport requires that the particles of interest settle into a midplane layer that experiences an outward gas flow. In either class of models, the mass ...

  11. ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE CO SNOW LINE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Rebecca G. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, UCB 440, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Livio, Mario [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    CO is thought to be a vital building block for prebiotic molecules that are necessary for life. Thus, understanding where CO existed in a solid phase within the solar nebula is important for understanding the origin of life. We model the evolution of the CO snow line in a protoplanetary disk. We find that the current observed location of the CO snow line in our solar system, and in the solar system analog TW Hydra, cannot be explained by a fully turbulent disk model. With time-dependent disk models we find that the inclusion of a dead zone (a region of low turbulence) can resolve this problem. Furthermore, we obtain a fully analytic solution for the CO snow line radius for late disk evolutionary times. This will be useful for future observational attempts to characterize the demographics and predict the composition and habitability of exoplanets.

  12. Early scattering of the solar protoplanetary disk recorded in meteoritic chondrules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocchi, Yves; Chaussidon, Marc; Piani, Laurette; Libourel, Guy

    2016-07-01

    Meteoritic chondrules are submillimeter spherules representing the major constituent of nondifferentiated planetesimals formed in the solar protoplanetary disk. The link between the dynamics of the disk and the origin of chondrules remains enigmatic. Collisions between planetesimals formed at different heliocentric distances were frequent early in the evolution of the disk. We show that the presence, in some chondrules, of previously unrecognized magnetites of magmatic origin implies the formation of these chondrules under impact-generated oxidizing conditions. The three oxygen isotopes systematic of magmatic magnetites and silicates can only be explained by invoking an impact between silicate-rich and ice-rich planetesimals. This suggests that these peculiar chondrules are by-products of the early mixing in the disk of populations of planetesimals from the inner and outer solar system.

  13. Trapping planets in an evolving protoplanetary disk: preferred time, locations and planet mass

    CERN Document Server

    Baillié, Kévin; Pantin, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Planet traps are necessary to prevent forming planets from falling onto their host star by type I migration. Surface mass density and temperature gradient irregularities favor the apparition of traps and deserts. Such features are found at the dust sublimation lines and heat transition barriers. We study how planets may remain trapped or escape as they grow and as the disk evolves. We model the temporal viscous evolution of a protoplanetary disk by coupling its dynamics, thermodynamics, geometry and composition. The resulting mid-plane density and temperature profiles allow the modeling of the interactions of such an evolving disk with potential planets, even before the steady state is reached. We follow the viscous evolution of a MMSN and compute the Lindblad and corotation torques that such a disk would exert on potential planets of various masses located within the planetary formation region. We determine the position of planet traps and deserts in relationship with the sublimation lines, shadowed regions ...

  14. Toward realistic simulations of magneto-thermal winds from weakly-ionized protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Gressel, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks (PPDs) accrete onto their central T Tauri star via magnetic stresses. When the effect of ambipolar diffusion (AD) is included, and in the presence of a vertical magnetic field, the disk remains laminar between 1-5 au, and a magnetocentrifugal disk wind forms that provides an important mechanism for removing angular momentum. We present global MHD simulations of PPDs that include Ohmic resistivity and AD, where the time-dependent gas-phase electron and ion fractions are computed under FUV and X-ray ionization with a simplified recombination chemistry. To investigate whether the mass loading of the wind is potentially affected by the limited vertical extent of our existing simulations, we attempt to develop a model of a realistic disk atmosphere. To this end, by accounting for stellar irradiation and diffuse reprocessing of radiation, we aim at improving our models towards more realistic thermodynamic properties.

  15. Transport of solids in protoplanetary disks: Comparing meteorites and astrophysical models

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    We review models of chondrite component transport in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. Refractory inclusions were likely transported by turbulent diffusion and possible early disk expansion, and required low turbulence for their subsequent preservation in the disk, possibly in a dead zone. Chondrules were produced locally but did not necessarily accrete shortly after formation. Water may have been enhanced in the inner disk because of inward drift of solids from further out, but likely not by more than a factor of a few. Incomplete condensation in chondrites may be due to slow reaction kinetics during temperature decrease. While carbonaceous chondrite compositions might be reproduced in a ``two-component'' picture (Anders 1964), such components would not correspond to simple petrographic constituents, although part of the refractory element fractionations in chondrites may be due to the inward drift of refractory inclusions. Overall, considerations of chondrite component transport alone favor an earlier format...

  16. Chemistry in a forming protoplanetary disk: main accretion phase

    CERN Document Server

    Yoneda, Haruaki; Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the chemistry in a radiation-hydrodynamics model of star-forming core which evolves from a cold ($\\sim 10$ K) prestellar core to the main accretion phase in $\\sim 10^5$ yr. A rotationally-supported gravitationally unstable disk is formed around a protostar. We extract the temporal variation of physical parameters in $\\sim 1.5 \\times 10^3$ SPH particles which end up in the disk, and perform post-processing calculations of the gas-grain chemistry adopting a three-phase model. Inside the disk, the SPH particles migrate both inward and outward. Since a significant fraction of volatiles such as CO can be trapped in the water-dominant ice in the three-phase model, the ice mantle composition depends not only on the current position in the disk but also on whether the dust grain has ever experienced higher temperatures than the water sublimation temperature. Stable molecules such as H$_2$O, CH$_4$, NH$_3$ and CH$_3$OH are already abundant at the onset of gravitational collapse and simply sublimated as ...

  17. EARLY STAGES IN THE EVOLUTION OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hernández

    2009-01-01

    around low mass stars (spectral types K5 or later is 5-7 Myr, showing an overall decrease in disk emission between 1 to 10 Myr. This contribution shows the main results from studies in the Orion OB1 stellar association combining SPITZER and 2MASS catalog data with optical data obtained in the CIDA Variability Survey.

  18. Silicate Dust in Evolved Protoplanetary Disks: Growth, Sedimentation, and Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Watson, Dan; Bohac, Chris; Henning, Thomas; Bouwman, Jeroen; 10.1086/512121

    2009-01-01

    We present the Spitzer IRS spectra for 33 young stars in Tr 37 and NGC 7160. The sample includes the high- and intermediate-mass stars with MIPS 24 microns excess, the only known active accretor in the 12 Myr-old cluster NGC 7160, and 19 low-mass stars with disks in the 4 Myr-old cluster Tr 37. We examine the 10 microns silicate feature, present in the whole sample of low-mass star and in 3 of the high- and intermediate-mass targets, and we find that PAH emission is detectable only in the Herbig Be star. We analyze the composition and size of the warm photospheric silicate grains by fitting the 10 microns silicate feature, and study the possible correlations between the silicate characteristics and the stellar and disk properties (age, SED slope, accretion rate, spectral type). We find indications of dust settling with age and of the effect of turbulent enrichment of the disk atmosphere with large grains. Crystalline grains are only small contributors to the total silicate mass in all disks, and do not seem t...

  19. PROTOPLANETARY DISK MASSES FROM STARS TO BROWN DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Mortlock, Daniel [Imperial College London, 1010 Blackett Lab, Prince Consort Rd., London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Greaves, Jane [SUPA, Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Daniel [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Scholz, Aleks [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Thompson, Mark [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Lodato, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Looper, Dagny, E-mail: s.mohanty@imperial.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present SCUBA-2 850 {mu}m observations of seven very low mass stars (VLMS) and brown dwarfs (BDs). Three are in Taurus and four in the TW Hydrae Association (TWA), and all are classical T Tauri (cTT) analogs. We detect two of the three Taurus disks (one only marginally), but none of the TWA ones. For standard grains in cTT disks, our 3{sigma} limits correspond to a dust mass of 1.2 M{sub Circled-Plus} in Taurus and a mere 0.2 M{sub Circled-Plus} in the TWA (3-10 Multiplication-Sign deeper than previous work). We combine our data with other submillimeter/millimeter (sub-mm/mm) surveys of Taurus, {rho} Oph, and the TWA to investigate the trends in disk mass and grain growth during the cTT phase. Assuming a gas-to-dust mass ratio of 100:1 and fiducial surface density and temperature profiles guided by current data, we find the following. (1) The minimum disk outer radius required to explain the upper envelope of sub-mm/mm fluxes is {approx}100 AU for intermediate-mass stars, solar types, and VLMS, and {approx}20 AU for BDs. (2) While the upper envelope of apparent disk masses increases with M{sub *} from BDs to VLMS to solar-type stars, no such increase is observed from solar-type to intermediate-mass stars. We propose this is due to enhanced photoevaporation around intermediate stellar masses. (3) Many of the disks around Taurus and {rho} Oph intermediate-mass and solar-type stars evince an opacity index of {beta} {approx} 0-1, indicating significant grain growth. Of the only four VLMS/BDs in these regions with multi-wavelength measurements, three are consistent with considerable grain growth, though optically thick disks are not ruled out. (4) For the TWA VLMS (TWA 30A and B), combining our 850 {mu}m fluxes with the known accretion rates and ages suggests substantial grain growth by 10 Myr, comparable to that in the previously studied TWA cTTs Hen 3-600A and TW Hya. The degree of grain growth in the TWA BDs (2M1207A and SSPM1102) remains largely unknown. (5) A

  20. CONSTRAINED EVOLUTION OF A RADIALLY MAGNETIZED PROTOPLANETARY DISK: IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANETARY MIGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 1A7 (Canada); Thompson, Christopher [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-12-10

    We consider the inner ∼1 AU of a protoplanetary disk (PPD) at a stage where angular momentum transport is driven by the mixing of a radial magnetic field into the disk from a T Tauri wind. Because the radial profile of the imposed magnetic field is well constrained, a constrained calculation of the disk mass flow becomes possible. The vertical disk profiles obtained in Paper I imply a stronger magnetization in the inner disk, faster accretion, and a secular depletion of the disk material. Inward transport of solids allows the disk to maintain a broad optical absorption layer even when the grain abundance becomes too small to suppress its ionization. Thus, a PPD may show a strong mid- to near-infrared spectral excess even while its mass profile departs radically from the minimum-mass solar nebula. The disk surface density is buffered at ∼30 g cm{sup −2}; below this, X-rays trigger magnetorotational turbulence at the midplane strong enough to loft millimeter- to centimeter-sized particles high in the disk, followed by catastrophic fragmentation. A sharp density gradient bounds the inner depleted disk and propagates outward to ∼1–2 AU over a few megayears. Earth-mass planets migrate through the inner disk over a similar timescale, whereas the migration of Jupiters is limited by the supply of gas. Gas-mediated migration must stall outside 0.04 AU, where silicates are sublimated and the disk shifts to a much lower column. A transition disk emerges when the dust/gas ratio in the MRI-active layer falls below X{sub d} ∼ 10{sup −6} (a{sub d}/μm), where a{sub d} is the grain size.

  1. An Analytic Model for Buoyancy Resonances in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Lubow, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    Zhu, Stone, and Rafikov (2012) found in 3D shearing box simulations a new form of planet-disk interaction that they attributed to a vertical buoyancy resonance in the disk. We describe an analytic linear model for this interaction. We adopt a simplified model involving azimuthal forcing that produces the resonance and permits an analytic description of its structure. We derive an analytic expression for the buoyancy torque and show that the vertical torque distribution agrees well with results of Athena simulations and a Fourier method for linear numerical calculations carried out with the same forcing. The buoyancy resonance differs from the classic Lindblad and corotation resonances in that the resonance lies along tilted planes. Its width depends on damping effects and is independent of the gas sound speed. The resonance does not excite propagating waves. At a given large azimuthal wavenumber k_y > 1/h (for disk thickness h), the buoyancy resonance exerts a torque over a region that lies radially closer to...

  2. Protoplanetary disk masses from CO isotopologues line emission

    CERN Document Server

    Miotello, Anna; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2014-01-01

    One of the methods for deriving disk masses relies on direct observations of the gas, whose bulk mass is in the outer cold ($T\\lesssim30$K) regions. This zone can be well traced by rotational lines of less abundant CO isotopologues, that probe the gas down to the midplane. The total CO gas mass is then obtained with the isotopologue ratios taken to be constant at the elemental isotope values found in the local ISM. This approach is however imprecise, because isotope selective processes are ignored. The aim of this work is an isotopologue selective treatment of CO isotopologues, in order to obtain a more accurate determination of disk masses. The isotope-selective photodissociation, the main process controlling the abundances of CO isotopologues in the CO-emissive layer, is properly treated for the first time in a full disk model (DALI, Bruderer et al. 2012; Bruderer 2013). The chemistry, thermal balance, line and continuum radiative transfer are all considered together with a chemical network that treats $^{1...

  3. ALMA observations of a misaligned binary protoplanetary disk system in Orion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96816 (United States); Mann, Rita K.; Francesco, James Di; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hughes, A. Meredith [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Bally, John, E-mail: jpw@ifa.hawaii.edu [CASA, University of Colorado, CB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a wide binary system in Orion, with projected separation 440 AU, in which we detect submillimeter emission from the protoplanetary disks around each star. Both disks appear moderately massive and have strong line emission in CO 3-2, HCO{sup +} 4-3, and HCN 3-2. In addition, CS 7-6 is detected in one disk. The line-to-continuum ratios are similar for the two disks in each of the lines. From the resolved velocity gradients across each disk, we constrain the masses of the central stars, and show consistency with optical-infrared spectroscopy, both indicative of a high mass ratio ∼9. The small difference between the systemic velocities indicates that the binary orbital plane is close to face-on. The angle between the projected disk rotation axes is very high, ∼72°, showing that the system did not form from a single massive disk or a rigidly rotating cloud core. This finding, which adds to related evidence from disk geometries in other systems, protostellar outflows, stellar rotation, and similar recent ALMA results, demonstrates that turbulence or dynamical interactions act on small scales well below that of molecular cores during the early stages of star formation.

  4. X-rays in protoplanetary disks: their impact on the thermal and chemical structure, a grid of models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aresu, G.; Kamp, I.; Meijerink, R.; Woitke, P.; Thi, W. F.; Spaans, M.

    2011-01-01

    X-rays impact protoplanetary disks hydrostatic, thermal and chemical structure. The range of efficiency of X-rays is explored using a grid modelling approach: different parameters affects the structure of the disk, this determines different contribution of the X-ray radiation to the chemistry and th

  5. X-rays in protoplanetary disks : Their impact on the thermal and chemical structure, a grid of models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aresu, G.; Kamp, I.; Meijerink, R.; Woitke, P.; Thi, W. F.; Spaans, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    X-rays impact protoplanetary disks hydrostatic, thermal and chemical structure. The range of efficiency of X-rays is explored using a grid modelling approach: different parameters affects the structure of the disk, this determines different contribution of the X-ray radiation to the chemistry and th

  6. Far-ultraviolet and X-ray irradiated protoplanetary disks : a grid of models II. Gas diagnostic line emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Kamp, I.; Spaans, M.; Thi, W. -F.; Woitke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Most of the mass in protoplanetary disks is in the form of gas. The study of the gas and its diagnostics is of fundamental importance in order to achieve a detailed description of the thermal and chemical structure of the disk. Both radiation from the central star (from optical to X-ray wav

  7. Far-ultraviolet and X-ray irradiated protoplanetary disks: a grid of models. II. Gas diagnostic line emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Kamp, I.; Spaans, M.; Thi, W.-F.; Woitke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Most of the mass in protoplanetary disks is in the form of gas. The study of the gas and its diagnostics is of fundamental importance in order to achieve a detailed description of the thermal and chemical structure of the disk. Both radiation from the central star (from optical to X-ray wav

  8. Far-ultraviolet and X-ray irradiated protoplanetary disks: a grid of models : II. Gas diagnostic line emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aresu, G.; Meijerink, R.; Kamp, I.; Spaans, M.; Thi, W. -F; Woitke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Most of the mass in protoplanetary disks is in the form of gas. The study of the gas and its diagnostics is of fundamental importance in order to achieve a detailed description of the thermal and chemical structure of the disk. Both radiation from the central star (from optical to X-ray wav

  9. Searching for H2 emission from protoplanetary disks using near- and mid-infrared high-resolution spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, A.; van den Ancker, M.E.; Henning, T.; Pavlyuchenkov, Y.; Dullemond, C.P.; Goto, M.; Fedele, D.; Stecklum, B.; Thi, W.F.; Bouwman, J.; Waters, L.B.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    The mass and dynamics of protoplanetary disks are dominated by molecular hydrogen (H2). However, observationally very little is known about the H2. In this paper, we discuss two projects aimed to constrain the properties of H2 in the disk's planet forming region (R<50AU). First, we present a

  10. Protoplanetary Disks in the Orion OMC1 Region Imaged with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Eisner, J A; Ginsburg, A; Sheehan, P D

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the Orion Nebula that cover the OMC1 outflow region. Our focus in this paper is on compact emission from protoplanetary disks. We mosaicked a field containing $\\sim 600$ near-IR-identified young stars, around which we can search for sub-mm emission tracing dusty disks. Approximately 100 sources are known proplyds identified with HST. We detect continuum emission at 1 mm wavelengths towards $\\sim 20\\%$ of the proplyd sample, and $\\sim 8\\%$ of the larger sample of near-IR objects. The noise in our maps allows 4$\\sigma$ detection of objects brighter than $\\sim 1.5$ mJy, corresponding to protoplanetary disk masses larger than 1.5 M$_{\\rm J}$ (using standard assumptions about dust opacities and gas-to-dust ratios). None of these disks are detected in contemporaneous CO(2-1) or C$^{18}$O(2-1) observations, suggesting that the gas-to-dust ratios may be substantially smaller than the canonical value of 100. Furthermore, since dust grains may already be sequestered in large bodies in ON...

  11. Exclusion of Cosmic Rays in Protoplanetary Disks: Stellar and Magnetic Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) Cosmic rays (CRs) are thought to provide an important source of ionization in the outermost and densest regions of protoplanetary disks; however, it is unknown to what degree they are physically present. As is observed in the Solar System, stellar winds can inhibit the propagation of cosmic rays within the circumstellar environment and subsequently into the disk. In this work, we explore the hitherto neglected effects of cosmic ray modulation by both stellar winds and magnetic field structures and study how these processes act to reduce disk ionization rates. We construct a two-dimensional protoplanetary disk model of a T-Tauri star system, focusing on ionization from stellar and interstellar FUV, stellar X-ray photons, and cosmic rays. We show that stellar winds can power a Heliosphere-like analogue, i.e., a "T-Tauriosphere," diminishing cosmic ray ionization rates by several orders of magnitude at low to moderate CR energies (E_CR<1 GeV). We explore models of both the observed solar wind cosmi...

  12. The Coupled Physical Structure of Gas and Dust in the IM Lup Protoplanetary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Wilner, David J; Huang, Jane; Loomis, Ryan A; Andrews, Sean M; Czekala, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of gas and solids in protoplanetary disks determines the composition and formation efficiency of planetary systems. A number of disks show starkly different distributions for the gas and small grains compared to millimeter-centimeter sized dust. We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the dust continuum, CO, $^{13}$CO, and C$^{18}$O in the IM Lup protoplanetary disk, one of the first systems where this dust-gas dichotomy was clearly seen. The $^{12}$CO is detected out to a radius of 970 AU, while the millimeter continuum emission is truncated at just 313 AU. Based upon this data, we have built a comprehensive physical and chemical model for the disk structure, which takes into account the complex, coupled nature of the gas and dust and the interplay between the local and external environment. We constrain the distributions of gas and dust, the gas temperatures, the CO abundances, the CO optical depths, and the incident external radiation fiel...

  13. Evolution of protoplanetary disks from their taxonomy in scattered light: Group I vs. Group II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garufi, A.; Meeus, G.; Benisty, M.; Quanz, S. P.; Banzatti, A.; Kama, M.; Canovas, H.; Eiroa, C.; Schmid, H. M.; Stolker, T.; Pohl, A.; Rigliaco, E.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M. R.; van Boekel, R.; Dominik, C.

    2017-07-01

    Context. High-resolution imaging reveals a large morphological variety of protoplanetary disks. To date, no constraints on their global evolution have been found from this census. An evolutionary classification of disks was proposed based on their IR spectral energy distribution, with the Group I sources showing a prominent cold component ascribed to an earlier stage of evolution than Group II. Aims: Disk evolution can be constrained from the comparison of disks with different properties. A first attempt at disk taxonomy is now possible thanks to the increasing number of high-resolution images of Herbig Ae/Be stars becoming available. Methods: Near-IR images of six Group II disks in scattered light were obtained with VLT/NACO in polarimetric differential imaging, which is the most efficient technique for imaging the light scattered by the disk material close to the stars. We compare the stellar/disk properties of this sample with those of well-studied Group I sources available from the literature. Results: Three Group II disks are detected. The brightness distribution in the disk of HD 163296 indicates the presence of a persistent ring-like structure with a possible connection with the CO snowline. A rather compact (self-shadowed and compact). HD 163296 could be the primordial version of a typical Group I disk. Other Group II disks, like AK Sco and HD 142666, could be smaller counterparts of Group I unable to open cavities as large as those of Group I. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, under program number 095.C-0658(A).

  14. The structure of pre-transitional protoplanetary disks. I. Radiative transfer modeling of the disk+cavity in the PDS 70 system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, R.; Hashimoto, J.; Rafikov, R.; Zhu, Z.; Whitney, B.; Kudo, T.; Muto, T.; Brandt, T.; McClure, M.K.; Wisniewski, J.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Goto, M.; Grady, C.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K.W.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G.R.; Kusakabe, N.; Kuzuhara, M.; Kwon, J.; Matsuo, T.; McElwain, M.; Miyama, S.; Morino, J.-I.; Moro-Martin, A.; Nishimura, T.; Pyo, T.-S.; Serabyn, E.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takami, M.; Takato, N.; Terada, H.; Thalmann, C.; Tomono, D.; Turner, E.; Watanabe, M.; Yamada, T.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, M.

    2012-01-01

    Through detailed radiative transfer modeling, we present a disk+cavity model to simultaneously explain both the spectral energy distribution (SED) and Subaru H-band polarized light imaging for the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk PDS 70. In particular, we are able to match not only the radial de

  15. Planetary System Formation in Protoplanetary Disk around HL Tauri

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Eiji; Hayashi, Masahiko; Iguchi, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    We re-process the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) long-baseline science verification data taken toward HL Tauri. As shown by the previous work, we confirm that the high spatial resolution (~ 0."019, corresponding to ~ 2.7 AU) dust continuum images at \\lambda = 0.87, 1.3, and 2.9 mm exhibit a multiple ring-like gap structure in the circumstellar disk. Assuming that the observed gaps are opened up by currently forming, unseen bodies, we estimate the mass of such hypothetical bodies based on following two approaches; the Hill radius analysis and a more elaborated approach developed from the angular momentum transfer analysis in gas disks. For the former, the measured gap widths are used for calibrating the mass of the bodies, while for the latter, the measured gap depths are utilized. We show that their masses are likely comparable to or less than the mass of Jovian planets, and then discuss an origin of the observed gap structure. By evaluating Toomre's gravitational instability (GI) conditi...

  16. Dust-trapping Rossby vortices in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Meheut, H; Varniere, P; Benz, W

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging steps in planet formation theory is the one leading to the formation of planetesimals of kilometre size. A promising scenario involves the existence of vortices able to concentrate a large amount of dust and grains in their centres. Up to now this scenario has been studied mostly in 2D razor thin disks. A 3D study including, simultaneously, the formation and resulting dust concentration of the vortices with vertical settling, was still missing. The Rossby wave instability self-consistently forms 3D vortices, which have the unique quality of presenting a large scale vertical velocity in their centre. Here we aim to study how this newly discovered effect can alter the dynamic evolution of the dust. We perform global 3D simulations of the RWI in a radially and vertically stratified disk using the code MPI-AMRVAC. After the growth phase of the instability, the gas and solid phases are modelled by a bi-fluid approach, where the dust is considered as a fluid without pressure. Both the dr...

  17. Protoplanetary disk fragmentation with varying radiative physics, initial conditions and numerical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, Lucio

    2007-01-01

    We review recent results of SPH simulations of gravitational instability in gaseous protoplanetary disks,emphasizing the role of thermodynamics in both isolated and binary systems. Contradictory results appeared in the literature regarding disk fragmentation at tens of AU from the central star are likely due to the different treatment of radiation physics as well as reflecting different initial conditions. Further progress on the subject requires extensive comparisons between different codes with the requirement that the same initial conditions are adopted. It is discussed how the local conditions of the disks undergoing fragmentation at $R < 25$ AU in recent SPH simulations are in rough agreement with the prediction of analytical models, with small differences being likely related to the inability of analytical models to account for the dynamics and thermodynamics of three-dimensional spiral shocks. We report that radically different adaptive hydrodynamical codes, SPH and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), y...

  18. From dust to planetesimals: an improved model for collisional growth in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Garaud, Pascale; Galvagni, Marina; Olczak, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Planet formation occurs within the gas and dust rich environments of protoplanetary disks. Observations of these objects show that the growth of primordial sub micron sized particles into larger aggregates occurs at the earliest stages of the disks. However, theoretical models of particle growth that use the Smoluchowski equation to describe collisional coagulation and fragmentation have so far failed to produce large particles while maintaining a significant populations of small grains. This has been generally attributed to the existence of two barriers impeding growth due to bouncing and fragmentation of colliding particles. In this paper, we demonstrate that the importance of these barriers has been artificially inflated through the use of simplified models that do not take into account the stochastic nature of the particle motions within the gas disk. We present a new approach in which the relative velocities between two particles is described by a probability distribution function that models both determ...

  19. Reprocessing of Ices in Turbulent Protoplanetary Disks: Carbon and Nitrogen Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Furuya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We study the influence of the turbulent transport on ice chemistry in protoplanetary disks, focusing on carbon and nitrogen bearing molecules. Chemical rate equations are solved with the diffusion term, mimicking the turbulent mixing in the vertical direction. Turbulence can bring ice-coated dust grains from the midplane to the warm irradiated disk surface, and the ice mantles are reprocessed by photoreactions, thermal desorption, and surface reactions. The upward transport decreases the abundance of methanol and ammonia ices at r < 30 AU, because warm dust temperature prohibits their reformation on grain surfaces. This reprocessing could explain the smaller abundances of carbon and nitrogen bearing molecules in cometary coma than those in low-mass protostellar envelopes. We also show the effect of mixing on the synthesis of complex organic molecules (COMs) are two ways: (1) transport of ices from the midplane to the disk surface and (2) transport of atomic hydrogen from the surface to the midplane. The fo...

  20. A Possible Mechanism for Overcoming the Electrostatic Barrier Against Dust Growth in Protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Akimkin, V

    2015-01-01

    The coagulation of dust particles under the conditions in protoplanetary disks is investigated. The study focuses on the repulsive electrostatic barrier against growth of charged dust grains. Taking into account the photoelectric effect leads to the appearance of a layer at intermediate heights where the dust has a close to zero charge, enabling the dust grains to grow efficiently. An increase in the coagulation rate comes about not only due to the lowering of the Coulomb barrier, but also because of the electrostatic attraction between grains of opposite charge due to the non-zero dispersion of the near-zero charge. Depending on the efficiency of mixing in the disk, the acceleration of the evolution of the dust in this layer could be important, both in the quasi-stationary stage of the disk evolution and during its dispersal.

  1. Spiral Arms in Gravitationally Unstable Protoplanetary Disks as Imaged in Scattered Light

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Ruobing; Rice, Ken; Chiang, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Combining 3D smoothed-particle hydrodynamics and Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations, we examine the morphology of spiral density waves induced by gravitational instability (GI) in protoplanetary disks, as they would appear in direct images at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. We find that systems with disk-to-star-mass ratios q=M_disk/M_star that are ~0.25 or more may produce prominent spiral arms in NIR imaging, remarkably resembling features observed in the MWC 758 and SAO 206462 systems. The contrast of GI-induced arms at NIR wavelengths can reach a factor of ~3, and their pitch angles are about 10-15 degree. The dominant azimuthal wavenumber of GI-induced spiral arms roughly obeys m~1/q in the range 2~0.25; and that the accretion rate Mdot be high, on the order of 1e-6 solar mass per year.

  2. Gaps in the HD169142 protoplanetary disk revealed by polarimetric imaging: Signs of ongoing planet formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Quanz, Sascha P; Buenzli, Esther; Garufi, Antonio; Schmid, Hans Martin; Wolf, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    We present H-band VLT/NACO polarized light images of the Herbig Ae/Be star HD169142 probing its protoplanetary disk as close as ~0.1" to the star. Our images trace the face-on disk out to ~1.7" (~250 AU) and reveal distinct sub-structures for the first time: 1) the inner disk (<20 AU) appears to be depleted in scattering dust grains; 2) an unresolved disk rim is imaged at ~25 AU; 3) an annular gap extends from ~40 - 70 AU; 4) local brightness asymmetries are found on opposite sides of the annular gap. We discuss different explanations for the observed morphology among which ongoing planet formation is a tempting - but yet to be proven - one. Outside of ~85 AU the surface brightness drops off roughly r^{-3.3}, but describing the disk regions between 85-120 AU / 120-250 AU separately with power-laws r^{-2.6} / r^{-3.9} provides a better fit hinting towards another discontinuity in the disk surface. The flux ratio between the disk integrated polarized light and the central star is ~4.1 * 10^{-3}. Finally, com...

  3. ON THE COMMONALITY OF 10–30 AU SIZED AXISYMMETRIC DUST STRUCTURES IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ke; Bergin, Edwin A.; Schwarz, Kamber R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Blake, Geoffrey A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MC 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cleeves, L. Ilsedore [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hogerheijde, Michiel; Salinas, Vachail, E-mail: kezhang@umich.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-02-10

    An unsolved problem in step-wise core-accretion planet formation is that rapid radial drift in gas-rich protoplanetary disks should drive millimeter-/meter-sized particles inward to the central star before large bodies can form. One promising solution is to confine solids within small-scale structures. Here, we investigate dust structures in the (sub)millimeter continuum emission of four disks (TW Hya, HL Tau, HD 163296, and DM Tau), a sample of disks with the highest spatial resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations to date. We retrieve the surface brightness distributions using synthesized images and fitting visibilities with analytical functions. We find that the continuum emission of the four disks is ∼axisymmetric but rich in 10–30 AU-sized radial structures, possibly due to physical gaps, surface density enhancements, or localized dust opacity variations within the disks. These results suggest that small-scale axisymmetric dust structures are likely to be common, as a result of ubiquitous processes in disk evolution and planet formation. Compared with recent spatially resolved observations of CO snow lines in these same disks, all four systems show enhanced continuum emission from regions just beyond the CO condensation fronts, potentially suggesting a causal relationship between dust growth/trapping and snow lines.

  4. Evidence for a Snow Line Beyond the Transitional Radius in the TW Hya Protoplanetary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, K; Salyk, C; Blake, G A

    2013-01-01

    We present an observational reconstruction of the radial water vapor content near the surface of the TW Hya transitional protoplanetary disk, and report the first localization of the snow line during this phase of disk evolution. The observations are comprised of Spitzer-IRS, Herschel-PACS, and Herschel-HIFI archival spectra. The abundance structure is retrieved by fitting a two-dimensional disk model to the available star+disk photometry and all observed H2O lines, using a simple step-function parameterization of the water vapor content near the disk surface. We find that water vapor is abundant (~10^{-4} per H2) in a narrow ring, located at the disk transition radius some 4AU from the central star, but drops rapidly by several orders of magnitude beyond 4.2 AU over a scale length of no more than 0.5AU. The inner disk (0.5-4AU) is also dry, with an upper limit on the vertically averaged water abundance of 10^{-6} per H2. The water vapor peak occurs at a radius significantly more distant than that expected fo...

  5. Coupling protoplanetary disk formation with early protostellar evolution: influence on planet traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Kevin; Piau, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Protoplanetary disk structures are known to be shaped by various thermal and compositional effects such as (though not limited to) shadowed regions, sublimation lines, density bumps... The resulting irregularities in the surface mass density and temperature profiles are key elements to determine the location where planetary embryos can be trapped. These traps provide hints of which planets are most likely to survive, at what distance from the star, and potentially with what composition (Baillié, Charnoz, Pantin, 2015, A&A 577, A65; Baillié, Charnoz, Pantin, 2016, A&A 590, A60). These structures are determined by the viscous spreading of the disk, that is initially formed by the collapse of the molecular cloud.Starting from the numerical hydrodynamical model detailed in Baillié & Charnoz., 2014, ApJ 786, 35 which couples the disk thermodynamics, its photosphere geometry, its dynamics and its dust composition in order to follow its long-term evolution, we now consider the early stages of the central star. We model the joint formation of the disk and the star: their mass are directly derived from the collapse of the molecular cloud while the star temperature, radius and brightness are interpolated over pre-calculated stellar evolutions. Therefore, our simulations no longer depend on the initial profile of the "Minimum Mass Solar Nebula", and allow us to model the influence of the forming star on the protoplanetary disk. In particular, we will present the resulting distribution of the sublimation lines of the main dust species, as well as the locations of the planet traps at various disk ages. In the longer term, we intend to investigate the influence of the star properties on the selection of the surviving planets.

  6. MRI-driven angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Fromang, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    Angular momentum transport in accretion disk has been the focus of intense research in theoretical astrophysics for many decades. In the past twenty years, MHD turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability has emerged as an efficient mechanism to achieve that goal. Yet, many questions and uncertainties remain, among which the saturation level of the turbulence. The consequences of the magnetorotational instability for planet formation models are still being investigated. This lecture, given in September 2012 at the school "Role and mechanisms of angular momentum transport in the formation and early evolution of stars" in Aussois (France), aims at introducing the historical developments, current status and outstanding questions related to the magnetorotational instability that are currently at the forefront of academic research.

  7. MRI-driven angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromang, S.

    2013-09-01

    Angular momentum transport in accretion disk has been the focus of intense research in theoretical astrophysics for many decades. In the past twenty years, MHD turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability has emerged as an efficient mechanism to achieve that goal. Yet, many questions and uncertainties remain, among which the saturation level of the turbulence. The consequences of the magnetorotational instability for planet formation models are still being investigated. This lecture, given in September 2012 at the school "Role and mechanisms of angular momentum transport in the formation and early evolution of stars" in Aussois (France), aims at introducing the historical developments, current status and outstanding questions related to the magnetorotational instability that are currently at the forefront of academic research.

  8. Tomographic Sounding of Protoplanetary and Transitional Disks: Using Inner Disk Variability at Near to Mid-IR Wavelengths to Probe Conditions in the Outer Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. A.; Sitko, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Spitzer synoptic monitoring of young stellar associations has demonstrated that variability among young stars and their disks is ubiquitous. The Spitzer studies have been limited by target visibility windows and cover only a short temporal baseline in years. A complementary approach is to focus on stars chosen for high-value observations (e.g. high-contrast imaging, interferometry, or access to wavelengths which are difficult to achieve from the ground) where the synoptic data can augment the imagery or interferometry as well as probing disk structure. In this talk, we discuss how synoptic data for two protoplanetary disks, MWC 480 and HD 163296, constrain the dust disk scale height, account for variable disk illumination, and can be used to locate emission features, such as the IR bands commonly associated with PAHs in the disk, as part of our SOFIA cycle 1 study. Similar variability is now known for several pre-transitional disks, where synoptic data can be used to identify inner disks which are not coplanar with the outer disk, and which may be relicts of giant planet-giant planet scattering events. Despite the logistical difficulties in arranging supporting, coordinated observations in tandem with high-value observations, such data have allowed us to place imagery in context, constrained structures in inner disks not accessible to direct imagery, and may be a tool for identifying systems where planet scattering events have occurred.

  9. Shielding by Water and OH in FUV and X-ray Irradiated Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Najita, Joan R

    2014-01-01

    We present an integrated thermal-chemical model for the atmosphere of the inner region of a protoplanetary disk that includes irradiation by both far ultraviolet (FUV) and X-ray radiation. We focus on how the photodissociation of water and OH affects the abundances of these and related species and how it contributes to the heating of the atmosphere. The dust in the atmosphere plays several important roles, primarily as the site of H$_2$ formation and by absorbing the FUV. Large amounts of water can be synthesized within the inner 4 AU of a disk around a typical classical T~Tauri star. OH is found primarily at the top of a warm region where the gas temperature is $T_g \\approx 650 - 1000$ K and water below it where the temperature is lower, $T_g \\approx 250 - 650$ K. The amounts of water and OH and the temperatures of the regions in which they formed are in agreement with recent Spitzer measurements and support the notion of it in situ production of water in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks. We find th...

  10. Dust evolution in protoplanetary disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars - The Spitzer view

    CERN Document Server

    Juhasz, A; Henning, Th; Acke, B; Ancker, M E van den; Meeus, G; Dominik, C; Min, M; Tielens, A G G M; Waters, L B F M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present mid-infrared spectra of a comprehensive set of Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The signal-to-noise ratio of these spectra is very high, ranging between about a hundred and several hundreds. During the analysis of these data we tested the validity of standard protoplanetary dust models and studied grain growth and crystal formation. On the basis of the analyzed spectra, the major constituents of protoplanetary dust around Herbig Ae/Be stars are amorphous silicates with olivine and pyroxene stoichiometry, crystalline forsterite and enstatite and silica. No other solid state features, indicating other abundant dust species, are present in the Spitzer spectra. Deviations of the synthetic spectra from the observations are most likely related to grain shape effects and uncertainties in the iron content of the dust grains. Our analysis revealed that larger grains are more abundant in the disk atmosphere of flatter disks than in that of flared disks, indicating t...

  11. Influence of the C/O ratio on titanium and vanadium oxides in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ali-Dib, M; Pekmezci, G S; Lunine, J I; Madhusudhan, N; Petit, J -M

    2013-01-01

    Context. The observation of carbon-rich disks have motivated several studies questioning the influence of the C/O ratio on their gas phase composition in order to establish the connection between the metallicity of hot-Jupiters and that of their parent stars. Aims. We to propose a method that allows the characterization of the adopted C/O ratio in protoplanetary disks independently from the determination of the host star composition. Titanium and vanadium chemistries are investigated because they are strong optical absorbers and also because their oxides are known to be sensitive to the C/O ratio in some exoplanet atmospheres. Methods. We use a commercial package based on the Gibbs energy minimization technique to compute the titanium and vanadium equilibrium chemistries in protoplanetary disks for C/O ratios ranging from 0.05 to 10. Our calculations are performed for pressures ranging from 1e-6 to 1e-2 bar, and for temperatures ranging from 50 to 2000 K. Results. We find that the vanadium nitride/vanadium ox...

  12. A New Raytracer for Modeling AU-Scale Imaging of Lines from Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Meijerink, Rowin; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2009-10-01

    The material that formed the present-day solar system originated in feeding zones in the inner solar nebula located at distances within ~20 AU from the Sun, known as the planet-forming zone. Meteoritic and cometary material contain abundant evidence for the presence of a rich and active chemistry in the planet-forming zone during the gas-rich phase of solar system formation. It is a natural conjecture that analogs can be found among the zoo of protoplanetary disks around nearby young stars. The study of the chemistry and dynamics of planet formation requires: (1) tracers of dense gas at 100-1000 K and (2) imaging capabilities of such tracers with 5-100 mas (0.5-20 AU) resolution, corresponding to the planet-forming zone at the distance of the closest star-forming regions. Recognizing that the rich infrared (2-200 μm) molecular spectrum recently discovered to be common in protoplanetary disks represents such a tracer, we present a new general ray-tracing code, RADLite, that is optimized for producing infrared line spectra and images from axisymmetric structures. RADLite can consistently deal with a wide range of velocity gradients, such as those typical for the inner regions of protoplanetary disks. The code is intended as a back-end for chemical and excitation codes, and can rapidly produce spectra of thousands of lines for grids of models for comparison with observations. Such radiative transfer tools will be crucial for constraining both the structure and chemistry of planet-forming regions, including data from current infrared imaging spectrometers and extending to the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes, the James Webb Space Telescope and beyond.

  13. Stellar energetic particle ionization in protoplanetary disks around T Tauri stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rab, Ch.; Güdel, M.; Padovani, M.; Kamp, I.; Thi, W.-F.; Woitke, P.; Aresu, G.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Anomalies in the abundance measurements of short lived radionuclides in meteorites indicate that the protosolar nebulae was irradiated by a large number of energetic particles (E ≳ 10 MeV). The particle flux of the contemporary Sun cannot explain these anomalies. However, similar to T Tauri stars the young Sun was more active and probably produced enough high energy particles to explain those anomalies. Aims: We aim to study the interaction of stellar energetic particles with the gas component of the disk (i.e. ionization of molecular hydrogen) and identify possible observational tracers of this interaction. Methods: We used a 2D radiation thermo-chemical protoplanetary disk code to model a disk representative for T Tauri stars. We used a particle energy distribution derived from solar flare observations and an enhanced stellar particle flux proposed for T Tauri stars. For this particle spectrum we calculated the stellar particle ionization rate throughout the disk with an accurate particle transport model. We studied the impact of stellar particles for models with varying X-ray and cosmic-ray ionization rates. Results: We find that stellar particle ionization has a significant impact on the abundances of the common disk ionization tracers HCO+ and N2H+, especially in models with low cosmic-ray ionization rates (e.g. 10-19 s-1 for molecular hydrogen). In contrast to cosmic rays and X-rays, stellar particles cannot reach the midplane of the disk. Therefore molecular ions residing in the disk surface layers are more affected by stellar particle ionization than molecular ions tracing the cold layers and midplane of the disk. Conclusions: Spatially resolved observations of molecular ions tracing different vertical layers of the disk allow to disentangle the contribution of stellar particle ionization from other competing ionization sources. Modelling such observations with a model like the one presented here allows to constrain the stellar particle flux in

  14. RADIONUCLIDE IONIZATION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: CALCULATIONS OF DECAY PRODUCT RADIATIVE TRANSFER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleeves, L. Ilsedore; Adams, Fred C.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Visser, Ruud [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We present simple analytic solutions for the ionization rate ζ{sub SLR} arising from the decay of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) within protoplanetary disks. We solve the radiative transfer problem for the decay products within the disk, and thereby allow for the loss of radiation at low disk surface densities; energy loss becomes important outside R ∼> 30 AU for typical disk masses M{sub g} = 0.04 M{sub ☉}. Previous studies of chemistry/physics in these disks have neglected the impact of ionization by SLRs, and often consider only cosmic rays (CRs), because of the high CR-rate present in the interstellar medium. However, recent work suggests that the flux of CRs present in the circumstellar environment could be substantially reduced by relatively modest stellar winds, resulting in severely modulated CR ionization rates, ζ{sub CR}, equal to or substantially below that of SLRs (ζ{sub SLR} ∼< 10{sup –18} s{sup –1}). We compute the net ionizing particle fluxes and corresponding ionization rates as a function of position within the disk for a variety of disk models. The resulting expressions are especially simple for the case of vertically Gaussian disks (frequently assumed in the literature). Finally, we provide a power-law fit to the ionization rate in the midplane as a function of gas disk surface density and time. Depending on location in the disk, the ionization rates by SLRs are typically in the range ζ{sub SLR} ∼ (1-10) × 10{sup –19} s{sup –1}.

  15. Global simulations of protoplanetary disks with net magnetic flux. I. Non-ideal MHD case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béthune, William; Lesur, Geoffroy; Ferreira, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Context. The planet-forming region of protoplanetary disks is cold, dense, and therefore weakly ionized. For this reason, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is thought to be mostly absent, and another mechanism has to be found to explain gas accretion. It has been proposed that magnetized winds, launched from the ionized disk surface, could drive accretion in the presence of a large-scale magnetic field. Aims: The efficiency and the impact of these surface winds on the disk structure is still highly uncertain. We present the first global simulations of a weakly ionized disk that exhibits large-scale magnetized winds. We also study the impact of self-organization, which was previously demonstrated only in non-stratified models. Methods: We perform numerical simulations of stratified disks with the PLUTO code. We compute the ionization fraction dynamically, and account for all three non-ideal MHD effects: ohmic and ambipolar diffusions, and the Hall drift. Simplified heating and cooling due to non-thermal radiation is also taken into account in the disk atmosphere. Results: We find that disks can be accreting or not, depending on the configuration of the large-scale magnetic field. Magnetothermal winds, driven both by magnetic acceleration and heating of the atmosphere, are obtained in the accreting case. In some cases, these winds are asymmetric, ejecting predominantly on one side of the disk. The wind mass loss rate depends primarily on the average ratio of magnetic to thermal pressure in the disk midplane. The non-accreting case is characterized by a meridional circulation, with accretion layers at the disk surface and decretion in the midplane. Finally, we observe self-organization, resulting in axisymmetric rings of density and associated pressure "bumps". The underlying mechanism and its impact on observable structures are discussed.

  16. Accretion timescales and style of asteroidal differentiation in an 26Al-poor protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Kolbjørn; Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , intrinsically linked to the thermal evolution of early-formed planetesimals. In this paper, we explore the timing and style of asteroidal differentiation by combining high-precision Mg isotope measurements of meteorites with thermal evolution models for planetesimals. In detail, we report Mg isotope data...... the source rock. We propose that their parent planetesimals started forming within ~250,000years of solar system formation from a hot (>~500K) inner protoplanetary disk region characterized by a reduced initial (26Al/27Al)0 abundance (~1-2×10-5) relative to the (26Al/27Al)0 value in CAIs of 5...

  17. Generation of dynamo magnetic fields in protoplanetary and other astrophysical accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Levy, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    A computational method for treating the generation of dynamo magnetic fields in astrophysical disks is presented. The numerical difficulty of handling the boundary condition at infinity in the cylindrical disk geometry is overcome by embedding the disk in a spherical computational space and matching the solutions to analytically tractable spherical functions in the surrounding space. The lowest lying dynamo normal modes for a 'thick' astrophysical disk are calculated. The generated modes found are all oscillatory and spatially localized. Tha potential implications of the results for the properties of dynamo magnetic fields in real astrophysical disks are discussed.

  18. Generation of dynamo magnetic fields in protoplanetary and other astrophysical accretion disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, T.F.; Levy, E.H.

    1988-08-01

    A computational method for treating the generation of dynamo magnetic fields in astrophysical disks is presented. The numerical difficulty of handling the boundary condition at infinity in the cylindrical disk geometry is overcome by embedding the disk in a spherical computational space and matching the solutions to analytically tractable spherical functions in the surrounding space. The lowest lying dynamo normal modes for a thick astrophysical disk are calculated. The generated modes found are all oscillatory and spatially localized. Tha potential implications of the results for the properties of dynamo magnetic fields in real astrophysical disks are discussed. 30 references.

  19. Hall-effect Controlled Gas Dynamics in Protoplanetary Disks: II. Full 3D Simulations toward the Outer Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2014-01-01

    We perform 3D stratified shearing-box MHD simulations on the gas dynamics of protoplanetary disks threaded by net vertical magnetic field Bz. All three non-ideal MHD effects, Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion are included in a self-consistent manner based on equilibrium chemistry. We focus on regions toward outer disk radii, from 5-60AU, where Ohmic resistivity tends to become negligible, ambipolar diffusion dominates over an extended region across disk height, and the Hall effect largely controls the dynamics near the disk midplane. We find that around R=5AU, the system launches a laminar/weakly turbulent magnetocentrifugal wind when the net vertical field Bz is not too weak, as expected. Moreover, the wind is able to achieve and maintain a configuration with reflection symmetry at disk midplane. The case with anti-aligned field polarity (Omega. Bz<0) is more susceptible to the MRI when Bz drops, leading to an outflow oscillating in radial directions and very inefficient angular m...

  20. Submillimeter polarization observation of the protoplanetary disk around HD 142527

    CERN Document Server

    Kataoka, Akimasa; Momose, Munetake; Nagai, Hiroshi; Muto, Takayuki; Dullemond, Cornelis P; Pohl, Adriana; Fukagawa, Misato; Shibai, Hiroshi; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Murakawa, Koji

    2016-01-01

    We present the polarization observations toward the circumstellar disk around HD 142527 by using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at the frequency of 343 GHz. The beam size is $0.51 " \\times 0.44 "$, which corresponds to the spatial resolution of $\\sim$ 71 $\\times$ 62 AU. The polarized intensity displays a ring-like structure with a peak located on the east side with a polarization fraction of $P= 3.26 \\pm 0.02$ %, which is different from the peak of the continuum emission from the northeast region. The polarized intensity is significantly weaker at the peak of the continuum where $P= 0.220 \\pm 0.010$ %. The polarization vectors are in the radial direction in the main ring of the polarized intensity, while there are two regions outside at the northwest and northeast areas where the vectors are in the azimuthal direction. If the polarization vectors represent the magnetic field morphology, the polarization vectors indicate the toroidal magnetic field configuration on the main ring and the po...

  1. A "tsunami" in the protoplanetary disk of SV Cep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenavrin, V. I.; Grinin, V. P.; Rostopchina-Shakhovskaya, A. N.; Demidova, T. V.; Shakhovskoi, D. N.; Belan, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    The results of 15 years of photometric observations of the UX Ori star SV Cep in the near-infrared ( JHKL) are presented. They demonstrate the presence of a cyclic component with a period of 7 years in the variations of the IR fluxes. This is clearly seen in all four IR bands, but is absent in the optical. The variation amplitude is highest in the K band: Δ K ≈ 0.68 m . The shape of the variations differs slightly in the transition from J to L. However, it is reproduced with good accuracy during two cycles, suggesting a periodic process is observed. If the periodic perturbations in the circumstellar disk of SV Cep are due to a companion's orbitalmotion, the orbital semi-major axis should be 5AU, foramass of SVCep of 2.6 M ⊙. The absence of a seven-year period in the optical light curve of SV Cep means that the observed period cannot be due to variations in the circumstellar extinction. The IR brightness variations could be due to the companion's motion along an eccentric orbit, resulting in a periodic modulation of the rate of accretion onto the star.

  2. HALL EFFECT CONTROLLED GAS DYNAMICS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. FULL 3D SIMULATIONS TOWARD THE OUTER DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue-Ning, E-mail: xbai@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We perform three-dimensional stratified shearing-box magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations on the gas dynamics of protoplanetary disks with a net vertical magnetic flux of B {sub z0}. All three nonideal MHD effects, Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect, and ambipolar diffusion, are included in a self-consistent manner based on equilibrium chemistry. We focus on regions toward outer disk radii, from 5 to 60 AU, where Ohmic resistivity tends to become negligible, ambipolar diffusion dominates over an extended region across the disk height, and the Hall effect largely controls the dynamics near the disk midplane. We find that at around R = 5 AU the system launches a laminar or weakly turbulent magnetocentrifugal wind when the net vertical field B {sub z0} is not too weak. Moreover, the wind is able to achieve and maintain a configuration with reflection symmetry at the disk midplane. The case with anti-aligned field polarity (Ω⋅B{sub z0}<0) is more susceptible to the magnetorotational instability (MRI) when B {sub z0} decreases, leading to an outflow oscillating in radial directions and very inefficient angular momentum transport. At the outer disk around and beyond R = 30 AU, the system shows vigorous MRI turbulence in the surface layer due to far-UV ionization, which efficiently drives disk accretion. The Hall effect affects the stability of the midplane region to the MRI, leading to strong/weak Maxwell stress for aligned/anti-aligned field polarities. Nevertheless, the midplane region is only very weakly turbulent in both cases. Overall, the basic picture is analogous to the conventional layered accretion scenario applied to the outer disk. In addition, we find that the vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated into thin, azimuthally extended shells in most of our simulations beyond 15 AU, leading to enhanced radial density variations know as zonal flows. Theoretical implications and observational consequences are briefly discussed.

  3. No evidence for protoplanetary disk destruction by OB stars in the MYStIX sample

    CERN Document Server

    Richert, Alexander J W; Getman, Konstantin V; Kuhn, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    HST images of proplyds in the Orion Nebula, as well as submillimeter/radio measurements, show that the dominant O7 star Theta1 Ori C photoevaporates nearby disks around pre-main sequence stars. Theory predicts that massive stars photoevaporate disks within distances of order 0.1 pc. These findings suggest that young, OB-dominated massive H II regions are inhospitable to the survival of protoplanetary disks, and subsequently to the formation and evolution of planets. In the current work, we test this hypothesis using large samples of pre-main sequence stars in 20 massive star-forming regions selected with X-ray and infrared photometry in the MYStIX survey. Complete disk destruction would lead to a deficit of cluster members with excess in JHKs and Spitzer/IRAC bands in the vicinity of O stars. In four MYStIX regions containing O stars and a sufficient surface density of disk-bearing sources to reliably test for spatial avoidance, we find no evidence for the depletion of inner disks around pre-main sequence sta...

  4. Surface geometry of protoplanetary disks inferred from near-infrared imaging polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takami, Michihiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Gu, Pin-Gao; Karr, Jennifer L.; Chapillon, Edwige; Tang, Ya-Wen [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Muto, Takayuki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan); Dong, Ruobing [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hashimoto, Jun [H. L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St. Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kusakabe, Nobuyuki; Akiyama, Eiji; Kwon, Jungmi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Itoh, Youchi [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Carson, Joseph [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Follette, Katherine B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mayama, Satoshi [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Sitko, Michael [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Janson, Markus [Astrophysics Research Center, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96402 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki, E-mail: hiro@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Subaru Telescope, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    We present a new method of analysis for determining the surface geometry of five protoplanetary disks observed with near-infrared imaging polarimetry using Subaru-HiCIAO. Using as inputs the observed distribution of polarized intensity (PI), disk inclination, assumed properties for dust scattering, and other reasonable approximations, we calculate a differential equation to derive the surface geometry. This equation is numerically integrated along the distance from the star at a given position angle. We show that, using these approximations, the local maxima in the PI distribution of spiral arms (SAO 206462, MWC 758) and rings (2MASS J16042165-2130284, PDS 70) are associated with local concave-up structures on the disk surface. We also show that the observed presence of an inner gap in scattered light still allows the possibility of a disk surface that is parallel to the light path from the star, or a disk that is shadowed by structures in the inner radii. Our analysis for rings does not show the presence of a vertical inner wall as often assumed in studies of disks with an inner gap. Finally, we summarize the implications of spiral and ring structures as potential signatures of ongoing planet formation.

  5. The mid-IR water and silicate relation in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Antonellini, S; Kamp, I; Riviere-Marichalar, P; Lahuis, F; Thi, W -F; Woitke, P; Meijerink, R; Aresu, G; Spaans, M

    2016-01-01

    Mid-IR water lines from protoplanetary disks around T Tauri stars have a detection rate of 50\\%. Models have identified multiple physical properties of disks such as dust-to-gas mass ratio, dust size power law distribution, disk gas mass, disk inner radius, and disk scale height as potential explanation for the current detection rate. We search for a connection between mid-IR water line fluxes and the strength of the 10~$\\mu$m silicate feature. We analyse observed water line fluxes from three blends and compute the 10~$\\mu$m silicate feature strength from Spitzer spectra. We use a series of published models, exploring disk dust and gas properties, and the effects of different stars. The models also show that the increasing stellar luminosity enhance simultaneously the strength of this dust feature and the water lines fluxes. No correlation is found between the observed mid-IR water lines and the 10~$\\mu$m silicate. Our sample shows the same difference in the peak strength between amorphous and crystalline sil...

  6. Volatile carbon locking and release in protoplanetary disks. A study of TW Hya and HD 100546

    CERN Document Server

    Kama, M; van Dishoeck, E F; Hogerheijde, M; Folsom, C P; Miotello, A; Fedele, D; Belloche, A; Güsten, R; Wyrowski, F

    2016-01-01

    The composition of planetary solids and gases is largely rooted in the processing of volatile elements in protoplanetary disks. To shed light on the key processes, we carry out a comparative analysis of the gas-phase carbon abundance in two systems with a similar age and disk mass, but different central stars: HD 100546 and TW Hya. We combine our recent detections of C$^{0}$ in these disks with observations of other carbon reservoirs (CO, C$^{+}$, C$_{2}$H) and gas mass and warm gas tracers (HD, O$^{0}$), as well as spatially resolved ALMA observations and the spectral energy distribution. The disks are modelled with the DALI 2D physical-chemical code. Stellar abundances for HD 100546 are derived from archival spectra. Upper limits on HD emission from HD 100546 place an upper limit on the total disk mass of $\\leq0.1\\,M_{\\odot}$. The gas-phase carbon abundance in the atmosphere of this warm Herbig disk is at most moderately depleted compared to the interstellar medium, with [C]/[H]$_{\\rm gas}=(0.1-1.5)\\times 1...

  7. On the Commonality of 10-30AU Sized Axisymmetric Dust Structures in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ke; Blake, Geoffrey A; Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Salinas, Vachail; Schwarz, Kamber R

    2016-01-01

    An unsolved problem in step-wise core-accretion planet formation is that rapid radial drift in gas-rich protoplanetary disks should drive mm-/meter-sized particles inward to the central star before large bodies can form. One promising solution is to confine solids within small scale structures. Here we investigate dust structures in the (sub)mm continuum emission of four disks (TW Hya, HL Tau, HD 163296 and DM Tau), a sample of disks with the highest spatial resolution ALMA observations to date. We retrieve the surface brightness distributions using synthesized images and fitting visibilities with analytical functions. We find that the continuum emission of the four disks is ~axi-symmetric but rich in 10-30AU-sized radial structures, possibly due to physical gaps, surface density enhancements or localized dust opacity variations within the disks. These results suggest that small scale axi-symmetric dust structures are likely to be common, as a result of ubiquitous processes in disk evolution and planet format...

  8. WEAK TURBULENCE IN THE HD 163296 PROTOPLANETARY DISK REVEALED BY ALMA CO OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaherty, Kevin M.; Hughes, A. Meredith [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chiang, Eugene; Kerzner, Skylar [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, 307 McCone Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Simon, Jacob B. [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2015-11-10

    Turbulence can transport angular momentum in protoplanetary disks and influence the growth and evolution of planets. With spatially and spectrally resolved molecular emission line measurements provided by (sub)millimeter interferometric observations, it is possible to directly measure non-thermal motions in the disk gas that can be attributed to this turbulence. We report a new constraint on the turbulence in the disk around HD 163296, a nearby young A star, determined from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array Science Verification observations of four CO emission lines (the CO(3-2), CO(2-1), {sup 13}CO(2-1), and C{sup 18}O(2-1) transitions). The different optical depths for these lines permit probes of non-thermal line-widths at a range of physical conditions (temperature and density) and depths into the disk interior. We derive stringent limits on the non-thermal motions in the upper layers of the outer disk such that any contribution to the line-widths from turbulence is <3% of the local sound speed. These limits are approximately an order of magnitude lower than theoretical predictions for full-blown magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability, potentially suggesting that this mechanism is less efficient in the outer (R ≳ 30 AU) disk than has been previously considered.

  9. Evolution of protoplanetary disks: Constraints from DM Tauri and GM Aurigae

    CERN Document Server

    Hueso, R; Hueso, Ricardo; Guillot, Tristan

    2005-01-01

    We present a one-dimensional model of the formation and viscous evolution of protoplanetary disks. The formation of the early disk is modeled as the result of the gravitational collapse of an isothermal molecular cloud. The disk's viscous evolution is integrated according to two parameterizations of turbulence: The classical $\\alpha$ representation and a $\\beta$ parameterization, representative of non-linear turbulence driven by the keplerian shear. We apply the model to DM Tau and GM Aur, two classical T-Tauri stars with relatively well-characterized disks, retrieving the evolution of their surface density with time. We perform a systematic Monte-Carlo exploration of the parameter space (i.e. values of the $\\alpha$-$\\beta$ parameters, and of the temperature and rotation rate in the molecular cloud) to find the values that are compatible with the observed disk surface density distribution, star and disk mass, age and present accretion rate. We find that the observations for DM Tau require $0.001<\\alpha<...

  10. Crystalline silicates and dust processing in the protoplanetary disks of the Taurus young cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Dan M; Furlan, Elise; Bohac, J; Sargent, B; Forrest, W J; Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Nordhaus, Jason T; Green, Joel D; Kim, K H; Sloan, G C; Chen, C H; Keller, L D; dAlessio, Paola; Najita, J; Uchida, Keven I; Houck, J R

    2007-01-01

    We characterize the crystalline silicate content and spatial distribution of small dust grains in a large sample of protoplanetary disks in the Taurus-Auriga young cluster, using Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared spectra. In turn we use the results to analyze the evolution of structure and composition of these 1-2 Myr-old disks around Solar- and later-type young stars, and test the standard models of dust processing which result in the conversion of originally amorphous dust into minerals. We find strong evidence of evolution of the dust crystalline mass fraction in parallel with that of the structure of the disks, in the sense that increasing crystalline mass fraction is strongly linked to dust settling to the disk midplane. We also confirm that the crystalline silicates are confined to small radii, r < 10 AU. However, we see no significant correlation of crystalline mass fraction with stellar mass or luminosity, stellar accretion rate, disk mass, or disk/star mass ratio, as would be expected in the st...

  11. The molecular composition of the planet-forming regions of protoplanetary disks across the luminosity regime

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) Near- to mid-IR observations of protoplanetary disks show that the inner regions (<10AU) are rich in small organic volatiles (e.g., C2H2 and HCN). Trends in the data suggest that disks around cooler stars (~3000K) are potentially more carbon- and molecule-rich than their hotter counterparts. Our aims are to explore the composition of the planet-forming region of disks around stars from M dwarf to Herbig Ae and compare with the observed trends. Models of the disk physical structure are coupled with a gas-grain chemical network to map the abundances in the planet-forming zone. N2 self shielding, X-ray-induced chemistry, and initial abundances, are investigated. The composition in the 'observable' atmosphere is compared with that in the midplane where the planet-building reservoir resides. M dwarf disk atmospheres are relatively more molecule rich than those for T Tauri or Herbig Ae disks. The weak far-UV flux helps retain this complexity which is enhanced by X-ray-induced ion-molecule chemistry. N...

  12. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks. I. Dust and Gas Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; van der Marel, N.; Carpenter, J. M.; Guidi, G.; Hogerheijde, M.; Mathews, G. S.; Manara, C. F.; Miotello, A.; Natta, A.; Oliveira, I.; Tazzari, M.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; van Terwisga, S. E.

    2016-09-01

    We present the first high-resolution sub-millimeter survey of both dust and gas for a large population of protoplanetary disks. Characterizing fundamental properties of protoplanetary disks on a statistical level is critical to understanding how disks evolve into the diverse exoplanet population. We use the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to survey 89 protoplanetary disks around stars with {M}* \\gt 0.1 {M}⊙ in the young (1-3 Myr), nearby (150-200 pc) Lupus complex. Our observations cover the 890 μm continuum and the 13CO and C18O 3-2 lines. We use the sub-millimeter continuum to constrain {M}{{dust}} to a few Martian masses (0.2-0.4 M ⊕) and the CO isotopologue lines to constrain {M}{{gas}} to roughly a Jupiter mass (assuming an interstellar medium (ISM)-like [{CO}]/[{{{H}}}2] abundance). Of 89 sources, we detect 62 in continuum, 36 in 13CO, and 11 in C18O at \\gt 3σ significance. Stacking individually undetected sources limits their average dust mass to ≲ 6 Lunar masses (0.03 M ⊕), indicating rapid evolution once disk clearing begins. We find a positive correlation between {M}{{dust}} and M *, and present the first evidence for a positive correlation between {M}{{gas}} and M *, which may explain the dependence of giant planet frequency on host star mass. The mean dust mass in Lupus is 3× higher than in Upper Sco, while the dust mass distributions in Lupus and Taurus are statistically indistinguishable. Most detected disks have {M}{{gas}}≲ 1 {M}{{Jup}} and gas-to-dust ratios \\lt 100, assuming an ISM-like [{CO}]/[{{{H}}}2] abundance; unless CO is very depleted, the inferred gas depletion indicates that planet formation is well underway by a few Myr and may explain the unexpected prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  13. From Dust to Planetesimals: An Improved Model for Collisional Growth in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaud, Pascale; Meru, Farzana; Galvagni, Marina; Olczak, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    Planet formation occurs within the gas- and dust-rich environments of protoplanetary disks. Observations of these objects show that the growth of primordial submicron-sized particles into larger aggregates occurs at the earliest evolutionary stages of the disks. However, theoretical models of particle growth that use the Smoluchowski equation to describe collisional coagulation and fragmentation have so far failed to produce large particles while maintaining a significant population of small grains. This has generally been attributed to the existence of two barriers impeding growth due to bouncing and fragmentation of colliding particles. In this paper, we demonstrate that the importance of these barriers has been artificially inflated through the use of simplified models that do not take into account the stochastic nature of the particle motions within the gas disk. We present a new approach in which the relative velocities between two particles are described by a probability distribution function that models both deterministic motion (from the vertical settling, radial drift, and azimuthal drift) and stochastic motion (from Brownian motion and turbulence). Taking both into account can give quite different results to what has been considered recently in other studies. We demonstrate the vital effect of two "ingredients" for particle growth: the proper implementation of a velocity distribution function that overcomes the bouncing barrier and, in combination with mass transfer in high-mass-ratio collisions, boosts the growth of larger particles beyond the fragmentation barrier. A robust result of our simulations is the emergence of two particle populations (small and large), potentially explaining simultaneously a number of longstanding problems in protoplanetary disks, including planetesimal formation close to the central star, the presence of millimeter- to centimeter-sized particles far out in the disk, and the persistence of μm-sized grains for millions of

  14. Radiation thermo-chemical models of protoplanetary disks. II. Line diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, I.; Tilling, I.; Woitke, P.; Thi, W.-F.; Hogerheijde, M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: In this paper, we explore the diagnostic power of the far-IR fine-structure lines of [Oi] 63.2 μm, 145.5 μm, [Cii] 157.7 μm, as well as the radio and sub-mm lines of CO J=1-0, 2-1 and 3-2 in application to disks around Herbig Ae stars. We aim at understanding where the lines originate from, how the line formation process is affected by density, temperature and chemical abundance in the disk, and to what extent non-LTE effects are important. The ultimate aim is to provide a robust way to determine the gas mass of protoplanetary disks from line observations. Methods: We use the recently developed disk code ProDiMo to calculate the physico-chemical structure of protoplanetary disks and apply the Monte-Carlo line radiative transfer code Ratran to predict observable line profiles and fluxes. We consider a series of Herbig Ae type disk models ranging from 10-6 M_⊙ to 2.2 × 10-2 M_⊙ (between 0.5 and 700 AU) to discuss the dependency of the line fluxes and ratios on disk mass for otherwise fixed disk parameters. This paper prepares for a more thorough multi-parameter analysis related to the Herschel open time key program Gasps. Results: We find the [Cii] 157.7 μm line to originate in LTE from the surface layers of the disk, where The total emission is dominated by surface area and hence depends strongly on disk outer radius. The [Oi] lines can be very bright (>10-16 W/m2) and form in slightly deeper and closer regions under non-LTE conditions. For low-mass models, the [Oi] lines come preferentially from the central regions of the disk, and the peak separation widens. The high-excitation [Oi] 145.5 μm line, which has a larger critical density, decreases more rapidly with disk mass than the 63.2 μm line. Therefore, the [Oi] 63.2 μm/145.5 μm ratio is a promising disk mass indicator, especially as it is independent of disk outer radius for R_out>200 AU. CO is abundant only in deeper layers AV ⪆ 0.05. For too low disk masses (M_disk⪉10-4~M_⊙) the dust

  15. Protoplanetary Disk Turbulence Driven by the Streaming Instability: Non-Linear Saturation and Particle Concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, A; Johansen, Anders; Youdin, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    We present simulations of the non-linear evolution of streaming instabilities in protoplanetary disks. The two components of the disk, gas treated with grid hydrodynamics and solids treated as superparticles, are mutually coupled by drag forces. We find that the initially laminar equilibrium flow spontaneously develops into turbulence in our unstratified local model. Marginally coupled solids (that couple to the gas on a Keplerian time-scale) trigger an upward cascade to large particle clumps with peak overdensities above 100. The clumps evolve dynamically by losing material downstream to the radial drift flow while receiving recycled material from upstream. Smaller, more tightly coupled solids produce weaker turbulence with more transient overdensities on smaller length scales. The net inward radial drift is decreased for marginally coupled particles, whereas the tightly coupled particles migrate faster in the saturated turbulent state. The turbulent diffusion of solid particles, measured by their random wal...

  16. Electrostatic Barrier Against Dust Growth in Protoplanetary Disks. I. Classifying the Evolution of Size Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Taku; Sakagami, Masa-aki

    2010-01-01

    Collisional growth of submicron-sized dust grains into macroscopic aggregates is the first step of planet formation in protoplanetary disks. These aggregates are considered to carry nonzero negative charges in the weakly ionized gas disks, but its effect on their collisional growth has not been fully understood so far. In this paper, we investigate how the charging of dust aggregates affects the evolution of their size distribution properly taking into account the charging mechanism in a weakly ionized gas. To clarify the role of the size distribution, we divide our analysis into two steps. First, we analyze the collisional growth of charged aggregates assuming a monodisperse (i.e., narrow) size distribution. We show that the monodisperse growth stalls due to the electrostatic repulsion when a certain condition is met, as is already expected in the previous work. Second, we numerically simulate dust coagulation using Smoluchowski's method to see how the outcome changes when the size distribution is allowed to...

  17. Baroclinic Vorticity Production in Protoplanetary Disks; Part II: Vortex Growth and Longevity

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, M R; Julien, K; Petersen, Mark R.; Stewart, Glen R.; Julien, Keith

    2006-01-01

    The factors affecting vortex growth in convectively stable protoplanetary disks are explored using numerical simulations of a two-dimensional anelastic-gas model which includes baroclinic vorticity production and radiative cooling. The baroclinic feedback, where anomalous temperature gradients produce vorticity through the baroclinic term and vortices then reinforce these temperature gradients, is found to be an important process in the rate of growth of vortices in the disk. Factors which strengthen the baroclinic feedback include fast radiative cooling, high thermal diffusion, and large radial temperature gradients in the background temperature. When the baroclinic feedback is sufficiently strong, anticyclonic vortices form from initial random perturbations and maintain their strength for the duration of the simulation, for over 600 orbital periods. Based on both simulations and a simple vortex model, we find that the local angular momentum transport due to a single vortex may be inward or outward, dependin...

  18. Modelling circumbinary protoplanetary disks II. Gas disk feedback on planetesimal dynamical and collisional evolution in the circumbinary systems Kepler-16 and 34

    CERN Document Server

    Lines, S; Baruteau, C; Paardekooper, S -J; Carter, P J

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We investigate the feasibility of planetesimal growth in circumbinary protoplanetary disks around the observed systems Kepler- 16 and Kepler-34 under the gravitational influence of a precessing eccentric gas disk. Methods. We embed the results of our previous hydrodynamical simulations of protoplanetary disks around binaries into an N-body code to perform 3D, high-resolution, inter-particle gravity-enabled simulations of planetesimal growth and dynamics that include the gravitational force imparted by the gas. Results. Including the full, precessing asymmetric gas disk generates high eccentricity orbits for planetesimals orbiting at the edge of the circumbinary cavity, where the gas surface density and eccentricity have their largest values. The gas disk is able to efficiently align planetesimal pericenters in some regions leading to phased, non-interacting orbits. Outside of these areas eccentric planetesimal orbits become misaligned and overlap leading to crossing orbits and high relative velocities d...

  19. Molecular Hydrogen Emission from Protoplanetary Disks II. Effects of X-ray Irradiation and Dust Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Nomura, H; Tsujimoto, M; Nakagawa, Y; Millar, T J

    2007-01-01

    Detailed models for the density and temperature profiles of gas and dust in protoplanetary disks are constructed by taking into account X-ray and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from a central T Tauri star, as well as dust size growth and settling toward the disk midplane. The spatial and size distributions of dust grains in the disks are numerically computed by solving the coagulation equation for settling dust particles. The level populations and line emission of molecular hydrogen are calculated using the derived physical structure of the disks. X-ray irradiation is the dominant heating source of the gas in the inner disk region and in the surface layer, while the far UV heating dominates otherwise. If the central star has strong X-ray and weak UV radiation, the H2 level populations are controlled by X-ray pumping, and the X-ray induced transition lines could be observable. If the UV irradiation is strong, the level populations are controlled by thermal collisions or UV pumping, depending on the properties of...

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ionization as a tracer of gas flows through protoplanetary disk gaps

    CERN Document Server

    Maaskant, K M; Waters, L B F M; Tielens, A G G M

    2014-01-01

    Planet-forming disks of gas and dust around young stars contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We aim to characterize how the charge state of PAHs can be used as a probe of flows of gas through protoplanetary gaps. In this context, our goal is to understand the PAH spectra of four transitional disks. In addition, we want to explain the observed correlation between PAH ionization (traced by the 6.2/11.3 feature ratio) and the disk mass (traced by the 1.3 mm luminosity). We implement a model to calculate the charge state of PAHs in the radiative transfer code MCMax. The emission spectra and ionization balance are calculated. A benchmark modeling grid is presented that shows how PAH ionization and luminosity behave as a function of star and disk properties. The PAH ionization is most sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the electron density. In optically thick disks, where the UV field is low and the electron density is high, PAHs are predominantly neutral. Ionized PAHs trace low-density optical...

  1. Did Jupiter's core form in the innermost parts of the Sun's protoplanetary disk?

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, Sean N; Bitsch, Bertram; Jacobson, Seth A

    2016-01-01

    Jupiter's core is generally assumed to have formed beyond the snow line. Here we consider an alternative scenario, that Jupiter's core may have accumulated in the innermost parts of the protoplanetary disk. A growing body of research suggests that small particles ("pebbles") continually drift inward through the disk. If a fraction of drifting pebbles is trapped at the inner edge of the disk a several Earth-mass core can quickly grow. Subsequently, the core may migrate outward beyond the snow line via planet-disk interactions. Of course, to reach the outer Solar System Jupiter's core must traverse the terrestrial planet-forming region. We use N-body simulations including synthetic forces from an underlying gaseous disk to study how the outward migration of Jupiter's core sculpts the terrestrial zone. If the outward migration is fast (Tmig~10^4 years), the core simply migrates past resident planetesimals and planetary embryos. However, if its migration is slower (Tmig~10^5 years) the core removes solids from th...

  2. Zoom-in Simulations of Protoplanetary Disks Starting from GMC Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuffmeier, Michael; Haugbølle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the formation of protoplanetary disks around nine solar-mass stars formed in the context of a (40 pc)3 Giant Molecular Cloud model, using ramses adaptive mesh refinement simulations extending over a scale range of about 4 million, from an outer scale of 40 pc down to cell sizes of 2 au. Our most important result is that the accretion process is heterogeneous in multiple ways: in time, in space, and among protostars of otherwise similar mass. Accretion is heterogeneous in time, in the sense that accretion rates vary during the evolution, with generally decreasing profiles, whose slopes vary over a wide range, and where accretion can increase again if a protostar enters a region with increased density and low speed. Accretion is heterogeneous in space, because of the mass distribution, with mass approaching the accreting star-disk system in filaments and sheets. Finally, accretion is heterogeneous among stars, since the detailed conditions and dynamics in the neighborhood of each star can vary widely. We also investigate the sensitivity of disk formation to physical conditions and test their robustness by varying numerical parameters. We find that disk formation is robust even when choosing the least favorable sink particle parameters, and that turbulence cascading from larger scales is a decisive factor in disk formation. We also investigate the transport of angular momentum, finding that the net inward mechanical transport is compensated for mainly by an outward-directed magnetic transport, with a contribution from gravitational torques usually subordinate to the magnetic transport.

  3. Radionuclide Ionization in Protoplanetary Disks: Calculations of Decay Product Radiative Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Bergin, Edwin A; Visser, Ruud

    2013-01-01

    We present simple analytic solutions for the ionization rate $\\zeta_{\\rm{SLR}}$ arising from the decay of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) within protoplanetary disks. We solve the radiative transfer problem for the decay products within the disk, and thereby allow for the loss of radiation at low disk surface densities; energy loss becomes important outside $R\\gtrsim30$ for typical disk masses $M_g=0.04$ M$_\\odot$. Previous studies of chemistry/physics in these disks have neglected the impact of ionization by SLRs, and often consider only cosmic rays (CRs), because of the high CR-rate present in the ISM. However, recent work suggests that the flux of CRs present in the circumstellar environment could be substantially reduced by relatively modest stellar winds, resulting in severely modulated CR ionization rates, $\\zeta_{\\rm{CR}}$, equal to or substantially below that of SLRs ($\\zeta_{\\rm{SLR}}\\lesssim10^{-18}$ s$^{-1}$). We compute the net ionizing particle fluxes and corresponding ionization rates as a func...

  4. A possible mechanism to detect super-earth formation in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruobing; Chiang, Eugene; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai

    2017-06-01

    Using combined gas+dust global hydrodynamics and radiative transfer simulations, we calculate the distribution of gas and sub-mm-sized dust in protoplanetary disks with a super-Earth at tens of AU, and examine observational signatures of such systems in resolved observations. We confirm previous results that in a typical disk with a low viscosity ($\\alpha\\lesssim10^{-4}$), a super-Earth is able to open two gaps at $\\sim$scale-height away around its orbit in $\\sim$mm-sized dust (St$\\sim$0.01), due to differential dust drift in a perturbed gas background. Additional rings and gaps may also be produced under certain conditions. These features, particularly a signature ``double-gap'' feature, can be detected in a Taurus target by ALMA in dust continuum under an angular resolution of $\\sim0\\arcsec.025$ with two hours of integration. The features are robust --- it can survive in a variety of background disk profiles, withstand modest planetary radial migration ($|r/\\dot{r}|\\sim$ a few Myr), and last for thousands of orbits. Multiple ring/gap systems observed by ALMA were typically modeled using multiple (Saturn-to-Jupiter sized) planets. Here, we argue that a single super-Earth in a low viscosity disk could produce multiple rings and gaps as well. By examining the prevalence of such features in nearby disks, upcoming high angular resolution ALMA surveys may infer how common super-Earth formation events are at tens of au.

  5. Gaps, rings, and non-axisymmetric structures in protoplanetary disks - Emission from large grains

    CERN Document Server

    Ruge, J P; Wolf, S; Dzyurkevich, N; Fromang, S; Henning, Th; Klahr, H; Meheut, H

    2016-01-01

    Dust grains with sizes around (sub)mm are expected to couple only weakly to the gas motion in regions beyond 10 au of circumstellar disks. In this work, we investigate the influence of the spatial distribution of such grains on the (sub)mm appearance of magnetized protoplanetary disks. We perform non-ideal global 3D magneto-hydrodynamic stratified disk simulations including particles of different sizes (50 micron to 1 cm), using a Lagrangian particle solver. We calculate the spatial dust temperature distribution, including the dynamically coupled submicron-sized dust grains, and derive ideal continuum re-emission maps of the disk through radiative transfer simulations. Finally, we investigate the feasibility to observe specific structures in the thermal re-emission maps with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The pressure bump close to the outer edge of the dead-zone leads to particle trapping in ring structures. More specifically, vortices in the disk concentrate the dust and create an ...

  6. Ionization of protoplanetary disks by galactic cosmic rays, solar protons, and supernova remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuho Kataoka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic cosmic rays and solar protons ionize the present terrestrial atmosphere, and the air showers are simulated by well-tested Monte-Carlo simulations, such as PHITS code. We use the latest version of PHITS to evaluate the possible ionization of protoplanetary disks by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs, solar protons, and by supernova remnants. The attenuation length of GCR ionization is updated as 118 g cm−2, which is approximately 20% larger than the popular value. Hard and soft possible spectra of solar protons give comparable and 20% smaller attenuation lengths compared with those from standard GCR spectra, respectively, while the attenuation length is approximately 10% larger for supernova remnants. Further, all of the attenuation lengths become 10% larger in the compound gas of cosmic abundance, e.g. 128 g cm−2 for GCRs, which can affect the minimum estimate of the size of dead zones in protoplanetary disks when the incident flux is unusually high.

  7. Sequestration of noble gases by H3+ in protoplanetary disks and outer solar system composition

    CERN Document Server

    Mousis, Olivier; Ellinger, Yves; Ceccarelli, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    We study the efficiency of the noble gases sequestration by the ion H3+ in the form of XH3+ complexes (with X = argon, krypton or xenon) in gas phase conditions similar to those encountered during the cooling of protoplanetary disks, at the epoch of icy planetesimals formation. We show that XH3+ complexes form very stable structures in the gas phase and that their binding energies are much higher than those involved in the structures of X-H2O hydrates or pure X-X condensates. This implies that, in presence of H3+ ions, argon, krypton or xenon are likely to remain sequestrated in the form of XH3+ complexes embedded in the gas phase rather than forming ices during the cooling of protoplanetary disks. The amount of the deficiency depends on how much H3+ is available and efficient in capturing noble gases. In the dense gas of the mid-plane of solar nebula, H3+ is formed by the ionization of H2 from energetic particles, as those in cosmic rays or those ejected by the young Sun. Even using the largest estimate of t...

  8. Reactive ammonia in the solar protoplanetary disk and the origin of Earth’s nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Dennis; Hoppe, Peter; Langenhorst, Falko

    2015-02-01

    Terrestrial nitrogen isotopic compositions are distinct from solar and cometary values and similar to those of primitive meteorites, suggesting that Earth’s atmospheric nitrogen originates from a primordial cosmochemical source. Prebiotic organic compounds containing nitrogen that formed in the solar protoplanetary disk, such as amino acids, may have contributed to the emergence of life on Earth. However, the original reservoirs of these volatile compounds and the processes involved in their distribution and chemical modification before accretion remain unclear. Here we report the occurrence of the mineral carlsbergite (chromium nitride) within nanocrystalline sulphide inclusions of primitive chondritic meteorites using transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The characteristics and occurrence of carlsbergite are consistent with precipitation from a chromium-bearing metal in the presence of reactive ammonia. The carlsbergite crystals have nitrogen isotopic compositions that differ from ammonia in cometary ices, but are similar to Earth’s atmospheric nitrogen. We suggest that the reactive ammonia proposed to have initiated formation of the carlsbergite came from ices within regions of the protoplanetary disk that were affected by the distal wakes of shock waves. Our findings imply that these primordial ammonia-bearing ices were a nitrogen reservoir within the formation region of the chondritic meteorite parent bodies and could have been a source of volatiles for the early Earth.

  9. A new raytracer for modeling AU-scale imaging of lines from protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Dullemond, Cornelis P; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2009-01-01

    The material that formed the present-day Solar System originated in feeding zones in the inner Solar Nebula located at distances within ~20 AU from the Sun, known as the planet-forming zone. Meteoritic and cometary material contain abundant evidence for the presence of a rich and active chemistry in the planet-forming zone during the gas-rich phase of Solar System formation. It is a natural conjecture that analogs can be found amoung the zoo of protoplanetary disks around nearby young stars. The study of the chemistry and dynamics of planet formation requires: 1) tracers of dense gas at 100-1000 K and 2) imaging capabilities of such tracers with 5-100 (0.5-20 AU) milli-arcsec resolution, corresponding to the planet-forming zone at the distance of the closest star-forming regions. Recognizing that the rich infrared (2-200 micron) molecular spectrum recently discovered to be common in protoplanetary disks represents such a tracer, we present a new general raytracing code, RADLite, that is optimized for producin...

  10. H2O masers and protoplanetary disk dynamics in IC 1396 N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayandina, O. S.; Val'tts, I. E.; Kurtz, S. E.; Rudnitskij, G. M.; Alakoz, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    We report H2O maser line observations of the bright-rimmed globule IC 1396 N using a ground-space interferometer with the 10-m RadioAstron radio telescope as the space-based element. The source was not detected on projected baselines >2.3. Earth diameters, which indicates a lower limit on the maser size of L > 0.03 AU and an upper limit on the brightness temperature of 6.25 × 1012 K. Fringe-rate maps are prepared based on data from ground-ground baselines. Positions, velocities and flux densities of maser spots were determined. Multiple low-velocity features from -4.5 km/s to +0.7 km/s are seen, and two high-velocity features of V LSR = -9.4 km/s and V LSR = +4.4 km/s are found at projected distances of 157 AU and 70 AU, respectively, from the strongest low-velocity feature at V LSR = +0.3 km/s. Maser components from the central part of the spectrum fall into four velocity groups but into three spatial groups. Three spatial groups of low-velocity features detected in the 2014 observations are arranged in a linear structure about 200 AU in length. Two of these groups were not detected in 1996 and possibly are jets which formed between 1996 and 2014. The putative jet seems to have changed direction in 18 years, which we explain by the precession of the jet under the influence of the gravity of material surrounding the globule. The jet collimation can be provided by a circumstellar protoplanetary disk. There is a straight line orientation in the " V LSR-Right Ascension" diagram between the jet and the maser group at V LSR = +0.3 km/s. However, the central group with the same position but at the velocity V LSR -3.4 km/s falls on a straight line between two high-velocity components detected in 2014. Comparison of the low-velocity positions from 2014 and 1996, based on the same V LSR-Right Ascension diagram for low-velocity features, shows that the majority of the masers maintain their positions near the central velocity V LSR = 0.3 km/s during the 18 year period.

  11. The $Spitzer$ infrared spectrograph survey of protoplanetary disks in Orion A: I. disk properties

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, K H; Manoj, P; Forrest, W J; Furlan, Elise; Najita, Joan; Sargent, Benjamin; Hernández, Jesús; Calvet, Nuria; Adame, Lucía; Espaillat, Catherine; Megeath, S T; Muzerolle, James; McClure, M K

    2016-01-01

    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by $Spitzer$/IRS. We also present the follow-up observation of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from IRTF/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks to those of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (ONC and L1641) and to the sub-groups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks vs. radially continuous full disks. Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) Mass accretion rate of transitional disks and that of radially continuous full disks are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The m...

  12. The molecular composition of the planet-forming regions of protoplanetary disks across the luminosity regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine; Nomura, Hideko; van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-10-01

    Context. Near- to mid-infrared observations of molecular emission from protoplanetary disks show that the inner regions are rich in small organic volatiles (e.g., C2H2 and HCN). Trends in the data suggest that disks around cooler stars (Teff ≈ 3000 K) are potentially (i) more carbon-rich; and (ii) more molecule-rich than their hotter counterparts (Teff ≳ 4000 K). Aims: We explore the chemical composition of the planet-forming region (gas-grain chemical network to map the molecular abundances in the planet-forming zone. The effects of (i) N2 self shielding; (ii) X-ray-induced chemistry; and (iii) initial abundances, are investigated. The chemical composition in the "observable" atmosphere is compared with that in the disk midplane where the bulk of the planet-building reservoir resides. Results: M dwarf disk atmospheres are relatively more molecule rich than those for T Tauri or Herbig Ae disks. The weak far-UV flux helps retain this complexity which is enhanced by X-ray-induced ion-molecule chemistry. N2 self shielding has only a small effect in the disk molecular layer and does not explain the higher C2H2/HCN ratios observed towards cooler stars. The models underproduce the OH/H2O column density ratios constrained in Herbig Ae disks, despite reproducing (within an order of magnitude) the absolute value for OH: the inclusion of self shielding for H2O photodissociation only increases this discrepancy. One possible explanation is the adopted disk structure. Alternatively, the "hot" H2O (T ≳ 300 K) chemistry may be more complex than assumed. The results for the atmosphere are independent of the assumed initial abundances; however, the composition of the disk midplane is sensitive to the initial main elemental reservoirs. The models show that the gas in the inner disk is generally more carbon rich than the midplane ices. This effect is most significant for disks around cooler stars. Furthermore, the atmospheric C/O ratio appears larger than it actually is when

  13. Protoplanetary disks in Taurus: Probing the role of multiplicity with ALMA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laos, Stefan; Akeson, Rachel L.; Jensen, Eric L. N.

    2017-01-01

    We present results from an ALMA survey of single and multiple young systems in Taurus designed to probe how protoplanetary disk mass depends on both stellar mass and multiplicity. In observations taken in Cycles 0 and 2, we detect over 25 new disks. These detections include disks around stars in both single and multiple systems and are predominantly around lower mass stars with spectral types from M0 to M6. Combined with previous detections, these observations reveal a wide range of disk mass around both primary and companion stars, and allow us to test if the relation previously seen between disk and stellar mass continues at lower stellar masses. We find that within multiple systems the ratio of primary to secondary stellar mass is not correlated with the ratio of primary to secondary disk mass. In some cases, the secondary star hosts the more massive disk, contrary to theoretical predictions. We will discuss the implications of these results for the process of planet formation in multiple systems.This work makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00150.S. and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.00105.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  14. AN M DWARF COMPANION AND ITS INDUCED SPIRAL ARMS IN THE HD 100453 PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Ruobing [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Fung, Jeffrey; Chiang, Eugene [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rafikov, Roman [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Wagner, Kevin, E-mail: rdong2013@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Recent VLT/SPHERE near-infrared imaging observations revealed two spiral arms with a near m = 2 rotational symmetry in the protoplanetary disk around the ∼1.7 M{sub ⊙} Herbig star HD 100453. A ∼0.3 M{sub ⊙} M dwarf companion, HD 100453 B, was also identified at a projected separation of 120 AU from the primary. In this Letter, we carry out hydrodynamic and radiative transfer simulations to examine the scattered light morphology of the HD 100453 disk as perturbed by the companion on a circular and coplanar orbit. We find that the companion truncates the disk at ∼45 AU in scattered light images, and excites two spiral arms in the remaining (circumprimary) disk with a near m = 2 rotational symmetry. Both the truncated disk size and the morphology of the spirals are in excellent agreement with the SPHERE observations at Y, J, H, and K1-bands, suggesting that the M dwarf companion is indeed responsible for the observed double-spiral-arm pattern. Our model suggests that the disk is close to face on (inclination angle ∼5°), and that the entire disk-companion system rotates counterclockwise on the sky. The HD 100453 observations, along with our modeling work, demonstrate that double spiral arm patterns in near-infrared scattered light images can be generically produced by companions, and support future observations to identify the companions responsible for the arms observed in the MWC 758 and SAO 206462 systems.

  15. C/O and Snowline Locations in Protoplanetary Disks: The Effect of Radial Drift and Viscous Gas Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Piso, Ana-Maria A; Birnstiel, Tilman; Murray-Clay, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    The C/O ratio is a defining feature of both gas giant atmospheric and protoplanetary disk chemistry. In disks, the C/O ratio is regulated by the presence of snowlines of major volatiles at different distances from the central star. We explore the effect of radial drift of solids and viscous gas accretion onto the central star on the snowline locations of the main C and O carriers in a protoplanetary disk, H2O, CO2 and CO, and their consequences for the C/O ratio in gas and dust throughout the disk. We determine the snowline locations for a range of fixed initial particle sizes and disk types. For our fiducial disk model, we find that grains with sizes ~0.5 cm < s < 7 m for an irradiated disk, and ~0.001 cm < s < 7 m for an evolving and viscous disk, desorb at a size-dependent location in the disk, which is independent of the particle's initial position. The snowline radius decreases for larger particles, up to sizes of ~7 m. Compared to a static disk, we find that radial drift and gas accretion in...

  16. Global multifluid simulations of the magnetorotational instability in radially stratified protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Rodgers-Lee, Donna; Downes, Turlough P

    2016-01-01

    The redistribution of angular momentum is a long standing problem in our understanding of protoplanetary disk (PPD) evolution. The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered a likely mechanism. We present the results of a study involving multifluid global simulations including Ohmic dissipation, ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect in a dynamic, self-consistent way. We focus on the turbulence resulting from the non-linear development of the MRI in radially stratified PPDs and compare with ideal MHD simulations. In the multifluid simulations the disk is initially set up to transition from a weak Hall dominated regime, where the Hall effect is the dominant non-ideal effect but approximately the same as or weaker than the inductive term, to a strong Hall dominated regime, where the Hall effect dominates the inductive term. As the simulations progress a substantial portion of the disk develops into a weak Hall dominated disk. We find a transition from turbulent to laminar flow in the inner regions of th...

  17. Constraints on photoevaporation models from (lack of) radio emission in the Corona Australis protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Manara, Carlo Felice; Forbrich, Jan; Pascucci, Ilaria; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Goddi, Ciriaco; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Takami, Michihiro; Testi, Leonardo; .,

    2014-01-01

    Photoevaporation due to high-energy stellar photons is thought to be one of the main drivers of protoplanetary disk dispersal. The fully or partially ionized disk surface is expected to produce free-free continuum emission at centimeter (cm) wavelengths that can be routinely detected with interferometers such as the upgraded Very Large Array (VLA). We use deep (rms noise down to 8 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ in the field of view center) 3.5 cm maps of the nearby (130 pc) Corona Australis (CrA) star formation (SF) region to constrain disk photoevaporation models. We find that the radio emission from disk sources in CrA is surprisingly faint. Only 3 out of 10 sources within the field of view are detected, with flux densities of order $10^2$ $\\mu$Jy. However, a significant fraction of their emission is non-thermal. Typical upper limits for non-detections are $3\\sigma\\sim 60~\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$. Assuming analytic expressions for the free-free emission from extreme-UV (EUV) irradiation, we derive stringent upper limits to ...

  18. Electrostatic Barrier Against Dust Growth in Protoplanetary Disks. II. Measuring the Size of the "Frozen" Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Taku; Sakagami, Masa-aki

    2010-01-01

    Coagulation of submicron-sized dust grains is the initial step of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. This process can be significantly slowed down by the negative charging of dust aggregates in the weakly ionized disks. We apply the growth criteria obtained in Paper I to finding out a location where the charging stalls dust growth at the fractal growth stage, to which we will refer as the "frozen zone." We find that the frozen zone likely exists and covers a wide region of a disk, typically from a few AU to 100 AU from the central star. The maximum mass of the "frozen" fractal aggregates is approximately 10^-7 g at 1 AU and as small as a few monomer masses at 100 AU. The disk mass and the monomer size do not significantly affect the size of the frozen zone within a realistic range of these parameters. Strong turbulence can significantly reduce the size of the frozen zone, but such turbulence will cause the fragmentation of macroscopic aggregates made after the fractal stage. We consider the vertical mixi...

  19. Ro-vibrational excitation of an organic molecule (HCN) in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Bruderer, Simon; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) Organic molecules are important constituents of protoplanetary disks. Their ro-vibrational lines observed in the near- and mid-infrared are commonly detected toward T Tauri disks. These lines are the only way to probe the chemistry in the inner few au where terrestrial planets form. To understand this chemistry, accurate molecular abundances have to be determined. This is complicated by excitation effects. Most analyses so far have made the assumption of local thermal equilibrium (LTE). Starting from estimates for the collisional rate coefficients of HCN, non-LTE slab models of the HCN emission were calculated to study the importance of different excitation mechanisms. Using a new radiative transfer model, the HCN emission from a full two-dimensional disk was then modeled to study the effect of the non-LTE excitation, together with the line formation. We ran models tailored to the T Tauri disk AS 205 (N) where HCN lines in both the 3 {\\mu}m and 14 {\\mu}m bands have been observed by VLT-CRIRES and t...

  20. The protoplanetary disk of FT Tauri: multi-wavelength data analysis and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Garufi, Antonio; Kamp, Inga; Ménard, François; Brittain, Sean; Eiroa, Carlos; Montesinos, Benjamin; Alonso-Martinez, Míguel; Thi, Wing-Fai; Woitke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the evolution of protoplanetary disks is crucial for our understanding of star and planet formation. Several theoretical and observational studies have been performed in the last decades to advance this knowledge. FT Tauri is a young star in the Taurus star forming region that was included in a number of spectroscopic and photometric surveys. We investigate the properties of the star, the circumstellar disk, and the accretion and ejection processes and propose a consistent gas and dust model also as a reference for future observational studies. We performed a multi-wavelength data analysis to derive the basic stellar and disk properties, as well as mass accretion/outflow rate from TNG-Dolores, WHT-Liris, NOT-Notcam, Keck-Nirspec, and Herschel-Pacs spectra. From the literature, we compiled a complete Spectral Energy Distribution. We then performed detailed disk modeling using the MCFOST and ProDiMo codes. Multi-wavelengths spectroscopic and photometric measurements were compared with the reddened...

  1. A Spitzer survey of mid-infrared molecular emission from protoplanetary disks I: Detection rates

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Blake, Geoffrey A; Meijerink, Rowin; Carr, John S; Najita, Joan

    2010-01-01

    We present a Spitzer InfraRed Spectrometer search for 10-36 micron molecular emission from a large sample of protoplanetary disks, including lines from H2O, OH, C2H2, HCN and CO2. This paper describes the sample and data processing and derives the detection rate of mid-infrared molecular emission as a function of stellar mass. The sample covers a range of spectral type from early M to A, and is supplemented by archival spectra of disks around A and B stars. It is drawn from a variety of nearby star forming regions, including Ophiuchus, Lupus and Chamaeleon. In total, we identify 22 T Tauri stars with strong mid-infrared H2O emission. Integrated water line luminosities, where water vapor is detected, range from 5x10^-4 to 9x10^-3 Lsun, likely making water the dominant line coolant of inner disk surfaces in classical T Tauri stars. None of the 5 transitional disks in the sample show detectable gaseous molecular emission with Spitzer upper limits at the 1% level in terms of line-to-continuum ratios (apart from H...

  2. Hot and cool water in Herbig Ae protoplanetary disks. A challenge for Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Woitke, Peter; Kamp, Inga; Hogerheijde, Michiel R

    2009-01-01

    The spatial origin and detectability of rotational H2O emission lines from Herbig Ae type protoplanetary disks beyond 70 micron is discussed. We use the recently developed disk code ProDiMo to calculate the thermo-chemical structure of a Herbig Ae type disk and apply the non-LTE line radiative transfer code Ratran to predict water line profiles and intensity maps. The model shows three spatially distinct regions in the disk where water concentrations are high, related to different chemical pathways to form the water: (1) a big water reservoir in the deep midplane behind the inner rim, (2) a belt of cold water around the distant icy midplane beyond the snow-line r>20AU, and (3) a layer of irradiated hot water at high altitudes z/r=0.1...0.3, extending from about 1AU to 30AU, where the kinetic gas temperature ranges from 200K to 1500K. Although region 3 contains only little amounts of water vapour (~3x10^-5 M_Earth), we find this warm layer to be almost entirely responsible for the rotational water emission lin...

  3. Optical imaging polarimetry of the LkCa 15 protoplanetary disk with SPHERE ZIMPOL

    CERN Document Server

    Thalmann, Christian; Janson, Markus; Olofsson, Johan; Benisty, Myriam; Avenhaus, Henning; Quanz, Sascha P; Schmid, Hans Martin; Henning, Thomas; Buenzli, Esther; Ménard, Francois; Carson, Joseph C; Garufi, Antonio; Messina, Sergio; Dominik, Carsten; Leisenring, Jarron; Chauvin, Gael; Meyer, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    We present the first optical (590--890 nm) imaging polarimetry observations of the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk around the young solar analog LkCa 15, addressing a number of open questions raised by previous studies. We detect the previously unseen far side of the disk gap, confirm the highly eccentric scattered-light gap shape that was postulated from near-infrared imaging, at odds with the symmetric gap inferred from millimeter interferometry. Furthermore, we resolve the inner disk for the first time and trace it out to 30 AU. This new source of scattered light may contribute to the near-infrared interferometric signal attributed to the protoplanet candidate LkCa 15 b, which lies embedded in the outer regions of the inner disk. Finally, we present a new model for the system architecture of LkCa 15 that ties these new findings together. These observations were taken during science verification of SPHERE ZIMPOL and demonstrate this facility's performance for faint guide stars under adverse observing c...

  4. OPTICAL IMAGING POLARIMETRY OF THE LkCa 15 PROTOPLANETARY DISK WITH SPHERE ZIMPOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalmann, C.; Quanz, S. P.; Schmid, H. M.; Garufi, A.; Meyer, M. R., E-mail: thalmann@phys.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2015-08-01

    We present the first optical (590–890 nm) imaging polarimetry observations of the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk around the young solar analog LkCa 15, addressing a number of open questions raised by previous studies. We detect the previously unseen far side of the disk gap, confirming the highly off-centered scattered-light gap shape that was postulated from near-infrared imaging, at odds with the symmetric gap inferred from millimeter interferometry. Furthermore, we resolve the inner disk for the first time and trace it out to 30 AU. This new source of scattered light may contribute to the near-infrared interferometric signal attributed to the protoplanet candidate LkCa 15 b, which lies embedded in the outer regions of the inner disk. Finally, we present a new model for the system architecture of LkCa 15 that ties these new findings together. These observations were taken during science verification of SPHERE ZIMPOL and demonstrate this facility’s performance for faint guide stars under adverse observing conditions.

  5. RINGED SUBSTRUCTURE AND A GAP AT 1 au IN THE NEAREST PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Bai, Xue-Ning; Öberg, Karin I.; Ricci, Luca [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Birnstiel, Tilman [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Carpenter, John M. [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura-Santiago de Chile (Chile); Pérez, Laura M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Hughes, A. Meredith [Department of Astronomy, Wesleyan University, Van Vleck Observatory, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06457 (United States); Isella, Andrea, E-mail: sandrews@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We present long baseline Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the 870 μm continuum emission from the nearest gas-rich protoplanetary disk, around TW Hya, that trace millimeter-sized particles down to spatial scales as small as 1 au (20 mas). These data reveal a series of concentric ring-shaped substructures in the form of bright zones and narrow dark annuli (1–6 au) with modest contrasts (5%–30%). We associate these features with concentrations of solids that have had their inward radial drift slowed or stopped, presumably at local gas pressure maxima. No significant non-axisymmetric structures are detected. Some of the observed features occur near temperatures that may be associated with the condensation fronts of major volatile species, but the relatively small brightness contrasts may also be a consequence of magnetized disk evolution (the so-called zonal flows). Other features, particularly a narrow dark annulus located only 1 au from the star, could indicate interactions between the disk and young planets. These data signal that ordered substructures on ∼au scales can be common, fundamental factors in disk evolution and that high-resolution microwave imaging can help characterize them during the epoch of planet formation.

  6. On the Location of the Snow Line in a Protoplanetary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Lecar, M; Podolak, M; Sasselov, D

    2006-01-01

    In a protoplanetary disk, the inner edge of the region where the temperature falls below the condensation temperature of water is referred to as the 'snow line'. Outside the snow line, water ice increases the surface density of solids by a factor of 4. The mass of the fastest growing planetesimal (the 'isolation mass') scales as the surface density to the 3/2 power. It is thought that ice-enhanced surface densities are required to make the cores of the gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn) before the disk gas dissipates. Observations of the Solar System's asteroid belt suggest that the snow line occurred near 2.7 AU. In this paper we revisit the theoretical determination of the snow line. In a minimum-mass disk characterized by conventional opacities and a mass accretion rate of 10^-8 solar masses per year, the snow line lies at 1.6-1.8 AU, just past the orbit of Mars. The minimum-mass disk, with a mass of 0.02 solar, has a life time of 2 million years with the assumed accretion rate. Moving the snow line past 2.7 ...

  7. First detection of gas-phase methanol in a protoplanetary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine; Oberg, Karin I; Kama, Mihkel; Hoff, Merel L R van 't; Millar, Tom J; Aikawa, Yuri; Herbst, Eric; Weaver, Susanna L Widicus; Nomura, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    The first detection of gas-phase methanol in a protoplanetary disk (TW Hya) is presented. In addition to being one of the largest molecules detected in disks to date, methanol is also the first disk organic molecule with an unambiguous ice chemistry origin. The stacked methanol emission, as observed with ALMA, is spectrally resolved and detected across six velocity channels ($>3 \\sigma$), reaching a peak signal-to-noise of $5.5\\sigma$, with the kinematic pattern expected for TW~Hya. Using an appropriate disk model, a fractional abundance of $3\\times 10^{-12} - 4 \\times 10^{-11}$ (with respect to H$_2$) reproduces the stacked line profile and channel maps, with the favoured abundance dependent upon the assumed vertical location (midplane versus molecular layer). The peak emission is offset from the source position suggesting that the methanol emission has a ring-like morphology: the analysis here suggests it peaks at $\\approx 30$~AU reaching a column density $\\approx 3-6\\times10^{12}$~cm$^{-2}$. In the case of...

  8. Snow Lines in Gas Rich Protoplanetary Disks and the Delivery of Volatiles to Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2016-06-01

    Compared to the Sun and to the gas+dust composition of the interstellar medium from which the solar system formed, the Carbon and Nitrogen content of the bulk silicate Earth (mantle+hydrosphere+atmosphere) is reduced by several orders of magnitude, relative to Silicon. Evidence from primitive bodies as a function of distance from the Sun suggests that at least part of this depletion must occur early in the process of planetesimal assembly. With combined infrared and (sub)mm observations such as those enabled by ground-based 8-10m class telescopes (and in future the James Webb Space Telescope) and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), we can now examine the principal volatile reservoirs of gas rich disks as a function position within the disk and evolutionary state. Key to these studies is the concept of condensation fronts, or 'snow lines,' in disks - locations at which key volatiles such as water, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen first condense from the gas. This talk will review the observational characterization of snow lines in protoplanetary disks, especially recent ALMA observations, and highlight the laboratory astrophysics studies and theoretical investigations that are needed to tie the observational results to the delivery of volatiles to planetary surfaces in the habitable zones around Sun-like stars.

  9. Curveballs in protoplanetary disks - the effect of the Magnus force on planet formation

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, John C

    2015-01-01

    Spinning planetesimals in a gaseous protoplanetary disk may experience a hydrodynamical force perpendicular to their relative velocities. We examine the effect this force has on the dynamics of these objects using analytical arguments based on a simple laminar disk model and numerical integrations of the equations of motion for individual grains. We focus in particular on meter-sized boulders traditionally expected to spiral in to the central star in as little as 100 years from 1 A.U. We find that there are plausible scenarios in which this force extends the lifetime of these solids in the disk by a factor of several. More importantly the velocities induced by the Magnus force can prevent the formation of planetesimals via gravitational instability in the inner disk if the size of the dust particles is larger than of order 10 cm. We find that the fastest growing linear modes of the streaming instability may still grow despite the diffusive effect of the Magnus force, but it remains to be seen how the Magnus f...

  10. Numerical simulations of turbulent ionized gas flows in the circumsolar protoplanetary disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marov, M. Ya.; Kuksa, M. M.

    2015-09-01

    An axisymmetric protoplanetary disk model that takes into account the interaction of turbulent gas flows with the magnetic field is considered. A closed system of equations of homogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamics in the regime of developed turbulence in the gravitational and magnetic fields of a star has been constructed. Apart from the traditional probability-theoretical averaging of the MHD equations, the weighted Favre averaging is used. The approach by A.V. Kolesnichenko and M.Ya. Marov to modeling the turbulent transport coefficients in a weakly ionized disk has been implemented. It allows the inverse effects of the generated magnetic field on a turbulent gas flow and the dissipation of turbulence through kinematic and magnetic viscosities to be taken into account. A parallel code for numerically solving the system of averaged MHD equations has been developed. The averaged gas density and velocity distributions as well as the configuration of the disk's intrinsic magnetic field at a distance of 1 AU from the star have been obtained through numerical simulations. The assumption that the vertical (parallel to the disk's rotation axis) magnetic induction component changes much more profoundly in height than in radius and, hence, gives grounds to take into account its gradient in the model of the turbulent kinematic viscosity coefficient has been confirmed.

  11. Time evolution of snow regions and planet traps in an evolving protoplanetary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Baillié, Kévin; Pantin, Éric

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We track the time evolution of planet traps and snowlines in a viscously evolving protoplanetary disk using an opacity table that accounts for the composition of the dust material. Methods. We coupled a dynamical and thermodynamical disk model with a temperature-dependent opacity table (that accounts for the sublimation of the main dust components) to investigate the formation and evolution of snowlines and planet traps during the first million years of disk evolution. Results. Starting from a minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN), we find that the disk mid-plane temperature profile shows several plateaux (0.1-1 AU wide) at the different sublimation temperatures of the species that make up the dust. For water ice, the correspond- ing plateau can be larger than 1 AU, which means that this is a snow "region" rather than a snow "line". As a consequence, the surface density of solids in the snow region may increase gradually, not abruptly. Several planet traps and desert regions appear naturally as a result of a...

  12. Gaps in Protoplanetary Disks as Signatures of Planets: I. Methodology and Validation

    CERN Document Server

    Jang-Condell, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    We examine the observational consequences of partial gaps being opened by planets in protoplanetary disks. We model the disk using a static alpha-disk model with detailed radiative transfer, parametrizing the shape and size of the partially cleared gaps based on the results of hydrodynamic simulations. Shadowing and illumination by stellar irradiation at the surface of the gap leads to increased contrast as the gap trough is deepened by shadowing and cooling and the far gap wall is puffed up by illumination and heating. In calculating observables, we find that multiple scattering is important and derive an approximation to include these effects. A gap produced by a 200 M_Earth (70 M_Earth) planet at 10 AU can lower/raise the midplane temperature of the disk by up to ~-25/+29% (~-11/+19%) by shadowing in the gap trough and illumination on the far shoulder of the gap. At the distance of Taurus, this gap would be resolvable with ~0.01" angular resolution. The gap contrast is most significant in scattered light a...

  13. Understanding the water emission in the mid- and far-IR from protoplanetary disks around T Tauri stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonellini, S.; Kamp, I.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Meijerink, R.; Woitke, P.; Thi, W.-F.; Spaans, M.; Aresu, G.; Lee, G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We investigate which properties of protoplanetary disks around T Tauri stars affect the physics and chemistry in the regions where mid- and far-IR water lines originate and their respective line fluxes. We search for diagnostics for future observations. Methods: With the code ProDiMo, we build

  14. Residence Times of Particles in Diffusive Protoplanetary Disk Environments II. Radial Motions and Applications to Dust Annealing

    CERN Document Server

    Ciesla, Fred J

    2011-01-01

    The origin of crystalline grains in comets and the outer regions of protoplanetary disks remains a mystery. It has been suggested that such grains form via annealing of amorphous precursors in the hot, inner region of a protoplanetary disk, where the temperatures needed for such transformations were found, and were then transported outward by some dynamical means. Here we develop a means of tracking the paths that dust grains would have taken through a diffusive protoplanetary disk and examine the types and ranges of environments that particles would have seen over a 10$^{6}$ year time period in the dynamic disk. We then combine this model with three annealing laws to examine how the dynamic evolution of amorphous grains would have led to their physical restructuring and their delivery to various regions of the disk. It is found that "sibling particles"-- those particles that reside at the same location at a given period of time--take a wide range of unique and independent paths through the disk to arrive the...

  15. Ringed Structures of the HD 163296 Protoplanetary Disk Revealed by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Andrea; Guidi, Greta; Testi, Leonardo; Liu, Shangfei; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Weaver, Erik; Boehler, Yann; Carperter, John M.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Manara, Carlo F.; Natta, Antonella; Pérez, Laura M.; Ricci, Luca; Sargent, Anneila; Tazzari, Marco; Turner, Neal

    2016-12-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array observations of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 that trace the spatial distribution of millimeter-sized particles and cold molecular gas on spatial scales as small as 25 astronomical units (A.U.). The image of the disk recorded in the 1.3 mm continuum emission reveals three dark concentric rings that indicate the presence of dust depleted gaps at about 60, 100, and 160 A.U. from the central star. The maps of the 12CO, 13CO, and C 18O J =2 -1 emission do not show such structures but reveal a change in the slope of the radial intensity profile across the positions of the dark rings in the continuum image. By comparing the observations with theoretical models for the disk emission, we find that the density of CO molecules is reduced inside the middle and outer dust gaps. However, in the inner ring there is no evidence of CO depletion. From the measurements of the dust and gas densities, we deduce that the gas-to-dust ratio varies across the disk and, in particular, it increases by at least a factor 5 within the inner dust gap compared to adjacent regions of the disk. The depletion of both dust and gas suggests that the middle and outer rings could be due to the gravitational torque exerted by two Saturn-mass planets orbiting at 100 and 160 A.U. from the star. On the other hand, the inner dust gap could result from dust accumulation at the edge of a magnetorotational instability dead zone, or from dust opacity variations at the edge of the CO frost line. Observations of the dust emission at higher angular resolution and of molecules that probe dense gas are required to establish more precisely the origins of the dark rings observed in the HD 163296 disk.

  16. Ringed Structures of the HD 163296 Protoplanetary Disk Revealed by ALMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isella, Andrea; Guidi, Greta; Testi, Leonardo; Liu, Shangfei; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Weaver, Erik; Boehler, Yann; Carperter, John M; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Manara, Carlo F; Natta, Antonella; Pérez, Laura M; Ricci, Luca; Sargent, Anneila; Tazzari, Marco; Turner, Neal

    2016-12-16

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array observations of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 that trace the spatial distribution of millimeter-sized particles and cold molecular gas on spatial scales as small as 25 astronomical units (A.U.). The image of the disk recorded in the 1.3 mm continuum emission reveals three dark concentric rings that indicate the presence of dust depleted gaps at about 60, 100, and 160 A.U. from the central star. The maps of the ^{12}CO, ^{13}CO, and C^{18}O J=2-1 emission do not show such structures but reveal a change in the slope of the radial intensity profile across the positions of the dark rings in the continuum image. By comparing the observations with theoretical models for the disk emission, we find that the density of CO molecules is reduced inside the middle and outer dust gaps. However, in the inner ring there is no evidence of CO depletion. From the measurements of the dust and gas densities, we deduce that the gas-to-dust ratio varies across the disk and, in particular, it increases by at least a factor 5 within the inner dust gap compared to adjacent regions of the disk. The depletion of both dust and gas suggests that the middle and outer rings could be due to the gravitational torque exerted by two Saturn-mass planets orbiting at 100 and 160 A.U. from the star. On the other hand, the inner dust gap could result from dust accumulation at the edge of a magnetorotational instability dead zone, or from dust opacity variations at the edge of the CO frost line. Observations of the dust emission at higher angular resolution and of molecules that probe dense gas are required to establish more precisely the origins of the dark rings observed in the HD 163296 disk.

  17. Far-infrared HD emission as a measure of protoplanetary disk mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapman, L.; Miotello, A.; Kama, M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Bruderer, S.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Protoplanetary disks around young stars are the sites of planet formation. While the dust mass can be estimated using standard methods, determining the gas mass - and thus the amount of material available to form giant planets - has proven to be very difficult. Hydrogen deuteride (HD) is a promising alternative to the commonly used gas mass tracer, carbon monoxide. However, the potential of HD has not yet been investigated with models incorporating both HD and CO isotopologue-specific chemistry, and its sensitivity to uncertainties in disk parameters has not yet been quantified. Aims: We examine the robustness of HD as tracer of the disk gas mass, specifically the effect of gas mass on HD far-infrared emission and its sensitivity to the vertical structure. Also, we seek to provide requirements for future far-infrared missions such as SPICA. Methods: Deuterium chemistry reactions relevant for HD were implemented in the thermochemical code DALI and more than 160 disk models were run for a range of disk masses and vertical structures. Results: The HD J = 1-0 line intensity depends directly on the gas mass through a sublinear power law relation with a slope of 0.8. Assuming no prior knowledge about the vertical structure of a disk and using only the HD 1-0 flux, gas masses can be estimated to within a factor of two for low mass disks (Mdisk ≤ 10-3M⊙). For more massive disks, this uncertainty increases to more than an order of magnitude. Adding the HD 2-1 line or independent information about the vertical structure can reduce this uncertainty to a factor of 3 for all disk masses. For TW Hya, using the radial and vertical structure from the literature, the observations constrain the gas mass to 6 × 10-3M⊙ ≤ Mdisk ≤ 9 × 10-3M⊙. Future observations require a 5σ sensitivity of 1.8 × 10-20 W m-2 (2.5 × 10-20 W m-2) and a spectral resolving power R ≥ 300 (1000) to detect HD 1-0 (HD 2-1) for all disk masses above 10-5M⊙ with a line

  18. GASPS--A Herschel Survey of Gas and Dust in Protoplanetary Disks: Summary and Initial Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, W.R.F.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Williams, J. P.; Menard, F.; Andrews, S.; Ardila, D.; Aresu, G.; Augereau, J.-C.; Barrado y Navascues, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We describe a large-scale far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary disk through to young debris disk systems carried out using the ACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. This Open Time Key program, known as GASPS (Gas Survey of Protoplanetary Systems), targeted approx. 250 young stars in narrow wavelength regions covering the [OI] fine structure line at 63 micron the brightest far-infrared line in such objects. A subset of the brightest targets were also surveyed in [OI]145 micron, [CII] at 157 µm, as well as several transitions of H2O and high-excitation CO lines at selected wavelengths between 78 and 180 micron. Additionally, GASPS included continuum photometry at 70, 100 and 160 micron, around the peak of the dust emission. The targets were SED Class II– III T Tauri stars and debris disks from seven nearby young associations, along with a comparable sample of isolated Herbig AeBe stars. The aim was to study the global gas and dust content in a wide sample of circumstellar disks, combining the results with models in a systematic way. In this overview paper we review the scientific aims, target selection and observing strategy of the program. We summarize some of the initial results, showing line identifications, listing the detections, and giving a first statistical study of line detectability. The [OI] line at 63 micron was the brightest line seen in almost all objects, by a factor of 10. Overall [OI] 63 micron detection rates were 49%, with 100% of HAeBe stars and 43% of T Tauri stars detected. A comparison with published disk dust masses (derived mainly from sub-mm continuum, assuming standard values of the mm mass opacity) shows a dust mass threshold for [OI] 63 µm detection of approx.10(exp -5) Solar M.. Normalizing to a distance of 140 pc, 84% of objects with dust masses =10 (exp -5) Solar M can be detected in this line in the present survey; 32% of those of mass 10(exp -6) – 10 (exp -5) Solar M, and only a very small number

  19. GASPS—A Herschel Survey of Gas and Dust in Protoplanetary Disks: Summary and Initial Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, W. R. F.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Williams, J. P.; Menard, F.; Andrews, S.; Ardila, D.; Aresu, G.; Augereau, J.-C.; Barrado y Navascues, D.; Brittain, S.; Carmona, A.; Ciardi, D.; Danchi, W.; Donaldson, J.; Duchene, G.; Eiroa, C.; Fedele, D.; Grady, C.; de Gregorio-Molsalvo, I.; Howard, C.; Huélamo, N.; Krivov, A.; Lebreton, J.; Liseau, R.; Martin-Zaidi, C.; Mathews, G.; Meeus, G.; Mendigutía, I.; Montesinos, B.; Morales-Calderon, M.; Mora, A.; Nomura, H.; Pantin, E.; Pascucci, I.; Phillips, N.; Pinte, C.; Podio, L.; Ramsay, S. K.; Riaz, B.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Roberge, A.; Sandell, G.; Solano, E.; Tilling, I.; Torrelles, J. M.; Vandenbusche, B.; Vicente, S.; White, G. J.; Woitke, P.

    2013-05-01

    We describe a large-scale far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary disk through to young debris disk systems carried out using the ACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. This Open Time Key program, known as GASPS (Gas Survey of Protoplanetary Systems), targeted ~250 young stars in narrow wavelength regions covering the [OI] fine structure line at 63 μm the brightest far-infrared line in such objects. A subset of the brightest targets were also surveyed in [OI]145 μm, [CII] at 157 μm, as well as several transitions of H2O and high-excitation CO lines at selected wavelengths between 78 and 180 μm. Additionally, GASPS included continuum photometry at 70, 100 and 160 μm, around the peak of the dust emission. The targets were SED Class II-III T Tauri stars and debris disks from seven nearby young associations, along with a comparable sample of isolated Herbig AeBe stars. The aim was to study the global gas and dust content in a wide sample of circumstellar disks, combining the results with models in a systematic way. In this overview paper we review the scientific aims, target selection and observing strategy of the program. We summarise some of the initial results, showing line identifications, listing the detections, and giving a first statistical study of line detectability. The [OI] line at 63 μm was the brightest line seen in almost all objects, by a factor of ~10. Overall [OI]63 μm detection rates were 49%, with 100% of HAeBe stars and 43% of T Tauri stars detected. A comparison with published disk dust masses (derived mainly from sub-mm continuum, assuming standard values of the mm mass opacity) shows a dust mass threshold for [OI]63 μm detection of ~10-5 Msolar. Normalising to a distance of 140 pc, 84% of objects with dust masses >=10-5 Msolar can be detected in this line in the present survey; 32% of those of mass 10-6-10-5 Msolar, and only a very small number of unusual objects with lower masses can be detected. This is

  20. Planetesimal and Protoplanet Dynamics in a Turbulent Protoplanetary Disk: Ideal Stratified Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chao-Chin; Menou, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Due to the gravitational influence of density fluctuations driven by magneto-rotational instability in the gas disk, planetesimals and protoplanets undergo diffusive radial migration as well as changes in other orbital properties. The magnitude of the effect on particle orbits can have important consequences for planet formation scenarios. We use the local-shearing-box approximation to simulate an ideal, isothermal, magnetized gas disk with vertical density stratification and simultaneously evolve numerous massless particles moving under the gravitational field of the gas and the host star. We measure the evolution of the particle orbital properties, including mean radius, eccentricity, inclination, and velocity dispersion, and its dependence on the disk properties and the particle initial conditions. Although the results converge with resolution for fixed box dimensions, we find the response of the particles to the gravity of the turbulent gas correlates with the horizontal box size, up to 16 disk scale heig...

  1. Ferromagnetism and particle collisions: applications to protoplanetary disks and the meteoritical record

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The meteoritical record shows both iron partitioning and tungsten isotopic partitioning between matrix and chondrules. Tungsten is not abundant enough to have driven its own isotopic partitioning, but if tungsten were correlated with iron, then ferromagnetic interactions grains could help explain both observations. We derive a practical parameterization for the increase in particle-particle collision rates caused by mutually attracting particle magnetic dipole moments. While the appropriate magnetic parameters remain uncertain, we show that ambient magnetic fields in protoplanetary disks are expected to be strong enough to magnetize iron metal bearing dust grains sufficiently to drive large increases in their collision rates. Such increased collision rates between iron metal rich grains could help preserve primordial iron and W isotopic inhomogeneities; and would help explain why the meteoritical record shows their partitioning in the solar nebula. The importance of magnetic interactions for larger grains who...

  2. Soft X-Ray Irradiation of Silicates: Implications for Dust Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaravella, A.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Chen, Y.-J.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Huang, C.-H.; Jiménez-Escobar, A.; Venezia, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    The processing of energetic photons on bare silicate grains was simulated experimentally on silicate films submitted to soft X-rays of energies up to 1.25 keV. The silicate material was prepared by means of a microwave assisted sol-gel technique. Its chemical composition reflects the Mg2SiO4 stoichiometry with residual impurities due to the synthesis method. The experiments were performed using the spherical grating monochromator beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan. We found that soft X-ray irradiation induces structural changes that can be interpreted as an amorphization of the processed silicate material. The present results may have relevant implications in the evolution of silicate materials in X-ray-irradiated protoplanetary disks.

  3. From Protoplanetary Disks to Extrasolar Planets: Understanding the Life Cycle of Circumstellar Gas with Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Ardila, David R; Bergin, Edwin A; Brown, Alexander; Burgh, Eric B; Calvet, Nuria; Chiang, Eugene; Cook, Timothy A; Désert, Jean-Michel; Ebbets, Dennis; Froning, Cynthia S; Green, James C; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Johns-Krull, Christopher M; Koskinen, Tommi T; Linsky, Jeffrey L; Redfield, Seth; Roberge, Aki; Schindhelm, Eric R; Scowen, Paul A; Stapelfeldt, Karl R; Tumlinson, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Few scientific discoveries have captured the public imagination like the explosion of exoplanetary science during the past two decades. This work has fundamentally changed our picture of Earth's place in the Universe and led NASA to make significant investments towards understanding the demographics of exoplanetary systems and the conditions that lead to their formation. The story of the formation and evolution of exoplanetary systems is essentially the story of the circumstellar gas and dust that are initially present in the protostellar environment; in order to understand the variety of planetary systems observed, we need to understand the life cycle of circumstellar gas from its initial conditions in protoplanetary disks to its endpoint as planets and their atmospheres. In this white paper response to NASA's Request for Information "Science Objectives and Requirements for the Next NASA UV/Visible Astrophysics Mission Concepts (NNH12ZDA008L)", we describe scientific programs that would use the unique capabi...

  4. Soft X-ray Irradiation of Silicates: Implications on Dust Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ciaravella, A; Chen, Y -J; Caro, G M Muñoz; Huang, C -H; Jiménez-Escobar, A; Venezia, A M

    2016-01-01

    The processing of energetic photons on bare silicate grains was simulated experimentally on silicate ?lms submitted to soft X-rays of energies up to 1.25 keV. The silicate material was prepared by means of a microwave assisted solgel technique. Its chemical composition reflects the Mg2SiO4 stoichiometry with residual impurities due to the synthesis method. The experiments were performed using the spherical grating monochromator beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan. We found that soft X-ray irradiation induces structural changes that can be interpreted as an amorphization of the processed silicate material. The present results may have relevant implications in the evolution of silicate materials in X-ray irradiated protoplanetary disks.

  5. Radial Drift of Dust in Protoplanetary Disks: The Evolution of Ice lines and Dead zones

    CERN Document Server

    Cridland, Alex J; Birnstiel, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new model for the astrochemical structure of a viscously evolving protoplanetary disk that couples an analytic description of the disk's temperature and density profile, chemical evolution, and an evolving dust distribution. We compute evolving radial distributions for a range of dust grain sizes, which depend on coagulation, fragmentation and radial drift processes. In particular we find that the water ice line plays an important role in shaping the radial distribution of the maximum grain size because ice coated grains are significantly less susceptible to fragmentation than their dry counterparts. This in turn has important effects on disk ionization and therefore on the location of dead zones. In comparison to a simple constant gas-to-dust ratio model for the dust as an example, we find that the new model predicts an outer dead zone edge that moves in by a factor of about 3 at 1 Myr (to 5 AU) and by a factor of about 14 by 3 Myr (to 0.5 AU). We show that the changing position of the de...

  6. The Distribution and Chemistry of H$_2$CO in the DM Tau Protoplanetary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Loomis, Ryan A; Öberg, Karin I; Guzman, Viviana V; Andrews, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    H$_2$CO ice on dust grains is an important precursor of complex organic molecules (COMs). H$_2$CO gas can be readily observed in protoplanetary disks and may be used to trace COM chemistry. However, its utility as a COM probe is currently limited by a lack of constraints on the relative contributions of two different formation pathways: on icy grain-surfaces and in the gas-phase. We use archival ALMA observations of the resolved distribution of H$_2$CO emission in the disk around the young low-mass star DM Tau to assess the relative importance of these formation routes. The observed H$_2$CO emission has a centrally peaked and radially broad brightness profile (extending out to 500 AU). We compare these observations with disk chemistry models with and without grain-surface formation reactions, and find that both gas and grain-surface chemistry are necessary to explain the spatial distribution of the emission. Gas-phase H$_2$CO production is responsible for the observed central peak, while grain-surface chemist...

  7. Protoplanetary Disk Evolution around the Triggered Star Forming Region Cepheus B

    CERN Document Server

    Getman, Konstantin V; Luhman, Kevin L; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Wang, Junfeng; Garmire, Gordon P

    2009-01-01

    The Cepheus B (CepB) molecular cloud and a portion of the nearby CepOB3b OB association, one of the most active regions of star formation within 1 kpc, have been observed with the IRAC detector on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The goals are to study protoplanetary disk evolution and processes of sequential triggered star formation in the region. Out of ~400 pre-main sequence (PMS) stars selected with an earlier Chandra X-ray Observatory observation, 95% are identified with mid-infrared sources and most of these are classified as diskless or disk-bearing stars. The discovery of the additional >200 IR-excess low-mass members gives a combined Chandra+Spitzer PMS sample complete down to 0.5 Mo outside of the cloud, and somewhat above 1 Mo in the cloud. Analyses of the nearly disk-unbiased combined Chandra+Spitzer selected stellar sample give several results. Our major finding is a spatio-temporal gradient of young stars from the hot molecular core towards the primary ionizing O star HD 217086. This strongly ...

  8. GASPS - a Herschel survey of gas and dust in Protoplanetary Disks: Summary and Initial Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, W R F; Kamp, I; Williams, J P; Menard, F; Andrews, S; Ardila, D; Aresu, G; Augereau, J-C; Navascues, D Barrado y; Brittain, S; Carmona, A; Ciardi, D; Danchi, W; Donaldson, J; Duchene, G; Eiroa, C; Fedele, D; Grady, C; de Gregorio-Molsalvo, I; Howard, C; Huelamo, N; Krivov, A; Lebreton, J; Liseau, R; Martin-Zaidi, C; Mathews, G; Meeus, G; Mendigutia, I; Montesinos, B; Morales-Calderon, M; Mora, A; Nomura, H; Pantin, E; Pascucci, I; Phillips, N; Pinte, C; Podio, L; Ramsay, S K; Riaz, B; Riviere-Marichalar, P; Roberge, A; Sandell, G; Solano, E; Tilling, I; Torrelles, J M; Vandenbusche, B; Vicente, S; White, G J; Woitke, P

    2013-01-01

    GASPS is a far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary and young debris disks using PACS on the Herschel Space Observatory. The survey includes [OI] at 63 microns, as well as 70, 100 and 160um continuum, with the brightest objects also studied in [OI]145um, [CII]157um, H2O and CO. Targets included T Tauri stars and debris disks in 7 nearby young associations, and a sample of isolated Herbig AeBe stars. The aim was to study the global gas and dust content in a wide disk sample, systemically comparing the results with models. In this paper we review the main aims, target selection and observing strategy. We show initial results, including line identifications, sources detected, and a first statistical study. [OI]63um was the brightest line in most objects, by a factor of ~10. Detection rates were 49%, including 100% of HAeBe stars and 43% of T Tauri stars. Comparison with published dust masses show a dust threshold for [OI]63um detection of ~1e-5 M_solar. Normalising to 140pc distance, 32% with mas...

  9. Runaway Freeze-out of Volatiles in Weakly Turbulent Protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Rui; Oberg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Volatiles, especially CO, are important gas tracers of protoplanetary disks (PPDs). Freeze-out and sublimation processes determine their division between gas and solid phases, which affects both which disk regions can be traced by which volatiles, and the formation and composition of planets. Recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest that CO is substantially depleted from the gas in the outer regions of PPDs. In this letter, we show that the gas dynamics in the outer PPDs facilitates volatile depletion through a mechanism which we term "runaway freeze-out". Using a simple 1D model that incorporates dust settling, turbulent diffusion of dust and volatiles, as well as volatile freeze-out/sublimation processes, we show that as long as turbulence in the cold midplane is sufficiently weak to allow majority of the small grains to settle, CO in the warm surface layer can be turbulently mixed into the midplane region and depleted by freeze-out. The level of depletion sensitively depends on the level of disk turbul...

  10. Chemistry of a protoplanetary disk with grain settling and Lyman alpha radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Fogel, Jeffrey K J; Bergin, Edwin A; Calvet, Nuria; Semenov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    We present results from a model of the chemical evolution of protoplanetary disks. In our models we directly calculate the changing propagation and penetration of a high energy radiation field with Lyman alpha radiation included. We also explore the effect on our models of including dust grain settling. We find that, in agreement with earlier studies, the evolution of dust grains plays a large role in determining how deep the UV radiation penetrates into the disk. Significant grain settling at the midplane leads to much smaller freeze-out regions and a correspondingly larger molecular layer, which leads to an increase in column density for molecular species such as CO, CN and SO. The inclusion of Lyman alpha radiation impacts the disk chemistry through specific species that have large photodissociation cross sections at 1216 A. These include HCN, NH3 and CH4, for which the column densities are decreased by an order of magnitude or more due to the presence of Lyman alpha radiation in the UV spectrum. A few spe...

  11. Chemical complexity in protoplanetary disks in the era of ALMA and Rosetta

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Comets provide a unique insight into the molecular composition and complexity of the material in the primordial solar nebula. Recent results from the Rosetta mission, currently monitoring comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in situ, and ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array), have demonstrated a tantalising link between the chemical complexity now confirmed in disks (via the detection of gas-phase CH3CN; Oberg et al. 2015) and that confirmed on the surface of 67P (Goesmann et al. 2015), raising questions concerning the chemical origin of such species (cloud or inheritance versus disk synthesis). Results from an astrochemical model of a protoplanetary disk are presented in which complex chemistry is included and in which it is assumed that simple ices only are inherited from the parent molecular cloud. The model results show good agreement with the abundances of several COMs observed on the surface of 67P with Philae/COSAC. Cosmic-ray and X-ray-induced photoprocessing of predominantly simple ices ...

  12. On the evolution of eccentric and inclined protoplanets embedded in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Cresswell, Paul; Kley, Willy; Nelson, Richard P

    2007-01-01

    Young planets embedded in their protoplanetary disk interact gravitationally with it leading to energy and angular momentum exchange. This interaction determines the evolution of the planet through changes to the orbital parameters. We investigate changes in the orbital elements of a 20 Earth--mass planet due to the torques from the disk. We focus on the non-linear evolution of initially non-vanishing eccentricity $e$ and/or inclination $i$. We treat the disk as a two- or three-dimensional viscous fluid and perform hydrodynamical simulations with an embedded planet. We find rapid exponential decay of the planet orbital eccentricity and inclination for small initial values of $e$ and $i$, in agreement with linear theory. For larger values of $e > 0.1$ the decay time increases and the decay rate scales as $\\dot{e} \\propto e^{-2}$, consistent with existing theoretical models. For large inclinations ($i$ > 6 deg) the inclination decay rate shows an identical scaling $di/dt \\propto i^{-2}$. We find an interesting ...

  13. Stacking Spectra in Protoplanetary Disks: Detecting Intensity Profiles from Hidden Molecular Lines in HD 163296

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Puspitaningrum, Evaria; Hirano, Naomi; Lee, Chin-Fei; Takakuwa, Shigehisa

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new stacking method in Keplerian disks that (1) enhances signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) of detected molecular lines and (2) that makes visible otherwise undetectable weak lines. Our technique takes advantage of the Keplerian rotational velocity pattern. It aligns spectra according to their different centroid velocities at their different positions in a disk and stacks them. After aligning, the signals are accumulated in a narrower velocity range as compared to the original line width without alignment. Moreover, originally correlated noise becomes de-correlated. Stacked and aligned spectra, thus, have a higher S/N. We apply our method to ALMA archival data of DCN (3-2), DCO+ (3-2), N2D+ (3-2), and H2CO (3_0,3-2_0,2), (3_2,2-2_2,1), and (3_2,1-2_2,0) in the protoplanetary disk around HD 163296. As a result, (1) the S/N of the originally detected DCN (3-2), DCO+ (3-2), and H2CO (3_0,3-2_0,2) and N2D+ (3-2) lines are boosted by a factor of >4-5 at their spectral peaks, implying one order of magnitud...

  14. Neon Fine-Structure Line Emission By X-ray Irradiated Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Glassgold, A E; Igea, J; Glassgold, Alfred E.; Najita, Joan R.; Igea, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Using a thermal-chemical model for the generic T-Tauri disk of D'Alessio et al. (1999), we estimate the strength of the fine-structure emission lines of NeII and NeIII at 12.81 and 15.55 microns that arise from the warm atmosphere of the disk exposed to hard stellar X-rays. The Ne ions are produced by the absorption of keV X-rays from the K shell of neutral Ne, followed by the Auger ejection of several additional electrons. The recombination cascade of the Ne ions is slow because of weak charge transfer with atomic hydrogen in the case of Ne2+ and by essentially no charge transfer for Ne+. For a distance of 140pc, the 12.81 micron line of Ne II has a flux of 1e-14 erg/cm2s, which should be observable with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer and suitable ground based instrumentation. The detection of these fine-structure lines would clearly demonstrate the effects of X-rays on the physical and chemical properties of the disks of young stellar objects and provide a diagnostic of the warm gas in protoplanetary dis...

  15. Water transport in protoplanetary disks and the hydrogen isotopic composition of chondrites

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The D/H ratios of carbonaceous chondrites, believed to reflect that of water in the inner early solar system, are intermediate between the protosolar value and that of most comets. The isotopic composition of cometary water has been accounted for by several models where the isotopic composition of water vapor evolved by isotopic exchange with hydrogen gas in the protoplanetary disk. However, the position and the wide variations of the distribution of D/H ratios in carbonaceous chondrites have yet to be explained. In this paper, we assume that the D/H composition of cometary ice was achieved in the disk building phase and model the further isotopic evolution of water in the inner disk in the classical T Tauri stage. Reaction kinetics compel isotopic exchange between water and hydrogen gas to stop at $\\sim$500 K, but equilibrated water can be transported to the snow line (and beyond) via turbulent diffusion and consequently mix with isotopically comet-like water. Under certain simplifying assumptions, we calcul...

  16. Survey of Cold Water Lines in Protoplanetary Disks: Indications of Systematic Volatile Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin Anthony; Hogerheijde, Michiel; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Blake, Geoff; Bruderer, Simon; Cleeves, Ilse; Dominik, Carsten; Fedele, Davide; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Pearson, John; Yıldız, Umut

    2017-06-01

    We performed very deep searches for 2 ground-state water transitions in 13 protoplanetary disks with the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory, with integration times up to 12 hr per line. We also searched for, with shallower integrations, two other water transitions that sample warmer gas. The detection rate is low, and the upper limits provided by the observations are generally much lower than predictions of thermo-chemical models with canonical inputs. One ground-state transition is newly detected in the stacked spectrum of AA Tau, DM Tau, LkCa 15, and MWC 480. We run a grid of models to show that the abundance of gas-phase oxygen needs to be reduced by a factor of at least ∼ 100 to be consistent with the observational upper limits (and positive detections) if a dust-to-gas mass ratio of 0.01 were to be assumed. As a continuation of previous ideas, we propose that the underlying reason for the depletion of oxygen (hence the low detection rate) is the freeze-out of volatiles such as water and CO onto dust grains followed by grain growth and settling/migration, which permanently removes these gas-phase molecules from the emissive upper layers of the outer disk. Such depletion of volatiles is likely ubiquitous among different disks, though not necessarily to the same degree. The volatiles might be returned back to the gas phase in the inner disk (≲ 15 au), which is consistent with current constraints. Comparison with studies on disk dispersal due to photoevaporation indicates that the timescale for volatile depletion is shorter than that of photoevaporation.

  17. An Ordered Magnetic Field in the Protoplanetary Disk of AB Aur Revealed by Mid-Infrared Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dan; Telesco, Charles M; Zhang, Han; Wright, Christopher M; Barnes, Peter J; Packham, Chris; Mariñas, Naibí

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields (B-fields) play a key role in the formation and evolution of protoplanetary disks, but their properties are poorly understood due to the lack of observational constraints. Using CanariCam at the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias, we have mapped out the mid-infrared polarization of the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star AB Aur. We detect ~0.44% polarization at 10.3 micron from AB Aur's inner disk (r < 80 AU), rising to ~1.4% at larger radii. Our simulations imply that the mid-infrared polarization of the inner disk arises from dichroic emission of elongated particles aligned in a disk B-field. The field is well ordered on a spatial scale commensurate with our resolution (~50 AU), and we infer a poloidal shape tilted from the rotational axis of the disk. The disk of AB Aur is optically thick at 10.3 micron, so polarimetry at this wavelength is probing the B-field near the disk surface. Our observations therefore confirm that this layer, favored by some theoretical studies for develop...

  18. HD 100453: A Link Between Gas-Rich Protoplanetary Disks and Gas-Poor Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, K A; Hamaguchi, K; Wisniewski, J P; Brittain, S; Sitko, M; Carpenter, W J; Williams, J P; Mathews, G S; Williger, G M; Van Boekel, R; Carmona, A; Henning, T; Ancker, M E van den; Meeus, G; Chen, X P; Petre, R; Woodgate, B E

    2009-01-01

    HD 100453 has an IR spectral energy distribution (SED) which can be fit with a power-law plus a blackbody. Previous analysis of the SED suggests that the system is a young Herbig Ae star with a gas-rich, flared disk. We reexamine the evolutionary state of the HD 100453 system by refining its age (based on a candidate low-mass companion) and by examining limits on the disk extent, mass accretion rate, and gas content of the disk environment. We confirm that HD 100453B is a common proper motion companion to HD 100453A, with a spectral type of M4.0V - M4.5V, and derive an age of 10 +/- 2 Myr. We find no evidence of mass accretion onto the star. Chandra ACIS-S imagery shows that the Herbig Ae star has L_X/L_Bol and an X-ray spectrum similar to non-accreting Beta Pic Moving Group early F stars. Moreover, the disk lacks the conspicuous Fe II emission and excess FUV continuum seen in spectra of actively accreting Herbig Ae stars, and from the FUV continuum, we find the accretion rate is < 1.4x10^-9 M_Sun yr^-1. A...

  19. Stacking Spectra in Protoplanetary Disks: Detecting Intensity Profiles from Hidden Molecular Lines in HD 163296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Puspitaningrum, Evaria; Hirano, Naomi; Lee, Chin-Fei; Takakuwa, Shigehisa

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a new stacking method in Keplerian disks that (1) enhances signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of detected molecular lines and (2) makes visible otherwise-undetectable weak lines. Our technique takes advantage of the Keplerian rotational velocity pattern. It aligns spectra according to their different centroid velocities at their different positions in a disk and stacks them. After aligning, the signals are accumulated in a narrower velocity range as compared to the original line width without alignment. Moreover, originally correlated noise becomes decorrelated. Stacked and aligned spectra thus have a higher S/N. We apply our method to Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) archival data of DCN (3-2), DCO+ (3-2), N2D+ (3-2), and H2CO (3{}{0,3}-2{}{0,2}), (3{}{2,2}-2{}{2,1}), and (3{}{2,1}-2{}{2,0}) in the protoplanetary disk around HD 163296. As a result, (1) the S/Ns of the originally detected DCN (3-2), DCO+ (3-2), H2CO (3{}{0,3}-2{}{0,2}), and N2D+ (3-2) lines are boosted by a factor of ≳4-5 at their spectral peaks, implying one order of magnitude shorter integration times to reach the original S/N; and (2) the previously undetectable spectra of the H2CO (3{}{2,2}-2{}{2,1}) and (3{}{2,1}-2{}{2,0}) lines are materialized at more than 3σ. These dramatically enhanced S/Ns allow us to measure intensity distributions in all lines with high significance. The principle of our method can be applied not only to Keplerian disks but also to any systems with ordered kinematic patterns.

  20. THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHEMISTRY OF H{sub 2}CO IN THE DM TAU PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, Ryan A.; Öberg, Karin I.; Guzman, Viviana V. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cleeves, L. Ilsedore [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Andrews, Sean M., E-mail: rloomis@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-08-20

    H{sub 2}CO ice on dust grains is an important precursor of complex organic molecules (COMs). H{sub 2}CO gas can be readily observed in protoplanetary disks and may be used to trace COM chemistry. However, its utility as a COM probe is currently limited by a lack of constraints on the relative contributions of two different formation pathways: on icy grain surfaces and in the gas phase. We use archival Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array observations of the resolved distribution of H{sub 2}CO emission in the disk around the young low-mass star DM Tau to assess the relative importance of these formation routes. The observed H{sub 2}CO emission has a centrally peaked and radially broad brightness profile (extending out to 500 AU). We compare these observations with disk chemistry models with and without grain-surface formation reactions and find that both gas and grain-surface chemistry are necessary to explain the spatial distribution of the emission. Gas-phase H{sub 2}CO production is responsible for the observed central peak, while grain-surface chemistry is required to reproduce the emission exterior to the CO snow line (where H{sub 2}CO mainly forms through the hydrogenation of CO ice before being non-thermally desorbed). These observations demonstrate that both gas and grain-surface pathways contribute to the observed H{sub 2}CO in disks and that their relative contributions depend strongly on distance from the host star.

  1. Analytical Formulas of Molecular Ion Abundances and N2H+ Ring in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Aikawa, Yuri; Nomura, Hideko; Qi, Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the chemistry of ion molecules in protoplanetary disks, motivated by the detection of N$_2$H$^+$ ring around TW Hya. While the ring inner radius coincides with the CO snow line, it is not apparent why N$_2$H$^+$ is abundant outside the CO snow line in spite of the similar sublimation temperatures of CO and N$_2$. Using the full gas-grain network model, we reproduced the N$_2$H$^+$ ring in a disk model with millimeter grains. The chemical conversion of CO and N$_2$ to less volatile species (sink effect hereinafter) is found to affect the N$_2$H$^+$ distribution. Since the efficiency of the sink depends on various parameters such as activation barriers of grain surface reactions, which are not well constrained, we also constructed the no-sink model; the total (gas and ice) CO and N$_2$ abundances are set constant, and their gaseous abundances are given by the balance between adsorption and desorption. Abundances of molecular ions in the no-sink model are calculated by analytical formulas, which a...

  2. Dust in Protoplanetary Disks: A Clue as to the Critical Mass of Planetary Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Dust in protoplanetary disks is recognized as the building blocks of planets. In the core accretion scenario, the abundance of dust in disks (or metallicity) is crucial for forming cores of gas giants. We present our recent progress on the relationship between the metallicity and planet formation, wherein planet formation frequencies (PFFs) as well as the critical mass of planetary cores ($M_{c,crit}$) that can initiate gas accretion are statistically examined. We focus on three different planetary populations that are prominent for observed exoplanets in the mass-semimajor axis diagram: hot Jupiters, exo-Jupiters that are densely populated around 1 AU, and low-mass planets in tight orbits. We show that the resultant PFFs for both Jovian planets are correlated positively with the metallicity whereas low-mass planets form efficiently for a wide range of metallicities. This is consistent with the observed Planet-Metallicity correlation. Examining the statistically averaged value of $M_{c,crit}$ (defined as $$),...

  3. The cometary composition of a protoplanetary disk as revealed by complex cyanides

    CERN Document Server

    Oberg, Karin I; Furuya, Kenji; Qi, Chunhua; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M; Loomis, Ryan; Wilner, David J

    2015-01-01

    Observations of comets and asteroids show that the Solar Nebula that spawned our planetary system was rich in water and organic molecules. Bombardment brought these organics to the young Earth's surface, seeding its early chemistry. Unlike asteroids, comets preserve a nearly pristine record of the Solar Nebula composition. The presence of cyanides in comets, including 0.01% of methyl cyanide (CH3CN) with respect to water, is of special interest because of the importance of C-N bonds for abiotic amino acid synthesis. Comet-like compositions of simple and complex volatiles are found in protostars, and can be readily explained by a combination of gas-phase chemistry to form e.g. HCN and an active ice-phase chemistry on grain surfaces that advances complexity[3]. Simple volatiles, including water and HCN, have been detected previously in Solar Nebula analogues - protoplanetary disks around young stars - indicating that they survive disk formation or are reformed in situ. It has been hitherto unclear whether the s...

  4. Outward Motion of Porous Dust Aggregates by Stellar Radiation Pressure in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Tazaki, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    We study the dust motion at the surface layer of protoplanetary disks. Dust grains in surface layer migrate outward due to angular momentum transport via gas-drag force induced by the stellar radiation pressure. In this study, we calculate mass flux of the outward motion of compact grains and porous dust aggregates by the radiation pressure. The radiation pressure force for porous dust aggregates is calculated using the T-Matrix Method for the Clusters of Spheres. First, we confirm that porous dust aggregates are forced by strong radiation pressure even if they grow to be larger aggregates in contrast to homogeneous and spherical compact grains to which efficiency of radiation pressure becomes lower when their sizes increase. In addition, we find that the outward mass flux of porous dust aggregates with monomer size of 0.1 $\\mu$m is larger than that of compact grains by an order of magnitude at the disk radius of 1 AU, when their sizes are several microns. This implies that large compact grains like calcium-a...

  5. Sensitive limits on the abundance of cold water vapor in the DM Tau protoplanetary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Bergin, E A; Brinch, C; Fogel, J; Yildiz, U A; Kristensen, L E; van~Dishoeck, E F; Bell, T A; Blake, G A; Cernicharo, J; Dominik, C; Lis, D; Melnick, G; Neufeld, D; Panic, O; Pearson, J C; Bachiller, R; Baudry, A; Benedettini, M; Benz, A O; Bjerkeli, P; Bontemps, S; Braine, J; Bruderer, S; Caselli, P; Codella, C; Daniel, F; di Giorgio, A M; Doty, S D; Encrenaz, P; Fich, M; Fuente, A; Giannini, T; Goicoechea, J R; de Graauw, Th; Helmich, F; Herczeg, G J; Herpin, F; Jacq, T; Johnstone, D; Jorgensen, J K; Larsson, B; Liseau, R; Marseille, M; McCoey, C; Nisini, B; Olberg, M; Parise, B; Plume, R; Risacher, C; Santiago-Garcia, J; Saraceno, P; Shipman, R; Tafalla, M; van Kempen, T A; Visser, R; Wampfler, S F; Wyrowski, F; van der Tak, F; Jellema, W; Tielens, A G G M; Hartogh, P; Stutzki, J; Szczerba, R

    2010-01-01

    We performed a sensitive search for the ground-state emission lines of ortho- and para-water vapor in the DM Tau protoplanetary disk using the Herschel/HIFI instrument. No strong lines are detected down to 3sigma levels in 0.5 km/s channels of 4.2 mK for the 1_{10}--1_{01} line and 12.6 mK for the 1_{11}--0_{00} line. We report a very tentative detection, however, of the 1_{10}--1_{01} line in the Wide Band Spectrometer, with a strength of T_{mb}=2.7 mK, a width of 5.6 km/s and an integrated intensity of 16.0 mK km/s. The latter constitutes a 6sigma detection. Regardless of the reality of this tentative detection, model calculations indicate that our sensitive limits on the line strengths preclude efficient desorption of water in the UV illuminated regions of the disk. We hypothesize that more than 95-99% of the water ice is locked up in coagulated grains that have settled to the midplane.

  6. Importance of the H2 abundance in protoplanetary disk ices for the molecular layer chemical composition

    CERN Document Server

    Wakelam, V; Hersant, F; Dutrey, A; Semenov, D; Majumdar, L; Guilloteau, S

    2016-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are the target of many chemical studies (both observational and theoretical) as they contain the building material for planets. Their large vertical and radial gradients in density and temperature make them challenging objects for chemical models. In the outer part of these disks, the large densities and low temperatures provide a particular environment where the binding of species onto the dust grains can be very efficient and can affect the gas-phase chemical composition. We attempt to quantify to what extent the vertical abundance profiles and the integrated column densities of molecules predicted by a detailed gas-grain code are affected by the treatment of the molecular hydrogen physisorption at the surface of the grains. We performed three different models using the Nautilus gas-grain code. One model uses a H2 binding energy on the surface of water (440 K) and produces strong sticking of H2. Another model uses a small binding energy of 23 K (as if there were already a monolayer of H...

  7. Molecular line radiative transfer in protoplanetary disks: Monte Carlo simulations versus approximate methods

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlyuchenkov, Ya; Henning, T; Guilloteau, St; Pietu, V; Launhardt, R; Dutrey, A

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the line radiative transfer in protoplanetary disks using several approximate methods and a well-tested Accelerated Monte Carlo code. A low-mass flaring disk model with uniform as well as stratified molecular abundances is adopted. Radiative transfer in low and high rotational lines of CO, C18O, HCO+, DCO+, HCN, CS, and H2CO is simulated. The corresponding excitation temperatures, synthetic spectra, and channel maps are derived and compared to the results of the Monte Carlo calculations. A simple scheme that describes the conditions of the line excitation for a chosen molecular transition is elaborated. We find that the simple LTE approach can safely be applied for the low molecular transitions only, while it significantly overestimates the intensities of the upper lines. In contrast, the Full Escape Probability (FEP) approximation can safely be used for the upper transitions ($J_{\\rm up} \\ga 3$) but it is not appropriate for the lowest transitions because of the maser effect. In general, the molec...

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE INSTABILITY DUE TO GAS–DUST FRICTION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadmehri, Mohsen, E-mail: m.shadmehri@gu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan 49138-15739 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    We study the stability of a dust layer in a gaseous disk subject to linear axisymmetric perturbations. Instead of considering single-size particles, however, the population of dust particles is assumed to consist of two grain species. Dust grains exchange momentum with the gas via the drag force and their self-gravity is also considered. We show that the presence of two grain sizes can increase the efficiency of the linear growth of drag-driven instability in the protoplanetary disks (PPDs). A second dust phase with a small mass, compared to the first dust phase, would reduce the growth timescale by a factor of two or more, especially when its coupling to the gas is weak. This means that once a certain amount of large dust particles form, even though it is much smaller than that of small dust particles, the dust layer becomes more unstable and dust clumping is accelerated. Thus, the presence of dust particles of various sizes must be considered in studies of dust clumping in PPDs where both large and small dust grains are present.

  9. The Global Perspective on the Evolution of Solids in a Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Valageas, P.

    1996-01-01

    It is currently thought that planets around solar-type stars form by the accumulation of solid matter entrained in a gaseous, turbulent protoplanetary disk. We have developed a model designed to simulate the part of this process that starts from small particles suspended in the gaseous disk at the end of the formation stage, and ends up with most of the solid material aggregated into 1-10-km planetesimals. The major novelty of our approach is its emphasis on the global, comprehensive treatment of the problem, as our model simultaneously keeps track of the evolution of gas and solid particles due to gas-solid coupling, coagulation, sedimentation, and evaporation/condensation. The result of our calculations is the radial distribution of solid material circumnavigating a star in the form of a planetesimal swarm. Such a distribution should well approximate the radial apportionment of condensed components of the planets spread over the radial extent of the mature planetary system. Therefore we view our calculations as an attempt to predict the large-scale architecture of planetary systems and to assess their potential diversity. In particular, we have found that some initial conditions lead to all solids being lost to the star, but we can also identify initial conditions leading to a radial distribution of solid material quite reminiscent of what is found in our solar system.

  10. Ringed Substructure and a Gap at 1 AU in the Nearest Protoplanetary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Sean M; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Birnstiel, Tilman; Carpenter, John M; Perez, Laura M; Bai, Xue-Ning; Oberg, Karin I; Hughes, A Meredith; Isella, Andrea; Ricci, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We present long-baseline Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the 870 micron continuum emission from the nearest gas-rich protoplanetary disk, around TW Hya, that trace millimeter-sized particles down to spatial scales as small as 1 AU (20 mas). These data reveal a series of concentric ring-shaped substructures in the form of bright zones and narrow dark annuli (1-6 AU) with modest contrasts (5-30%). We associate these features with concentrations of solids that have had their inward radial drift slowed or stopped, presumably at local gas pressure maxima. No significant non-axisymmetric structures are detected. Some of the observed features occur near temperatures that may be associated with the condensation fronts of major volatile species, but the relatively small brightness contrasts may also be a consequence of magnetized disk evolution (the so-called zonal flows). Other features, particularly a narrow dark annulus located only 1 AU from the star, could indicate interactions...

  11. DM Ori: A Young Star Occulted by a Disturbance in its Protoplanetary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Joseph E; Cargile, Phillip; Shappee, Benjamin J; Siverd, Robert J; Pepper, Joshua; Lund, Michael B; Kochanek, Christopher S; James, David; Kuhn, Rudolf B; Beatty, Thomas G; Gaudi, B Scott; Weintraub, David A; Stanek, Krzysztof Z; Holoien, Thomas W S; Prieto, Jose L; Feldman, Daniel M; Espaillat, Catherine C

    2016-01-01

    In some planet formation theories, protoplanets grow gravitationally within a young star's protoplanetary disk, a signature of which may be a localized disturbance in the disk's radial and/or vertical structure. Using time-series photometric observations by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope South (KELT-South) project and the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN), combined with archival observations, we present the discovery of two extended dimming events of the young star, DM Ori. This young system faded by $\\sim$1.5 mag from 2000 March to 2002 August and then again in 2013 January until 2014 September (depth $\\sim$1.7 mag). We constrain the duration of the 2000-2002 dimming to be $$6 AU from the host star, moving at $\\sim$14.6 km/s, and is $\\sim$4.9 AU in width. This localized structure may indicate a disturbance such as may be caused by a protoplanet early in its formation.

  12. Growth of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions by coagulation and fragmentation in a turbulent protoplanetary disk: observations and modelisation

    CERN Document Server

    Charnoz, S; Chaumard, N; Baillie, K; Tallifet, E

    2015-01-01

    Whereas it is generally accepted that calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from chondritic meteorites formed in a hot environment in the solar protoplanetary disk, the conditions of their formation remain debated. Recent laboratory studies of CAIs have provided new kind of data: their size distributions. We show that size distributions of CAIs measured in laboratory from sections of carbonaceous chondrites have a power law size distribution with cumulative size exponent between -1.7 and -1.9, which translates into cumulative size exponent between -2.5 and -2.8 after correction for sectioning. To explain these observations, numerical simulations were run to explore the growth of CAIs from micrometer to centimeter sizes, in a hot and turbulent protoplanetary disk through the competition of coagulation and fragmentation. We show that the size distributions obtained in growth simulations are in agreement with CAIs size distributions in meteorites. We explain the CAI sharp cut-off of their size distribution at ...

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Protoplanetary Disks around Herbig Ae/Be and T Tauri Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Ji Yeon; Li, Aigen

    2017-02-01

    A distinct set of broad emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μm, is often detected in protoplanetary disks (PPDs). These features are commonly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We model these emission features in the infrared spectra of 69 PPDs around 14 T Tauri and 55 Herbig Ae/Be stars in terms of astronomical PAHs. For each PPD, we derive the size distribution and the charge state of the PAHs. We then examine the correlations of the PAH properties (i.e., sizes and ionization fractions) with the stellar properties (e.g., stellar effective temperature, luminosity, and mass). We find that the characteristic size of the PAHs tends to correlate with the stellar effective temperature ({T}{eff}) and interpret this as the preferential photodissociation of small PAHs in systems with higher {T}{eff} of which the stellar photons are more energetic. In addition, the PAH size shows a moderate correlation with the red-ward wavelength shift of the 7.7 μm PAH feature that is commonly observed in disks around cool stars. The ionization fraction of PAHs does not seem to correlate with any stellar parameters. This is because the charging of PAHs depends on not only the stellar properties (e.g., {T}{eff}, luminosity) but also their spatial distribution in the disks. The marginally negative correlation between PAH size and stellar age suggests that continuous replenishment of PAHs via the outgassing of cometary bodies and/or the collisional grinding of planetesimals and asteroids is required to maintain the abundance of small PAHs against complete destruction by photodissociation.

  14. Sintering-induced Dust Ring Formation in Protoplanetary Disks: Application to the HL Tau Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Sirono, Sin-iti; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    The latest observation of HL Tau by ALMA revealed spectacular concentric dust rings in its circumstellar disk. We attempt to explain the multiple ring structure as a consequence of aggregate sintering. Sintering is a process that reduces the sticking efficiency of dust aggregates, and takes place where the temperature is slightly below the sublimation point of some constituent material. We here present a dust growth model that incorporates sintering, and use it to simulate global dust evolution in a modeled HL Tau disk taking into account coagulation, fragmentation, and radial inward drift. We show that the aggregates collisionally disrupt and pile up at multiple locations where different volatiles cause sintering. At wavelengths of 0.87--1.3 mm, these "sintering zones" appear as bright, optically thick rings with spectral slope $\\approx$ 2, whereas the non-sintering zones as darker, optically thinner rings of spectral slope $\\approx$ 2.3--2.5, consistent with major bright and dark rings found in the HL Tau d...

  15. Sensitive limits on the abundance of cold water vapor in the DM Tauri protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergin, E. A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Brinch, C.

    2010-01-01

    We performed a sensitive search for the ground-state emission lines of ortho- and para-water vapor in the DM Tau protoplanetary disk using the Herschel/HIFI instrument. No strong lines are detected down to 3σ levels in 0.5 km s-1 channels of 4.2 mK for the 110-101 line and 12.6 mK for the 111-000...

  16. Tungsten isotopes in bulk meteorites and their inclusions—Implications for processing of presolar components in the solar protoplanetary disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, J. C.; Paton, C.; Wielandt, D.; Bizzarro, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present high precision, low- and high-resolution tungsten isotope measurements of iron meteorites Cape York (IIIAB), Rhine Villa (IIIE), Bendego (IC), and the IVB iron meteorites Tlacotepec, Skookum, and Weaver Mountains, as well as CI chondrite Ivuna, a CV3 chondrite refractory inclusion (CAI BE), and terrestrial standards. Our high precision tungsten isotope data show that the distribution of the rare p-process nuclide 180W is homogeneous among chondrites, iron meteorites, and the refractory inclusion. One exception to this pattern is the IVB iron meteorite group, which displays variable excesses relative to the terrestrial standard, possibly related to decay of rare 184Os. Such anomalies are not the result of analytical artifacts and cannot be caused by sampling of a protoplanetary disk characterized by p-process isotope heterogeneity. In contrast, we find that 183W is variable due to a nucleosynthetic s-process deficit/r-process excess among chondrites and iron meteorites. This variability supports the widespread nucleosynthetic s/r-process heterogeneity in the protoplanetary disk inferred from other isotope systems and we show that W and Ni isotope variability is correlated. Correlated isotope heterogeneity for elements of distinct nucleosynthetic origin (183W and 58Ni) is best explained by thermal processing in the protoplanetary disk during which thermally labile carrier phases are unmixed by vaporization thereby imparting isotope anomalies on the residual processed reservoir. PMID:27445452

  17. Tungsten isotopes in bulk meteorites and their inclusions-Implications for processing of presolar components in the solar protoplanetary disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, J C; Paton, C; Wielandt, D; Bizzarro, M

    2015-09-03

    We present high precision, low- and high-resolution tungsten isotope measurements of iron meteorites Cape York (IIIAB), Rhine Villa (IIIE), Bendego (IC), and the IVB iron meteorites Tlacotepec, Skookum, and Weaver Mountains, as well as CI chondrite Ivuna, a CV3 chondrite refractory inclusion (CAI BE), and terrestrial standards. Our high precision tungsten isotope data show that the distribution of the rare p-process nuclide (180)W is homogeneous among chondrites, iron meteorites, and the refractory inclusion. One exception to this pattern is the IVB iron meteorite group, which displays variable excesses relative to the terrestrial standard, possibly related to decay of rare (184)Os. Such anomalies are not the result of analytical artifacts and cannot be caused by sampling of a protoplanetary disk characterized by p-process isotope heterogeneity. In contrast, we find that (183)W is variable due to a nucleosynthetic s-process deficit/r-process excess among chondrites and iron meteorites. This variability supports the widespread nucleosynthetic s/r-process heterogeneity in the protoplanetary disk inferred from other isotope systems and we show that W and Ni isotope variability is correlated. Correlated isotope heterogeneity for elements of distinct nucleosynthetic origin ((183)W and (58)Ni) is best explained by thermal processing in the protoplanetary disk during which thermally labile carrier phases are unmixed by vaporization thereby imparting isotope anomalies on the residual processed reservoir.

  18. The Gravitational Interaction between Planets on Inclined Orbits and Protoplanetary Disks As the Origin of Primordial Spin–Orbit Misalignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakos, Titos; Königl, Arieh

    2017-02-01

    Many of the observed spin–orbit alignment properties of exoplanets can be explained in the context of the primordial disk misalignment model, in which an initially aligned protoplanetary disk is torqued by a distant stellar companion on a misaligned orbit, resulting in a precessional motion that can lead to large-amplitude oscillations of the spin–orbit angle. We consider a variant of this model in which the companion is a giant planet with an orbital radius of a few astronomical units. Guided by the results of published numerical simulations, we model the dynamical evolution of this system by dividing the disk into inner and outer parts—separated at the location of the planet—that behave as distinct, rigid disks. We show that the planet misaligns the inner disk even as the orientation of the outer disk remains unchanged. In addition to the oscillations induced by the precessional motion, whose amplitude is larger the smaller the initial inner-disk-to-planet mass ratio, the spin–orbit angle also exhibits a secular growth in this case—driven by ongoing mass depletion from the disk—that becomes significant when the inner disk’s angular momentum drops below that of the planet. Altogether, these two effects can produce significant misalignment angles for the inner disk, including retrograde configurations. We discuss these results within the framework of the Stranded Hot Jupiter scenario and consider their implications, including the interpretation of the alignment properties of debris disks.

  19. An ALMA Survey of DCN/H13CN and DCO+/H13CO+ in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jane; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M.; Furuya, Kenji; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Loomis, Ryan A.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Wilner, David J.

    2017-02-01

    The deuterium enrichment of molecules is sensitive to their formation environment. Constraining patterns of deuterium chemistry in protoplanetary disks is therefore useful for probing how material is inherited or reprocessed throughout the stages of star and planet formation. We present ALMA observations at ∼0.″6 resolution of DCO+, H13CO+, DCN, and H13CN in the full disks around T Tauri stars AS 209 and IM Lup, in the transition disks around T Tauri stars V4046 Sgr and LkCa 15, and in the full disks around Herbig Ae stars MWC 480 and HD 163296. We also present ALMA observations of HCN in the IM Lup disk. DCN, DCO+, and H13CO+ are detected in all disks, and H13CN in all but the IM Lup disk. We find efficient deuterium fractionation for the sample, with estimates of disk-averaged DCO+/HCO+ and DCN/HCN abundance ratios ranging from ∼0.02–0.06 and ∼0.005–0.08, respectively, which is comparable to values reported for other interstellar environments. The relative distributions of DCN and DCO+ vary between disks, suggesting that multiple formation pathways may be needed to explain the diverse emission morphologies. In addition, gaps and rings observed in both H13CO+ and DCO+ emission provide new evidence that DCO+ bears a complex relationship with the location of the midplane CO snowline.

  20. The state of protoplanetary material 10 Myr after stellar formation: circumstellar disks in the TW Hydrae association

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, K I; Hartmann, L; Kemper, F; Forrest, W J; Watson, D M; D'Alessio, P; Chen, C H; Furlan, E; Sargent, B; Brandl, B R; Herter, T L; Morris, P; Myers, P C; Najita, J R; Sloan, G C; Barry, J; Green, J; Keller, L D; Hall, P

    2004-01-01

    We have used the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to observe seven members of the TW Hya association, the nearest stellar association whose age ($\\sim$ 10 Myr) is similar to the timescales thought to apply to planet formation and disk dissipation. Only two of the seven targets display infrared excess emission, indicating that substantial amounts of dust still exist closer to the stars than is characteristic of debris disks; however, in both objects we confirm an abrupt short-wavelength edge to the excess, as is seen in disks with cleared-out central regions. The mid-infrared excesses in the spectra of Hen 3-600 and TW Hya include crystalline silicate emission features, indicating that the grains have undergone significant thermal processing. We offer a detailed comparison between the spectra of TW Hya and Hen 3-600, and a model that corroborates the spectral shape and our previous understanding of the radial structure of these protoplanetary disks.

  1. A multi-wavelength analysis for interferometric (sub-)mm observations of protoplanetary disks: radial constraints on the dust properties and the disk structure

    CERN Document Server

    Tazzari, M; Ercolano, B; Natta, A; Isella, A; Chandler, C J; Pérez, L M; Andrews, S; Wilner, D J; Ricci, L; Henning, T; Linz, H; Kwon, W; Corder, S A; Dullemond, C P; Carpenter, J M; Sargent, A I; Mundy, L; Storm, S; Calvet, N; Greaves, J A; Lazio, J; Deller, A T

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical models of grain growth predict dust properties to change as a function of protoplanetary disk radius, mass, age and other physical conditions. We lay down the methodology for a multi-wavelength analysis of (sub-)mm and cm continuum interferometric observations to constrain self-consistently the disk structure and the radial variation of the dust properties. The computational architecture is massively parallel and highly modular. The analysis is based on the simultaneous fit in the uv-plane of observations at several wavelengths with a model for the disk thermal emission and for the dust opacity. The observed flux density at the different wavelengths is fitted by posing constraints on the disk structure and on the radial variation of the grain size distribution. We apply the analysis to observations of three protoplanetary disks (AS 209, FT Tau, DR Tau) for which a combination of spatially resolved observations in the range ~0.88mm to ~10mm is available (from SMA, CARMA, and VLA), finding evidence ...

  2. DM Ori: A Young Star Occulted by a Disturbance in Its Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Shappee, Benjamin J.; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Lund, Michael B.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; James, David; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Weintraub, David A.; Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Prieto, Jose L.; Feldman, Daniel M.; Espaillat, Catherine C.

    2016-11-01

    In some planet formation theories, protoplanets grow gravitationally within a young star’s protoplanetary disk, a signature of which may be a localized disturbance in the disk’s radial and/or vertical structure. Using time-series photometric observations by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope South project and the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae, combined with archival observations, we present the discovery of two extended dimming events of the young star, DM Ori. This young system faded by ∼1.5 mag from 2000 March to 2002 August and then again in 2013 January until 2014 September (depth ∼1.7 mag). We constrain the duration of the 2000–2002 dimming to be 6 au from the host star, moving at ∼14.6 km s‑1 and is ∼4.9 au in width. This localized structure may indicate a disturbance such as that which may be caused by a protoplanet early in its formation.

  3. The Far-Ultraviolet "Continuum" in Protoplanetary Disk Systems II: CO Fourth Positive Emission and Absorption

    CERN Document Server

    France, Kevin; Burgh, Eric B; Herczeg, Gregory J; Harper, Graham M; Brown, Alexander; Green, James C; Linsky, Jeffrey L; Yang, Hao; Abgrall, Hervé; Ardila, David R; Bergin, Edwin; Bethell, Thomas; Brown, Joanna M; Calvet, Nuria; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Hussain, Gaitee; Ingleby, Laura; Johns-Krull, Christopher M; Roueff, Evelyne; Valenti, Jeff A; Walter, Frederick M

    2011-01-01

    We exploit the high sensitivity and moderate spectral resolution of the $HST$-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to detect far-ultraviolet spectral features of carbon monoxide (CO) present in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks for the first time. We present spectra of the classical T Tauri stars HN Tau, RECX-11, and V4046 Sgr, representative of a range of CO radiative processes. HN Tau shows CO bands in absorption against the accretion continuum. We measure a CO column density and rotational excitation temperature of N(CO) = 2 +/- 1 $\\times$ 10$^{17}$ cm$^{-2}$ and T_rot(CO) 500 +/- 200 K for the absorbing gas. We also detect CO A-X band emission in RECX-11 and V4046 Sgr, excited by ultraviolet line photons, predominantly HI LyA. All three objects show emission from CO bands at $\\lambda$ $>$ 1560 \\AA, which may be excited by a combination of UV photons and collisions with non-thermal electrons. In previous observations these emission processes were not accounted for due to blending with emission from the accr...

  4. Ti Isotopes: Echoes of Grain-Scale Heterogenaity in the Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, M. K.; Kohl, I. E.; McCain, K. A.; Simon, J. I.; Young, E. D.

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest surviving solids to have formed in the Solar System. Their chemical and isotopic compositions provide a record of the conditions present in the protoplanetary disk where they formed and can aid our understanding of how solids formed in the solar nebula, an important step in the eventual process of planet building. The isotopic compositions of CAIs are primarily controlled by volatility. Evaporation/sublimation are well understood through both theory and experimental work to produce an enrichment in the heavy isotopes of an element, but less is understood about the effects of condensation. Mass-dependent fractionation can potentially provide a record of nebular condensation. Ti is not likely to experience evaporation due to its refractory nature, making it a useful tool for assessing the effects of condensation. We have undertaken a study of the stable isotope fractionation of Ti isotopes as a tracer of processes that predate the last evaporation events affecting CAIs. We compare the 49Ti/47Ti stable isotope ratio with excess 50Ti common in CAIs. We have collected Ti, Mg, Si, and Ca isotope data for a suite of CAIs in order to search for heterogeneity in each of these isotope systems, and for potential correlations among them. We compare our results to expectations for condensation.

  5. Abundance, distribution, and origin of 60Fe in the solar protoplanetary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Haolan; 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.10.011

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites contain relict decay products of short-lived radionuclides that were present in the protoplanetary disk when asteroids and planets formed. Several studies reported a high abundance of 60Fe (t1/2=2.62+/-0.04 Myr) in chondrites (60Fe/56Fe~6*10-7), suggesting that planetary materials incorporated fresh products of stellar nucleosynthesis ejected by one or several massive stars that exploded in the vicinity of the newborn Sun. We measured 58Fe/54Fe and 60Ni/58Ni isotope ratios in whole rocks and constituents of differentiated achondrites (ureilites, aubrites, HEDs, and angrites), unequilibrated ordinary chondrites Semarkona (LL3.0) and NWA 5717 (ungrouped petrologic type 3.05), metal-rich carbonaceous chondrite Gujba (CBa), and several other meteorites (CV, EL H, LL chondrites; IIIAB, IVA, IVB iron meteorites). We derive from these measurements a much lower initial 60Fe/56Fe ratio of (11.5+/-2.6)*10-9 and conclude that 60Fe was homogeneously distributed among planetary bodies. This low ratio is consist...

  6. The Role of Tiny Grains on the Accretion Process in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Xue-Ning

    2011-01-01

    Tiny grains such as PAHs have been thought to dramatically reduce the coupling between gas and magnetic fields in weakly ionized gas such as in protoplanetary disks (PPDs) because they provide tremendous surface area to recombine free electrons. The presence of tiny grains in PPDs thus raises the question of whether the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is able to drive rapid accretion to be consistent with observations. Charged tiny grains have similar conduction properties as ions, whose presence leads to qualitatively new behaviors in the conductivity tensor, characterized by n_bar/n_e>1, where n_e and n_bar denote the number densities of free electrons and all other charged species respectively. In particular, Ohmic conductivity becomes dominated by charged grains rather than electrons when n_bar/n_e exceeds about 10^3, and Hall and ambipolar diffusion (AD) coefficients are reduced by a factor of (n_bar/n_e)^2 in the AD dominated regime relative to that in the Ohmic regime. Applying the methodology of B...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA survey of protoplanetary disks in sigma Ori (Ansdell+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; Manara, C. F.; Miotello, A.; Facchini, S.; van der Marel, N.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2017-08-01

    Our sample consists of the 92 Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) in σ Orionis with infrared excesses consistent with the presence of a protoplanetary disk. hese sources are identified by cross-matching the Class II and transition disk (TD) candidates from the Spitzer survey of Hernandez et al. 2007 (Cat. J/ApJ/662/1067) with the Mayrit catalog (Caballero 2008, Cat. J/A+A/478/667). Both catalogs are expected to be complete down to the brown dwarf limit. Disk classifications are based on the Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) slope, as described in Hernandez et al. 2007 (Cat. J/ApJ/662/1067). We also include in our sample a Class I disk (source 1153), as it is located near the Spitzer/IRAC color cutoff for Class II disks. Our Band 6 Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) observations were obtained on 2016 July 30 and 31 during Cycle 3 (Project ID: 2015.1.00089.S; PI: Williams). The array configuration used 36 and 37 12m antennas on July 30 and 31, respectively, with baselines of 15-1124m on both runs. The correlator setup included two broadband continuum windows centered on 234.293 and 216.484GHz with bandwidths of 2.000 and 1.875GHz and channel widths of 15.625 and 0.976MHz, respectively. The bandwidth-weighted mean continuum frequency was 225.676GHz (1.33mm). The spectral windows covered the 12CO (230.538GHz), 13CO (220.399GHz), and C18O (219.560GHz) J=2-1 transitions at velocity resolutions of 0.16-0.17km/s. These spectral windows were centered on 230.531, 220.392, and 219.554GHz with bandwidths of 11.719MHz and channel widths of 0.122MHz. On-source integration times were 1.2 minutes per object for an average continuum rms of 0.15mJy/beam (Table1). This sensitivity was based on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)/Submillimeter Common User Bolometer Array (SCUBA)-2 survey of σ Orionis disks by Williams et al. 2013 (Cat. J/MNRAS/435/1671), who found that stacking their individual non-detections revealed a mean 850

  8. The Effect of Electron Heating on Magnetorotational Turbulence in Protoplanetary Disks: Self-regulation and Reduced Turbulence Strength

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) drives vigorous turbulence in a region of protoplanetary disks where the ionization fraction is sufficiently high. It has recently been shown that the electric field induced by the MRI can heat up electrons and thereby affect the ionization balance in the gas. In particular, in a disk where abundant dust grains are present, the electron heating causes a reduction of the electron abundance, thereby preventing further growth of the MRI. By using the nonlinear Ohm's law that takes into account electron heating, we investigate where in protoplanetary disks this negative feedback between the MRI and ionization chemistry becomes important. We find that the "e-heating zone," the region where the electron heating limits the saturation of the MRI, extends out to 80 AU in the minimum-mass solar nebula with abundant submicron-sized grains. This region is considerably larger than the conventional dead zone whose radial extent is $\\sim20$ AU in the same disk model. Our simple estima...

  9. On the ionisation fraction in protoplanetary disks III. The effect of X-ray flares on gas-phase chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, M; Ilgner, Martin; Nelson, Richard P.

    2006-01-01

    Context. Recent observations of the X-ray emission from T Tauri stars in the Orion nebula have shown that they undergo frequent outbursts in their X-ray luminosity. These X-ray flares are characterised by increases in luminosity by two orders of magnitude, a typical duration of less than one day, and a significant hardening of the X-ray spectrum. Aims. It is unknown what effect these X-ray flares will have on the ionisation fraction and dead-zone structure in protoplanetary disks. We present the results of calculations designed to address this question. Methods. We have performed calculations of the ionisation fraction in a standard $\\alpha$-disk model using two different chemical reaction networks. We include in our models ionisation due to X-rays from the central star, and calculate the time-dependent ionisation fraction and dead--zone structure for the inner 10 AU of a protoplanetary disk model. Results. We find that the disk response to X-ray flares depends on whether the plasma temperature increases duri...

  10. Ring Structure Formation in Protoplanetary Disks due to the Two-Fluid Secular Gravitational Instability: An Indicator of Dust Concentration

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Sanemichi Z

    2013-01-01

    The instability in protoplanetary disks due to gas-dust friction and self-gravity of gas and dust is investigated by linear analysis. For conditions typical of protoplanetaly disks, the instability grows, even in gravitationally stable disks, on a timescale of order $10^{4-5}$yr at a radius of order 100AU. If we ignore the dynamical feedback from dust grains in the gas equation of motion, the instability reduces to the so-called "secular gravitational instability", that was investigated previously as the instability of dust in a fixed background gas flow. In this work, we solve the equation of motion for both gas and dust consistently and find that long-wavelength perturbations are stable, in contrast to the secular gravitational instability in the simplified treatment. The instability is expected to form ring structures in protoplanetary disks. The width of the ring formed at a radius of 100 AU is a few tens of AU. Therefore, the instability is a candidate for the formation mechanism of observed ring-like st...

  11. Wind-driven Exclusion of Cosmic Rays in the Protoplanetary Disk Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Adams, Fred C

    2014-01-01

    The recent (apparent) passage of the Voyager 1 spacecraft into interstellar space provides us with front-row seats to the complex interplay between the solar wind and the protective surrounding bubble known as heliosphere. The heliosphere extends radially out to $\\sim100$ AU from the sun, and within this sphere of influence, the solar wind modulates the incoming flux of galactic cosmic rays (CRs), especially those at low energies. Newly formed stars, which support both strong magnetic fields and winds, are expected to produce analogous regions of CR exclusion, perhaps at elevated levels. Such young stars are encircled by molecular gas-rich disks, and the net removal of CRs from the circumstellar environment significantly reduces the expected CR ionization rate in the disk gas, most likely by many orders-of-magnitude. The loss of ionization reduces disk turbulence, and thereby affects both planet-formation and active chemical processes in the disk. We present models of CR exclusion and explore the implications...

  12. Shadows and cavities in protoplanetary disks: HD163296, HD141569A, and HD150193A in polarized light

    CERN Document Server

    Garufi, Antonio; Schmid, Hans Martin; Avenhaus, Henning; Buenzli, Esther; Wolf, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The morphological evolution of dusty disks around young (few Myr-old) stars is pivotal to better understand planet formation. Since both dust grains and the global disk geometry evolve on short timescale, high-resolution imaging of a sample of objects may provide important hints towards such an evolution. We enlarge the sample of protoplanetary disks imaged in polarized light with high-resolution by observing the Herbig Ae/Be stars HD163296, HD141569A, and HD150193A. We integrate our data with previous datasets to paint a larger picture of their morphology. We report a weak detection of the disk around HD163296 in both H and Ks band. The disk is resolved as a broken ring structure with a significan surface brightness drop inward of 0.6 arcsec. No sign of extended polarized emission is detected from the disk around HD141569A and HD150193A. We propose that the absence of scattered light in the inner 0.6 arcsec around HD163296 and the non-detection of the disk around HD150193A may be due to similar geometric fac...

  13. From Dust to Dust: Protoplanetary Disk Accretion, Hot Jupiter Climates, and the Evaporation of Rocky Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel Alonso

    2013-12-01

    This dissertation is composed of three independent projects in astrophysics concerning phenomena that are concurrent with the birth, life, and death of planets. In Chapters 1 & 2, we study surface layer accretion in protoplanetary disks driven stellar X-ray and far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation. In Chapter 3, we identify the dynamical mechanisms that control atmospheric heat redistribution on hot Jupiters. Finally, in Chapter 4, we characterize the death of low-mass, short-period rocky planets by their evaporation into a dusty wind. Chapters 1 & 2: Whether protoplanetary disks accrete at observationally significant rates by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) depends on how well ionized they are. We find that disk surface layers ionized by stellar X-rays are susceptible to charge neutralization by condensates---ranging from mum-sized dust to angstrom-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ion densities in X-ray-irradiated surfaces are so low that ambipolar diffusion weakens the MRI. In contrast, ionization by stellar FUV radiation enables full-blown MRI turbulence in disk surface layers. Far-UV ionization of atomic carbon and sulfur produces a plasma so dense that it is immune to ion recombination on grains and PAHs. Even though the FUV-ionized layer is ˜10--100 times more turbulent than the X-ray-ionized layer, mass accretion rates of both layers are comparable because FUV photons penetrate to lower surface densities than do X-rays. We conclude that surface layer accretion occurs at observationally significant rates at radii ≳ 1--10 AU. At smaller radii, both X-ray- and FUV-ionized surface layers cannot sustain the accretion rates generated at larger distance and an additional means of transport is needed. In the case of transitional disks, it could be provided by planets. Chapter 3: Infrared light curves of transiting hot Jupiters present a trend in which the atmospheres of the hottest planets are less efficient at redistributing the stellar energy

  14. The Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys Atlas of Protoplanetary Disks in the Great Orion Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, L.; Robberto, M.; Soderblom, D. R.

    2008-11-01

    We present the atlas of protoplanetary disks in the Orion Nebula based on the Wide Field Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS/WFC) images obtained for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Treasury Program on the Orion Nebula Cluster. The observations have been carried out in five photometric filters nearly equivalent to the standard B, V, Hα, I, and z passbands. Our master catalog lists 178 externally ionized protoplanetary disks (proplyds), 28 disks seen only in absorption against the bright nebular background (silhouette disks), eight disks seen only as dark lanes at the midplane of extended polar emission (bipolar nebulae or reflection nebulae), and five sources showing jet emission with no evidence of either external ionized gas emission or dark silhouette disks. Many of these disks are associated with jets seen in Hα and circumstellar material detected through reflection emission in our broadband filters; approximately two-thirds have identified counterparts in X-rays. A total of 47 objects (29 proplyds, seven silhouette disks, six bipolar nebulae, five jets with no evidence of proplyd emission or silhouette disk) are new detections with HST. We include in our list four objects previously reported as circumstellar disks, which have not been detected in our HST/ACS images either because they are hidden by the bleeding trails of a nearby saturated bright star or because of their location out of the HST/ACS Treasury Program field. The other 31 sources previously reported as extended objects do not harbor a stellar source in our HST/ACS images. We also report on the detection of 16 red, elongated sources. Their location at the edges of the field, far from the Trapezium cluster core (gsim10'), suggests that these are probably background galaxies observed through low-extinction regions of the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1). Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is

  15. Planetary influence in the gap of a protoplanetary disk: structure formation and an application to V1247 Ori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Meraz, R.; Nagel, E.; Rendon, F.; Barragan, O.

    2017-10-01

    We present a set of hydrodynamical models of a planetary system embedded in a protoplanetary disk in order to extract the number of dust structures formed in the disk, their masses and sizes, within optical depth ranges τ≤0.5, 0.5an increase in the number of planets implies an increase in the creation rate of massive structures; (2) a lower planetary mass accretion corresponds to slower time effects for optically thin structures; (3) an increase in the number of planets allows a faster evolution of the structures in the Hill radius for the different optical depth ranges of the inner planets. An ad-hoc simulation was run using the available information of the stellar system V1247 Ori, leading to a model of a planetary system which explains the SED and is consistent with interferometric observations of structures.

  16. Probing the 2D temperature structure of protoplanetary disks with Herschel observations of high-J CO lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fedele, D; Kama, M; Bruderer, S; Hogerheijde, M

    2016-01-01

    The gas temperature structure of protoplanetary disks is a key ingredient for interpreting various disk observations and for quantifying the subsequent evolution of these systems. The comparison of low- and mid-$J$ CO rotational lines is a powerful tool to assess the temperature gradient in the warm molecular layer of disks. Spectrally resolved high-$J$ ($J_{\\rm u} > 14$) CO lines probe intermediate distances and heights from the star that are not sampled by (sub-)millimeter CO spectroscopy. This paper presents new {\\it Herschel}/HIFI and archival PACS observations of $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO and \\cii \\ emission in 4 Herbig AeBe (HD 100546, HD 97048, IRS 48, HD 163296) and 3 T Tauri (AS 205, S CrA, TW Hya) disks. In the case of the T Tauri systems AS 205 and S CrA, the CO emission has a single-peaked profile, likely due to a slow wind. For all other systems, the {\\it Herschel} CO spectra are consistent with pure disk emission and the spectrally-resolved lines (HIFI) and the CO rotational ladder (PACS) are analyze...

  17. Grain Retention and Formation of Planetesimals near the Snow Line in MRI-driven Turbulent Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kretke, Katherine A

    2007-01-01

    The first challenge in the formation of both terrestrial planets and the cores of gas giants is the retention of grains in protoplanetary disks. In most regions of these disks, gas attains sub-Keplerian speeds as a consequence of a negative pressure gradient. Hydrodynamic drag leads to orbital decay and depletion of the solid material in the disk, with characteristic timescales as short as only a few hundred years for meter-sized objects at 1 AU. In this paper, we suggest a particle retention mechanism which promotes the accumulation of grains and the formation of planetesimals near the water sublimation front or ``snow line.'' This model is based on the assumption that, in the regions most interesting for planet formation, the viscous evolution of the disk is due to turbulence driven by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) in the surface layers of the disk. The depth to which MRI effectively generates turbulence is a strong function of the grain size and abundance. A sharp increase in the grain-to-gas de...

  18. How Spirals and Gaps Driven by Companions in Protoplanetary Disks Appear in Scattered Light at Arbitrary Viewing Angles

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Ruobing; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Direct imaging observations of protoplanetary disks at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths have revealed structures of potentially planetary origin. Investigations of observational signatures from planet-induced features have so far focused on disks viewed face-on. Combining 3D hydrodynamics and radiative transfer simulations, we study how the appearance of the spiral arms and the gap produced in a disk by a companion varies with inclination and position angle in NIR scattered light. We compare the cases of a $3M_{\\rm J}$ and a $0.1M_{\\odot}$ companion, and make predictions suitable for testing with Gemini/GPI, VLT/NACO/SPHERE, and Subaru/HiCIAO/SCExAO. We find that the two trailing arms produced by an external perturber can have a variety of morphologies in inclined systems - they may appear as one trailing arm; two trailing arms on the same side of the disk; or two arms winding in opposite directions. The disk ring outside a planetary gap may also mimic spiral arms when viewed at high inclinations. We suggest p...

  19. The Effects of Self-Shadowing by a Puffed up Inner Rim in Scattered Light Images of Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Ruobing

    2015-01-01

    We explore whether protoplanetary disks with self-shadowing from puffed up inner rims exhibit observable features in scattered light images. We use both self-consistent hydrostatic equilibrium calculations and parameterized models to produce the vertically puffed up inner rims. We find that, in general, the transition between the shadowed and flared regions occurs in a smooth manner over a broad radius range, and no sudden jump exists at the outer edge of the shadow in either the disk temperature or density structures. As a result, a puffed up rim cannot create sharp ring/arc/spiral-arm-like features in the outer disk as have been detected in recent direct NIR imaging of disks. On the other hand, if the puffed up rim has a sharp edge in the vertical direction, the shadowing effect can produce a distinct 3-stage broken power law in the radial intensity profile of the scattered light, with 2 steep surface brightness radial profiles in the inner and outer disk joined by a shallow transition region around the sha...

  20. From Planetesimals to Dust: Low Gravity Experiments on Recycling Solids at the Inner Edge of Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    De Beule, Caroline; Wurm, Gerhard; Teiser, Jens; Jankowski, Tim; 10.1088/0004-637X/763/1/11

    2013-01-01

    Transporting solids of different sizes is an essential process in the evolution of protoplanetary disks and planet formation. Large solids are supposed to drift inward; high-temperature minerals found in comets are assumed to have been transported outward. From low-gravity experiments on parabolic flights we studied the light-induced erosion of dusty bodies caused by a solid-state greenhouse effect and photophoresis within a dust bed's upper layers. The gravity levels studied were 0.16g, 0.38g, 1g, and 1.7g. The light flux during the experiments was 12 +/- 2 kW/m^2 and the ambient pressure was 6 +/- 0.9 mbar. Light-induced erosion is strongly gravity dependent, which is in agreement with a developed model. In particular for small dusty bodies ((sub)-planetesimals), efficient erosion is possible at the optically thin inner edges of protoplanetary disks. Light-induced erosion prevents significant parts of a larger body from moving too close to the host star and be being subsequently accreted. The small dust pro...

  1. Terrestrial planet formation in a protoplanetary disk with a local mass depletion: A successful scenario for the formation of Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izidoro, A.; Winter, O. C. [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista - Grupo de Dinâmica Orbital and Planetologia, Guaratinguetá, CEP 12.516-410, São Paulo (Brazil); Haghighipour, N. [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Tsuchida, M., E-mail: izidoro@feg.unesp.br, E-mail: nader@ifa.hawaii.edu [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista, DCCE-IBILCE, São José do Rio Preto, CEP 15.054-000, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-02-10

    Models of terrestrial planet formation for our solar system have been successful in producing planets with masses and orbits similar to those of Venus and Earth. However, these models have generally failed to produce Mars-sized objects around 1.5 AU. The body that is usually formed around Mars' semimajor axis is, in general, much more massive than Mars. Only when Jupiter and Saturn are assumed to have initially very eccentric orbits (e ∼ 0.1), which seems fairly unlikely for the solar system, or alternately, if the protoplanetary disk is truncated at 1.0 AU, simulations have been able to produce Mars-like bodies in the correct location. In this paper, we examine an alternative scenario for the formation of Mars in which a local depletion in the density of the protosolar nebula results in a non-uniform formation of planetary embryos and ultimately the formation of Mars-sized planets around 1.5 AU. We have carried out extensive numerical simulations of the formation of terrestrial planets in such a disk for different scales of the local density depletion, and for different orbital configurations of the giant planets. Our simulations point to the possibility of the formation of Mars-sized bodies around 1.5 AU, specifically when the scale of the disk local mass-depletion is moderately high (50%-75%) and Jupiter and Saturn are initially in their current orbits. In these systems, Mars-analogs are formed from the protoplanetary materials that originate in the regions of disk interior or exterior to the local mass-depletion. Results also indicate that Earth-sized planets can form around 1 AU with a substantial amount of water accreted via primitive water-rich planetesimals and planetary embryos. We present the results of our study and discuss their implications for the formation of terrestrial planets in our solar system.

  2. Filling in the gaps: Illuminating (a) Clearing mechanisms in transitional protoplanetary disks, and (b) Quantitative illiteracy among undergraduate science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follette, Katherine Brutlag

    What processes are responsible for the dispersal of protoplanetary disks? In this dissertation, beginning with a brief Introduction to planet detection, disk dispersal and high-contrast imaging in Chapter 1, I will describe how ground-based adaptive optics (AO) imaging can help to inform these processes. Chapter 2 presents Polarized Differential Imaging (PDI) of the transitional disk SR21 at H-band taken as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS). These observations were the first to show that transition disk cavities can appear markedly different at different wavelengths. The observation that the sub-mm cavity is absent in NIR scattered light is consistent with grain filtration at a planet-induced gap edge. Chapter 3 presents SEEDS data of the transition disk Oph IRS 48. This highly asymmetrical disk is also most consistent with a planet-induced clearing mechanism. In particular, the images reveal both the disk cavity and a spiral arm/divot that had not been imaged previously. This study demonstrates the power of multiwavelength PDI imaging to verify disk structure and to probe azimuthal variation in grain properties. Chapter 4 presents Magellan visible light adaptive optics imaging of the silhouette disk Orion 218-354. In addition to its technical merits, these observations reveal the surprising fact that this very young disk is optically thin at H-alpha. The simplest explanation for this observation is that significant grain growth has occurred in this disk, which may be responsible for the pre-transitional nature of its SED. Chapter 5 presents brief descriptions of several other works-in-progress that build on my previous work. These include the MagAO Giant Accreting Protoplanet Survey (GAPlanetS), which will probe the inner regions of transition disks at unprecedented resolution in search of young planets in the process of formation. Chapters 6-8 represent my educational research in quantitative literacy, beginning with an

  3. ALMA Observations of the Largest Proto-Planetary Disk in the Orion Nebula, 114-426: A CO Silhouette

    CERN Document Server

    Bally, John; Eisner, Josh; Andrews, Sean M; Di Francesco, James; Hughes, Meredith; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda; Ricci, Luca; Williams, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the largest protoplanetary disk in the Orion Nebula, 114-426. Detectable 345 GHz (856 micron) dust continuum is produced only in the 350 AU central region of the ~1000 AU diameter silhouette seen against the bright H-alpha background in HST images. Assuming optically thin dust emission at 345 GHz, a gas-to-dust ratio of 100, and a grain temperature of 20 K, the disk gas-mass is estimated to be 3.1 +/- 0.6 Jupiter masses. If most solids and ices have have been incorporated into large grains, however, this value is a lower limit. The disk is not detected in dense-gas tracers such as HCO+ J=4-3, HCN J=4-3, or CS =7-6. These results may indicate that the 114-426 disk is evolved and depleted in some light organic compounds found in molecular clouds. The CO J=3-2 line is seen in absorption against the bright 50 to 80 K background of the Orion A molecular cloud over the full spatial extent and a little beyond the dust continuum emission. The CO absorption reaches a depth of 27 K below...

  4. DUST DYNAMICS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISK WINDS DRIVEN BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE: A MECHANISM FOR FLOATING DUST GRAINS WITH CHARACTERISTIC SIZES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Tomoya; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: miyake.tomoya@e.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: stakeru@nagoya-u.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2016-04-10

    We investigate the dynamics of dust grains of various sizes in protoplanetary disk winds driven by magnetorotational turbulence, by simulating the time evolution of the dust grain distribution in the vertical direction. Small dust grains, which are well-coupled to the gas, are dragged upward with the upflowing gas, while large grains remain near the midplane of a disk. Intermediate-size grains float near the sonic point of the disk wind located at several scale heights from the midplane, where the grains are loosely coupled to the background gas. For the minimum mass solar nebula at 1 au, dust grains with size of 25–45 μm float around 4 scale heights from the midplane. Considering the dependence on the distance from the central star, smaller-size grains remain only in an outer region of the disk, while larger-size grains are distributed in a broader region. We also discuss the implications of our result for observations of dusty material around young stellar objects.

  5. Photoevaporation and close encounters: how the environment around Cygnus OB2 affects the evolution of protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Guarcello, M G; Wright, N J; Albacete-Colombo, J F; Clarke, C; Ercolano, B; Flaccomio, E; Kashyap, V; Micela, G; Naylor, T; Schneider, N; Sciortino, S; Vink, J S

    2016-01-01

    In our Galaxy, star formation occurs in a variety of environments, with a large fraction of stars formed in clusters hosting massive stars. OB stars have an important feedback on the evolution of protoplanetary disks around nearby young stars and likely on the process of planet formation occurring in them. The nearby massive association Cygnus OB2 is an outstanding laboratory to study this feedback. It is the closest massive association to our Sun, and hosts hundreds of massive stars and thousands of low mass members. In this paper, we analyze the spatial variation of the disk fraction in Cygnus OB2 and we study its correlation with the local values of Far and Extreme ultraviolet radiation fields and the local stellar surface density. We present definitive evidence that disks are more rapidly dissipated in the regions of the association characterized by intense local UV field and large stellar density. In particular, the FUV radiation dominates disks dissipation timescales in the proximity (i.e. within 0.5 pc...

  6. Shedding Light on the Eccentricity Valley: Gap Heating and Eccentricity Excitation of Giant Planets in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, David; Cumming, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We show that the first order (non co-orbital) corotation torques are significantly modified by entropy gradients in a non-barotropic protoplanetary disk. Such non-barotropic torques can dramatically alter the balance that, for barotropic cases, results in the net eccentricity damping for giant gap-clearing planets embedded in the disk. We demonstrate that stellar illumination can heat the gap enough for the planet's orbital eccentricity to instead be excited. We also discuss the "Eccentricity Valley" noted in the known exoplanet population, where low-metallicity stars have a deficit of eccentric planets between $\\sim 0.1$ and $\\sim 1$ AU compared to metal-rich systems (Dawson & Murray-Clay 2013). We show that this feature in the planet distribution may be due to the self-shadowing of the disk by a rim located at the dust sublimation radius $\\sim 0.1$ AU, which is known to exist for several T Tauri systems. In the shadowed region between $\\sim 0.1$ and $\\sim 1$ AU lack of gap insolation allows disk interac...

  7. Binarity as a Key Factor in Protoplanetary Disk Evolution: Spitzer Disk Census of the η Chamaeleontis Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, J.; Lawson, W. A.; Dominik, C.; Feigelson, E. D.; Henning, Th.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2006-12-01

    The formation of planets is directly linked to the evolution of the circumstellar (CS) disk from which they are born. The dissipation timescales of CS disks are therefore of direct astrophysical importance in evaluating the time available for planet formation. We employ Spitzer Space Telescope spectra to complete the CS disk census for the late-type members of the ~=8 Myr old η Chamaeleontis star cluster. Of the 15 K- and M-type members, eight show excess emission. We find that the presence of a CS disk is anticorrelated with binarity, with all but one disk associated with single stars. With nine single stars in total, about 80% retain a CS disk. Of the six known or suspected close binaries, the only CS disk is associated with the primary of RECX 9. No circumbinary disks have been detected. We also find that stars with disks are slow rotators with surface values of specific angular momentum j=2-15jsolar. All high specific angular momentum systems with j=20-30jsolar are confined to the primary stars of binaries. This provides novel empirical evidence for rotational disk locking and again demonstrates the much shorter disk lifetimes in close binary systems compared to single-star systems. We estimate the characteristic mean disk dissipation timescale to be ~5 and ~9 Myr for the binary and single-star systems, respectively.

  8. The Matryoshka Disk: Keck/NIRC2 Discovery of a Solar System-Scale, Radially Segregated Residual Protoplanetary Disk Around HD 141569A

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan; Konishi, Mihoko; Stassun, Keivan; Debes, John; van der Marel, Nienke; Muto, Takayuki; Jayawardhana, Ray; Ratzka, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Using Keck/NIRC2 $L^\\prime$ (3.78 $\\mu m$) data, we report the direct imaging discovery of a scattered light-resolved, solar system-scale residual protoplanetary disk around the young A-type star HD 141569A, interior to and concentric with the two ring-like structures at wider separations. The disk is resolved down to $\\sim$ 0\\farcs{}25 and appears as an arc-like rim with attached hook-like features. It is located at an angular separation intermediate between that of warm CO gas identified from spatially-resolved mid-infrared spectroscopy and diffuse dust emission recently discovered with the \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope}. The inner disk has a radius of $\\sim$ 39 AU, a position angle consistent with north-up, an inclination of $i$ $\\sim$ 56$^{o}$, and has a center offset from the star. Forward-modeling of the disk favors a thick torus-like emission sharply truncated at separations beyond the torus' photocenter and heavily depleted at smaller separations. In particular, the best-fit density power law for the...

  9. Complex organic molecules along the accretion flow in isolated and externally irradiated protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine; Nomura, Hideko; Millar, T J; Weaver, Susanna Widicus

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) The birth environment of the Sun will have influenced the conditions in the pre-solar nebula, including the attainable chemical complexity, important for prebiotic chemistry. The formation and distribution of complex organic molecules (COMs) in a disk around a T Tauri star is investigated for two scenarios: (i) an isolated disk, and (ii) a disk irradiated externally by a nearby massive star. The chemistry is calculated along the accretion flow from the outer disk inwards using a comprehensive network. Two simulations are performed, one beginning with complex ices and one with simple ices only. For the isolated disk, COMs are transported without major alteration into the inner disk where they thermally desorb into the gas reaching an abundance representative of the initial assumed ice abundance. For simple ices, COMs efficiently form on grain surfaces under the conditions in the outer disk. Gas-phase COMs are released into the molecular layer via photodesorption. For the irradiated disk, complex ice...

  10. Volatile-carbon locking and release in protoplanetary disks. A study of TW Hya and HD 100546

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, M.; Bruderer, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Hogerheijde, M.; Folsom, C. P.; Miotello, A.; Fedele, D.; Belloche, A.; Güsten, R.; Wyrowski, F.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: The composition of planetary solids and gases is largely rooted in the processing of volatile elements in protoplanetary disks. To shed light on the key processes, we carry out a comparative analysis of the gas-phase carbon abundance in two systems with a similar age and disk mass, but different central stars: HD 100546 and TW Hya. Methods: We combine our recent detections of C0 in these disks with observations of other carbon reservoirs (CO, C+, C2H) and gas-mass and warm-gas tracers (HD, O0), as well as spatially resolved ALMA observations and the spectral energy distribution. The disks are modelled with the DALI 2D physical-chemical code. Stellar abundances for HD 100546 are derived from archival spectra. Results: Upper limits on HD emission from HD 100546 place an upper limit on the total disk mass of ≤0.1 M⊙. The gas-phase carbon abundance in the atmosphere of this warm Herbig disk is, at most, moderately depleted compared to the interstellar medium, with [C]/[H]gas = (0.1-1.5) × 10-4. HD 100546 itself is a λBoötis star, with solar abundances of C and O but a strong depletion of rock-forming elements. In the gas of the T Tauri disk TW Hya, both C and O are strongly underabundant, with [C]/[H]gas = (0.2-5.0) × 10-6 and C / O > 1. We discuss evidence that the gas-phase C and O abundances are high in the warm inner regions of both disks. Our analytical model, including vertical mixing and a grain size distribution, reproduces the observed [C]/[H]gas in the outer disk of TW Hya and allows to make predictions for other systems. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 093.C-0926, 093.F-0015, 077.D-0092, 084.A-9016, and 085.A-9027.Spectra and models are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A83

  11. Origin and Distribution of 26Al and Mg Isotopes in the Solar Protoplanetary Disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Kolbjørn

    birth environment of our Sun and a unique time-window into the very earliest history of our solar system. Ever since the discovery of its decay product, 26Mg, in primitive solar system objects more than 30 years ago, the short-lived radioactive nuclide, 26Al (t1/2 = 0.73 Myr), has been the optimal...... and differentiation, however, relies on the critical assumption that the parent nuclide, 26Al, was uniformly distributed throughout the protoplanetary disk at the time of formation of the first solar system solids. Therefore, we have focused our research on evaluating the initial distribution of 26Al in early...... with higher 26Al abundance. Moreover, our results suggest that the formation of the solar systems oldest solids was brief and recurrent, possibly associated with the earliest evolutionary stages of the proto-Sun. Finally, we propose that physico-chemical mixing and unmixing of presolar dust components...

  12. Protoplanetary Disks in the Orion Nebula An H$\\alpha$ Fabry-Perot study and Astrobiological Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    De la Fuente-Acosta, E; Arias, L; Throop, H B; Ambrocio-Cruz, P; Fuente, Eduardo de la; Rosado, Margarita; Arias, Lorena; Throop, Patricia Ambrocio-Cruz & Henry B.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a briefly overview of the protoplanetary disks in the Orion Nebula, incluiding some astrobiological aspects and an H$\\alpha$ Fabry-Perot study of 16 of them. We found that Fabry-Perot interferometry constitutes an effective technique for the detection of proplyds. We also report heliocentric systemic velocities for the proplyds 82-336, 158-323, 158-326, 159-350, 161-314, 161-324, 163-317, 166-316, 167-317, 168-326, 170-337, 176-325, 177-341, 180-331, 197-427 and 244-440. The velocities were measured between 22-38 km s$^{-1}$.

  13. Binarity as a key factor in protoplanetary disk evolution: Spitzer disk census of the eta Chamaeleontis cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwman, J; Dominik, C; Feigelson, E D; Henning, T; Tielens, A G G M; Waters, L B F M; Henning, Th.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of planets is directly linked to the evolution of the circumstellar (CS) disk from which they are born. The dissipation timescales of CS disks are, therefore, of direct astrophysical importance in evaluating the time available for planet formation. We employ Spitzer Space Telescope spectra to complete the CS disk census for the late-type members of the ~8 Myr-old eta Chamaeleontis star cluster. Of the 15 K- and M-type members, eight show excess emission. We find that the presence of a CS disk is anti-correlated with binarity, with all but one disk associated with single stars. With nine single stars in total, about 80% retain a CS disk. Of the six known or suspected close binaries the only CS disk is associated with the primary of RECX 9. No circumbinary disks have been detected. We also find that stars with disks are slow rotators with surface values of specific angular momentum j = 2-15 j_sun. All high specific angular momentum systems with j = 20-30 j_sun are confined to the primary stars of ...

  14. Understanding the water emission in the mid- and far-IR from protoplanetary disks around T~Tauri stars

    CERN Document Server

    Antonellini, S; Riviere-Marichalar, P; Meijerink, R; Woitke, P; Thi, W -F; Spaans, M; Aresu, G; Lee, G

    2015-01-01

    We investigate which properties of protoplanetary disks around T Tauri stars affect the physics and chemistry in the regions where mid- and far-IR water lines originate and their respective line fluxes. We search for diagnostics for future observations. With the code ProDiMo, we build a series of models exploring a large parameter space, computing rotational and rovibrational transitions of water in nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE). We select a sample of transitions in the mid- IR regime and the fundamental ortho and para water transitions in the far-IR. We investigate the chemistry and the local physical conditions in the line emitting regions. We calculate Spitzer spectra for each model and compare far-IR and mid-IR lines. In addition, we use mid-IR colors to tie the water line predictions to the dust continuum. Parameters affecting the water line fluxes in disks by more than a factor of three are : the disk gas mass, the dust-to-gas mass ratio, the dust maximum grain size, ISM(InterStellarMediu...

  15. The Nonlinear Ohm's Law: Plasma Heating by Strong Electric Fields and its Effects on the Ionization Balance in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Okuzumi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The MHD of protoplanetary disks crucially depends on the ionization state of the disks. Recent simulations suggest that MHD turbulence in the disks can generate a strong electric field in the local rest frame. Such a strong field can heat up plasmas and thereby change the ionization balance. To study this effect, we construct a charge reaction model that includes plasma heating by electric fields and impact ionization by heated electrons, as well as plasma accretion by dust grains. The resulting Ohm's law is nonlinear in the electric field strength. We find that the gas-phase electron abundance decreases with increasing the electric field strength when plasma accretion onto grains dominates over gas-phase recombination, because electron heating accelerates electron--grain collisions. This leads to an increase in the magnetic resistivity, and possibly to a self-regulation of the MHD turbulence. In some cases, even the electric current decreases with increasing the field strength in a certain field range. The N...

  16. The Spiral Wave Instability Induced by a Giant Planet: I. Particle Stirring in the Inner Regions of Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown that spiral density waves propagating in accretion disks can undergo a parametric instability by resonantly coupling with and transferring energy into pairs of inertial waves (or inertial-gravity waves when buoyancy is important). In this paper, we perform inviscid three-dimensional global hydrodynamic simulations to examine the growth and consequence of this instability operating on the spiral waves driven by a Jupiter-mass planet in a protoplanetary disk. We find that the spiral waves are destabilized via the spiral wave instability (SWI), generating hydrodynamic turbulence and sustained radially-alternating vertical flows that appear to be associated with long wavelength inertial modes. In the interval $0.3~R_p \\leq R \\leq 0.7~R_p$, where $R_p$ denotes the semi-major axis of the planetary orbit (assumed to be 5~au), the estimated vertical diffusion rate associated with the turbulence is characterized by $\\alpha_{\\rm diff} \\sim (0.2-1.2) \\times 10^{-2}$. For the disk model considered ...

  17. Migration of Planets Into and Out of Mean Motion Resonances in Protoplanetary Disks: Analytical Theory of Second-Order Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wenrui

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations of Kepler multi-planet systems have revealed a number of systems with planets very close to second-order mean motion resonances (MMRs, with period ratio $1:3$, $3:5$, etc.) We present an analytic study of resonance capture and its stability for planets migrating in gaseous disks. Resonance capture requires slow convergent migration of the planets, with sufficiently large eccentricity damping timescale $T_e$ and small pre-resonance eccentricities. We quantify these requirements and find that they can be satisfied for super-Earths under protoplanetary disk conditions. For planets captured into resonance, an equilibrium state can be reached, in which eccentricity excitation due to resonant planet-planet interaction balances eccentricity damping due to planet-disk interaction. We show that this "captured" equilibrium can be overstable, leading to partial or permanent escape of the planets from the resonance. In general, the stability of the captured state depends on the inner to outer planet m...

  18. Turbulence In the Outer Regions of Protoplanetary Disks. II. Strong Accretion Driven by a Vertical Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Jacob B; Armitage, Philip J; Stone, James M; Beckwith, Kris

    2013-01-01

    We carry out a series of local, vertically stratified shearing box simulations of protoplanetary disks that include ambipolar diffusion and a net vertical magnetic field. The ambipolar diffusion profiles we employ correspond to 30AU and 100AU in a minimum mass solar nebula (MMSN) disk model, which consists of a far-UV-ionized surface layer and low-ionization disk interior. These simulations serve as a follow up to Simon et al. (2013), in which we found that without a net vertical field, the turbulent stresses that result from the magnetorotational instability (MRI) are too weak to account for observed accretion rates. The simulations in this work show a very strong dependence of the accretion stresses on the strength of the background vertical field; as the field strength increases, the stress amplitude increases. For gas to magnetic pressure ratios of 1e4 and 1e5, we find accretion rates between 1e-8 and 1e-7 solar masses per year. These accretion rates agree with observational constraints, suggesting a vert...

  19. Tidal and Magnetic Interactions between a Hot Jupiter and its Host Star in the Magnetospheric Cavity of a Protoplanetary Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Shih-Hsin; Bodenheimer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We present a simplified model to study the orbital evolution of a young hot Jupiter inside the magnetospheric cavity of a proto-planetary disk. The model takes into account the disk locking of stellar spin as well as the tidal and magnetic interactions between the star and the planet. We focus on the orbital evolution starting from the orbit in the 2:1 resonance with the inner edge of the disk, followed by the inward and then outward orbital migration driven by the tidal and magnetic torques as well as the Roche-lobe overflow of the tidally inflated planet. The goal in this paper is to study how the orbital evolution inside the magnetospheric cavity depends on the cavity size, planet mass, and orbital eccentricity. In the present work, we only target the mass range from 0.7 to 2 Jupiter masses. In the case of the large cavity corresponding to the rotational period ~ 7 days, the planet of mass >1 Jupiter mass with moderate initial eccentricities (>~ 0.3) can move to the region < 0.03 AU from its central sta...

  20. The End of Protoplanetary Disk Evolution: An ALMA Survey of Upper Scorpius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Carpenter, John M.; Sargent, Anneila I.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of the mass of solids in circumstellar disks is a key factor in determining how planets form. Infrared observations have established that the dust in primordial disks vanishes around the majority of stars by an age of 5-10 Myr. However, how this disappearance proceeds is poorly constrained. Only with longer wavelength observations, where the dust emission is optically thin, is it possible to measure disk dust mass and how it varies as a function of age. To this end, we have obtained ALMA 0.88 mm observations of over 100 sources with suspected circumstellar disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association (Upper Sco). The 5-11 Myr age of Upper Sco suggests that any such disks will be quite evolved, making this association an ideal target to compare to systems of younger disks in order to study evolution. With ALMA, we achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over previous (sub)millimeter surveys of Upper Sco and detect 58 disks in the continuum. We calculate the total dust masses of these disks and compare their masses to those of younger disks in Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon. We find strong evidence for a decline in disk dust mass between these 1-3 Myr old systems and the 5-11 Myr old Upper Sco. Our results represent the first definitive measurement of a decline in disk dust mass with age.

  1. Binarity as a key factor in protoplanetary disk evolution : Spitzer disk census of the eta Chamaeleontis cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, J.; Lawson, W. A.; Dominik, C.; Feigelson, E. D.; Henning, Th.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of planets is directly linked to the evolution of the circumstellar (CS) disk from which they are born. The dissipation timescales of CS disks are therefore of direct astrophysical importance in evaluating the time available for planet formation. We employ Spitzer Space Telescope spect

  2. Chemistry in an Evolving Protoplanetary Disk: Effects on Terrestrial Planet Composition

    CERN Document Server

    Moriarty, John; Fischer, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The composition of planets is largely determined by the chemical and dynamical evolution of the disk during planetesimal formation and growth. To predict the diversity of exoplanet compositions, previous works modeled planetesimal composition as the equilibrium chemical composition of a proto- planetary disk at a single time. However, planetesimals form over an extended period of time, during which, elements sequentially condense out of the gas as the disk cools and are accreted onto planetesi- mals. To account for the evolution of the disk during planetesimal formation, we couple models of disk chemistry and dynamics with a prescription for planetesimal formation. We then follow the growth of these planetesimals into terrestrial planets with N-body simulations of late stage planet formation to evaluate the effect of sequential condensation on the bulk composition of planets. We find that our model produces results similar to those of earlier models for disks with C/O ratios close to the solar value (0.54). H...

  3. A Three-Dimensional View of Turbulence Amid Complex Structure in the HD 163296 Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Kevin M.; Hughes, A. Meredith; Rose, Sanaea; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.; Chiang, Eugene; Simon, Jacob B.

    2017-01-01

    Gas kinematics are an important part of planet formation, influencing processes ranging from the growth of sub-micron sized grains to the migration of gas giant planets. Dynamical behavior can be traced with both synoptic observations of the mid-infrared excess, sensitive to the inner disk, and spatially resolved radio observations of gas emission, sensitive to the outer disk. I report new constraints on the vertical structure of turbulence in the disk around HD 163296, based on ALMA observations of DCO+ and CO isotoplogues that are sensitive to different layers of the disk. These data place upper limits on the turbulence (ALMA constraints on turbulence amid differing ionization environments.

  4. HIGH-CONTRAST NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING POLARIMETRY OF THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND RY TAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hyosun; Chou, Mei-Yin [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica. P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hashimoto, Jun; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kwon, Jungmi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Wisniewski, John [H. L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Henning, Thomas; Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Itoh, Yoichi [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Mayama, Satoshi [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Follette, Katherine B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Abe, Lyu, E-mail: hiro@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, 28 Avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at the H band at a high resolution ({approx}0.''05) for the first time, using Subaru/HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.

  5. A Herschel view of protoplanetary disks in the $\\sigma$ Ori cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Maucó, Karina; Calvet, Nuria; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier; Briceño, César; McClure, Melissa; D'Alessio, Paola; Anderson, Kassandra; Ali, Babar

    2016-01-01

    We present new Herschel PACS observations of 32 T Tauri stars in the young ($\\sim$3 Myr) $\\sigma$ Ori cluster. Most of our objects are K & M stars with large excesses at 24 $\\mu$m. We used irradiated accretion disk models of D'Alessio et al. (2006) to compare their spectral energy distributions with our observational data. We arrive at the following six conclusions. (i) The observed disks are consistent with irradiated accretion disks systems. (ii) Most of our objects (60%) can be explained by significant dust depletion from the upper disk layers. (iii) Similarly, 61% of our objects can be modeled with large disk sizes ($\\rm R_{\\rm d} \\geq$ 100 AU). (iv) The masses of our disks range between 0.03 to 39 $\\rm M_{Jup}$, where 35% of our objects have disk masses lower than 1 Jupiter. Although these are lower limits, high mass ($>$ 0.05 M$_{\\odot}$) disks, which are present e.g, in Taurus, are missing. (v) By assuming a uniform distribution of objects around the brightest stars at the center of the cluster, we...

  6. High-Contrast Near-Infrared Imaging Polarimetry of the Protoplanetary Disk around RY Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Hashimoto, Jun; Kim, Hyosun; Wisenewski, John; Henning, Thomas; Grady, Carol; Kandori, Ryo; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kudo, Tomoyuki; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at H-band at a high resolution (approx. 0.05) for the first time, using Subaru-HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with: (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.

  7. Rossby wave instability at dead zone boundaries in 3D resistive magnetohydrodynamical global models of protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Lyra, Wladimir

    2012-01-01

    It has been suggested that the transition between magnetorotationally active and dead zones in protoplanetary disks should be prone to the excitation of vortices via Rossby wave instability (RWI). However, the only numerical evidence for this has come from alpha disk models, where the magnetic field evolution is not followed, and the effect of turbulence is parametrized by Laplacian viscosity. We aim to establish the phenomenology of the flow in the transition in 3D resistive-magnetohydrodynamical models. We model the transition by a sharp jump in resistivity, as expected in the inner dead zone boundary, using the Pencil Code to simulate the flow. We find that vortices are readily excited in the dead side of the transition. We measure the mass accretion rate finding similar levels of Reynolds stress at the dead and active zones, at the $\\alpha\\approx 10^{-2}$ level. The vortex sits in a pressure maximum and does not migrate, surviving until the end of the simulation. A pressure maximum in the active zone also...

  8. Chemical diversity of organic volatiles among comets: An emerging taxonomy and implications for processes in the proto-planetary disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael J.

    2008-10-01

    As messengers from the early Solar System, comets contain key information from the time of planet formation and even earlier some may contain material formed in our natal interstellar cloud. Along with water, the cometary nucleus contains ices of natural gases (CH4, C2H6), alcohols (CH3OH), acids (HCOOH), embalming fluid (H2CO), and even anti-freeze (ethylene glycol). Comets today contain some ices that vaporize at temperatures near absolute zero (CO, CH4), demonstrating that their compositions remain largely unchanged after 4.5 billion years. By comparing their chemical diversity, several distinct cometary classes have been identified but their specific relation to chemical gradients in the proto-planetary disk remains murky. How does the compositional diversity of comets relate to nebular processes such as chemical processing, radial migration, and dynamical scattering? No current reservoir holds a unique class, but their fractional abundance can test emerging dynamical models for origins of the scattered Kuiper disk, the Oort cloud, and the (proposed) main-belt comets. I will provide a simplified overview emphasizing what we are learning, current issues, and their relevance to the subject of this Symposium.

  9. Protoplanetary Disks in the Nearest Star-Forming Cloud Mid-Infrared Imaging and Optical Spectroscopy of MBM 12 Members

    CERN Document Server

    Jayawardhana, R; Barrado y Navascués, D; Telesco, C M; Hearty, T J; Jayawardhana, Ray; Wolk, Scott J.; Navascues, David Barrado y; Telesco, Charles M.; Hearty, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    The recent identification of several groups of young stars within 100 parsecs of the Sun has generated widespread interest. Given their proximity and possible age differences, these systems are ideally suited for detailed studies of star and planet formation. Here we report on the first investigation of protoplanetary disks in one such group, the high-latitude cloud MBM 12 at a distance of $\\sim$65 pc. We present mid-infrared observations of the eight candidate pre-main-sequence (PMS) members and the two main-sequence (MS) stars in the same line-of-sight which may or may not be associated with the group. We have also derived H$\\alpha$ and Li line widths from medium-resolution optical spectra. We report the discovery of significant mid-infrared excess from six PMS stars --LkH$\\alpha$ 262, LkH$\\alpha$ 263, LkH$\\alpha$ 264, E02553+2018, RXJ0258.3+1947 and S18 --presumably due to optically thick circumstellar disks. Our flux measurements for the other two PMS stars and the two MS stars are consistent with photosp...

  10. NIRI Imaging of Transitional Protoplanetary Disks with Submm-Resolved Inner Holes/Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Condell, Hannah Jang; Robitaille, Thomas; Dahm, Scott; Wilner, David; Andrews, Sean; Kuchner, Marc

    2011-08-01

    Disks around young stars with inner holes/gaps (transitional disks) provide a crucial probe of active planet formation and/or the last phases of planet formation. We propose high-contrast Gemini/NIRI imaging of disks around four stars with inner holes/gaps: LkCa 15, MWC 758, LkHa 330, and UX Tau A. In all cases, the disks have been spatially resolved in the submm, have inner holes/gaps large enough to be resolved by NIRI, and show structural features indicative of sculpting by unseen planets. Our study will provide sensitive constraints on the presence of planet-mass objects and provide a detailed probe of the structure of disks in the process of spawning planetary systems.

  11. High-Contrast Near-Infrared Imaging Polarimetry of the Protoplanetary Disk around RY Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Takami, Michihiro; Hashimoto, Jun; Kim, Hyosun; Wisnewski, John; Henning, Thomas; Grady, Carol A; Kandori, Ryo; Hodapp, Klaus W; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Chou, Mei-Yin; Itoh, Yoichi; Momose, Munetake; Mayama, Satoshi; Currie, Thayne; Follette, Katherine B; Kwon, Jungmi; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D; Carson, Joseph; Egner, Sebastian E; Feldt, Markus; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Knapp, Gillian R; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W; Matsuo, Taro; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Ryuji; Takato, Naruhisa; Terada, Hiroshi; Thalmann, Christian; Tomono, Daigo; Turner, Edwin L; Watanabe, Makoto; Yamada, Toru; Takami, Hideki; Usuda, Tomonori; Tamura, Motohide

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at H-band at a high resolution (~0".05) for the first time, using Subaru-HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with: (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, S...

  12. Excess C/O and C/H in outer protoplanetary disk gas

    CERN Document Server

    Oberg, Karin I

    2016-01-01

    The compositions of nascent planets depend on the compositions of their birth disks. In particular, the elemental compositions of Gas Giant gaseous envelopes depend on the elemental composition of the disk gas from which the envelope is accreted. Previous models demonstrated that sequential freeze-out of O and C-bearing volatiles in disks will result in an supersolar C/O ratios and subsolar C/H ratios in the gas between water and CO snowlines. This result does not take into account, however, the expected grain growth and radial drift of pebbles in disks, and the accompanying re-distribution of volatiles from the outer to the inner disk. Using a toy model we demonstrate that when drift is considered, CO is enhanced between the water and CO snowline, resulting in both supersolar C/O and C/H ratios in the disk gas in the Gas Giant formation zone. This result appears robust to the details of the disk model as long as there is substantial pebble drift across the CO snowline, and the efficiency of CO vapor diffusio...

  13. The missing cavities in the SEEDS polarized scattered light images of transitional protoplanetary disks: a generic disk model

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, R; Zhu, Z; Hartmann, L; Whitney, B; Brandt, T; Muto, T; Hashimoto, J; Grady, C; Follette, K; Kuzuhara, M; Tanii, R; Itoh, Y; Thalmann, C; Wisniewski, J; Mayama, S; Janson, M; Abe, L; Brandner, W; Carson, J; Egner, S; Feldt, M; Goto, M; Guyon, O; Hayano, Y; Hayashi, M; Hayashi, S; Henning, T; Hodapp, K W; Honda, M; Inutsuka, S; Ishii, M; Iye, M; Kandori, R; Knapp, G R; Kudo, T; Kusakabe, N; Matsuo, T; McElwain, M W; Miyama, S; Morino, J -I; Moro-Martin, A; Nishimura, T; Pyo, T -S; Suto, H; Suzuki, R; Takami, M; Takato, N; Terada, H; Tomono, D; Turner, E L; Watanabe, M; Yamada, T; Takami, H; Usuda, T; Tamura, M

    2012-01-01

    Transitional circumstellar disks around young stellar objects have a distinctive infrared deficit around 10 microns in their Spectral Energy Distributions (SED), recently measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), suggesting dust depletion in the inner regions. These disks have been confirmed to have giant central cavities by imaging of the submillimeter (sub-mm) continuum emission using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). However, the polarized near-infrared scattered light images for most objects in a systematic IRS/SMA cross sample, obtained by HiCIAO on the Subaru telescope, show no evidence for the cavity, in clear contrast with SMA and Spitzer observations. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that many of these scattered light images are consistent with a smooth spatial distribution for micron-sized grains, with little discontinuity in the surface density of the micron-sized grains at the cavity edge. Here we present a generic disk model that can simultaneously account for the general features in...

  14. Modeling gravitational instabilities in self-gravitating protoplanetary disks with adaptive mesh refinement techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lichtenberg, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The astonishing diversity in the observed planetary population requires theoretical efforts and advances in planet formation theories. Numerical approaches provide a method to tackle the weaknesses of current planet formation models and are an important tool to close gaps in poorly constrained areas. We present a global disk setup to model the first stages of giant planet formation via gravitational instabilities (GI) in 3D with the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamics code ENZO. With this setup, we explore the impact of AMR techniques on the fragmentation and clumping due to large-scale instabilities using different AMR configurations. Additionally, we seek to derive general resolution criteria for global simulations of self-gravitating disks of variable extent. We run a grid of simulations with varying AMR settings, including runs with a static grid for comparison, and study the effects of varying the disk radius. Adopting a marginally stable disk profile (Q_init=1), we validate the...

  15. Protoplanetary and Transitional Disks in the Open Stellar Cluster IC 2395

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Zoltan; Siegler, Nick; Rieke, G. H.; Kiss, L. L.; Muzerolle, James; Gutermuth, R. A.; Bell, Cameron P. M.; Vinkó, J.; Su, K. Y. L.; Young, E. T.; Gáspár, András

    2016-11-01

    We present new deep UBVRI images and high-resolution multi-object optical spectroscopy of the young (˜6-10 Myr old), relatively nearby (800 pc) open cluster IC 2395. We identify nearly 300 cluster members and use the photometry to estimate their spectral types, which extend from early B to middle M. We also present an infrared imaging survey of the central region using the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, covering the wavelength range from 3.6 to 24 μm. Our infrared observations allow us to detect dust in circumstellar disks originating over a typical range of radii from ˜0.1 to ˜10 au from the central star. We identify 18 Class II, 8 transitional disk, and 23 debris disk candidates, respectively, 6.5%, 2.9%, and 8.3% of the cluster members with appropriate data. We apply the same criteria for transitional disk identification to 19 other stellar clusters and associations spanning ages from ˜1 to ˜18 Myr. We find that the number of disks in the transitional phase as a fraction of the total with strong 24 μm excesses ([8] - [24] ≥ 1.5) increases from (8.4 ± 1.3)% at ˜3 Myr to (46 ± 5)% at ˜10 Myr. Alternative definitions of transitional disks will yield different percentages but should show the same trend.

  16. Inclination-Induced Polarization of Scattered Millimeter Radiation from Protoplanetary Disks: The Case of HL Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Haifeng; Looney, Leslie; Stephens, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Spatially resolved polarized millimeter/submillimeter emission has been observed in the disk of HL Tau and two other young stellar objects. It is usually interpreted as coming from magnetically aligned grains, but can also be produced by dust scattering, as demonstrated explicitly by Kataoka et al. for face-on disks. We extend their work by including the polarization induced by disk inclination with respect to the line of sight. Using a physically motivated, semi-analytic model, we show that the polarization fraction of the scattered light increases with the inclination angle $i$, reaching $1/3$ for edge-on disks. The inclination-induced polarization can easily dominate that intrinsic to the disk in the face-on view. It provides a natural explanation for the two main features of the polarization pattern observed in the tilted disk of HL Tau ($i \\sim 45^\\circ$): the polarized intensity concentrating in a region elongated more or less along the major axis, and polarization in this region roughly parallel to the...

  17. Structures in the protoplanetary disk of HD142527 seen in polarized scattered light

    CERN Document Server

    Avenhaus, Henning; Schmid, Hans Martin; Meyer, Michael R; Garufi, Antonio; Wolf, Sebastian; Dominik, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    We present H- and Ks-band polarized differential images (PDI) of the Herbig Ae/Be star HD142527, revealing its optically thick outer disk and the nearly empty gap. The very small inner working angle (~0.1") and high resolution achievable with an 8m-class telescope, together with a careful polarimetric calibration strategy, allow us to achieve images that surpass the quality of previous scattered light images. Previously known substructures are resolved more clearly and new structures are seen. Specifically, we are able to resolve 1) half a dozen spiral structures in the disk, including previously known outer-disk spirals as well as new spiral arms and arcs close to the inner rim of the disk; 2) peculiar holes in the polarized surface brightness at position angles of ~0{\\deg} and ~160{\\deg}; 3) the inner rim on the eastern side of the disk; 4) the gap between the outer and inner disk, ranging from the inner working angle of 0.1" out to between 0.7 and 1.0", which is nearly devoid of dust. We then use a Markov-...

  18. Photo-reverberation Mapping of a Protoplanetary Accretion Disk around a T Tauri Star

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Huan Y A; Rieke, George H; Cody, Ann Marie; Güth, Tina; Stauffer, John; Covey, Kevin; Carey, Sean; Ciardi, David; Duran-Rojas, Maria C; Gutermuth, Robert A; Morales-Calderón, María; Rebull, Luisa M; Watson, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models and spectroscopic observations of newborn stars suggest that protoplantary disks have an inner "wall" at a distance set by the disk interaction with the star. Around T Tauri stars, the size of this disk hole is expected to be on a 0.1-AU scale that is unresolved by current adaptive optics imaging, though some model-dependent constraints have been obtained by near-infrared interferometry. Here we report the first measurement of the inner disk wall around a solar-mass young stellar object, YLW 16B in the {\\rho} Ophiuchi star-forming region, by detecting the light travel time of the variable radiation from the stellar surface to the disk. Consistent time lags were detected on two nights, when the time series in H (1.6 {\\mu}m) and K (2.2 {\\mu}m) bands were synchronized while the 4.5 {\\mu}m emission lagged by 74.5 +/- 3.2 seconds. Considering the nearly edge-on geometry of the disk, the inner rim should be 0.084 AU from the protostar on average, with an error of order 0.01 AU. This size is likel...

  19. A Spitzer view of protoplanetary disks in the gamma Velorum cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Jesus; Calvet, Nuria; Jeffries, R D; Gutermuth, R; Muzerolle, J; Stauffer, J

    2008-01-01

    We present new Spitzer Space Telescope observations of stars in the young ~5 Myr gamma Velorum stellar cluster. Combining optical and 2MASS photometry, we have selected 579 stars as candidate members of the cluster. With the addition of the Spitzer mid-infrared data, we have identified 5 debris disks around A-type stars, and 5-6 debris disks around solar-type stars, indicating that the strong radiation field in the cluster does not completely suppress the production of planetesimals in the disks of cluster members. However, we find some evidence that the frequency of circumstellar primordial disks is lower, and the IR flux excesses are smaller than for disks around stellar populations with similar ages. This could be evidence for a relatively fast dissipation of circumstellar dust by the strong radiation field from the highest mass star(s) in the cluster. Another possibility is that gamma Velorum stellar cluster is slightly older than reported ages and the the low frequency of primordial disks reflects the fa...

  20. FUV Irradiation and the Heat Signature of Accretion in Protoplanetary Disk Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najita, Joan R.; Ádámkovics, Máté

    2017-09-01

    Although stars accrete mass throughout the first few million years of their lives, the physical mechanism that drives disk accretion in the T Tauri phase is uncertain, and diagnostics that probe the nature of disk accretion have been elusive, particularly in the planet formation region of the disk. Here we explore whether an accretion process such as the magnetorotational instability (MRI) could be detected through its “heat signature,” the energy it deposits in the disk atmosphere. To examine this possibility, we investigate the impact of accretion-related mechanical heating and energetic stellar irradiation (FUV and X-rays) on the thermal-chemical properties of disk atmospheres at planet formation distances. We find that stellar FUV irradiation ({Ly}α and continuum), through its role in heating and photodissociation, affects much of the upper warm (400–2000 K) molecular layer of the atmosphere, and the properties of the layer are generally in good agreement with the observed molecular emission features of disks at UV, near-infrared, and mid-infrared wavelengths. At the same time, the effect of FUV irradiation is restricted to the upper molecular layer of the disk, even when irradiation by {Ly}α is included. The region immediately below the FUV-heated layer is potentially dominated by accretion-related mechanical heating. As cooler (90–400 K) CO, water, and other molecules are potential diagnostics of the mechanically heated layer, emission line studies of these diagnostics might be used to search for evidence of the MRI in action.

  1. Spitzer IRS Observations of Edge-on Protoplanetary Disks and Infrared Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Lahuis et al. (2006) showed that Spitzer IRS observations of gas phase molecular absorption toward young stars could be used to determine physical conditions within a few AU of the star. The pencil beam nature of this method requires an edge-on disk geometry with a large column between the observer and the emitting source. Molecular gas absorption has also been detected towards GV Tau N, a classical infrared companion (Koresko et al. 1997) that is likely a circumstellar disk seen near edge-on (Correia et al. 2007). We were granted time with Spitzer IRS to obtain high signal-to-noise spectra of 7 YSOs, three classified as disks seen near edge-on and four classical IRCs, to search for molecular absorption. We present findings from this Spitzer IRS project, along with near-infrared spectroscopy of CO fundamental transitions and mid-infrared imaging. We find that although DG Tau B shows CO2 gas absorption at a temperature similar to IRS 46 and GV Tau N, it likely originates from a moderately different region of the disk, indicating that the detection of organic molecules, even in edge-on disks, is highly sensitive to the line of sight. We further find DG Tau B likely displays high amounts of dust grain growth and settling, and we provide support for the VV CrA binary disk geometry where the absorption seen towards the IRC is due to the disk around the Primary being in the line of sight (Smith et al. 2009). This work is supported by NSF grant AST-0708074 and NASA support for Spitzer observations through contract RSA No. 1346810, issued by JPL.

  2. On the Ionisation Fraction in Protoplanetary Disks I: Comparing Different Reaction Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, M; Ilgner, Martin; Richard P. Nelson

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the ionisation fraction in protostellar disk models using a number of different chemical reaction networks, including gas-phase and gas-grain reaction schemes. The disk models we consider are conventional alpha-disks, which include viscous heating and radiative cooling. The primary source of ionisation is assumed to be X-ray irradiation from the central star. We consider a number of gas-phase chemical networks. In general we find that the simple models predict higher fractional ionisation levels and more extensive active zones than the more complex models. When heavy metal atoms are included the simple models predict that the disk is magnetically active throughout. The complex models predict that extensive regions of the disk remain magnetically uncoupled even with a fractional abundance of magnesium of 10(-8). The addition of submicron sized grains with a concentration of 10(-12) causes the size of the dead zone to increase dramatically for all kinetic models considered. We find that the simple ...

  3. Protoplanetary and Transitional Disks in the Open Stellar Cluster IC 2395

    CERN Document Server

    Balog, Zoltan; Rieke, G H; Kiss, L L; Muzerolle, James; Gutermuth, R A; Bell, Cameron P M; Vinko, J; Su, K Y L; Young, E T; Gaspar, Andras

    2016-01-01

    We present new deep UBVRI images and high-resolution multi-object optical spectroscopy of the young (~ 6 - 10 Myr old), relatively nearby (800 pc) open cluster IC 2395. We identify nearly 300 cluster members and use the photometry to estimate their spectral types, which extend from early B to middle M. We also present an infrared imaging survey of the central region using the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, covering the wavelength range from 3.6 to 24 microns. Our infrared observations allow us to detect dust in circumstellar disks originating over a typical range of radii ~ 0.1 to ~ 10AU from the central star. We identify 18 Class II, 8 transitional disk, and 23 debris disk candidates, respectively 6.5%, 2.9%, and 8.3% of the cluster members with appropriate data. We apply the same criteria for transitional disk identification to 19 other stellar clusters and associations spanning ages from ~ 1 to ~ 18 Myr. We find that the number of disks in the transitional phase as a fracti...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Predicted IR excesses for protoplanetary disks (Kenyon+, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, S. J.; Bromley, B. C.

    2009-09-01

    We describe calculations for the formation of icy planets and debris disks at 30-150AU around 1-3M{sun} stars. Debris disk formation coincides with the formation of planetary systems. As protoplanets grow, they stir leftover planetesimals to large velocities. A cascade of collisions then grinds the leftovers to dust, forming an observable debris disk. Stellar lifetimes and the collisional cascade limit the growth of protoplanets. The maximum radius of icy planets, rmax~1750km, is remarkably independent of initial disk mass, stellar mass, and stellar age. These objects contain <=3%-4% of the initial mass in solid material. Collisional cascades produce debris disks with maximum luminosity ~2x10-3 times the stellar luminosity. The peak 24um excess varies from ~1% times the stellar photospheric flux for 1M{sun} stars to ~50 times the stellar photospheric flux for 3M{sun} stars. The peak 70-850um excesses are ~30-100 times the stellar photospheric flux. For all stars, the 24-160um excesses rise at stellar ages of 5-20Myr, peak at 10-50Myr, and then decline. The decline is roughly a power law, f{propto}t-n with n~0.6-1.0. This predicted evolution agrees with published observations of A-type and solar-type stars. The observed far-IR color evolution of A-type stars also matches model predictions. (5 data files).

  5. X-Ray Irradiated Protoplanetary Disk Atmospheres. II. Predictions from Models in Hydrostatic Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolano, Barbara; Clarke, Cathie J.; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2009-07-01

    We present new models for the X-ray photoevaporation of circumstellar disks which suggest that the resulting mass loss (occurring mainly over the radial range 10-40 AU) may be the dominant dispersal mechanism for gas around low-mass pre-main-sequence stars, contrary to the conclusions of previous workers. Our models combine use of the MOCASSIN Monte Carlo radiative transfer code and a self-consistent solution of the hydrostatic structure of the irradiated disk. We estimate the resulting photoevaporation rates assuming sonic outflow at the surface where the gas temperature equals the local escape temperature and derive mass-loss rates of ~10-9 M sun yr-1, typically a factor of 2-10 times lower than the corresponding rates in our previous work where we did not adjust the density structure of the irradiated disk. The somewhat lower rates, and the fact that mass loss is concentrated toward slightly smaller radii, result from the puffing up of the heated disk at a few AU which partially screens the disk at tens of AU. Our mass-loss fluxes agree with those of Alexander et al. but we differ from Alexander et al. in our assessment of the overall significance of X-ray photoevaporation, given the large disk radii (and hence emitting area) associated with X-ray-driven winds. Gorti & Hollenbach, on the other hand, predict considerably lower mass-loss fluxes than either Alexander et al. or ourselves and we discuss possible reasons for this difference. We highlight the fact that X-ray photoevaporation has two generic advantages for disk dispersal compared with photoevaporation by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons that are only modestly beyond the Lyman limit: the demonstrably large X-ray fluxes of young stars even after they have lost their disks and the fact that X-rays are effective at penetrating much larger columns of material close to the star. We however stress that our X-ray-driven mass-loss rates are considerably more uncertain than the corresponding rates for EUV

  6. A mid-IR interferometric survey with MIDI/VLTI: resolving the second-generation protoplanetary disks around post-AGB binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hillen, M; Menu, J; Manick, R; Debosscher, J; Min, M; de Wit, W -J; Verhoelst, T; Kamath, D; Waters, L B F M

    2016-01-01

    We present a mid-IR interferometric survey of the circumstellar environment of a specific class of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) binaries. For this class the presence of a compact dusty disk has been postulated on the basis of various spatially unresolved measurements. Our interferometric survey was performed with the MIDI instrument on the VLTI. In total 19 different systems were observed using variable baseline configurations. Combining all the visibilities at a single wavelength at 10.7 micron, we fitted two parametric models to the data: a uniform disk (UD) and a ring model mimicking a temperature gradient. We compared our observables of the whole sample, with synthetic data computed from a grid of radiative transfer models of passively irradiated disks in hydrostatic equilibrium. These models are computed with a Monte Carlo code that has been widely applied to describe the structure of protoplanetary disks around young stellar objects (YSO). The spatially resolved observations show that the maj...

  7. Dust capture and long-lived density enhancements triggered by vortices in 2D protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Surville, Clément; Lin, Douglas N C

    2016-01-01

    We study dust capture by vortices and its long-term consequences in global two-fluid inviscid disk simulations using a new polar grid code RoSSBi. We perform the longest integrations so far, several hundred disk orbits, at the highest resolution attainable in global simulations of disks with dust, namely 2048x4096 grid points. This allows to study the dust evolution well beyond vortex dissipation. We vary a wide range of parameters, most notably the dust-to-gas ratio in the initial setup varies in the range $10^{-3}$ to $0.1$. Irrespective of the initial dust-to-gas ratio we find rapid concentration of the dust inside vortices, reaching dust-to-gas ratios of order unity inside the vortex. We present an analytical model that describes very well the dust capture process inside vortices, finding consistent results for all dust-to-gas ratios. A vortex streaming instability develops which causes invariably vortex destruction. After vortex dissipation large-scale dust-rings encompassing a disk annulus form in most ...

  8. X-ray Ionization of Heavy Elements Applied to Protoplanetary Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Glassgold, Alfred E.; Meijerink, Rowin

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of the Auger effect on the population of heavy-element ions are analyzed for the case of relatively cool gas irradiated by keV X-rays with intended applications to the accretion disks of young stellar objects. Highly charged ions are rapidly reduced to the doubly charged state in ne

  9. The protoplanetary disks in the nearby massive star forming region Cygnus OB2

    CERN Document Server

    Guarcello, M G; Wright, N J; Drew, J E; Gutermuth, R A; Hora, J L; Naylor, T; Aldcroft, T; Fruscione, A; Garcia-Alvarez, D; Kashyap, V L; King, R

    2013-01-01

    The formation of stars in massive clusters is one of the main modes of the star formation process. However, the study of massive star forming regions is hampered by their typically large distances to the Sun. One exception to this is the massive star forming region Cygnus OB2 in the Cygnus X region, at the distance of about 1400 pc. Cygnus OB2 hosts very rich populations of massive and low-mass stars, being the best target in our Galaxy to study the formation of stars, circumstellar disks, and planets in presence of massive stars. In this paper we combine a wide and deep set of photometric data, from the r band to 24 micron, in order to select the disk bearing population of stars in Cygnus OB2 and identify the class I, class II, and stars with transition and pre-transition disks. We selected 1843 sources with infrared excesses in an area of 1 degree x 1 degree centered on Cyg OB2 in several evolutionary stages: 8.4% class I, 13.1% flat-spectrum sources, 72.9% class II, 2.3% pre-transition disks, and 3.3% tran...

  10. X-ray Ionization of Heavy Elements Applied to Protoplanetary Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Glassgold, Alfred E.; Meijerink, Rowin

    The consequences of the Auger effect on the population of heavy-element ions are analyzed for the case of relatively cool gas irradiated by keV X-rays with intended applications to the accretion disks of young stellar objects. Highly charged ions are rapidly reduced to the doubly charged state in

  11. Protoplanetary disk shadowing by gas infalling onto the young star AK Sco

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, Ana I Gomez; France, Kevin; Sytov, Alexey; Bisikalo, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Young solar-type stars grow through the accretion of material from the circumstellar disk during pre-main sequence (PMS) evolution. The ultraviolet radiation generated in this process plays a key role in the chemistry and evolution of young planetary disks. In particular, the hydrogen Lyman-alpha line (Lya) etches the disk surface by driving photoevaporative flows that control disk evolution. Using the Hubble Space Telescope, we have monitored the PMS binary star AK Sco during the periastron passage and have detected a drop of the H2 flux by up to 10% lasting 5.9 hours. We show that the decrease of the H2 flux can be produced by the occultation of the stellar Lya photons by a gas stream in free fall from 3 R*. Given the high optical depth of the Lya line, a very low gas column of NH > 5e17 cm-2 suffices to block the Lya radiation without producing noticeable effects in the rest of the stellar spectral tracers.

  12. From Planetesimals to Planets in Turbulent Protoplanetary Disks I. Onset of Runaway Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Okuzumi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    When planetesimals grow via collisions in a turbulent disk, stirring through density fluctuation caused by turbulence effectively increases the relative velocities between planetesimals, which suppresses the onset of runaway growth. We investigate the onset of runaway growth in a turbulent disk through simulations that calculate the mass and velocity evolution of planetesimals. When planetesimals are small, the average relative velocity between planetesimals, $v_{\\rm r}$, is much greater than their surface escape velocity, $v_{\\rm esc}$, so that runaway growth does not occur. As planetesimals become large via collisional growth, $v_{\\rm r}$ approaches $v_{\\rm esc}$. When $v_{\\rm r} \\approx 1.5 v_{\\rm esc}$, runaway growth of the planetesimals occurs. During the oligarchic growth subsequent to runaway growth, a small number of planetary embryos produced via runaway growth become massive through collisions with planetesimals with radii of that at the onset of runaway growth, $r_{\\rm p,run}$. We analytically der...

  13. Long-lived Dust Asymmetries at Dead Zone Edges in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ryan; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Jin, Sheng

    2017-02-01

    A number of transition disks exhibit significant azimuthal asymmetries in thermal dust emission. One possible origin for these asymmetries is dust trapping in vortices formed at the edges of dead zones. We carry out high-resolution, two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of this scenario, including the effects of dust feedback. We find that, although feedback weakens the vortices and slows down the process of dust accumulation, the dust distribution in the disk can nonetheless remain asymmetric for many thousands of orbits. We show that even after 104 orbits, or 2.5 Myr when scaled to the parameters of Oph IRS 48 (a significant fraction of its age), the dust is not dispersed into an axisymmetric ring, in contrast to the case of a vortex formed by a planet. This is because accumulation of mass at the dead zone edge constantly replenishes the vortex, preventing it from being fully destroyed. We produce synthetic dust emission images using our simulation results. We find that multiple small clumps of dust may be distributed azimuthally. These clumps, if not resolved from one another, appear as a single large feature. A defining characteristic of a disk with a dead zone edge is that an asymmetric feature is accompanied by a ring of dust located about twice as far from the central star.

  14. Testing the theory of grain growth and fragmentation by millimeter observations of protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Birnstiel, T; Trotta, F; Dullemond, C P; Natta, A; Testi, L; Dominik, C; Henning, T; Ormel, C W; Zsom, A

    2010-01-01

    Context. Observations at sub-millimeter and mm wavelengths will in the near future be able to resolve the radial dependence of the mm spectral slope in circumstellar disks with a resolution of around a few AU at the distance of the closest star-forming regions. Aims. We aim to constrain physical models of grain growth and fragmentation by a large sample of (sub-)mm observations of disks around pre-main sequence stars in the Taurus-Auriga and Ophiuchus star-forming regions. Methods. State-of-the-art coagulation/fragmentation and disk-structure codes are coupled to produce steady-state grain size distributions and to predict the spectral slopes at (sub-)mm wavelengths. Results. This work presents the first calculations predicting the mm spectral slope based on a physical model of grain growth. Our models can quite naturally reproduce the observed mm-slopes, but a simultaneous match to the observed range of flux levels can only be reached by a reduction of the dust mass by a factor of a few up to about 30 while ...

  15. Long-Lived Dust Asymmetries at Dead Zone Edges in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Ryan; Li, Shengtai; Jin, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A number of transition disks exhibit significant azimuthal asymmetries in thermal dust emission. One possible origin for these asymmetries is dust trapping in vortices formed at the edges of dead zones. We carry out high resolution hydroydnamic simulations of this scenario, including the effects of dust feedback. We find that, although feedback weakens the vortices and slows down the process of dust accumulation, the dust distribution in the disk can nonetheless remain asymmetric for many thousands of orbits. We show that even after $10^4$ orbits, a significant fraction of a disk lifetime, the dust is not dispersed into an axisymmetric ring, in contrast to the case of a vortex formed by a planet. This is because accumulation of mass at the dead zone edge constantly replenishes the vortex, preventing it from being fully destroyed. We produce synthetic dust emission images using our simulation results. We find that multiple small clumps of dust may be distributed azimuthally. These clumps, if not resolved from ...

  16. Depletion of molecular gas by an accretion outburst in a protoplanetary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Banzatti, A; Bruderer, S; Muzerolle, J; Meyer, M R

    2014-01-01

    We investigate new and archival 3-5 $\\mu$m high resolution ($\\sim3$ km s$^{-1}$) spectroscopy of molecular gas in the inner disk of the young solar-mass star EX Lupi, taken during and after the strong accretion outburst of 2008. The data were obtained using the CRIRES spectrometer at the ESO Very Large Telescope in 2008 and 2014. In 2008, emission lines from CO, H$_{2}$O, and OH were detected with broad profiles tracing gas near and within the corotation radius (0.02-0.3 AU). In 2014, the spectra display marked differences. The CO lines, while still detected, are much weaker, and the H$_{2}$O and OH lines have disappeared altogether. At 3 $\\mu$m a veiled stellar photospheric spectrum is observed. Our analysis finds that the molecular gas mass in the inner disk has decreased by an order of magnitude since the outburst, matching a similar decrease in the accretion rate onto the star. We discuss these findings in the context of a rapid depletion of material accumulated beyond the disk corotation radius during qu...

  17. An ALMA Disk Mass for the Candidate Protoplanetary Companion to FW Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Adam L; Bowler, Brendan P; Herczeg, Gregory; Ireland, Michael J; Liu, Michael C; Metchev, Stanimir; Cruz, Kelle L

    2014-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the FW Tau system, a close binary pair of M5 stars with a wide-orbit (300 AU projected separation) substellar companion. The companion is extremely faint and red in the optical and near-infrared, but boasts a weak far-infrared excess and optical/near-infrared emission lines indicative of a primordial accretion disk of gas and dust. The component-resolved 1.3 mm continuum emission is found to be associated only with the companion, with a flux (1.78 +/- 0.03 mJy) that indicates a dust mass of 1-2 M_Earth. While this mass reservoir is insufficient to form a giant planet, it is more than sufficient to produce an analog of the Kepler-42 exoplanetary system or the Galilean satellites. The mass and geometry of the disk-bearing FW Tau companion remains unclear. Near-infrared spectroscopy shows deep water bands that indicate a spectral type later than M5, but substantial veiling prevents a more accurate determination of the effective temperature (and hence mass). Both a disk-bearing "pl...

  18. Different dust and gas radial extents in protoplanetary disks: consistent models of grain growth and CO emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, S.; Birnstiel, T.; Bruderer, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2017-09-01

    Context. ALMA observations of protoplanetary disks confirm earlier indications that there is a clear difference between the dust and gas radial extents. The origin of this difference is still debated, with both radial drift of the dust and optical depth effects suggested in the literature. Aims: In thermo-chemical models, the dust properties are usually prescribed by simple parametrisations. In this work, the feedback of more realistic dust particle distributions onto the gas chemistry and molecular emissivity is investigated, with a particular focus on CO isotopologues. Methods: The radial dust grain size distribution is determined using dust evolution models that include growth, fragmentation, and radial drift for a given static gas density structure. The vertical settling of dust particles is computed in steady-state. A new version of the code DALI is used to take into account how dust surface area and density influence the disk thermal structure, molecular abundances, and excitation. Synthetic images of both continuum thermal emission and low J CO isotopologues lines are produced. Results: The difference of dust and gas radial sizes is largely due to differences in the optical depth of CO lines and millimeter continuum, without the need to invoke radial drift. The effect of radial drift is primarily visible in the sharp outer edge of the continuum intensity profile. The gas outer radius probed by 12CO emission can easily differ by a factor of two between the models for a turbulent α ranging between 10-4 and 10-2, with the ratio of the CO and mm radius RoutCO/Routmm increasing with turbulence. Grain growth and settling concur in thermally decoupling the gas and dust components, due to the low collision rate with large grains. As a result, the gas can be much colder than the dust at intermediate heights, reducing the CO excitation and emission, especially for low turbulence values. Also, due to disk mid-plane shadowing, a second CO thermal desorption (rather

  19. 3D Radiation Nonideal Magnetohydrodynamical Simulations of the Inner Rim in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, M.; Fromang, S.; Turner, N. J.; Benisty, M.

    2017-02-01

    Many planets orbit within 1 au of their stars, raising questions about their origins. Particularly puzzling are the planets found near the silicate sublimation front. We investigate conditions near the front in the protostellar disk around a young intermediate-mass star, using the first global 3D radiation nonideal MHD simulations in this context. We treat the starlight heating; the silicate grains’ sublimation and deposition at the local, time-varying temperature and density; temperature-dependent ohmic dissipation; and various initial magnetic fields. The results show magnetorotational turbulence around the sublimation front at 0.5 au. The disk interior to 0.8 au is turbulent, with velocities exceeding 10% of the sound speed. Beyond 0.8 au is the dead zone, cooler than 1000 K and with turbulence orders of magnitude weaker. A local pressure maximum just inside the dead zone concentrates solid particles, favoring their growth. Over many orbits, a vortex develops at the dead zone’s inner edge, increasing the disk’s thickness locally by around 10%. We synthetically observe the results using Monte Carlo transfer calculations, finding that the sublimation front is near-infrared bright. The models with net vertical magnetic fields develop extended, magnetically supported atmospheres that reprocess extra starlight, raising the near-infrared flux 20%. The vortex throws a nonaxisymmetric shadow on the outer disk. At wavelengths > 2 μ {{m}}, the flux varies several percent on monthly timescales. The variations are more regular when the vortex is present. The vortex is directly visible as an arc at ultraviolet through near-infrared wavelengths, given sub-au spatial resolution.

  20. X-ray Ionization of Heavy Elements Applied to Protoplanetary Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Glassgold, Alfred E.; Meijerink, Rowin

    2011-01-01

    The consequences of the Auger effect on the population of heavy element ions are analyzed for the case of relatively cool gas irradiated by keV X-rays, with intended applications to the accretion disks of young stellar ob jects. Highly charged ions are rapidly reduced to the doubly-charged state in neutral gas, so the aim here is to derive the production rates for these singly- and doubly-charged ions and to specify their transformation by recombination, charge transfer, and molecular reactio...

  1. The Shape of the Inner Rim in Proto-Planetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Isella, A; Isella, Andrea; Natta, Antonella

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the properties of the inner puffed-up rim which forms in circumstellar disks when dust evaporates. We argue that the rim shape is controlled by a fundamental property of circumstellar disks, namely their very large vertical density gradient, through the dependence of grain evaporation temperature on gas density. As a result, the bright side of the rim is "curved", rather than "vertical", as expected when a constant evaporation temperature is assumed. We have computed a number of rim models, which take into account this effect in a self-consistent way. The results show that the curved rim (as the vertical rim) emits most of its radiation in the near and mid-IR, and provides a simple explanation to the observed values of the near-IR excess (the "3 micron bump" of Herbig Ae stars). Contrary to the vertical rim, for curved rims the near-IR excess does not depend much on the inclination, being maximum for face-on objects. We have then computed synthetic images of the curved rim seen under diff...

  2. The 1600 Å Emission Bump in Protoplanetary Disks: A Spectral Signature of H2O Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; Roueff, Evelyne; Abgrall, Hervé

    2017-08-01

    The FUV continuum spectrum of many accreting pre-main sequence stars, Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), does not continue smoothly from the well-studied Balmer continuum emission in the NUV, suggesting that additional processes contribute to the short-wavelength emission in these objects. The most notable spectral feature in the FUV continuum of some CTTSs is a broad emission approximately centered at 1600 Å, which has been referred to as the “1600 Å Bump.” The origin of this feature remains unclear. In an effort to better understand the molecular properties of planet-forming disks and the UV spectral properties of accreting protostars, we have assembled archival FUV spectra of 37 disk-hosting systems observed by the Hubble Space Telescope-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. Clear 1600 Å Bump emission is observed above the smooth, underlying 1100-1800 Å continuum spectrum in 19/37 Classical T Tauri disks in the HST-COS sample, with the detection rate in transition disks (8/8) being much higher than that in primordial or non-transition sources (11/29). We describe a spectral deconvolution analysis to separate the Bump (spanning 1490-1690 Å) from the underlying FUV continuum, finding an average Bump luminosity L(Bump) ≈ 7 × 1029 erg s-1. Parameterizing the Bump with a combination of Gaussian and polynomial components, we find that the 1600 Å Bump is characterized by a peak wavelength λ o = 1598.6 ± 3.3 Å, with FWHM = 35.8 ± 19.1 Å. Contrary to previous studies, we find that this feature is inconsistent with models of H2 excited by electron -impact. We show that this Bump makes up between 5%-50% of the total FUV continuum emission in the 1490-1690 Å band and emits roughly 10%-80% of the total fluorescent H2 luminosity for stars with well-defined Bump features. Energetically, this suggests that the carrier of the 1600 Å Bump emission is powered by Lyα photons. We argue that the most likely mechanism is Lyα-driven dissociation of H2O in the inner disk, r

  3. The abundance and thermal history of water ice in the disk surrounding HD142527 from the DIGIT Herschel Key Program

    CERN Document Server

    Min, M; Dominik, C; Waters, L B F M; Pontoppidan, K M; Hony, S; Mulders, G D; Henning, Th; van Dishoeck, E F; Woitke, P; Evans, Neal J

    2016-01-01

    The presence or absence of ice in protoplanetary disks is of great importance for the formation of planets. By enhancing the solid surface density and increasing the sticking efficiency, ice catalyzes the rapid formation of planetesimals and decreases the time scale for giant planet core accretion. Aims: In this paper we analyse the composition of the outer disk around the Herbig star HD~142527. We focus on the composition of the water ice, but also analyse the abundances of previously proposed minerals. Methods: We present new Herschel far infrared spectra and a re-reduction of archival data from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). We model the disk using full 3D radiative transfer to obtain the disk structure. Also, we use an optically thin analysis of the outer disk spectrum to obtain firm constraints on the composition of the dust component. Results: The water ice in the disk around HD~142527 contains a large reservoir of crystalline water ice. We determine the local abundance of water ice in the outer ...

  4. The Structure of Pre-transitional Protoplanetary Disks. II. Azimuthal Asymmetries, Different Radial Distributions of Large and Small Dust Grains in PDS~70

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, J; Brown, J M; Dong, R; Muto, Mr Takayuki; Zhu, Dr Zhaohuan; Wisniewski, Dr John P; Ohashi, N; kudo, T; Kusakabe, N; Abe, L; Akiyama, E; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, T; Carson, J; Currie, Dr Thayne; Egner, S; Feldt, M; Grady, C A; Guyon, O; Hayano, Y; Hayashi, M; Hayashi, S; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, K; Ishii, M; Iye, Dr Masanori; Janson, M; Kandori, R; Knapp, G; Kuzuhara, M; Kwon, J; Matsuo, T; McElwain, M W; Mayama, S; Mede, K; Miyama, S; Morino, J -I; Moro-Martin, A; Nishimura, T; Pyo, T -S; Serabyn, Dr Gene; Suenaga, T; Suto, H; Suzuki, R; Takahashi, Y; Takami, M; Takato, N; Terada, H; Thalmann, Dr Christian; Tomono, D; Turner, E L; Watanabe, M; Yamada, T; Takami, H; Usuda, T; Tamura, M

    2014-01-01

    The formation scenario of a gapped disk, i.e., transitional disk, and its asymmetry is still under debate. Proposed scenarios such as disk-planet interaction, photoevaporation, grain growth, anticyclonic vortex, eccentricity, and their combinations would result in different radial distributions of the gas and the small (sub-$\\mu$m size) and large (millimeter size) dust grains as well as asymmetric structures in a disk. Optical/near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations and (sub-)millimeter interferometry can trace small and large dust grains, respectively; therefore multi-wavelength observations could help elucidate the origin of complicated structures of a disk. Here we report SMA observations of the dust continuum at 1.3~mm and $^{12}$CO~$J=2\\rightarrow1$ line emission of the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk around the solar-mass star PDS~70. PDS~70, a weak-lined T Tauri star, exhibits a gap in the scattered light from its disk with a radius of $\\sim$65~AU at NIR wavelengths. However, we found a larger ga...

  5. ANALYTICAL FORMULAE OF MOLECULAR ION ABUNDANCES AND THE N{sub 2}H{sup +} RING IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikawa, Yuri [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); Furuya, Kenji [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Nomura, Hideko [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, 152-8551 Tokyo (Japan); Qi, Chunhua, E-mail: aikawa@ccs.tsukuba.ac.jp [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    We investigate the chemistry of ion molecules in protoplanetary disks, motivated by the detection of the N{sub 2}H{sup +} ring around TW Hya. While the ring inner radius coincides with the CO snow line, it is not apparent why N{sub 2}H{sup +} is abundant outside the CO snow line in spite of the similar sublimation temperatures of CO and N{sub 2}. Using the full gas-grain network model, we reproduced the N{sub 2}H{sup +} ring in a disk model with millimeter grains. The chemical conversion of CO and N{sub 2} to less volatile species (sink effect hereinafter) is found to affect the N{sub 2}H{sup +} distribution. Since the efficiency of the sink depends on various parameters such as activation barriers of grain-surface reactions, which are not well constrained, we also constructed the no-sink model; the total (gas and ice) CO and N{sub 2} abundances are set constant, and their gaseous abundances are given by the balance between adsorption and desorption. Abundances of molecular ions in the no-sink model are calculated by analytical formulae, which are derived by analyzing the full-network model. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} ring is reproduced by the no-sink model, as well. The 2D (R-Z) distribution of N{sub 2}H{sup +}, however, is different among the full-network model and no-sink model. The column density of N{sub 2}H{sup +} in the no-sink model depends sensitively on the desorption rate of CO and N{sub 2} and the cosmic-ray flux. We also found that N{sub 2}H{sup +} abundance can peak at the temperature slightly below the CO sublimation, even if the desorption energies of CO and N{sub 2} are the same.

  6. Planet gaps in the dust layer of 3D protoplanetary disks. II. Observability with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, J -F; Maddison, S T; Ménard, F; Fouchet, L

    2012-01-01

    [Abridged] Aims: We provide predictions for ALMA observations of planet gaps that account for the specific spatial distribution of dust that results from consistent gas+dust dynamics. Methods: In a previous work, we ran full 3D, two-fluid Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of a planet embedded in a gas+dust T Tauri disk for different planet masses and grain sizes. In this work, the resulting dust distributions are passed to the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code MCFOST to construct synthetic images in the ALMA wavebands. We then use the ALMA simulator to produce images that include thermal and phase noise for a range of angular resolutions, wavelengths, and integration times, as well as for different inclinations, declinations and distances. We also produce images which assume that gas and dust are well mixed with a gas-to-dust ratio of 100 to compare with previous ALMA predictions, all made under this hypothesis. Results: Our findings clearly demonstrate the importance of correctly incorporat...

  7. Carbon and Oxygen in Nearby Stars: Keys to Protoplanetary Disk Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Petigura, Erik A; 10.1088/0004-637X/735/1/41

    2011-01-01

    We present carbon and oxygen abundances for 941 FGK stars-the largest such catalog to date. We find that planet-bearing systems are enriched in these elements. We self-consistently measure C/O, which is thought to play a key role in planet formation. We identify 46 stars with C/O \\geq 1.00 as potential hosts of carbon-dominated exoplanets. We measure a downward trend in [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] and find distinct trends in the thin and thick disks, supporting the work of Bensby et al. Finally, we measure sub-solar C/O = 0.40+0.11 - 0.07, for WASP-12, a surprising result as this star is host to a transiting hot Jupiter whose dayside atmosphere was recently reported to have C/O \\geq 1 by Madhusudhan et al. Our measurements are based on 15,000 high signal-to-noise spectra taken with the Keck 1 telescope as part of the California Planet Search. We derive abundances from the [O I] and C I absorption lines at {\\lambda} = 6300 and 6587 {\\AA} using the SME spectral synthesizer.

  8. X-ray irradiated protoplanetary disk atmospheres I: Predicted emission line spectrum and photoevaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Ercolano, Barbara; Raymond, John C; Clarke, Cathie C

    2008-01-01

    We present MOCASSIN 2D photoionisation and dust radiative transfer models of a prototypical T Tauri disk irradiated by X-rays from the young pre-main sequence star. The calculations demonstrate a layer of hot gas reaching temperatures of ~10^6 K at small radii and ~10^4 K at a distance of 1 AU. The gas temperatures decrease sharply with depth, but appear to be completely decoupled from dust temperatures down to a column depth of ~5*10^21 cm^-2. We predict that several fine-structure and forbidden lines of heavy elements, as well as recombination lines of hydrogen and helium, should be observable with current and future instrumentation, although optical lines may be smothered by the stellar spectrum. Predicted line luminosities are given for the the brightest collisionally excited lines (down to ~10^-8L_sun, and for recombination transitions from several levels of HI and HeI. The mass loss rate due to X-ray photoevaporation estimated from our models is of the order of 10^-8 M_sun yr^-1, implying a dispersal ti...

  9. Evidence of fast pebble growth near condensation fronts in the HL Tau protoplanetary disk

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ke; Bergin, Edwin A

    2015-01-01

    Water and simple organic molecular ices dominate the mass of solid materials available for planetesimal and planet formation beyond the water snow line. Here we analyze ALMA long baseline 2.9, 1.3 and 0.87 mm continuum images of the young star HL Tau, and suggest that the emission dips observed are due to rapid pebble growth around the condensation fronts of abundant volatile species. Specifically, we show that the prominent innermost dip at 13 AU is spatially resolved in the 0.87 mm image, and its center radius is coincident with the expected mid-plane condensation front of water ice. In addition, two other prominent dips, at distances of 32 and 63 AU, cover the mid-plane condensation fronts of pure ammonia or ammonia hydrates and clathrate hydrates (especially with CO and N$_2$) formed from amorphous water ice. The spectral index map of HL Tau between 1.3 and 0.87 mm shows that the flux ratios inside the dips are statistically larger than those of nearby regions in the disk. This variation can be explained ...

  10. EVIDENCE OF FAST PEBBLE GROWTH NEAR CONDENSATION FRONTS IN THE HL TAU PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ke [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, MC 249-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blake, Geoffrey A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, MC 150-21, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bergin, Edwin A., E-mail: kzhang@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    Water and simple organic molecular ices dominate the mass of solid materials available for planetesimal and planet formation beyond the water snow line. Here we analyze ALMA long baseline 2.9, 1.3 and 0.87 mm continuum images of the young star HL Tau, and suggest that the emission dips observed are due to rapid pebble growth around the condensation fronts of abundant volatile species. Specifically, we show that the prominent innermost dip at 13 AU is spatially resolved in the 0.87 mm image, and its center radius is coincident with the expected mid-plane condensation front of water ice. In addition, two other prominent dips, at distances of 32 and 63 AU, cover the mid-plane condensation fronts of pure ammonia or ammonia hydrates and clathrate hydrates (especially with CO and N{sub 2}) formed from amorphous water ice. The spectral index map of HL Tau between 1.3 and 0.87 mm shows that the flux ratios inside the dips are statistically larger than those of nearby regions in the disk. This variation can be explained by a model with two dust populations, where most of the solid mass resides in a component that has grown to decimeter size scales inside the dips. Such growth is in accord with recent numerical simulations of volatile condensation, dust coagulation, and settling.

  11. The abundance and thermal history of water ice in the disk surrounding HD 142527 from the DIGIT Herschel Key Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, M.; Bouwman, J.; Dominik, C.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Hony, S.; Mulders, G. D.; Henning, Th.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Woitke, P.; Evans, Neal J., II; Digit Team

    2016-08-01

    Context. The presence or absence of ice in protoplanetary disks is of great importance to the formation of planets. By enhancing solid surface density and increasing sticking efficiency, ice catalyzes the rapid formation of planetesimals and decreases the timescale of giant planet core accretion. Aims: In this paper, we analyze the composition of the outer disk around the Herbig star HD 142527. We focus on the composition of water ice, but also analyze the abundances of previously proposed minerals. Methods: We present new Herschel far-infrared spectra and a re-reduction of archival data from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). We modeled the disk using full 3D radiative transfer to obtain the disk structure. Also, we used an optically thin analysis of the outer disk spectrum to obtain firm constraints on the composition of the dust component. Results: The water ice in the disk around HD 142527 contains a large reservoir of crystalline water ice. We determine the local abundance of water ice in the outer disk (i.e., beyond 130 AU). The re-reduced ISO spectrum differs significantly from that previously published, but matches the new Herschel spectrum at their common wavelength range. In particular, we do not detect any significant contribution from carbonates or hydrous silicates, in contrast to earlier claims. Conclusions: The amount of water ice detected in the outer disk requires ~80% of oxygen atoms. This is comparable to the water ice abundance in the outer solar system, comets, and dense interstellar clouds. The water ice is highly crystalline while the temperatures where we detect it are too low to crystallize the water on relevant timescales. We discuss the implications of this finding.

  12. Kinks and Dents in Protoplanetary Disks: Rapid Infrared Variability as Evidence for Large Structural Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Flaherty, Kevin; Rieke, George; Gutermuth, Robert; Balog, Zoltan; Herbst, William; Megeath, S T

    2012-01-01

    We report on synoptic observations at 3.6 and 4.5micron of young stellar objects in IC 348 with 38 epochs covering 40 days. We find that among the detected cluster members, 338 at [3.6] and 269 at both [3.6] and [4.5], many are variable on daily to weekly timescales with typical fluctuations of ~0.1 mag. The fraction of variables ranges from 20% for the diskless pre-main sequence stars to 60% for the stars still surrounded by infalling envelopes. We also find that stars in the exposed cluster core are less variable than the stars in the dense, slightly younger, south-western ridge. This trend persists even after accounting for the underlying correlation with infrared SED type, suggesting that the change in variable fraction is not simply a reflection of the change in relative fraction of class I vs. class II sources across the cloud, but instead reflects a change in variability with age. We also see a strong correlation between infrared variability and X-ray luminosity among the class II sources. The observed...

  13. A mid-IR interferometric survey with MIDI/VLTI: resolving the second-generation protoplanetary disks around post-AGB binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, M.; Van Winckel, H.; Menu, J.; Manick, R.; Debosscher, J.; Min, M.; de Wit, W.-J.; Verhoelst, T.; Kamath, D.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We present a mid-IR interferometric survey of the circumstellar environment of a specific class of post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) binaries. For this class the presence of a compact dusty disk has been postulated on the basis of various spatially unresolved measurements. The aim is to determine the angular extent of the N-band emission directly and to resolve the compact circumstellar structures. Methods: Our interferometric survey was performed with the MIDI instrument on the VLTI. In total 19 different systems were observed using variable baseline configurations. Combining all the visibilities at a single wavelength at 10.7 μm, we fitted two parametric models to the data: a uniform disk and a ring model mimicking a temperature gradient. We compared our observables of the whole sample, with synthetic data computed from a grid of radiative transfer models of passively irradiated disks in hydrostatic equilibrium. These models are computed with a Monte Carlo code that has been widely applied to describe the structure of protoplanetary disks around young stellar objects (YSO). Results: The spatially resolved observations show that the majority of our targets cluster closely together in the distance-independent size-colour diagram, and have extremely compact N-band emission regions. The typical uniform disk diameter of the N-band emission region is 40 mas, which corresponds to a typical brightness temperature of 400-600 K. The resolved objects display very similar characteristics in the interferometric observables and in the spectral energy distributions. Therefore, the physical properties of the disks around our targets must be similar. Our results are discussed in the light of recently published sample studies of YSOs to compare quantitatively the secondary discs around post-AGB stars to the ones around YSOs. Conclusions: Our high-angular-resolution survey further confirms the disk nature of the circumstellar structures present around wide post

  14. Embryos grown in the dead zone: Assembling the first protoplanetary cores in low mass self-gravitating circumstellar disks of gas and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Lyra, W; Klahr, H; Piskunov, N

    2008-01-01

    In the borders of the dead zones of protoplanetary disks, the inflow of gas produces a local density maximum that triggers the Rossby wave instability. The vortices that form are efficient in trapping solids. We aim to assess the possibility of gravitational collapse of the solids within the Rossby vortices. We perform global simulations of the dynamics of gas and solids in a low mass non-magnetized self-gravitating thin protoplanetary disk with the Pencil code. We use multiple particle species of radius 1, 10, 30, and 100 cm. The dead zone is modelled as a region of low viscosity. The Rossby vortices excited in the edges of the dead zone are very efficient particle traps. Within 5 orbits after their appearance, the solids achieve critical density and undergo gravitational collapse into Mars sized objects. The velocity dispersions are of the order of 10 m/s for newly formed embryos, later lowering to less than 1 m/s by drag force cooling. After 200 orbits, 38 gravitationally bound embryos were formed inside t...

  15. High spatial resolution IR observations of young stellar objects - A possible disk surrounding HL Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasdalen, G. L.; Strom, S. E.; Strom, K. M.; Capps, R. W.; Thompson, D.; Castelaz, M.

    1984-01-01

    High spatial resolution images of the T Tauri star HL Tau were obtained at 1.6 microns and 2.2 microns. The original images as well as maximum entropy image reconstructions reveal a circumstellar envelope structure, similar at both wavelenghts, and extended along P.A. = 112 deg; the 10 percent width of the structure is 1.9 sec (300 AU at 160 pc). The extended structure is interpreted as light scattered toward earth by dust in a disk surrounding this young stellar object. Polarization measurements made at 2.2 microns support this hypothesis. The total solid particle mass is, at minimum, 5 x 10 to the -7th solar mass.

  16. A Substantial Dust Disk Surrounding an Actively Accreting First-Ascent Giant Star

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, C; Song, I; Rhee, J H; Metchev, S

    2009-01-01

    We report identification of the first unambiguous example of what appears to be a new class of first-ascent giant stars that are actively accreting gas and dust and that are surrounded by substantial dusty disks. These old stars, who are nearing the end of their lives, are experiencing a rebirth into characteristics typically associated with newborn stars. The F2-type first-ascent giant star TYC 4144 329 2 is in a wide separation binary system with an otherwise normal G8 IV star, TYC 4144 329 1. From Keck near-infrared imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy we are able to determine that these two stars are $\\sim$1 Gyr old and reside at a distance of $\\sim$550 pc. One possible explanation for the origin of the accreting material is common-envelope interaction with a low-mass stellar or sub-stellar companion. The gaseous and dusty material around TYC 4144 329 2, as it is similar to the primordial disks observed around young classical T Tauri stars, could potentially give rise to a new generation of planets an...

  17. Observations and modelling of CO and [C i] in protoplanetary disks. First detections of [C i] and constraints on the carbon abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, M.; Bruderer, S.; Carney, M.; Hogerheijde, M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Fedele, D.; Baryshev, A.; Boland, W.; Güsten, R.; Aikutalp, A.; Choi, Y.; Endo, A.; Frieswijk, W.; Karska, A.; Klaassen, P.; Koumpia, E.; Kristensen, L.; Leurini, S.; Nagy, Z.; Perez Beaupuits, J.-P.; Risacher, C.; van der Marel, N.; van Kempen, T. A.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wyrowski, F.; Yıldız, U. A.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The gas-solid budget of carbon in protoplanetary disks is related to the composition of the cores and atmospheres of the planets forming in them. The principal gas-phase carbon carriers CO, C0, and C+ can now be observed regularly in disks. Aims: The gas-phase carbon abundance in disks has thus far not been well characterized observationally. We obtain new constraints on the [C]/[H] ratio in a large sample of disks, and compile an overview of the strength of [C i] and warm CO emission. Methods: We carried out a survey of the CO 6-5 line and the [C i] 1-0 and 2-1 lines towards 37 disks with the APEX telescope, and supplemented it with [C ii] data from the literature. The data are interpreted using a grid of models produced with the DALI disk code. We also investigate how well the gas-phase carbon abundance can be determined in light of parameter uncertainties. Results: The CO 6-5 line is detected in 13 out of 33 sources, [C i] 1-0 in 6 out of 12, and [C i] 2-1 in 1 out of 33. With separate deep integrations, the first unambiguous detections of the [C i] 1-0 line in disks are obtained, in TW Hya and HD 100546. Conclusions: Gas-phase carbon abundance reductions of a factor of 5-10 or more can be identified robustly based on CO and [C i] detections, assuming reasonable constraints on other parameters. The atomic carbon detection towards TW Hya confirms a factor of 100 reduction of [C]/[H]gas in that disk, while the data are consistent with an ISM-like carbon abundance for HD 100546. In addition, BP Tau, T Cha, HD 139614, HD 141569, and HD 100453 are either carbon-depleted or gas-poor disks. The low [C i] 2-1 detection rates in the survey mostly reflect insufficient sensitivity for T Tauri disks. The Herbig Ae/Be disks with CO and [C ii] upper limits below the models are debris-disk-like systems. An increase in sensitivity of roughly order of magnitude compared to our survey is required to obtain useful constraints on the gas-phase [C]/[H] ratio in most of the

  18. A Fast Parallel Simulation Code for Interaction between Proto-Planetary Disk and Embedded Proto-Planets: Implementation for 3D Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-14

    We develop a 3D simulation code for interaction between the proto-planetary disk and embedded proto-planets. The protoplanetary disk is treated as a three-dimensional (3D), self-gravitating gas whose motion is described by the locally isothermal Navier-Stokes equations in a spherical coordinate centered on the star. The differential equations for the disk are similar to those given in Kley et al. (2009) with a different gravitational potential that is defined in Nelson et al. (2000). The equations are solved by directional split Godunov method for the inviscid Euler equations plus operator-split method for the viscous source terms. We use a sub-cycling technique for the azimuthal sweep to alleviate the time step restriction. We also extend the FARGO scheme of Masset (2000) and modified in Li et al. (2001) to our 3D code to accelerate the transport in the azimuthal direction. Furthermore, we have implemented a reduced 2D (r, {theta}) and a fully 3D self-gravity solver on our uniform disk grid, which extends our 2D method (Li, Buoni, & Li 2008) to 3D. This solver uses a mode cut-off strategy and combines FFT in the azimuthal direction and direct summation in the radial and meridional direction. An initial axis-symmetric equilibrium disk is generated via iteration between the disk density profile and the 2D disk-self-gravity. We do not need any softening in the disk self-gravity calculation as we have used a shifted grid method (Li et al. 2008) to calculate the potential. The motion of the planet is limited on the mid-plane and the equations are the same as given in D'Angelo et al. (2005), which we adapted to the polar coordinates with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta solver. The disk gravitational force on the planet is assumed to evolve linearly with time between two hydrodynamics time steps. The Planetary potential acting on the disk is calculated accurately with a small softening given by a cubic-spline form (Kley et al. 2009). Since the torque is extremely

  19. A Fast Parallel Simulation Code for Interaction between Proto-Planetary Disk and Embedded Proto-Planets: Implementation for 3D Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-14

    We develop a 3D simulation code for interaction between the proto-planetary disk and embedded proto-planets. The protoplanetary disk is treated as a three-dimensional (3D), self-gravitating gas whose motion is described by the locally isothermal Navier-Stokes equations in a spherical coordinate centered on the star. The differential equations for the disk are similar to those given in Kley et al. (2009) with a different gravitational potential that is defined in Nelson et al. (2000). The equations are solved by directional split Godunov method for the inviscid Euler equations plus operator-split method for the viscous source terms. We use a sub-cycling technique for the azimuthal sweep to alleviate the time step restriction. We also extend the FARGO scheme of Masset (2000) and modified in Li et al. (2001) to our 3D code to accelerate the transport in the azimuthal direction. Furthermore, we have implemented a reduced 2D (r, {theta}) and a fully 3D self-gravity solver on our uniform disk grid, which extends our 2D method (Li, Buoni, & Li 2008) to 3D. This solver uses a mode cut-off strategy and combines FFT in the azimuthal direction and direct summation in the radial and meridional direction. An initial axis-symmetric equilibrium disk is generated via iteration between the disk density profile and the 2D disk-self-gravity. We do not need any softening in the disk self-gravity calculation as we have used a shifted grid method (Li et al. 2008) to calculate the potential. The motion of the planet is limited on the mid-plane and the equations are the same as given in D'Angelo et al. (2005), which we adapted to the polar coordinates with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta solver. The disk gravitational force on the planet is assumed to evolve linearly with time between two hydrodynamics time steps. The Planetary potential acting on the disk is calculated accurately with a small softening given by a cubic-spline form (Kley et al. 2009). Since the torque is extremely

  20. Dust Dynamics in Protoplanetary Disk Winds Driven by Magneto-Rotational Turbulence: A Mechanism for Floating Dust Grains with Characteristic Size

    CERN Document Server

    Miyake, Tomoya; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of dust grains with various sizes in protoplanetary disk winds driven by magnetorotational turbulence, by simulating the time evolution of the dust grain distribution in the vertical direction. Small dust grains, which are well coupled to the gas, are dragged upward with the upflowing gas, while large grains remain near the midplane of a disk. Intermediate--size grains float at several scale heights from the midplane in time-averated force balance between the downward gravity and the upward gas drag. For the minimum mass solar nebula at 1 AU, dust grains with size of 20 -- 40 $\\mu m$ float at 5-10 scale heights from the midplane. Considering the dependence on the distance from the central star, smaller-size grains remain only in an outer region of the disk, while larger-size grains are distributed in a broader region. This implies that the dust depletion is expected to take place in small-to-large and inside-out manners. We also discuss the implication of our result to the observat...

  1. Perspectives for the study of gas in protoplanetary disks and accretion/ejection phenomena in young stars with the near-IR spectrograph SPIROU at the CFHT

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, A; Delfosse, X

    2013-01-01

    Near-IR atomic and molecular transitions are powerful tools to trace the warm and hot gas in the circumstellar environment of young stars. Ro-vibrational transitions of H2 and H2O, and overtone transitions of CO at 2 micron centered at the stellar velocity trace hot (T~1500 K) gas in the inner few AU of protoplanetary disks. H2 near-IR lines displaying a blueshift of a few km/s probe molecular disk winds. H2 lines presenting blueshifts of hundreds of km/s reveal hot shocked gas in jets. Atomic lines such as the HeI line at 10830 A and the Hydrogen Paschen beta and Brakett gamma lines trace emission from accretion funnel flows and atomic disk winds. Bright forbidden atomic lines in the near-IR of species such as [Fe II], [N I], [S I], [S II], and [C I] trace atomic and ionized material in jets. The new near-IR high resolution spectrograph SPIROU planned for the Canada France Hawaii Telescope will offer the unique capability of combining high-spectral resolution (R~75000) with a large wavelength coverage (0.98 ...

  2. Perspectives for the study of gas in protoplanetary disks and accretion/ejection phenomena in young stars with the near-IR spectrograph SPIROU at the CFHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, A.; Bouvier, J.; Delfosse, X.

    2013-11-01

    Near-IR atomic and molecular transitions are powerful tools to trace the warm and hot gas in the circumstellar environment of young stars. Ro-vibrational transitions of H_2 and H_2O, and overtone transitions of CO at 2 μm centered at the stellar velocity trace hot (T˜ 1500 K) gas in the inner few AU of protoplanetary disks. H_2 near-IR lines displaying a blueshift of a few km/s probe molecular disk winds. H_2 lines presenting blueshifts of hundreds of km/s reveal hot shocked gas in jets. Atomic lines such as the HeI line at 10830 Å and the Hydrogen Paschen β and Brakett γ lines trace emission from accretion funnel flows and atomic disk winds. Bright forbidden atomic lines in the near-IR of species such as [Fe II], [N I], [S I], [S II], and [C I] trace atomic and ionized material in jets. The new near-IR high resolution spectrograph SPIROU planned for the Canada France Hawaii Telescope will offer the unique capability of combining high-spectral resolution (R˜75000) with a large wavelength coverage (0.98 to 2.35 μm) in one single exposure. This will provide us with the means of probing accretion funnel flows, winds, jets, and hot gas in the inner disk simultaneously. This opens the exiting possibility of investigating their combined behavior in time by the means of monitoring observations and systematic surveys. SPIROU will be a powerful tool to progress our understanding of the connexion between the accretion/ejection process, disk evolution, and planet formation.

  3. THE NONLINEAR OHM'S LAW: PLASMA HEATING BY STRONG ELECTRIC FIELDS AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE IONIZATION BALANCE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuzumi, Satoshi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: okuzumi@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-02-10

    The ionization state of the gas plays a key role in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of protoplanetary disks. However, the ionization state can depend on the gas dynamics, because electric fields induced by MHD turbulence can heat up plasmas and thereby affect the ionization balance. To study this nonlinear feedback, we construct an ionization model that includes plasma heating by electric fields and impact ionization by heated electrons, as well as charging of dust grains. We show that when plasma sticking onto grains is the dominant recombination process, the electron abundance in the gas decreases with increasing electric field strength. This is a natural consequence of electron-grain collisions whose frequency increases with the electron's random velocity. The decreasing electron abundance may lead to a self-regulation of MHD turbulence. In some cases, not only the electron abundance but also the electric current decreases with increasing field strength in a certain field range. The resulting N-shaped current-field relation violates the fundamental assumption of the non-relativistic MHD that the electric field is uniquely determined by the current density. At even higher field strengths, impact ionization causes an abrupt increase of the electric current as expected by previous studies. We find that this discharge current is multi-valued (i.e., the current-field relation is S-shaped) under some circumstances, and that the intermediate branch is unstable. The N/S-shaped current-field relations may yield hysteresis in the evolution of MHD turbulence in some parts of protoplanetary disks.

  4. The Thermal Regulation of Gravitational Instabilities in Protoplanetary Disks III. Simulations with Radiative Cooling and Realistic Opacities

    CERN Document Server

    Boley, A C; Durisen, R H; Cai, K; Pickett, M K; D'Alessio, P

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a fully three-dimensional radiative hydrodymanics simulation with realistic opacities for a gravitationally unstable 0.07 Msun disk around a 0.5 Msun star. We address the following aspects of disk evolution: the strength of gravitational instabilities under realistic cooling, mass transport in the disk that arises from GIs, comparisons between the gravitational and Reynolds stresses measured in the disk and those expected in an alpha-disk, and comparisons between the SED derived for the disk and SEDs derived from observationally determined parameters. The mass transport in this disk is dominated by global modes, and the cooling times are too long to permit fragmentation for all radii. Moreover, our results suggest a plausible explanation for the FU Ori outburst phenomenon.

  5. The pathways of C: from AGB stars, to the Interstellar Medium, and finally into the protoplanetary disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.

    2011-05-01

    The origin, and role of C in the formation of first solar system aggregates is described. Stellar grains evidence demonstrates that Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars were nearby to the solar nebula at the time of solar system formation. Such stars continue to burn H and He in shells that surround the C-O core. During their evolution, flashes occur in the He shell and the C, and O produced are eventually dredged up into the star's envelop and then to the stellar surface, and finally masively ejected to the interstellar medium (IM). Once in a molecular cloud, the electrophilicity of C makes this element reactable with the surrounding gas to produce different molecular species. Primitive meteorites, particularly these known as chondrites, preserved primeval materials of the disk. The abundances of short-lived radionuclides (SLN), inferred to have been present in the early solar system (ESS), are a constraint on the birth and early evolution of the solar system as their relatively short half lives do not allow the observed abundances to be explained by galactic chemical evolution processes. We present a model of a 6.5 solar masses star of solar metallicity that simultaneously match the abundances of SLNs inferred to have been present in the ESS by using a dilution factor of 1 part of AGB material per 300 parts of original solar nebula material, and taking into account a time interval between injection of SLNs and consolidation of chondrites equal to 0.53 Myr [2]. Such a polluting source does not overproduce 53Mn, as supernova models do, and only marginally affects isotopic ratios of stable elements. The AGB stars released O- and C-rich gas with important oxidizing implications to first solar system materials as recently detected in circumstellar environments [3]. REF: [1] Lada C.J. and Lada E.A. 2003. Ann. Rev. A&A. 41: 57; [2] Trigo-Rodriguez J.M. et al. 2009. MAPS 44: 627; [3] Decin L. et al. 2010. Nature 467: 64.

  6. The Effect of Protoplanetary Disk Cooling Times on the Formation of Gas Giant Planets by Gravitational Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2017-02-01

    Observational evidence exists for the formation of gas giant planets on wide orbits around young stars by disk gravitational instability, but the roles of disk instability and core accretion for forming gas giants on shorter period orbits are less clear. The controversy extends to population synthesis models of exoplanet demographics and to hydrodynamical models of the fragmentation process. The latter refers largely to the handling of radiative transfer in three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical models, which controls heating and cooling processes in gravitationally unstable disks, and hence dense clump formation. A suite of models using the β cooling approximation is presented here. The initial disks have masses of 0.091 M ⊙ and extend from 4 to 20 au around a 1 M ⊙ protostar. The initial minimum Toomre Q i values range from 1.3 to 2.7, while β ranges from 1 to 100. We show that the choice of Q i is equal in importance to the β value assumed: high Q i disks can be stable for small β, when the initial disk temperature is taken as a lower bound, while low Q i disks can fragment for high β. These results imply that the evolution of disks toward low Q i must be taken into account in assessing disk fragmentation possibilities, at least in the inner disk, i.e., inside about 20 au. The models suggest that if low Q i disks can form, there should be an as yet largely undetected population of gas giants orbiting G dwarfs between about 6 au and 16 au.

  7. H2CO and N2H+ in Protoplanetary Disks: Evidence for a CO-ice Regulated Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Chunhua; Wilner, David

    2013-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array observations of H2CO and N2H+ emission in the disks around the T Tauri star TW Hya and the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 at 2"-6" resolution and discuss the distribution of these species with respect to CO freeze-out. The H2CO and N2H+ emission toward HD 163296 does not peak at the continuum emission center that marks the stellar position but is instead significantly offset. Using a previously developed model for the physical structure of this disk, we show that the H2CO observations are reproduced if H2CO is present predominantly in the cold outer disk regions. A model where H2CO is present only beyond the CO snow line (estimated at a radius of 160 AU) matches the observations well. We also show that the average H2CO excitation temperature, calculated from two transitions of H2CO observed in these two disks and a larger sample of disks around T Tauri stars in the DISCS (the Disk Imaging Survey of Chemistry with SMA) program, is consistent with the CO freeze-out temperature of 20 K. ...

  8. Global models of turbulence in protoplanetary disks I. A cylindrical potential on a Cartesian grid and transport of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Lyra, W; Klahr, H; Piskunov, N

    2007-01-01

    We present global 3D MHD simulations of disks of gas and solids, aiming at developing models that can be used to study various scenarios of planet formation and planet-disk interaction in turbulent accretion disks. A second goal is to show that Cartesian codes are comparable to cylindrical and spherical ones in handling the magnetohydrodynamics of the disk simulations, as the disk-in-a-box models presented here develop and sustain MHD turbulence. We investigate the dependence of the magnetorotational instability on disk scale height, finding evidence that the turbulence generated by the magnetorotational instability grows with thermal pressure. The turbulent stresses depend on the thermal pressure obeying a power law of 0.24+/-0.03, compatible with the value of 0.25 found in shearing box calculations. The ratio of stresses decreased with increasing temperature. We also study the dynamics of boulders in the hydromagnetic turbulence. The vertical turbulent diffusion of the embedded boulders is comparable to the...

  9. Herschel/PACS Survey of protoplanetary disks in Taurus/ Auriga- Investigating the source of [OI] 63 μm line emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, G.{ö.}ran; Vacca, William

    2012-03-01

    GASPS is a large Herschel Open time Key project studying the evolution of gas in protoplanetary disks. We target about 240 nearby objects in Taurus and young associations covering stellar ages between 0.3 - 30 Myr. We use the PACS instrument to observe continuum and selected gas tracers, like [{O}{I}] at 63 and 145 μm, [{C}{II}] at 158 μm as well as several molecular lines like OH, H_2O and CO. The strongest line we see is the [{O}{I}] at 63 μm. However, although it is clear that [{O}{I}] 63 μm traces gas in the disk, it is also strong in jets and outflows. Using the sources observed so far (42 sources detected in both line and continuum of 75 sources observed in spectroscopy and 92 in photometry) in Taurus/Auriga we explore how the [{O}{I}] 63 μm line strength correlates with 63 μm continuum, disk mass, accretion rate, stellar luminosity, and strength of the [{O}{I}] 6300 Å emission for both outflow and non-outflow sources. We find a clear, tight correlation between the strength of the [{O}{I}] 63 μm line emission and 63 μm continuum for non-outflow sources and a weaker correlation for outflow sources. In outflow sources the line can be up to 20 times stronger than in non-outflow sources, indicating that the [{O}{I}] 63 μm emission from the outflow will dominate over the disk emission. For the few sources where we also detect the [{O}{I}] 145 μm line, we find line ratios of 145 to 63 μm of 0.04 - 0.05, suggesting optically thin lines originating from gas with a temperature of a few 100 K, which suggests that the emission comes from the inner part/surface layers of the disk or from the shock regions in the outflow.

  10. PAH emission from Herbig AeBe stars: Do hydrocarbons in proto-planetary disks have a unique aroma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Luke; Sloan, Greg

    2008-03-01

    Over half of the intermediate-mass young stellar objects in the Galaxy (e.g. Herbig AeBe stars or HAeBe) have high-contrast emission in the mid-infrared spectral features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) above the continuum produced by thermal emission from dust in the circumstellar disks. We have examined the PAH emission in detail for a sample of 19 HAeBe stars observed with the Spitzer IRS as part of the IRS Disks GTO program. Even with this relatively small sample, we have identified some trends that, should they survive in a larger sample of HAeBe stars, will allow us to infer large-scale disk geometry (both inner and outer) and the degree of photo-processing of organic molecular material in HAeBe disks. The bottom line of our work thus far is that HAeBe apparently have distinctive PAH spectra among the many other astronomical environments that are characterized by strong PAH emission. We therefore propose to apply our spectral analysis methods to an additional 57 HAeBe observed with the IRS and currently (or soon to be) available in the Spitzer archive. Our total sample of 76 HAeBe stars will allow closer scrutiny of the trends that we have identified in our empirical study and will also be the subject of a detailed disk modeling effort that will include the PAH emission.

  11. An oxygen-rich dust disk surrounding an evolved star in the Red Rectangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, LBFM; Waelkens, C; van Winckel, H; Molster, FJ; Tielens, AGGM; van Loon, JT; Morris, PW; Cami, J; Bouwman, J; de Koter, A; de Jong, T; de Graauw, T

    1998-01-01

    The Red Rectangle(1) is the prototype of a class of carbon-rich reflection nebulae surrounding low-mass stars in the final stages of evolution. The central star of this nebula has ejected most of its layers (during the red-giant phase), which now form the surrounding cloud, and is rapidly evolving t

  12. On the Ionisation Fraction in Protoplanetary Disks II: The Effect of Turbulent Mixing on Gas--phase Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, M; Ilgner, Martin; Richard P. Nelson

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the ionisation fraction in protostellar disk models using two different gas-phase chemical networks, and examine the effect of turbulent mixing by modelling the diffusion of chemical species vertically through the disk. The aim is to determine in which regions of the disk gas can couple to a magnetic field and sustain MHD turbulence. We find that the effect of diffusion depends crucially on the elemental abundance of heavy metals (magnesium) included in the chemical model. In the absence of heavy metals, diffusion has essentially no effect on the ionisation structure of the disks, as the recombination time scale is much shorter than the turbulent diffusion time scale. When metals are included with an elemental abundance above a threshold value, the diffusion can dramatically reduce the size of the magnetically decoupled region, or even remove it altogther. For a complex chemistry the elemental abundance of magnesium required to remove the dead zone is 10(-10) - 10(-8). We also find that diffusion...

  13. Confronting Standard Models of Proto--Planetary Disks With New Mid--Infrared Sizes from the Keck Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Monnier, John D; Sitko, Michael L; Russell, Ray W; Grady, Carol A; Day, Amanda N; Perry, R B; Harries, Tim J; Aarnio, Alicia N; Colavita, Mark M; Wizinowich, Peter L; Ragland, Sam; Woillez, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We present near and mid-infrared interferometric observations made with the Keck Interferometer Nuller and near-contemporaneous spectro-photometry from the IRTF of 11 well known young stellar objects, several observed for the first time in these spectral and spatial resolution regimes. With AU-level spatial resolution, we first establish characteristic sizes of the infrared emission using a simple geometrical model consisting of a hot inner rim and mid-infrared disk emission. We find a high degree of correlation between the stellar luminosity and the mid-infrared disk sizes after using near-infrared data to remove the contribution from the inner rim. We then use a semi-analytical physical model to also find that the very widely used "star + inner dust rim + flared disk" class of models strongly fails to reproduce the SED and spatially-resolved mid-infrared data simultaneously; specifically a more compact source of mid-infrared emission is required than results from the standard flared disk model. We explore t...

  14. Zombie Vortex Instability. II. Thresholds to Trigger Instability and the Properties of Zombie Turbulence in the Dead Zones of Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Philip S; Jiang, Chung-Hsiang; Barranco, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    In Zombie Vortex Instability (ZVI), perturbations excite critical layers in stratified, rotating shear flow (as in protoplanetary disks), causing them to generate vortex layers, which roll-up into anticyclonic zombie vortices and cyclonic vortex sheets. The process is self-sustaining as zombie vortices perturb new critical layers, spawning a next generation of zombie vortices. Here, we focus on two issues: the minimum threshold of perturbations that trigger self-sustaining vortex generation, and the properties of the late-time zombie turbulence on large and small scales. The critical parameter that determines whether ZVI is triggered is the magnitude of the vorticity on the small scales (and not velocity), the minimum Rossby number needed for instability is $Ro_{crit}\\sim0.2$ for $\\beta\\equiv N/\\Omega = 2$, where $N$ is the Brunt-V\\"ais\\"al\\"a frequency. While the threshold is set by vorticity, it is useful to infer a criterion on the Mach number, for Kolmogorov noise, the critical Mach number scales with Rey...

  15. TOWARD THE ASTRONOMICAL DETECTION OF THE PROTON-BOUND COMPLEX NN–HCO{sup +}: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SPECTRA OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C. [Department of Chemistry, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 (United States); Francisco, Joseph S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Lee, Timothy J., E-mail: rfortenberry@georgiasouthern.edu [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Proton-bound complexes have been hypothesized as further means of detecting the nitrogen molecule in the interstellar medium. The study of such complexes has largely been hindered by the necessary experimental setups utilized or by their difficulty in producing and/or analyzing computed potential energy surfaces. Here the NN–HCO{sup +} proton-bound complex is analyzed via quartic force fields (QFFs). While QFFs have produced meaningful results for other proton-bound complexes, they have been hindered by double-well potentials or flat potential surfaces. NN–HCO{sup +} is not affected by these constraints. This strongly dipolar (3.63 D) molecule can be observed rotationally unlike the more heavily analyzed OCHCO{sup +} and NNHNN{sup +} proton-bound complexes. Additionally, the large absorption feature corresponding to the proton motion, a hallmark of proton-bound complexes, is much higher in frequency at 2547.1 cm{sup −1}, changing the range of experimental observation for the bright frequency. NN–HCO{sup +} is hypothesized to be present in protoplanetary disks where N{sub 2}H{sup +} and CO are known. As such, it may help to influence the nitrogen budget of planet-forming astronomical regions.

  16. Standing on the shoulders of giants: Trojan Earths and vortex trapping in low mass self-gravitating protoplanetary disks of gas and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Lyra, W; Klahr, H; Piskunov, N

    2008-01-01

    Centimeter and meter sized solid particles in protoplanetary disks are trapped within long lived high pressure regions, creating opportunities for collapse into planetesimals and planetary embryos. We study the accumulations in the stable Lagrangian points of a giant planet, as well as in the Rossby vortices launched at the edges of the gap it carves. We employ the Pencil Code, tracing the solids with a large number of interacting Lagrangian particles, usually 100,000. For particles of 1 cm to 10 cm radii, gravitational collapse occurs in the Lagrangian points in less than 200 orbits. For 5 cm particles, a 2 Earth mass planet is formed. For 10 cm, the final maximum collapsed mass is around 3 Earth masses. The collapse of the 1 cm particles is indirect, following the timescale of depletion of gas from the tadpole orbits. In the edges of the gap vortices are excited, trapping preferentially particles of 30 cm radii. The rocky planet that is formed is as massive as 17 Earth masses, constituting a Super-Earth. By...

  17. Dust properties and disk structure of evolved protoplanetary disks in Cep OB2: Grain growth, settling, gas and dust mass, and inside-out evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Dullemond, Cornelis P; Patel, Nimesh; Juhász, Attila; Bouwman, Jeroen; Sturm, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer/IRS spectra of 31 TTS and IRAM/1.3mm observations for 34 low- and intermediate-mass stars in the Cep OB2 region. Including our previously published data, we analyze 56 TTS and the 3 intermediate-mass stars with silicate features in Tr 37 (~4 Myr) and NGC 7160 (~12 Myr). The silicate emission features are well reproduced with a mixture of amorphous (with olivine, forsterite, and silica stoichiometry) and crystalline grains (forsterite, enstatite). We explore grain size and disk structure using radiative transfer disk models, finding that most objects have suffered substantial evolution (grain growth, settling). About half of the disks show inside-out evolution, with either dust-cleared inner holes or a radially-dependent dust distribution, typically with larger grains and more settling in the innermost disk. The typical strong silicate features require nevertheless the presence of small dust grains, and could be explained by differential settling according to grain size, anomalous dust distr...

  18. A Significantly Low CO Abundance Toward the TW Hya Protoplanetary Disk: A Path to Active Carbon Chemistry?

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Cécile; Bergin, Edwin A; Qi, Chunhua; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter we report the CO abundance relative to H2 derived toward the circumstellar disk of the T-Tauri star TW Hya from the HD (1-0) and C18O (2-1) emission lines. The HD (1-0) line was observed by the Herschel Space Observatory Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer whereas C18O (2-1) observations were carried out with the Submillimeter Array at a spatial resolution of 2.8" x 1.9" (corresponding to 142 x 97 AU). In the disk's warm molecular layer (T>20 K) we measure a disk-averaged gas-phase CO abundance relative to H2 of $\\chi{\\rm(CO)}=(0.1-3)x10^{-5}$, substantially lower than the canonical value of $\\chi{\\rm(CO)}=10^{-4}$. We infer that the best explanation of this low $\\chi$(CO) is the chemical destruction of CO followed by rapid formation of carbon chains, or perhaps CO2, that can subsequently freeze-out, resulting in the bulk mass of carbon locked up in ice grain mantles and oxygen in water. As a consequence of this likely time-dependent carbon sink mechanism, CO may be an unreliable tracer...

  19. Observational Signatures of Planets in Protoplanetary Disks: Spiral Arms Observed in Scattered Light Imaging Can be Induced by Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruobing; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Rafikov, Roman R.; Stone, James M.

    2015-08-01

    Using 3D global hydro simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations, we study the appearance of density waves induced by giant planets in direct imaging observations at near-infrared wavelengths. We find that a 6{M}{{J}} planet in a typical disk around a 1{M}⊙ star can produce prominent and detectable spiral arms both interior and exterior to its orbit. The inner arms have (1) two well separated arms in roughly m = 2 symmetry, (2) exhibit ˜10°-15° pitch angles, (3) ˜180°-270° extension in the azimuthal direction, and (4) ˜ 150 % surface brightness enhancement, all broadly consistent with observed spiral arms in the SAO 206462 and MWC 758 systems. The outer arms cannot explain observations as they are too tightly wound given typical disk scale height. We confirm previous results that the outer density waves excited by a 1{M}{{J}} planet exhibit low contrast in the IR and are practically not detectable. We also find that 3D effects of the waves are important. Compared to isothermal models, density waves in adiabatic disks exhibit weaker contrast in surface density but stronger contrast in scattered light images, due to a more pronounced vertical structure in the former caused by shock heating and maybe hydraulic jump effect. To drive observed pairs of arms with an external companion on a circular orbit, a massive planet, possibly a brown dwarf, is needed at around [r˜ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 7, {PA}˜ 10^\\circ ] (position angle PA from north to east) in SAO 206462 and [r˜ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 6, {PA}˜ 10^\\circ ] in MWC 758. Their existence may be confirmed by direct imaging planet searches.

  20. Observational Signatures of Planets in Protoplanetary Disks: Spiral Arms Observed in Scattered Light Imaging Can be Induced by Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Ruobing; Rafikov, Roman; Stone, James

    2015-01-01

    Using 3D global hydro simulations coupled with radiative transfer calculations, we study the appearance of density waves induced by giant planets in direct imaging observations at near infrared wavelengths. We find that a 6 MJ planet in a typical disk around a 1 M_sun star can produce prominent and detectable spiral arms both interior and exterior to its orbit. The inner arms have (1) two well separated arms in roughly m=2 symmetry, (2) exhibit ~10-15 degrees pitch angles, (3) ~180-270 degrees extension in the azimuthal direction, and (4) ~150% surface brightness enhancement, all broadly consistent with observed spiral arms in the SAO 206462 and MWC 758 systems. The outer arms cannot explain observations as they are too tightly wound given typical disk scale height. We confirm previous results that the outer density waves excited by a 1 MJ planet exhibit low contrast in the IR and are practically not detectable. We also find that 3D effects of the waves are important. Compared to isothermal models, density wa...