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Sample records for surrounding protein environment

  1. Surface shapes and surrounding environment analysis of single- and double-stranded DNA-binding proteins in protein-DNA interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Juan; Sun, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Protein-DNA bindings are critical to many biological processes. However, the structural mechanisms underlying these interactions are not fully understood. Here, we analyzed the residues shape (peak, flat, or valley) and the surrounding environment of double-stranded DNA-binding proteins (DSBs) and single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) in protein-DNA interfaces. In the results, we found that the interface shapes, hydrogen bonds, and the surrounding environment present significant differences between the two kinds of proteins. Built on the investigation results, we constructed a random forest (RF) classifier to distinguish DSBs and SSBs with satisfying performance. In conclusion, we present a novel methodology to characterize protein interfaces, which will deepen our understanding of the specificity of proteins binding to ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) or dsDNA (double-stranded DNA). Proteins 2016; 84:979-989. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Characterizing the Microenvironment Surrounding Phosphorylated Protein Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Cai Fan; Xue-Gong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in various cellular processes. Due to its high complexity, the mechanism needs to be further studied. In the last few years, many methods have been contributed to this field, but almost all of them investigated the mechanism based on protein sequences around protein sites. In this study, we implement an exploration by characterizing the microenvironment surrounding phosphorylated protein sites with a modified shell model, and obtain some significant properties by the rank-sum test, such as the lack of some classes of residues, atoms, and secondary structures. Furthermore, we find that the depletion of some properties affects protein phosphorylation remarkably. Our results suggest that it is a meaningful direction to explore the mechanism of protein phosphorylation from microenvironment and we expect further findings along with the increasing size of phosphorylation and protein structure data.

  3. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, A. A.; Fares, R.; Jardine, M.; Moutou, C.; Donati, J.-F.

    2015-06-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e. the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the Solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD 46375b, HD 73256b, HD 102195b, HD 130322b and HD 179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9-8.0 × 10-13 M⊙ yr-1) and the wind properties at the position of the hot Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are supermagnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrounding these planets. Assuming planetary magnetic fields similar to Jupiter's, we estimate planetary magnetospheric sizes of 4.1-5.6 planetary radii. We also derive the exoplanetary radio emission released in the dissipation of the stellar wind energy. We find radio fluxes ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 mJy, which are challenging to be observed with present-day technology, but could be detectable with future higher sensitivity arrays (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Radio emission from systems having closer hot Jupiters, such as from τ Boo b or HD 189733b, or from nearby planetary systems orbiting young stars, are likely to have higher radio fluxes, presenting better prospects for detecting exoplanetary radio emission.

  4. On the environment surrounding close-in exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Jardine, M; Moutou, C; Donati, J -F

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanets in extremely close-in orbits are immersed in a local interplanetary medium (i.e., the stellar wind) much denser than the local conditions encountered around the solar system planets. The environment surrounding these exoplanets also differs in terms of dynamics (slower stellar winds, but higher Keplerian velocities) and ambient magnetic fields (likely higher for host stars more active than the Sun). Here, we quantitatively investigate the nature of the interplanetary media surrounding the hot Jupiters HD46375b, HD73256b, HD102195b, HD130322b, HD179949b. We simulate the three-dimensional winds of their host stars, in which we directly incorporate their observed surface magnetic fields. With that, we derive mass-loss rates (1.9 to 8.0 $\\times 10^{-13} M_{\\odot}$/yr) and the wind properties at the position of the hot-Jupiters' orbits (temperature, velocity, magnetic field intensity and pressure). We show that these exoplanets' orbits are super-magnetosonic, indicating that bow shocks are formed surrou...

  5. Mercury's interior, surface, and surrounding environment latest discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Pamela Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This SpringerBrief details the MESSENGER Mission, the findings of which present challenges to widely held conventional views and remaining mysteries surrounding the planet. The work answers the question of why Mercury is so dense, and the implications from geochemical data on its planetary formation. It summarizes imaging and compositional data from the terrestrial planet surface processes and explains the geologic history of Mercury.  It also discusses the lack of southern hemisphere coverage. Our understanding of the planet Mercury has been in a transitional phase over the decades since Mariner 10. The influx of new data from the NASA MESSENGER Mission since it was inserted into the orbit of Mercury in March of 2011 has greatly accelerated that shift. The combined compositional data of relatively high volatiles (S, K), relatively low refractories (Al, Ca), and low crustal iron, combined with an active, partially molten iron rich core, has major implications for Mercury and Solar System formation. From a s...

  6. Camouflaging in a complex environment--octopuses use specific features of their surroundings for background matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josef, Noam; Amodio, Piero; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-01-01

    Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to "blend in." To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiments show that when camouflaging, Octopus cyanea and O. vulgaris base their body patterns on selected features of nearby objects rather than attempting to match a large field of view. Such an approach enables the octopus to camouflage in partly occluded environments and to solve the problem of differences in appearance as a function of the viewing inclination of the observer.

  7. Camouflaging in a complex environment--octopuses use specific features of their surroundings for background matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Josef

    Full Text Available Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to "blend in." To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiments show that when camouflaging, Octopus cyanea and O. vulgaris base their body patterns on selected features of nearby objects rather than attempting to match a large field of view. Such an approach enables the octopus to camouflage in partly occluded environments and to solve the problem of differences in appearance as a function of the viewing inclination of the observer.

  8. Immersive Environments: Using Flow and Sound to Blur Inhabitant and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Luke

    Following in the footsteps of motif-reviving, aesthetically-focused Postmodern and deconstructivist architecture, purely computer-generated formalist contemporary architecture (i.e. blobitecture) has been reduced to vast, empty sculptural, and therefore, purely ocularcentric gestures for their own sake. Taking precedent over the deliberate relation to the people inhabiting them beyond scaleless visual stimulation, the forms become separated from and hostile toward their inhabitants; a boundary appears. This thesis calls for a reintroduction of human-centered design beyond Modern functionalism and ergonomics and Postmodern form and metaphor into architecture by exploring ecological psychology (specifically how one becomes attached to objects) and phenomenology (specifically sound) in an attempt to reach a contemporary human scale using the technology of today: the physiological mind. Psychologist Dr. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's concept of flow---when one becomes so mentally immersed within the current activity and immediate surroundings that the boundary between inhabitant and environment becomes transparent through a form of trance---is the embodiment of this thesis' goal, but it is limited to only specific moments throughout the day and typically studied without regard to the environment. Physiologically, the area within the brain---the medial prefrontal cortex---stimulated during flow experiences is also stimulated by the synthesis of sound, memory, and emotion. By exploiting sound (a sense not typically focused on within phenomenology) as a form of constant nuance within the everyday productive dissonance, the engagement and complete concentration on one's own interpretation of this sensory input affords flow experiences and, therefore, a blurred boundary with one's environment. This thesis aims to answer the question: How does the built environment embody flow? The above concept will be illustrated within a ubiquitous building type---the everyday housing tower

  9. The connection between AGN-driven dusty outflows and the surrounding environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, W.; Fabian, A. C.

    2016-04-01

    Significant reservoirs of cool gas are observed in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding galaxies. The CGM is also found to contain substantial amounts of metals and dust, which require some transport mechanism. We consider AGN (active galactic nucleus) feedback-driven outflows based on radiation pressure on dust. Dusty gas is ejected when the central luminosity exceeds the effective Eddington luminosity for dust. We obtain that a higher dust-to-gas ratio leads to a lower critical luminosity, implying that the more dusty gas is more easily expelled. Dusty outflows can reach large radii with a range of velocities (depending on the outflowing shell configuration and the ambient density distribution) and may account for the observed CGM gas. In our picture, dust is required in order to drive AGN feedback, and the preferential expulsion of dusty gas in the outflows may naturally explain the presence of dust in the CGM. On the other hand, the most powerful AGN outflow events can potentially drive gas out of the local galaxy group. We further discuss the effects of radiation pressure of the central AGN on satellite galaxies. AGN radiative feedback may therefore have a significant impact on the evolution of the whole surrounding environment.

  10. Uranium in the Surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River Environment (Chihuahua, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work. PMID:22536148

  11. Uranium in the Surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River Environment (Chihuahua, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marusia Rentería-Villalobos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work.

  12. Uranium in the surrounding of San Marcos-Sacramento River environment (Chihuahua, Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Cortés, Manuel Reyes; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Herrera, Eduardo; Montero-Cabrera, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    The main interest of this study is to assess whether uranium deposits located in the San Marcos outcrops (NW of Chihuahua City, Mexico) could be considered as a source of U-isotopes in its surrounding environment. Uranium activity concentrations were determined in biota, ground, and surface water by either alpha or liquid scintillation spectrometries. Major ions were analyzed by ICP-OES in surface water and its suspended matter. For determining uranium activity in biota, samples were divided in parts. The results have shown a possible lixiviation and infiltration of uranium from geological substrate into the ground and surface water, and consequently, a transfer to biota. Calculated annual effective doses by ingestion suggest that U-isotopes in biota could not negligibly contribute to the neighboring population dose. By all these considerations, it is concluded that in this zone there is natural enhancement of uranium in all environmental samples analyzed in the present work.

  13. The infrared and molecular environment surrounding the Wolf-Rayet star WR130

    CERN Document Server

    Cichowolski, S; Pineault, S; Noriega-Crespo, A; Arnal, E M; Flagey, N

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the molecular CO gas and mid/far infrared radiation arising from the environment surrounding the Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star 130. We use the multi-wavelength data to analyze the properties of the dense gas and dust, and its possible spatial correlation with that of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). We use CO J=1-0 data from the FCRAO survey as tracer of the molecular gas, and mid/far infrared data from the recent WISE and Herschel space surveys to study the dust continuum radiation and to identify a population of associated candidate YSOs. The spatial distribution of the molecular gas shows a ring-like structure very similar to that observed in the HI gas, and over the same velocity interval. The relative spatial distribution of the HI and CO components is consistent with a photo-dissociation region. We have identified and characterized four main and distinct molecular clouds that create this structure. Cold dust is coincident with the dense gas shown in the CO measurements. We have found several ...

  14. Heat Dissipation from Suspended Carbon Nanotubes to their Surrounding Gas Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, I. Kai; Pettes, Michael T.; Aykol, Mehmet; Shi, Li; Cronin, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    The assistance of gas molecules to dissipate heat in 5- μ m-long, electrical heated suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is observed by comparing the G band Raman phonon temperature profiles measured in different gas environments and in vacuum. The measurement results show that 50-60% of the heat generated in the CNT is carried away by its surrounding gas molecules. By analyzing the temperature profiles investigated in different gases, the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) between the gas molecules and the CNT can also be extracted. We find the TBC to be higher in carbon dioxide than in nitrogen, argon and helium. Moreover, we report another optical method to explore the heat spreading behavior on a longer suspended CNTs in air, in which one laser is used as a heat source while another laser is used as a local temperature probe. A fin-shape thermal transport model is applied to fit the exponentially decaying temperature profiles measured away from the heat source. These results yield a heat decay length and TBC for air to be around 6.5 μ m and 3 × 105 W/ m 2 K, respectively. I Kai Hsu et al. Journal of Applied Physics 2010, 108, (084307).

  15. Air pollution in surrounding environment of Sasa tailing dam – ambient air, plant dust and ceiling dust

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Danevski, Tome; Fidancev, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The current and recent activities in the lead-zinc Sasa mine or copper Bucim mine and flotation of galena and sphalerite or chalcopyrite, producing metals for market, are reason for possible troubles from tailing dam-pond and surrounding river, ambient air and plant or ceiling dust. This appearance is significant for the surrounding environment, but legislative and ecological law directive limited the quantity of these. In this paper will be present results of investigations from plant ...

  16. Molecular environment of the supernova remnant IC 443: Discovery of the molecular shells surrounding the remnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yang; Fang, Min; Yang, Ji [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhou, Ping; Chen, Yang [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-06-20

    We have carried out {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O observations toward the mixed morphology supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443. The observations cover a 1.°5 × 1.°5 area and allow us to investigate the overall molecular environment of the remnant. Some northern and northeastern partial shell structure of CO gas is around the remnant. One of the partial shells, about 5' extending beyond the northeastern border of the remnant's bright radio shell, seems to just confine the faint radio halo. On the other hand, some faint CO clumps can be discerned along the eastern boundary of the faint remnant's radio halo. Connecting the eastern CO clumps, the northeastern partial shell structures, and the northern CO partial shell, we can see that a half molecular ring structure appears to surround the remnant. The LSR velocity of the half-ring structure is in the range of –5 km s{sup –1} to –2 km s{sup –1}, which is consistent with that of the –4 km s{sup –1} molecular clouds. We suggest that the half-ring structure of the CO emission at V {sub LSR} ∼ –4 km s{sup –1} is associated with the SNR. The structures are possibly swept up by the stellar winds of SNR IC 443's massive progenitor. Based on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-IR database, 62 young stellar object (YSO) candidates are selected within the radio halo of the remnant. These YSO candidates concentrated along the boundary of the remnant's bright radio shell are likely to be triggered by the stellar winds from the massive progenitor of SNR IC 443.

  17. Site Cleanup of Radioactive Isotope Container Rinsing Pool and Surrounding Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive isotope container rinsing pool and surrounding environmental site was a place of fabrication of container, and package, transportation and storage of radioactive isotopes. A heavy contamination existed in this area for burying of some radioactive wastes.

  18. The controversy surrounding bone morphogenetic proteins in the spine: a review of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Joshua W; Blizzard, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins have been in use in spinal surgery since 2002. These proteins are members of the TGF-beta superfamily and guide mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts to form bone in targeted tissues. Since the first commercial BMP became available in 2002, a host of research has supported BMPs and they have been rapidly incorporated in spinal surgeries in the United States. However, recent controversy has arisen surrounding the ethical conduct of the research supporting the use of BMPs. Yale University Open Data Access (YODA) recently teamed up with Medtronic to offer a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of BMPs in spinal surgery. This review focuses on the history of BMPs and examines the YODA research to guide spine surgeons in their use of BMP in spinal surgery.

  19. Biomimetic Coacervate Environments for Protein Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah; McCall, Patrick; Srivastava, Samavayan; Kovar, David; Gardel, Margaret; Tirrell, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Living cells have evolved sophisticated intracellular organization strategies that are challenging to reproduce synthetically. Biomolecular function depends on both the structure of the molecule itself and the properties of the surrounding medium. The ability to simulate the in vivo environment and isolate biological networks for study in an artificial milieu without sacrificing the crowding, structure, and compartmentalization of a cellular environment, represent engineering challenges with tremendous potential to impact both biological studies and biomedical applications. Emerging experience has shown that polypeptide-based complex coacervation (electrostatically-driven liquid-liquid phase separation) produces a biomimetic microenvironment capable of tuning protein biochemical activity. We have investigated the effect of polypeptide-based coacervates on the dynamic self-assembly of cytoskeletal actin filaments. Coacervate materials are able to directly affect the nucleation and assembly dynamics. We observe effects that can be attributed to the length and chemical specificity of the encapsulating polypeptides, as well as the overall crowded nature of a polymer-rich coacervate phase. Coacervate-based systems are particularly attractive for use in biochemical assays because the compartmentalization afforded by liquid-liquid phase separation does not necessarily inhibit the transport of molecules across the compartmental barrier.

  20. Emissions of Escherichia coli Carrying Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Resistance from Pig Farms to the Surrounding Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli from food-producing animals to the surrounding environment has attracted much attention. To determine the emissions of ESBL-producing E. coli from pig farms to the surrounding environment, fecal and environmental samples from six pig farms were collected. In total, 119 ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated from feces, air samples, water, sludge and soil samples. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that the ESBL-producing isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics and isolates of different origin within the same farm showed similar resistance phenotypes. Both CTX-M and TEM ESBL-encoding genes were detected in these isolates. CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15 were the predominant ESBL genes identified. ESBL producers from feces and environmental samples within the same farm carried similar CTX-M types. The results indicated that the ESBL-producing E. coli carrying multidrug resistance could readily disseminate to the surrounding environment.

  1. Variable Ly alpha sheds light on the environment surrounding GRB 090426

    CERN Document Server

    Thöne, C C; Lazzati, D; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Fynbo, J P U; Christensen, L; Levan, A J; Aloy, M A; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Levesque, E M; Malesani, D; Milvang-Jensen, B; Roming, P W A; Tanvir, N R; Wiersema, K; Gladders, M; Wuyts, E; Dahle, H

    2011-01-01

    Long duration gamma-ray bursts are commonly associated with the deaths of massive stars. Spectroscopic studies using the afterglow as a light source provide a unique opportunity to unveil the medium surrounding it, probing the densest region of their galaxies. This material is usually in a low ionisation state and at large distances from the burst site, hence representing the normal interstellar medium in the galaxy. Here we present the case of GRB 090426 at z=2.609, whose optical spectrum indicates an almost fully ionised medium together with a low column density of neutral hydrogen. For the first time, we also observe variations in the Ly alpha absorption line. Photoionisation modeling shows that we are probing material from the vicinity of the burst (~80 pc). The host galaxy is a complex of two luminous interacting galaxies, which might suggest that this burst could have occurred in an isolated star-forming region outside its host galaxy created in the interaction of the two galaxies.

  2. The connection between AGN-driven dusty outflows and the surrounding environment

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, W

    2016-01-01

    Significant reservoirs of cool gas are observed in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) surrounding galaxies. The CGM is also found to contain substantial amounts of metals and dust, which require some transport mechanism. We consider AGN (active galactic nucleus) feedback-driven outflows based on radiation pressure on dust. Dusty gas is ejected when the central luminosity exceeds the effective Eddington luminosity for dust. We obtain that a higher dust-to-gas ratio leads to a lower critical luminosity, implying that the more dusty gas is more easily expelled. Dusty outflows can reach large radii with a range of velocities (depending on the outflowing shell configuration and the ambient density distribution) and may account for the observed CGM gas. In our picture, dust is required in order to drive AGN feedback, and the preferential expulsion of dusty gas in the outflows may naturally explain the presence of dust in the CGM. On the other hand, the most powerful AGN outflow events can potentially drive gas out of ...

  3. Quality evaluation of commercially sold table water samples in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria and surrounding environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Okorie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria (MOUAU and surrounding environments, table water of different brands is commercially hawked by vendors. To the best of our knowledge, there is no scientific documentation on the quality of these water samples. Hence this study which evaluated the quality of different brands of water samples commercially sold in MOUAU and surrounding environments. The physicochemical properties (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total hardness, dissolved oxygen, Cl, NO3, ammonium nitrogen (NH3N, turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS, Ca, Mg, Na and K of the water samples as indices of their quality were carried out using standard techniques. Results obtained from this study indicated that most of the chemical constituents of these table water samples commercially sold in Umudike environment conformed to the standards given by the Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS, World Health Organization (WHO and American Public Health Association (APHA, respectively, while values obtained for ammonium nitrogen in these water samples calls for serious checks on methods of their production and delivery to the end users.

  4. The impact of Mpererwe landfill in Kampala Uganda, on the surrounding environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwiganga, M.; Kansiime, F.

    Mpererwe landfill site receives solid wastes from the city of Kampala, Uganda. This study was carried out to assess and evaluate the appropriateness of the location and operation of this landfill, to determine the composition of the solid waste dumped at the landfill and the extent of contamination of landfill leachate to the neighbouring environment (water, soil and plants). Field observations and laboratory measurements were carried out to determine the concentration of nutrients, metals and numbers of bacteriological indicators in the landfill leachate. The landfill is not well located as it is close to a residential area (waste by scavenger birds, flies and vermin. Industrial and hospital wastes are disposed of at the landfill without pre-treatment. The concentration of variables (nutrients, bacteriological indicators, BOD and heavy metals) in the leachate were higher than those recommended in the National Environment Standards for Discharge of Effluent into Water and on Land. A composite sample that was taken 1500 m down stream indicated that the wetland considerably reduced the concentration of the parameters that were measured except for sulfides. Despite the fact that there was accumulation of metals in the sediments, the concentration has not reached toxic levels to humans. Soil and plant analyses indicated deficiencies of zinc and copper. The concentration of these elements was lowest in the leachate canal.

  5. Measuring and modelling the radiological impact of a phosphogypsum deposition site on the surrounding environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bituh, Tomislav; Petrinec, Branko; Skoko, Božena; Vučić, Zlatko; Marović, Gordana

    2015-03-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a waste product (residue) from the production of phosphoric acid characterized by technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. Croatia's largest PG deposition site is situated at the edge of Lonjsko Polje Nature Park, a sensitive ecosystem possibly endangered by PG particles. This field study investigates two aspects relevant for the general radiological impact of PG: risk assessment for the environment and risk assessment for occupationally exposed workers and local inhabitants. Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides ((238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (40)K) were measured in the PG (at the deposition site), soil, and grass samples (in the vicinity of the site). The ERICA Assessment Tool was used to estimate the radiological impact of PG particles on non-human biota of the Lonjsko Polje Nature Park. The average annual effective dose for occupationally exposed workers was 0.4 mSv which was within the worldwide range.

  6. The importance of tissue environment surrounding the tumor on the development of cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Fumihiro; Soda, Kuniyasu; Yamada, Shigeki; Tokutake, Yuka; Chohnan, Shigeru; Konishi, Fumio; Rikiyama, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between host factors and cancer cachexia was investigated. A single cell clone (clone 5 tumor) established from colon 26 adenocarcinoma by limiting dilution cell cloning methods was employed to eliminate the inoculation site-dependent differences in the composition of cell clones. Clone 5 tumor did not provoke manifestations of cancer cachexia when inoculated in subcutaneous tissue. However, when inoculated in the gastrocnemius muscle, the peritoneal cavity or the thoracic cavity of CD2F1 male mice, typical manifestations of cancer cachexia were observed in all groups of mice with intergroup variations. The blood levels of various cytokines, chemokines and hormones were increased but with wide intergroup variations. Analyses by stepwise multiple regression models revealed that serum interleukin-10 was the most significant factor associated with manifestations of cancer cachexia, suggesting the possible involvement of mechanisms similar to cancer patients suffering cancer cachexia. White blood cells, especially neutrophils, seemed to have some roles on the induction of cancer cachexia, because massive infiltrations and an increase in peripheral blood were observed in cachectic mice bearing clone 5 tumors. The amount of malonyl-CoA in liver correlated with manifestations of cancer cachexia, however the mRNA levels of spermidine/spermine N-1 acetyl transferase (SSAT) (of which overexpression has been shown to provoke manifestations similar to cancer cachexia) were not necessarily associated with cancer cachexia. These data suggest that the induction of cancer cachexia depends on the environment in which the tumor grows and that the infiltration of host immune cells into the tumor and the resultant increase in inflammation result in the production of cachectic factors, such as cytokines, leading to SSAT activation. Further, multiple factors likely mediate the mechanisms of cancer cachexia. Finally, this animal model was suitable for the investigation

  7. Is the protein surrounding the active site critical for hydrogen peroxide reduction by selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase? An ONIOM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Rajeev; Vreven, Thom; Frisch, Michael J; Morokuma, Keiji; Musaev, Djamaladdin G

    2006-07-13

    In this ONIOM(QM:MM) study, we evaluate the role of the protein surroundings in the mechanism of H2O2 reduction catalyzed by the glutathione peroxidase enzyme, using the whole monomer (3113 atoms in 196 amino acid residues) as a model. A new optimization scheme that allows the full optimization of transition states for large systems has been utilized. It was found that in the presence of the surrounding protein the optimized active site structure bears a closer resemblance to the one in the X-ray structure than that without the surrounding protein. H2O2 reduction occurs through a two-step mechanism. In the first step, the selenolate anion (E-Se(-)) formation occurs with a barrier of 16.4 kcal/mol and is endothermic by 12.0 kcal/mol. The Gln83 residue plays the key role of the proton abstractor, which is in line with the experimental suggestion. In the second step, the O-O bond is cleaved, and selenenic acid (R-Se-OH) and a water molecule are formed. The calculated barrier for this process is 6.0 kcal/mol, and it is exothermic by 80.9 kcal/mol. The overall barrier of 18.0 kcal/mol for H2O2 reduction is in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured barrier of 14.9 kcal/mol. The protein surroundings has been calculated to exert a net effect of only 0.70 kcal/mol (in comparison to the "active site only" model including solvent effects) on the overall barrier, which is most likely due to the active site being located at the enzyme surface.

  8. A battery model that enables consideration of realistic anisotropic environment surrounding an active material particle and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianke; Lu, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a model that enables consideration of the realistic anisotropic environment surrounding an active material particle by incorporating both diffusion and migration of lithium ions and electrons in the particle. This model makes it possible to quantitatively evaluate effects such as fracture on capacity degradation. In contrast, the conventional model assumes isotropic environment and only considers diffusion in the active particle, which cannot capture the effect of fracture since it would predict results contradictory to experimental observations. With the developed model we have investigated the effects of active material electronic conductivity, particle size, and State of Charge (SOC) swing window when fracture exists. The study shows that the low electronic conductivity of active material has a significant impact on the lithium ion pattern. Fracture increases the resistance for electron transport and therefore reduces lithium intercalation/deintercalation. Particle size plays an important role in lithium ion transport. Smaller particle size is preferable for mitigating capacity loss when fracture happens. The study also shows that operating at high SOC reduces the impact of fracture.

  9. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake.

  10. The association of Matrix Gla protein isomers with calcification in capsules surrounding silicone breast implants

    OpenAIRE

    Larry W. Hunter; Lieske, John C.; Tran, Nho V.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2011-01-01

    Implanted silicone medical prostheses induce a dynamic sequence of histologic events in adjacent tissue resulting in the formation of a fibrotic peri-prosthetic capsule. In some cases, capsular calcification occurs, requiring surgical intervention. In this study we investigated capsules from silicone gel-filled breast prostheses to test the hypothesis that this calcification might be regulated by the small vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix Gla protein (MGP), a potent inhibitor of arterial c...

  11. The Third Pole Environment Programme (TPE): A new base for the processes study of atmospheric physics and environment over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, with the most prominent and complicated terrain on the globe and an elevation of more than 4000 m on average above sea leave (msl), is often called the "Third Pole" due to its significance parallel with Antarctica and the Arctic. The exchange of energy, water vapor and some greenhouse gases between land surface and atmosphere over the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding regions play an important role in the Asian monsoon system, which in turn is a major component of both the energy and water cycles of the global climate system. Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and some international organizations, a Third Pole Environment (TPE) Research Platform (TPEP) is now implementing over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding region. The background of the establishment of the TPEP, the establishing and monitoring plan of long-term scale (5-10 years) of the TPEP will be shown firstly. Then the preliminary observational analysis results, such as the characteristics of land surface heat fluxes, CO2 flux and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning (diurnal variation, inter-monthly variation and vertical variation etc), aerosol optical properties between southern and northern sides of the Himalayas, the characteristics of atmospheric and soil variables, the structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) and the turbulent characteristics have also been shown in this study.

  12. The protein network surrounding the human telomere repeat binding factors TRF1, TRF2, and POT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Giannone

    Full Text Available Telomere integrity (including telomere length and capping is critical in overall genomic stability. Telomere repeat binding factors and their associated proteins play vital roles in telomere length regulation and end protection. In this study, we explore the protein network surrounding telomere repeat binding factors, TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 using dual-tag affinity purification in combination with multidimensional protein identification technology liquid chromatography--tandem mass spectrometry (MudPIT LC-MS/MS. After control subtraction and data filtering, we found that TRF2 and POT1 co-purified all six members of the telomere protein complex, while TRF1 identified five of six components at frequencies that lend evidence towards the currently accepted telomere architecture. Many of the known TRF1 or TRF2 interacting proteins were also identified. Moreover, putative associating partners identified for each of the three core components fell into functional categories such as DNA damage repair, ubiquitination, chromosome cohesion, chromatin modification/remodeling, DNA replication, cell cycle and transcription regulation, nucleotide metabolism, RNA processing, and nuclear transport. These putative protein-protein associations may participate in different biological processes at telomeres or, intriguingly, outside telomeres.

  13. The protein network surrounding the human telomere repeat binding factors TRF1, TRF2, and POT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, Richard J [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Shen, Rong-Fong [National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health; Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Liu, Yie [National Institute on Aging, Baltimore

    2010-01-01

    Telomere integrity (including telomere length and capping) is critical in overall genomic stability. Telomere repeat binding factors and their associated proteins play vital roles in telomere length regulation and end protection. In this study, we explore the protein network surrounding telomere repeat binding factors, TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 using dual-tag affinity purification in combination with multidimensional protein identification technology liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (MudPIT LC-MS/MS). After control subtraction and data filtering, we found that TRF2 and POT1 co-purified all six members of the telomere protein complex, while TRF1 identified five of six components at frequencies that lend evidence towards the currently accepted telomere architecture. Many of the known TRF1 or TRF2 interacting proteins were also identified. Moreover, putative associating partners identified for each of the three core components fell into functional categories such as DNA damage repair, ubiquitination, chromosome cohesion, chromatin modification/remodeling, DNA replication, cell cycle and transcription regulation, nucleotide metabolism, RNA processing, and nuclear transport. These putative protein-protein associations may participate in different biological processes at telomeres or, intriguingly, outside telomeres.

  14. The association of matrix Gla protein isomers with calcification in capsules surrounding silicone breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Larry W; Lieske, John C; Tran, Nho V; Miller, Virginia M

    2011-11-01

    Implanted silicone medical prostheses induce a dynamic sequence of histologic events in adjacent tissue resulting in the formation of a fibrotic peri-prosthetic capsule. In some cases, capsular calcification occurs, requiring surgical intervention. In this study we investigated capsules from silicone gel-filled breast prostheses to test the hypothesis that this calcification might be regulated by the small vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix Gla protein (MGP), a potent inhibitor of arterial calcification, or by Fetuin-A, a hepatocyte-derived glycoprotein also implicated as a regulator of pathologic calcification. Immunolocalization studies of explanted capsular tissue, using conformation-specific antibodies, identified the mineralization-protective γ-carboxylated MGP isomer (cMGP) within cells of uncalcified capsules, whereas the non-functional undercarboxylated isomer (uMGP) was typically absent. Both were upregulated in calcific capsules and co-localized with mineral plaque and adjacent fibers. Synovial-like metaplasia was present in one uncalcified capsule in which MGP species were differentially localized within the pseudosynovium. Fetuin-A was localized to cells within uncalcified capsules and to mineral deposits within calcific capsules. The osteoinductive cytokine bone morphogenic protein-2 localized to collagen fibers in uncalcified capsules. These findings demonstrate that MGP, in its vitamin K-activated conformer, may represent a pharmacological target to sustain the health of the peri-prosthetic tissue which encapsulates silicone breast implants as well as other implanted silicone medical devices.

  15. Hydrophobic environment is a key factor for the stability of thermophilic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiha, M Michael; Pathak, Manish C; Saraboji, Kadhirvel; Ortlund, Eric A; Gaucher, Eric A

    2013-04-01

    The stability of thermophilic proteins has been viewed from different perspectives and there is yet no unified principle to understand this stability. It would be valuable to reveal the most important interactions for designing thermostable proteins for such applications as industrial protein engineering. In this work, we have systematically analyzed the importance of various interactions by computing different parameters such as surrounding hydrophobicity, inter-residue interactions, ion-pairs and hydrogen bonds. The importance of each interaction has been determined by its predicted relative contribution in thermophiles versus the same contribution in mesophilic homologues based on a dataset of 373 protein families. We predict that hydrophobic environment is the major factor for the stability of thermophilic proteins and found that 80% of thermophilic proteins analyzed showed higher hydrophobicity than their mesophilic counterparts. Ion pairs, hydrogen bonds, and interaction energy are also important and favored in 68%, 50%, and 62% of thermophilic proteins, respectively. Interestingly, thermophilic proteins with decreased hydrophobic environments display a greater number of hydrogen bonds and/or ion pairs. The systematic elimination of mesophilic proteins based on surrounding hydrophobicity, interaction energy, and ion pairs/hydrogen bonds, led to correctly identifying 95% of the thermophilic proteins in our analyses. Our analysis was also applied to another, more refined set of 102 thermophilic-mesophilic pairs, which again identified hydrophobicity as a dominant property in 71% of the thermophilic proteins. Further, the notion of surrounding hydrophobicity, which characterizes the hydrophobic behavior of residues in a protein environment, has been applied to the three-dimensional structures of elongation factor-Tu proteins and we found that the thermophilic proteins are enriched with a hydrophobic environment. The results obtained in this work highlight the

  16. A Survey of Deepwater Horizon (DWH Oil-Degrading Bacteria from the Eastern Oyster Biome and its Surrounding Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eThomas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident led to the release of an estimated 794,936,474 liters of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico over an 85 day period in 2010, resulting in the contamination of the Gulf of Mexico waters, sediments, permeable beach sands, coastal wetlands and marine life. This study examines the potential response of the Eastern oyster’s microbiome to hydrocarbon contamination and compares it with the bacterial community responses observed from the overlaying water column and the oyster bed sediments. For this purpose, microcosms seeded with DWH crude oil were established and inoculated separately with oyster tissue (OT, mantle fluid (MF, overlaying water column (WC and sediments (S collected from Apalachicola Bay, FL. Shifts in the microbial community structure in the amended microcosms was monitored over a 3-month period using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer region analysis (ARISA, which showed that the microbiome of the oyster tissue and mantle fluid were more similar to the sediment communities than those present in the overlaying water column. This pattern remained largely consistent, regardless of the concentration of crude oil or the enrichment period. Additionally, 72 oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from the microcosms containing OT, MF, WC and S and identified using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequencing and compared by principal component analysis (PCA which clearly showed that the water column isolates were different to those identified from the sediment. Conversely, the oyster tissue and mantle fluid isolates clustered together; a strong indication that the oyster microbiome is uniquely structured relative to its surrounding environment. When selected isolates from the OT, MF, WC and S were assessed for their oil-degrading potential, we found that the DWH oil was biodegraded between 12%-42%, under the existing conditions.

  17. Basin-scale contributions of Cr, Ni and Co from Ortegal Complex to the surrounding coastal environment (SW Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prego, Ricardo; Caetano, Miguel; Ospina-Alvarez, Natalia; Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos

    2014-01-15

    The enrichment of Cr and Ni in the coastal zones is usually associated with anthropogenic sources such as the tanning, galvanization, ceramic, and cement industries. However, geological complexes of specific lithologic composition located near shorelines may act as natural sources of metals to the continental shelf. Cape Ortegal (SW Europe) is an ultramafic complex that has Cr, Ni and Co enriched in rocks due to the minerals chromite, chromospinel, gersdorfite and pentlandite. Thus, the hypothesis that this geological complex contributes to metal enrichment in Ortigueira and Barqueiro Rias and the adjacent continental shelf was tested. Chromium, Ni, and Co were determined in water and in suspended particulate matter of ria tributaries, rainfall, surface sediments, mussels, and algae. High contents of Cr (max. 1670mg·kg(-1)) and Ni (max. 1360 mg · kg(-1)) were found in the sediments surrounding Cape Ortegal and the Ortigueira Ria as a result of erosion of exposed cliffs. Dissolved Cr and Ni concentrations in fluvial waters were significantly higher in the rivers that crosses the Ortegal Complex, i.e. Lourido (0.47 μg Cr · L(-1); 9.4 μg Ni · L(-1)) and Landoi (0.37 μg Cr · L(-1); 4.3 μg Ni · L(-1)), in comparison with the nearby basin out of the complex influence (Sor River: fluvial contributions of Cr and Ni to the Ortigueira Ria were higher than fluxes into the Barqueiro Ria. Moreover, the increase in Cr and Ni in the rainfall in summer demonstrated the importance of the atmosphere pathway for introducing these elements into the aquatic environment. As a consequence, the contents of these metals in soft tissues and shell of mussels and algae from the Ortigueira Ria were higher than the organisms from Barqueiro Ria. Thus, geological complexes, such as the Cape Ortegal, located in an uncontaminated area, can increase the land-sea exchange of trace metals.

  18. A survey of deepwater horizon (DWH) oil-degrading bacteria from the Eastern oyster biome and its surrounding environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jesse C; Wafula, Denis; Chauhan, Ashvini; Green, Stefan J; Gragg, Richard; Jagoe, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The deepwater horizon (DWH) accident led to the release of an estimated 794,936,474 L of crude oil into the northern Gulf of Mexico over an 85 day period in 2010, resulting in the contamination of the Gulf of Mexico waters, sediments, permeable beach sands, coastal wetlands, and marine life. This study examines the potential response of the Eastern oyster's microbiome to hydrocarbon contamination and compares it with the bacterial community responses observed from the overlaying water column (WC) and the oyster bed sediments. For this purpose, microcosms seeded with DWH crude oil were established and inoculated separately with oyster tissue (OT), mantle fluid (MF), overlaying WC, and sediments (S) collected from Apalachicola Bay, FL, USA. Shifts in the microbial community structure in the amended microcosms was monitored over a 3-month period using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer region analysis, which showed that the microbiome of the OT and MF were more similar to the sediment communities than those present in the overlaying WC. This pattern remained largely consistent, regardless of the concentration of crude oil or the enrichment period. Additionally, 72 oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from the microcosms containing OT, MF, WC, and S and identified using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and compared by principal component analysis, which clearly showed that the WC isolates were different to those identified from the sediment. Conversely, the OT and MF isolates clustered together; a strong indication that the oyster microbiome is uniquely structured relative to its surrounding environment. When selected isolates from the OT, MF, WC, and S were assessed for their oil-degrading potential, we found that the DWH oil was biodegraded between 12 and 42%, under the existing conditions.

  19. Releases of phosphate fertilizer industry in the surrounding environment: investigation on heavy metals and polonium-210 in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, M; El Samrani, A G; Lartiges, B S; Kazpard, V; Saad, Z

    2010-01-01

    Distribution of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Mn concentrations and the activity of polonium-210 in the surrounding area of a phosphate fertilizer industry located on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea has been determined. Nineteen sampling sites were distributed around the industrial zone on a surface area of about 100,000 m2. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and Alpha spectroscopy were used to quantify the heavy elements and polonium-210, respectively. Investigation on a particle scale was conducted by TEM and SEM coupled to EDX and X-ray cartography to determine the nature of heavy elements carriers and their distribution. Heavy elements were mainly concentrated inside the particle size fraction Polonium-210 with an enrichment factor of about 56, showed the same behavior of the spatial distribution of the trace elements.

  20. How protein transmembrane segments sense the lipid environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyholm, T.K.M.; Özdirekcan, S.; Killian, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins have central roles in a vast number of vital cellular processes. A structural feature that most membrane proteins have in common is the presence of one or more R-helices with which they traverse the lipid bilayer. Because of the interaction with the surrounding lipids, the

  1. The influence of environment and energy macro surroundings on the development of tourism in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovicić, Dobrica

    2012-06-01

    Trying to anticipate the future of tourism may be a particularly fraught task. However, this does not mean that trying to predict the future of tourism is not without value. From a business perspective, examining the future enables firms to anticipate new business conditions and develop new strategies. From a destination perspective, reflections on the future enable consideration of how to maintain or improve the qualities of a destination. The paper is focused on an analysis of the impacts of the energy and ecological macro environments on tourism trends in 21st century. Mass international tourism has thrived on the abundant and cheap supply of energy, and this may be about to change as the world moves towards 'Peak Oil'. The resultant scarcity and high price of all energy fuels will produce changes in human activities, specifically in tourism. The basis of the health of the economy is the health of the environment. Therefore issues of global environmental changes are increasingly influencing consideration of trends in tourism. In this looming transitional era tourism needs to make some dramatic changes to harmonize with the new realities of a post-energy world affected additionaly by global warming and other environmental changes.

  2. A method for detergent-free isolation of membrane proteins in their local lipid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah C; Knowles, Tim J; Postis, Vincent L G; Jamshad, Mohammed; Parslow, Rosemary A; Lin, Yu-Pin; Goldman, Adrian; Sridhar, Pooja; Overduin, Michael; Muench, Stephen P; Dafforn, Timothy R

    2016-07-01

    Despite the great importance of membrane proteins, structural and functional studies of these proteins present major challenges. A significant hurdle is the extraction of the functional protein from its natural lipid membrane. Traditionally achieved with detergents, purification procedures can be costly and time consuming. A critical flaw with detergent approaches is the removal of the protein from the native lipid environment required to maintain functionally stable protein. This protocol describes the preparation of styrene maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer to extract membrane proteins from prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. Successful isolation of membrane proteins into SMA lipid particles (SMALPs) allows the proteins to remain with native lipid, surrounded by SMA. We detail procedures for obtaining 25 g of SMA (4 d); explain the preparation of protein-containing SMALPs using membranes isolated from Escherichia coli (2 d) and control protein-free SMALPS using E. coli polar lipid extract (1-2 h); investigate SMALP protein purity by SDS-PAGE analysis and estimate protein concentration (4 h); and detail biophysical methods such as circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (svAUC) to undertake initial structural studies to characterize SMALPs (∼2 d). Together, these methods provide a practical tool kit for those wanting to use SMALPs to study membrane proteins.

  3. Digestion of protein and protein gels in simulated gastric environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Q.; Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing attention to food digestion research, food scientists still need to better understand the underlying mechanisms of digestion. Most in vitro studies on protein digestion are based on experiments with protein solutions. In this study, the digestion of egg white protein and whey

  4. Quantum dynamics of electronic excitations in biomolecular chromophores: role of the protein environment and solvent

    CERN Document Server

    Gilmore, J; Gilmore, Joel; Kenzie, Ross H. Mc

    2006-01-01

    We consider continuum dielectric models as minimal models to understand the effect of the surrounding protein and solvent on the quantum dynamics of electronic excitations in a biological chromophore. For these models we describe expressions for the frequency dependent spectral density which describes the coupling of the electronic levels in the chromophore to its environment. We find the contributions to the spectral density from each component of the chromophore environment: the bulk solvent, protein, and water bound to the protein. The relative importance of each component is determined by the time scale on which one is considering the quantum dynamics of the chromophore. Our results provide a natural explanation and model for the different time scales observed in the spectral density extracted from the solvation dynamics probed by ultra-fast laser spectroscopy techniques such as the dynamic Stokes shift and three pulse photon echo spectroscopy. Our results can be used to define under what conditions the d...

  5. Characteristics of the road and surrounding environment in metropolitan shopping strips: association with the frequency and severity of single-vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Karen L; Newstead, Stuart V

    2014-01-01

    Modeling crash risk in urban areas is more complicated than in rural areas due to the complexity of the environment and the difficulty obtaining data to fully characterize the road and surrounding environment. Knowledge of factors that impact crash risk and severity in urban areas can be used for countermeasure development and the design of risk assessment tools for practitioners. This research aimed to identify the characteristics of the road and roadside, surrounding environment, and sociodemographic factors associated with single-vehicle crash (SVC) frequency and severity in complex urban environments, namely, strip shopping center road segments. A comprehensive evidence-based list of data required for measuring the influence of the road, roadside, and other factors on crash risk was developed. The data included a broader range of factors than those traditionally considered in accident prediction models. One hundred and forty-two strip shopping segments located on arterial roads in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia, were identified. Police-reported casualty data were used to determine how many SVC occurred on the segments between 2005 and 2009. Data describing segment characteristics were collected from a diverse range of sources; for example, administrative government databases (traffic volume, speed limit, pavement condition, sociodemographic data, liquor licensing), detailed maps, on-line image sources, and digital images of arterial roads collected for the Victorian state road authority. Regression models for count data were used to identify factors associated with SVC frequency. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with serious and fatal outcomes. One hundred and seventy SVC occurred on the 142 selected road segments during the 5-year study period. A range of factors including traffic exposure, road cross section (curves, presence of median), road type, requirement for sharing the road with other vehicle types (trams and bicycles

  6. Sulphonamide and trimethoprim resistance genes persist in sediments at Baltic Sea aquaculture farms but are not detected in the surrounding environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windi Indra Muziasari

    Full Text Available Persistence and dispersal of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs are important factors for assessing ARG risk in aquaculture environments. Here, we quantitatively detected ARGs for sulphonamides (sul1 and sul2 and trimethoprim (dfrA1 and an integrase gene for a class 1 integron (intI1 at aquaculture facilities in the northern Baltic Sea, Finland. The ARGs persisted in sediments below fish farms at very low antibiotic concentrations during the 6-year observation period from 2006 to 2012. Although the ARGs persisted in the farm sediments, they were less prevalent in the surrounding sediments. The copy numbers between the sul1 and intI1 genes were significantly correlated suggesting that class 1 integrons may play a role in the prevalence of sul1 in the farm sediments through horizontal gene transfer. In conclusion, the presence of ARGs may limit the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating fish illnesses, thereby causing a potential risk to the aquaculture industry. However, the restricted presence of ARGs at the farms is unlikely to cause serious effects in the northern Baltic Sea sediment environments around the farms.

  7. Large-scale proteomics differentiates cholesteatoma from surrounding tissues and identifies novel proteins related to the pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Britze

    Full Text Available Cholesteatoma is the growth of keratinizing squamous epithelium in the middle ear. It is associated with severe complications and has a poorly understood etiopathogenesis. Here, we present the results from extensive bioinformatics analyses of the first large-scale proteomic investigation of cholesteatoma. The purpose of this study was to take an unbiased approach to identifying alterations in protein expression and in biological processes, in order to explain the characteristic phenotype of this skin-derived tumor. Five different human tissue types (cholesteatoma, neck of cholesteatoma, tympanic membrane, external auditory canal skin, and middle ear mucosa were analyzed. More than 2,400 unique proteins were identified using nanoLC-MS/MS based proteomics (data deposited to the ProteomeXchange, and 295 proteins were found to be differentially regulated in cholesteatoma. Validation analyses were performed by SRM mass spectrometry. Proteins found to be up- or down-regulated in cholesteatoma were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and clustered into functional groups, for which activation state and associations to disease processes were predicted. Cholesteatoma contained high levels of pro-inflammatory S100 proteins, such as S100A7A and S100A7. Several proteases, such as ELANE, were up-regulated, whereas extracellular matrix proteins, such as COL18A1 and NID2, were under-represented. This may lead to alterations in integrity and differentiation of the tissue (as suggested by the up-regulation of KRT4 in the cholesteatoma. The presented data on the differential protein composition in cholesteatoma corroborate previous studies, highlight novel protein functionalities involved in the pathogenesis, and identify new areas for targeted research that hold therapeutic potential for the disease.

  8. Concept of Prostration in Traditional Malay Mosque Design to the Surrounding Environment with Case Study of Tranquerah Mosque in Malacca, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sanusi Hassan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses symbol of prostration concept in the traditional Malay mosque design in Malacca. The literature review covers definition of the keywords, which are sustainable elements, traditional mosque design in Malacca and prostration. The purpose is to identify factors that have significant roles in defining symbol of obedience concept based on Islamic perspectives in the traditional Malay mosque design. In this study, concept of obedience is defined as the acts of prostration to the surrounding environment. The level of prostration is measured based on five Islamic laws as follows; obligation (wajib, desirability (sunat, permissibility (harus, undesirability (makruh and prohibition (haram. These laws are used as measurable scale in the research analysis to measure the level of prostration in the mosque design. Tranquerah Mosque located in Tranquerah district, Malacca is selected as the case study. This mosque is the oldest mosque in Malacca and second oldest mosque in Malaysia. The analysis shows that the mosque’s symbol of prostration concept is influenced by the local climatic context with reference to comfort and health as the primary indicators. The design elements comprise pyramid roof form, tiered roof system, roof overhangs, roof ridge form, building orientation, open veranda and wall openings.

  9. Nanoparticle-protein complexes mimicking corona formation in ocular environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Son, Jin Gyeong; Dan, Ki Soon; Song, Sang Hoon; Lee, Tae Geol; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticles adsorb biomolecules to form corona upon entering the biological environment. In this study, tissue-specific corona formation is provided as a way of controlling protein interaction with nanoparticles in vivo. In the vitreous, the composition of the corona was determined by the electrostatic and hydrophobic properties of the associated proteins, regardless of the material (gold and silica) or size (20- and 100-nm diameter) of the nanoparticles. To control protein adsorption, we pre-incubate 20-nm gold nanoparticles with 5 selectively enriched proteins from the corona, formed in the vitreous, to produce nanoparticle-protein complexes. Compared to bare nanoparticles, nanoparticle-protein complexes demonstrate improved binding to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the vitreous. Furthermore, nanoparticle-protein complexes retain in vitro anti-angiogenic properties of bare nanoparticles. In particular, priming the nanoparticles (gold and silica) with tissue-specific corona proteins allows nanoparticle-protein complexes to exert better in vivo therapeutic effects by higher binding to VEGF than bare nanoparticles. These results suggest that controlled corona formation that mimics in vivo processes may be useful in the therapeutic use of nanomaterials in local environment.

  10. Expansion of the protein repertoire in newly explored environments: human gut microbiome specific protein families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Ellrott

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The microbes that inhabit particular environments must be able to perform molecular functions that provide them with a competitive advantage to thrive in those environments. As most molecular functions are performed by proteins and are conserved between related proteins, we can expect that organisms successful in a given environmental niche would contain protein families that are specific for functions that are important in that environment. For instance, the human gut is rich in polysaccharides from the diet or secreted by the host, and is dominated by Bacteroides, whose genomes contain highly expanded repertoire of protein families involved in carbohydrate metabolism. To identify other protein families that are specific to this environment, we investigated the distribution of protein families in the currently available human gut genomic and metagenomic data. Using an automated procedure, we identified a group of protein families strongly overrepresented in the human gut. These not only include many families described previously but also, interestingly, a large group of previously unrecognized protein families, which suggests that we still have much to discover about this environment. The identification and analysis of these families could provide us with new information about an environment critical to our health and well being.

  11. Effect of the environment on the protein dynamical transition: a neutron scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciaroni, Alessandro; Cinelli, Stefania; Onori, Giuseppe

    2002-08-01

    We performed an elastic neutron scattering investigation of the molecular dynamics of lysozyme solvated in glycerol, at different water contents h (grams of water/grams of lysozyme). The marked non-Gaussian behavior of the elastic intensity was studied in a wide experimental momentum transfer range, as a function of the temperature. The internal dynamics is well described in terms of the double-well jump model. At low temperature, the protein total mean square displacements exhibit an almost linear harmonic trend irrespective of the hydration level, whereas at the temperature T(d) a clear changeover toward an anharmonic regime marks a protein dynamical transition. The decrease of T(d) from approximately 238 K to approximately 195 K as a function of h is reminiscent of that found in the glass transition temperature of aqueous solutions of glycerol, thus suggesting that the protein internal dynamics as a whole is slave to the environment properties. Both T(d) and the total mean square displacements indicate that the protein flexibility strongly rises between 0.1 and 0.2h. This hydration-dependent dynamical activation, which is similar to that of hydrated lysozyme powders, is related to the specific interplay of the protein with the surrounding water and glycerol molecules.

  12. The impact of atmospheric dust deposition and trace elements levels on the villages surrounding the former mining areas in a semi-arid environment (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Bisquert, David; Matías Peñas Castejón, José; García Fernández, Gregorio

    2017-03-01

    It is understood that particulate matter in the atmosphere from metallic mining waste has adverse health effects on populations living nearby. Atmospheric deposition is a process connecting the mining wasteswith nearby ecosystems. Unfortunately, very limited information is available about atmospheric deposition surrounding rural metallic mining areas. This article will focus on the deposition from mining areas, combined with its impact on nearby rural built areas and populations. Particle samples were collected between June 2011 and March 2013. They were collected according to Spanish legislation in ten specialised dust collectors. They were located near populations close to a former Mediterranean mining area, plus a control, to assess the impact of mining waste on these villages. This article and its results have been made through an analysis of atmospheric deposition of these trace elements (Mn, Zn, As, Cd and Pb). It also includes an analysis of total dust flux. Within this analysis it has considered the spatial variations of atmospheric deposition flux in these locations. The average annual level of total bulk deposition registered was 42.0 g m-2 per year. This was higher than most of the areas affected by a Mediterranean climate or in semi-arid conditions around the world. Regarding the overall analysis of trace elements, the annual bulk deposition fluxes of total Zn far exceeded the values of other areas. While Mn, Cd and Pb showed similar or lower values, and in part much lower than those described in other Mediterranean mining areas. This study confirmed some spatial variability of dust and trace elements, contained within the atmospheric deposition. From both an environmental and a public health perspective, environmental managers must take into account the cumulative effect of the deposition of trace elements on the soil and air quality around and within the villages surrounding metallic mining areas.

  13. Environment-sensitive amphiphilic fluorophore for selective sensing of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Bimlesh; Das, Gopal

    2011-04-01

    Here we report the selective sensing of BSA (bovine serum albumin) by 8-(alkoxy)quinoline-based fluorescent probes, via non-covalent interactions. The weak fluorescence of these probes in aqueous solution showed a dramatic increase in quantum yield and lifetime upon binding with BSA, while the responses to various other proteins/enzymes used were negligible under similar experimental conditions. The emission of the probe is affected by the interplay with BSA but not with tryptophan amino acid suggesting that the microenvironment created by the macromolecule induces some change in their excited-state properties. Binding site assignment by a known site-selective binding ligand enabled us to conclude that the compounds predominantly bind at site I of BSA. The changes in fluorescence intensity and the position of emission maxima of compounds in presence of BSA along with the increase in steady state anisotropy values well reflect the nature of binding and location of the probe inside the protein environment. Compounds interact with BSA efficiently and exhibit site selectivity and thus have the potentiality to serve as an efficient and selective sensor of protein.

  14. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Tomita, L Y; Cecchini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide.

  15. Identification of Environment Chase in Surround of Sermo Reservoir; and the Influence Possibility for Function and at the Age of Reservoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarmadji Sudarmadji

    2004-01-01

    materials from land slide occuring around the reservoir; due to distruction of land in constructing the relatively new ring-road close to the shore line of the reservoir: Of course, the sediment is also coming from rivers entering die reservoir. Sermo reservoir is a relatively young reservoir; the early observation of environmental changes of the reservoir could hopely be used as indicator to study ecological changes of the area within and around of the reservoir; and could be used as a comparison to other reservoirs, as well as basic environmental management of the reservoir and its surrounding.

  16. Characterization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the environment surrounding secondary copper and aluminum metallurgical facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Li, Changliang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70-178, 8.23-7520 and 152-4190 pg/m(3), respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF SALMONELLA ISOLATED FROM CARCASSES, PROCESSING FACILITIES AND THE ENVIRONMENT SURROUNDING SMALL SCALE POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSES IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotinun, Suwit; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Unger, Fred; Tadee, Pakpoom; Patchanee, Prapas

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella is a major food-borne pathogen worldwide, including Thai- land, and poultry meat plays a role as a vehicle for the spread of the disease from animals to humans. The prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella isolated from 41 small scale poultry slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined during July 2011 through May 2012. Salmonella's prevalence in live poultry, car- casses, waste water, and soil around processing plants were 3.2%, 7.3%, 22.0% and 29.0%, respectively. Eighteen different serotypes were identified, the most common being Corvallis (15.2%), followed by Rissen (13.9%), Hadar (12.7%), Enteritidis (10.1%), [I. 4,5,12:i:-] (8.8%), Stanley (8.8%), and Weltevreden (8.8%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed that 68.4% of the Salmonella spp were resistant to at least one antimicrobial while 50.6% showed multiple drug resis- tance (MDR). Specifically, 44.3% of Salmonella were resistant to nalidixic acid, followed by streptomycin (41.8%), ampicillin (34.2%), tetracycline (34.2%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (20.3%). Salmonella contamination was found in processing lines, carcasses, and in the environment around the processing sta- tions. These findings indicate that improving hygiene management in small scale poultry slaughterhouses as well as prudent use of antimicrobial drugs is urgently needed if Salmonella contamination is to be reduced.

  18. The location of protein S8 and surrounding elements of 16S rRNA in the 70S ribosome from combined use of directed hydroxyl radical probing and X-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, L; Culver, G M; Yusupova, G Z; Cate, J H; Yusupov, M M; Noller, H F

    2000-05-01

    Ribosomal protein S8, which is essential for the assembly of the central domain of 16S rRNA, is one of the most thoroughly studied RNA-binding proteins. To map its surrounding RNA in the ribosome, we carried out directed hydroxyl radical probing of 16S rRNA using Fe(II) tethered to nine different positions on the surface of protein S8 in 70S ribosomes. Hydroxyl radical-induced cleavage was observed near the classical S8-binding site in the 620 stem, and flanking the other S8-footprinted regions of the central domain at the three-helix junction near position 650 and the 825 and 860 stems. In addition, cleavage near the 5' terminus of 16S rRNA, in the 300 region of its 5' domain, and in the 1070 region of its 3'-major domain provide information about the proximity to S8 of RNA elements not directly involved in its binding. These data, along with previous footprinting and crosslinking results, allowed positioning of protein S8 and its surrounding RNA elements in a 7.8-A map of the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome. The resulting model is in close agreement with the extensive body of data from previous studies using protein-protein and protein-RNA crosslinking, chemical and enzymatic footprinting, and genetics.

  19. Investigation of Arsenic Pollution in Surrounding Environment of the Phosphate Mine%磷矿周围环境砷污染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万洁妤; 施云刚; 吴荣华; 李进国; 翁林; 艾淼; 欧德渊

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the arsenic pollution and the enrichment regularity in Kan-yang arsenic mine area in Guizhou,to provide theoretical basis of researching and grasping the food safety in live-stock around the phosphate mine.All samples were determined with method of atomic absorption spectrophotome-try.The results showed that the highest content of arsenic in the environment is in water,followed by cabbage, soil,rice,corn,then grasses.The peppers and radishes were not detected for arsenic;The arsenic accumulation from high to low in chicken tissues is as follows:kidney,lung,heart,liver,spleen,muscle;The arsenic accumu-lation from high to low in duck tissues is as follows:kidney,liver,lung,muscle,spleen,heart.The arsenic accu-mulation from high to low in swine tissues is as follows:intestine,kidney,liver,spleen and the heart.Lung and muscle were not detected for arsenic.The results indicated that the serious arsenic pollution exists in livestock a-round the phosphate mine.%调查磷矿周围环境和畜禽组织砷含量,为掌握磷矿区周围畜禽产品安全提供依据。采用原子吸收光谱法进行测定。结果表明,环境中砷含量从高到低依次为水体、白菜、土壤、大米、玉米、牧草,而辣椒和萝卜未检出砷;鸡内脏及肌肉砷含量从高到低依次为肾脏、肺脏、心脏、肝脏、脾脏、肌肉;鸭内脏及肌肉砷含量从高到低依次为肾脏、肝脏、肺脏、肌肉、脾脏、心脏;猪内脏及肌肉砷含量从高到低依次为肠、肾脏、肝脏、脾脏,而心脏、肺脏和肌肉未检出。说明磷矿周围饲养的畜禽存在砷污染现象。

  20. Impact of Huangshigang District School Surrounding Community Ecological Environment to Build Healthy Classroom%黄石港区学校周边社区生态环境对构建健康课堂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玉平

    2015-01-01

    社区生态环境是物质环境和精神环境的总和,良好的社区生态环境有利于净化师生的心灵、有利于素质教育的开展、有利于规范师生的心理和行为习惯,也有利于良好师生关系、生生关系的形成。相反,不良的社区生态环境容易扰乱师生的心境、诱发青少年不良的行为习惯,容易使学生形成不良的思想道德品质,也不利于良好师生关系的构建。通过了解黄石港区部分学校周边社区生态环境的现状以及对构建健康课堂的影响,笔者提出了构建黄石港区学校周边社区生态环境的一些思考。%Community ecological environment is the sum of the physical environment and the spiritual environment, good community ecological environment conducive to purify the hearts of teachers and students, contributing to the de-velopment of quality education, teachers and students in favor of standardized psychological and behavior, but also con-ducive to good teacher-student relationship form life and relationships. Conversely, poor ecological community of tea-chers and students easily disrupt mood, induced bad teen behavior, easy for students to form a poor moral quality, is not conducive to building a good relationship between teachers and students. By understanding the current situation surro-unding community school district Huangshigang ecological environment as well as on the construction of part of the health class, I made some thinking to build schools in the districts surrounding communities Huangshigang ecological environment.

  1. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  2. Influence of Sequence Changes and Environment on Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Amrita Mohan; Uversky, Vladimir N.; Predrag Radivojac

    2009-01-01

    Author Summary Intrinsically disordered proteins, proteins that exist as conformational ensembles without time-invariant residue positions, have emerged as an important and common class of proteins in all kingdoms of life. Disordered proteins are characterized by distinct amino acid preferences, distinct mechanisms of binding, distinct substitution patterns and rates of evolution, and functional roles predominantly related to signaling and regulation. In recent years, disordered proteins have...

  3. iTRAQ analysis of hepatic proteins in free-living Mus spretus mice to assess the contamination status of areas surrounding Doñana National Park (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril, Nieves; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Michán, Carmen; Pueyo, Carmen; López-Barea, Juan, E-mail: bb1lobaj@uco.es

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to develop and integrate new -omics tools that would be applicable to different ecosystem types for a technological updating of environmental evaluations. We used a 2nd-generation (iTRAQ-8plex) proteomic approach to identify/quantify proteins differentially expressed in the liver of free-living Mus spretus mice from Doñana National Park or its proximities. Mass spectrometry was performed in an LTQ Orbitrap system for iTRAQ reporter ion quantitation and protein identification using a Mus musculus database as reference. A prior IEF step improved the separation of the complex peptide mixture. Over 2000 identified proteins were altered, of which 118 changed by ≥ 2.5-fold in mice from at least two problem sites. Part of the results obtained with the iTRAQ analysis was confirmed by Western blot. Over 75% of the 118 proteins were upregulated in animals captured at polluted sites and only 16 proteins were downregulated. Upregulated proteins were involved in stress response; cell proliferation and apoptosis; signal transduction; metastasis or tumour suppression; xenobiotic export or vesicular trafficking; and metabolism. The downregulated proteins, all potentially harmful, were classified as oncoproteins and proteins favouring genome instability. The iTRAQ results presented here demonstrated that the survival of hepatic cells is compromised in animals living at polluted sites, which showed deep alterations in metabolism and the signalling pathways. The identified proteins may be useful as biomarkers of environmental pollution and provide insight about the metabolic pathways and/or physiological processes affected by pollutants in DNP and its surrounding areas. - Highlights: • iTRAQ quantitation was used for the first time to monitor a wildlife reserve • Over 2,000 proteins with altered expression were identified in problem Doñana sites • Of them, 118 changed over 2.5-fold in, at least, two problem sites • Upregulation of protective proteins

  4. Quantification and Classification of E. coli Proteome Utilization and Unused Protein Costs across Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Brien, Edward J.; Utrilla, Jose; Palsson, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The costs and benefits of protein expression are balanced through evolution. Expression of un-utilized protein (that have no benefits in the current environment) incurs a quantifiable fitness costs on cellular growth rates; however, the magnitude and variability of un-utilized protein expression...... and utility of the proteome on a per gene basis. We show that nearly half of the proteome mass is unused in certain environments and accounting for the cost of this unused protein expression explains >95% of the variance in growth rates of Escherichia coli across 16 distinct environments. Furthermore...... in natural settings is unknown, largely due to the challenge in determining environment-specific proteome utilization. We address this challenge using absolute and global proteomics data combined with a recently developed genome-scale model of Escherichia coli that computes the environment-specific cost...

  5. Quantification and Classification of E. coli Proteome Utilization and Unused Protein Costs across Environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J O'Brien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of protein expression are balanced through evolution. Expression of un-utilized protein (that have no benefits in the current environment incurs a quantifiable fitness costs on cellular growth rates; however, the magnitude and variability of un-utilized protein expression in natural settings is unknown, largely due to the challenge in determining environment-specific proteome utilization. We address this challenge using absolute and global proteomics data combined with a recently developed genome-scale model of Escherichia coli that computes the environment-specific cost and utility of the proteome on a per gene basis. We show that nearly half of the proteome mass is unused in certain environments and accounting for the cost of this unused protein expression explains >95% of the variance in growth rates of Escherichia coli across 16 distinct environments. Furthermore, reduction in unused protein expression is shown to be a common mechanism to increase cellular growth rates in adaptive evolution experiments. Classification of the unused protein reveals that the unused protein encodes several nutrient- and stress- preparedness functions, which may convey fitness benefits in varying environments. Thus, unused protein expression is the source of large and pervasive fitness costs that may provide the benefit of hedging against environmental change.

  6. DECK: Distance and environment-dependent, coarse-grained, knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakser Ilya A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational approaches to protein-protein docking typically include scoring aimed at improving the rank of the near-native structure relative to the false-positive matches. Knowledge-based potentials improve modeling of protein complexes by taking advantage of the rapidly increasing amount of experimentally derived information on protein-protein association. An essential element of knowledge-based potentials is defining the reference state for an optimal description of the residue-residue (or atom-atom pairs in the non-interaction state. Results The study presents a new Distance- and Environment-dependent, Coarse-grained, Knowledge-based (DECK potential for scoring of protein-protein docking predictions. Training sets of protein-protein matches were generated based on bound and unbound forms of proteins taken from the DOCKGROUND resource. Each residue was represented by a pseudo-atom in the geometric center of the side chain. To capture the long-range and the multi-body interactions, residues in different secondary structure elements at protein-protein interfaces were considered as different residue types. Five reference states for the potentials were defined and tested. The optimal reference state was selected and the cutoff effect on the distance-dependent potentials investigated. The potentials were validated on the docking decoys sets, showing better performance than the existing potentials used in scoring of protein-protein docking results. Conclusions A novel residue-based statistical potential for protein-protein docking was developed and validated on docking decoy sets. The results show that the scoring function DECK can successfully identify near-native protein-protein matches and thus is useful in protein docking. In addition to the practical application of the potentials, the study provides insights into the relative utility of the reference states, the scope of the distance dependence, and the coarse-graining of

  7. Influenza H5N1 Virus of Birds Surrounding H5N1 Human Cases Have Specific Characteristics on the Matrix Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI LUH PUTU INDI DHARMAYANTI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The H5N1 influenza virus in Indonesia has caused more than 100 people died due to the virus infections. Cases in humans were mostly due to the virus spread from the infected birds. This study characterized molecularly the H5N1 virus from birds around the H5N1 infection cases in humans in Indonesia. Result from this study revealed that in several cases, waterfowl species could become the source of H5N1 infections in human. We found that the one of six viruses used in this study probably was a first antigenic shift virus in Indonesia. This study shows that the AI viruses isolated from birds around humans infected by H5N1 virus has specific characteristics namely the presence of several amino acid substitutions especially on the M1 and M2 proteins. The substitutions are similar in most of H5N1 human cases in Indonesia.

  8. Investigation of Mercury Pollution in Surrounding Environment of Mercury Mine%汞矿周围环境与动植物汞污染情况的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施云刚; 李秀富; 万洁妤; 欧德渊

    2014-01-01

    To understand the mercury pollution and the enrichment regularity in Wanshan mercury miner ar-ea in Guizhou,this paper researched the mercury contents in grains,vegetables,soil,water and livestock in surrounding atea of mercury mine.The results showed that the highest content of mercury in the environ-ment is the soil,followed by grass,cabbage,rice,corn,radishes;The mercury accumulation in pigs is as follows:muscle>kidney>heart>liver> lung>spleen;The mercury accumulation in cattle is as follows:muscle>kidney>liver>spleen>lung>heart;The mercury accumulation in sheep is as follows:muscle>liver> kidney > lung> spleen> heart.The content of mercury in poultry is not out of limits.The result showed that the mercury accumulation of muscle,kidney and liver of livestock is severely out of limits, which indicates that the serious food safety problems is exist in livestock around mercury mine.%以汞矿周围环境和畜禽为研究对象,调查汞含量和富集规律。结果表明,环境中除水体外,其余测定值均高于国家限量值。环境中汞含量最高的为土壤,其次为牧草、白菜、大米、玉米、萝卜;猪体内汞蓄积量为肌肉>肾脏>心脏>肝脏>肺脏>脾脏;牛体内汞蓄积量为肌肉>肾脏>肝脏>脾脏>肺脏>心脏;羊体内汞蓄积量为肌肉>肝脏>肾脏>肺脏>脾脏>心脏;家禽未见超标现象。本研究结果表明,家畜肌肉、肾脏、肝脏中汞蓄积量严重超过国家限量值,汞矿周围饲养的家畜存在严重的食品安全问题。

  9. 新城金矿深部热环境分析及围岩温度测试%Analysis on Deep Thermal Environment and Temperature Measurement of Surrounding Rock in Xincheng Gold Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 朱兆文; 朱万成; 刘洪磊; 侯晨

    2016-01-01

    随着开采深度的增加,新城金矿已经进入深部开采阶段,逐步面临高温热害问题。鉴于此,开展地下深部热环境分析,分析矿区主要热源及其形成机理,应用工程热力学手段量测不同开采深度下巷道风流温度、湿度以及风速等环境因素。采用深孔测量法测定不同深度的围岩温度,研究地温梯度变化规律。测试结果表明,巷道风温、水温均随着开采深度的增加而增大,主要生产中段相对湿度在80% RH以上,矿区恒温带温度为23℃,正常地温梯度为0.018℃/m,调热圈半径为17~18 m。该结果为有效控制井下作业场所的热环境状况以及热害防治研究提供了基础数据。%With the increase of mining depth,Xincheng Gold Mine has entered the stage of deep mining,and is gradually facing with the problem of high temperature stress. In this regard,an analysis of deep underground thermal environment was conducted,the main heat sources and the formation mechanism in the mining area were analyzed,environmental factors such as air temperature,humidity and wind speed of different mining depths of roadways were measured by means of Engineering Ther-modynamics. The temperature of surrounding rock in different depths was determined by Deep Hole Measurement Method and the variation regularity of geothermal gradient was studied. Test results show that the air temperature and water temperature of the roadways increase with the increasing of mining depth,the relative humidity of main mining levels are above 80% RH,the temperature of underground constant temperature zone in the mine area is 23 ℃, the normal geothermal gradient is 0. 018 ℃/m,and the radius of heat adjustment circle is 17~18 m,all these will provide basic data for the effective control of thermal environment conditions in underground workplaces and the prevention and treatment of thermal hazard.

  10. Energy transfer at heterogeneous protein-protein interfaces to investigate the molecular behaviour in the crowding environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Chikashi

    2017-03-01

    Investigation of the behaviour of proteins in crowded environments is crucial for understanding the role of proteins in biological environments. In this study, the behaviour of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in crowded (highly concentrated) environments was investigated using time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy as a model system. By using energy transfer as a molecular ruler, the crowding effect was clearly observed in the time resolved spectra. In addition, by using both time resolved anisotropy measurement and Raman spectroscopy, more detail insights from conformational and dynamic points of view were described. Consequently, it was revealed that in the highly concentrated solution, most of the BSA molecules are in the fast-reversible oligomeric state and the association at the "hard" and "soft" interfaces between protein surfaces occurred in a highly crowded environment with the aid of a charge-charge and short-range attractive interface. From both the conformational and dynamic aspects, the detail spectroscopic understanding of the behaviour of BSA in the crowding environment was obtained.

  11. Structural fluctuations and thermal stability of proteins in crowded environments: effects of the excluded volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyk, Anna; Wojciechowski, Michał; Cieplak, Marek

    2016-12-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations for a simple coarse-grained model of a protein placed inside of a softly repulsive sphere of radius R. The protein is surrounded either by a number of same molecules or a number of spherical crowding particles that immitate other biomolecules such as the osmolytes. The two descriptions are shown to lead to distinct results when testing thermal stability as assessed by studying the unfolding times as a function of temperature. We consider three examples of proteins and show that crowding increases the thermal stability provided the inter-protein or protein-crowder interactions are repulsive. On the other hand, an introduction of attraction between the proteins is found to destabilize the proteins. Crowding by repulsive crowder particles is seen to enhance the RMSF in certain exposed regions. The effect grows on decreasing the size of the crowding particles. In the absence of crowding the RMSF anticorrelates with the coordination number related to the residue-residue interaction.

  12. Mutations of photosystem II D1 protein that empower efficient phenotypes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under extreme environment in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardi, Maria Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Lambreva, Maya D; Antonacci, Amina; Pastorelli, Sandro; Bertalan, Ivo; Johanningmeier, Udo; Mattoo, Autar K

    2013-01-01

    Space missions have enabled testing how microorganisms, animals and plants respond to extra-terrestrial, complex and hazardous environment in space. Photosynthetic organisms are thought to be relatively more prone to microgravity, weak magnetic field and cosmic radiation because oxygenic photosynthesis is intimately associated with capture and conversion of light energy into chemical energy, a process that has adapted to relatively less complex and contained environment on Earth. To study the direct effect of the space environment on the fundamental process of photosynthesis, we sent into low Earth orbit space engineered and mutated strains of the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which has been widely used as a model of photosynthetic organisms. The algal mutants contained specific amino acid substitutions in the functionally important regions of the pivotal Photosystem II (PSII) reaction centre D1 protein near the QB binding pocket and in the environment surrounding Tyr-161 (YZ) electron acceptor of the oxygen-evolving complex. Using real-time measurements of PSII photochemistry, here we show that during the space flight while the control strain and two D1 mutants (A250L and V160A) were inefficient in carrying out PSII activity, two other D1 mutants, I163N and A251C, performed efficient photosynthesis, and actively re-grew upon return to Earth. Mimicking the neutron irradiation component of cosmic rays on Earth yielded similar results. Experiments with I163N and A251C D1 mutants performed on ground showed that they are better able to modulate PSII excitation pressure and have higher capacity to reoxidize the QA (-) state of the primary electron acceptor. These results highlight the contribution of D1 conformation in relation to photosynthesis and oxygen production in space.

  13. Mutations of photosystem II D1 protein that empower efficient phenotypes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under extreme environment in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Giardi

    Full Text Available Space missions have enabled testing how microorganisms, animals and plants respond to extra-terrestrial, complex and hazardous environment in space. Photosynthetic organisms are thought to be relatively more prone to microgravity, weak magnetic field and cosmic radiation because oxygenic photosynthesis is intimately associated with capture and conversion of light energy into chemical energy, a process that has adapted to relatively less complex and contained environment on Earth. To study the direct effect of the space environment on the fundamental process of photosynthesis, we sent into low Earth orbit space engineered and mutated strains of the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which has been widely used as a model of photosynthetic organisms. The algal mutants contained specific amino acid substitutions in the functionally important regions of the pivotal Photosystem II (PSII reaction centre D1 protein near the QB binding pocket and in the environment surrounding Tyr-161 (YZ electron acceptor of the oxygen-evolving complex. Using real-time measurements of PSII photochemistry, here we show that during the space flight while the control strain and two D1 mutants (A250L and V160A were inefficient in carrying out PSII activity, two other D1 mutants, I163N and A251C, performed efficient photosynthesis, and actively re-grew upon return to Earth. Mimicking the neutron irradiation component of cosmic rays on Earth yielded similar results. Experiments with I163N and A251C D1 mutants performed on ground showed that they are better able to modulate PSII excitation pressure and have higher capacity to reoxidize the QA (- state of the primary electron acceptor. These results highlight the contribution of D1 conformation in relation to photosynthesis and oxygen production in space.

  14. Life at the border: Adaptation of proteins to anisotropic membrane environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogozheva, Irina D; Mosberg, Henry I; Lomize, Andrei L

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses main features of transmembrane (TM) proteins which distinguish them from water-soluble proteins and allow their adaptation to the anisotropic membrane environment. We overview the structural limitations on membrane protein architecture, spatial arrangement of proteins in membranes and their intrinsic hydrophobic thickness, co-translational and post-translational folding and insertion into lipid bilayers, topogenesis, high propensity to form oligomers, and large-scale conformational transitions during membrane insertion and transport function. Special attention is paid to the polarity of TM protein surfaces described by profiles of dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen-bonding capacity parameters that match polarity of the lipid environment. Analysis of distributions of Trp resides on surfaces of TM proteins from different biological membranes indicates that interfacial membrane regions with preferential accumulation of Trp indole rings correspond to the outer part of the lipid acyl chain region—between double bonds and carbonyl groups of lipids. These “midpolar” regions are not always symmetric in proteins from natural membranes. We also examined the hydrophobic effect that drives insertion of proteins into lipid bilayer and different free energy contributions to TM protein stability, including attractive van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds, side-chain conformational entropy, the hydrophobic mismatch, membrane deformations, and specific protein–lipid binding. PMID:24947665

  15. Clinical Application of Surrounding Puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yao-jie; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    Surrounding puncture can stop pathogenic qi from spreading, consolidate the connection between local meridians and enrich local qi and blood, which can eventually supplement anti-pathogenic qi and remove pathogenic qi, and consequently remedy diseases. The author of this article summrized and analyzed the clinical application of surrounding puncture for the purpose of studying this technique and improving the therapeutic effect.

  16. φXANES: In vivo imaging of metal-protein coordination environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Simon A.; Hare, Dominic J.; Jenkins, Nicole L.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Bush, Ashley I.; McColl, Gawain

    2016-02-01

    We have developed an X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy method using fluorescence detection for visualizing in vivo coordination environments of metals in biological specimens. This approach, which we term fluorescence imaging XANES (φXANES), allows us to spatially depict metal-protein associations in a native, hydrated state whilst avoiding intrinsic chemical damage from radiation. This method was validated using iron-challenged Caenorhabditis elegans to observe marked alterations in redox environment.

  17. The Prevalence of STIV c92-Like Proteins in Acidic Thermal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie C. Snyder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of viral-induced lysis system has recently been discovered for two unrelated archaeal viruses, STIV and SIRV2. Prior to the lysis of the infected host cell, unique pyramid-like lysis structures are formed on the cell surface by the protrusion of the underlying cell membrane through the overlying external S-layer. It is through these pyramid structures that assembled virions are released during lysis. The STIV viral protein c92 is responsible for the formation of these lysis structures. We searched for c92-like proteins in viral sequences present in multiple viral and cellular metagenomic libraries from Yellowstone National Park acidic hot spring environments. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins demonstrates that, although c92-like proteins are detected in these environments, some are quite divergent and may represent new viral families. We hypothesize that this new viral lysis system is common within diverse archaeal viral populations found within acidic hot springs.

  18. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Samuel Tibber

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated weaker surround suppression compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation surround suppression in schizophrenia may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies.

  19. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  20. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  1. Effects of Genotype by Environment Interactions on Milk Yield, Energy Balance, and Protein Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerda, B.; Ouweltjes, W.; Sebek, L.B.J.; Windig, J.J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in genetic merit for milk yield are associated with increases in mobilization of body reserves. This study assessed the effects of genotype by environment (GxE) interactions on milk yield and energy and protein balances. Heifers (n = 100) with high or low genetic merit for milk yield were

  2. Multichannel spatial surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the consideration of being compatible with 5.1 channel horizontal surround sound system, a spatial surround sound system is proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system has a wide listening area. It can not only recreate stable image in the front and rear direction, but also eliminate the defect of poor lateral image of 5.1 channel system. The system can be used to reproduce special 3D sound effect and the spaciousness of hall.

  3. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  4. Ground level environmental protein concentrations in various ecuadorian environments: potential uses of aerosolized protein for ecological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J.R.; Woodward, Andrea; Castillo, Josemar A.; Swing, Kelly; Hayes, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Large quantities of free protein in the environment and other bioaerosols are ubiquitous throughout terrestrial ground level environments and may be integrative indicators of ecosystem status. Samples of ground level bioaerosols were collected from various ecosystems throughout Ecuador, including pristine humid tropical forest (pristine), highly altered secondary humid tropical forest (highly altered), secondary transitional very humid forest (regrowth transitional), and suburban dry montane deforested (suburban deforested). The results explored the sensitivity of localized aerosol protein concentrations to spatial and temporal variations within ecosystems, and their value for assessing environmental change. Ecosystem specific variations in environmental protein concentrations were observed: pristine 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3, highly altered 0.07 ± 0.05 μg/m3, regrowth transitional 0.17 ± 0.06 μg/m3, and suburban deforested 0.09 ± 0.04 μg/m3. Additionally, comparisons of intra-environmental differences in seasonal/daily weather (dry season 0.08 ± 0.03 μg/m3 and wet season 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/m3), environmental fragmentation (buffered 0.19 ± 0.06 μg/m3 and edge 0.15 ± 0.06 μg/m3), and sampling height (ground level 0.32 ± 0.09 μg/m3 and 10 m 0.24 ± 0.04 μg/m3) demonstrated the sensitivity of protein concentrations to environmental conditions. Local protein concentrations in altered environments correlated well with satellite-based spectral indices describing vegetation productivity: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (r2 = 0.801), net primary production (NPP) (r2 = 0.827), leaf area index (LAI) (r2 = 0.410). Moreover, protein concentrations distinguished the pristine site, which was not differentiated in spectral indices, potentially due to spectral saturation typical of highly vegetated environments. Bioaerosol concentrations represent an inexpensive method to increase understanding of environmental changes, especially in densely vegetated

  5. Sequence composition and environment effects on residue fluctuations in protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvinsky, Anatoly M.; Vakser, Ilya A.

    2010-10-01

    Structure fluctuations in proteins affect a broad range of cell phenomena, including stability of proteins and their fragments, allosteric transitions, and energy transfer. This study presents a statistical-thermodynamic analysis of relationship between the sequence composition and the distribution of residue fluctuations in protein-protein complexes. A one-node-per-residue elastic network model accounting for the nonhomogeneous protein mass distribution and the interatomic interactions through the renormalized inter-residue potential is developed. Two factors, a protein mass distribution and a residue environment, were found to determine the scale of residue fluctuations. Surface residues undergo larger fluctuations than core residues in agreement with experimental observations. Ranking residues over the normalized scale of fluctuations yields a distinct classification of amino acids into three groups: (i) highly fluctuating-Gly, Ala, Ser, Pro, and Asp, (ii) moderately fluctuating-Thr, Asn, Gln, Lys, Glu, Arg, Val, and Cys, and (iii) weakly fluctuating-Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Tyr, Trp, and His. The structural instability in proteins possibly relates to the high content of the highly fluctuating residues and a deficiency of the weakly fluctuating residues in irregular secondary structure elements (loops), chameleon sequences, and disordered proteins. Strong correlation between residue fluctuations and the sequence composition of protein loops supports this hypothesis. Comparing fluctuations of binding site residues (interface residues) with other surface residues shows that, on average, the interface is more rigid than the rest of the protein surface and Gly, Ala, Ser, Cys, Leu, and Trp have a propensity to form more stable docking patches on the interface. The findings have broad implications for understanding mechanisms of protein association and stability of protein structures.

  6. In Situ Infrared Ellipsometry for Protein Adsorption Studies on Ultrathin Smart Polymer Brushes in Aqueous Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroning, Annika; Furchner, Andreas; Aulich, Dennis; Bittrich, Eva; Rauch, Sebastian; Uhlmann, Petra; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Seeber, Michael; Luzinov, Igor; Kilbey, S Michael; Lokitz, Bradley S; Minko, Sergiy; Hinrichs, Karsten

    2015-06-17

    The protein-adsorbing and -repelling properties of various smart nanometer-thin polymer brushes containing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(acrylic acid) with high potential for biosensing and biomedical applications are studied by in situ infrared-spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE). IRSE is a highly sensitive nondestructive technique that allows protein adsorption on polymer brushes to be investigated in an aqueous environment as external stimuli, such as temperature and pH, are varied. These changes are relevant to conditions for regulation of protein adsorption and desorption for biotechnology, biocatalysis, and bioanalytical applications. Here brushes are used as model surfaces for controlling protein adsorption of human serum albumin and human fibrinogen. The important finding of this work is that IRSE in the in situ experiments in protein solutions can distinguish between contributions of polymer brushes and proteins. The vibrational bands of the polymers provide insights into the hydration state of the brushes, whereas the protein-specific amide bands are related to changes of the protein secondary structure.

  7. Insights into Hydrocarbon-rich Environments from Studies of Protein Dynamics, Thermodynamics, and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, J. S.; Asous, N. K.; Barth, S. J.; Benzik, E.; Chou, J.; Dalchand, N.; Gallagher, G. E.; Montero, K. S.; Lone, S. K.; Salerno, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Extraordinary amounts of information are now available from genomic and metagenomic analyses of a wide variety of environments of geological and biological interest. Using such genomic information as a starting point, we are interested in looking at microbial systems at the molecular level, using the tools and approaches of inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, and molecular biology. From these studies, spanning the molecular to the global, we gain insights into relationships between microbial life and the geochemical environment in which it lives. In our work to date, we have focused on hydrocarbon-rich environments, including the La Brea Tar Pits and the Gulf of Mexico. Starting from genomic information, we have identified proteins of interest, cloned synthetic genes into E. coli, overexpressed and purified the proteins, and characterized them by UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, and NMR spectroscopies; X-ray crystallography; and electrochemistry. Using as examples our recent studies of a metal-uptake protein from a methanogenic archaeon native to the La Brea Tar Pits, and of electron-transfer and hydrocarbon-degrading proteins from cold marine ecosystems, we describe how new combinations of genomics, molecular biology, and bioinorganic chemistry can provide novel insights into geobiological processes.

  8. Lauric acid dependent enhancement in hepatic SCPx protein requires an insulin deficient environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Dayami; Niesen, Melissa; Bedi, Mohini; McLean, Mark P

    2008-02-01

    Sterol carrier protein X (SCPx) is a peroxisomal protein with both lipid transfer and thiolase activity. Treating with the fatty acid, lauric acid, induced SCPx mRNA levels in rat liver and in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells but enhanced protein levels of SCPx and the thiolase produced as a post-translational modification of SCPx were only seen in H4IIE cells. Further investigation revealed that the presence of insulin can mask lauric acid effects on the SCPx gene especially at the protein level. These data are in agreement with the findings that diabetes, a medical condition characterized by high levels of fatty acids in an insulin deficient environment, enhances the hepatic expression of SCPx.

  9. Targeted isolation of proteins from natural microbial communities living in an extreme environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms from extreme environments are often very difficult to cultivate, precluding detailed study by biochemical and physiological techniques. Recent advances in genomic sequencing and proteomic measurements of samples obtained from natural communities have allowed new access to these uncultivated extremophiles and identified abundant proteins that can be isolated directly from natural samples. Here we report the isolation of two abundant heme proteins from low-diversity biofilm microbial communities that thrive in very acidic (pH ~ 1), metal-rich water in a subsurface mine. Purification and detailed characterization of these proteins has afforded new insight into the possible mechanism of Fe(II) oxidation by Leptospirillum Group II, the dominant population in most of these biofilms, and demonstrated that the abundance and posttranslational modifications of one of these proteins is dependent on the lifecycle of the biofilm.

  10. Does eating environment have an impact on the protein and energy intake in the hospitalised elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovski, Karon; Nenov, Aranka; Ottaway, Aurora; Skinner, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    This pilot study aimed to examine the difference in energy and protein intake of the midday meal in two different eating environments-the communal dining room and patient bedside-and to obtain feedback on patient preference at each location. Elderly patients in two rehabilitation wards were observed consuming the midday meal on two consecutive days: day 1 in the dining room and day 2 at the bedside. The patients' intake was recorded by a visual 5-point assessment scale and analysed for protein and energy content using the hospital food services nutrient analysis of the menu. Patients were also surveyed on preference of eating environment through a written survey. This study found that patients consumed 20% more energy and protein when dining in a communal environment (P = 0.006 and 0.01, respectively). Patients with a body mass index of less than 22 (P = 0.01 and 0.01, respectively) and those with significant cognitive impairment (P = 0.001 and 0.007, respectively) ate 30% more protein and energy in the dining room, and those identified at risk of malnutrition (Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) ≥ 2) ate 42% more energy and 27% more protein in the dining room, although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.05 and 0.16). A total of 86% of surveyed patients favoured eating their midday meal in the dining room. This study supports the contention that a dining room environment can increase food intake, increase patients' opportunities to enjoy the social aspect of meal times, and potentially lead to weight gain and reduced malnutrition risk in the rehabilitation setting. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  11. Protein structure prediction using residue- and fragment-environment potentials in CASP11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungrae; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-09-01

    An accurate scoring function that can select near-native structure models from a pool of alternative models is key for successful protein structure prediction. For the critical assessment of techniques for protein structure prediction (CASP) 11, we have built a protocol of protein structure prediction that has novel coarse-grained scoring functions for selecting decoys as the heart of its pipeline. The score named PRESCO (Protein Residue Environment SCOre) developed recently by our group evaluates the native-likeness of local structural environment of residues in a structure decoy considering positions and the depth of side-chains of spatially neighboring residues. We also introduced a helix interaction potential as an additional scoring function for selecting decoys. The best models selected by PRESCO and the helix interaction potential underwent structure refinement, which includes side-chain modeling and relaxation with a short molecular dynamics simulation. Our protocol was successful, achieving the top rank in the free modeling category with a significant margin of the accumulated Z-score to the subsequent groups when the top 1 models were considered. Proteins 2016; 84(Suppl 1):105-117. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Contributions of the Prion Protein Sequence, Strain, and Environment to the Species Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditi; Bruce, Kathryn L; Chen, Buxin; Gyoneva, Stefka; Behrens, Sven H; Bommarius, Andreas S; Chernoff, Yury O

    2016-01-15

    Amyloid propagation requires high levels of sequence specificity so that only molecules with very high sequence identity can form cross-β-sheet structures of sufficient stringency for incorporation into the amyloid fibril. This sequence specificity presents a barrier to the transmission of prions between two species with divergent sequences, termed a species barrier. Here we study the relative effects of protein sequence, seed conformation, and environment on the species barrier strength and specificity for the yeast prion protein Sup35p from three closely related species of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group; namely, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus, and Saccharomyces paradoxus. Through in vivo plasmid shuffle experiments, we show that the major characteristics of the transmission barrier and conformational fidelity are determined by the protein sequence rather than by the cellular environment. In vitro data confirm that the kinetics and structural preferences of aggregation of the S. paradoxus and S. bayanus proteins are influenced by anions in accordance with their positions in the Hofmeister series, as observed previously for S. cerevisiae. However, the specificity of the species barrier is primarily affected by the sequence and the type of anion present during the formation of the initial seed, whereas anions present during the seeded aggregation process typically influence kinetics rather than the specificity of prion conversion. Therefore, our work shows that the protein sequence and the conformation variant (strain) of the prion seed are the primary determinants of cross-species prion specificity both in vivo and in vitro.

  13. Research on Two Types of Buffer Zone Impact on Surrounding Office Space Environment in Winter in Cold Climate Zone-a Fieldwork in Architectural Design Institute Building of Tsinghua University, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeHao Song; JunJie Li; Ning Zhu; JiaLiang Wang; ShiMeng Hao

    2014-01-01

    Building buffer zone space is not only one of essential approaches for better mental quality of interior building space, but also an important factor that may influence interior thermal comfort and energy consumption. This study aims to analyze regulative advantages of buffer zone to the surrounding functional spaces. Based on a fieldwork test in a typical office building in cold climate zone in Beijing, China, the monitor data show interior physical performance in the Winter. The research selects two types of different buffer zones in the same building. One is a south⁃faced greenhouse which has large dimension with plenty of vegetation, and the other is a simple atrium in the middle of five floor building with mount of skylights. The factors and their influence to surrounding functional spaces and the whole building are found out from the comparisons of collected data by floor to floor monitor test on both buffer zones at the same time. The comparisons of two types of buffer zones conclude that the greenhouse is more effective to air quality regulation but not so clearly well⁃performed to thermal buffering as expected due to the dominate active central heating in the Winter. This fieldwork test results for building performance can be helpful for both architects and engineers in the early phase of sustainable design.

  14. Are current atomistic force fields accurate enough to study proteins in crowded environments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drazen Petrov

    2014-05-01

    may distort the picture of protein behavior in biologically relevant crowded environments.

  15. High-pressure dynamics of hydrated protein in bioprotective trehalose environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, S. O.; Zhang, Q.; O'Neill, H.; Mamontov, E.

    2014-10-01

    We present a pressure-dependence study of the dynamics of lysozyme protein powder immersed in deuterated α ,α -trehalose environment via quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS). The goal is to assess the baroprotective benefits of trehalose on biomolecules by comparing the findings with those of a trehalose-free reference study. While the mean-square displacement of the trehalose-free protein (hydrated to dD2O≃ 40 w%) as a whole, is reduced by increasing pressure, the actual observable relaxation dynamics in the picoseconds to nanoseconds time range remains largely unaffected by pressure—up to the maximum investigated pressure of 2.78(2) Kbar. Our observation is independent of whether or not the protein is mixed with the deuterated sugar. This suggests that the hydrated protein's conformational states at atmospheric pressure remain unaltered by hydrostatic pressures, below 2.78 Kbar. We also found the QENS response to be totally recoverable after ambient pressure conditions are restored. Small-angle neutron diffraction measurements confirm that the protein-protein correlation remains undisturbed. We observe, however, a clear narrowing of the QENS response as the temperature is decreased from 290 to 230 K in both cases, which we parametrize using the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts stretched exponential model. Only the fraction of protons that are immobile on the accessible time window of the instrument, referred to as the elastic incoherent structure factor, is observably sensitive to pressure, increasing only marginally but systematically with increasing pressure.

  16. Endocytic proteins drive vesicle growth via instability in high membrane tension environment

    CERN Document Server

    Walani, Nikhil; Agrawal, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a key pathway for transporting cargo into cells via membrane vesicles. It plays an integral role in nutrient import, signal transduction, neurotransmission and cellular entry of pathogens and drug-carrying nanoparticles. As CME entails substantial local remodeling of the plasma membrane, the presence of membrane tension offers resistance to bending and hence, vesicle formation. Experiments show that in such high tension conditions, actin dynamics is required to carry out CME successfully. In this study, we build upon these pioneering experimental studies to provide fundamental mechanistic insights into the roles of two key endocytic proteins, namely, actin and BAR proteins in driving vesicle formation in high membrane tension environment. Our study reveals a new actin force induced `snap-through instability' that triggers a rapid shape transition from a shallow invagination to a highly invaginated tubular structure. We show that the association of BAR proteins stabilizes...

  17. Serum proteins behavior in the urban population from a center with a lead-polluted atmospheric environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casin, I.; Ghelberg, N.W.

    1974-01-01

    Serum protein behavior was determined in an urban population from a center with a lead polluted atmospheric environment. The following increased amounts of serum proteins are found in 94 adult subjects: haptoglobin 75 percent; ceruloplasmin and transferrin 55 percent; IgA (immunoglobulin A) and IgG 40 percent; Igm and beta lc proteins 25 percent.

  18. Genomic polymorphism and protein changes of soybean mutant induced by space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J.; Gao, Y.; Sun, Y.

    Soybean 194 4126 of excellent agricultural qualities such as high yield and rounder and wider leaf was selected in six generation after abroad recoverable satellite 15 days in 1996 from Soybean 72163 featured with long-leaf white-blossom grey-hair and infinitude-poding To explore the mechanisms of plant mutation induced by space environment we have experimented at genome and proteome level on Soybean 194 4126 and its control Soybean 72163 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism AFLP was used to identify mutated sits and the result shows that 36 polymorphic bands varying between 100 and 900 bp in 2022 DNA bands varying between 100 and 1500 bp have been amplified out of 64 pairs of primer combinations between mutant Soybean 194 4126 and the control plant So the mutation degree of DNA is 3 56 The protein two-dimensional electrophoresis 2-DE and peptide mass fingerprint PMF assays were used to investigate the difference of proteins in fruits and leaves between Soybean 194 4126 and its control Results indicate that 62 protein dots specially appear in Soybean 72163 and 39 dots specially in the mutant Soybean 194 4126 by image analysis software PDQuest in the 2-DE maps of soybean seeds Using PMF assay and protein data-base searching to investigate two distinct protein dots we found that the protein specially expressed in the seed of mutant Soybean 194 4126 may be Dehydrin and the other protein specially expressed in the seed of the control Soybean 72163 may be maturation-associated protein MAT1 Because Dehydrin and MAT1 are

  19. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibber, Marc S.; Anderson, Elaine J.; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the target’s appearance. Individuals with SZ demonstrated weaker SS compared to matched controls for stimuli defined by contrast or size, but not for those defined by luminance or orientation. As perceived luminance is thought to be regulated at the earliest stages of visual processing our findings are consistent with a suppression deficit that is predominantly cortical in origin. In addition, we propose that preserved orientation SS in SZ may reflect the sparing of broadly tuned mechanisms of suppression. We attempt to reconcile these data with findings from previous studies. PMID:23450069

  20. Analysis of the Surrounding Environment Influence Caused by Rectangular Pipe Jacking Construction in Shanghai%上海地区某大口径矩形顶管施工周边环境影响监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚峰

    2015-01-01

    顶管技术作为非开挖的技术中的一种,可以在不用开挖地表土的情况下将管道铺设完毕,具有其他开挖方式无可比拟的优点,其应用也越来越广泛。但是在顶管施工中,不可避免地会破坏管道周围土体原有的平衡,造成地面的沉降,对周边环境造成影响。相对于圆形顶管,矩形顶管对周围土体的扰动更大,从而引起的地面变形也更大。本文以上海市徐汇区某地下通道矩形顶管工程为背景,通过现场监测数据分析,得出了一些有益的结论。%As one of Trench less Technology ,Pipe jacking has the unparalleled advantage of finishing pipeline laying without excavating surface soil ,and has become widely used .However ,pipe jacking will inevitably break the original soil balance around the pipe ,leading to land subsidence and affect buildings surrounded ,even endangers their safety .Rela-tive to circular pipe jacking ,rectangular pipe jacking construction may disturb the soil more heavily and cause more sur-face deformation.This thesis based on the rectangular pipe jacking construction project of Shanghai Xuhui District under -ground passage .Through on-site monitoring data analysis ,some useful conclusions are obtained .

  1. Heme environment in HmuY, the heme-binding protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtowicz, Halina [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw (Poland); Wojaczynski, Jacek [Department of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Olczak, Mariusz [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw (Poland); Kroliczewski, Jaroslaw [Laboratory of Biophysics, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, 50-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Latos-Grazynski, Lechoslaw [Department of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Olczak, Teresa, E-mail: Teresa.Olczak@biotech.uni.wroc.pl [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Wroclaw, Tamka 2, 50-137 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-29

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium implicated in the development and progression of chronic periodontitis, acquires heme for growth by a novel mechanism composed of HmuY and HmuR proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize the nature of heme binding to HmuY. The protein was expressed, purified and detailed investigations using UV-vis absorption, CD, MCD, and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy were carried out. Ferric heme bound to HmuY may be reduced by sodium dithionite and re-oxidized by potassium ferricyanide. Heme complexed to HmuY, with a midpoint potential of 136 mV, is in a low-spin Fe(III) hexa-coordinate environment. Analysis of heme binding to several single and double HmuY mutants with the methionine, histidine, cysteine, or tyrosine residues replaced by an alanine residue identified histidines 134 and 166 as potential heme ligands.

  2. Aerobic lineage of the oxidative stress response protein rubrerythrin emerged in an ancient microaerobic, (hyperthermophilic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Cardenas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rubrerythrins (RBRs are non-heme di-iron proteins belonging to the ferritin-like superfamily (FLSF. They are involved in oxidative stress defense as peroxide scavengers in a wide range of organisms. The vast majority of RBRs, including classical forms of this protein, contain a C-terminal rubredoxin-like domain involved in electron transport that is used during catalysis in anaerobic conditions. Rubredoxin is an ancient and large protein family of short length (<100 residues that contains a Fe-S center involved in electron transfer. However, functional forms of the enzyme lacking the rubredoxin-like domain have been reported (e.g., sulerythrin and ferriperoxin. In this study, phylogenomic evidence is presented that suggests that a complete lineage of rubrerythrins, lacking the rubredoxin-like domain, arose in an ancient microaerobic and (hyperthermophilic environments in the ancestors of the Archaea Thermoproteales and Sulfolobales. This lineage (termed the aerobic-type lineage subsequently evolved to become adapted to environments with progressively lower temperatures and higher oxygen concentrations via the acquisition of two co-localized genes, termed DUF3501 and RFO, encoding a conserved protein of unknown function and a predicted Fe-S oxidoreductase respectively. Proposed Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT events from these archaeal ancestors to Bacteria expanded the opportunities for further evolution of this RBR including adaption to lower temperatures. The second lineage (termed the cyanobacterial lineage is proposed to have evolved in cyanobacterial ancestors, maybe in direct response to the production of oxygen via oxygenic photosynthesis during the Great Oxygen Event (GOE. It is hypothesized that both lineages of RBR emerged in a largely anaerobic world with whiffs of oxygen and that their subsequent independent evolutionary trajectories allowed microorganisms to transition from this anaerobic world to an aerobic one.

  3. CLIPZ: a database and analysis environment for experimentally determined binding sites of RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshid, Mohsen; Rodak, Christoph; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    The stability, localization and translation rate of mRNAs are regulated by a multitude of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that find their targets directly or with the help of guide RNAs. Among the experimental methods for mapping RBP binding sites, cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) coupled with deep sequencing provides transcriptome-wide coverage as well as high resolution. However, partly due to their vast volume, the data that were so far generated in CLIP experiments have not been put in a form that enables fast and interactive exploration of binding sites. To address this need, we have developed the CLIPZ database and analysis environment. Binding site data for RBPs such as Argonaute 1-4, Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 1-3, TNRC6 proteins A-C, Pumilio 2, Quaking and Polypyrimidine tract binding protein can be visualized at the level of the genome and of individual transcripts. Individual users can upload their own sequence data sets while being able to limit the access to these data to specific users, and analyses of the public and private data sets can be performed interactively. CLIPZ, available at http://www.clipz.unibas.ch, aims to provide an open access repository of information for post-transcriptional regulatory elements.

  4. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Skóra

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test. Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air. The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL. It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein.

  5. Influence of the Aqueous Environment on Protein Structure—A Plausible Hypothesis Concerning the Mechanism of Amyloidogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Roterman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous environment is a pervasive factor which, in many ways, determines the protein folding process and consequently the activity of proteins. Proteins are unable to perform their function unless immersed in water (membrane proteins excluded from this statement. Tertiary conformational stabilization is dependent on the presence of internal force fields (nonbonding interactions between atoms, as well as an external force field generated by water. The hitherto the unknown structuralization of water as the aqueous environment may be elucidated by analyzing its effects on protein structure and function. Our study is based on the fuzzy oil drop model—a mechanism which describes the formation of a hydrophobic core and attempts to explain the emergence of amyloid-like fibrils. A set of proteins which vary with respect to their fuzzy oil drop status (including titin, transthyretin and a prion protein have been selected for in-depth analysis to suggest the plausible mechanism of amyloidogenesis.

  6. Numerical simulation and analysis of surrounding environment deformation influenced by excavation of foundation pits under complex conditions%复杂条件下基坑开挖对周边环境变形影响的数值模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓腊; 熊宗海; 莫云; 庞建成

    2014-01-01

    For the deep foundation pit of Laopupian Commercial and Residential Building, the whole process of its excavation is simulated and analyzed by use of the finite element software PLAXIS. The situations of stress and deformation of supporting structures of foundation pit and surrounding environment under complex conditions are studied. The numerical analysis and monitoring results show that the deformations of supporting structure system of the foundation pit and the surrounding environment can meet the requirements of the specifications for deformation control. It proves that PLAXIS HS model can effectively simulate and analyze the deformation of the surrounding environment influenced by excavation of the foundation pit, and the semi-inverse method used in this project can effectively control the deformation of the surrounding environment influenced by excavation of the foundation pit under complex conditions.%以武汉老铺片商业及住宅项目深基坑工程为背景,采用有限元软件 PLAXIS 对其进行了基坑开挖全过程的数值模拟分析,结合模拟计算结果分析了复杂条件下基坑支护结构体系及周边环境的受力、变形情况。数值模拟计算及实测结果表明:支护结构、周边建(构)筑物及土体的变形均满足规范关于变形控制的要求,证明采用PlAXIS HS模型能够较好的完成复杂条件下基坑开挖对周边环境变形影响的数值模拟分析,同时也证明本工程采用的支护及半逆作施工方法,能够对复杂条件下基坑开挖对周边环境变形的影响起到有效控制作用。

  7. Protein Corona: Impact of Lymph Versus Blood in a Complex In Vitro Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Debora; Aschauer, Ulrich; Alexander, Duncan T L; Chiappe, Diego; Moniatte, Marc; Hofmann, Heinrich; Mionić Ebersold, Marijana

    2017-08-01

    In biological environments, the surface of nanoparticles (NPs) are modified by protein corona (PC) that determines their biological behavior. Unfortunately, in vitro tests still give different PC than in vivo tests causing in vitro-in vivo discrepancy; hence, in vitro studies are not indicative for the NPs' behavior in vivo. Here is demonstrated that PC in vitro is strongly influenced by the type of extracellular fluid (ECF), blood or lymph, by their high and low flow conditions and transitions between ECFs, and a combination of these parameters. As a result, this in vitro study approaches fluidic and dynamic variations to which NPs are exposed in vivo: different ECF that NPs encounter first in different injection routes, different transitions in-between ECFs during circulation, and simultaneous change in the exposed flow in these transitions. The most-abundant proteins in PCs are found to be not the most abundant in ECFs, but those having high affinity for binding to the surface of NPs. Moreover, some proteins are differently abundant in PCs at different flows, which indicate force-promoted binding, catch bonds. These results suggest that future in vitro studies should consider more complex incubation conditions to improve the in vitro-in vivo consistency necessary for translational research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Involvement of Coat Proteins in Bacillus subtilis Spore Germination in High-Salinity Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Katja; Setlow, Peter; Reineke, Kai; Driks, Adam; Moeller, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    The germination of spore-forming bacteria in high-salinity environments is of applied interest for food microbiology and soil ecology. It has previously been shown that high salt concentrations detrimentally affect Bacillus subtilis spore germination, rendering this process slower and less efficient. The mechanistic details of these salt effects, however, remained obscure. Since initiation of nutrient germination first requires germinant passage through the spores' protective integuments, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the proteinaceous spore coat in germination in high-salinity environments. Spores lacking major layers of the coat due to chemical decoating or mutation germinated much worse in the presence of NaCl than untreated wild-type spores at comparable salinities. However, the absence of the crust, the absence of some individual nonmorphogenetic proteins, and the absence of either CwlJ or SleB had no or little effect on germination in high-salinity environments. Although the germination of spores lacking GerP (which is assumed to facilitate germinant flow through the coat) was generally less efficient than the germination of wild-type spores, the presence of up to 2.4 M NaCl enhanced the germination of these mutant spores. Interestingly, nutrient-independent germination by high pressure was also inhibited by NaCl. Taken together, these results suggest that (i) the coat has a protective function during germination in high-salinity environments; (ii) germination inhibition by NaCl is probably not exerted at the level of cortex hydrolysis, germinant accessibility, or germinant-receptor binding; and (iii) the most likely germination processes to be inhibited by NaCl are ion, Ca(2+)-dipicolinic acid, and water fluxes.

  9. The Commuting Profiles of the Principals: Their Views on the Surrounding Built Environment and Infrastructure of their Schools and the Factors that Affect the Active Commuting of Students to and From School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Karakatsanis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the commuting profiles of the principals of the schools, their views on the built environment and infrastructure around schools and active commuting (non motorized transport of students to and from school. 369 principals voluntarily participated in this survey. All principals held a position from either elementary, junior high schools or senior high schools, in the most populous prefectures of Greece (Attica and Thessaloniki during the school year 2012-2013. The results confirm that there is inadequate safety of infrastructure such as dangerous intersections-roads, lack of pedestrian roads with limited car access in front of the school entrance etc. for the active commuting of students around schools. The majority of principals consider that it is important for students to walk or cycle for commuting to and from school but on the other hand, they do not apply it to themselves. Although half of them reside in a walkable or cycle-able distance within 2000m from their work, they commute to school by motorized means and do not set a good example for the students. Principals believe that is necessary to conduct courses or programs on road safety education in schools and suggest methods to enhance the active means of commuting. In this context they reacted positively in organizing an annual event day of active commuting to and from school. Future research will be able to use geographical information systems to assist in the implementation of targeted and safety networks around the school.

  10. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Kjörling

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate “binaural parameters” that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  11. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  12. Binaural Rendering in MPEG Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breebaart, Jeroen; Villemoes, Lars; Kjörling, Kristofer

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes novel methods for evoking a multichannel audio experience over stereo headphones. In contrast to the conventional convolution-based approach where, for example, five input channels are filtered using ten head-related transfer functions, the current approach is based on a parametric representation of the multichannel signal, along with either a parametric representation of the head-related transfer functions or a reduced set of head-related transfer functions. An audio scene with multiple virtual sound sources is represented by a mono or a stereo downmix signal of all sound source signals, accompanied by certain statistical (spatial) properties. These statistical properties of the sound sources are either combined with statistical properties of head-related transfer functions to estimate "binaural parameters" that represent the perceptually relevant aspects of the auditory scene or used to create a limited set of combined head-related transfer functions that can be applied directly on the downmix signal. Subsequently, a binaural rendering stage reinstates the statistical properties of the sound sources by applying the estimated binaural parameters or the reduced set of combined head-related transfer functions directly on the downmix. If combined with parametric multichannel audio coders such as MPEG Surround, the proposed methods are advantageous over conventional methods in terms of perceived quality and computational complexity.

  13. Protein-silver nanoparticle interactions to colloidal stability in acidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Jui-Ting; Lai, Chao-Shun; Ho, Hsin-Chia; Yeh, Yu-Shan; Wang, Hsiao-Fang; Ho, Rong-Ming; Tsai, De-Hao

    2014-11-04

    We report a kinetic study of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) under acidic environments (i.e., pH 2.3 to pH ≈7) and systematically investigate the impact of protein interactions [i.e., bovine serum albumin (BSA) as representative] to the colloidal stability of AgNPs. Electrospray-differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA) was used to characterize the particle size distributions and the number concentrations of AgNPs. Transmission electron microscopy was employed orthogonally to provide visualization of AgNPs. For unconjugated AgNPs, the extent of aggregation, or the average particle size, was shown to be increased significantly with an increase of acidity, where a partial coalescence was found between the primary particles of unconjugated AgNP clusters. Aggregation rate constant, kD, was also shown to be proportional to acidity, following a correlation of log(kD) = -1.627(pH)-9.3715. Using ES-DMA, we observe BSA had a strong binding affinity (equilibrium binding constant, ≈ 1.1 × 10(6) L/mol) to the surface of AgNPs, with an estimated maximum molecular surface density of ≈0.012 nm(-2). BSA-functionalized AgNPs exhibited highly-improved colloidal stability compared to the unconjugated AgNPs under acidic environments, where both the acid-induced interfacial dissolution and the particle aggregation became negligible. Results confirm a complex mechanism of colloidal stability of AgNPs: the aggregation process was shown to be dominant, and the formation of BSA corona on AgNPs suppressed both particle aggregation and interfacial dissolution of AgNP samples under acidic environments.

  14. Environment control to improve recombinant protein yields in plants based on Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomichi eFujiuchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems enable plants to produce a wide range of recombinant proteins on a rapid timescale. To achieve economically feasible upstream production and downstream processing, two yield parameters should be considered: 1 recombinant protein content per unit biomass; and 2 recombinant protein productivity per unit area-time at the end of the upstream production. Because environmental factors in the upstream production have impacts on those parameters, environment control is important to maximize the recombinant protein yield. In this review, we summarize the effects of pre- and post-inoculation environmental factors in the upstream production on the yield parameters and discuss the basic concept of environment control for plant-based transient expression systems. Pre-inoculation environmental factors associated with planting density, light quality and nutrient supply affect plant characteristics such as biomass and morphology, which in turn affect recombinant protein content and productivity. Accordingly, environment control for such plant characteristics has significant implications to achieve a high yield. On the other hand, post-inoculation environmental factors such as temperature, light intensity and humidity have been shown to affect recombinant protein content. Considering that recombinant protein production in Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression systems is a result of a series of complex biological events starting from T-DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to protein biosynthesis and accumulation in leaf tissue, we propose that dynamic environment control during the post-inoculation process, i.e., changing environmental conditions at an appropriate timing for each event, may be a promising approach to obtain a high yield. Detailed descriptions of plant growth conditions and careful examination of environmental effects will significantly contribute to our knowledge to stably obtain

  15. Life in extreme environments: single molecule force spectroscopy as a tool to explore proteins from extremophilic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tych, Katarzyna M; Hoffmann, Toni; Batchelor, Matthew; Hughes, Megan L; Kendrick, Katherine E; Walsh, Danielle L; Wilson, Michael; Brockwell, David J; Dougan, Lorna

    2015-04-01

    Extremophiles are organisms which survive and thrive in extreme environments. The proteins from extremophilic single-celled organisms have received considerable attention as they are structurally stable and functionally active under extreme physical and chemical conditions. In this short article, we provide an introduction to extremophiles, the structural adaptations of proteins from extremophilic organisms and the exploitation of these proteins in industrial applications. We provide a review of recent developments which have utilized single molecule force spectroscopy to mechanically manipulate proteins from extremophilic organisms and the information which has been gained about their stability, flexibility and underlying energy landscapes.

  16. Enriched environment upregulates growthassociated protein 43 expression in the hippocampus and enhances cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengyu Zhang; Hua Zhang; Baoling Du; Zhiqiang Chen

    2012-01-01

    In our previous study, we reported that prenatal restraint stress could induce cognitive deficits, which correlated with a change in expression of growth-associated protein 43 in the hippocampus.In this study, we investigated the effects of enriched environment on cognitive abilities in prenatally stressed rat offspring, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot assay results revealed that growth-associated protein 43 mRNA and protein levels were upregulated on postnatal day 15 in the prenatal restraint stress group. Growth-associated protein 43 expression was significantly lower in the prenatal restraint stress group compared with the negative control and prenatal restraint stress plus enriched environment groups on postnatal days 30 and 50. Morris water maze test demonstrated that cognitive abilities were noticeably increased in rats from the prenatal restraint stress plus enriched environment group on postnatal day 50. These results indicate that enriched environment can improve the spatial learning and memory ability of prenatally stressed offspring by upregulating growth-associated protein 43 expression.

  17. Exon B of human surfactant protein A2 mRNA, alone or within its surrounding sequences, interacts with 14-3-3; role of cis-elements and secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsios, Georgios T; Silveyra, Patricia; Bhatti, Faizah; Floros, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Human surfactant protein A, an innate immunity molecule, is encoded by two genes: SFTPA1 (SP-A1) and SFTPA2 (SP-A2). The 5' untranslated (5'UTR) splice variant of SP-A2 (ABD), but not of SP-A1 (AD), contains exon B (eB), which is an enhancer for transcription and translation. We investigated whether eB contains cis-regulatory elements that bind trans-acting factors in a sequence-specific manner as well as the role of the eB mRNA secondary structure. Binding of cytoplasmic NCI-H441 proteins to wild-type eB, eB mutant, AD, and ABD 5'UTR mRNAs were studied by RNA electromobility shift assays (REMSAs). The bound proteins were identified by mass spectroscopy and specific antibodies (Abs). We found that 1) proteins bind eB mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, with two cis-elements identified within eB to be important; 2) eB secondary structure is necessary for binding; 3) mass spectroscopy and specific Abs in REMSAs identified 14-3-3 proteins to bind (directly or indirectly) eB and the natural SP-A2 (ABD) splice variant but not the SP-A1 (AD) splice variant; 4) other ribosomal and cytoskeletal proteins, and translation factors, are also present in the eB mRNA-protein complex; 5) knockdown of 14-3-3 β/α isoform resulted in a downregulation of SP-A2 expression. In conclusion, proteins including the 14-3-3 family bind two cis-elements within eB of hSP-A2 mRNA in a sequence- and secondary structure-specific manner. Differential regulation of SP-A1 and SP-A2 is mediated by the 14-3-3 protein family as well as by a number of other proteins that bind UTRs with or without eB mRNA.

  18. Subtilases - versatile tools for protein turnover, plant development, and interactions with the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Andreas; Stintzi, Annick; Graff, Lucile

    2012-05-01

    Subtilases (SBTs) constitute a large family of serine peptidases. They are commonly found in Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya, with many more SBTs in plants as compared to other organisms. The expansion of the SBT family in plants was accompanied by functional diversification, and novel, plant-specific physiological roles were acquired in the course of evolution. In addition to their contribution to general protein turnover, plant SBTs are involved in the development of seeds and fruits, the manipulation of the cell wall, the processing of peptide growth factors, epidermal development and pattern formation, plant responses to their biotic and abiotic environment, and in programmed cell death. Plant SBTs share many properties with their bacterial and mammalian homologs, but the adoption of specific roles in plant physiology is also reflected in the acquisition of unique biochemical and structural features that distinguish SBTs in plants from those in other organisms. In this article we provide an overview of the earlier literature on the discovery of the first SBTs in plants, and highlight recent findings with respect to their physiological relevance, structure and function.

  19. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, M; Vizcaino, D; Moreno, E; Latorraca, Z

    2005-01-01

    Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis. The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps), Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp), Hyptis pectinata (Hp)), H. sinuata (Hs). Leonorus japonicus (Lj), Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa) Ocimum hasilicum (Ocb), O. campechianum (Occ) Origanum majorana (Orm), Rosmarinus officinali, (Ro) and Salvia officinalis (So). Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLM) and fresh:dry weight (FW/DW) ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Orm, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM) (Kg DMm(-2)) are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW:DW ratio. while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species, and the light environment affected sugar content. FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may he shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats.

  20. 城市绿地对周边热环境影响遥感研究--以北京为例%Effect of urban green land on thermal environment of surroundings based on remote sensing:A case study in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾庆祖; 叶彩华; 刘勇洪; 李书严; 高燕虎

    2014-01-01

    间范围、降温幅度以及绿地景观参数与降温幅度的相关关系,可为城市规划建设及环境评价等提供科学参考。%Urban green land (UGL) is one of the key factors that mitigate urban thermal environment effect. Not only in macro scale it has influence on urban weather condition, but also in the scale of community, it has direct impact on thermal environment of its surroundings. In this paper, from the view of landscape of UGL, we chose UGL in main urban zone as study target and buildings around them as bearing agent influenced by them. By employing remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) technology, we analyzed dominant landscape feature parameters of UGL that impact thermal environment of buildings, and studied how far UGL could affect surrounding thermal environment and correlation between landscape coefficients of UGL and cooling range caused by UGL. First of all, we mapped 26 UGL patches artificially and extracted their neighbor buildings from TM image. Then, we retrieved canopy temperature of UGL and top roof temperature of buildings around UGL based on quantitative remote sensing theory, and computed UGL’s landscape information using GIS tools. Finally, spatial range that UGL affect its neighbor buildings’ thermal environment was inferred through both spatial statistic method and isotherm perimeter-temperature curve breakpoint method, and meanwhile, correlation between UGL’s temperature and its neighbor buildings’ temperature was explored. Studies showed that, at the scale of spatial resolution of 100 m, most UGL patches had a role in cooling effect on their surrounding buildings within 100 m range. All UGL patches over 0.5 km2 acted significant cooling effect on buildings near patches within 100 m, and the temperature drop ranged from 0.46 ℃ to 0.83 ℃, with average 0.72 ℃. Also UGL patches below 0.5 km2 with high fractional vegetation cover played a cooling role, while UGL patches below 0.5km2

  1. Sequence analyses reveal that a TPR-DP module, surrounded by recombinable flanking introns, could be at the origin of eukaryotic Hop and Hip TPR-DP domains and prokaryotic GerD proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Torres, Jorge; Papandreou, Nikolaos; Chomilier, Jacques

    2009-05-01

    The co-chaperone Hop [heat shock protein (HSP) organising protein] is known to bind both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Hop comprises three repeats of a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, each consisting of three TPR motifs. The first and last TPR domains are followed by a domain containing several dipeptide (DP) repeats called the DP domain. These analyses suggest that the hop genes result from successive recombination events of an ancestral TPR-DP module. From a hydrophobic cluster analysis of homologous Hop protein sequences derived from gene families, we can postulate that shifts in the open reading frames are at the origin of the present sequences. Moreover, these shifts can be related to the presence or absence of biological function. We propose to extend the family of Hop co-chaperons into the kingdom of bacteria, as several structurally related genes have been identified by hydrophobic cluster analysis. We also provide evidence of common structural characteristics between hop and hip genes, suggesting a shared precursor of ancestral TPR-DP domains.

  2. Circadian clock proteins control adaptation to novel environment and memory formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.Kondratova, Anna; V.Dubrovsky, Yuliya; Antoch, Marina P.; Kondratov, Roman V.

    2010-01-01

    Deficiency of the transcription factor BMAL1, a core component of the circadian clock, results in an accelerated aging phenotype in mice. The circadian clock regulates many physiological processes and was recently implicated in control of brain-based activities, such as memory formation and the regulation of emotions. Aging is accompanied by the decline in brain physiology, particularly decline in the response and adaptation to novelty. We investigated the role of the circadian clock in exploratory behavior and habituation to novelty using the open field paradigm. We found that mice with a deficiency of the circadian transcription factor BMAL1 display hyperactivity in novel environments and impaired intra- and intersession habituation, indicative of defects in short- and long-term memory formation. In contrast, mice double-deficient for the circadian proteins CRY1 and CRY2 (repressors of the BMAL1-mediated transcription) demonstrate reduced activity and accelerated habituation when compared to wild type mice. Mice with mutation in theClock gene (encoding the BMAL1 transcription partner) show normal locomotion, but increased rearing activity and impaired intersession habituation. BMAL1 is highly expressed in the neurons of the hippocampus - a brain region associated with spatial memory formation; BMAL1 deficiency disrupts circadian oscillation in gene expression and reactive oxygen species homeostasis in the brain, which may be among the possible mechanisms involved. Thus, we suggest that the BMAL1:CLOCK activity is critical for the proper exploratory and habituation behavior, and that the circadian clock prepares organism for a new round of everyday activities through optimization of behavioral learning. PMID:20519775

  3. Contour detection by surround suppression of texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Tavares, JMRS; Jorge, RMN

    2007-01-01

    Based on a keynote lecture at Complmage 2006, Coimbra, Oct. 20-21, 2006, an overview is given of our activities in modelling and using surround inhibition for contour detection. The effect of suppression of a line or edge stimulus by similar surrounding stimuli is known from visual perception studie

  4. Role of Molecular Flexibility and Colloidal Descriptions of Proteins in Crowded Environments from Small-Angle Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Maria Monica; Clark, Nicholas J; Watson, Max C; Krueger, Susan; McAuley, Arnold; Curtis, Joseph E

    2016-12-15

    Small-angle scattering is a powerful technique to study molecular conformation and interactions of proteins in solution and in amorphous solids. We have investigated the role of multiple protein configurations in the interaction parameters derived from small-angle scattering for proteins in concentrated solutions. In order to account for the wide configurational space sampled by proteins, we generate ensembles of atomistic structures for lysozyme and monoclonal antibodies, representing globular and flexible proteins, respectively. While recent work has argued that a colloidal approach is inadequate to model proteins, because of the large configurational space that they sample in solution, we find a range of length scales where colloidal models can be used to describe solution scattering data while simultaneously accounting for structural flexibility. We provide insights to determine the length scales where isotropic colloidal models can be used, and find smoothly varying sets of interaction parameters that encompass ensembles of structures. This approach may play an important role in the definition of long-range interactions in coarse-grained models of flexible proteins with experimental scattering constraints. Additionally, we apply the decoupling approximation to ensembles of lysozyme structures with atomistic detail and observe remarkably different results when using geometric solids, such as ellipsoids. The insights from this study provide guidelines for the analysis of small-angle scattering profiles of proteins in crowded environments.

  5. The Effect of Membrane Environment on Surfactant Protein C Stability Studied by Constant-pH Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheda, Catarina A; Campos, Sara R R; Baptista, António M

    2015-10-26

    Pulmonary surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a small peptide with two covalently linked fatty acyl chains that plays a crucial role in the formation and stabilization of the pulmonary surfactant reservoirs during the compression and expansion steps of the respiratory cycle. Although its function is known to be tightly related to its highly hydrophobic character and key interactions maintained with specific lipid components, much is left to understand about its molecular mechanism of action. Also, although it adopts a mainly helical structure while associated with the membrane, factors as pH variation and deacylation have been shown to affect its stability and function. In this work, the conformational behavior of both the acylated and deacylated SP-C isoforms was studied in a DPPC bilayer under different pH conditions using constant-pH molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings show that both protein isoforms are remarkably stable over the studied pH range, even though the acylated isoform exhibits a labile helix-turn-helix motif rarely observed in the other isoform. We estimate similar tilt angles for the two isoforms over the studied pH range, with a generally higher degree of internalization of the basic N-terminal residues in the deacylated case, and observe and discuss some protonation-conformation coupling effects. Both isoforms establish contacts with the surrounding lipid molecules (preferentially with the sn-2 ester bonds) and have a local effect on the conformational behavior of the surrounding lipid molecules, the latter being more pronounced for acylated SP-C.

  6. Dynamics of two-component membranes surrounded by viscoelastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Shigeyuki; Yasuda, Kento; Okamoto, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the dynamics of two-component fluid membranes which are surrounded by viscoelastic media. We assume that membrane-embedded proteins can diffuse laterally and induce a local membrane curvature. The mean squared displacement of a tagged membrane segment is obtained as a generalized Einstein relation. When the elasticity of the surrounding media obeys a power-law behavior in frequency, an anomalous diffusion of the membrane segment is predicted. We also consider the situation where the proteins generate active non-equilibrium forces. The generalized Einstein relation is further modified by an effective temperature that depends on the force dipole energy. The obtained generalized Einstein relations are useful for membrane microrheology experiments.

  7. EFFECT OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT PH ON THE LEVEL OF ECTOPARASITE INFESTATION, PROTEIN AND LYSOZYME CONTENT IN SOME CYPRINID SPECIES (CYPRINIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kurovskaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of рН values of the aquatic environment on the level of ectoparasite infestation, protein and lysozyme content in organs and serum of some cyprinid species in experimental conditions. Methodology. The objects of the study were yearlings of Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus gibelio and Pseudorasbora parva caught in ponds of fish farm “Nyvka” (Kiev region in spring. Fish were kept in experimental conditions at neutral pH water (6.8-7.2 and a temperature of 17-18оC. To study the changes in the level of fish parasite infestation at different pH values, we used carp yearlings, as an object, the most infected with parasites. Fish were placed in aquariums with water pH of 5.0-5.5 (slightly acidic environment and 8.5-9.0 (slightly alkaline environment for 5 days. Thereafter, the ectoparasites were counted on fish body surface and gills. The protein content in serum and tissue extracts of organs (liver, kidney, spleen of Carassius auratus gibelio and Pseudorasbora parva infected and uninfected ectoparasites, after holding them in slightly acidic or slightly alkaline environment for 8 days, was determined by Lowry’s method, while lysozyme content was determined by a diffusion method on agar. Findings. A comparative assessment of the number of ectoparasites (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp. on fish body surface and gills, the content of protein and lysozyme in serum and organs at different pH values of aquatic environment has been presented. It was demonstrated that the number of ectoparasites on fish body surface and gills was significantly reduced when keeping the fish in both slightly acidic and slightly alkaline environments. In infected Carassius auratus gibelio, a reduction in the protein and lysozyme content in liver, kidney and serum was observed only in the neutral pH environment compared to uninfected individuals. In the slightly acidic or slightly alkaline

  8. Sequence and conformational preferences at termini of α-helices in membrane proteins: role of the helix environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelar, Ashish; Bansal, Manju

    2014-12-01

    α-Helices are amongst the most common secondary structural elements seen in membrane proteins and are packed in the form of helix bundles. These α-helices encounter varying external environments (hydrophobic, hydrophilic) that may influence the sequence preferences at their N and C-termini. The role of the external environment in stabilization of the helix termini in membrane proteins is still unknown. Here we analyze α-helices in a high-resolution dataset of integral α-helical membrane proteins and establish that their sequence and conformational preferences differ from those in globular proteins. We specifically examine these preferences at the N and C-termini in helices initiating/terminating inside the membrane core as well as in linkers connecting these transmembrane helices. We find that the sequence preferences and structural motifs at capping (Ncap and Ccap) and near-helical (N' and C') positions are influenced by a combination of features including the membrane environment and the innate helix initiation and termination property of residues forming structural motifs. We also find that a large number of helix termini which do not form any particular capping motif are stabilized by formation of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions contributed from the neighboring helices in the membrane protein. We further validate the sequence preferences obtained from our analysis with data from an ultradeep sequencing study that identifies evolutionarily conserved amino acids in the rat neurotensin receptor. The results from our analysis provide insights for the secondary structure prediction, modeling and design of membrane proteins.

  9. Imaging of conformational changes of proteins with a new environment-sensitive fluorescent probe designed for site-specific labeling of recombinant proteins in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, J; Nakajima, T; Sato, M; Ozawa, T; Tohda, K; Umezawa, Y

    2001-07-01

    We demonstrate herein a new method for imaging conformational changes of proteins in live cells using a new synthetic environment-sensitive fluorescent probe, 9-amino-6,8-bis(1,3,2-dithioarsolan-2-yl)-5H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-5-one. This fluorescent probe can be attached to recombinant proteins containing four cysteine residues at the i, i + 1, i + 4, and i + 5 positions of an alpha-helix. The specific binding of the fluorescent probe to this 4Cys motif enables fluorescent labeling inside cells by its extracellular administration. The high sensitivity of the fluorophore to its environment enables monitoring of the conformational changes of the proteins in live cells as changes in its fluorescence intensity. The present method was applied to calmodulin (CaM), a Ca2+-binding protein that was well-known to expose hydrophobic domains, depending on the Ca2+ concentration. A recombinant CaM fused at its C-terminal with a helical peptide containing a 4Cys motif was labeled with the fluorescent probe inside live cells. The fluorescence intensity changed reversibly depending on the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which reflected the conformational change of the recombinant CaM in the live cells.

  10. New trends in bio/nanotechnology: stable proteins as advanced molecular tools for health and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, M; Baldassarre, M; Esposito, M; Apicella, E; Vitale, R; Aurilia, V; D'Auria, S

    2010-01-01

    In this work the thermophilic trehalose/maltose-binding protein from Thermococcus litoralis is presented as a probe for the design of a high stable fluorescence biosensor for glucose. In particular, we show the possibility of modulating the protein specificity by changing temperature. In addition to glucose sensing, we also report on the possibility of utilizing odorant-binding proteins as a probe for the development of optical sensors for analytes of environmental interests.

  11. Agroforestry practice in villages surrounding Nyamure former ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cntaganda

    Key words: Agroforestry, fuel wood, tree products, woodlot, forest plantation. INTRODUCTION ... The study area included three administrative cells in the surroundings of Nyamure ..... Table 6: Distance and time spent on firewood collection.

  12. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Skifter Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a survey carried out in Denmark that asked a random sample of the population about their preferences for home surroundings and locations. It shows that the characteristics of social surroundings are very important and can be divided into three independent dimensions: avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific preferences for surroundings.

  13. The identification of global patterns and unique signatures of proteins across 14 environments using outer membrane proteomics of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, Martin; Ryall, Ben; Ferenci, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We test the hypothesis that organisms sourced from different environments exhibit unique fingerprints in macromolecular composition. Experimentally, we followed proteomic changes with 14 different sub-lethal environmental stimuli in Escherichia coli at controlled growth rates. The focus was on the outer membrane sub-proteome, which is known to be extremely sensitive to environmental controls. The analyses surprisingly revealed that pairs of proteins belonging to very different regulons, such as Slp and OmpX or FadL and OmpF, have the closest patterns of change with the 14 conditions. Fe-limited and cold-cultured bacteria have the most distinct global patterns of spot changes, but the patterns with fast growth and oxygen limitation are the closest amongst the 14 environments. These unexpected but statistically robust results suggest that we have an incomplete picture of bacterial regulation across different stress responses; baseline choices and growth-rate influences are probably underestimated factors in such systems-level analysis. In terms of our aim of getting a unique profile for each of the 14 investigated environments, we find that it is unnecessary to compare all the proteins in a proteome and that a panel of five proteins is sufficient for identification of environmental fingerprints. This demonstrates the future feasibility of tracing the history of contaminating bacteria in hospitals, foods or industrial settings as well as for released organisms and biosecurity purposes.

  14. Surround-Masking Affects Visual Estimation Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Nicola R.; Hugrass, Laila E.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Crewther, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Visual estimation of numerosity involves the discrimination of magnitude between two distributions or perceptual sets that vary in number of elements. How performance on such estimation depends on peripheral sensory stimulation is unclear, even in typically developing adults. Here, we varied the central and surround contrast of stimuli that comprised a visual estimation task in order to determine whether mechanisms involved with the removal of unessential visual input functionally contributes toward number acuity. The visual estimation judgments of typically developed adults were significantly impaired for high but not low contrast surround stimulus conditions. The center and surround contrasts of the stimuli also differentially affected the accuracy of numerosity estimation depending on whether fewer or more dots were presented. Remarkably, observers demonstrated the highest mean percentage accuracy across stimulus conditions in the discrimination of more elements when the surround contrast was low and the background luminance of the central region containing the elements was dark (black center). Conversely, accuracy was severely impaired during the discrimination of fewer elements when the surround contrast was high and the background luminance of the central region was mid level (gray center). These findings suggest that estimation ability is functionally related to the quality of low-order filtration of unessential visual information. These surround masking results may help understanding of the poor visual estimation ability commonly observed in developmental dyscalculia.

  15. Characterizing the effects of the protein environment on the reduction potentials of metalloproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Bradley Scott; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2013-01-01

    The reduction potentials of electron transfer proteins are critically determined by the degree of burial of the redox site within the protein and the degree of permanent polarization of the polypeptide around the redox site. Although continuum electrostatics calculations of protein structures can predict the net effect of these factors, quantifying each individual contribution is a difficult task. Here, the burial of the redox site is characterized by a dielectric radius R(p) (a Born-type radius for the protein), the polarization of the polypeptide is characterized by an electret potential ϕ(p) (the average electrostatic potential at the metal atoms), and an electret-dielectric spheres (EDS) model of the entire protein is then defined in terms of R(p) and ϕ(p). The EDS model shows that for a protein with a redox site of charge Q, the dielectric response free energy is a function of Q(2), while the electret energy is a function of Q. In addition, R(p) and ϕ(p) are shown to be characteristics of the fold of a protein and are predictive of the most likely redox couple for redox sites that undergo different redox couples.

  16. Hydrophobins: Exceptional proteins for many applications in brewery environment and other bio-industries

    OpenAIRE

    Khalesi, Mohammadreza; Deckers, Sylvie; Gebruers, Kurt; Vissers, Lennert; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophobins are exceptional proteins produced by fungi. Research over the last decade has led to a better understanding of their role in spontaneous self-assembly at hydrophobic/hydrophilic interfaces. This has resulted in many proposals for using hydrophobins in many important scientific and technological applications. Hydrophobins may become attractive as special biosurfactants, as foaming agents and for protein immobilization in the food industries and in biosensors. Moreover,...

  17. [Genetic diversity of capsid assembly protein genes (g20) of cyanophage in different natural environment--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ruiyong; Kimura, Makoto; Wang, Guanghua

    2013-11-04

    With the development of molecular biological techniques and progress of sequencing virus genome, scientists pay great attentions to the genetic diversity of viruses, which are ubiquitous and abundant in natural environments. So far, no universal genetic marker, analogous to 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA used for microbial communities exists throughout all viruses. However, some family-specific genes encoding conserved amino acids have been proposed for the evaluation of phage diversity and a series of breakthrough achievements were obtained. In this paper, we targeted the capsid assembly protein genes (g20) of cyanophages and reviewed the recent progress on their genetic diversity in natural environments of marines, lakes and paddy fields and discussed the relationship between distribution of g20 gene of cyanophages and its environments. Those studies showed that the distribution of g20 gene varied with environments and many unique clusters were found in different natural environment. In final, several research issues and the future research tendencies for the study of environmental g20 gene were also addressed in this paper.

  18. Protein loop modeling using a new hybrid energy function and its application to modeling in inaccurate structural environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahnbeom Park

    Full Text Available Protein loop modeling is a tool for predicting protein local structures of particular interest, providing opportunities for applications involving protein structure prediction and de novo protein design. Until recently, the majority of loop modeling methods have been developed and tested by reconstructing loops in frameworks of experimentally resolved structures. In many practical applications, however, the protein loops to be modeled are located in inaccurate structural environments. These include loops in model structures, low-resolution experimental structures, or experimental structures of different functional forms. Accordingly, discrepancies in the accuracy of the structural environment assumed in development of the method and that in practical applications present additional challenges to modern loop modeling methods. This study demonstrates a new strategy for employing a hybrid energy function combining physics-based and knowledge-based components to help tackle this challenge. The hybrid energy function is designed to combine the strengths of each energy component, simultaneously maintaining accurate loop structure prediction in a high-resolution framework structure and tolerating minor environmental errors in low-resolution structures. A loop modeling method based on global optimization of this new energy function is tested on loop targets situated in different levels of environmental errors, ranging from experimental structures to structures perturbed in backbone as well as side chains and template-based model structures. The new method performs comparably to force field-based approaches in loop reconstruction in crystal structures and better in loop prediction in inaccurate framework structures. This result suggests that higher-accuracy predictions would be possible for a broader range of applications. The web server for this method is available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/loop with the PS2 option for the scoring function.

  19. Impacts of Artificial Reefs on Surrounding Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukian, Sarine

    Artificial reefs are becoming a popular biological and management component in shallow water environments characterized by soft seabed, representing both important marine habitats and tools to manage coastal fisheries and resources. An artificial reef in the marine environment acts as an open system with exchange of material and energy, altering the physical and biological characteristics of the surrounding area. Reef stability will depend on the balance of scour, settlement, and burial resulting from ocean conditions over time. Because of the unstable nature of sediments, they require a detailed and systematic investigation. Acoustic systems like high-frequency multibeam sonar are efficient tools in monitoring the environmental evolution around artificial reefs, whereas water turbidity can limit visual dive and ROV inspections. A high-frequency multibeam echo sounder offers the potential of detecting fine-scale distribution of reef units, providing an unprecedented level of resolution, coverage, and spatial definition. How do artificial reefs change over time in relation to the coastal processes? How accurately does multibeam technology map different typologies of artificial modules of known size and shape? How do artificial reefs affect fish school behavior? What are the limitations of multibeam technology for investigating fish school distribution as well as spatial and temporal changes? This study addresses the above questions and presents results of a new approach for artificial reef seafloor mapping over time, based upon an integrated analysis of multibeam swath bathymetry data and geoscientific information (backscatter data analysis, SCUBA observations, physical oceanographic data, and previous findings on the geology and sedimentation processes, integrated with unpublished data) from Senigallia artificial reef, northwestern Adriatic Sea (Italy) and St. Petersburg Beach Reef, west-central Florida continental shelf. A new approach for observation of fish

  20. Survey on smoking behaviors of junior high school students and influencing factors of surrounding environment in Guangxi in 2013%2013年广西初中生吸烟现状及生活环境影响因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚美; 黄高明; 梁绍伶; 张萌; 吕炜; 熊绮梦; 陆松仪; 周荣军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the current smoking behaviors of junior school students in Guangxi and the influencing factors of surrounding environment .Methods The Global Youth Tobacco Epidemic Survey Questionnaire was applied to an anonymous questionnaire survey which conducted among 5 892 students from 36 junior schools in Guangxi by using the cluster sampling method.Results 5 858 valid questionnaires(99.4%) were collected,of which 24.8% had made a smoking attempt,the rate of smoking attempt in the males was significantly higher than that in the females(39.6% vs.8.8%,P <0.05).The current smoking rate was 11.2%,which was significantly higher in the males in contrast with that in the females (18.2% vs.3.4%,P <0.05).Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis revealed that parents′being smoker,seeing teacher′s smoking outside,seeing teacher′s indoor smoking,being able to buy the cigarettes near the school,and good friend′being smoker were risk factors for current smoking behaviors of junior school students(P <0.05).Conclusion The smoking rate of junior school students is high in Guangxi,and the surrounding environment has significant effects on smoking behaviors of junior school students.%目的:了解广西初中生吸烟现状及生活环境影响因素。方法采用整群抽样方法,使用全球青少年烟草流行调查问卷对广西36所5892名初中学生进行匿名问卷调查。结果收回有效问卷5858份(99.4%),尝试吸烟率为24.8%,其中男生尝试吸烟率为39.6%,明显高于女生的8.8%( P <0.05);现在吸烟率为11.2%,其中男生吸烟率为18.2%,明显高于女生的3.4%(P <0.05)。多因素非条件 logistic 回归分析显示,父母吸烟、见老师室外吸烟、见老师室内吸烟、学校附近买到烟、好朋友吸烟均是初中生现在吸烟的危险因素(P <0.05)。结论广西初中生吸烟率较高,生活环境对初中生吸烟行为有重要影响。

  1. Charges in Hydrophobic Environments: A Strategy for Identifying Alternative States in Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Aaron C; Majumdar, Ananya; Schlessman, Jamie L; García-Moreno E, Bertrand

    2017-01-10

    In the V23E variant of staphylococcal nuclease, Glu-23 has a pKa of 7.5. At low pH, Glu-23 is neutral and buried in the hydrophobic interior of the protein. Crystal structures and NMR spectroscopy experiments show that when Glu-23 becomes charged, the protein switches into an open state in which strands β1 and β2 separate from the β-barrel; the remaining structure is unaffected. In the open state the hydrophobic interior of the protein is exposed to bulk water, allowing Glu-23 to become hydrated. This illustrates several key aspects of protein electrostatics: (1) The apparent pKa of an internal ionizable group can reflect the average of the very different pKa values (open ≈4.5, closed ≫7.5) sampled in the different conformational states. (2) The high apparent dielectric constant reported by the pKa value of internal ionizable group reflects conformational reorganization. (3) The apparent pKa of internal groups can be governed by large conformational changes. (4) A single charge buried in the hydrophobic interior of a protein is sufficient to convert what might have been a transient, partially unfolded state into the dominant state in solution. This suggests a general strategy for examining inaccessible regions of the folding landscape and for engineering conformational switches driven by small changes in pH. These data also constitute a benchmark for stringent testing of the ability of computational algorithms to predict pKa values of internal residues and to reproduce pH-driven conformational transitions of proteins.

  2. Growth environment, harvest management and germplasm impacts on potential ethanol and crude protein yield in alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock and stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profitab...

  3. Rapid Evolution of Coral Proteins Responsible for Interaction with the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voolstra, Christian R.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Matz, Mikhail V.; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; DeSalvo, Michael K.; Lindquist, Erika; Szmant, Alina M.; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Medina, Monica

    2011-01-31

    Background: Corals worldwide are in decline due to climate change effects (e.g., rising seawater temperatures), pollution, and exploitation. The ability of corals to cope with these stressors in the long run depends on the evolvability of the underlying genetic networks and proteins, which remain largely unknown. A genome-wide scan for positively selected genes between related coral species can help to narrow down the search space considerably. Methodology/Principal Findings: We screened a set of 2,604 putative orthologs from EST-based sequence datasets of the coral species Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata to determine the fraction and identity of proteins that may experience adaptive evolution. 7percent of the orthologs show elevated rates of evolution. Taxonomically-restricted (i.e. lineagespecific) genes show a positive selection signature more frequently than genes that are found across many animal phyla. The class of proteins that displayed elevated evolutionary rates was significantly enriched for proteins involved in immunity and defense, reproduction, and sensory perception. We also found elevated rates of evolution in several other functional groups such as management of membrane vesicles, transmembrane transport of ions and organic molecules, cell adhesion, and oxidative stress response. Proteins in these processes might be related to the endosymbiotic relationship corals maintain with dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Conclusion/Relevance: This study provides a birds-eye view of the processes potentially underlying coral adaptation, which will serve as a foundation for future work to elucidate the rates, patterns, and mechanisms of corals? evolutionary response to global climate change.

  4. Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings - 4S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuler, Eberhard; König, Ralf; Becker, Jürgen; Rauwerda, Gerard; Burgwal, van de Marcel; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Cardoso, João M.P.; Hübner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of the 4S project (Smart Chips for Smart Surroundings) was to define and develop efficient flexible, reconfigurable core building blocks, including the supporting tools, for future Ambient System Devices. Reconfigurability offers the needed flexibility and adaptability, it provid

  5. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namik Mammad Oglu Rashydov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986 and Fukushima (2011. The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk.

  6. Chernobyl seed project. Advances in the identification of differentially abundant proteins in a radio-contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashydov, Namik M; Hajduch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Plants have the ability to grow and successfully reproduce in radio-contaminated environments, which has been highlighted by nuclear accidents at Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011). The main aim of this article is to summarize the advances of the Chernobyl seed project which has the purpose to provide proteomic characterization of plants grown in the Chernobyl area. We present a summary of comparative proteomic studies on soybean and flax seeds harvested from radio-contaminated Chernobyl areas during two successive generations. Using experimental design developed for radio-contaminated areas, altered abundances of glycine betaine, seed storage proteins, and proteins associated with carbon assimilation into fatty acids were detected. Similar studies in Fukushima radio-contaminated areas might complement these data. The results from these Chernobyl experiments can be viewed in a user-friendly format at a dedicated web-based database freely available at http://www.chernobylproteomics.sav.sk.

  7. EFFECT OF AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT PH ON THE LEVEL OF ECTOPARASITE INFESTATION, PROTEIN AND LYSOZYME CONTENT IN SOME CYPRINID SPECIES (CYPRINIDAE)

    OpenAIRE

    L. Kurovskaya; G. Stril’ko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To study the effect of рН values of the aquatic environment on the level of ectoparasite infestation, protein and lysozyme content in organs and serum of some cyprinid species in experimental conditions. Methodology. The objects of the study were yearlings of Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus gibelio and Pseudorasbora parva caught in ponds of fish farm “Nyvka” (Kiev region) in spring. Fish were kept in experimental conditions at neutral pH water (6.8-7.2) and a temperature of 17...

  8. Aerobic Lineage of the Oxidative Stress Response Protein Rubrerythrin Emerged in an Ancient Microaerobic, (Hyper)Thermophilic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Juan P.; Quatrini, Raquel; Holmes, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Rubrerythrins (RBRs) are non-heme di-iron proteins belonging to the ferritin-like superfamily. They are involved in oxidative stress defense as peroxide scavengers in a wide range of organisms. The vast majority of RBRs, including classical forms of this protein, contain a C-terminal rubredoxin-like domain involved in electron transport that is used during catalysis in anaerobic conditions. Rubredoxin is an ancient and large protein family of short length (Fe-S center involved in electron transfer. However, functional forms of the enzyme lacking the rubredoxin-like domain have been reported (e.g., sulerythrin and ferriperoxin). In this study, phylogenomic evidence is presented that suggests that a complete lineage of rubrerythrins, lacking the rubredoxin-like domain, arose in an ancient microaerobic and (hyper)thermophilic environments in the ancestors of the Archaea Thermoproteales and Sulfolobales. This lineage (termed the “aerobic-type” lineage) subsequently evolved to become adapted to environments with progressively lower temperatures and higher oxygen concentrations via the acquisition of two co-localized genes, termed DUF3501 and RFO, encoding a conserved protein of unknown function and a predicted Fe-S oxidoreductase, respectively. Proposed Horizontal Gene Transfer events from these archaeal ancestors to Bacteria expanded the opportunities for further evolution of this RBR including adaption to lower temperatures. The second lineage (termed the cyanobacterial lineage) is proposed to have evolved in cyanobacterial ancestors, maybe in direct response to the production of oxygen via oxygenic photosynthesis during the Great Oxygen Event (GOE). It is hypothesized that both lineages of RBR emerged in a largely anaerobic world with “whiffs” of oxygen and that their subsequent independent evolutionary trajectories allowed microorganisms to transition from this anaerobic world to an aerobic one. PMID:27917155

  9. Homeodomain leucine-zipper proteins and their role in synchronizing growth and development with the environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronny Brandt; Marc Cabedo; Yakun Xie; Stephan Wenkel

    2014-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) genome encodes for four distinct classes of homeodomain leucine-zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors (HD-ZIPI to HD-ZIPIV), which are all organized in multi-gene families. HD-ZIP transcription factors act as sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that are able to control the expression level of target genes. While HD-ZIPI and HD-ZIPII proteins are mainly associated with environmental responses, HD-ZIPIII and HD-ZIPIV are primarily known to act as patterning factors. Recent studies have challenged this view. It appears that several of the different HD-ZIP families interact genetically to align both morphogenesis and environmental responses, most likely by modulating phytohormone-signal-ing networks.

  10. Effect of the environment on the protein dynamical transition: a neutron scattering study.

    OpenAIRE

    Paciaroni, Alessandro; Cinelli, Stefania; Onori, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    We performed an elastic neutron scattering investigation of the molecular dynamics of lysozyme solvated in glycerol, at different water contents h (grams of water/grams of lysozyme). The marked non-Gaussian behavior of the elastic intensity was studied in a wide experimental momentum transfer range, as a function of the temperature. The internal dynamics is well described in terms of the double-well jump model. At low temperature, the protein total mean square displacements exhibit an almost ...

  11. Rapid evolution of coral proteins responsible for interaction with the environment.

    KAUST Repository

    Voolstra, Christian R.

    2011-05-25

    Corals worldwide are in decline due to climate change effects (e.g., rising seawater temperatures), pollution, and exploitation. The ability of corals to cope with these stressors in the long run depends on the evolvability of the underlying genetic networks and proteins, which remain largely unknown. A genome-wide scan for positively selected genes between related coral species can help to narrow down the search space considerably.

  12. New Environment-Sensitive Multichannel DNA Fluorescent Label for Investigation of the Protein-DNA Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra A.; Kuznetsov, Nikita A.; Vorobjev, Yuri N.; Barthes, Nicolas P. F.; Benoît Y Michel; Alain Burger; Fedorova, Olga S.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the study of a new multichannel DNA fluorescent base analogue 3-hydroxychromone (3HC) to evaluate its suitability as a fluorescent reporter probe of structural transitions during protein-DNA interactions and its comparison with the current commercially available 2-aminopurine (aPu), pyrrolocytosine (Cpy) and 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tCO). For this purpose, fluorescent base analogues were incorporated into DNA helix on the opposite or on the 5'-side of the damaged nucleoside...

  13. Protein method for investigating mercuric reductase gene expression in aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunseitan, O A

    1998-02-01

    A colorimetric assay for NADPH-dependent, mercuric ion-specific oxidoreductase activity was developed to facilitate the investigation of mercuric reductase gene expression in polluted aquatic ecosystems. Protein molecules extracted directly from unseeded freshwater and samples seeded with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21 (Rip64) were quantitatively assayed for mercuric reductase activity in microtiter plates by stoichiometric coupling of mercuric ion reduction to a colorimetric redox chain through NADPH oxidation. Residual NADPH was determined by titration with phenazine methosulfate-catalyzed reduction of methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium to produce visible formazan. Spectrophotometric determination of formazan concentration showed a positive correlation with the amount of NADPH remaining in the reaction mixture (r2 = 0.99). Mercuric reductase activity in the protein extracts was inversely related to the amount of NADPH remaining and to the amount of formazan produced. A qualitative nitrocellulose membrane-based version of the method was also developed, where regions of mercuric reductase activity remained colorless against a stained-membrane background. The assay detected induced mercuric reductase activity from 10(2) CFU, and up to threefold signal intensity was detected in seeded freshwater samples amended with mercury compared to that in mercury-free samples. The efficiency of extraction of bacterial proteins from the freshwater samples was (97 +/- 2)% over the range of population densities investigated (10(2) to 10(8) CFU/ml). The method was validated by detection of enzyme activity in protein extracts of water samples from a polluted site harboring naturally occurring mercury-resistant bacteria. The new method is proposed as a supplement to the repertoire of molecular techniques available for assessing specific gene expression in heterogeneous microbial communities impacted by mercury pollution.

  14. Tunable recombinant protein expression with E. coli in a mixed-feed environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagmeister, Patrick; Schimek, Clemens; Meitz, Andrea; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2014-04-01

    Controlling the recombinant protein production rate in Escherichia coli is of utmost importance to ensure product quality and quantity. Up to now, only the genetic construct, introduced into E. coli, and the specific growth rate of the culture were used to influence and stir the productivity. However, bioprocess technological means to control or even tune the productivity of E. coli are scarce. Here, we present a novel method for the process-technological control over the recombinant protein expression rate in E. coli. A mixed-feed fed-batch bioprocess based on the araBAD promoter expression system using both D-glucose and L-arabinose as assimilable C-sources was designed. Using the model product green fluorescent protein, we show that the specific product formation rate can be efficiently tuned even on the cellular level only via the uptake rate of L-arabinose. This novel approach introduces an additional degree of freedom for the design of recombinant bioprocesses with E. coli. We anticipate that the presented method will result in significant quality and robustness improvement as well as cost and process time reduction for recombinant bacterial bioprocesses in the future.

  15. New environment-sensitive multichannel DNA fluorescent label for investigation of the protein-DNA interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A Kuznetsova

    Full Text Available Here, we report the study of a new multichannel DNA fluorescent base analogue 3-hydroxychromone (3HC to evaluate its suitability as a fluorescent reporter probe of structural transitions during protein-DNA interactions and its comparison with the current commercially available 2-aminopurine (aPu, pyrrolocytosine (Cpy and 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tCO. For this purpose, fluorescent base analogues were incorporated into DNA helix on the opposite or on the 5'-side of the damaged nucleoside 5,6-dihydrouridine (DHU, which is specifically recognized and removed by Endonuclease VIII. These fluorophores demonstrated different sensitivities to the DNA helix conformational changes. The highest sensitivity and the most detailed information about the conformational changes of DNA induced by protein binding and processing were obtained using the 3HC probe. The application of this new artificial fluorescent DNA base is a very useful tool for the studies of complex mechanisms of protein-DNA interactions. Using 3HC biosensor, the kinetic mechanism of Endonuclease VIII action was specified.

  16. New environment-sensitive multichannel DNA fluorescent label for investigation of the protein-DNA interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Alexandra A; Kuznetsov, Nikita A; Vorobjev, Yuri N; Barthes, Nicolas P F; Michel, Benoît Y; Burger, Alain; Fedorova, Olga S

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the study of a new multichannel DNA fluorescent base analogue 3-hydroxychromone (3HC) to evaluate its suitability as a fluorescent reporter probe of structural transitions during protein-DNA interactions and its comparison with the current commercially available 2-aminopurine (aPu), pyrrolocytosine (Cpy) and 1,3-diaza-2-oxophenoxazine (tCO). For this purpose, fluorescent base analogues were incorporated into DNA helix on the opposite or on the 5'-side of the damaged nucleoside 5,6-dihydrouridine (DHU), which is specifically recognized and removed by Endonuclease VIII. These fluorophores demonstrated different sensitivities to the DNA helix conformational changes. The highest sensitivity and the most detailed information about the conformational changes of DNA induced by protein binding and processing were obtained using the 3HC probe. The application of this new artificial fluorescent DNA base is a very useful tool for the studies of complex mechanisms of protein-DNA interactions. Using 3HC biosensor, the kinetic mechanism of Endonuclease VIII action was specified.

  17. Highly activatable and environment-insensitive optical highlighters for selective spatiotemporal imaging of target proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomonori; Komatsu, Toru; Kamiya, Mako; Campos, Cláudia; González-Gaitán, Marcos; Terai, Takuya; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Nagano, Tetsuo; Urano, Yasuteru

    2012-07-11

    Optical highlighters are photoactivatable fluorescent molecules that exhibit pronounced changes in their spectral properties in response to irradiation with light of a specific wavelength and intensity. Here, we present a novel design strategy for a new class of caged BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene) fluorophores, based on the use of photoremovable protecting groups (PRPGs) with high reduction potentials that serve as both a photosensitive unit and a fluorescence quencher via photoinduced electron transfer (PeT). 2,6-Dinitrobenzyl (DNB)-caged BODIPY was efficiently photoactivated, with activation ratios exceeding 600-fold in aqueous solutions. We then combined this photoactivatable fluorophore with a SNAP (mutant of O(6)-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase) ligand to obtain a small-molecule-based optical highlighter for visualization of protein dynamics, using the well-established SNAP tag technology. As proof of concept, we demonstrate spatiotemporal imaging of the fusion protein of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with SNAP tag in living cells. We also demonstrate highlighting of cells of interest in live zebrafish embryos, using the fusion protein of histone 2A with SNAP tag.

  18. The Interstellar Cloud Surrounding the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, P. C.

    Ultraviolet spectral data of nearby stars indicate that the cloud surrounding the solar system has an average neutral density n(HI)~0.1 cm-3, temperature ~6800 K, and turbulence ~1.7 km/s. Comparisons between the anomalous cosmic ray data and ultraviolet data suggest that the electron density is in the range n(e-)~0.22 to 0.44 cm-3. This cloud is flowing past the Sun from a position centered in the Norma-Lupis region. The cloud properties are consistent with interstellar gas which originated as material evaporated from the surfaces of embedded clouds in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association, and which was then displaced towards the Sun by a supernova event about 4 Myrs ago. The Sun and surrounding cloud velocities are nearly perpendicular in space, and this cloud is sweeping past the Sun. The morphology of this cloud can be reconstructed by assuming that the cloud moves in a direction parallel to the surface normal. With this assumption, the Sun entered the surrounding cloud 2000 to 8000 years ago, and is now about 0.05 to 0.16 pc from the cloud surface. Prior to its recent entry into the surrounding cloud complex, the Sun was embedded in a region of space with average density lower than 0.0002 cm-3. If a denser cloud velocity component seen towards alpha Cen A,B is real, it will encounter the solar system within 50,000 yr. The nearby magnetic field seen upwind has a spatial orientation that is parallel to the cloud surface. The nearby star Sirius is viewed through the wake of the solar system, but this direction also samples the hypothetical cloud interface. Comparisons of anomalous cosmic ray and interstellar absorption line data suggest that trace elements in the surrounding cloud are in ionization equilibrium. Data towards nearby white dwarfs indicate partial helium ionization, N(N(HI)(/N(HeI)>~13.7, which is consistent with pickup ion data within the solar system if less than 40% hydrogen ionization occurs in the heliopause region. However, the white dwarfs may

  19. A permeability barrier surrounds taste buds in lingual epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Robin; Pereira, Elizabeth; Kurian, Mani; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within the lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells in taste buds. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (Michlig et al. J Comp Neurol 502: 1003-1011, 2007). We tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents penetration of many, but not all, compounds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply, into taste buds. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans, as it was disrupted by chondroitinase but, less effectively, by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by brief treatment of lingual tissue samples with DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.

  20. Involvement of the G-protein-coupled receptor 4 in RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okito, Asuka [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthodontic Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nakahama, Ken-ichi, E-mail: nakacell@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Akiyama, Masako [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Takashi [Department of Orthodontic Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Morita, Ikuo [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-03-06

    Osteoclast activity is enhanced in acidic environments following systemic or local inflammation. However, the regulatory mechanism of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts under acidic conditions is not fully understood. In the present paper, we detected the mRNA expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) proton sensors GPR4 and GPR65 (T-cell death-associated gene 8, TDAG8), in osteoblasts. RANKL expression and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) level in osteoblasts were up-regulated under acidic culture conditions. Acidosis-induced up-regulation of RANKL was abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. To clarify the role of GPR4 in RANKL expression, GPR4 gain and loss of function experiments were performed. Gene knockdown and forced expression of GPR4 caused reduction and induction of RANKL expression, respectively. These results suggested that, at least in part, RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment was mediated by cAMP/PKA signaling resulting from GPR4 activation. A comprehensive microarray analysis of gene expression of osteoblasts revealed that, under acidic conditions, the phenotype of osteoblasts was that of an osteoclast supporting cell rather than that of a mineralizing cell. These findings will contribute to a molecular understanding of bone disruption in an acidic environment. - Highlights: • RANKL expression was increased in osteoblasts under acidosis via cAMP/PKA pathway. • GRP4 knockdown resulted in decrease of RANKL expression. • GRP4 overexpression resulted in increase of RANKL expression. • Osteoblast mineralization was reduced under acidic condition.

  1. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  2. The Location Analysis of Commercial Environment Surrounding Urban Mosque——A Case Study of Dongguan Mosque in Xining%城市清真寺周边商业环境的空间区位分析——以青海西宁东关大寺为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明洁; 艾少伟; 陈肖飞

    2013-01-01

    The location analysis of commercial environment surrounding urban mosque has important theoretical significance for the interpretation of a special commercial location. The space of the commercial industry of the Dongguan Mosque on Xining is not uniformed. According to the belt specialization coefficient, the spatial distribution pattern has divided into thin zone, dense zone and highly dense zone. It is found that, firstly, the commercial industries is not evenly distributed surrounding Xining Dongguan mosque, and the spatial distribution can be divided into sparse, intensive and highly intensive zones based on the belt specialization coefficient. Secondly, the commercial location is quite different as the different nature of Muslim commercial industries surrounding the urban mosque, and the intensive zone of commercial industries is not necessarily located in the urban main roads, on the contrary, the urban branches located in the better location condition may grow into the intensive zone of commercial industries. At the same time, the urban commercial industries have significant spatial dependency on big mosque with the spatial characteristics close to mosques, and are strongly spatial sensitivity to Hui residential communities and urban traffic convenience. But there exists the differences of this spatial sensitivity because of the tradition and modernity of Muslim commercial industries. Finally, Muslims' traditional commercial industries mainly rely on the daily life of Muslims, and have more spatial sensitivity to the mosques and Hui residential communities. On the other hand, Muslims' modern commercial industries are dependent on the consumer market and population threshold, and have more spatial sensitivity to urban traffic convenience and commercial center, so the Muslims' modern commercial industries are located in the way of spot or belt.%以城市清真寺周边商业环境为研究对象进行空间区位分析,对于阐释特殊商业空间区位具

  3. Structural Adaptation of a Thermostable Biotin-binding Protein in a Psychrophilic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Amit; Bayer, Edward A.; Livnah, Oded

    2012-01-01

    Shwanavidin is an avidin-like protein from the marine proteobactrium Shewanella denitrificans, which exhibits an innate dimeric structure while maintaining high affinity toward biotin. A unique residue (Phe-43) from the L3,4 loop and a distinctive disulfide bridge were shown to account for the high affinity toward biotin. Phe-43 emulates the function and position of the critical intermonomeric Trp that characterizes the tetrameric avidins but is lacking in shwanavidin. The 18 copies of the apo-monomer revealed distinctive snapshots of L3,4 and Phe-43, providing rare insight into loop flexibility, binding site accessibility, and psychrophilic adaptation. Nevertheless, as in all avidins, shwanavidin also displays high thermostability properties. The unique features of shwanavidin may provide a platform for the design of a long sought after monovalent form of avidin, which would be ideal for novel types of biotechnological application. PMID:22493427

  4. Identification of -SiC surrounded by relatable surrounding diamond medium using weak Raman surface phonons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohan Kumar Kuntumalla; Harish Ojha; Vadali Venkata Satya Siva Srikanth

    2013-11-01

    It is difficult to detect -SiC using micro-Raman scattering, if it is surrounded by carbon medium. Here, -SiC is identified in the presence of a relatable surrounding diamond medium using subtle, but discernible Raman surface phonons. In this study, diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin film system is considered in which nanosized -SiC crystallites are surrounded by a relatable nanodiamond medium that leads to the appearance of a weak Raman surface phonon band at about 855 cm-1. Change in the nature of the surrounding material structure and its volume content when relatable, will affect the resultant Raman response of -SiC phase as seen in the present case of diamond/-SiC nanocomposite thin films.

  5. Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Protein Protein is found throughout the body—in muscle, ... the heart and respiratory system, and death. All Protein Isn’t Alike Protein is built from building ...

  6. Photopatterning Proteins and Cells in Aqueous Environment Using TiO2 Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Demura, Takanori; Sekine, Kohei; Kono, Sho; Niwano, Michio; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi

    2015-10-26

    Organic contaminants adsorbed on the surface of titanium dioxide (TiO2) can be decomposed by photocatalysis under ultraviolet (UV) light. Here we describe a novel protocol employing the TiO2 photocatalysis to locally alter cell affinity of the substrate surface. For this experiment, a thin TiO2 film was sputter-coated on a glass coverslip, and the TiO2 surface was subsequently modified with an organosilane monolayer derived from octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), which inhibits cell adhesion. The sample was immersed in a cell culture medium, and focused UV light was irradiated to an octagonal region. When a neuronal cell line PC12 cells were plated on the sample, cells adhered only on the UV-irradiated area. We further show that this surface modification can also be performed in situ, i.e., even when cells are growing on the substrate. Proper modification of the surface required an extracellular matrix protein collagen to be present in the medium at the time of UV irradiation. The technique presented here can potentially be employed in patterning multiple cell types for constructing coculture systems or to arbitrarily manipulate cells under culture.

  7. Camouflaging in a Complex Environment—Octopuses Use Specific Features of Their Surroundings for Background Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Noam Josef; Piero Amodio; Graziano Fiorito; Nadav Shashar

    2012-01-01

    Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to "blend in." To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiment...

  8. Explaining preferences for home surroundings and locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    : avoiding social nuisances, preferring social homogeneity and living close to one’s social network and place of origin. The study shows that most people have many detailed preferences, whereas some have very few. This confirms an earlier theory that some people are very connected to certain places...... with given characteristics and thus do not have priorities regarding home surroundings and locations. For others, mostly young people and singles, home is just a place to sleep and relax, whereas life is lived elsewhere. For this group, there are only preferences for location and there are few specific...

  9. Use of an Anaerobic Chamber Environment for the Assay of Endogenous Cellular Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Li

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases have a catalytic cysteine residue whose reduced state is integral to the reaction mechanism. Since exposure to air can artifactually oxidize this highly reactive thiol, PTPase assays have typically used potent reducing agents to reactivate the enzymes present; however, this approach does not allow for the measurement of the endogenous PTPase activity directly isolated from the in vivo cellular environment. Here we provide a method for using an anaerobic chamber to preserve the activity of the total PTPase complement in a tissue lysate or of an immunoprecipitated PTPase homolog to characterize their endogenous activation state. Comparison with a sample treated with biochemical reducing agents allows the determination of the activatable (reducible fraction of the endogenous PTPase pool.

  10. Gene-Environment Interactions Target Mitogen-activated Protein 3 Kinase 1 (MAP3K1) Signaling in Eyelid Morphogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongan, Maureen; Meng, Qinghang; Wang, Jingjing; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Puga, Alvaro; Xia, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions determine the biological outcomes through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Mouse embryonic eyelid closure is a well defined model to study the genetic control of developmental programs. Using this model, we investigated how exposure to dioxin-like environmental pollutants modifies the genetic risk of developmental abnormalities. Our studies reveal that mitogen-activated protein 3 kinase 1 (MAP3K1) signaling is a focal point of gene-environment cross-talk. Dioxin exposure, acting through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), blocked eyelid closure in genetic mutants in which MAP3K1 signaling was attenuated but did not disturb this developmental program in either wild type or mutant mice with attenuated epidermal growth factor receptor or WNT signaling. Exposure also markedly inhibited c-Jun phosphorylation in Map3k1+/− embryonic eyelid epithelium, suggesting that dioxin-induced AHR pathways can synergize with gene mutations to inhibit MAP3K1 signaling. Our studies uncover a novel mechanism through which the dioxin-AHR axis interacts with the MAP3K1 signaling pathways during fetal development and provide strong empirical evidence that specific gene alterations can increase the risk of developmental abnormalities driven by environmental pollutant exposure. PMID:26109068

  11. Probing membrane protein interactions with their lipid raft environment using single-molecule tracking and Bayesian inference analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvan Türkcan

    Full Text Available The statistical properties of membrane protein random walks reveal information on the interactions between the proteins and their environments. These interactions can be included in an overdamped Langevin equation framework where they are injected in either or both the friction field and the potential field. Using a Bayesian inference scheme, both the friction and potential fields acting on the ε-toxin receptor in its lipid raft have been measured. Two types of events were used to probe these interactions. First, active events, the removal of cholesterol and sphingolipid molecules, were used to measure the time evolution of confining potentials and diffusion fields. Second, passive rare events, de-confinement of the receptors from one raft and transition to an adjacent one, were used to measure hopping energies. Lipid interactions with the ε-toxin receptor are found to be an essential source of confinement. ε-toxin receptor confinement is due to both the friction and potential field induced by cholesterol and sphingolipids. Finally, the statistics of hopping energies reveal sub-structures of potentials in the rafts, characterized by small hopping energies, and the difference of solubilization energy between the inner and outer raft area, characterized by higher hopping energies.

  12. Specific leaf mass, fresh: dry weight ratio, sugar and protein contents in species of Lamiaceae from different light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Castrillo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples from eleven species of Lamiaceae were collected from different light environments in Venezuela for laboratory analysis.The studied species were: Plectranthus scutellarioides (Ps, Scutellaria purpurascens (Sp, Hyptis pectinata (Hp, H. sinuata (Hs, Leonorus japonicus (Lj, Plecthranthus amboinicus (Pa Ocimum basilicum (Ocb, O.campechianum (Occ Origanum majorana (Orm, Rosmarinus officinali ,(Ro and Salvia officinalis (So. Protein and soluble sugar contents per unit of area were measured, Specific Leaf Mass (SLMand fresh: dry weight (FW/DW ratios were calculated. The higher values for soluble sugars contents were present in sun species: Lj, Pa, Ocb, Occ, Or. m, Ro and So; the lower values were obtained in low light species: Ps, Sp, Hp, Hs. The values of protein content do not show any clear trend or difference between sun and shade environments. The lowest values for the fresh weight: dry weight ratio are observed in sun species with the exception of Lj and Pa, while the highest value is observed in Pa, a succulent plant. The higher values of specific leaf mass (SLM(Kg DMm-2 are observed in sun plants. The two way ANOVA revealed that there were significant differences among species and between sun and low light environments for sugar content and FW: DW ratio, while SLM was significant for environments but no significant for species, and not significant for protein for both species and environments. The soluble sugar content, FW: DW ratio and SLM values obtained in this work, show a clear separation between sun and shade plants. The sugar content and FW:DW ratio are distinctive within the species,and the light environment affected sugar content, FW:DW ratio and SLM. These species may be shade-tolerant and able to survive in sunny environments. Perhaps these species originated in shaded environments and have been adapting to sunny habitats.Rev.Biol.Trop.53(1-2:23-28.Epub 2005 Jun 24En once especies de la familia Lamiaceae: Plecthranthus

  13. Triggered Star Formation Surrounding Wolf-Rayet Star HD 211853

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tie; Wu, Yuefang; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-05-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 103 cm-3 and kinematic temperature ~20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core "A," which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the "collect and collapse" process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core "A" seem to be affected by the "radiation-driven implosion" process.

  14. Triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei; Qin, Sheng-Li

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet star HD 211853 is studied in molecular emission, infrared emission, as well as radio and HI emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10$^{3}$ cm$^{-3}$ and kinematic temperature $\\sim$20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From SED modeling towards the young stellar objects (YSOs), sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the Wolf-Rayet star to the molecular ring. A small scale sequential star formation is revealed towards core A, which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations is thus suggested. The presence of PDR, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, the large scale sequential star formation indicate the "Collect and Collapse" process functions in this region. The star forming activities in core A seem to be affected by the "Radiation-Driven Implosion" (...

  15. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  16. Opportunity's Surroundings After Sol 1820 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,820th to 1,822nd Martian days, or sols, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 7 to 9, 2009). South is at the center; north at both ends. The rover had driven 20.6 meters toward the northwest on Sol 1820 before beginning to take the frames in this view. Tracks from that drive recede southwestward. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and small exposures of lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Exploiting Surrounding Text for Retrieving Web Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Noah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Web documents contain useful textual information that can be exploited for describing images. Research had been focused on representing images by means of its content (low level description such as color, shape and texture, little research had been directed to exploiting such textual information. The aim of this research was to systematically exploit the textual content of HTML documents for automatically indexing and ranking of images embedded in web documents. A heuristic approach for locating and assigning weight surrounding web images and a modified tf.idf weighting scheme was proposed. Precision-recall measures of evaluation had been conducted for ten queries and promising results had been achieved. The proposed approach showed slightly better precision measure as compared to a popular search engine with an average of 0.63 and 0.55 relative precision measures respectively.

  18. Cell multiplication, apoptosis and p-Akt protein expression of bone mesenchymal stem cells of rat under hypoxia environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongliang Kong; Ningning Liu; Xin Huo; Bo Wang; Haipeng Zhang; Mingyu Gao; Guoxian Qi

    2007-01-01

    Objective :To elucidate whether cell multiplication, apoptosis, glucose intake and p-Akt protein expression of bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells(MSCs) of rats is influenced by a hypoxic environment ex vivo. Methods:Passage 3 of bone marrow MSCs taken from Wistar rats, were cultured in a culturing chamber with 94%N2,1%O2, 5%CO2 at 37℃. At different hypoxia time points, 0,0.5,1,4 and 8 h, glucose uptake was assayed by using radiation isotope 3H-G, Apoptotic Rate(AR) and dead rate(DR) were analyzed by flow cytometry(FCM) after Annexin V/PI staining, cell multiplication(by MTT methods) and p-Akt protein by immunocytochemistry and western blot. Results:Assay for CD29+,CD44+,CD71+,CD34-, Tn T+(after 5-azacytidine agent inducing) and ALP+(after bone differentiation agent inducing) suggested these bone-derived cells were MSCs. The 3H-G intaking ratio (CPM/flask value:157 ± 11,110 ± 11,107 ± 13,103 ± 10,100 ± 9 and 98 ± 10) of MSCs at different hypoxia time points, significantly decreased compared to that of normoxia(P < 0.01) and tended to descend slowly with hypoxia time duration, for which there was no statistical significance(P > 0.05). The AR(0.09 ± 2.03%,12.9 ± 1.72%,13.7 ± 2.26%,13.8 ± 3.01% ,14.1 ± 2.78% and 14.7 ±4.01% at 0,0.5,1,4 and 8 h,respectively,P < 0.01) and DR (0.04 ± 1.79% ,0.93 ± 1.85% ,3.11 ± 2.14%,4.09 ± 2.36% ,4.72 ±2.05% and 4.91 ± 3.72% at 0,0.5,1,4 and 8 h, respectively, P < 0.05) at different hypoxia time points significantly increased compared to those time in normoxia; The AR further went up with time (P < 0.05), however there was no statistical significance(P > 0.05) for the DR. Optical absorption value of MTT methods at different hypoxia time points significantly decreased compared to those with a corresponding normoxia time (P < 0.01 ) and degraded with time (in an hypoxic environment -P < 0.01 ).IOD of p-Akt protein of MSCs at different hypoxia time points significantly increased (0.367 ± 0.031,0.556 ± 0

  19. Human resting extracellular heat shock protein 72 concentration decreases during the initial adaptation to exercise in a hot, humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Helen C.; Ferguson, Richard A.; Nimmo, Myra A.

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 is a cytosolic protein that also is present in the circulation. Extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) is inducible by exercise and is suggested to act as a danger signal to the immune system. The adaptive response of eHsp72 to repeated exercise-heat exposures in humans remains to be determined. An intracellular animal study found a reduced Hsp72 response, with no change in resting levels, during heat stress after a single day of passive heat acclimation. The current study therefore tested whether adaptations in human eHsp72 levels would similarly occur 24 hours after a single exercise-heat exposure. Seven males completed cycle exercise (42.5% V̇O2peak for 2 hours) in a hot, humid environment (38°C, 60% relative humidity) on each of 2 consecutive days. Blood samples were obtained from an antecubital vein before exercise and 0 hours and 22 hours postexercise for the analysis of eHsp72. Exercise-heat stress resulted in enhanced eHsp72, with a similar absolute increase found on both days (day 1: 1.26 ng/mL [0.80 ng/mL]; day 2: 1.29 ng/mL [1.60 ng/mL]). Resting eHsp72 decreased from rest on day 1 to day 2's 22-hour postexercise sample (P < 0.05). It is suggested that the reduction in resting eHsp72 after 2 consecutive exercise-heat exposures is possibly due to an enhanced removal from the circulation, for either immunoregulatory functions, or for improved cellular stress tolerance in this initial, most stressful period of acclimation. PMID:16817318

  20. The lithosphere-asthenosphere Italy and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Panza, G F; Chimera, G; Pontevivo, A; Raykova, R

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by surface wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion. Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithosphere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, identified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the principal recent volcanoes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria a lithospheric doubling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenosphere properties delineat...

  1. The lithosphere-asthenosphere: Italy and surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GiulianoF.Panza; AntonellaPontevivo; GiordanoChimera; RenetaRaykova; AbdelkrimAoudia

    2003-01-01

    The velocity-depth distribution of the lithosphere-asthenosphere in the Italian region and surroundings is imaged, with a lateral resolution of about 100 km, by sur-face wave velocity tomography and non-linear inversion.Maps of the Moho depth, of the thickness of the lithos-phere and of the shear-wave velocities, down to depths of 200 km and more, are constructed. A mantle wedge, iden-tified in the uppermost mantle along the Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, underlies the prmctpat recent votca-noes, and partial melting can be relevant in this part of the uppermost mantle. In Calabria, a lithospheric dou-bling is seen, in connection with the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. The asthenosphere is shallow in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. High velocity bodies, cutting the asthenosphere, outline the Adria-lonian subduction in the Tyrrhenian Sea and the deep-reaching lithospheric root in the Western Alps. Less deep lithospheric roots are seen in the Central Apennines. The lithosphere-asthenos-phere properties delineate a differentiation between the northern and the southern sectors of the Adriatic Sea,likely attesting the fragmentation of Adria.

  2. Preliminary design of surrounding heliostat fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, Francisco J. [Zaragoza University, Dpto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, CPS-B, Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Recently, the author has shown elsewhere a simplified model that allows quick evaluations of the annual overall energy collected by a surrounding heliostat field. This model is the combination of an analytical flux density function produced by a heliostat, developed by the own author, and an optimized mirror density distribution developed by University of Houston for the Solar One Project. As main conclusion of this previous work, it was recognized that such pseudo-continuous simplified model should not substitute much more accurate discrete evaluations, which manage thousands of individual heliostat coordinates. Here in this work, the difficulty of generating a preliminary discrete layout of a large number of heliostats is addressed. The main novelty is the direct definition of thousands of heliostat coordinates through basically two parameters i.e. a simplified blocking factor and an additional security distance. Such procedure, which was formerly theoretically suggested by the author, is put into practice here, showing examples and commenting their problems and advantages. Getting a previous set of thousands of heliostat coordinates would be a major first step in the complex process of designing solar power tower (SPT). (author)

  3. Coordination Environment of Cu(II) Ions Bound to N-Terminal Peptide Fragments of Angiogenin Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrì, Antonio; Munzone, Alessia; Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Hansson, Orjan; Satriano, Cristina; Rizzarelli, Enrico; La Mendola, Diego

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenin (Ang) is a potent angiogenic factor, strongly overexpressed in patients affected by different types of cancers. The specific Ang cellular receptors have not been identified, but it is known that Ang-actin interaction induces changes both in the cell cytoskeleton and in the extracellular matrix. Most in vitro studies use the recombinant form (r-Ang) instead of the form that is normally present in vivo ("wild-type", wt-Ang). The first residue of r-Ang is a methionine, with a free amino group, whereas wt-Ang has a glutamic acid, whose amino group spontaneously cyclizes in the pyro-glutamate form. The Ang biological activity is influenced by copper ions. To elucidate the role of such a free amino group on the protein-copper binding, we scrutinized the copper(II) complexes with the peptide fragments Ang(1-17) and AcAng(1-17), which encompass the sequence 1-17 of angiogenin (QDNSRYTHFLTQHYDAK-NH₂), with free amino and acetylated N-terminus, respectively. Potentiometric, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) studies demonstrate that the two peptides show a different metal coordination environment. Confocal microscopy imaging of neuroblastoma cells with the actin staining supports the spectroscopic results, with the finding of different responses in the cytoskeleton organization upon the interaction, in the presence or not of copper ions, with the free amino and the acetylated N-terminus peptides.

  4. Identification of cAMP-dependent phosphorylated proteins involved in the formation of environment-resistant resting cysts by the terrestrial ciliate Colpoda cucullus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Sogame

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the terrestrial ciliate Colpoda cucullus, an elevation of the intracellular cAMP concentration was reported to be involved in environment-resistant resting cyst formation. In the present study, cAMP-dependently phosphorylated proteins of encystment-induced C. cucullus were isolated with Phos-tag agarose phosphate-affinity beads and subsequent SDS-PAGE. In a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of these phosphoproteins, 27-, 37- and 43-kDa proteins (p27, p37 and p43 were identified as Rieske iron-sulfur protein, histone H4 (hyperacetylated form, and actin, respectively.

  5. Molecular gas and triggered star formation surrounding Wolf-Rayet stars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei

    2012-01-01

    The environments surrounding nine Wolf-Rayet stars were studied in molecular emission. Expanding shells were detected surrounding these WR stars (see left panels of Figure 1). The average masses and radii of the molecular cores surrounding these WR stars anti-correlate with the WR stellar wind velocities (middle panels of Figure 1), indicating the WR stars has great impact on their environments. The number density of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) is enhanced in the molecular shells at $\\sim$5 arcmin from the central WR star (lower-right panel of Figure 1). Through detailed studies of the molecular shells and YSOs, we find strong evidences of triggered star formation in the fragmented molecular shells (\\cite[Liu et al. 2010]{liu_etal12}

  6. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies to nuclear matrix proteins of tissues surrounding esophagus cancer and its preliminary identification%食管癌旁组织核基质蛋白单克隆抗体的制备及初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新梅; 林汉良; 刘乐和; 张昌卿; 钟叔平; 曾金云; 郑克立

    2000-01-01

    目的 制备抗食管癌旁组织核基质蛋白的特异性单抗。方法 SDS-PAGE分析正常食管组织、食管癌旁组织及 食管癌组织核基质蛋白间的差异。用食管癌旁组织核基质蛋白做免疫原免疫Balb/c小鼠,利用杂交瘤技术制备了5株能稳定 分泌单克隆抗体的杂交瘤细胞株,并对9-1-2/D、9-1-7/D 2株细胞作了初步鉴定。结果 免疫组化分析发现9-1-2/D单抗与食管 癌及正常食管组织均有反应,而9-1-7/D单抗只与食管癌组织反应,与正常食管组织无反应。Western Blotting分析显示: 9-1-2/D单抗与电泳图谱上正常食管组织核基质和食管癌旁组织核基质52 kD的蛋白反应,而与食管癌组织核基质55 kD的蛋 白反应。9-1-7/D单抗只与电泳图谱上食管癌旁组织及癌组织核基质46 kD的蛋白反应,与正常食管组织核基质无反应。结论 本实验为食管癌的早期诊断作了初步有意义的探讨。%Objective To prepare anti-nuclear matrix proteins of tissues surrounding esophagus cancer monoclonal anti- bodies. Methods Differences among nuclear matrix proteins (NMPS) of normal esophagus tissues, esophagus cancer tissues and tissues adjacent to cancer were identified by SDS-PAGE. Balb/c mouse were hyperimmunized with NMPS of tissues adja- cent to esophagus cancer. Five mouse lymphocyte hybridoma cell lines were established and preliminary identification of cell lines 9-1-2/D, 9-1-7/D were made. Results Immunohistochemical analysis showed monoclonal antibody 9-1-2/D reacted both with esophagus cancer and normal esophageal tissues; monoclonal antibody 9-1-7/D reacted only with nucleoli of esophagus cancer cells. Western Blotting analysis showed monoclonal antibody 9-1-2/D reacted with 52 kD NMPS of normal esophagus tissues and tissues adjacent to esophagus cancer and reacted with 55 kD NMP of esophagus cancer tissue. Monoclonal anti- body 9-1-7/D reacted only with 46 kD protein of esophagus cancer

  7. GECluster: a novel protein complex prediction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lingtao; Liu, Guixia; Wang, Han; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zhihui; Han, Liang; Yan, Lun

    2014-07-04

    Identification of protein complexes is of great importance in the understanding of cellular organization and functions. Traditional computational protein complex prediction methods mainly rely on the topology of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks but seldom take biological information of proteins (such as Gene Ontology (GO)) into consideration. Meanwhile, the environment relevant analysis of protein complex evolution has been poorly studied, partly due to the lack of high-precision protein complex datasets. In this paper, a combined PPI network is introduced to predict protein complexes which integrate both GO and expression value of relevant protein-coding genes. A novel protein complex prediction method GECluster (Gene Expression Cluster) was proposed based on a seed node expansion strategy, in which a combined PPI network was utilized. GECluster was applied to a training combined PPI network and it predicted more credible complexes than peer methods. The results indicate that using a combined PPI network can efficiently improve protein complex prediction accuracy. In order to study protein complex evolution within cells due to changes in the living environment surrounding cells, GECluster was applied to seven combined PPI networks constructed using the data of a test set including yeast response to stress throughout a wine fermentation process. Our results showed that with the rise of alcohol concentration, protein complexes within yeast cells gradually evolve from one state to another. Besides this, the number of core and attachment proteins within a protein complex both changed significantly.

  8. Interaction of massive stars with their surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Due to their short lifetimes but their enormous energy release in all stages of their lives massive stars are the major engines for the comic matter circuit. They affect not only their close environment but are also responsible to drive mass flows on galactic scales. Recent 2D models of radiation-driven and wind-blown HII regions are summarized which explore the impact of massive stars to the interstellar medium but find surprisingly small energy transfer efficiencies while an observable Carbon self-enrichment in the Wolf-Rayet phase is detected in the warm ionized gas. Finally, the focus is set on state-of-the-art modelling of HII regions and its present weaknesses with respect to uncertainties and simplifications but on a perspective of the requested art of their modelling in the 21st century.

  9. The physics of positively biased conductors surrounded by dielectrics in contact with a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Chang, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    The physics of a positively biased conductor surrounded by dielectrics in contact with plasma is investigated. It is shown that because of the presence of secondary emission from the surrounding dielectrics, the voltage of the surfaces near the conductor has three solutions. The high- and low-voltage solutions are stable, while the intermediate-voltage solution is unstable. This theory is applied to explain the snapover effect observed on high-voltage solar arrays that involve the use of highly biased surfaces in contact with the space environment.

  10. Applications of cell-free protein synthesis in synthetic biology: Interfacing bio-machinery with synthetic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Myung

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic biology is built on the synthesis, engineering, and assembly of biological parts. Proteins are the first components considered for the construction of systems with designed biological functions because proteins carry out most of the biological functions and chemical reactions inside cells. Protein synthesis is considered to comprise the most basic levels of the hierarchical structure of synthetic biology. Cell-free protein synthesis has emerged as a powerful technology that can potentially transform the concept of bioprocesses. With the ability to harness the synthetic power of biology without many of the constraints of cell-based systems, cell-free protein synthesis enables the rapid creation of protein molecules from diverse sources of genetic information. Cell-free protein synthesis is virtually free from the intrinsic constraints of cell-based methods and offers greater flexibility in system design and manipulability of biological synthetic machinery. Among its potential applications, cell-free protein synthesis can be combined with various man-made devices for rapid functional analysis of genomic sequences. This review covers recent efforts to integrate cell-free protein synthesis with various reaction devices and analytical platforms. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Democratizing rendering for multiple viewers in surround VR systems

    KAUST Repository

    Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    We present a new approach for how multiple users\\' views can be rendered in a surround virtual environment without using special multi-view hardware. It is based on the idea that different parts of the screen are often viewed by different users, so that they can be rendered from their own view point, or at least from a point closer to their view point than traditionally expected. The vast majority of 3D virtual reality systems are designed for one head-tracked user, and a number of passive viewers. Only the head tracked user gets to see the correct view of the scene, everybody else sees a distorted image. We reduce this problem by algorithmically democratizing the rendering view point among all tracked users. Researchers have proposed solutions for multiple tracked users, but most of them require major changes to the display hardware of the VR system, such as additional projectors or custom VR glasses. Our approach does not require additional hardware, except the ability to track each participating user. We propose three versions of our multi-viewer algorithm. Each of them balances image distortion and frame rate in different ways, making them more or less suitable for certain application scenarios. Our most sophisticated algorithm renders each pixel from its own, optimized camera perspective, which depends on all tracked users\\' head positions and orientations. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. The structural feature surrounding glycated lysine residues in human hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigenori; Nakahari, Takashi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2011-06-01

    Complications derived from diabetes mellitus are caused by nonenzymatic protein glycation at the specific sites. LC/MS/MS was performed for the identification of the tryptic peptides of glycated hemoglobins using glyceraldehyde. After the identification of the glycation or non-glycation site, computer analysis of the structure surrounding the sites was carried out using PDB data (1BZ0). Five glycated lysine residues (Lys-16(α), -56(α), -8(β), -82(β), and -144(β)) and four non-glycated lysine residues (Lys-7(α), -40(α), -99(α), and -132(β)) were identified. The non-glycated lysine residues, Lys-7(α), -40(α), and -132(β), are most likely to form electrostatic interactions with the β carboxyl group of Asp-74(α), C-terminal His-146(β), and Glu-7(β) by virtue of their proximity, which is 2.67-2.91 Å (N-O). Additionally, there are histidine residues within 4.55-7.38 Å (N-N) around eight sites except for Lys-7(α). We conclude that the following factors seem to be necessary for glycation of lysine residues: (i) the apparent absence of aspartate or glutamate residues to inhibit the glycation reaction by forming an electrostatic interaction, (ii) the presence of histidine residues for acid-base catalysis of the Amadori rearrangement, and (iii) the presence of an amino acid residue capable of stabilizing a phosphate during proton transfer.

  13. Reactivity of disulfide bonds is markedly affected by structure and environment: implications for protein modification and stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Maryam; Ignasiak, Marta T.; Chan, Bun; Croft, Anna K.; Radom, Leo; Schiesser, Carl H.; Pattison, David I.; Davies, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    Disulfide bonds play a key role in stabilizing protein structures, with disruption strongly associated with loss of protein function and activity. Previous data have suggested that disulfides show only modest reactivity with oxidants. In the current study, we report kinetic data indicating that selected disulfides react extremely rapidly, with a variation of 104 in rate constants. Five-membered ring disulfides are particularly reactive compared with acyclic (linear) disulfides or six-membered rings. Particular disulfides in proteins also show enhanced reactivity. This variation occurs with multiple oxidants and is shown to arise from favorable electrostatic stabilization of the incipient positive charge on the sulfur reaction center by remote groups, or by the neighboring sulfur for conformations in which the orbitals are suitably aligned. Controlling these factors should allow the design of efficient scavengers and high-stability proteins. These data are consistent with selective oxidative damage to particular disulfides, including those in some proteins.

  14. Reactivity of disulfide bonds is markedly affected by structure and environment: implications for protein modification and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Maryam; Ignasiak, Marta T; Chan, Bun; Croft, Anna K; Radom, Leo; Schiesser, Carl H; Pattison, David I; Davies, Michael J

    2016-12-12

    Disulfide bonds play a key role in stabilizing protein structures, with disruption strongly associated with loss of protein function and activity. Previous data have suggested that disulfides show only modest reactivity with oxidants. In the current study, we report kinetic data indicating that selected disulfides react extremely rapidly, with a variation of 10(4) in rate constants. Five-membered ring disulfides are particularly reactive compared with acyclic (linear) disulfides or six-membered rings. Particular disulfides in proteins also show enhanced reactivity. This variation occurs with multiple oxidants and is shown to arise from favorable electrostatic stabilization of the incipient positive charge on the sulfur reaction center by remote groups, or by the neighboring sulfur for conformations in which the orbitals are suitably aligned. Controlling these factors should allow the design of efficient scavengers and high-stability proteins. These data are consistent with selective oxidative damage to particular disulfides, including those in some proteins.

  15. Overexpression and purification of U24 from human herpesvirus type-6 in E. coli: unconventional use of oxidizing environments with a maltose binding protein-hexahistine dual tag to enhance membrane protein yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus Suzana K

    2011-06-01

    hypothesis is supported by the fact that use of minimal media could enhance protein production compared to nutrient-rich LB media. Conclusions We have found optimal conditions for heterologous expression of U24 from Human Herpesvirus type-6 in E.coli and have demonstrated that milligram quantities of pure protein can be obtained. Strained metabolic conditions such as low temperature, minimal media and an oxidizing environment appeared essential for high-level, full-length protein production and this information may be useful for expressing other membrane proteins of interest.

  16. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of ribosomal proteins coded in S10 and spc operons rapidly classified the Sphingomonadaceae as alkylphenol polyethoxylate-degrading bacteria from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Yudai; Sato, Hiroaki; Hosoda, Akifumi; Tamura, Hiroto

    2012-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using ribosomal subunit proteins coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon as biomarkers was applied for the classification of the Sphingomonadaceae from the environment. To construct a ribosomal protein database, S10-spc-alpha operon of type strains of the Sphingomonadaceae and their related alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO(n) )-degrading bacteria were sequenced using specific primers designed based on nucleotide sequences of genome-sequenced strains. The observed MALDI mass spectra of intact cells were compared with the theoretical mass of the constructed ribosomal protein database. The nine selected biomarkers coded in the S10-spc-alpha operon, L18, L22, L24, L29, L30, S08, S14, S17, and S19, could successfully distinguish the Sphingopyxis terrae NBRC 15098(T) and APEO(n) -degrading bacteria strain BSN20, despite only one base difference in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. This method, named the S10-GERMS (S10-spc-alpha operon gene-encoded ribosomal protein mass spectrum) method, is a significantly useful tool for bacterial discrimination of the Sphingomonadaceae at the strain level and can detect and monitor the main APEO(n) -degrading bacteria in the environment. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimizing protein and energy intake in hospitals by improving individualized meal serving, hosting and the eating environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Mette; Beermann, Tina; Mortensen, Marie Nerup

    2017-01-01

    ). Energy intake improved for the entire group, albeit not significantly (P = 0.862). Patients reported being happy with the interventions regarding individualized food serving, nurse communication, and improved meal environments. CONCLUSION: Only insignificant improvements to overall energy intake were...

  18. THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE SURROUNDINGS OF COAL MINING ROADWAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹喜正; 侯朝炯; 李华祥

    1996-01-01

    This introduces the calculation of opaper the deformationg .the Surroundings of coaowaysand the divisi of surroundings into 5 levels by means or !fuzzy integral assess mairrx, wnlcnserves-asthe scientific basis for selecting supporting pattern of roadways and determining the, pa-rameters of support.

  19. Analysis of radioactivity levels in the surrounding of the Aube storage plant (F.M.A.-V.C.). year 2007. Presentation, results and methods; Analyse des niveaux de la radioactivite dans les environs du centre de stockage F.M.A.-V.C. de l'Aube. Annee 2007. Presentation, resultats et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The study had three objectives: to collect information that explain the impact of the Aube storage center (C.S.A.) on environment and allow to evaluate the consequences for man, secondly, to build a referential for any future inquiry or follow-up, thirdly, to allow to the local commission of information to elaborate an information towards the side residents and local actors that take into account their questions. Trees, waters, sediments, soils, grass, products of gardens and vineyards were the object of sampling, their dosimetry is given in this report. Other dosimetry measures were made along the nuclear site and the results are equally in this report. (N.C.)

  20. One Octarepeate Expansion to the Human Prion Protein Alters Both the Zn2plus and Cu2plus Coordination Environments within the Octarepeate Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Shearer; K Rosenkoetter; P Callan; C Pham

    2011-12-31

    The influence of a single octarepeat expansion on the Cu{sup II} and Zn{sup II} coordination environments within the octarepeat domain of the human prion protein is examined. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and diethyl pyrocarbonate labeling studies, we find that at low copper concentrations the 'normal' octarepeat domain (four PHGGGWGQ repeats) coordinates Zn{sup II} in an (N/O){sub 6} coordination environment with two histidine residues and Cu{sup II} in a redox-inactive (N/O){sub 4} coordination environment using one imidazole residue. Expansion of the octarepeat region by one repeat (five PHGGGWGQ repeats) yields a three-histidine (N/O){sub 6} coordination environment for Zn{sup II} and a two-histidine (N/O){sub 4} coordination environment for Cu{sup II} at low copper concentrations. This Cu{sup II}[(N/O){sub 2}-histidine{sub 2}] coordination motif is redox-active and capable of generating H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under reducing aerobic conditions.

  1. Camouflaging in a Complex Environment—Octopuses Use Specific Features of Their Surroundings for Background Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josef, Noam; Amodio, Piero; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-01-01

    Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to “blend in.” To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiments show that when camouflaging, Octopus cyanea and O. vulgaris base their body patterns on selected features of nearby objects rather than attempting to match a large field of view. Such an approach enables the octopus to camouflage in partly occluded environments and to solve the problem of differences in appearance as a function of the viewing inclination of the observer. PMID:22649542

  2. The activities and perspectives of improvement the polluted waste in surrounding rivers in Bucim mine area

    OpenAIRE

    Danevski, Tome; Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Aleksandar; Gocev, Zivko

    2013-01-01

    The presentation of the influence that the tailing dump or waste as well as the flotation hydro-tailing dump over the environment around the region of copper mine Bucim, surrounding rivers, places, villages, appearance of dust, pollution of ambient air and mine tailing pond. Generally speaking, the monitoring will be done for two periods. The first analysis relating to the period from the year 2005, and the second analysis relating to the period from the year 2010/2012. The monitoring ...

  3. Correlation of cell surface proteins of distinct Beauveria bassiana cell types and adaption to varied environment and interaction with the host insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Jiang, Hongyan; Zhao, Xin; Lu, Zhuoyue; Luo, Zhibing; Li, Xuebing; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Yongjun

    2017-02-01

    The insect fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana produces a number of distinct cell types that include aerial conidia, blastospores and haemolymph-derived cells, termed hyphal bodies, to adapt varied environment niches and within the host insect. These cells display distinct biochemical properties and surface structures, and a highly ordered outermost brush-like structure uniquely present on hyphal bodies, but not on any in vitro cells. Here, we found that the outermost structure on the hyphal bodies mainly consisted of proteins associated to structural wall components in that most of it could be removed by dithiothreitol (DTT) or proteinase K. DTT-treatment also caused delayed germination, decreased tolerance to ultraviolet irradiation and virulence of conidia or blastospores, with decreased adherence and alternated carbohydrate epitopes, suggesting involvement in fungal development, stress responses and virulence. To characterize these cell surface molecules, proteins were released from the living cells using DTT, and identified and quantitated using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry. Thereafter, a series of bioinformatics programs were used to predict cell surface-associated proteins (CSAPs), and 96, 166 and 54 CSAPs were predicted from the identified protein pools of conidia, blastospores and hyphal bodies, respectively, which were involved in utilization of carbohydrate, nitrogen, and lipid, detoxification, pathogen-host interaction, and likely other cellular processes. Thirteen, sixty-nine and six CSAPs were exclusive in conidia, blastospores and hyphal bodies, respectively, which were verified by eGFP-tagged proteins at their N-terminus. Our data provide a crucial cue to understand mechanism of B. bassiana to adapt to varied environment and interaction with insect host.

  4. Rain Simulation for the Test of Automotive Surround Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasirlioglu, Sinan; Riener, Andreas; Doric, Igor

    2017-04-01

    The WHO Global Health Observatory data indicates that over 1.25 million people die in traffic accidents annually. To save lives, car manufacturers spend lot of efforts on the development of novel safety systems aiming to avoid or mitigate accidents and provide maximum protection for vehicle occupants as well as vulnerable road users. All the safety features mainly rely on data from surround sensors such as radar, lidar and camera and intelligent vehicles today use these environmental data for instant decision making and vehicle control. As already small errors in sensor data measurements could lead to catastrophes like major injuries or road traffic fatalities, it is of utmost importance to ensure high reliability and accuracy of sensors and safety systems. This work focuses on the influence of environmental factors such as rain conditions, as it is known that rain drops scatter the electromagnetic waves. The result is incorrect measurements with a direct negative impact on environment detection. To identify potential problems of sensors under varying environmental conditions, systems are today tested in real-world settings with two main problems: First, tests are time-consuming and second, environmental conditions are not reproducible. Our approach to test the influence of weather on automotive sensors is to use an indoor rain simulator. Our artificial rain maker, installed at CARISSMA (Center of Automotive Research on Integrated Safety Systems and Measurement Area), is parametrized with rain characteristics measured in the field using a standard disdrometer. System behavior on artificial rain is compared and validated with natural rainfall. With this simulator it is finally possible to test environmental influence at various levels and under reproducible conditions. This saves lot of efforts required for the test process itself and furthermore has a positive impact on the reliability of sensor systems due to the fact that test driven development is enabled.

  5. Black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in Rastall theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarzade, Y.; Darabi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we obtain uncharged∖charged Kiselev-like black holes as a new class of black hole solutions surrounded by perfect fluid in the context of Rastall theory. Then, we study the specific cases of the uncharged∖charged black holes surrounded by regular matter like dust and radiation, or exotic matter like quintessence, cosmological constant and phantom fields. By comparing the Kiselev-like black hole solutions in Rastall theory with the Kiselev black hole solutions in GR, we find an effective perfect fluid behavior for the black hole's surrounding field. It is shown that the corresponding effective perfect fluid has interesting characteristic features depending on the different ranges of the parameters in Rastall theory. For instance, Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by regular matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by exotic matter in GR, or Kiselev-like black holes surrounded by exotic matter in Rastall theory may be considered as Kiselev black holes surrounded by regular matter in GR.

  6. Surround suppression and sparse coding in visual and barrel cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert N S Sachdev

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During natural vision the entire retina is stimulated. Likewise, during natural tactile behaviors, spatially extensive regions of the somatosensory surface are co-activated. The large spatial extent of naturalistic stimulation means that surround suppression, a phenomenon whose neural mechanisms remain a matter of debate, must arise during natural behavior. To identify common neural motifs that might instantiate surround suppression across modalities, we review models of surround suppression and compare the evidence supporting the competing ideas that surround suppression has either cortical or sub-cortical origins in visual and barrel cortex. In the visual system there is general agreement lateral inhibitory mechanisms contribute to surround suppression, but little direct experimental evidence that intracortical inhibition plays a major role. Two intracellular recording studies of V1, one using naturalistic stimuli (Haider et al., 2010, the other sinusoidal gratings (Ozeki et al., 2009, sought to identify the causes of reduced activity in V1 with increasing stimulus size, a hallmark of surround suppression. The former attributed this effect to increased inhibition, the latter to largely balanced withdrawal of excitation and inhibition. In rodent primary somatosensory barrel cortex, multi-whisker responses are generally weaker than single whisker responses, suggesting multi-whisker stimulation engages similar surround suppressive mechanisms. The origins of suppression in S1 remain elusive: studies have implicated brainstem lateral/internuclear interactions and both thalamic and cortical inhibition. Although the anatomical organization and instantiation of surround suppression in the visual and somatosensory systems differ, we consider the idea that one common function of surround suppression, in both modalities, is to remove the statistical redundancies associated with natural stimuli by increasing the sparseness or selectivity of sensory

  7. Atomic view of the histidine environment stabilizing higher-pH conformations of pH-dependent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valéry, Céline; Deville-Foillard, Stéphanie; Lefebvre, Christelle; Taberner, Nuria; Legrand, Pierre; Meneau, Florian; Meriadec, Cristelle; Delvaux, Camille; Bizien, Thomas; Kasotakis, Emmanouil; Lopez-Iglesias, Carmen; Gall, Andrew; Bressanelli, Stéphane; Le Du, Marie-Hélène; Paternostre, Maïté; Artzner, Franck

    2015-07-20

    External stimuli are powerful tools that naturally control protein assemblies and functions. For example, during viral entry and exit changes in pH are known to trigger large protein conformational changes. However, the molecular features stabilizing the higher pH structures remain unclear. Here we elucidate the conformational change of a self-assembling peptide that forms either small or large nanotubes dependent on the pH. The sub-angstrom high-pH peptide structure reveals a globular conformation stabilized through a strong histidine-serine H-bond and a tight histidine-aromatic packing. Lowering the pH induces histidine protonation, disrupts these interactions and triggers a large change to an extended β-sheet-based conformation. Re-visiting available structures of proteins with pH-dependent conformations reveals both histidine-containing aromatic pockets and histidine-serine proximity as key motifs in higher pH structures. The mechanism discovered in this study may thus be generally used by pH-dependent proteins and opens new prospects in the field of nanomaterials.

  8. Slide preparation for single-cell-resolution imaging of fluorescent proteins in their three-dimensional near-native environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippert, H.J.G.; Schepers, A.G.; Delconte, G.; Siersema, P.D.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many mouse models have been developed to mark and trace the fate of adult cell populations using fluorescent proteins. High-resolution visualization of such fluorescent markers in their physiological setting is thus an important aspect of adult stem cell research. Here we describe a

  9. Chemical evolution of life-like system under hydrothermal environments: prebiotic formation, degradation, and functions regarding protein-like molecules and RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kunio

    The accumulation of biopolymers without enzymes is an essential step for the chemical evolu-tion towards a primitive life-like system. Previously, we discussed the relationship between the RNA world hypothesis and the hydrothermal origin of life hypothesis on the basis of the em-pirical data of RNA behaviors under the hydrothermal environments examined using real-time monitoring technique for hydrothermal reactions within the millisecond to second time scale. On the other hand, we have also examined the stabilities and behaviors of amino acids, pep-tides, and proteins under the hydrothermal environments. These observations have shown the possibility that oligopeptides could have been accumulated under near submarine hydrother-mal vent environments on primitive Earth within the relatively short time scale. However, the formation of oligopeptides under the simulated hydrothermal conditions is not so effective in the absence of catalysts and condensation agents. Thus, the investigation of the roles of min-eral catalysis and condensation reagents are very important since these materials could have enhanced efficiently the formation of peptides and stabilize primitive protein-like molecules. Recently, we investigated the roles of condensation reagents for the elongation of oligopeptides in the presence of minerals. In addition, we have designed a mineral-mediated hydrothermal flow reactor system (MHFR), which enables monitoring hydrothermal reactions in the presence of solid particles. By using MHFR, we attempted to examine naturally occurring minerals, such as apatite and quartz, for the elongation of oligopeptides at temperatures over 200 o C within 10 -30 sec. According to these data, the chemical evolution of protein-like molecules on primitive Earth will be discussed.

  10. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real‐world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  11. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searching. Secondly, the multiview geometry constraint derived from the relative camera positions in pairs of consecutive stereo views is exploited for surrounding moving obstacles detection. Thirdly, an adaptive particle filter is proposed for tracking of multiple moving obstacles in surrounding areas. Experimental results from real-world driving sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed framework.

  12. Traditional Indian custOInS surrounding birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traditional custOIns surrounding birth in Indian culture. ... conception, pregnancy, birth and the early months ofparenthood. .... house attended by a traditional birth attendant of a ..... Spiritual components play a dominant role in traditional.

  13. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  14. Surrounding Moving Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Driving Using Stereo Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Sun; Huanxin Zou; Shilin Zhou; Cheng Wang; Naser El-Sheimy

    2013-01-01

    Detection and tracking surrounding moving obstacles such as vehicles and pedestrians are crucial for the safety of mobile robotics and autonomous vehicles. This is especially the case in urban driving scenarios. This paper presents a novel framework for surrounding moving obstacles detection using binocular stereo vision. The contributions of our work are threefold. Firstly, a multiview feature matching scheme is presented for simultaneous stereo correspondence and motion correspondence searc...

  15. "Tilt" in color space: Hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The perceived color of a chromatic stimulus is influenced by the chromaticity of its surround. To investigate these influences along the dimension of hue, we measured hue changes induced in stimuli of different hues by isoluminant chromatic surrounds. Generally, induced hue changes were directed in color space away from the hue of the inducing surround and depended on the magnitude on the hue difference between stimulus and surround. With increasing difference in hue between stimulus and surround, induced hue changes increased up to a maximum and then decreased for larger differences. This qualitative pattern was similar for different inducers, but quantitatively, induction was weaker along some directions in cone-opponent color space than along other directions. The strongest induction effects were found along an oblique, blue-yellow axis that corresponds to the daylight axis. The overall pattern of the induction effect shows similarities to the well-known tilt effect, where shifts in perceived angle of oriented stimuli are induced by oriented surrounds. This suggests analogous neural representations and similar mechanisms of contextual processing for different visual features such as orientation and color.

  16. Control of Formation of Lithological Reservoirs by Surrounding Mudstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Taking the Jiyang depression as an example, this paper discusses the control of the formation of lithological reservoir by surrounding rocks by integrated application of geological analysis, physical simulation, and the analysis of oil & gas accumulation mechanism. Geological statistical shows that the major burial depth and interval of lithological reservoirs in the Jiyang depression are related to the hydrocarbon generation in and expulsion from the Lower Tertiary source rocks and the time of the formation of most lithological reservoirs coincides with the peak of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion. The lithological traps located in the center of effective source rocks are propitious to high oil saturation than those located on the margin of effective source rocks. The hydrocarbon charge degree of the lithological reservoir has a positive correlation with the intensity of hydrocarbon expulsion from surrounding source rocks.Geological analyses and NMR experiments also show that the oil saturation of surrounding source rocks control the hydrocarbon potential of lithological traps, and a critical value for oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is required, that is, when the oil saturation of surrounding mudstone is lower than this critical value, no oil and gas accumulate in the lithological trap. The control of surrounding mudstone on the oil-bearing properties of lithological reservoirs is also analyzed by the mechanisms of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion as well as accumulation.

  17. 3D Room Visualization on Android Based Mobile Device (with Philips™’ Surround Sound Music Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durio Etgar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This project’s specifically purposed as a demo application, so anyone can get the experience of a surround audio room without having to physically involved to it, with a main idea of generating a 3D surround sound room scenery coupled with surround sound in a handier package, namely, a “Virtual Listen Room”. Virtual Listen Room set a foundation of an innovative visualization that later will be developed and released as one of way of portable advertisement. This application was built inside of Android environment. Android device had been chosen as the implementation target, since it leaves massive development spaces and mostly contains essential components needed on this project, including graphic processor unit (GPU.  Graphic manipulation can be done using an embedded programming interface called OpenGL ES, which is planted in all Android devices generally. Further, Android has a Accelerometer Sensor that is needed to be coupled with scene to produce a dynamic movement of the camera. Surround sound effect can be reached with a decoder from Phillips called MPEG Surround Sound Decoder. To sum the whole project, we got an application with sensor-dynamic 3D room visualization coupled with Philips’ Surround Sound Music Player. We can manipulate several room’s properties; Subwoofer location, Room light, and how many speakers inside it, the application itself works well despite facing several performance problems before, later to be solved. [Keywords : Android,Visualization,Open GL; ES; 3D; Surround Sensor

  18. Interdependencia de la expansión urbana y el medio ambiente circundante. Causas de su degradación Interdependance of urban sprawl and surrounding environment. Causes for its Degradation Interdependência da expansão urbana e do meio ambiente. Causas da sua degradação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bazant S.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las ciudades de la región latinoamericana se expanden incontroladamente para atender la enorme demanda social de todos los niveles de ingreso. En este proceso irreversible de crecimiento demográfico y expansión urbana, las ciudades se convierten en ávidas consumidoras de recursos naturales, principalmente agua, que después de ser utilizada es vertida en un alto porcentaje sobre cauces a cielo abierto. También son vertidos todos los desechos sólidos o basura, residuos del consumo doméstico en comidas. Al tomar como caso estudio una ciudad media en México, el objetivo del artículo es analizar este proceso de incesante expansión urbana y las graves consecuencias ambientales que esta genera. La metodología plantea el análisis de consumo-desecho por nivel socioeconómico y se derivan conclusiones a lo largo del texto sobre cuáles son los grupos que mayor daño ocasionan al medio ambiente. Latin American cities expand without control to attend the huge social demand in every income level. In this irreversible process of growth and urban expansion, cities become in impulsive consumers of natural resources, mainly water, which after being used is thrown on riverbeds in opencast. All solid wastes or trash and wastes of domestic consumption of food are thrown there too. Taking this as a study case in a middle city of Mexico, the aim of this article is to analyze this unstoppable expansion process and the environmental consequences that result from it. As the methodology he analyzes the relationship between consumption and waste in different socioeconomic levels and some conclusions are made about the groups that have more negative impacts in the environment. As cidades da América Latina estão se expandindo de forma incontrolável para atender a enorme demanda social em todo nível de renda. Neste processo irreversível de crescimento populacional e expansão urbana, as cidades tornam-se ávidas consumidoras de recursos naturais

  19. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  20. Context-dependent protein folding of a virulence peptide in the bacterial and host environments: structure of an SycH–YopH chaperone–effector complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vujanac, Milos; Stebbins, C. Erec, E-mail: stebbins@rockefeller.edu [The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The structure of a SycH–YopH chaperone–effector complex from Yersinia reveals the bacterial state of a protein that adopts different folds in the host and pathogen environments. Yersinia pestis injects numerous bacterial proteins into host cells through an organic nanomachine called the type 3 secretion system. One such substrate is the tyrosine phosphatase YopH, which requires an interaction with a cognate chaperone in order to be effectively injected. Here, the first crystal structure of a SycH–YopH complex is reported, determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure reveals the presence of (i) a nonglobular polypeptide in YopH, (ii) a so-called β-motif in YopH and (iii) a conserved hydrophobic patch in SycH that recognizes the β-motif. Biochemical studies establish that the β-motif is critical to the stability of this complex. Finally, since previous work has shown that the N-terminal portion of YopH adopts a globular fold that is functional in the host cell, aspects of how this polypeptide adopts radically different folds in the host and in the bacterial environments are analysed.

  1. The role of enamel proteins in protecting mature human enamel against acidic environments: a double layer force spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubarsky, Gennady V; D'Sa, Raechelle A; Deb, Sanjukta; Meenan, Brian J; Lemoine, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Characterisation of the electrostatic properties of dental enamel is important for understanding the interfacial processes that occur on a tooth surface and how these relate to the natural ability of our teeth to withstand chemical attack from the acids in many soft drinks. Whereas, the role of the mineral component of the tooth enamel in providing this resistance to acid erosion has been studied extensively, the influence of proteins that are also present within the structure is not well understood. In this paper, we report for the first time the use of double-layer force spectroscopy to directly measure electrostatic forces on as received and hydrazine-treated (deproteinated) enamel surfaces in solutions with different pH to determine how the enamel proteins influence acid erosion surface potential and surface charge of human dental enamel. The deproteination of the treated samples was confirmed by the loss of the amide bands (~1,300-1,700 cm(-1)) in the FTIR spectrum of the sample. The force characteristics observed were found to agree with the theory of electrical double layer interaction under the assumption of constant potential and allowed the surface charge per unit area to be determined for the two enamel surfaces. The values and, importantly, the sign of these adsorbed surface charges indicates that the protein content of dental enamel contributes significantly to the electrostatic double layer formation near the tooth surface and in doing so can buffer the apatite crystals against acid attack. Moreover, the electrostatic interactions within this layer are a driving factor for the mineral transfer from the tooth surface and the initial salivary pellicle formation.

  2. Influence of a polarizable surrounding on the electronically excited states of aggregated perylene materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Daniel; Settels, Volker; Liu, Wenlan; Fink, Reinhold F; Engels, Bernd

    2016-06-30

    To tune the efficiency of organic semiconductor devices it is important to understand limiting factors as trapping mechanisms for excitons or charges. An understanding of such mechanisms deserves an accurate description of the involved electronical states in the given environment. In this study, we investigate how a polarizable surrounding influences the relative positions of electronically excited states of dimers of different perylene dyes. Polarization effects are particularly interesting for these systems, because gas phase computations predict that the CT states lie slightly above the corresponding Frenkel states. A polarizable environment may change this energy order because CT states are thought to be more sensitive to a polarizable surrounding than Frenkel states. A first insight we got via a TD-HF approach in combination with a polarizable continuum model (PCM). These give limited insights because TD-HF overestimates excitation energies of CT states. However, SCS-CC2 approaches, which are sufficiently accurate, cannot easily be used in combination with continuum solvent models. Hence, we developed two approaches to combine gas phase SCS-CC2 results with solvent effects based on TD-HF computations. Their accuracies were finally checked via ADC(2)//COSMO computations. The results show that for perylene dyes a polarizable surrounding alone does not influence the energetic ordering of CT and Frenkel states. Variations in the energy order of the states only result from nuclear relaxation effects after the excitation process. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Role of protein environment and bioactive polymer grafting in the S. epidermidis response to titanium alloy for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Daniel M., E-mail: dfmvasconcelos@gmail.com [INEB — Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, R. Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (FEUP), Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Falentin-Daudré, Céline [Laboratory of Biomaterials and Specialty Polymers (LBPS-CSPBAT CNRS UMR 7244), Institut Galilée, Université Paris XIII, Sorbonne Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Blanquaert, Daniel [CERAVER, 69, rue de la Belle Etoile, 95957 Roissy Cedex (France); Thomas, Damien [Diaxonhit, 63-65 Boulevard Massena, 75013 (France); Granja, Pedro L. [INEB — Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, R. Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto (FEUP), Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Migonney, Veronique, E-mail: veronique.migonney@univ-paris13.fr [Laboratory of Biomaterials and Specialty Polymers (LBPS-CSPBAT CNRS UMR 7244), Institut Galilée, Université Paris XIII, Sorbonne Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-12-01

    Joint implant-related infections, namely by Staphylococci, are a worldwide problem, whose consequences are dramatic. Various methods are studied to fight against these infections. Here, the proposed solution consists in grafting a bioactive polymer on joint implant surfaces in order to allow the control of the interactions with the living system. In this study, sodium styrene sulfonate, bearing sulfonate groups, was grafted on the surface of titanium alloys. Scanning Electron Microscopy, colorimetric method, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were applied to characterize the surfaces. Bacterial adhesion studies were studied on poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) grafted Ti{sub 6}Al{sub 4}V and Ti{sub 6}Al{sub 4}V surfaces previously adsorbed by proteins involved in the bacteria adhesion process. Fibrinogen and fibronectin were demonstrated to increase staphylococcal adhesion on Ti{sub 6}Al{sub 4}V surfaces. Ti{sub 6}Al{sub 4}V grafted sodium styrene sulfonate surfaces inhibited the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis in 37% and 13% on pre-adsorbed surfaces with fibrinogen and fibronectin, respectively. The mechanism of the observed inhibiting bacteria adhesion properties is related to the differences of proteic conformations induced by poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) grafting. - Highlights: • Bacterial adhesion depends on the proteins adsorbed to the surface. • PolyNaSS was found to inhibit adhesion of S. epidermidis. • Roughness and the wettability contribute to the bioselectivity of the biomaterial.

  4. Migraine increases centre-surround suppression for drifting visual stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Battista

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of migraine is incompletely understood, but evidence points to hyper-responsivity of cortical neurons being a key feature. The basis of hyper-responsiveness is not clear, with an excitability imbalance potentially arising from either reduced inhibition or increased excitation. In this study, we measure centre-surround contrast suppression in people with migraine as a perceptual analogue of the interplay between inhibition and excitation in cortical areas responsible for vision. We predicted that reduced inhibitory function in migraine would reduce perceptual surround suppression. Recent models of neuronal surround suppression incorporate excitatory feedback that drives surround inhibition. Consequently, an increase in excitation predicts an increase in perceptual surround suppression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty-six people with migraine and twenty approximately age- and gender-matched non-headache controls participated. The perceived contrast of a central sinusoidal grating patch (4 c/deg stationary grating, or 2 c/deg drifting at 2 deg/sec, 40% contrast was measured in the presence and absence of a 95% contrast annular grating (same orientation, spatial frequency, and drift rate. For the static grating, similar surround suppression strength was present in control and migraine groups with the presence of the surround resulting in the central patch appearing to be 72% and 65% of its true contrast for control and migraine groups respectively (t(44 = 0.81, p = 0.42. For the drifting stimulus, the migraine group showed significantly increased surround suppression (t(44 = 2.86, p<0.01, with perceived contrast being on average 53% of actual contrast for the migraine group and 68% for non-headache controls. CONCLUSIONS: In between migraines, when asymptomatic, visual surround suppression for drifting stimuli is greater in individuals with migraine than in controls. The data provides evidence for a

  5. ProFASTA: a pipeline web server for fungal protein scanning with integration of cell surface prediction software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, P.W.J.; Brandt, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    Surface proteins, such as those located in the cell wall of fungi, play an important role in the interaction with the surrounding environment. For instance, they mediate primary host-pathogen interactions and are crucial to the establishment of biofilms and fungal infections. Surface localization of

  6. Protein engineering and its applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Swati; Rafiq, Aasima; Sharma, Savita

    2017-07-24

    Protein engineering is a young discipline that has been branched out from the field of genetic engineering. Protein engineering is based on the available knowledge about the proteins structure/function(s), tools/instruments, software, bioinformatics database, available cloned gene, knowledge about available protein, vectors, recombinant strains and other materials that could lead to change in the protein backbone. Protein produced properly from genetic engineering process means a protein that is able to fold correctly and to do particular function(s) efficiently even after being subjected to engineering practices. Protein is modified through its gene or chemically. However, modification of protein through gene is easier. There is no specific limitation of Protein Engineering tools; any technique that can lead to change the protein constituent of amino acid and result in the modification of protein structure/function is in the frame of Protein Engineering. Meanwhile, there are some common tools used to reach a specific target. More active industrial and pharmaceutical based proteins have been invented by the field of Protein Engineering to introduce new function as well as to change its interaction with surrounding environment. A variety of protein engineering applications have been reported in the literature. These applications range from biocatalysis for food and industry to environmental, medical and nanobiotechnology applications. Successful combinations of various protein engineering methods had led to successful results in food industries and have created a scope to maintain the quality of finished product after processing.

  7. 6.1 channel general planar surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Bosun

    2001-01-01

    A new 6.1 channel surround sound system and its two signal mixing methods are proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system is able to recreate 360°sound image in horizontal plane. Especially, compared with current 5.1 channel system, lateral and rear image of the new system is improved obviously. Therefore it is suitable to be used as a general surround sound system. It is also proved that, the new system is fully compatible with 5.1 channel system, and current methods are available to record 6.1 channel signals.

  8. Linking disadvantaged housing areas to the surrounding city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Several disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently undergo-ing thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to integrate them better with the surrounding city. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... that especially eve-ryday-route strategies adding new public functions within the area can pave the way for integration with the surroundings. The applicability of such strategies is however highly dependent on the context, location and existing image of the ar-ea. Social distance may sustain though physical...

  9. Characterizing hydrophobicity of amino acid side chains in a protein environment via measuring contact angle of a water nanodroplet on planar peptide network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Gao, Yurui; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng; Li, Lei; Francisco, Joseph S; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-11-15

    Hydrophobicity of macroscopic planar surface is conventionally characterized by the contact angle of water droplets. However, this engineering measurement cannot be directly extended to surfaces of proteins, due to the nanometer scale of amino acids and inherent nonplanar structures. To measure the hydrophobicity of side chains of proteins quantitatively, numerous parameters were developed to characterize behavior of hydrophobic solvation. However, consistency among these parameters is not always apparent. Herein, we demonstrate an alternative way of characterizing hydrophobicity of amino acid side chains in a protein environment by constructing a monolayer of amino acids (i.e., artificial planar peptide network) according to the primary and the β-sheet secondary structures of protein so that the conventional engineering measurement of the contact angle of a water droplet can be brought to bear. Using molecular dynamics simulations, contact angles θ of a water nanodroplet on the planar peptide network, together with excess chemical potentials of purely repulsive methane-sized Weeks-Chandler-Andersen solute, are computed. All of the 20 types of amino acids and the corresponding planar peptide networks are studied. Expectedly, all of the planar peptide networks with nonpolar amino acids are hydrophobic due to θ [Formula: see text] 90°, whereas all of the planar peptide networks of the polar and charged amino acids are hydrophilic due to θ [Formula: see text] 90°. Planar peptide networks of the charged amino acids exhibit complete-wetting behavior due to θ [Formula: see text] 0°. This computational approach for characterization of hydrophobicity can be extended to artificial planar networks of other soft matter.

  10. Role of protein environment and bioactive polymer grafting in the S. epidermidis response to titanium alloy for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Daniel M; Falentin-Daudré, Céline; Blanquaert, Daniel; Thomas, Damien; Granja, Pedro L; Migonney, Veronique

    2014-12-01

    Joint implant-related infections, namely by Staphylococci, are a worldwide problem, whose consequences are dramatic. Various methods are studied to fight against these infections. Here, the proposed solution consists in grafting a bioactive polymer on joint implant surfaces in order to allow the control of the interactions with the living system. In this study, sodium styrene sulfonate, bearing sulfonate groups, was grafted on the surface of titanium alloys. Scanning Electron Microscopy, colorimetric method, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were applied to characterize the surfaces. Bacterial adhesion studies were studied on poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) grafted Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al4V surfaces previously adsorbed by proteins involved in the bacteria adhesion process. Fibrinogen and fibronectin were demonstrated to increase staphylococcal adhesion on Ti6Al4V surfaces. Ti6Al4V grafted sodium styrene sulfonate surfaces inhibited the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis in 37% and 13% on pre-adsorbed surfaces with fibrinogen and fibronectin, respectively. The mechanism of the observed inhibiting bacteria adhesion properties is related to the differences of proteic conformations induced by poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) grafting.

  11. Investigation of the Surrounding Environment's Influence on Gait Sensing Using a Plant as a Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Hirobayashi

    2009-01-01

    In addition, we monitored the effect of a person walking on the spot near the plant on the bioelectric potential of the plant. Six subjects stepped on the spot 50 cm from a rubber tree and we measured the variation in the bioelectric potential of the tree produced by this stepping motion. The results confirmed that stepping motion produces a measurable response in the bioelectric potential of a plant and that this response varies in synchrony with the subject's stepping rate. Moreover, by conducting principal component analysis using the peak value of the spectrum characteristics of the measured bioelectric potential, cumulative proportion was found to reach nearly 97% at low-frequency components up to the fifth peak.

  12. Investigation of the radiological impact on the coastal environment surrounding a fertilizer plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Samad, O; Aoun, M; Nsouli, B; Khalaf, G; Hamze, M

    2014-07-01

    This investigation was carried out in order to assess the marine environmental radioactive pollution and the radiological impact caused by a large production plant of phosphate fertilizer, located in the Lebanese coastal zone. Natural radionuclides ((238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (210)Po, (210)Pb, (40)K) and anthropogenic (137)Cs were measured by alpha and gamma spectrometry in seawater, sediment, biota and coastal soil samples collected from the area impacted by this industry. The limited environmental monitoring program within 2 km of the plant indicates localized contamination with radionuclides of the uranium decay chain mainly due to the transport, the storage of raw materials and the free release of phosphogypsum waste.

  13. Report of findings: Contaminant study of the environment surrounding the Cape Romanzof Long Range Radar Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cape Romanzof Long Range Radar Site (Cape Romanzof) contains many petroleum-related spills and hazardous substances. Therefore, in 1987 and 1988 a field study...

  14. The impact of displaced people's temporary shelters on their surrounding environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Thadaniti; S. Chantavanich; K. U-Sha; B. Lambregts; J. Bhiromkaew; S. Wijitkosum; V. Prombang; S. Toommakorn

    2014-01-01

    This book presents an overview of environmental issues and impacts associated with temporary shelters for displaced people along the Thai-Myanmar border, and offers recommendations to improve the environmental conditions in and around the settlements. Out of nine such temporary shelters, three were

  15. 3D Room Visualization on Android Based Mobile Device (with Philips™’ Surround Sound Music Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durio Etgar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This project’s specifically purposed as a demo application, so anyone can get the experience of a surround audio room without having to physically involved to it, with a main idea of generating a 3D surround sound room scenery coupled with surround sound in a handier package, namely, a “Virtual Listen Room”. Virtual Listen Room set a foundation of an innovative visualization that later will be developed and released as one of way of portable advertisement. This application was built inside of Android environment. Android device had been chosen as the implementation target, since it leaves massive development spaces and mostly contains essential components needed on this project, including graphic processor unit (GPU. Graphic manipulation can be done using an embedded programming interface called OpenGL ES, which is planted in all Android devices generally. Further, Android has a Accelerometer Sensor that is needed to be coupled with scene to produce a dynamic movement of the camera. Surround sound effect can be reached with a decoder from Phillips called MPEG Surround Sound Decoder. To sum the whole project, we got an application with sensor-dynamic 3D room visualization coupled with Philips’ Surround Sound Music Player. We can manipulate several room’s properties; Subwoofer location, Room light, and how many speakers inside it, the application itself works well despite facing several performance problems before, later to be solved.

  16. Changes in the plasma membrane in metabolic disease: impact of the membrane environment on G protein-coupled receptor structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Aditya J; Miller, Laurence J

    2017-07-10

    Drug development targeting GPCRs often utilizes model heterologous cell expression systems, reflecting an implicit assumption that the membrane environment has little functional impact on these receptors or on their responsiveness to drugs. However, much recent data have illustrated that membrane components can have an important functional impact on intrinsic membrane proteins. This review is directed toward gaining a better understanding of the structure of the plasma membrane in health and disease, and how this organelle can influence GPCR structure, function and regulation. It is important to recognize that the membrane provides a potential mode of lateral allosteric regulation of GPCRs and can affect the effectiveness of drugs and their biological responses in various disease states, which can even vary among individuals across the population. The type 1 cholecystokinin receptor is reviewed as an exemplar of a class A GPCR that is affected in this way by changes in the plasma membrane. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew J; DeFries, Ruth

    2007-06-01

    Land use is expanding and intensifying in the unprotected lands surrounding many of the world's protected areas. The influence of this land use change on ecological processes is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to draw on ecological theory to provide a synthetic framework for understanding how land use change around protected areas may alter ecological processes and biodiversity within protected areas and to provide a basis for identifying scientifically based management alternatives. We first present a conceptual model of protected areas embedded within larger ecosystems that often include surrounding human land use. Drawing on case studies in this Invited Feature, we then explore a comprehensive set of ecological mechanisms by which land use on surrounding lands may influence ecological processes and biodiversity within reserves. These mechanisms involve changes in ecosystem size, with implications for minimum dynamic area, species-area effect, and trophic structure; altered flows of materials and disturbances into and out of reserves; effects on crucial habitats for seasonal and migration movements and population source/sink dynamics; and exposure to humans through hunting, poaching, exotics species, and disease. These ecological mechanisms provide a basis for assessing the vulnerability of protected areas to land use. They also suggest criteria for designing regional management to sustain protected areas in the context of surrounding human land use. These design criteria include maximizing the area of functional habitats, identifying and maintaining ecological process zones, maintaining key migration and source habitats, and managing human proximity and edge effects.

  18. Metrizamide demonstration of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, D.; Babin, E.

    1980-05-01

    The chance opacification of the subarachnoid space surrounding the Gasserian ganglion, observed during metrizamide basal cisternography, is reported. This is compared to similar demonstrations of the optic subarachnoid space. Such infrequently observed images should be known because they may be related to the occurrence of trigeminal neuralgia.

  19. Orientation-tuned surround suppression in mouse visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W; Lorteije, Jeannette A M; Vangeneugden, Joris; van Beest, Enny H; Grigore, Mihaela E; Levelt, Christiaan N; Heimel, J.A.; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2014-01-01

    The firing rates of neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) are suppressed by large stimuli, an effect known as surround suppression. In cats and monkeys, the strength of suppression is sensitive to orientation; responses to regions containing uniform orientations are more suppressed than those contai

  20. Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Maria, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    While governing bodies have mandated that all students have the right to an education, with disabled students treated to the same rights and opportunities as non-disabled students, policymakers do not always agree on what all-inclusive education should look like. "Challenges Surrounding the Education of Children with Chronic Diseases"…

  1. Military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Sohl, T.

    2008-12-01

    Land use activities greatly affect the temporal trends and spatial patterns of regional land-atmospheric exchange of carbon. Military installations generally have drastically different land management strategies from surrounding areas, and the carbon consequences have never been quantified and assessed. Here, we used the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) to simulate and compare ecosystem carbon dynamics between Fort Benning and surrounding areas from 1992 to 2050. GEMS was driven by unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes (predicted by FOREcasting SCEnarios of land cover change (FORE-SCE)). Our results indicated that the military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas (0.77 vs. 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1 averaged from 1992 to 2007). Differences in land use activities were the primary cause behind the difference in carbon sequestration rates. From 1992 to 2007, no urban/residential expansion occurred at the installation, and transitional barren (primarily caused by forest harvesting) slightly increased from 0 to 0.2%. In contrast, urban land increased from 5.6 to 7.6% and transitional barren increased from 0.1 to 0.7% in the surrounding areas. Live biomass accumulation accounted for most of the carbon sink in both Fort Benning and surrounding areas (0.75 vs. 0.15 Mg C ha-1 y-1), while soil organic carbon accumulation was small (0.02 vs. 0.01 Mg C ha- 1 y-1), suggesting biomass removal caused by urbanization and harvesting resulted in much less carbon sequestration in surrounding areas. Fort Benning is likely to sequester more carbon in the future, although the rate of carbon sequestered per year will gradually reduce. The future carbon source/sink strength in the surrounding areas varied greatly, from a small sink to a strong source, depending on the path of land use change (e.g., increase of clear

  2. General Description of Oak Ridge Site and Surrounding Areas - Hazards Evaluation, Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struxness, E. G. [ORNL

    1962-08-21

    Purposeful or accidental releases of radioactive materials to the immediate environs of ORNL and surrounding areas have been examined. Evaluation of the consequences of releases requires rather detailed knowledge of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the Iithosphere. By various means the vulnerability of the area to concentrated radioactive fallout or to radioactive Iiquids released onto or into the terrain and water courses must be determined. Factual data are provided, and an attempt has been made to relate these to the control of radioactive contamination .

  3. Gene and protein analysis of brain derived neurotrophic factor expression in relation to neurological recovery induced by an enriched environment in a rat stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kenji; Kuge, Yuji; Yokota, Chiaki; Harada, Akina; Kokame, Koichi; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Hanzawa, Hiroko; Shono, Yuji; Saji, Hideo; Minematsu, Kazuo; Tamaki, Nagara

    2011-05-20

    Although an enriched environment enhances functional recovery after ischemic stroke, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. We previously reported that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression decreased in rats housed in an enriched environment for 4 weeks compared to those housed in a standard cage for the same period. To further clarify the relationship between the decrease in BDNF and functional recovery, we investigated the effects of differential 2-week housing conditions on the mRNA of BDNF and protein levels of proBDNF and mature BDNF (matBDNF). After transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery of male Sprague-Dawley rats, we divided the rats into two groups: (1) an enriched group housed multiply in large cages equipped with toys, and (2) a standard group housed alone in small cages without toys. Behavioral tests before and after 2-week differential housing showed better neurological recovery in the enriched group than in the standard group. Synaptophysin immunostaining demonstrated that the density of synapses in the peri-infarct area was increased in the enriched group compared to the standard group, while infarct volumes were not significantly different. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunostaining all revealed no significant difference between the groups. The present results suggest that functional recovery cannot be ascribed to an increase in matBDNF or a decrease in proBDNF but rather to other underlying mechanisms.

  4. How does the protein environment optimize the thermodynamics of thiol sulfenylation? Insights from model systems to QM/MM calculations on human 2-Cys peroxiredoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Julianna; van Bergen, Laura; De Proft, Frank; Roos, Goedele

    2015-01-01

    Protein thiol/sulfenic acid oxidation potentials provide a tool to select specific oxidation agents, but are experimentally difficult to obtain. Here, insights into the thiol sulfenylation thermodynamics are obtained from model calculations on small systems and from a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) analysis on human 2-Cys peroxiredoxin thioredoxin peroxidase B (Tpx-B). To study thiol sulfenylation in Tpx-B, our recently developed computational method to determine reduction potentials relatively compared to a reference system and based on reaction energies reduction potential from electronic energies is updated. Tpx-B forms a sulfenic acid (R-SO(-)) on one of its active site cysteines during reactive oxygen scavenging. The observed effect of the conserved active site residues is consistent with the observed hydrogen bond interactions in the QM/MM optimized Tpx-B structures and with free energy calculations on small model systems. The ligand effect could be linked to the complexation energies of ligand L with CH3S(-) and CH3SO(-). Compared to QM only calculations on Tpx-B's active site, the QM/MM calculations give an improved understanding of sulfenylation thermodynamics by showing that other residues from the protein environment other than the active site residues can play an important role.

  5. Ground and excited state proton transfer of the bioactive plant flavonol robinetin in a protein environment: spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Biswa Pathik; Chaudhuri, Sudip; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Sengupta, Pradeep K

    2015-02-12

    We performed spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies to explore the interaction of the bioactive plant flavonol robinetin (3,7,3',4',5'-OH flavone), with the carrier protein human serum albumin (HSA). Multiparametric fluorescence sensing, exploiting the intrinsic "two color" fluorescence of robinetin (comprising excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and charge transfer (CT) emissions) reveals that binding to HSA significantly affects the emission and excitation profiles, with strongly blue-shifted (∼29 nm) normal fluorescence and remarkable increase in the ESIPT fluorescence anisotropy (r) and lifetime (τ). Flavonol-induced HSA (tryptophan) fluorescence quenching data yield the dynamic quenching constant (KD) as 5.42 × 10(3) M(-1) and the association constant (Ks) as 5.59 × 10(4) M(-1). Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decay studies show dramatic (∼170 times) increase in the rotational correlation time (τ(rot)), reflecting greatly enhanced restrictions in motion of robinetin in the protein matrix. Furthermore, prominent induced circular dichroism (ICD) bands appear, indicating that the chiral environment of HSA strongly perturbs the electronic transitions of the intrinsically achiral robinetin molecule. Molecular docking calculations suggest that robinetin binds in subdomain IIA of HSA, where specific interactions with basic residues promote ground state proton abstraction and stabilize an anionic species, which is consistent with spectroscopic observations.

  6. A new method to determine the structure of the metal environment in metalloproteins: investigation of the prion protein octapeptide repeat Cu(2+) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentler, Matthias; Weiss, Andreas; Grantner, Klaus; del Pino, Pablo; Deluca, Dominga; Fiori, Stella; Renner, Christian; Klaucke, Wolfram Meyer; Moroder, Luis; Bertsch, Uwe; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Tavan, Paul; Parak, Fritz G

    2005-03-01

    Since high-intensity synchrotron radiation is available, "extended X-ray absorption fine structure" spectroscopy (EXAFS) is used for detailed structural analysis of metal ion environments in proteins. However, the information acquired is often insufficient to obtain an unambiguous picture. ENDOR spectroscopy allows the determination of hydrogen positions around a metal ion. However, again the structural information is limited. In the present study, a method is proposed which combines computations with spectroscopic data from EXAFS, EPR, electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM). From EXAFS a first picture of the nearest coordination shell is derived which has to be compatible with EPR data. Computations are used to select sterically possible structures, from which in turn structures with correct H and N positions are selected by ENDOR and ESEEM measurements. Finally, EXAFS spectra are re-calculated and compared with the experimental data. This procedure was successfully applied for structure determination of the Cu(2+) complex of the octapeptide repeat of the human prion protein. The structure of this octarepeat complex is rather similar to a pentapeptide complex which was determined by X-ray structure analysis. However, the tryptophan residue has a different orientation: the axial water is on the other side of the Cu.

  7. Lead identification in soil surrounding a used lead acid battery smelter area in Banten, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adventini, N.; Santoso, M.; Lestiani, D. D.; Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Rixson, L.

    2017-06-01

    A used lead acid battery smelter generates particulates containing lead that can contaminate the surrounding environment area. Lead is a heavy metal which is harmful to health if it enters the human body through soil, air, or water. An identification of lead in soil samples surrounding formal and informal used lead acid battery smelters area in Banten, Indonesia using EDXRF has been carried out. The EDXRF accuracy and precision evaluated from marine sediment IAEA 457 gave a good agreement to the certified value. A number of 16 soil samples from formal and informal areas and 2 soil samples from control area were taken from surface and subsurface soils. The highest lead concentrations from both lead smelter were approximately 9 folds and 11 folds higher than the reference and control samples. The assessment of lead contamination in soils described in Cf index was in category: moderately and strongly polluted by lead for formal and informal lead smelter. Daily lead intake of children in this study from all sites had exceeded the recommended dietary allowance. The HI values for adults and children living near both lead smelter areas were greater than the value of safety threshold 1. This study finding confirmed that there is a potential health risk for inhabitants surrounding the used lead acid battery smelter areas in Banten, Indonesia.

  8. Study on Temperature Fieldof Surrounding Rock with BEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors analyzed the characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face, setup its mathematic model, and got its numerical result with the boundary element method(BEM). To calculate in-tra-domain integral, it was transformed into boundary integration with the DRM method. Using the similitude the-ory, the dimensionless differential equation was educed. Finally, the authors calculated two drifting faces of San-hejian Coal Mine using the computer software developed by authors based on the above principium, and got the dis-tribution characteristic of surrounding rock temperature field around a drifting face and the periodic variation intemperature with its periodic moving forward. Comparing the calculated heat dissipating-capacity of surroundingrock with the measured data shows that the computer software is proper.

  9. Experimental Study of Deformation of Surrounding Rock with Infrared Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-jun; AN Li-qian; REN Run-hou; FAN Shi-min; MA Nian-jie; LI Jian-hui; JI Yuan-ming

    2005-01-01

    According to the practical conditions of coal roadway in Changcun Coal Mine of Lu'an Mining Group, the deformation of rock surrounding roadway was experimentally studied by means of thermal infrared (TIR) imaging system in the process of confined compressions. It is found that the model surface TIR temperature (TIRT) changes with the increase of load. Furthermore, TIRT changes non-synchronously in different ranges such as the roof, floor, wall, corners and bolted ranges. The TIRT is higher in the location of stress concentration and bolted ranges than that in the location of stress relaxation and broken ranges. The interaction ranges of bolt and rock are determined preliminarily according to the corresponding relationship of TIRT fields and the strain fields of the surrounding rock. The new method of TIR image processing has been proved to be effective for the study of bolt support and observation of roadway stability under mine pressure.

  10. High resolution bathymetry of China seas and their surroundings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the oceanic lithospheric flexure and the worldwide bathymetric data ETOPO5, the high resolu tion bathymetry of the China seas and their surroundings is computed from altimeter derived gravity anomalies. The new bathymetry obtained by this study is higher resolution and accuracy than the widely used ETOPO5 data, mean while it shows clearly the seafioor, the tectonic characteristics and the geodynamical processes in the China seas.

  11. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic q...

  12. Hidden History: A Mobile Application for Discovering Surrounding Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis work describes the design, development and evaluation of a mobile application called Hidden History. This application lets users discover and explore three types of landscapes (Historic, Scenic and Cultural) using three different modes of discovery (Route, Explore and Tour). Before designing Hidden History, the feature set of other applications that help users explore surrounding landscapes were identified and analyzed. Hidden History was then designed to implement the best fea...

  13. Treatment of Postherpetic Neuralgia by Surround Needling with Electric Stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jin; YANG Qin-hua

    2005-01-01

    运用电针围刺法治疗带状疱疹后遗神经痛29例,获得较好疗效,总有效率为93.1%.%Twenty-nine cases of postherpetic neuralgia of herpes zoster were treated by the surround needling with electric stimulation, and the better therapeutic effect was obtained, the total effective rate was 93.1%.

  14. Belief and Attitudes surrounding Childhood Autism in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...

  15. THE DESIGN OF DYNAMIC SIMULATION SYSTEM ON EARTHQUAKE SURROUNDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈毅力; 杨云; 李天石

    2003-01-01

    Objective To design a system that can simulate earthquake surroundings. In the surroundings, people can be familiar with the omen, strong shock and aftershock of earthquake, thus make right choices and get away when the disaster occurs. Methods The system consists of an electro-hydraulic servo system, a whole-information sound system and some lighting device; By using the adaptive inverse control method and LMS algorithms, the inverse model (I.e. The controller) is convergent rapidly; The software based on LabVIEW makes the parameters can be modified easily; There is a double closed-loop structure in the system: an analog closed-loop and a digital closed-loop, and their parameters can be inspected in real time. Results The system is of very high reliability, and the desired vibration signal can be tracked exactly by output. Conclusion Earthquake surroundings is simulated vividly. Through the system, people can be familiar with earthquake phenomena, and know lots of knowledge of earthquake.

  16. Tissue reaction surrounding miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: An animal experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Shih-Hsuan Chen

    2012-03-01

    Results and conclusions: (1 Tissue surrounding roots damaged by a miniscrew showed a significant inflammatory response. (2 Root resorption was occasionally observed after 3 weeks following insertion of a miniscrew even if the miniscrew was not in direct contact with the root. (3 Root repair was noted with a cementoblast lining along the resorption surface at as early as 3 weeks after miniscrew insertion. Alveolar bone filled in the lesion when the root damage was large so that the contour of the alveolar bone followed that of the damaged root, with the width of the periodontal ligament space being maintained. (4 Stable miniscrews were mainly those which did not contact adjacent roots, and for which the surrounding tissue showed only a small inflammatory response with some extent of direct bone contact around the miniscrew. On the contrary, most of the failed miniscrews were those which had direct contact with adjacent roots, and which exhibited severe tissue inflammation and were covered by thick layers of soft tissue. Failure was detected 3 weeks after insertion. Surprisingly, the epithelial lining surrounding the miniscrews might not have spontaneously resolved 6 weeks after screw removal. Persistent infection in the sinus tract was noted, and this would require attention.

  17. Properties of ultrathin cholesterol and phospholipid layers surrounding silicon-carbide nanotube: MD simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyński, Przemysław; Raczyńska, Violetta; Górny, Krzysztof; Gburski, Zygmunt

    2015-08-15

    Computer simulation technique was used to study the dynamics of cholesterol and POPC phospholipid molecules forming a thin layer on the surface of the carbon and silicon-carbide nanotubes. Each nanotube was surrounded by an ultra-thin film formed by n lipid molecules, where n varies from 15 to 50. All studies were done for five temperatures, including physiological one (T=260, 285, 310, 335 and 360K). The influence of a nanotube on the dynamics of cholesterol or phospholipid molecules in a layer is presented and discussed. The water is ubiquitous in all biological milieus, where the cholesterol or lipids occur. Thus, simulations were performed in a water environment. Moreover, to show different behavior of lipids in systems with water the results were compared with the samples without it. The dynamical and structural observables, such as the mean square displacement, diffusion coefficient, radial distribution function, and activation energy were calculated to qualitatively investigate the behavior of cholesterol and phospholipid molecules in the layers. We observed remarkable differences between the cholesterol dynamics depending whether the ultrathin film surrounds carbon or silicon-carbide nanotube and whether the water environment appeared. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. How patients experience the surroundings in relation to patient participation: a qualitative study of inpatients with intestinal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyssen GD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gunvor Dichmann Thyssen, Anne BeckDepartment of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkIntroduction: Patient participation is known to improve patients' motivation, compliance, treatment results, and satisfaction with the received care. It is well known that the physical environment is of great importance in supporting patient involvement. A systematic literature search has shown a lack of articles on the subject of “surroundings” in relation to patient participation, for all patient groups.Aim: We aimed to investigate how patients with intestinal failure experience their hospital surroundings in relation to patient participation.Methods: The study included eight patients admitted for at least 2 weeks at the Intestinal Failure Unit, H8, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom. Included patients had a good level of consciousness with no confusion. The included patients participated in a semistructured interview. The interviews were analyzed using Malterud's principles of systematic text condensation.Results: The patients described that the surroundings enabled them to participate in their treatment and care. The surroundings made it possible for them and encouraged them to participate through: the possibility to seek and get information and the possibility to participate in daily activities. This led to a feeling of independence, reassurance, normality, control, responsibility, and confidence.Conclusion: The findings in this study indicate that the hospital surroundings are essential for the patients with respect to their ability to participate in their own care and treatment. The surroundings, in relation to patient participation, should be considered when planning and organizing nursing care. Further research is needed to increase the understanding of the surroundings in relation to patient participation - this research could, for eg, include the nurse's perspective

  19. PB1-F2 Influenza A Virus Protein Adopts a β-Sheet Conformation and Forms Amyloid Fibers in Membrane Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Christophe; Al Bazzal, Ali; Vidic, Jasmina; Février, Vincent; Bourdieu, Christiane; Bouguyon, Edwige; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vautherot, Jean-François; Bernard, Julie; Moudjou, Mohammed; Noinville, Sylvie; Chich, Jean-François; Da Costa, Bruno; Rezaei, Human; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein, encoded by an alternative reading frame in the PB1 polymerase gene, displays a high sequence polymorphism and is reported to contribute to viral pathogenesis in a sequence-specific manner. To gain insights into the functions of PB1-F2, the molecular structure of several PB1-F2 variants produced in Escherichia coli was investigated in different environments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that all variants have a random coil secondary structure in aqueous solution. When incubated in trifluoroethanol polar solvent, all PB1-F2 variants adopt an α-helix-rich structure, whereas incubated in acetonitrile, a solvent of medium polarity mimicking the membrane environment, they display β-sheet secondary structures. Incubated with asolectin liposomes and SDS micelles, PB1-F2 variants also acquire a β-sheet structure. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the presence of β-sheets is correlated with an oligomerization/aggregation of PB1-F2. Electron microscopy showed that PB1-F2 forms amorphous aggregates in acetonitrile. In contrast, at low concentrations of SDS, PB1-F2 variants exhibited various abilities to form fibers that were evidenced as amyloid fibers in a thioflavin T assay. Using a recombinant virus and its PB1-F2 knock-out mutant, we show that PB1-F2 also forms amyloid structures in infected cells. Functional membrane permeabilization assays revealed that the PB1-F2 variants can perforate membranes at nanomolar concentrations but with activities found to be sequence-dependent and not obviously correlated with their differential ability to form amyloid fibers. All of these observations suggest that PB1-F2 could be involved in physiological processes through different pathways, permeabilization of cellular membranes, and amyloid fiber formation. PMID:20172856

  20. PB1-F2 influenza A virus protein adopts a beta-sheet conformation and forms amyloid fibers in membrane environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Christophe; Al Bazzal, Ali; Vidic, Jasmina; Février, Vincent; Bourdieu, Christiane; Bouguyon, Edwige; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vautherot, Jean-François; Bernard, Julie; Moudjou, Mohammed; Noinville, Sylvie; Chich, Jean-François; Da Costa, Bruno; Rezaei, Human; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-04-23

    The influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein, encoded by an alternative reading frame in the PB1 polymerase gene, displays a high sequence polymorphism and is reported to contribute to viral pathogenesis in a sequence-specific manner. To gain insights into the functions of PB1-F2, the molecular structure of several PB1-F2 variants produced in Escherichia coli was investigated in different environments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that all variants have a random coil secondary structure in aqueous solution. When incubated in trifluoroethanol polar solvent, all PB1-F2 variants adopt an alpha-helix-rich structure, whereas incubated in acetonitrile, a solvent of medium polarity mimicking the membrane environment, they display beta-sheet secondary structures. Incubated with asolectin liposomes and SDS micelles, PB1-F2 variants also acquire a beta-sheet structure. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the presence of beta-sheets is correlated with an oligomerization/aggregation of PB1-F2. Electron microscopy showed that PB1-F2 forms amorphous aggregates in acetonitrile. In contrast, at low concentrations of SDS, PB1-F2 variants exhibited various abilities to form fibers that were evidenced as amyloid fibers in a thioflavin T assay. Using a recombinant virus and its PB1-F2 knock-out mutant, we show that PB1-F2 also forms amyloid structures in infected cells. Functional membrane permeabilization assays revealed that the PB1-F2 variants can perforate membranes at nanomolar concentrations but with activities found to be sequence-dependent and not obviously correlated with their differential ability to form amyloid fibers. All of these observations suggest that PB1-F2 could be involved in physiological processes through different pathways, permeabilization of cellular membranes, and amyloid fiber formation.

  1. Muscle biopsies off-set normal cellular signaling in surrounding musculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Hauerslev, Simon; Dahlqvist, Julia R

    2013-01-01

    muscle tissue for at least 3 weeks after the biopsy was performed and magnetic resonance imaging suggests that an effect of a biopsy may persist for at least 5 months. Cellular signaling after a biopsy resembles what is seen in severe limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I with respect to protein......Studies of muscle physiology and muscular disorders often require muscle biopsies to answer questions about muscle biology. In this context, we have often wondered if muscle biopsies, especially if performed repeatedly, would affect interpretation of muscle morphology and cellular signaling. We...... hypothesized that muscle morphology and cellular signaling involved in myogenesis/regeneration and protein turnover can be changed by a previous muscle biopsy in close proximity to the area under investigation. Here we report a case where a past biopsy or biopsies affect cellular signaling of the surrounding...

  2. Theoretical Investigation of the Optical Spectra of Organic Compounds in Natural Surrounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomogaev, V. A.; Artyukhov, V. Ya.

    2016-08-01

    The hybrid multiscale approximation based on molecular dynamics, quantum mechanics, and statistical theory is used to generate profiles of electronic vibrational absorption and fluorescence bands of some organic compounds and biological objects whose photophysical properties specifically depend on external conditions. A temperature dependence of the spectrum width and intensity of transition to the long-wavelength band of benzene surrounded by cyclohexane molecules is demonstrated. Statistical broadband absorption spectra for estradiol in ethanol, hexane, and dimethyl sulfoxide have been obtained and analyzed at room temperature together with a wide spectrum of transitions to numerous excited states of Trp-cage miniprotein. The absorption and emission spectra of 9-cyan anthracene have been generated under various thermodynamic conditions. This allows changes in the spectral profile with increasing temperatures and pressure to be detected. A dependence of the tryptophan spectra on the protein microsurrounding is investigated. The possibility of charge transfer from tryptophan residue to the eupatorin molecule trapped by human serum albumin is analyzed. Spectral properties and charge transfer from the excited donor to acceptor states are calculated using the polarizable embedding approach for modeling of surrounding protein structure.

  3. INTERACTIONS OF THE INFRARED BUBBLE N4 WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Li; Li, Jin-Zeng; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Huang, Maohai; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Liu, Tie [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Dubner, G.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E. [1Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Molinari, Sergio [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali—IAPS, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica—INAF, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R., E-mail: hlliu@nao.cas.cn [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)

    2016-02-10

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with H ii regions have been considered to be good samples for investigating triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the H ii region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with its surroundings and star formation histories therein, with the aim of determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2}, mean volume density of about 4.4 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup −3}, and a mean mass of 320 M{sub ⊙}. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 μm, free–free emission detected at 20 cm, and a probability density function in special regions, we could identify clear signatures of the influence of the H ii region on the surroundings. There are hints of star formation, though further investigation is required to demonstrate that N4 is the triggering source.

  4. Context-dependent protein folding of a virulence peptide in the bacterial and host environments: structure of an SycH-YopH chaperone-effector complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujanac, Milos; Stebbins, C Erec

    2013-04-01

    Yersinia pestis injects numerous bacterial proteins into host cells through an organic nanomachine called the type 3 secretion system. One such substrate is the tyrosine phosphatase YopH, which requires an interaction with a cognate chaperone in order to be effectively injected. Here, the first crystal structure of a SycH-YopH complex is reported, determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure reveals the presence of (i) a nonglobular polypeptide in YopH, (ii) a so-called β-motif in YopH and (iii) a conserved hydrophobic patch in SycH that recognizes the β-motif. Biochemical studies establish that the β-motif is critical to the stability of this complex. Finally, since previous work has shown that the N-terminal portion of YopH adopts a globular fold that is functional in the host cell, aspects of how this polypeptide adopts radically different folds in the host and in the bacterial environments are analysed.

  5. Context-dependent protein folding of a virulence peptide in the bacterial and host environments: structure of an SycH–YopH chaperone–effector complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujanac, Milos; Stebbins, C. Erec

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis injects numerous bacterial proteins into host cells through an organic nanomachine called the type 3 secretion system. One such substrate is the tyrosine phosphatase YopH, which requires an interaction with a cognate chaperone in order to be effectively injected. Here, the first crystal structure of a SycH–YopH complex is reported, determined to 1.9 Å resolution. The structure reveals the presence of (i) a nonglobular polypeptide in YopH, (ii) a so-­called β-motif in YopH and (iii) a conserved hydrophobic patch in SycH that recognizes the β-motif. Biochemical studies establish that the β-motif is critical to the stability of this complex. Finally, since previous work has shown that the N-­terminal portion of YopH adopts a globular fold that is functional in the host cell, aspects of how this polypeptide adopts radically different folds in the host and in the bacterial environments are analysed. PMID:23519663

  6. Optimization of the unhairing leather processing with enzymes and the evaluation of inter-fibrillary proteins removal: an environment-friendly alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Aline; Cavalli, Elita; Ayub, Marco A Z; Gutterres, Mariliz

    2012-10-01

    In this work is described the isolation of a new proteases-producing strain of Bacillus subtilis, screened from aerobic tannery sludge, to be applied in leather production. The optimization of culture conditions to enhance the proteolytic activity was carried out using central composite design. The enzymatic extract was characterized and the hide unhairing and the inter-fibrillary removal capabilities of the enzymatic extract were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and by the determination of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. The leather quality obtained with this enzymatic preparation was assessed for possible damages to hide collagen by measuring the amount of hydroxyproline released into the reaction medium. Temperature was the most significant factor for culture conditions optimization. The crude enzymatic extract showed the best values for proteolytic activities at pH 9 and 10, temperature between 37 and 55 °C, and showed good thermal stability up to 45 °C. The treated hides presented few remaining hairs; for the enzymatic process, the removal of inter-fibrillary proteins was approximately fourfold for glycosaminoglycans and sixfold for proteoglycans, when compared with the conventional unhairing process. The enzyme application was successful for hide treatment, suggesting that this enzymatic preparation can be used in an environment-friendly leather production to replace the conventional chemical process.

  7. Variation in Heat-shock Proteins and Photosynthetic Thermotolerance among Natural Populations of Chenopodium album L. from Contrasting Thermal Environments: Implications for Plant Responses to Global Warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepak Barua; Scott A. Heckathorn; James S. Coleman

    2008-01-01

    Production of heat-shock proteins (Hsps) is a key adaptation to acute heat stress and will be Important in determining plant responses to climate change. Further, intraspecifc variation in Hsps, which will influence species-level response to global warming, has rarely been examined in naturally occurring plants. To understand intraspeciflc variation in plant Hsps and its relevance to global warming, we examined Hsp content and thermotolerance in five naturally occurring populations of Chenopodium album L. from contrasting thermal environments grown at low and high temperatures. As expected,Hsp accumulation varied between populations, but this was related more to habitat variability than to mean temperature.Unexpectedly, Hsp accumulation decreased with increasing variability of habitat temperatures. Hsp accumulation also decreased with increased experimental growth temperatures. Physiological thermotolerance was partitioned into basal and induced components. As with Hsps, induced thermotolerance decreased with increasing temperature variability. Thus,populations native to the more stressful habitats, or grown at higher temperatures, had lower Hsp levels and induced thermotolerance, suggesting a greater reliance on basal mechanisms for thermotolerance. These results suggest that future global climate change will differentially impact ecotypes within species, possibly by selecting for increased basal versus inducible thermotolerance.

  8. Issues surrounding record keeping in district nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E E

    2000-07-01

    This article examines some aspects of nursing documentation following the publication of the document 'Guidelines for Records and Record Keeping' (UKCC, 1998). The importance of nursing documentation in patient care, in guiding practice and in providing information for members of the interprofessional healthcare team is highlighted. Record keeping forms an important part of the clinical governance initiative in terms of quality improvement and risk management. The issues surrounding the legal requirements of record keeping in district nursing practice are discussed. Suggestions are made for assessing the quality of nursing documentation by audit and research, in order to establish the suitability of using the present systems in the community setting.

  9. Induced radioactivity in a 4 MW target and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, Stefano; Otto, Thomas; Silari, Marco

    2003-01-01

    An important aspect of a future CERN Neutrino Factory is the material activation arising from a 2.2 GeV, 4 MW proton beam striking a mercury target. An estimation of the hadronic inelastic interactions and the production of residual nuclei in the target, the magnetic horn, the decay tunnel, the surrounding rock and a downstream dump was performed by the Monte Carlo hadronic cascade code FLUKA. The aim was both to assess the dose equivalent rate to be expected during maintenance work and to evaluate the amount of residual radioactivity, which will have to be disposed of after the facility has ceased operation.

  10. Mutual seismic interaction between tunnels and the surrounding granular soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-12-01

    Study results show that the maximum exerted straining actions in tunnel lining are directly proportional to the relative stiffness between tunnel and surrounding soil (lining thickness and soil shear modulus. Moreover, it is highly affected by the peak ground acceleration and the tunnel location (embedment depth. A comprehensive study is performed to show the effect of tunnel thickness and tunnel diameter on both the induced bending moment and lining deformation. In general, it is concluded that seismic analysis should be considered in regions subjected to peak ground acceleration greater than 0.15g.

  11. Problems Surrounding Probation In The South African Public Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Baloyi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate problems surrounding probation periods in the South African Public Service. A qualitative study was conducted to determine the views of both probationers and supervisors managing the probation process. Data was gathered by means of focus groups and individual interviews. Nine key areas were identified as being problematic, viz. clarity regarding the purpose of probation, lack of proper guidelines, the duration of probation, rotation during probation, lack of training, poor management of probation, performance management, anxiety and stress, power and authority. Recommendations are made concerning possible interventions.

  12. Transmission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from broiler chicken farms to surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, H; Friese, A; von Salviati, C; Guerra, B; Rösler, U

    2014-08-27

    Although previous studies have demonstrated high carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock, especially in broiler chickens, data on emission sources of these bacteria into the environment are still rare. Therefore, this study was designed to systematically investigate the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in slurry, air (inside animal houses), ambient air (outside animal houses) and on soil surfaces in the areas surrounding of seven ESBL/AmpC-positive broiler chicken fattening farms, including investigation of the possible spread of these bacteria via the faecal route and/or exhaust air into the environment. Seven German broiler fattening farms were each investigated at three points in time (3-36 h after restocking, 14-18 and 26-35 days after housing) during one fattening period. The occurrence of ESBL/AmpC genes in the investigated samples was confirmed by PCR, detecting blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCMY-genes, and, if necessary, by sequencing and/or the disc diffusion method. The results showed a wide spread of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in broiler farms, as well as emissions into the surroundings. 12 out of 14 (86%) slurry samples were positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. Additionally, 28.8% (n=23/80) of boot swabs taken from various surfaces in the areas surrounding of the farms as well as 7.5% (n=3/40) of the exhaust air samples turned out to be positive for these microorganisms. Moreover, a small proportion of air samples from inside the barns were ESBL/AmpC-positive. By comparing selected isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis, we proved that faecal and airborne transfer of ESBL/AmpC-producing microorganisms from broiler fattening farms to the surrounding areas is possible. Two isolates from farm G2 (slurry and boot swab 50 m downwind), two isolates from farm G3 (slurry and individual animal swab) as well as two isolates from farm G6 (air sample in the barn and air sample 50 m downwind) showed 100% similarity in

  13. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Goytacazes National Forest and surrounding areas of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Virgens, Thieres Marassati; Rezende, Helder Ricas; de Souza Pinto, Israel; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of the sand fly fauna in southeastern Brazil are conducted in the peridomiciliary environment of leishmaniasis endemic regions. Therefore, to increase the knowledge about diversity and richness of sand fly conservation areas, we describe here the sand fly fauna from the National Forest of Goytacazes (NFG), state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and its surroundings areas. We also used sand fly fauna records from eight conservations units within the state of Espírito Santo to understand the similarity and relationships among them. The sand flies were simultaneously collected from June, 2008 to May, 2009 in two different environments: a preserved environment represented by the NFG and a modified environment represented by a peridomicile. To establish the similarity among the conservation units, we used a method very similar to parsimony analysis of endemism. We collected 2,466 sand fly specimens belonging to 13 species. Pressatia choti and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant sand fly species. Ny. intermedia is a known vector of Leishmania braziliensis and epidemiological surveillance must be conducted in the area. We discuss aspects regarding the diversity of sand flies as well as the risk of transmission of Leishmania parasites in the area. We also provide for the first time a hypothesis of similarity relationships among conservation units within the state of Espírito Santo. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  14. Interactions of the Infrared bubble N4 with the surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hong-Li; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jing-Hua; Liu, Tie; Dubner, G; Paron, S; Ortega, M E; Molinari, Sergio; Huang, Maohai; Zavagno, Annie; Samal, Manash R; Huang, Ya-Fang; Zhang, Si-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The physical mechanisms that induce the transformation of a certain mass of gas in new stars are far from being well understood. Infrared bubbles associated with HII regions have been considered to be a good sample to investigate triggered star formation. In this paper we report on the investigation of the dust properties of the infrared bubble N4 around the HII region G11.898+0.747, analyzing its interaction with the surroundings and star formation histories therein, aiming at determining the possibility of star formation triggered by the expansion of the bubble. Using Herschel PACS and SPIRE images with a wide wavelength coverage, we reveal the dust properties over the entire bubble. Meanwhile, we are able to identify six dust clumps surrounding the bubble, with a mean size of 0.50 pc, temperature of about 22 K, mean column density of 1.7 $\\times10^{22}$ cm$^{-2}$, mean volume density of about 4.4 $\\times10^{4}$ cm$^{-3}$, and a mean mass of 320 $M_{\\odot}$. In addition, from PAH emission seen at 8 $\\mu$m, ...

  15. Radio observations of Supernova Remnants and the surrounding molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Dubner, G

    2011-01-01

    Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the main source of Galactic cosmic rays (CR). The strong SNR shocks provide ideal acceleration sites for particles of at least 10^14 eV/nucleon. Radio continuum studies of SNRs carried out with good sensitivity and high angular resolution convey information about three main aspects of the SNRs: morphology, polarization and spectrum. Based on this information it is possible to localize sites of higher compression and particle acceleration as well as the orientation and degree of order of the magnetic fields, and in some cases even its intensity. All this information, when complemented with the study of the distribution and kinematics of the surrounding interstellar gas, results in a very useful dataset to investigate the role of SNRs as cosmic ray accelerators. In this presentation, I analyze the radio observations of SNRs and surrounding molecular clouds, showing the contribution of these studies to the understanding of the role of SNRs as factories of CRs.

  16. [Vitamin D metabolism and signaling in human hepatocellular carcinoma and surrounding non-tumorous liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Evelin; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János; Lakatos, Péter András; Lazáry, Áron; Németh, Dániel; Jozilan, Hasan; Somorácz, Áron; Korompay, Anna; Gyöngyösi, Benedek; Borka, Katalin; Kiss, András; Kupcsulik, Péter; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Szalay, Ferenc

    2016-11-01

    1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3 mediates antitumor effects in hepatocellular carcinoma. We examined mRNA and protein expression differences in 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3-inactivating CYP24A1, mRNA of activating CYP27B1 enzymes, and that of VDR between human hepatocellular carcinoma and surrounding non-tumorous liver. Snap-frozen tissues from 13 patients were studied for mRNA and protein expression of CYP24A1. Paraffin-embedded tissues from 36 patients were used to study mRNA of VDR and CYP27B1. mRNA expression was measured by RT-PCR, CYP24A1 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Expression of VDR and CYP27B1 was significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with non-tumorous liver (p<0.05). The majority of the HCC samples expressed CYP24A1 mRNA, but neither of the non-tumorous liver. The gene activation was followed by CYP24A1 protein synthesis. The presence of CYP24A1 mRNA and the reduced expression of VDR and CYP27B1 mRNA in human hepatocellular carcinoma samples indicate decreased bioavailability of 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3, providing an escape mechanism from the anti-tumor effect. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(48), 1910-1918.

  17. Impact of mine tailings on surrounding soils: Case

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. ABDURAHMAN

    Article Number: AD77AF156458. ISSN 1996-0786 ... Key words: Contamination, heavy metals, soils, mine area, mine tailings, Marrakech – Morocco. INTRODUCTION ... thallium, and iron are transported to the environment (Lee and Kao, 2004 ...

  18. [The relationship between the effects of MTA on mRNA expression of four iconic proteins in cells of fetal rat skull and cell culture environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-Yuan; He, Li; Hu, Tu-qiang

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the influence of MTA on mRNA expression of Cbfa1, ALP, Col-Ⅰand BGP which are 4 kinds of iconic protein in cells of fetal rats skull, and explore its influence on cell culture environment and association of changes of calcium, phosphorus. Cells were obtained by 2 kinds of mixed enzymatic digestion for 3 steps from gestation fetal rat calvarial bone. The expression of Cbfa1mRNA, ALPmRNA, Col-1mRNA, BGP mRNA and extracellular calcium were detected. Phosphorus (P) and calcium concentration of fetal rat skull cells co-cultured with MTA for 3 weeks at different stages of cell differentiation was assessed atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS10.0 software package. At the 4th day, P3- content decreased significantly (PMTA group increased most greatly and was 40 times of the control group. At the 14th to 18th day, the Ca2+ and P3- content reduced significantly (PMTA group rised most greatly which was about 7.71 times of the control group. Then Cbfalpha l mRNA in MTA group increased most strongly later which was about 7.38 times of the control group. Col Ⅰ mRNA increased minimally in all time points. The change of P3- content may be the initiating factor when MTA promoted differentiation of fetal rats skull cells in vitro, and Ca2+ could greatly accelerate the process of mineralization when accumulated to a certain extent. At the same time, the expression of ALPmRNA, BGPmRNA, Col Ⅰ mRNA and Cbfalpha lmRNA were regulated accordingly, which is the key to explain osteogenetic mechanism of MTA.

  19. Synovial fluid mononuclear cells provide an environment for long-term survival of antibody-secreting cells and promote the spontaneous production of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkman, Priscilla F; Kempers, Ayla C; van der Voort, Ellen I H; van Oosterhout, Maikel; Huizinga, Tom W J; Toes, René E M; Scherer, Hans U

    2016-12-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), observations point to a crucial role for (autoreactive) B cells in disease pathogenesis. Here, we studied whether cells from the synovial environment impact on the longevity of autoreactive B cell responses against citrullinated antigens. Synovial fluid mononuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (SFMC/PBMC) were obtained from patients with established RA and assessed for the presence of B cell subpopulations. Cells spontaneously secreting anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA-IgG) directly ex vivo were detected by antigen-specific Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot (ELISpot) assay. SFMC and PBMC were cultured to assess the degree of spontaneous ACPA-IgG secretion. Cells surviving for several weeks were characterised by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) labelling and Ki-67 staining. Cells spontaneously secreting ACPA-IgG were readily detectable in peripheral blood and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with ACPA-positive RA. SFMC showed an up to 200-fold increase in ex vivo ACPA-IgG secretion compared with PBMC despite lower numbers of B cells in SFMC. ELISpot confirmed the presence of spontaneously ACPA-IgG-secreting cells, accounting for up to 50% (median 12%) of all IgG-secreting cells in SF. ACPA-IgG secretion was remarkably stable in SFMC cultures, maintained upon depletion of the CD20(+) B cell compartment and detectable for several months. CFSE labelling and Ki-67 staining confirmed the long-term survival of non-dividing plasma cells (PCs). This study demonstrates a high frequency of differentiated, spontaneously ACPA-IgG-secreting cells in SF. These cells are supported by SFMC for prolonged survival and autoantibody secretion, demonstrating that the synovial compartment is equipped to function as inflammatory niche for PC survival. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Availability of limited service food outlets surrounding schools in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Day, Meghan

    2012-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of the availability of limited service food outlets surrounding public schools in British Columbia, Canada. Data from the 2010 Canadian Business Data Files were used to identify limited service food outlets including fast food outlets, beverage and snack food stores, delis and convenience stores. The number of food outlets within 800 metres of 1,392 public schools and the distance from schools to the nearest food outlets were assessed. Multivariate regression models examined the associations between food outlet availability and school-level characteristics. In 2010, over half of the public schools in BC (54%) were located within a 10-12 minute walk from at least one limited service food outlet. The median closest distance to a food outlet was just over 1 km (1016 m). Schools comprised of students living in densely populated urban neighbourhoods and neighbourhoods characterized by lower socio-economic status were more likely to have access to limited service food outlets within walking distance. After adjusting for school-level median family income and population density, larger schools had higher odds of exposure to food vendors compared to schools with fewer students. The availability of and proximity to limited service food outlets vary widely across schools in British Columbia and school-level characteristics are significantly associated with food outlet availability. Additional research is needed to understand how food environment exposures inside and surrounding schools impact students' attitudes, food choices and dietary quality.

  1. Dynamic myosin activation promotes collective morphology and migration by locally balancing oppositional forces from surrounding tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuez, George; Burtscher, Ashley; Sawant, Ketki; Majumder, Pralay; McDonald, Jocelyn A

    2016-06-15

    Migrating cells need to overcome physical constraints from the local microenvironment to navigate their way through tissues. Cells that move collectively have the additional challenge of negotiating complex environments in vivo while maintaining cohesion of the group as a whole. The mechanisms by which collectives maintain a migratory morphology while resisting physical constraints from the surrounding tissue are poorly understood. Drosophila border cells represent a genetic model of collective migration within a cell-dense tissue. Border cells move as a cohesive group of 6-10 cells, traversing a network of large germ line-derived nurse cells within the ovary. Here we show that the border cell cluster is compact and round throughout their entire migration, a shape that is maintained despite the mechanical pressure imposed by the surrounding nurse cells. Nonmuscle myosin II (Myo-II) activity at the cluster periphery becomes elevated in response to increased constriction by nurse cells. Furthermore, the distinctive border cell collective morphology requires highly dynamic and localized enrichment of Myo-II. Thus, activated Myo-II promotes cortical tension at the outer edge of the migrating border cell cluster to resist compressive forces from nurse cells. We propose that dynamic actomyosin tension at the periphery of collectives facilitates their movement through restrictive tissues.

  2. Land cover change in Ningbo and its surrounding area of Zhejiang Province,1987~2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ningbo and its surrounding area is the forefront in the rapid economic development in the Yangtse delta, and the main production area for food supplies, cotton, edible oil and hemp;and at the same time, is the main area for wetland protection in Zhejiang Province. Our objectives were to quantify land cover change in Ningbo and its surrounding area from 1987 to 2000 and to analyze the causative factors of the change. Using 30-m resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ data and maximum likelihood classification method, we classified the study area into six land cover types: forest, agriculture, urban, freshwater, seawater and bottomland.The research results showed that significant changes in land cover occurred in the study area, and that agriculture and urban land cover change dominated most of the land cover change and were main causes for the changes of other types with human activities,such as urbanization, industrialization, etc. being the main factor while it was not very obvious whether climatic conditions have any role in the land cover changes. Agriculture, bottomland and other nature dominated land cover types are undergoing significant changes due to industrialization and urbanization, which threaten the stabilization of the environment. The study conclusion called for finding reasonable ways to solve the problems between land cover change and land use.

  3. Micromorphology and chemistry of airborne particles in Brussels during agriculture working periods in surrounding region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstraeten, P; Lénelle, Y; Meurrens, A; Carati, D; Brenig, L; Offer, Z Y; Zaady, E

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of our research was to compare the airborne particle micromorphology and chemistry in the Brussels environment during agriculture working periods in the surrounding farming region. We used specific methods and instrumentation that are adapted to the climate peculiarities of the Brussels region, the period of investigations (12 months) and the proposed objectives. For the agricultural works we defined the following six periods: before sowing, sowing, after sowing, before harvest, harvest and after harvest. The results indicate a possible temporal correlation between agricultural work periods and airborne particle concentration, micromorphology and chemistry in the Brabant-Brussels region. For wheat and corn plant-growth periods, the average particle size, defined as the area obtained by a planar projection of the particulate, showed important variations in time. For sugar beet and endive, the average area size variations are less important. The roughness and sphericity parameters for the growth periods of the four different plants also showed significant differences. Many of the larger particulates (> 10 microm) are aggregates of even finer particles coated with many still finer ones. The airborne particle chemistry averages (atomic percentage At%), showed that three constituents (Si, S and Fe) dominate all the samples (except for particles 3-10 microm in size, which contain a relatively large percentage of Al). Applying similar investigation methods to study the correlations between airborne particle dynamics in urban zones and the agriculture working periods in their surrounding regions could be of interest to better understand the complexity of the PM problematic.

  4. BIRDS OF PIURA, PERU AND ITS SURROUNDINGS: EIGHT YEARS LOOKING AT THE SKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chávez-Villavicencio, César

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fast growth of the cities and its effect on wildlife makes it necessary to study the diversity in urban areas, and include the results in the planning of urban growth. In the case of birds inhabiting urban areas, published studies are scarce, especially in the case of cities outside the department of Lima. With the objective of determining the bird species inhabiting the city of Piura, Peru (UTM 541372 E / 9425534 N and its surroundings, between March 1988 and December 2006 weekend tours were conducted in different environments of the city, at morning (6:00-11:00 am and afternoon (3:00-6:30 pm hours, recording the bird species seen and heard. I recorded 104 species. Thirteen species belonged to the Tumbesian Endemic Bird Area. Atotal of 104 bird species was obtained, 13 endemic in the Endemic Bird Area Tumbesino. Twenty two were considered Neartic migrants with resident populations in the Neotropics. Nine were neartic migrants without resident populations in the Neotropics (obligate migrants and six were occasional. There is a richness of birds in Piura city and surroundings with Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Columbidae and Ardeidae dominance, which should be used as a vehicle in training in environmental education programs aimed primarily at school-aged students.

  5. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Eichler, Jerry

    2007-05-01

    Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  6. An analysis of amino acid sequences surrounding archaeal glycoprotein sequons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Abu-Qarn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite having provided the first example of a prokaryal glycoprotein, little is known of the rules governing the N-glycosylation process in Archaea. As in Eukarya and Bacteria, archaeal N-glycosylation takes place at the Asn residues of Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequons. Since not all sequons are utilized, it is clear that other factors, including the context in which a sequon exists, affect glycosylation efficiency. As yet, the contribution to N-glycosylation made by sequon-bordering residues and other related factors in Archaea remains unaddressed. In the following, the surroundings of Asn residues confirmed by experiment as modified were analyzed in an attempt to define sequence rules and requirements for archaeal N-glycosylation.

  7. Wave rectification in plasma sheaths surrounding electric field antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Combined measurements of Langmuir or broadband whistler wave intensity and lower-frequency electric field waveforms, all at 10-microsecond time resolution, were made on several recent sounding rockets in the auroral ionosphere. It is found that Langmuir and whistler waves are partically rectified in the plasma sheaths surrounding the payload and the spheres used as antennas. This sheath rectification occurs whenever the high frequency (HF) potential across the sheath becomes of the same order as the electron temperature or higher, for wave frequencies near or above the ion plasma frequency. This rectification can introduce false low-frequency waves into measurements of electric field spectra when strong high-frequency waves are present. Second harmonic signals are also generated, although at much lower levels. The effect occurs in many different plasma conditions, primarily producing false waves at frequencies that are low enough for the antenna coupling to the plasma to be resistive.

  8. The nature of plerions surrounding soft gamma-ray repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    1995-01-01

    Compact steady sources of X-ray emission have been detected at the positions of at least two soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). These sources have been interpreted as synchrotron nebulae powered by the neutron star that is causing the bursts. We explore a plerion model for the sources surrounding SGRs where the steady observed emission is powered by the SGR bursts rather than by the spin-down of a pulsar. In this case there is no limit on the neutron star magnetic field. We find that the synchrotron lifetime of the particles injected into the plerion around SGR1806-20 is long enough to smear out nebular emission from individual bursts. Transient nebular emission would therefore not be detected following an SGR burst. The combined radio emission from multiple burst injections is expected to have a steeper spectrum than that of a typical plerion.

  9. Casimir Effect in the Kerr Spacetime Surrounded by Quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Bezerra, V B; Freitas, L F F; Muniz, C R

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the Casimir energy of a massless scalar field in a cavity formed by nearby parallel plates orbiting a rotating spherical body surrounded by quintessence, investigating the influence of the gravitational field on that energy, at zero temperature. This influence includes the effects due to the spacetime dragging caused by the source rotation as well as those ones due to the quintessence. We show that the energy depends on all the involved parameters, as source mass, angular momentum and quintessence state parameter, for any radial coordinate and polar angle. We show that at the north pole the Casimir energy is not influenced by the quintessential matter. At the equatorial plane, when the quintessence is canceled, the result obtained in the literature is recovered. Finally, constraints in the quintessence parameters are obtained from the uncertainty in the current measurements of Casimir effect.

  10. Ozone bioindication in Barcelona and surrounding area of Catalonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribas, A.; Penuelas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Ecophysiology Unit of CSIC

    2002-07-01

    A field study was conducted from July to September 2000 to assess ozone (O{sub 3}) phytotoxicity in Barcelona and surrounding areas of Catalonia (NE Spain) by using tobacco plants Bel-W3 and Populus nigra 'Brandaris' as bioindicators. The study was conducted simultaneously at eight sites where ozone concentrations and meteorological variables were continuously monitored. The ozone levels correlated well with ozone injury on the Bel-W3 cultivar, especially at stations established in the urban area of Barcelona, and in the first months of summer. In the second half of summer plants showed a decreasing efficiency in its biomonitoring capacity. The behaviour of Populus as bioindicator or biomonitor was less satisfactory. For both species it is necessary to improve cultivation conditions since water deficits seem to play an important role in bioindication in the Mediterranean region. (orig.)

  11. Physical Coupling of Kazarian Galaxies with Surrounding Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, M. A.; Martirosian, J. R.

    2003-04-01

    Results from a statistical study of Kazarian galaxies and the objects surrounding them are presented. It is shown that: (1) the sample of Kazarian galaxies up to 16m.0 is complete. (2) Roughly 35.7% of the Kazarian galaxies are members of clusters, 14.0% of groups, and 13.6% of binary systems, while 36.7% are single galaxies. (3) Of the 580 Kazarian galaxies, roughly 61.2% are infrared, 8.8% radio, and 2.8% x-ray sources. (4) The relative numbers of Kazarian galaxies for complete samples of I, R, and X in the different groups are systematically higher than the corresponding numbers for samples of all Kazarian galaxies.

  12. On radial oscillations in viscous accretion discs surrounding neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingming; Taam, Ronald E.

    1992-01-01

    Radial oscillations resulting from axisymmetric perturbations in viscous accretion disks surrounding neutron stars in X-ray binary systems have been investigated. Within the framework of the alpha-viscosity model a series of hydrodynamic calculations demonstrates that the oscillations are global for alpha of about 1. On the other hand, for alpha of 0.4 or less, the oscillations are local and confined to the disk boundaries. If viscous stresses acting in the radial direction are included, however, it is found that the disk can be stabilized. The application of such instabilities in accretion disks, without reference to the boundary layer region between the neutron star (or magnetosphere) and the inner edge of the disk, to the phenomenology of quasi-periodic oscillations is brought into question.

  13. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O`Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-09-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  14. Natural convection between a vertical cylinder and a surrounding array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; O' Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Larson, T.K.; Christenson, W.A.; Mecham, D.C.; Lussie, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    The generic situation considered is natural convection between a single heated, vertical cylinder and a surrounding array of cooler vertical cylinders in a triangular pattern. The ratio of the test section temperature to the cooling tube temperature was varied up to 2.6 by adjusting the electrical power. The Rayleigh number, based on test section diameter and air properties evaluated at cooling tube temperature, ranged from 2.9 x 10{sup 4} to 4.6 x 10{sup 5}. Results indicate that the convective heat transfer data could be approximated as Nu{sub D} (T{sub ts}/T{sub ct}){sup 0.14} = 0.156 Ra{sub D}{sup 1/3} in the apparent turbulent region for Ra{sub L} > 1.2 x 10{sup 11.}

  15. Rotation of the Warm Molecular Gas Surrounding Ultracompact HII Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Keto, E R; Zhang, Q

    2009-01-01

    We present molecular line and 1.4 mm continuum observations towards five massive star forming regions at arcsecond resolution using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We find that the warm molecular gas surrounding each HII region (as traced by SO_2 and OCS) appears to be undergoing bulk rotation. From the molecular line emission and thermal component of the continuum emission, we independently derived gas masses for each region which are consistent with each other. From the free-free component of the continuum emission we estimate the minimum stellar mass required to power the HII region and find that this mass, when added to the derived gas mass, is a significant fraction of the dynamical mass for that region.

  16. A 500 Parsec Halo Surrounding the Galactic Globular NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Olszewski, Edward W; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Using imaging that shows four magnitudes of main sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (>250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of $r^{-1.24}$. It contains approximately 0.1% of the dynamical mass of NGC 1851. There is no evidence for tidal tails. Current models of globular cluster evolution do not explain this feature, although simulations of tidal influences on dwarf spheroidal galaxies qualitatively mimic these results. Given the state of published models it is not possible to decide between creation of this halo from isolated cluster evaporation, or from tidal or disk shocking, or from destruction of a dwarf galaxy in which this object may have once been embedded.

  17. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence $\\omega_q$ is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there is a great deal of difference on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  18. Thermodynamic stability of black holes surrounded by quintessence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Ya-Qin

    2017-06-01

    We study the thermodynamic stabilities of uncharged and charged black holes surrounded by quintessence (BHQ) by means of effective thermodynamic quantities. When the state parameter of quintessence ω _q is appropriately chosen, the structures of BHQ are something like that of black holes in de Sitter space. Constructing the effective first law of thermodynamics in two different ways, we can derive the effective thermodynamic quantities of BHQ. Especially, these effective thermodynamic quantities also satisfy Smarr-like formulae. It is found that the uncharged BHQ is always thermodynamically unstable due to negative heat capacity, while for the charged BHQ there are phase transitions of the second order. We also show that there are several differences on the thermodynamic properties and critical behaviors of BHQ between the two ways we employed.

  19. Impact-Generated Dust Clouds Surrounding the Galilean Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, H; Grün, E; Kr\\"uger, Harald~; Krivov, Alexander V.; Gr\\"un, Eberhard

    2003-01-01

    Tenuous dust clouds of Jupiter's Galilean moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto have been detected with the in-situ dust detector on board the Galileo spacecraft. The majority of the dust particles have been sensed at altitudes below five radii of these lunar-sized satellites. We identify the particles in the dust clouds surrounding the moons by their impact direction, impact velocity, and mass distribution. Average particle sizes are 0.5 to $\\rm 1 \\mu m$, just above the detector threshold, indicating a size distribution with decreasing numbers towards bigger particles. Our results imply that the particles have been kicked up by hypervelocity impacts of micrometeoroids onto the satellites' surfaces. The measured radial dust density profiles are consistent with predictions by dynamical modeling for satellite ejecta produced by interplanetary impactors (Krivov et al., PSS, 2003, 51, 251--269), assuming yield, mass and velocity distributions of the ejecta from laboratory measurements. The dust clouds of the th...

  20. Principles of protein targeting to the nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert M; Ter-Avetisyan, Gohar; Herce, Henry D; Ludwig, Anne K; Lättig-Tünnemann, Gisela; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nucleolus is the hallmark of nuclear compartmentalization and has been shown to exert multiple roles in cellular metabolism besides its main function as the place of rRNA synthesis and assembly of ribosomes. Nucleolar proteins dynamically localize and accumulate in this nuclear compartment relative to the surrounding nucleoplasm. In this study, we have assessed the molecular requirements that are necessary and sufficient for the localization and accumulation of peptides and proteins inside the nucleoli of living cells. The data showed that positively charged peptide entities composed of arginines alone and with an isoelectric point at and above 12.6 are necessary and sufficient for mediating significant nucleolar accumulation. A threshold of 6 arginines is necessary for peptides to accumulate in nucleoli, but already 4 arginines are sufficient when fused within 15 amino acid residues of a nuclear localization signal of a protein. Using a pH sensitive dye, we found that the nucleolar compartment is particularly acidic when compared to the surrounding nucleoplasm and, hence, provides the ideal electrochemical environment to bind poly-arginine containing proteins. In fact, we found that oligo-arginine peptides and GFP fusions bind RNA in vitro. Consistent with RNA being the main binding partner for arginines in the nucleolus, we found that the same principles apply to cells from insects to man, indicating that this mechanism is highly conserved throughout evolution.

  1. Physical geography of the Nete basin and surroundings; Fysische geografie van het Netebekken en omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerten, K.

    2011-05-15

    The report briefly describes the main features of the physical geography of the Nete basin (Campine region, Belgium) and its immediate surroundings. First, an integrated overview of the topography, morphology and hydrography is given. This overview serves as the basis for the assessment of the morphological stability of the region and also explains the relationship between the topography and the hydrology. Furthermore, special attention is paid to soil science including a quantitative survey of some soil characteristics data. Another part of this report deals with erosion processes caused by water and wind action, and the (potential) impact on the morphology. Finally, the palaeogeographical evolution during the Quaternary is discussed. This evolution shows that the environment is stable over 10 000 years or more in the current and similar climatic conditions. Altering climatic conditions, notably glacial-interglacial periods, have impacted erosion with periods of strong erosion.

  2. Temporal Evolution of the Plasma Sheath Surrounding Solar Cells in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Emily M.; Pour, Maria Z. A.

    2017-01-01

    High voltage solar array interactions with the space environment can have a significant impact on array performance and spacecraft charging. Over the past 10 years, data from the International Space Station has allowed for detailed observations of these interactions over long periods of time. Some of the surprising observations have been floating potential transients, which were not expected and are not reproduced by existing models. In order to understand the underlying processes producing these transients, the temporal evolution of the plasma sheath surrounding the solar cells in low Earth orbit is being investigated. This study includes lumped element modeling and particle-in-cell simulation methods. This presentation will focus on recent results from the on-going investigations.

  3. Detained and Dying: Ethical Issues Surrounding End-of-Life Care in Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensland, Meredith; Sanders, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Prisons are increasingly being called upon to provide end-of-life (EOL) care within the restrictive correctional environment. Several relatively recent phenomena have brought medical ethics to the forefront of prison EOL care-including aging behind bars, a paradigm shift in prison culture, the increasing rate of in-prison deaths, and the corresponding prison hospice movement. This article examines prominent ethical issues that emerge for prison personnel who are tasked with providing care to terminally ill offenders by presenting three offender composite characters that exemplify dying offenders and emergent ethical issues surrounding their care. Identification and critical analysis of these ethical issues demonstrate the need for strong commitment to ethical practice and highlights specific issues for prisons to examine in their own EOL care practice.

  4. Nitrogenase MoFe protein from Clostridium pasteurianum at 1.08 Å resolution: comparison with the Azotobacter vinelandii MoFe protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Morrison, Christine N.; Kaiser, Jens T. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rees, Douglas C., E-mail: dcrees@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Determination of the nitrogenase MoFe protein from C. pasteurianum at 1.08 Å resolution and comparison to its distinct ortholog from A. vinelandii at atomic resolution reveals conserved structural arrangements that are significant to the function of nitrogenase. The X-ray crystal structure of the nitrogenase MoFe protein from Clostridium pasteurianum (Cp1) has been determined at 1.08 Å resolution by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction phasing. Cp1 and the ortholog from Azotobacter vinelandii (Av1) represent two distinct families of nitrogenases, differing primarily by a long insertion in the α-subunit and a deletion in the β-subunit of Cp1 relative to Av1. Comparison of these two MoFe protein structures at atomic resolution reveals conserved structural arrangements that are significant to the function of nitrogenase. The FeMo cofactors defining the active sites of the MoFe protein are essentially identical between the two proteins. The surrounding environment is also highly conserved, suggesting that this structural arrangement is crucial for nitrogen reduction. The P clusters are likewise similar, although the surrounding protein and solvent environment is less conserved relative to that of the FeMo cofactor. The P cluster and FeMo cofactor in Av1 and Cp1 are connected through a conserved water tunnel surrounded by similar secondary-structure elements. The long α-subunit insertion loop occludes the presumed Fe protein docking surface on Cp1 with few contacts to the remainder of the protein. This makes it plausible that this loop is repositioned to open up the Fe protein docking surface for complex formation.

  5. Environment-assisted precision measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, G.; Cappellaro, P.; Maze, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of precision measurements that takes advantage of the environment of a quantum sensor to amplify the response of the sensor to weak external perturbations. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which are ...

  6. Some thoughts on geovirtual environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available environments can assist people develop an understanding of their spatial surroundings and how our actions can affect others, 3) how virtual globes can be used for all types of education, and not just environmental education, 4) the impact geovirtual...

  7. Phthalic Acid Chemical Probes Synthesized for Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Jen Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasticizers are additives that are used to increase the flexibility of plastic during manufacturing. However, in injection molding processes, plasticizers cannot be generated with monomers because they can peel off from the plastics into the surrounding environment, water, or food, or become attached to skin. Among the various plasticizers that are used, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (phthalic acid is a typical precursor to generate phthalates. In addition, phthalic acid is a metabolite of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP. According to Gene_Ontology gene/protein database, phthalates can cause genital diseases, cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, etc. In this study, a silanized linker (3-aminopropyl triethoxyslane, APTES was deposited on silicon dioxides (SiO2 particles and phthalate chemical probes were manufactured from phthalic acid and APTES–SiO2. These probes could be used for detecting proteins that targeted phthalic acid and for protein-protein interactions. The phthalic acid chemical probes we produced were incubated with epithelioid cell lysates of normal rat kidney (NRK-52E cells to detect the interactions between phthalic acid and NRK-52E extracted proteins. These chemical probes interacted with a number of chaperones such as protein disulfide-isomerase A6, heat shock proteins, and Serpin H1. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA software showed that these chemical probes were a practical technique for protein-protein interaction analysis.

  8. CERN and the Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Aymar, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The impact of CERN’s activities on the surrounding environment is carefully monitored by the Organization via a complete environmental monitoring programme, which is defined and run in agreement with the authorities of Switzerland and France. This programme covers both radiological and conventional aspects. So far the environmental impact of CERN was shown to be negligible. In particular, CERN’s radiological impact is a fraction of the variation of the natural exposure at different locations of the surrounding region. As the site of the Organization is on the territory of two countries and straddles the Swiss-French border, the implementation of its environmental policy requires specific procedures and a very transparent communication towards the Host States authorities and the public opinion. This paper reports the official CERN speech delivered for the opening of the international conference Enviroinfo 2004 that was held at CERN in October 2004.

  9. Dispersion of Short- and Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) from a CP Production Plant to the Surrounding Surface Soils and Coniferous Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiazhi; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Haijun; Zhan, Faqiang; Chen, Jiping

    2016-12-06

    Chlorinated paraffin (CP) production is one important emission source for short- and medium-chain CPs (SCCPs and MCCPs) in the environment. In this study, 48 CP congener groups were measured in the surface soils and coniferous leaves collected from the inner and surrounding environment of a CP production plant that has been in operation for more than 30 years to investigate the dispersion and deposition behavior of SCCPs and MCCPs. The average concentrations of the sum of SCCPs and MCCPs in the in-plant coniferous leaves and surface soils were 4548.7 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) and 3481.8 ng g(-1) dw, which were 2-fold and 10-fold higher than those in the surrounding environment, respectively. The Gaussian air pollution model explained the spatial distribution of CPs in the coniferous leaves, whereas the dispersion of CPs to the surrounding surface soils fits the Boltzmann equation well. Significant fractionation effect was observed for the atmospheric dispersion of CPs from the production plant. CP congener groups with higher octanol-air partitioning coefficients (KOA) were more predominant in the in-plant environment, whereas the ones with lower KOA values had the elevated proportion in the surrounding environment. A radius of approximately 4 km from the CP production plant was influenced by the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of CPs.

  10. Walkability of School Surroundings and its Impact on Pedestrian Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Shbeeb

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian accident is a serious problem in Jordan. It is believedthat walking environment is a contributory factor. This study looks intopedestrian environment in schools’ vicinity. Seventeen schools were selectedand 231 students were followed from school to home. Results showed that 15% ofobserved subjects were involved in conflicts. Average walking time is 17 minutes;almost half of this time is spent either by walking on street or crossing. Femalesare involved in less conflict and they spend less time in traffic. Drivers givepriority to pedestrian in one-thirds of all observed crossing with preferenceto males.

  11. Active but inoperable thrombin is accumulated in a plasma protein layer surrounding Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Clément; Hurley, Sinead M; Malmström, Erik; Plug, Tom; Shannon, Oonagh; Meijers, Joost C M; Mörgelin, Matthias; Björck, Lars; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-10-01

    Activation of thrombin is a critical determinant in many physiological and pathological processes including haemostasis and inflammation. Under physiological conditions many of these functions are involved in wound healing or eradication of an invading pathogen. However, when activated systemically, thrombin can contribute to severe and life-threatening conditions by causing complications such as multiple multi-organ failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. In the present study we investigated how the activity of thrombin is modulated when it is bound to the surface of Streptococcus pyogenes. Our data show that S. pyogenes bacteria become covered with a proteinaceous layer when incubated with human plasma, and that thrombin is a constituent of this layer. Though the coagulation factor is found attached to the bacteria with a functional active site, thrombin has lost its capacity to interact with its natural substrates and inhibitors. Thus, the interaction of bacteria with human plasma renders thrombin completely inoperable at the streptococcal surface. This could represent a host defense mechanism to avoid systemic activation of coagulation which could be otherwise induced when bacteria enter the circulation and cause systemic infection.

  12. Tomography images of the Alpine roots and surrounding upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomerova, Jaroslava; Babuska, Vladislav

    2017-04-01

    Teleseismic body-wave tomography represents powerful tool to study regional velocity structure of the upper mantle and to image velocity anomalies, such as subducted lithosphere plates in collisional zones. In this contribution, we recapitulate 3D models of the upper mantle beneath the Alps, which developed at a collision zone of the Eurasian and African plates. Seismic tomography studies indicate a leading role of the rigid mantle lithosphere that functioned as a major stress guide during the plate collisions. Interactions of the European lithosphere with several micro-plates in the south resulted in an arcuate shape of this mountain range on the surface and in a complicated geometry of the Alpine subductions in the mantle. Early models with one bended lithosphere root have been replaced with more advanced models showing two separate lithosphere roots beneath the Western and Eastern Alps (Babuska et al., Tectonophysics 1990; Lippitsch et al., JGR 2003). The standard isotropic velocity tomography, based on pre-AlpArray data (the currently performed passive seismic experiment in the Alps and surroundings) images the south-eastward dipping curved slab of the Eurasian lithosphere in the Western Alps. On the contrary, beneath the Eastern Alps the results indicate a very steep northward dipping root that resulted from the collision of the European plate with the Adriatic microplate. Dando et al. (2011) interpret high-velocity heterogeneities at the bottom of their regional tomographic model as a graveyard of old subducted lithospheres. High density of stations, large amount of rays and dense ray-coverage of the volume studied are not the only essential pre-requisites for reliable tomography results. A compromise between the amount of pre-processed data and the high-quality of the tomography input (travel-time residuals) is of the high importance as well. For the first time, the existence of two separate roots beneath the Alps has been revealed from carefully pre

  13. The water exchange between Chinchorro Bank and its surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Julio; Ochoa, Jose Luis; Sheinbaum, Julio; Lopez, Manuel; Cornado, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Chinchorro Bank is a relatively large (~500 km^ 2) atoll situated 33 km in front of the Yucatan Peninsula in the Caribbean coast of Mexico. Two years of continuous measurements of the subsurface pressure field inside and around Chinchorro Bank, along with currents and waves observed outside, suggest four major processes governing the water exchange of the Bank with its surroundings: 1) surface wave pumping of water into the Bank through its eastern edge, 2) the large scale circulation in the region that drives the sea level changes through geostrophy, 3) the tidal pumping with imposed cyclic flows into and out of the Bank and 4) the imposed drift by the wind. Waves impinging all along the eastern barrier reef induce water inflows (from overtopping the reef) and generate a pressure gradient that drives a drift from east to west throughout the Bank. This western drift can normally replenish the water over the Bank with a time scale of ~10 days. However, extreme wave events, lasting around 24 hours, can replenish the whole Bank's water in the order of day. The region's large scale circulation is dominated by the zonal Cayman Current impinging on the Yucatan Peninsula becoming the Yucatan Current as it turns northward. Variability in the strength and impacting latitude of this current causes sea level gradients within the Bank, i.e., a Yucatan Current increase of 1 m/s, over a period of a couple of weeks, sets up a zonal sea level gradient within that can replenish the whole Bank's water in a time scale of ~14 days. At such times, the large scale current around the Bank is at a maximum thus ensuring an effective removal and dispersal of the exported waters. The Bank has a micro-tidal regime with a semidiurnal amplitude of ~12 cm during spring tides and a diurnal of ~2 cm, these imply that the Bank is exchanging ~10% of its waters with its surroundings daily. However small, this tidal pumping is effective for the ventilation of the Banks' waters in ~10 days due to the

  14. Highly ionized region surrounding SN Refsdal revealed by MUSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karman, W.; Grillo, C.; Balestra, I.; Rosati, P.; Caputi, K. I.; Di Teodoro, E.; Fraternali, F.; Gavazzi, R.; Mercurio, A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Rodney, S.; Treu, T.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) Refsdal is the first multiply imaged, highly magnified, and spatially resolved SN ever observed. The SN exploded in a highly magnified spiral galaxy at z = 1.49 behind the Frontier Fields cluster MACS1149, and provides a unique opportunity to study the environment of SNe at high z. We

  15. Recent advances in recombinant protein production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Renate; Casanova, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Designing appropriate expression vectors is one of the critical steps in the generation of stable cell lines for recombinant protein production. Conventional expression vectors are severely affected by the chromatin environment surrounding their integration site into the host genome, resulting in low expression levels and transgene silencing. In the past, a new generation of expression vectors and different strategies was developed to overcome the chromatin effects. Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) are cloning vectors capable of accommodating up to 350 Kb. Thus, BACs can carry a whole eukaryotic locus with all the elements controlling the expression of a gene; therefore, BACs harbor their own chromatin environment. Expression vectors based on BACs containing open/permissive chromatin loci are not affected by the chromatin surrounding their integration site in the host cell genome. Consequently, BAC-based expression vectors containing the appropriate loci confer predictable and high levels of expression over time. These properties make BAC-based expression vectors a very attractive tool applied to the recombinant protein production field. PMID:23680894

  16. Dilemmas surrounding passive euthanasia--a Malaysian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Norchaya

    2005-09-01

    In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment.

  17. Zonal disintegration phenomenon in rock mass surrounding deep tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hao; FANG Qin; GUO Zhi-kun

    2008-01-01

    Zonal disintegration is a typical static phenomenon of deep rock masses. It has been defined as alternating regions of fractured and relatively intact rock mass that appear around or in front of the working stope during excavation of a deep tunnel. Zonal disintegration phenomenon was successfully demonstrated in the laboratory with 3D tests on analogous gypsum models, two circular cracked zones were observed in the test. The linear Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion was used with a constitutive model that showed linear softening and ideal residual plastic to analyze the elasto-plastic field of the enclosing rock mass around a deep tunnel. The results show that tunneling causes a maximum stress zone to appear between an elastic and plastic zone in the surrounding rock. The zonal disintegration phenomenon is analyzed by considering the stress-strain state of the rock mass in the vicinity of the maximum stress zone. Creep instability failure of the rock due to the development of the plastic zone, and transfer of the maximum stress zone into the rock mass, are the cause of zonal disintegration. An analytical criterion for the critical depth at which zonal disintegration can occur is derived. This depth depends mainly on the character and stress concentration coefficient of the rock mass.

  18. Beliefs and practices surrounding postpartum period among Myanmar women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Kyi Kyi

    2013-11-01

    to examine the postpartum beliefs and practices among young women (15-24 years) both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used: a cross-sectional comparative study using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGDs). Kyimyindaing Township in the western district of Yangon, Myanmar. young women (15-24 years) who had experience of at least one live birth were included. A total of 196 women for a quantitative survey and 31 women for FGDs were recruited. postpartum beliefs and practices at the last childbirth were explored by a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and four FGDs (two in urban and two in rural areas). The survey questionnaire covered socio-demographic data, food and behavioural restrictions and observances during the last postpartum period and underlying reasons for those practices. Majority of participants followed the traditional postpartum practices regardless of the area of residence and education level. Notion of 'dirty lochia' was identified. traditional beliefs and practices surrounding post partum were highly prevalent among young women. Variation in degree and duration of adherence to postpartum taboos was noted. These beliefs and practices were imparted and perpetuated by women's close social network. the findings point out the importance of awareness of postpartum beliefs and practices among health staff for providing culturally sensitive health care and gaining better co-operation and mutual understanding in giving health care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unilateral lung agenesis--detrimental roles of surrounding vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, An-Kou; Huang, Shu-Chien; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Huang, Pei-Ming; Wang, Jou-Kou; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chang, Chung-I; Chiu, Ing-Sh; Wu, En-Ting

    2007-03-01

    Unilateral lung agenesis is a rare congenital defect and could be associated with multiple abnormalities. The patients usually have poor long-term outcomes especially in those with right lung agenesis. We reviewed the 10-year experience in our hospital to describe special clinical features and try to delineate the causes of poor outcomes. From 1995 to 2005, 14 patients less than 18 years of age with unilateral lung agenesis (4 with left agenesis, 10 with right agenesis) were enrolled. Medical records reviewed included diagnosis, presentation, chromosome anomalies, cardiovascular anomalies and interventions, outcomes. We found that the mechanisms of severe airway disease in right lung agenesis included (1) trachea compression by the aortic arch, (2) the presence of "pseudo-ring-sling complex," (3) distended pulmonary artery due to left to right shunt which impinged the only bronchus, and finally (4) the persistent LSVC that restricts the growth of trachea. The etiologies of airway complication in left lung agenesis included anomalous aortic arch compression on trachea and the coexisting heart disease with significant left to right shunt, which impinged on the bronchus. In conclusion, unilateral lung agenesis has frequently associated airway problems due to its surrounding vessels. Satisfactory airway intervention remains challenging. This disease still requires great effort to improve patient outcomes.

  20. The interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun -- a new perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gry, Cecile

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We offer a new, simpler picture of the local interstellar medium around the Sun (LISM) made of a single continuous cloud enveloping the Sun. This new outlook enables the description of a diffuse cloud from within and brings to light some unexpected properties. Methods: We re-examine the kinematics and abundances of the local interstellar medium, as revealed by the published results for the ultraviolet absorption lines of MgII, FeII and HI. Results: In contrast to previous representations, our new picture of the LISM consists of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions and accounts for most of the matter present in the first 50 parsecs around the Sun. The cloud fills the space around us out to about 9 pc in most directions, although its boundary is very irregular with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. The cloud does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions per...

  1. Dense Ionized and Neutral Gas Surrounding Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Hemant; Scoville, N Z

    2004-01-01

    We present high resolution H41a hydrogen recombination line observations of the 1.2' (3 pc) region surrounding Sgr A* at 92 GHz using the OVRO Millimeter Array with an angular resolution of 7" x 3" and velocity resolution of 13 km/s. New observations of H31a, H35a, H41a, and H44a lines were obtained using the NRAO 12-m telescope, and their relative line strengths are interpreted in terms of various emission mechanisms. These are the most extensive and most sensitive observations of recombination line to date. Observations of HCO+ (1 - 0) transition at 89 GHz are also obtained simultaneously with a 40% improved angular resolution and 4-15 times improved sensitivity over previous observations, and the distribution and kinematics of the dense molecular gas in the circumnuclear disk (CND) are mapped and compared with those of the ionized gas. The line brightness ratios of the hydrogen recombination lines are consistent with purely spontaneous emission from 7000 K gas with n_e = 20,000 cm$^{-3}$ near LTE condition...

  2. Instability of Magnetized Ionization Fronts Surrounding H II Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    An ionization front (IF) surrounding an H II region is a sharp interface where a cold neutral gas makes transition to a warm ionized phase by absorbing UV photons from central stars. We investigate the instability of a plane-parallel D-type IF threaded by parallel magnetic fields, by neglecting the effects of recombination within the ionized gas. We find that weak D-type IFs always have the post-IF magnetosonic Mach number $\\mathcal{M}_{\\rm M2} \\leq 1$. For such fronts, magnetic fields increase the maximum propagation speed of the IFs, while reducing the expansion factor $\\alpha$ by a factor of $1+1/(2\\beta_1)$ compared to the unmagnetized case, with $\\beta_1$ denoting the plasma beta in the pre-IF region. IFs become unstable to distortional perturbations due to gas expansion across the fronts, exactly analogous to the Darrieus-Landau instability of ablation fronts in terrestrial flames. The growth rate of the IF instability is proportional linearly to the perturbation wavenumber as well as the upstream flow ...

  3. An insight in the surroundings of HR4796

    CERN Document Server

    Lagrange, A -M; Boccaletti, A; Lacour, S; Thebault, P; Chauvin, G; Mouillet, D; Augereau, J C; Bonnefoy, M; Ehrenreich, D; Kral, Q

    2012-01-01

    HR4796 is a young, early A-type star harbouring a well structured debris disk, shaped as a ring with sharp inner edges. It forms with the M-type star HR4796B a binary system, with a proj. sep. ~560 AU. Our aim is to explore the surroundings of HR4796A and B, both in terms of extended or point-like structures. Adaptive optics images at L'-band were obtained with NaCo in Angular Differential Mode and with Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM). We analyse the data as well as the artefacts that can be produced by ADI reduction on an extended structure with a shape similar to that of HR4796A dust ring. We determine constraints on the presence of companions using SAM and ADI on HR4796A, and ADI on HR4796B. We also performed dynamical simulations of a disk of planetesimals and dust produced by collisions, perturbed by a planet located close to the disk outer edge. The disk ring around HR4796A is well resolved. We highlight the potential effects of ADI reduction of the observed disk shape and surface brightness distribution,...

  4. Dead discs, unstable discs and the stars they surround

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Angelo Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong stellar magnetic fields significantly alter the behaviour of surrounding accretion discs. Recent work has demonstrated that at low accretion rates a large amount of mass can remain confined in the disc, contrary to the standard assumption that the magnetic field will expel the disc in an outflow (the “propeller regime”. These “dead discs” often become unstable, causing cycles of accretion onto the central star. Here I present the main predictions of this model, and argue that it provides a good explanation for the peculiar behaviour seen in several accreting sources with strong magnetic fields. I will focus in particular on three accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars: SAX J1808.4-3658, NGC 6440 X-2 and IGR J00291+5934. These sources all show low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations consistent with a variable accretion rate, as well as unusual outburst patterns that suggest gas is confined in the inner disc regions during quiescence.

  5. Preliminary Analysis of Slope Stability in Kuok and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewandra Bagus Eka Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of slope influenced by the condition of the rocks beneath the surface. On high level of slopes, amount of surface runoff and water transport energy is also enlarged. This caused by greater gravity, in line with the surface tilt from the horizontal plane. In other words, topsoil eroded more and more. When the slope becomes twice as steep, then the amount of erosion per unit area be 2.0 - 2.5 times more. Kuok and surrounding area is the road access between the West Sumatra and Riau which plays an important role economies of both provinces. The purpose of this study is to map the locations that have fairly steep slopes and potential mode of landslides. Based on SRTM data obtained,  the roads in Kuok area has a minimum elevation of + 33 m and a maximum  + 217.329 m. Rugged road conditions with slope ranging from 24.08 ° to 44.68 ° causing this area having frequent landslides. The result of slope stability analysis in a slope near the Water Power Plant Koto Panjang, indicated that mode of active failure is toppling failure or rock fall and the potential zone of failure is in the center part of the slope.

  6. Expression of zebrafish nos2b surrounds oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kar-Lai; Richardson, Michael; Korzh, Vladimir

    2008-06-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO), and is one of the factors establishing innate immunity. In zebrafish, Nos2 is represented by nos2a and nos2b. Here, we report the cloning and expression pattern of the zebrafish nos2b gene, which does not seem to participate in induced immune response. nos2b was mapped to zebrafish linkage group 15. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of nos2b in embryonic zebrafish was analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization. nos2b is expressed constitutively in two primordia located along the ventral midline. The first group of cells contributes to the neurohypophysis. Initially at the level of the ventral hindbrain, the second group of cells migrates closely with the thyroid primordium to its final position at the basihyal by 3 dpf. Thus, the analysis of expression pattern of nos2b reveals complex morphogenetic movements resulting in its expression surrounding the oral cavity.

  7. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  8. Representing the egocentric auditory space: relationships of surrounding region concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Marcella C; Hermann, Thomas; Schack, Thomas; Bläsing, Bettina

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the representation of azimuthal directions of sound sources under two different conditions. In the first experiment, we examined the participants' mental representation of sound source directions via similarity judgments. Auditory stimuli originating from sixteen loudspeakers positioned equidistantly around the participant were presented in pairs, with the first stimulus serving as the anchor, and thereby providing the context for the second stimulus. For each pair of stimuli, participants had to rate the sound source directions as either similar or dissimilar. In the second experiment, the same participants categorized single sound source directions using verbal direction labels (front, back, left, right, and combinations of any two of these). In both experiments, the directions within the front and back regions were more distinctively categorized than those on the sides, and the sides' categories included more directions than those of the front or back. Furthermore, we found evidence that the left-right decision comprises the basic differentiation of the surrounding regions. These findings illustrate what seem to be central features of the representation of directions in auditory space.

  9. Study of the distribution of gamma emitters radionuclides between a pollution abatement factory and its surrounding environment; Case of the water treatment plant of the Grand Caen district. Study report; Etude de la repartition de radionucleides artificiels emetteurs gamma entre une usine de depollution et son milieu environnant; Cas de la station d'epuration du District du Grand Caen. Rapport d'etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Except nuclear industry, diverse structures (hospitals, of research or manufacturers) can have appeal to the use of radioisotopes conditioned under unsealed shape. Such practices lead to tolerate releases in environment in the respect of a statutory device. So the collective network can contain radioisotopes the future of which is going to depend partially on the cleaning applied to waste water. This study through the analysis of a concrete case, has for objective to inform about the future of gamma radioelements present in waste water treated by a wastewater treatment plant. The contamination of the network is essentially due to Tc{sup 99} and I{sup 131}, radioelements present whatever the working day and the hour considered. The total estimated in-load for a day is important, of the order of 4000 MBq for Tc{sup 99} and 15 to 300 MBq for I{sup 131}. The assessment of cleaning of the station shows that this one plays a role towards this pollution through these stages of treatment. Within the natural environment receiving treated waters only the presence of I{sup 131} is noticed. (N.C.)

  10. GIANT Hα NEBULA SURROUNDING THE STARBURST MERGER NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohyama, Youichi [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Tanaka, Hisashi [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: yoshidam@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)

    2016-03-20

    We revealed the detailed structure of a vastly extended Hα-emitting nebula (“Hα nebula”) surrounding the starburst/merging galaxy NGC 6240 by deep narrow-band imaging observations with the Subaru Suprime-Cam. The extent of the nebula is ∼90 kpc in diameter and the total Hα luminosity amounts to L{sub Hα} ≈ 1.6 × 10{sup 42} erg s{sup −1}. The volume filling factor and the mass of the warm ionized gas are ∼10{sup −4}–10{sup −5} and ∼5 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙}, respectively. The nebula has a complicated structure, which includes numerous filaments, loops, bubbles, and knots. We found that there is a tight spatial correlation between the Hα nebula and the extended soft-X-ray-emitting gas, both in large and small scales. The overall morphology of the nebula is dominated by filamentary structures radially extending from the center of the galaxy. A large-scale bipolar bubble extends along the minor axis of the main stellar disk. The morphology strongly suggests that the nebula was formed by intense outflows—superwinds—driven by starbursts. We also found three bright knots embedded in a looped filament of ionized gas that show head-tail morphologies in both emission-line and continuum, suggesting close interactions between the outflows and star-forming regions. Based on the morphology and surface brightness distribution of the Hα nebula, we propose the scenario that three major episodes of starburst/superwind activities, which were initiated ∼10{sup 2} Myr ago, formed the extended ionized gas nebula of NGC 6240.

  11. IRIS Observation of a Sunspot and the Surrounding Plage Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIAN, H.; DeLuca, E. E.; Mcintosh, S. W.; Reeves, K. K.; McKillop, S.; Weber, M.; Saar, S.; Golub, L.; Testa, P.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's IRIS mission is providing high-cadence and high-resolution observations of the solar transition region and chromosphere. We present preliminary results from IRIS observation of a sunspot and the surrounding plage region. The major findings in this observation can be summarized as following: (1) The slit jaw images in the filters of 1400Å and 1330Å reveal the presence of many rapidly evolving fibril-like structures in the transition region for the first time. These thin and long structures mainly reside in the plage region. They could be strands of low-lying cool transition region loops or the transition region counterpart of chromospheric spicules. (2) The C II and Mg II line profiles are almost Gaussian in the sunspot umbra and clearly exhibit a deep reversal at the line center in the plage region, suggesting a greatly reduced opacity in the sunspot atmosphere. (3) Bidirectional jets are frequently occurring mainly in the plage region immediately outside the sunspot throughout the observation. Triple or double Gaussian fit to the line profiles of Si IV suggests a velocity as high as 100 km/s. These velocity values are of the same order of the Alfven speed in the transition region. (4)Three-minute oscillation is clearly present in the sunspot umbra. The oscillation is identified in not only the slit jaw images of 2796Å, 1400Å and 1330Å, but also in spectra of the bright Mg II, C II and Si IV lines. Strong non-linearity is clearly seen in the intensity and Doppler shift oscillations. Interestingly, the obvious increase of the line width only occurs at the times of largest blue shift. The correlated change of the intensity and Doppler shift suggests an upward propagating magneto-acoustic shock wave.

  12. Isoperimetric inequalities in surround system and space science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JiaJin Wen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By means of the algebraic, analysis, convex geometry, computer, and inequality theories we establish the following isoperimetric inequality in the centered 2-surround system S ( 2 { P , Γ , l } $S^{(2} \\{P,\\varGamma ,l \\}$ : ( 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ r ¯ P p 1 / p ⩽ | Γ | 4 π sin l π | Γ | [ csc l π | Γ | + cot 2 l π | Γ | ln ( tan l π | Γ | + sec l π | Γ | ] , ∀ p ⩽ − 2 . $$\\begin{aligned}& \\biggl(\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\bar{r}_{P}^{p} \\biggr^{1/p}\\leqslant\\frac{|\\varGamma |}{4\\pi}\\sin\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggl[ \\csc \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\cot^{2} \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\ln \\biggl(\\tan \\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |}+\\sec\\frac{l\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr \\biggr], \\\\& \\quad \\forall p\\leqslant -2. \\end{aligned}$$ As an application of the inequality in space science, we obtain the best lower bounds of the mean λ-gravity norm ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ $\\overline{\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\Vert }$ as follows: ∥ F λ ( Γ , P ∥ ‾ ≜ 1 | Γ | ∮ Γ 1 ∥ A − P ∥ λ ⩾ ( 2 π | Γ | λ , ∀ λ ⩾ 2 . $$\\overline{\\bigl\\Vert {\\mathbf{F}}_{\\lambda} ( \\varGamma ,P \\bigr\\Vert } \\triangleq\\frac{1}{|\\varGamma |} \\oint_{\\varGamma }\\frac{1}{\\|A-P\\|^{\\lambda }}\\geqslant \\biggl(\\frac{2\\pi}{|\\varGamma |} \\biggr^{\\lambda},\\quad \\forall \\lambda\\geqslant2. $$

  13. The interstellar cloud surrounding the Sun: a new perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gry, Cécile; Jenkins, Edward B.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: We offer a new, simpler picture of the local interstellar medium, made of a single continuous cloud enveloping the Sun. This new outlook enables the description of a diffuse cloud from within and brings to light some unexpected properties. Methods: We re-examine the kinematics and abundances of the local interstellar gas, as revealed by the published results for the ultraviolet absorption lines of Mg II, Fe II, and H I. Results: In contrast to previous representations, our new picture of the local interstellar medium consists of a single, monolithic cloud that surrounds the Sun in all directions and accounts for most of the matter present in the first 50 parsecs around the Sun. The cloud fills the space around us out to about 9 pc in most directions, although its boundary is very irregular with possibly a few extensions up to 20 pc. The cloud does not behave like a rigid body: gas within the cloud is being differentially decelerated in the direction of motion, and the cloud is expanding in directions perpendicular to this flow, much like a squashed balloon. Average H I volume densities inside the cloud vary between 0.03 and 0.1 cm-3 over different directions. Metals appear to be significantly depleted onto grains, and there is a steady increase in depletion from the rear of the cloud to the apex of motion. There is no evidence that changes in the ionizing radiation influence the apparent abundances. Secondary absorption components are detected in 60% of the sight lines. Almost all of them appear to be interior to the volume occupied by the main cloud. Half of the sight lines exhibit a secondary component moving at about -7.2 km s-1 with respect to the main component, which may be the signature of a shock propagating toward the cloud's interior.

  14. DEFORMATION OF MOISTURE FLUX CIRCULATION SURROUNDING THE LANDFALL TYPHOON "BILIS"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Ling-kun; YANG Wen-xia; HONG Yan-chao

    2009-01-01

    The deformation parameter (DP), which is defined as the product of shear deformation and stretching deformation of moisture flux circulation, is introduced. The tendency equation of DP is derived in pressure coordinates. Furthermore, DP is used to diagnose the deformation character of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis. The analysis showed that before Bilis landed, DP presented eight abnormal areas, which distributed alternately and closely encircled the low-pressure center. This indicated that the moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis rotated counterclockwise and stretched longitudinally and latitudinally to deform. After Bilis landed, DP weakened gradually and its regular pattern of horizontal distribution loosened. The shear and stretching deformations of moisture flux circulation surrounding Bilis weakened after the typhoon landed. The deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis mainly appeared in the middle-lower troposphere. There existed 1/2 phase difference between the shear and stretching deformations in the vertical-latitudinal cross section and a π/4 phase difference between them on the horizontal plane. As Bilis landed and further moved inland of China, the intensities of DP, shear and stretching deformations decreased, meanwhile their vertical and horizontal structures became irregular. The chief dynamic factors responsible for the deformation of moisture flux circulation in the periphery of Bilis were the three terms associated with the three-dimensional advection transportation of DP, square difference between shear and stretching deformations coupling with Coriolis parameter, and horizontal gradient of geopotential height before Bilis landed. The last two dynamic factors impacted jointly on the deformation of moisture flux circulation after Bilis landed.

  15. Protein folding: understanding the role of water and the low Reynolds number environment as the peptide chain emerges from the ribosome and folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Siddhartha; Voorheis, H Paul

    2014-12-21

    The mechanism of protein folding during early stages of the process has three determinants. First, moving water molecules obey the rules of low Reynolds number physics without an inertial component. Molecular movement is instantaneous and size insensitive. Proteins emerging from the ribosome move and rotate without an external force if they change shape, forming and propagating helical structures that increases translocational efficiency. Forward motion ceases when the shape change or propelling force ceases. Second, application of quantum field theory to water structure predicts the spontaneous formation of low density coherent units of fixed size that expel dissolved atmospheric gases. Structured water layers with both coherent and non-coherent domains, form a sheath around the new protein. The surface of exposed hydrophobic amino acids is protected from water contact by small nanobubbles of dissolved atmospheric gases, 5 or 6 molecules on average, that vibrate, attracting even widely separated resonating nanobubbles. This force results from quantum effects, appearing only when the system is within and interacts with an oscillating electromagnetic field. The newly recognized quantum force sharply bends the peptide and is part of a dynamic field determining the pathway of protein folding. Third, the force initiating the tertiary folding of proteins arises from twists at the position of each hydrophobic amino acid, that minimizes surface exposure of the hydrophobic amino acids and propagates along the protein. When the total bend reaches 360°, the leading segment of water sheath intersects the trailing segment. This steric self-intersection expels water from overlapping segments of the sheath and by Newton׳s second law moves the polypeptide chain in an opposite direction. Consequently, with very few exceptions that we enumerate and discuss, tertiary structures are absent from proteins without hydrophobic amino acids, which control the early stages of protein

  16. The current status of structural studies on proteins of the myelin sheath (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursula, P

    2001-11-01

    Myelin, the multilayered membrane structure surrounding axons, provides a unique environment to its proteins, which are either transmembrane proteins or interacting intimately with the membrane surface. Although myelin-specific proteins have been studied for decades, remarkably little is known of their three-dimensional structures. In addition, the exact functions of myelin proteins are to a large extent unknown. In this report, our current knowledge of peripheral nervous system myelin protein structures is reviewed, and the current status of attempts to solve the structures of full-length myelin proteins is evaluated. Furthermore, molecular models for the extracellular domain of the myelin-associated glycoprotein and the putative kinase-like domain of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase are presented and discussed.

  17. VESUVIUS PENTALOGUE: Interdisciplinary Science for Disaster Resilience and Sustainability of Populations Surrounding Vesuvius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobran, F.

    2015-12-01

    VESUVIUS PENTALOGUE is an elaboration of VESUVIUS 2000 scientific initiative aimed at volcanic risk reduction in the Vesuvius area. Its 5 building blocks are: (1) The current strategy of volcanic risk management (massive deportation of population) is both problematic and unacceptable. (2) A continuing close habitation of the population with the volcano should be the crucial cultural point to be pursued. This can be accomplished through a redefinition of the danger zone around Summa-Vesuvius as follows: (a) An exclusion nucleus should be established that prohibits all future human settlements and discourage the existing ones; (b) A resilience belt, housing most of the current population, should be established; (c) A sustainable area should be established beyond the resilience belt, allowing for both sustainable practices and temporary resettlements of the "resilience belt" citizens. (3) The built environment construction codes for the population of the danger zone should be established by utilizing Plinian eruption scenarios, scenario-based seismic hazard assessment and zonation, (c) dynamic structural analyses, (d) global volcanic simulations modeling of thermo-fluid dynamic eruption processes. (4) The volcanic risk information and education should involve an effective volcanic risk information campaign and active public preparedness strategy. This should be implemented for the exclusion nucleus, resilience belt, and sustainable area regions surrounding Summa-Vesuvius. A Volcanic Risk Education Safety Program should be implemented in all schools located within each of the above areas surrounding the volcano. (5)The political Authorities and the scientific community should produce a "memorandum of understanding" that univocally establishes an effective collaboration, and periodic progress reports that keep the populations informed on the improvements leading to the realization of the above objectives. For further details see www.gvess.org.

  18. CO Observations and Investigation of Triggered Star Formation toward the N10 Infrared Bubble and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, D. R. G.; Lepine, J. R. D.; Mendoza, E.; Wu, Y.; Yuan, J.

    2016-10-01

    We studied the environment of the dust bubble N10 in molecular emission. Infrared bubbles, first detected by the GLIMPSE survey at 8.0 μm, are ideal regions to investigate the effect of the expansion of the H ii region on its surroundings and the eventual triggering of star formation at its borders. In this work, we present a multi-wavelength study of N10. This bubble is especially interesting because infrared studies of the young stellar content suggest a scenario of ongoing star formation, possibly triggered on the edge of the H ii region. We carried out observations of 12CO(1-0) and 13CO(1-0) emission at PMO 13.7 m toward N10. We also analyzed the IR and sub-millimeter emission on this region and compare those different tracers to obtain a detailed view of the interaction between the expanding H ii region and the molecular gas. We also estimated the parameters of the denser cold dust condensation and the ionized gas inside the shell. Bright CO emission was detected and two molecular clumps were identified from which we have derived physical parameters. We also estimate the parameters for the densest cold dust condensation and for the ionized gas inside the shell. The comparison between the dynamical age of this region and the fragmentation timescale favors the “Radiation-Driven Implosion” mechanism of star formation. N10 is a case of particular interest with gas structures in a narrow frontier between the H ii region and surrounding molecular material, and with a range of ages of YSOs situated in the region, indicating triggered star formation.

  19. Fluoroquinolones and Tetracycline Antibiotics in a Portuguese Aquaculture System and Aquatic Surroundings: Occurrence and Environmental Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André M P T; Silva, Liliana J G; Meisel, Leonor M; Pena, Angelina

    2015-01-01

    The growth of aquaculture over the past few years is widely recognized as one of the main sources of antibiotics, mainly fluoroquinolones (FQ) and tetracyclines (TC), in the aquatic environment, consequently, increasing the risk of the emergence of antibiotic bacterial resistance and promoting the spread of resistant genes. This study aimed to (1) develop and validate a multiresidue method for determination and quantification of ciprofloxacin (CIP), difloxacin (DIFL), enrofloxacin (ENR), norfloxacin (NOR), sarafloxacin (SARA), and oxytetracycline (OXY) in aquaculture waters and surrounding water bodies and (2) provide the first Portuguese data to utilize in assessment of risk of adverse effects. In addition, the potential environmental impact posed by these antibiotics to aquatic organisms, belonging to different trophic levels, when exposed to the studied aquaculture waters was also assessed. The analytical strategy comprised of solid-phase extraction (SPE) through Oasis HLB cartridges, and detection and quantification by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS(n)). Method detection limits (MDL) and method quantification limits (MQL) were in the range of 0.7-3 ng/L and 2.4-10 ng/L, respectively. Recoveries varied between 57.4 and 122.8%. The method was applied to 31 water samples collected from an aquaculture and surrounding water bodies located in north of Portugal. Residues of all antibiotics, except SARA and DIFL, were detected at concentrations ranging from 3 to 75.1 ng/L. Norfloxacin was the antibiotic present at highest frequency and concentration. Regarding the environmental impact assessment (EIA), a risk quotient higher than 1 was observed for NOR.

  20. High-protein diet modifies colonic microbiota and luminal environment but not colonocyte metabolism in the rat model: the increased luminal bulk connection

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xinxin; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Santacruz, Arlette; Lan, Annaig; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Wilkanowicz, Sabina; Benetti, Pierre-Henri; Tomé, Daniel; Sanz, Yolanda; Blachier, Francois; Davila-Gay, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    High-protein diets are used for body weight reduction, but consequences on the large intestine ecosystem are poorly known. Here, rats were fed for 15 days with either a normoproteic diet (NP, 14% protein) or a hyperproteic-hypoglucidic isocaloric diet (HP, 53% protein). Cecum and colon were recovered for analysis. Short- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as lactate, succinate, formate, and ethanol contents, were markedly increased in the colonic luminal contents of HP rats (P < 0.05 or ...

  1. Circumstances surrounding dying in the paediatric intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plötz Frans B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Death is inevitable in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU. We aimed to describe the circumstances surrounding dying in a PICU. Method The chart records of all patients less than 18 years of age who died at the PICU between January first 2000 and July first 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Information regarding sex, age, length of stay, admission, diagnosis, and the way a patient died was registered. Post mortem information regarding natural versus unnatural death, autopsy and donation was obtained. Non-survivors were allocated in five groups: do-not-resuscitate (DNR, withholding and/or withdrawal of therapy (W/W, failed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (failed CPR, brain death (BD, and terminal organ failure (TOF. Results During the study period 87 (4.4% of the 1995 admitted patients died. Non-survivors were more often admitted during the day (54% and the week (68%. W/W was found in 27.6%, TOF in 26.4%, BD in 23.0%, failed CPR in 18.4%, and DNR in 4.6%. Forty-three percent died in the first two days, of which BD (40.5% and failed CPR (37.8% were most common. Seventy-five children (86% died due to a natural cause. Autopsy permission was obtained in 19 of 54 patients (35%. The autopsies confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 11 patients, revealed new information in 5 patients, and in 3 patients the autopsy did not provide additional information. Nine patients were medically suitable for organ donation and 24 patients for tissue donation, whereas consent was only obtained in 2 cases in both groups. Conclusion We observed that 43% of the patients died within the first two days of admission due to BD and failed CPR, whereas after 4 days most patients died after W/W. Autopsy remains an useful tool to confirm clinical diagnoses or to provide new information. Only a small percentage of the deceased children is suitable for organ donation.

  2. Highly Enriched Uranium Metal Cylinders Surrounded by Various Reflector Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard Jones; J. Blair Briggs; Leland Monteirth

    2007-05-01

    A series of experiments was performed at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1958 to determine critical masses of cylinders of Oralloy (Oy) reflected by a number of materials. The experiments were all performed on the Comet Universal Critical Assembly Machine, and consisted of discs of highly enriched uranium (93.3 wt.% 235U) reflected by half-inch and one-inch-thick cylindrical shells of various reflector materials. The experiments were performed by members of Group N-2, particularly K. W. Gallup, G. E. Hansen, H. C. Paxton, and R. H. White. This experiment was intended to ascertain critical masses for criticality safety purposes, as well as to compare neutron transport cross sections to those obtained from danger coefficient measurements with the Topsy Oralloy-Tuballoy reflected and Godiva unreflected critical assemblies. The reflector materials examined in this series of experiments are as follows: magnesium, titanium, aluminum, graphite, mild steel, nickel, copper, cobalt, molybdenum, natural uranium, tungsten, beryllium, aluminum oxide, molybdenum carbide, and polythene (polyethylene). Also included are two special configurations of composite beryllium and iron reflectors. Analyses were performed in which uncertainty associated with six different parameters was evaluated; namely, extrapolation to the uranium critical mass, uranium density, 235U enrichment, reflector density, reflector thickness, and reflector impurities. In addition to the idealizations made by the experimenters (removal of the platen and diaphragm), two simplifications were also made to the benchmark models that resulted in a small bias and additional uncertainty. First of all, since impurities in core and reflector materials are only estimated, they are not included in the benchmark models. Secondly, the room, support structure, and other possible surrounding equipment were not included in the model. Bias values that result from these two simplifications were determined and associated

  3. Behavioural aspects surrounding medicine purchases from pharmacies in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerton L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the

  4. Reliability analysis of tunnel surrounding rock stability by Monte-Carlo method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Jia-mi; YANG Geng-she

    2008-01-01

    Discussed advantages of improved Monte-Carlo method and feasibility aboutproposed approach applying in reliability analysis for tunnel surrounding rock stability. Onthe basis of deterministic parsing for tunnel surrounding rock, reliability computing methodof surrounding rock stability was derived from improved Monte-Carlo method. The com-puting method considered random of related parameters, and therefore satisfies relativityamong parameters. The proposed method can reasonably determine reliability of sur-rounding rock stability. Calculation results show that this method is a scientific method indiscriminating and checking surrounding rock stability.

  5. Clinical Observation of Vascular Dementia Treated by Surrounding-acupuncture of the CT-located Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUN Xin; FENG Bi-fang; RONG Li; YANG Wen-hui

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To observe the clinical effect of "Surrounding Needling Technigue through CT Location" in treating vascular dementia. Method Fifty cases of vascular dementia were randomly divided into surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture groups, 25 cases in each group,and were given surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture respectively. Results The effective rates in surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location and routine acupuncture groups were 88% and 60% respectively, and there was significant difference between the two groups, P < 0.01.Conclusion Therapeutic effect of surrounding Needling Technigue through CT location in treating vascular dementia was satisfactory, and better than that of routine acupuncture.

  6. Seasonal Dynamics of Stress Proteins in Leaves of Medicinal Plants in a Natural Environment of Irkutsk and on the Shores of the Lake Baikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Zhivetiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We study leafs of five plant species, growing in Irkutsk city and on the southeastern shore of Lake Baikal. These species are Achillea asiatica Serg., Taraxacum officinale Wigg., Plantago major L., Veronica chamaedrys L. and Alchemilla subcrenata Buser. In its leafs we identify some types of stress-induced proteins. In autumn, the accumulation of stress proteins in leafs of plants both from shores of Lake Baikal and from Irkutsk have been registered.

  7. Conformational choreography of a molecular switch region in myelin basic protein--molecular dynamics shows induced folding and secondary structure type conversion upon threonyl phosphorylation in both aqueous and membrane-associated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverini, Eugenia; Coll, Eoin P; Tieleman, D Peter; Harauz, George

    2011-03-01

    The 18.5 kDa isoform of myelin basic protein is essential to maintaining the close apposition of myelin membranes in central nervous system myelin, but its intrinsic disorder (conformational dependence on environment), a variety of post-translational modifications, and a diversity of protein ligands (e.g., actin and tubulin) all indicate it to be multifunctional. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of a conserved central segment of 18.5 kDa myelin basic protein (residues Glu80-Gly103, murine sequence numbering) in aqueous and membrane-associated environments to ascertain the stability of constituent secondary structure elements (α-helix from Glu80-Val91 and extended poly-proline type II from Thr92-Gly103) and the effects of phosphorylation of residues Thr92 and Thr95, individually and together. In aqueous solution, all four forms of the peptide bent in the middle to form a hydrophobic cluster. The phosphorylated variants were stabilized further by electrostatic interactions and formation of β-structures, in agreement with previous spectroscopic data. In simulations performed with the peptide in association with a dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer, the amphipathic α-helical segment remained stable and membrane-associated, although the degree of penetration was less in the phosphorylated variants, and the tilt of the α-helix with respect to the plane of the membrane also changed significantly with the modifications. The extended segment adjacent to this α-helix represents a putative SH3-ligand and remained exposed to the cytoplasm (and thus accessible to binding partners). The results of these simulations demonstrate how this segment of the protein can act as a molecular switch: an amphipathic α-helical segment of the protein is membrane-associated and presents a subsequent proline-rich segment to the cytoplasm for interaction with other proteins. Phosphorylation of threonyl residues alters the degree of membrane penetration of the

  8. Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Osman; Koch, Peter D; Klug, William S; Haselwandter, Christoph A

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology allows accurate prediction of thickness-mediated protein interactions for arbitrary protein symmetries at arbitrary protein separations and relative orientations. We provide exact analytic solutions for cylindrical integral membrane proteins with constant and varying hydrophobic thickness, and develop perturbative analytic solutions for noncylindrical protein shapes. We complement these analytic solutions, and assess their accuracy, by developing both finite element and finite difference numerical solution schemes. We provide error estimates of our numerical solution schemes and systematically assess their convergence properties. Taken together, the work presented here puts into place an analytic and numerical framework which allows calculation of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between integral membrane proteins for the complicated protein shapes suggested by structural biology and at the small protein separations most relevant for the crowded membrane

  9. Is meeting the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein related to body composition among older adults?: Results from the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and Built Environment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Jeannette M.; Deierlein, Andrea; Morland, Kimberly; Granieri, Evelyn; Spark, Arlene

    2017-01-01

    Objective Studies suggest protein intake may be associated with lower body weight, but protein has also been associated with preservation of lean body mass. Understanding the role of protein in maintaining health for older adults is important for disease prevention among this population. Design Cross-sectional study of the relationship of dietary protein on body composition. Setting New York City community centers Participants 1,011 Black, White, and Latino urban men and women 60-99 years of age Measurements Protein intake was assessed using two interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls, and body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) of fat mass (kg) (FM), fat free mass (kg) (FFM), and impedance resistance (Ohms). Statistical Analysis Indices of FM and FFM were calculated by dividing BIA measurements by height squared (m2), and percent FFM was calculated by dividing FFM by the sum of FM and FFM. Log linear models adjusting for age (continuous), race/ethnicity, education, physical activity (dichotomized at the median), hypertension, diabetes, and total calories (continuous). Results Just 33% of women and 50% of men reported meeting the RDA for protein. Both fat free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were negatively associated with meeting the RDA for protein (Women: FFMI -1.78 95%CI [-2.24, -1.33], FMI -4.12 95% CI[-4.82, -3.42] Men: FFMI -1.62 95% CI [-2.32, -0.93] FMI -1.80 95% CI [-2.70, -0.89]).After accounting for confounders, women and men consuming at least 0.8 g/kg/day had a 6.2% (95% CI: 5.0%, 7.4%) and a 3.2% (95% CI 1.1%, 5.3%) higher percent fat free mass, respectively. Conclusions FFM, FFMI, FM, and FMI were inversely related to meeting the RDA for protein. Meeting the RDA for protein of at least 0.8g/kg/day was associated with a higher percentage of fat free mass among older adults. These results suggest meeting the protein recommendations of at least 0.8 g/kg/day may help to promote lower overall body mass

  10. Metal-Directed Protein Self Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    SALGADO, ERIC N.; RADFORD, ROBERT J.

    2010-01-01

    exactly as natural metalloproteins and enzymes do. We will describe our computational and experimental efforts on restructuring the non-covalent interaction network formed between proteins surrounding the interfacial metal centers. This approach of metal templating followed by the redesign of protein interfaces (Metal-Templated Interface Redesign, MeTIR) not only provides a route to engineer de novo PPIs and novel metal coordination environments, but also carries possible parallels to the evolution of metalloproteins. PMID:20192262

  11. Convergence of environment polarization effects in multiscale modeling of excitation energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beerepoot, Maarten; Steindal, Arnfinn Hykkerud; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    . By varying the subset of sites in the environment for which atomic polarizabilities are included, we investigate to what distance from the quantum region explicit polarization effects need to be taken into account in order to provide converged excitation energies. Our study gives new insight into the range...... in proteins and in homogeneous solvents. The mutual polarization between the chromophore and its surroundings is included in the PE-TD-DFT approach through the use of induced dipoles, placed on all atoms in the classical region, and self-consistent optimization of the quantum and classical polarizable regions...

  12. Environment scattering in GADRAS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean J; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Harding, Lee T.

    2013-09-01

    Radiation transport calculations were performed to compute the angular tallies for scattered gamma-rays as a function of distance, height, and environment. Greens Functions were then used to encapsulate the results a reusable transformation function. The calculations represent the transport of photons throughout scattering surfaces that surround sources and detectors, such as the ground and walls. Utilization of these calculations in GADRAS (Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software) enables accurate computation of environmental scattering for a variety of environments and source configurations. This capability, which agrees well with numerous experimental benchmark measurements, is now deployed with GADRAS Version 18.2 as the basis for the computation of scattered radiation.

  13. LOV Domain-Containing F-Box Proteins:Light-Dependent Protein Degradation Modules in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shogo Ito; Young Hun Song; Takato Imaizumi

    2012-01-01

    Plants constantly survey the surrounding environment using several sets of photoreceptors.They can sense changes in the quantity (=intensity) and quality (=wavelength) of light and use this information to adjust their physiological responses,growth,and developmental patterns.In addition to the classical photoreceptors,such as phytochromes,cryptochromes,and phototropins,ZEITLUPE (ZTL),FLAVIN-BINDING,KELCH REPEAT,F-BOX 1 (FKF1),and LOV KELCH PROTEIN 2 (LKP2) proteins have been recently identified as blue-light photoreceptors that are important for regulation of the circadian clock and photoperiodic flowering.The ZTL/FKF1/LKP2 protein family possesses a unique combination of domains:a blue-light-absorbing LOV (Light,Oxygen,or Voltage) domain along with domains involved in protein degradation.Here,we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the function of the Arabidopsis ZTL/FKF1/LKP2 proteins.We summarize the distinct photochemical properties of their LOV domains and discuss the molecular mechanisms by which the ZTL/FKF1/LKP2 proteins regulate the circadian clock and photoperiodic flowering by controlling blue-light-dependent protein degradation.

  14. Investigation of the pH-dependence of dye-doped protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nudelman, Roman; Gloukhikh, Ekaterina; Rekun, Antonina; Richter, Shachar

    2016-11-01

    Proteins can dramatically change their conformation under environmental conditions such as temperature and pH. In this context, Glycoprotein's conformational determination is challenging. This is due to the variety of domains which contain rich chemical characters existing within this complex. Here we demonstrate a new, straightforward and efficient technique that uses the pH-dependent properties of dyes-doped Pig Gastric Mucin (PGM) for predicting and controlling protein-protein interaction and conformation. We utilize the PGM as natural host matrix which is capable of dynamically changing its conformational shape and adsorbing hydrophobic and hydrophilic dyes under different pH conditions and investigate and control the fluorescent properties of these composites in solution. It is shown at various pH conditions, a large variety of light emission from these complexes such as red, green and white is obtained. This phenomenon is explained by pH-dependent protein folding and protein-protein interactions that induce different emission spectra which are mediated and controlled by means of dye-dye interactions and surrounding environment. This process is used to form the technologically challenging white light-emitting liquid or solid coating for LED devices. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  15. High-protein diet modifies colonic microbiota and luminal environment but not colonocyte metabolism in the rat model: the increased luminal bulk connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinxin; Blouin, Jean-Marc; Santacruz, Arlette; Lan, Annaïg; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Wilkanowicz, Sabina; Benetti, Pierre-Henri; Tomé, Daniel; Sanz, Yolanda; Blachier, François; Davila, Anne-Marie

    2014-08-15

    High-protein diets are used for body weight reduction, but consequences on the large intestine ecosystem are poorly known. Here, rats were fed for 15 days with either a normoproteic diet (NP, 14% protein) or a hyperproteic-hypoglucidic isocaloric diet (HP, 53% protein). Cecum and colon were recovered for analysis. Short- and branched-chain fatty acids, as well as lactate, succinate, formate, and ethanol contents, were markedly increased in the colonic luminal contents of HP rats (P diet, whereas the amount of butyrate in feces was increased (P diet consumption allows maintenance in the luminal butyrate concentration and thus its metabolism in colonocytes despite modified microbiota composition and increased substrate availability. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Inhibition of the dorsal premotor cortex does not repair surround inhibition in writer's cramp patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugen, Lidwien C; Hoffland, Britt S; Stegeman, Dick F; van de Warrenburg, Bart P

    2013-03-01

    Writer's cramp is a task-specific form of focal dystonia, characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the hand and arm during writing. Two consistent abnormalities in its pathophysiology are a loss of surround inhibition and overactivity of the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). This study aimed to assess a possible link between these two phenomena by investigating whether PMd inhibition leads to an improvement of surround inhibition, in parallel with previously demonstrated writing improvement. Fifteen writer's cramp patients and ten controls performed a simple motor hand task during which surround inhibition was measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Motor cortical excitability was measured of the active and surround muscles at three phases of the task. Surround inhibition and writing performance were assessed before and after PMd inhibitory continuous theta burst stimulation. In contrast to healthy controls, patients did not show inhibition of the abductor digiti minimi muscle during movement initiation of the first dorsal interosseus muscle, confirming the loss of surround inhibition. PMd inhibition led to an improvement of writing speed in writer's cramp patients. However, in both groups, no changes in surround inhibition were observed. The results confirm a role for the PMd in the pathophysiology of writer's cramp. We show that PMd inhibition does not lead to restoration of the surround inhibition defect in writer's cramp, despite the improvement in writing. This questions the involvement of the PMd in the loss of surround inhibition, and perhaps also the direct link between surround inhibition and dystonia.

  17. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress Proteins Ectopically Expressed in the Heterologous Environment of Plant Cells are Strictly Targeted to the Nuclear Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Christian E; Link, Katrin; Wagner, Sabrina; Milbradt, Jens; Marschall, Manfred; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2016-03-10

    In all eukaryotic cells, the nucleus forms a prominent cellular compartment containing the cell's nuclear genome. Although structurally similar, animal and plant nuclei differ substantially in details of their architecture. One example is the nuclear lamina, a layer of tightly interconnected filament proteins (lamins) underlying the nuclear envelope of metazoans. So far no orthologous lamin genes could be detected in plant genomes and putative lamin-like proteins are only poorly described in plants. To probe for potentially conserved features of metazoan and plant nuclear envelopes, we ectopically expressed the core nuclear egress proteins of human cytomegalovirus pUL50 and pUL53 in plant cells. pUL50 localizes to the inner envelope of metazoan nuclei and recruits the nuclear localized pUL53 to it, forming heterodimers. Upon expression in plant cells, a very similar localization pattern of both proteins could be determined. Notably, pUL50 is specifically targeted to the plant nuclear envelope in a rim-like fashion, a location to which coexpressed pUL53 becomes strictly corecruited from its initial nucleoplasmic distribution. Using pUL50 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening, the cytoplasmic re-initiation supporting protein RISP could be identified. Interaction of pUL50 and RISP could be confirmed by coexpression and coimmunoprecipitation in mammalian cells and by confocal laser scanning microscopy in plant cells, demonstrating partial pUL50-RISP colocalization in areas of the nuclear rim and other intracellular compartments. Thus, our study provides strong evidence for conserved structural features of plant and metazoan nuclear envelops and identifies RISP as a potential pUL50-interacting plant protein.

  18. Issues surrounding the health economic evaluation of genomic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, James; Wordsworth, Sarah; Schuh, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Aim Genomic interventions could enable improved disease stratification and individually tailored therapies. However, they have had a limited impact on clinical practice to date due to a lack of evidence, particularly economic evidence. This is partly because health economists are yet to reach consensus on whether existing methods are sufficient to evaluate genomic technologies. As different approaches may produce conflicting adoption decisions, clarification is urgently required. This article summarizes the methodological issues associated with conducting economic evaluations of genomic interventions. Materials & methods A structured literature review was conducted to identify references that considered the methodological challenges faced when conducting economic evaluations of genomic interventions. Results Methodological challenges related to the analytical approach included the choice of comparator, perspective and timeframe. Challenges in costing centered around the need to collect a broad range of costs, frequently, in a data-limited environment. Measuring outcomes is problematic as standard measures have limited applicability, however, alternative metrics (e.g., personal utility) are underdeveloped and alternative approaches (e.g., cost–benefit analysis) underused. Effectiveness data quality is weak and challenging to incorporate into standard economic analyses, while little is known about patient and clinician behavior in this context. Comprehensive value of information analyses are likely to be helpful. Conclusion Economic evaluations of genomic technologies present a particular challenge for health economists. New methods may be required to resolve these issues, but the evidence to justify alternative approaches is yet to be produced. This should be the focus of future work in this field. PMID:24236483

  19. Sh2-205: I. The surrounding interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, G A

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the HII region Sh2-205 and its environs, based on data obtained from the CGPS, 12CO observations, and MSX data. We find that Sh2-205 can be separated in three independent optical structures: SH149.25--0.0, SH 148.83-0.67, and LBN 148.11-0.45. The derived spectral indices show the thermal nature of SH 148.83--0.67 and LBN 148.11--0.45. The morphology of SH 148.83--0.67, both in the optical and radio data, along with the energetic requ irements indicate that this feature is an interstellar bubble powered by the UV photons of HD 24431 (O9 III). LBN 148.11--0.45 has the morphology of a classic al HII region and their ionizing sources remain uncertain. Dust and molecular gas are found related to LBN 148.11-0.45.Particularly, a photodissociation region is detected at the interface between the ionized and molecular regions. If the proposed exciting star HD 24094 were an O8--O9 type star, as suggested by its near-infrared colors, its UV photon flux would be enough to explain the ionization of th...

  20. Numerical analysis of tunnel reinforcing influences on failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yu-jun; TANG Chun-an; ZHU Wan-cheng; LI Di-yuan; LI Shu-cai

    2008-01-01

    Based on mesoscopic damage mechanics, numerical code RFPA2D (dynamic edition) was developed to analyze the influence of tunnel reinforcing on failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves. The results show that the propagation phenomenon of stress wave in the surrounding rock of tunnel and the failure process of surrounding rock under explosive stress waves are reproduced realistically by using numerical code RFPAED; from the failure process of surrounding rock,the place at which surrounding rock fractures is transferred because of tunnel reinforcing, and the rockfall and collapse caused by failure of surrounding rock are restrained by tunnel reinforcing; furthermore, the absolute values of peak values of major principal stress, and the minimal principal stress and shear stress at center point of tunnel roof are reduced because of tunnel reinforcing, and the displacement at center point of tunnel roof is reduced as well, consequently the stability of tunnel increases.

  1. Misconceptions Surrounding Climate Change: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, C. M.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

    2011-12-01

    Misconceptions about climate change abound in every corner of society. The result manifests itself ranging from apprehension to total disregard for climate change conditions. According to several sources, however, a large percentage of the U. S. population do, indeed indicate some concern over global warming and climate change in general. These climate change misconceptions are numerous and include, to name a few; confusion between weather and climate, how greenhouse gases are affecting the earth, the effects of ozone depletion, earth's natural cycles, volcanic activity, nuclear waste and a host of other anthropogenic influences. This paper is a review of the current research literature relating to climate change misconceptions. These errant views will be addressed, cataloged, enumerated, and ranked to get a grasp on where the general population, politicians, scientists, and educators as well as students stand on informed climate change information. The categories where misconceptions arise have been identified in this literature review study and include the following: Natural cycles of the earth, ecological which include deforestation, urban development and any human intervention on the environment, educational - including teacher strategies, student understanding and textbook updates, emotional, ozone layer and its interactions, polar ice, political regulations, mandates and laws, pollution from human sources as well as from nature, religious beliefs and dogma and social beliefs. We suggest appropriate solutions for addressing these misconceptions, especially in the classroom setting, and broadly include available funding sources for work in climate change education. Some solutions include need for compilation of appropriate education resources and materials for public use, need for the development of educational materials that appropriately address the variety of publics, and need for programs that are conducting climate change education research and EPO work to

  2. Particulate Trace Metal Composition in Coastal Waters Surrounding Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiann, K. T.; Huang, K. C.; Hsieh, A. C.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal zones are dynamic environments where materials are transported from the land and where biomass is the most abundant, feeding on the terrestrial nutrients supplied. Therefore, compositions of particulate matter in coastal waters are complex. We collected size-fractionated particulate matter from Taiwan's coastal waters and determine trace metal concentrations, along with some key parameters that allow for the assessment of contribution of particulate matter from different sources. Al content in the particles is used to derive a mineralogical contribution (largely terrestrial) in the particle samples, based on the fact that Al concentrations in common clay minerals and in biota are 2-3 orders of magnitude different. Thereafter, trace metal concentrations in biotic particles can be derived after subtracting contribution from mineral particles (using a reference trace metal concentration in mineral phase), and the results can be compared directly. In the four size classes of particulate matter we collected (0.4-10 µm, 10-60 µm, 60-153 µm, and >153 µm), Al concentration, i.e. mineralogical contribution, decreased with increasing size. The derived biotic trace metal concentrations in near-shore coastal waters showed large variations in different size fractions. Biotic Cd concentrations increased with increasing particle size, implying bioaccumulation along the food chain. For Pb, higher concentrations were mostly associated with smaller size fractions. This may suggest the particle-reactive characteristics applied here for biotic particles. For other elements of biological and environmental significance, such as Cu, Ni, and Zn, their bulk particulate concentrations were relatively constant regardless sample locations and size fraction, but large variations in the biotic contents were found among different size fractions, as well as among samples collected from different locations with various extent of anthropogenic influence.

  3. CO observations and investigation of triggered star formation towards N10 infrared bubble and surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Diana; Wu, Yuefang; Yuan, Jinghua; Mendoza, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    We studied the environment of the Galactic bubble N10 in molecular emission. Infrared bubbles, first detected by GLIMPSE at 8.0 $\\mu$m, are ideal regions to investigate the effect of the expansion of the HII region on its surroundings and the possibility of triggered star formation at the border of HII regions. In this work, we present a molecular study of N10. This bubble is especially interesting as it undergoes a burst of star formation while infrared studies of the young stellar content suggest a scenario of ongoing star formation, possibly triggered, on the edge of the HII region. We carried out observations of $^{12}$CO(1-0) and $^{13}$CO(1-0) emission at PMO 13.7-m towards N10. We also analyzed the IR and sub-mm emission on this region and compare those different tracers to obtain a detailed view of the interaction between the expanding HII region and the molecular gas. Bright CO emission was detected. Two molecular clumps were identified, from which we have derived physical features. Star formation co...

  4. [Mercury pollution investigation in predominant plants surrounding Shenzhen Qingshuihe municipal solid waste incineration plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Wei; Zhong, Xiu-Ping; Liu, Yang-Sheng; Wang, Jun-Jian; Hong, Yuan; Zhao, Kang-Sai; Zeng, Hui

    2009-09-15

    In order to investigate the effects of mercury emission from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) on the surrounding plants and soils, the mercury concentrations were examined in the plant samples including leaves and stems and the soil samples around Shenzhen Qingshuihe MSWI Plant. Results show that, these plants are significantly polluted by mercury, the mercury concentrations of the plant leaves are 0.030 9-0.246 7 mg x kg(-1), with the mean value 0.094 8 mg x kg(-1), among the local prominent plants, the mercury concentrations in the leaves are in the order of: Acacia confuse > Litsea rotundifolia > Acacia mangium > Acacia auriculaeformis > Schima superb > Ilex asprella. The mercury concentrations of the plant stems are 0.007 4-0.119 6 mg x kg(-1), with the mean value 0.041 7 mg x kg(-1). For the same plant, the mercury concentration in its leaf correlates positively with that in its stem, but presents little correlation with that in the soil where it grows. Under the direction of the dominant wind, the concentration of smoke diffusion is often influenced by the distance from the stack and the difference of terrain. The mercury concentrations of the plant leaves and stems vary almost in accordance with spatial heterogeneity patterns of smoke diffusion. These results demonstrate that the interaction of the smoke and plant leaves play the leading role in the mercury exchange between plants and environment.

  5. The physical characteristics of the sediments on and surrounding Dauphin Island, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Alisha M.; Marot, Marci E.; Smith, Christopher G.; Wheaton, Cathryn J.

    2017-06-20

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center collected 303 surface sediment samples from Dauphin Island, Alabama, and the surrounding water bodies in August 2015. These sediments were processed to determine physical characteristics such as organic content, bulk density, and grain-size. The environments where the sediments were collected include high and low salt marshes, washover deposits, dunes, beaches, sheltered bays, and open water. Sampling by the USGS was part of a larger study to assess the feasibility and sustainability of proposed restoration efforts for Dauphin Island, Alabama, and assess the island’s resilience to rising sea level and storm events. The data presented in this publication can be used by modelers to attempt validation of hindcast models and create predictive forecast models for both baseline conditions and storms. This study was funded by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, via the Gulf Environmental Benefit Fund.This report serves as an archive for sedimentological data derived from surface sediments. Downloadable data are available as Excel spreadsheets, JPEG files, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata.

  6. The Emission Nebula Sh 2-174: A Radio Investigation of the Surrounding Region

    CERN Document Server

    Ransom, R R; Geisbuesch, J; Reich, W; Landecker, T L

    2014-01-01

    Sh 2-174 is believed to be either a planetary nebula (PN) or ionized, ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present in this paper 1420 MHz polarization, 1420 MHz total intensity (Stokes-I), and neutral hydrogen (HI) images of the region around Sh 2-174. The radio images address not only the nature of the object, but also the history of the relationship between Sh 2-174 and its surrounding environment. The HI images show that Sh 2-174 sits presently at the center of a 1.2 deg x 0.4 deg cloud. The Stokes-I image shows thermal emission peaks coincident with the R-band optical nebula, as well as low-surface-brightness emission from an ionized "halo" around Sh 2-174 and from an ionized "plateau" extending southeast from the cloud. The polarization images reveal Faraday-rotation structures along the projected trajectory of Sh 2-174, including a high-contrast structure with "arms" that run precisely along the eastern edge of the HI cloud and a wide central region which merges with the downstream edge of Sh 2-174. Th...

  7. Modeling emissions from CAFO poultry farms in Poland and evaluating potential risk to surrounding populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, H R; Citra, M; Abadin, H A; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, I; Kozajda, A; Ingerman, L; Nguyen, A; Murray, H E

    2017-03-01

    The world-wide use of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) for livestock production demands the need to evaluate the potential impact to public health. We estimated the exposure of various airborne pollutants for populations residing in close proximity to 10 poultry CAFOs located in Central Poland. Ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methane (CH4), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and organic dust were the pollutants of interest for this study. Because no monitoring data were available, we used the steady-state Gaussian dispersion model AERMOD to estimate pollutant concentrations for the exposed population in order to calculate the hazard index (HI) for a combined mixture of chemicals. Our results indicate that while the levels of certain pollutants are expected to exceed background levels commonly found in the environment they did not result in calculated hazard indexes which exceeded unity suggesting low potential for adverse health effects for the surrounding community for the mixture of chemicals. The study was conducted through a cooperation between the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in the USA and the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (NIOM) in Poland.

  8. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soils surrounding oil waste disposal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Wang, Hanxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Mengchao; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Xiaoxue; Zong, Meihan

    2016-02-01

    More attention is being devoted to heavy metal pollution because heavy metals can concentrate in higher animals through the food chain, harm human health and threaten the stability of the ecological environment. In this study, the effects of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Hg) emanating from oil waste disposal on surrounding soil in Jilin Province, China, were investigated. A potential ecological risk index was used to evaluate the damage of heavy metals and concluded that the degree of potential ecological damage of heavy metals can be ranked as follows: Hg > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Zn. The average value of the potential ecological harm index (Ri) is 71.93, thereby indicating light pollution. In addition, this study researched the spatial distribution of soil heavy metals by means of ArcGIS (geographic information system) spatial analysis software. The results showed that the potential ecological risk index (R) of the large value was close to the distance from the oil waste disposal area; it is relatively between the degree of heavy metals in soil and the distance from the waste disposal area.

  9. Ordovician eunicid polychaetes of Estonia and surrounding areas: review of their distribution and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hints, O

    2000-12-01

    Scolecodonts, the jaws of polychaete worms, are common and diverse palynomorphs in the Ordovician rocks of Estonia and surrounding areas. Some 120 apparatus-based species representing about 40 genera have been recorded thus far. Relatively long stratigraphical ranges of the majority of species reflect a low rate of evolution of jawed polychaetes. However, some individual species, as well as structural changes in the assemblages, appear to be useful for stratigraphical purposes. Environmental events like those in the middle Caradoc and late Ashgill had some impact on polychaete faunas, but less than on several other groups. In order to study the spatial distribution of eunicids, faunas of particular intervals of the Ordovician were investigated. Quantitative analysis revealed that polychaete assemblages with a very consistent qualitative and quantitative composition were widespread over long distances within the belts of similar facies conditions in the Baltoscandian Palaeobasin. On the other hand, it appears that species of Ordovician jawed polychaetes were strongly influenced by particular facies, and accordingly well differentiated along the palaeobasin gradient. The decrease in diversity and abundance towards the deeper-water part of the palaeobasin indicates that the majority of Ordovician eunicids preferred relatively shallow-water conditions. The increase in differentiation of environments is accompanied by an increase in differentiation of polychaete assemblages.

  10. Ocean-atmosphere exchange of organic carbon and CO2 surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Halpern, S.; Calleja, M. Ll.; Dachs, J.; Del Vento, S.; Pastor, M.; Palmer, M.; Agustí, S.; Duarte, C. M.

    2014-05-01

    Exchangeable organic carbon (OC) dynamics and CO2 fluxes in the Antarctic Peninsula during austral summer were highly variable, but the region appeared to be a net sink for OC and nearly in balance for CO2. Surface exchangeable dissolved organic carbon (EDOC) measurements had a 43 ± 3 (standard error, hereafter SE) μmol C L-1 overall mean and represented around 66% of surface non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Antarctic waters, while the mean concentration of the gaseous fraction of organic carbon (GOC H-1) was 46 ± 3 SE μmol C L-1. There was a tendency towards low fugacity of dissolved CO2 (fCO2-w) in waters with high chlorophyll a (Chl a) content and high fCO2-w in areas with high krill densities. However, such relationships were not found for EDOC. The depth profiles of EDOC were also quite variable and occasionally followed Chl a profiles. The diel cycles of EDOC showed two distinct peaks, in the middle of the day and the middle of the short austral dark period, concurrent with solar radiation maxima and krill night migration patterns. However, no evident diel pattern for GOC H-1 or CO2 was observed. The pool of exchangeable OC is an important and active compartment of the carbon budget surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula and adds to previous studies highlighting its importance in the redistribution of carbon in marine environments.

  11. In vivo corrosion behaviour of magnesium alloy in association with surrounding tissue response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Chieko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Imai, Yoshimichi; Mukai, Toshiji; Yamamoto, Akiko; Sano, Yuya; Ikeo, Naoko; Isozaki, Shuji; Takahashi, Toru; Oikawa, Miho; Kumamoto, Hiroyuki; Tachi, Masahiro

    2016-03-07

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloys are the most promising candidates for osteosynthesis devices. However, their in vivo corrosion behaviour has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of the physiological environment surrounding Mg alloys on their corrosion behaviour. A Mg-1.0Al alloy with a fine-grained structure was formed into plates using titanium (Ti) as a control. These plates were implanted into the subperiosteum in the head, subcutaneous tissue of the back, and in the muscle of the femur of rats for 1, 2 and 4 weeks. The volumes of the remaining Mg alloy and of the insoluble salt deposition and gas cavities around the Mg alloy were determined by microtomography, and the volume losses were calculated. Then, the tissue response around the plates in each implantation site was examined histopathologically, and its relation to the respective volume loss was analyzed. These analyses determined that the Mg alloy was corroded fastest in the head, at an intermediate level in the back, and slowest in the femur. The insoluble salt deposition at the Mg alloy surface had no influence on the volume loss. Gas cavities formed around the Mg alloy at all implantation sites and decreased after 4 weeks. Histopathological examination revealed that the Mg alloy exhibited good biocompatibility, as was seen with Ti. In addition, vascularized fibrous capsules formed around the plates and became mature with time. Notably, the volume loss in the different anatomical locations correlated with capsule thickness. Together, our results suggest that, to facilitate the successful clinical application of Mg alloys, it will be necessary to further comprehend their interactions with specific in vivo environments.

  12. Activity and population dynamics of heterotrophic and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil surrounding sludge bands spiked with linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, K. K.; Sørensen, J.; Krogh, P. H.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has documented soil microorganisms to be rather sensitive to linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), which may enter the soil environment in considerable quantities following sewage sludge disposal. We here report field effects of LAS on selected microbial populations present...... in a sandy soil surrounding well-defined sludge bands spiked with high but realistic LAS levels (7.1 or 31.3 g/kg). Surprisingly, LAS had no effect on heterotrophic respiration in the sludge compartment per se but stimulated activity and metabolic quotient (microbial activity per unit of biomass......) in the surrounding soil. By contrast, autotrophic ammonia oxidation was initially inhibited in the LAS-spiked sludge. This led to dramatic transient increases of NH+4 availability in the sludge and surrounding soil, subsequently stimulating soil ammonia oxidizers. As judged from a Nitrosomonas europaea...

  13. Ultraviolet resonance Raman studies reveal the environment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues in the native and partially folded states of the E colicin-binding immunity protein Im7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mendieta, Iñigo R; Spence, Graham R; Gell, Christopher; Radford, Sheena E; Smith, D Alastair

    2005-03-01

    Understanding the nature of partially folded proteins is a challenging task that is best accomplished when several techniques are applied in combination. Here we present ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy studies of the E colicin-binding immunity proteins, Im7* and Im9*, together with a series of variants of Im7* that are designed to trap a partially folded state at equilibrium. We show that the environments of the tryptophan and tyrosine residues in native wild-type Im7* and Im9* are indistinguishable, in contrast with models for their structures based on X-ray and NMR methods. In addition, we show that there is a general increase in the hydrophobicity in the environment of Trp75 in all of the variants compared with wild-type Im7*. These data suggest that a significant rearrangement of the tryptophan pocket occurs in the variants, which, together with an overall decrease in solvent accessibility of Trp75 as judged by time-resolved fluorescence lifetime measurements and fluorescence quenching experiments, rationalize the unusual fluorescence properties of the variants reported previously. The data highlight the power of UVRR in analyzing the structural properties of different conformational states of the same protein and reveal new information about the structural rearrangements occurring during Im7* folding, not possible using other spectroscopic methods alone. Finally, we describe a previously unreported dependence of the tryptophan Fermi doublet on excitation wavelength in the ultraviolet region revealed by these protein spectra. We corroborated this observation using tryptophan-containing model compounds and conclude that the conventional interpretation of this UVRR feature at these wavelengths is unreliable.

  14. The cross-correlation of signals and spatial impression in surround sound reproduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the cross-correlation coefficients of feeding signals and auditory spatial impression(ASI) which are created by the left,right,left surround and right surround loudspeakers in 5.1 channel surround sound system is investigated by psychoacoustic experiments.The results show that for reproducing by the front left-right or left-right surround loudspeakers pair,the auditory source width(ASW) can be broadened by controlling the crosscorrelation coefficients of feeding signals to some e...

  15. Fluorine-Rich Planetary Environments as Possible Habitats for Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljko Budisa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In polar aprotic organic solvents, fluorine might be an element of choice for life that uses selected fluorinated building blocks as monomers of choice for self-assembling of its catalytic polymers. Organofluorine compounds are extremely rare in the chemistry of life as we know it. Biomolecules, when fluorinated such as peptides or proteins, exhibit a “fluorous effect”, i.e., they are fluorophilic (neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic. Such polymers, capable of creating self-sorting assemblies, resist denaturation by organic solvents by exclusion of fluorocarbon side chains from the organic phase. Fluorous cores consist of a compact interior, which is shielded from the surrounding solvent. Thus, we can anticipate that fluorine-containing “teflon”-like or “non-sticking” building blocks might be monomers of choice for the synthesis of organized polymeric structures in fluorine-rich planetary environments. Although no fluorine-rich planetary environment is known, theoretical considerations might help us to define chemistries that might support life in such environments. For example, one scenario is that all molecular oxygen may be used up by oxidation reactions on a planetary surface and fluorine gas could be released from F-rich magma later in the history of a planetary body to result in a fluorine-rich planetary environment.

  16. Fluorine-Rich Planetary Environments as Possible Habitats for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budisa, Nediljko; Kubyshkin, Vladimir; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    In polar aprotic organic solvents, fluorine might be an element of choice for life that uses selected fluorinated building blocks as monomers of choice for self-assembling of its catalytic polymers. Organofluorine compounds are extremely rare in the chemistry of life as we know it. Biomolecules, when fluorinated such as peptides or proteins, exhibit a “fluorous effect”, i.e., they are fluorophilic (neither hydrophilic nor lipophilic). Such polymers, capable of creating self-sorting assemblies, resist denaturation by organic solvents by exclusion of fluorocarbon side chains from the organic phase. Fluorous cores consist of a compact interior, which is shielded from the surrounding solvent. Thus, we can anticipate that fluorine-containing “teflon”-like or “non-sticking” building blocks might be monomers of choice for the synthesis of organized polymeric structures in fluorine-rich planetary environments. Although no fluorine-rich planetary environment is known, theoretical considerations might help us to define chemistries that might support life in such environments. For example, one scenario is that all molecular oxygen may be used up by oxidation reactions on a planetary surface and fluorine gas could be released from F-rich magma later in the history of a planetary body to result in a fluorine-rich planetary environment. PMID:25370378

  17. Comparison of Socioeconomic Factors between Surrounding and Non-Surrounding Areas of the Qinghai–Tibet Railway before and after Its Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shicheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s highest railway, and the longest highland railway, the Qinghai–Tibet Railway (QTR has been paid considerable attention by researchers. However, most attention has been paid to the ecological and environmental issues affecting it, and sustainable ecological, social, and economic development-related studies of the QTR are rare. In this study, by analyzing the passenger traffic, freight traffic, passenger-kilometers, and freight-kilometers of the QTR for the period 1982–2013 and the transport structure of the Tibetan Plateau (TP for 1990–2013, the evolutionary process of the transport system in the TP following the construction of the QTR has been revealed. Subsequently, by comparing Gross Domestic Product (GDP, population, industrial structure, and urbanization level at the county and 1 km scales between surrounding and non-surrounding areas of the QTR, the differences in socioeconomic performance before and after its construction were detected. The results show that (1 in the TP, the highway-dominated transport system will break up and an integrated and sustainable transport system will form; (2 at the county scale, the annual growth rates of GDP of counties surrounding the QTR were greater than those of non-surrounding counties for the period 2000–2010. At the 1 km scale, following the opening of the completed line, the GDP of surrounding areas had a greater growth rate than before; (3 analysis at the county and 1 km scales indicated that population was not aggregated into the surrounding areas of the QTR in the period 2000–2010; (4 in terms of industrial structure, the proportion of primary industry decreased continuously, while the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries increased overall in the period 1984–2012. The QTR had no obvious impact on changes in the urbanization level of its surrounding areas.

  18. An Assessment of Air Quality in the Surrounding Holy Places of Mecca, Saudi Arabia during Hajj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, H. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Hussain, M. M.; Khatib, F.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The associations of exposure to air pollution and adverse human health effects have been demonstrated in many epidemiologic studies. Hajj, an annual pilgrimage of Islam, draws millions of pilgrims from more than 200 countries for religious rituals in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The city is surrounded by mountains with a population of 1.7 million, which gets doubles or even more during Hajj. The city centers on the Grand Mosque (Masjid Al-haram), connected with the network of tunnels. Main Hajj pilgrimage route for five days extends 20 km to the east and includes "Mina", "Arafat", and "Muzdalifah". A detailed study was conducted in Mecca, its tunnels, and surrounding holy places during Hajj (October 13-17, 2013). Spatial and temporal variations in total suspended particulate (TSP), PM10 , PM7 , PM2.5 , PM1 , ozone (O3), and black carbon (BC) levels along the route were recorded using portable monitors and GPS to assess the status of air quality. This is the first study to elucidate the exposure to air pollutants among pilgrims. Extremely high levels of all pollutants were observed during the intensive measuring periods. For example, the PM7 , PM2.5 , O3, and BC concentrations of up to 9,433 µg/m3, 484 µg/m3, 444 ppb, and 468 µg/m3, respectively, were observed. Results of this investigation revealed that most routes had on average exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for PM10 and PM2.5 . The reasons for the high air pollutants concentrations are most probably high volume of traffic, construction work, re-suspension of particles, and geographical conditions (arid regions). The pilgrim's longer trip duration lead to their highest whole trip exposure to air pollutants, which indicate that they are possibly subject to higher health risk. Better understanding of air pollution exposure and their determinants in the environments will contribute to the development of more appropriate exposure reductive strategies and have significant public health meanings.

  19. Probe conformational dynamics of proteins in aqueous solutions by terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Nguyen Q.

    2016-10-01

    Proteins solvated in their biologically milieu are expected to exhibit strong absorption in the terahertz frequencies, that contain information on their global and sub-global collective vibrational modes (conformational dynamics) and global dynamic correlations among solvent water and proteins. The dynamics play an important role in enzymatic activities of proteins, but obtaining an accurate and quantitative pictures of these activities, however, is challenging due to the strong absorption of water. In response, we have developed the world's highest precision, highest sensitivity terahertz-frequency domain spectrometer and a standard terahertz-time domain system to probe the collective dynamics of proteins in aqueous solutions. Operating over the frequency range from 5 GHz up to 3 THz, our spectrometers provide an unparalleled ability to probe directly such questions as the hydration level, the dynamics of water and hydrated proteins over the 100 fs to 1 ns timescale. Employing an effective medium approximation to describe the complex dielectric response of the solvated proteins in solution we find that proteins are surrounded by a loosely and tightly held layers of water molecules that behave as if they are an integral part of the protein. The number of water molecules in the protein hydration shells varies with proteins, which can tell us the average surface structure of proteins. These measurements shed light on the macromolecular motions of proteins in their biologically relevant environment.

  20. An oxygen-rich dust disk surrounding an evolved star in the Red Rectangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, LBFM; Waelkens, C; van Winckel, H; Molster, FJ; Tielens, AGGM; van Loon, JT; Morris, PW; Cami, J; Bouwman, J; de Koter, A; de Jong, T; de Graauw, T

    1998-01-01

    The Red Rectangle(1) is the prototype of a class of carbon-rich reflection nebulae surrounding low-mass stars in the final stages of evolution. The central star of this nebula has ejected most of its layers (during the red-giant phase), which now form the surrounding cloud, and is rapidly evolving t

  1. The Space of an Object: Object Attention Alters the Spatial Gradient in the Surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Dwight Jacob; Behrmann, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Although object-based attention enhances perceptual processing of information appearing within the boundaries of a selected object, little is known about the consequences for information in the object's surround. The authors show that distance from an attended object's center of mass determines reaction time (RT) to targets in the surround. Of 2…

  2. Different surrounding landscapes may result in different fish assemblages in East African seagrass beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, M.; Grol, M.G.G.; Nagelkerken, I.; Velde, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have considered how seagrass fish assemblages are influenced by surrounding habitats. This information is needed for a better understanding of the connectivity between tropical coastal ecosystems. To study the effects of surrounding habitats on the composition, diversity and densities of

  3. Surround modulation characteristics of local field potential and spiking activity in primary visual cortex of cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available In primary visual cortex, spiking activity that evoked by stimulus confined in receptive field can be modulated by surround stimulus. This center-surround interaction is hypothesized to be the basis of visual feature integration and segregation. Spiking output has been extensively reported to be surround suppressive. However, less is known about the modulation properties of the local field potential (LFP, which generally reflects synaptic inputs. We simultaneously recorded spiking activity and LFP in the area 17 of anesthetized cats to examine and compare their modulation characteristics. When the stimulus went beyond the classical receptive field, LFP exhibited decreased power along the gamma band (30-100 Hz in most of our recording sites. Further investigation revealed that suppression of the LFP gamma mean power (gLFP depended on the angle between the center and surround orientations. The strongest suppression was induced when center and surround orientations were parallel. Moreover, the surround influence of the gLFP exhibited an asymmetric spatial organization. These results demonstrate that the gLFP has similar but not identical surround modulation properties, as compared to the spiking activity. The spatiotemporal integration of LFP implies that the oscillation and synchronization of local synaptic inputs may have important functions in surround modulation.

  4. Effects of surrounding elements on city image in the sample of Erzurum city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ozer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural elements which are the parts of city identities are shaped as the result of social and cultural characteristics and natural factors. In order to increase visual quality of cities and make cities more liveable landscape architects use not only living materials such as plants but also nonliving materials. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of surrounding elements which are vertical elements in landscape designs, on functional and city aesthetics. With this aim, materials used in surrounding elements around houses in Erzurum, houses surrounded by these elements and their harmony with their surroundings, aesthetics and functional effects were investigated and their contributions to city image were determined. While surrounding elements are mainly adequate in functions, they are lower quality in aesthetics. Some suggestions were offered for the city images that local councils should be careful on and due to Universiade in 2011.

  5. Catastrophe mechanism and disaster countermeasure for soft rock roadway surrounding rock in Meihe mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yang⇑; Zhu Caikun; Chong Deyu; Liu Yang; Li Sichao

    2015-01-01

    The soft rock’s heterogeneity and nonlinear mechanical behavior cause extremely difficult maintenance on the soft rock roadway. Aiming at the asymmetric deformation and destruction phenomenon appearing after excavating and supporting the 7101 air return way in Meihe mine, this paper comprehensively adopted a variety of methods to analyze the roadway surrounding rock deformation rule, obtaining the roadway surrounding rock stress and plastic zone distribution rule under no supporting condition and the roadway surrounding rock deformation features under original symmetric supporting condition. Furthermore, this paper revealed the catastrophe mechanism, and proposed the concept of‘weak struc-ture’ and the disaster countermeasure of‘overall stabilizing the roadway and strengthening the support of weak structure’ . The industrial test shows that the disaster control technology can realize the coordination deformation of the supporting structure and roadway surrounding rock, thus significantly controlling the deformation of roadway surrounding rock.

  6. Effect of longwall length on mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell in mining face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang-Xiang Xie; Lei Wang [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2008-12-15

    The mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell in longwall mining face were studied, based on the results of in-situ measurement combined with numerical simulation, and the effect of longwall length on mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell was discovered. The results show that the mechanical characteristics of surrounding rock stress shell are influenced by the length of the face. With an increase of mining face length, the level of concentration of shell stress located in the front face and surrounding rock of roadway is amplified and the three- dimensional stress is focused in the working face. The damage lies in the head entry corner of face and the vertical displacement is reduced but horizontal displacement is enlarged. The dynamic balance of surrounding rock stress shell is improved with rational adjustment of face length. It is effective in protecting the working face and controlling strata behavior. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Stability classification model of mine-lane surrounding rock based on distance discriminant analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LI Xi-bing; GONG Feng-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis (DDA) theory, a stability classification model for mine-lane surrounding rock was established, including six indexes of discriminant factors that reflect the engineering quality of surrounding rock: lane depth below surface, span of lane, ratio of directly top layer thickness to coal thickness, uniaxial comprehensive strength of surrounding rock, development degree coefficient of surrounding rock joint and range of broken surrounding rock zone. A DDA model was obtained through training 15 practical measuring samples. The re-substitution method was introduced to verify the stability of DDA model and the ratio of mis-discrimination is zero. The DDA model was used to discriminate3 new samples and the results are identical with actual rock kind. Compared with the artificial neural network method and support vector mechanic method, the results show that this model has high prediction accuracy and can be used in practical engineering.

  8. Varieties of Quest and the Religious Openness Hypothesis within Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Watson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.

  9. Disputas pela legitimação de lógicas de uso e apropriação do meio natural: conservação ambiental, representações e conflitos no entorno do Parque Nacional das Emas – GO Disputes for the legitimisation of logics of use and ownership of the natural environment: environmental conservation, representations and conflicts in the surroundings of Emas National Park - GO Disputas por la legitimación de lógicas de uso y apropiación del medio natural: conservación ambiental, representaciones y conflictos en el entorno del Parque Nacional de las Emas – GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Cândido Fleury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PortuguêsEste artigo visa discutir reconfigurações nas dinâmicas sociais a partir da incorporação de demandas provenientes da “questão ambiental”, tomando por base empírica o conflito no entorno do Parque Nacional das Emas, unidade de conservação ambiental localizada na divisa entre os estados de Goiás, Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul. Após observação direta, pesquisa documental, técnicas de associações livres de palavras e entrevistas semiestruturadas com 51 agentes na área de estudo, constata-se que a vivência coletiva da unidade de conservação possibilita uma atualização dos conflitos anteriormente existentes, podendo-se concluir que, nos embates pela apropriação do ambiente, estão em disputa sentidos culturais, pautados não apenas pelos interesses objetivos, mas também pelos significados que os distintos grupos sociais projetam para a construção comum do mundo ao seu redor.EnglishThis article aims to discuss reconfigurations in social dynamics starting from the incorporation of demands from "environmental issues", taking, on an empirical base, the conflict in the surroundings of EMAS National Park, environmental conservation unit located on the border of the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. After direct observation, desk research, techniques of free associations of words and semi structured interviews with 51 agents in the area of study, it is noted that the collective experience of the conservation unit enables an update of previously existing conflicts. One can therefore conclude that in collisions by ownership of the environment, cultural senses are in dispute, guided not only by objective interests, but also by the meanings that different social groups design for the collective construction of the world around them.EspañolEste artículo visa discutir reconfiguraciones en las dinámicas sociales a partir de la incorporación de demandas provenientes de la “cuestión ambiental

  10. A geological model for the management of subsurface data in the urban environment of Barcelona and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Ángel Marazuela, Miguel; Velasco, Violeta; Diviu, Marc; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Álvarez-Marrón, Joaquina

    2016-09-01

    The overdevelopment of cities since the industrial revolution has shown the need to incorporate a sound geological knowledge in the management of required subsurface infrastructures and in the assessment of increasingly needed groundwater resources. Additionally, the scarcity of outcrops and the technical difficulty to conduct underground exploration in urban areas highlights the importance of implementing efficient management plans that deal with the legacy of heterogeneous subsurface information. To deal with these difficulties, a methodology has been proposed to integrate all the available spatio-temporal data into a comprehensive spatial database and a set of tools that facilitates the analysis and processing of the existing and newly added data for the city of Barcelona (NE Spain). Here we present the resulting actual subsurface 3-D geological model that incorporates and articulates all the information stored in the database. The methodology applied to Barcelona benefited from a good collaboration between administrative bodies and researchers that enabled the realization of a comprehensive geological database despite logistic difficulties. Currently, the public administration and also private sectors both benefit from the geological understanding acquired in the city of Barcelona, for example, when preparing the hydrogeological models used in groundwater assessment plans. The methodology further facilitates the continuous incorporation of new data in the implementation and sustainable management of urban groundwater, and also contributes to significantly reducing the costs of new infrastructures.

  11. Exploring the influence of boundary layer stability on wind farms and their interplay with the surrounding environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwende, Brian Joseph

    There is growing awareness in the wind power industry that boundary-layer stability influences wind turbine performance in meaningful ways. Stability is inextricably tied to the diurnal ebb and flow of heat, momentum, and moisture that drives weather. Boundary-layer stability is closely linked to low-level wind speeds, wind shear, wind veer, and turbulence. It is these myriad consequences of stability which directly impact turbines, both modifying performance and contributing to structural fatigue. I describe the influence of near-surface stability on the aggregate power output of a utility-scale wind farm in central North America. During convective conditions, the wind farm produced more power than during neutral conditions, while in stable conditions the farm underperformed. These results are statistically significant, despite the uncertainty involved in using nacelle anemometer measurements of wind speed. Next, I use lidar measurements from Iowa to categorize low-level jets and their impact on rotor-layer winds. Observed jets are similar to those studied in the Great Plains, though regional sloping terrain forcing is absent in Iowa. Rotor-layer wind speeds intensify during jet periods, but detrimental wind shear and veer also increase when jets occur. Simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with various input data and boundary-layer physics favorably reproduce jet features. I then utilize the same model to examine the impact of switching from maize to soybeans on rotor-layer winds during the peak of the growing season. The crop change was represented in the simulation by surface roughness. The switch produces a statistically significant increase in both wind speed and power output. Finally, I evaluate the performance of the wind farm parameterization (WFP) in WRF using high-resolution large eddy simulations (LES) from the same model. The wind speed and turbulence impacts estimated by the WFP compare favorably to LES flow for both convective and stable conditions. The results from all four studies exhibited some dependence on stability. Stability is intrinsic to so many boundary-layer processes that it inevitably plays a large role in wind farm conditions. Future work will continue to elucidate that role, with particular emphasis on the wakes of both wind turbines and wind farms.

  12. Fraction distribution and bioavailability of sediment heavy metals in the environment surrounding MSW landfill: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayadi, M H; Rezaei, M R; Rezaei, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the sediment samples from vicinity of a landfill in Qayen City, Iran. The samples were obtained from four different sampling stations. Sequential extraction was performed via a four-step procedure defined to evaluate the distribution of the element fraction in various samples. In the stations 3 and 4, Cd was found in large quantities during the first extraction F1, accounting for 40.4 and 38.7%, respectively. Pb was primarily presented in F2 of station 1 (approximately 44.80%), station 2 (approximately 41.8%), and station 4 (approximately 37.7%). Moreover, principal component analysis showed that heavy metal fraction in the sediment samples can be explained by two principal components (PCs). PC1 represented Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn, while PC2 represented Pb and Cu. Pearson correlation coefficient indicated significant correlations in Cu-Pb, Zn-Cu, and Cr-Zn pairings. The present study concluded that the spatial distributions of sediment heavy metals were influenced by MSW landfill.

  13. The shallow benthic food web structure in the high Arctic does not follow seasonal changes in the surrounding environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędra, Monika; Kuliński, Karol; Walkusz, Wojciech; Legeżyńska, Joanna

    2012-12-01

    Seasonality, quality and quantity of food resources strongly affect fitness and survival of polar fauna. Most research conducted in polar areas has been carried out during the summer, rarely including aspects of seasonality; therefore, there are gaps in our knowledge of the structure of food webs in the Arctic, particularly information is lacking on the possible shifts in winter feeding strategies of organisms. This study is the first to compare potential shifts in benthic food-web structure between winter and summer in a shallow-water Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard). Winter data were collected in March when conditions are representative of winter and when Arctic shallow benthic fauna is likely to be most affected by absence of fresh food supply as opposed to summer (August). Samples of particulate suspended organic matter (POM), settled organic matter, surface sediment and benthic organisms were taken and analyzed for stable isotopes signatures (δ13C and δ15N). Four relative trophic levels (TL) were distinguished in both winter and summer, and no differences in the structure of benthic food web were found between seasons. Our study shows that the shallow sublittoral benthos depends on primary production, fresh and reworked settled organic matter and, to a certain degree, on terrestrial input. We also demonstrate that shallow water polar benthic fauna is characterized by a high level of omnivory and feeds at multiple trophic levels showing strong resilience to changing seasonal conditions.

  14. Impact of surrounding environment evolution on long-term gas flux measurements in a temperate mixed forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdebise, Quentin; Rixen, Toma; De Ligne, Anne; Vincke, Caroline; Heinesch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    With the development of eddy covariance networks like Fluxnet, ICOS or NEON, long-term data series of carbon dioxide, water vapor and other gas exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere will become more and more numerous. However, long-term analyses of such exchanges require a good understanding of measurement conditions during the investigated period. Independently of climate drivers, measurements may indeed be influenced by measurement conditions themselves subjected to long-term variability due to vegetation growth or set-up changes. The present research refers to the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory (VTO) where fluxes of momentum, carbon dioxide, latent and sensible heat have been continuously measured by eddy covariance during twenty years. VTO is an ICOS site installed in a mixed forest (beech, silver fir, Douglas fir, Norway spruce) in the Belgian Ardennes. A multidisciplinary approach was developed in order to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of several site characteristics: -displacement height (d) and relative measurement height (z-d) were determined using a spectral approach that compared observed and theoretical cospectra; -turbulence statistics were analyzed in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory; -tree height during the measurement period was obtained by combining tree height inventories, a LIDAR survey and tree growth models; -measurement footprint was determined by using a footprint model. A good agreement was found between the three first approaches. Results show notably that z-d was subjected to both temporal and spatial evolution. Temporal evolution resulted from continuous tree growth as well as from a tower raise, achieved in 2009. Spatial evolution, due to canopy heterogeneity, was also observed. The impacts of these changes on measurements are investigated. In particular, it was shown that they affect measurement footprint, flux spectral corrections and flux quality. All these effects must be taken into consideration in order to disentangle long-term flux evolutions due to climate or phenology from changes resulting from measurement set-up changes.

  15. Cholinergic enhancement reduces orientation-specific surround suppression but not visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovicheva, Anna A; Sheremata, Summer L; Rokem, Ariel; Landau, Ayelet N; Silver, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) reduces the spatial spread of excitatory fMRI responses in early visual cortex and receptive field size of V1 neurons. We investigated the perceptual consequences of these physiological effects of ACh with surround suppression and crowding, two phenomena that involve spatial interactions between visual field locations. Surround suppression refers to the reduction in perceived stimulus contrast by a high-contrast surround stimulus. For grating stimuli, surround suppression is selective for the relative orientations of the center and surround, suggesting that it results from inhibitory interactions in early visual cortex. Crowding refers to impaired identification of a peripheral stimulus in the presence of flankers and is thought to result from excessive integration of visual features. We increased synaptic ACh levels by administering the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil to healthy human subjects in a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In Experiment 1, we measured surround suppression of a central grating using a contrast discrimination task with three conditions: (1) surround grating with the same orientation as the center (parallel), (2) surround orthogonal to the center, or (3) no surround. Contrast discrimination thresholds were higher in the parallel than in the orthogonal condition, demonstrating orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS). Cholinergic enhancement decreased thresholds only in the parallel condition, thereby reducing OSSS. In Experiment 2, subjects performed a crowding task in which they reported the identity of a peripheral letter flanked by letters on either side. We measured the critical spacing between the targets and flanking letters that allowed reliable identification. Cholinergic enhancement with donepezil had no effect on critical spacing. Our findings suggest that ACh reduces spatial interactions in tasks involving segmentation of visual field locations but that these effects may be limited to early

  16. Cholinergic enhancement reduces orientation-specific surround suppression but not visual crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kosovicheva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh reduces the spatial spread of excitatory fMRI responses in early visual cortex and the receptive field sizes of V1 neurons. We investigated the perceptual consequences of these physiological effects of ACh with surround suppression and crowding, two tasks that involve spatial interactions between visual field locations. Surround suppression refers to the reduction in perceived stimulus contrast by a high-contrast surround stimulus. For grating stimuli, surround suppression is selective for the relative orientations of the center and surround, suggesting that it results from inhibitory interactions in early visual cortex. Crowding refers to impaired identification of a peripheral stimulus in the presence of flankers and is thought to result from excessive integration of visual features. We increased synaptic ACh levels by administering the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil to healthy human subjects in a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In Exp. 1, we measured surround suppression of a central grating using a contrast discrimination task with three conditions: 1 surround grating with the same orientation as the center (parallel, 2 surround orthogonal to the center, or 3 no surround. Contrast discrimination thresholds were higher in the parallel than in the orthogonal condition, demonstrating orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS. Cholinergic enhancement reduced thresholds only in the parallel condition, thereby reducing OSSS. In Exp. 2, subjects performed a crowding task in which they reported the identity of a peripheral letter flanked by letters on either side. We measured the critical spacing between the target and flanking letters that allowed reliable identification. Cholinergic enhancement had no effect on critical spacing. Our findings suggest that ACh reduces spatial interactions in tasks involving segmentation of visual field locations but that these effects may be limited to early visual cortical

  17. Neural mechanisms of surround attenuation and distractor competition in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehler, Carsten N; Tsotsos, John K; Schoenfeld, Mircea A; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Hopf, Jens-Max

    2011-04-06

    Visual attention biases relevant processing in the visual system by amplifying relevant or attenuating irrelevant sensory input. A potential signature of the latter operation, referred to as surround attenuation, has recently been identified in the electromagnetic brain response of human observers performing visual search. It was found that a zone of attenuated cortical excitability surrounds the target when the search required increased spatial resolution for item discrimination. Here we address the obvious hypothesis that surround attenuation serves distractor suppression in the vicinity of the target where interference from irrelevant search items is maximal. To test this hypothesis, surround attenuation was assessed under conditions when the target was presented in isolation versus when it was surrounded by distractors. Surprisingly, substantial and indistinguishable surround attenuation was seen under both conditions, indicating that it reflects an attentional operation independent of the presence of distractors. Adding distractors in the target's surround, however, increased the amplitude of the N2pc--an evoked response known to index distractor competition in visual search. Moreover, adding distractors led to a topographical change of source activity underlying the N2pc toward earlier extrastriate areas. In contrast, the topography of reduced source activity due to surround attenuation remained unaltered with and without distractors in the target's surround. We conclude that surround attenuation is not a direct consequence of the attenuation of distractors in visual search and that it dissociates from attentional operations reflected by the N2pc. A theoretical framework is proposed that links both operations in a common model of top-down attentional selection in visual cortex.

  18. Spontaneous magnetic alignment by yearling snapping turtles: rapid association of radio frequency dependent pattern of magnetic input with novel surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landler, Lukas; Painter, Michael S; Youmans, Paul W; Hopkins, William A; Phillips, John B

    2015-01-01

    We investigated spontaneous magnetic alignment (SMA) by juvenile snapping turtles using exposure to low-level radio frequency (RF) fields at the Larmor frequency to help characterize the underlying sensory mechanism. Turtles, first introduced to the testing environment without the presence of RF aligned consistently towards magnetic north when subsequent magnetic testing conditions were also free of RF ('RF off → RF off'), but were disoriented when subsequently exposed to RF ('RF off → RF on'). In contrast, animals initially introduced to the testing environment with RF present were disoriented when tested without RF ('RF on → RF off'), but aligned towards magnetic south when tested with RF ('RF on → RF on'). Sensitivity of the SMA response of yearling turtles to RF is consistent with the involvement of a radical pair mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of RF appears to result from a change in the pattern of magnetic input, rather than elimination of magnetic input altogether, as proposed to explain similar effects in other systems/organisms. The findings show that turtles first exposed to a novel environment form a lasting association between the pattern of magnetic input and their surroundings. However, under natural conditions turtles would never experience a change in the pattern of magnetic input. Therefore, if turtles form a similar association of magnetic cues with the surroundings each time they encounter unfamiliar habitat, as seems likely, the same pattern of magnetic input would be associated with multiple sites/localities. This would be expected from a sensory input that functions as a global reference frame, helping to place multiple locales (i.e., multiple local landmark arrays) into register to form a global map of familiar space.

  19. Effects of methionine chelate- or yeast proteinate-based supplement of copper, iron, manganese and zinc on broiler growth performance, their distribution in the tibia and excretion into the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhay Kumar; Ghosh, Tapan Kumar; Haldar, Sudipto

    2015-04-01

    A straight-run flock of 1-day-old Cobb 400 chicks (n = 432) was distributed into four treatment groups (9 replicate pens in each group, 12 birds in a pen) for a 38-day feeding trial evaluating the effects of a methionine chelate (Met-TM)- or a yeast proteinate (Yeast-TM)-based supplement of copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) on growth performance, bone criteria and some metabolic indices in commercial broiler chickens. The diets were either not supplemented with any trace elements at all (negative control, NC) or supplemented with an inorganic (sulphate) trace element premix (inorganic TM (ITM), 1 g/kg feed), the Met-TM (1 g/kg feed) and the Yeast-TM (0.5 g/kg feed). Body weight, feed conversion ratio and dressed meat yield at 38 days were better in the Yeast-TM-supplemented group as compared with the NC, ITM and Met-TM groups (p chelates or yeast proteinate forms of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn improved body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) and markedly reduced excretion of the said trace elements. The study revealed that it may be possible to improve broiler performance and reduce excretion of critical trace elements into the environment by complete replacement of inorganic trace minerals from their dietary regime and replacing the same with methionine chelate or yeast proteinate forms.

  20. SOILS AND GEOENVIRONMENTS OF THE NATIONAL PARK OF VIRUÁ AND SURROUNDING, RORAIMA: INTEGRATED VISION OF THE LANDSCAPE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Araujo Furtado de Mendonça

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989287The Viruá National Park (PARNA Viruá occupies 227.011ha, in the region of the low ‘Branco’ river, in Roraima state. This area includes an extensive mosaic of complex seasonally flooded forested and non-forested environments. The present work had as general objective to characterize the pedology aspects and the geo-environmental units of the Park and surroundings, in an integrated vision of the landscape and, additionally, estimate the carbon stocks in the soils and geo-environments. We described and collected 29 soil profiles in the main vegetation types of Campinaranas and Forests of PARNA Viruá and surroundings. The main soil classes are: Espodossolo Humilúvico, Neossolo Quartzarênico, Neossolo Flúvico, Neossolo Litólicos, Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Latossolo Vermelho, Cambissolo Háplico, Cambissolo Flúvico, Gleissolo Háplico and Plintossolo Háplico. The soils present spatial distribution marked by abrupt limits and close association with the vegetation type. We identified three pedo-environments: (1 sandy soils of the Campinaranas; (2 soils associated with the inselbergs and adjacencies; and (3 alluvial soils. We mapped and described 18 geoenvironmental units in PARNA Viruá National Park. The main geo-environments are: i Sandy plains and Paleodunes with grassy and arborous Campinarana on ‘Neossolos Quartzarênicos hidromórficos’ and ‘Espodossolos’; and Floodplains and; ii Terraces with Igapó Forest on sandy hydromorphic soils, occupying 24.6% and 20.1% of the studied area, respectively. In terms of total soil carbon stocks, the geo-environments of the sandy complexes of Campinaranas and associations stand out, with 9450.9 Gg C. The great extension and representativeness of the sandy areas of Campinaranas characterize PARNA Viruá PArk as an important conservation unit for protection Amazonian sandy soil systems. The areas under the domain of ‘Espodossolos’ possess the

  1. Osteomimicry of mammary adenocarcinoma cells in vitro; increased expression of bone matrix proteins and proliferation within a 3D collagen environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel F Cox

    Full Text Available Bone is the most common site of metastasis for breast cancer, however the reasons for this remain unclear. We hypothesise that under certain conditions mammary cells possess osteomimetic capabilities that may allow them to adapt to, and flourish within, the bone microenvironment. Mammary cells are known to calcify within breast tissue and we have recently reported a novel in vitro model of mammary mineralization using murine mammary adenocarcinoma 4T1 cells. In this study, the osteomimetic properties of the mammary adenocarcinoma cell line and the conditions required to induce mineralization were characterized extensively. It was found that exogenous organic phosphate and inorganic phosphate induce mineralization in a dose dependent manner in 4T1 cells. Ascorbic acid and dexamethasone alone have no effect. 4T1 cells also show enhanced mineralization in response to bone morphogenetic protein 2 in the presence of phosphate supplemented media. The expression of several bone matrix proteins were monitored throughout the process of mineralization and increased expression of collagen type 1 and bone sialoprotein were detected, as determined by real-time RT-PCR. In addition, we have shown for the first time that 3D collagen glycosaminoglycan scaffolds, bioengineered to represent the bone microenvironment, are capable of supporting the growth and mineralization of 4T1 adenocarcinoma cells. These 3D scaffolds represent a novel model system for the study of mammary mineralization and bone metastasis. This work demonstrates that mammary cells are capable of osteomimicry, which may ultimately contribute to their ability to preferentially metastasize to, survive within and colonize the bone microenvironment.

  2. Constitution Protects The Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The construction of a maglev train route linking Shanghai and Hangzhou,Zhejiang Province, worth over 35 billion yuan ($4.61 billion), and a 10-billion yuan ($1.32 billion) paraxylene producing factory in Xiamen,Fujian Province, were both ordered to suspend operations in May, in response to local residents’ outcries for further assessments on their environmental impacts. Cai Dingjian, professor at China University of Political Science and Law, says in an article published in Nanfang Daily on June 19 that a deteriorating environment ruins not only nature and the ecology, but also endangers the health of people living in the area.Since the right to survive is basic for human beings, a more scientific decision-making procedure is called for to endow the citizens living in surrounding areas of the projects more rights and respect.

  3. Observing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2012-01-01

    , and analyse how their conceptions of environment are connected to differences of perspective and observation. Results: We show the need to distinguish between inside and outside perspectives on the environment, and identify two very different and complementary logics of observation, the logic of distinction......, and that it is based fully on the conception of observation as indication by means of distinction....

  4. Encapsulated Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Cheung, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  5. Variability in response of lakes to climate change explained by surrounding watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råman Vinnå, Love; Wüest, Alfred; Bouffard, Damien

    2017-04-01

    The consequences of climate change for inland waters have been shown to vary extensively not only globally, but also on a sub-regional scale [O'Reilly et al., 2015, GRL]. Local factors affecting heating include morphology [Toffolon et al., 2014, LO], irradiance absorption [Williamson et al., 2015, SR], local weather conditions and onset of stratification [Zhong et al., 2016, LO] as well as ice conditions [Austin and Colman, 2007, GRL]. However, inland waters are often a complex web of rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs. Thereby, to correctly assess and predict future changes in lakes/reservoirs due to climate change, it is important to consider the changes occurring in the surrounding watersheds and how they affect downstream waters. Here we evaluate the impact of climate change on rivers originating in the Swiss Alps (Aare and Rhône) and downstream located perialpine lakes (Lake Biel and Lake Geneva). We use regional predictions for air temperature increase and the subsequently expected shift in river discharge regime under the A1B emission scenario [Bey et al., 2011, CH2011; Federal Office for the Environment FOEN, 2012, CCHydro]. Focus is on predicting the changes in water temperature, particle content, stratification and deep water renewal rate using the 1D SIMSTRAT [Goudsmit et al., 2002, JGR] and Air2Stream [Toffolon and Piccolroaz, 2015, ERL] models. We show that the effect of tributaries on the reaction for downstream lakes to climate change are inversely proportional to the hydraulic residence time of the systems. We furthermore include known changes in anthropogenic thermal emissions, which in Lake Biel correspond to 2 decades of climate induced warming. Our results are put into context with future water utility plans in Lake Biel.

  6. Air Quality in Mecca and Surrounding Holy Places in Saudi Arabia during Hajj: Initial Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Siddique, A.; Barletta, B.; Blake, N. J.; Gartner, A.; Khwaja, H. A.; Meinardi, S.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Arabian Peninsula experiences severe air pollution yet is highly understudied in terms of surface measurements of ozone and its precursors. Every year the air pollution in Saudi Arabia is intensified by additional traffic and activities during Hajj, the world's largest religious pilgrimage that draws 3‒4 million pilgrims to Mecca (population of 2 million). Using whole air sampling and high-precision measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and 97 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), we performed an initial survey of air quality in Mecca, its tunnels, and surrounding holy sites during the 2012 Hajj (October 24-27; n = 77). This is the first time such a campaign has been undertaken. Levels of the combustion tracer CO and numerous VOCs were strongly elevated along the pilgrimage route, especially in the tunnels of Mecca, and are a concern for human health. For example CO reached 57 ppmv in the tunnels, exceeding the 30-min exposure guideline of 50 ppmv. Benzene, a known carcinogen, reached 185 ppbv in the tunnels, exceeding the 1-hr exposure limit of 9 ppbv. The gasoline evaporation tracer i-pentane was the most abundant VOC during Hajj, reaching 1200 ppbv in the tunnels. Even though VOC concentrations were generally lower during a follow-up non-Hajj sampling period (April, 2013), many were still comparable to other large cities suffering from poor air quality. Major VOC sources during Hajj included vehicular exhaust, gasoline evaporation, liquefied petroleum gas, and air conditioners. Of the measured compounds, reactive alkenes (associated with gasoline evaporation) and CO showed the strongest potential to form ground-level ozone. Therefore efforts to curb ozone formation likely require dual targeting of both combustive and evaporative fossil fuel sources. However, modeling and other measurements (e.g., nitrogen oxides) are also needed to fully understand Mecca's oxidative environment. We also present specific recommendations to reduce VOC emissions and exposure in

  7. Protected areas and their surrounding territory: socioecological systems in the context of ecological solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevet, Raphaël; Thompson, John D; Folke, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The concept of ecological solidarity (ES) is a major feature of the 2006 law reforming national park policy in France. In the context of biodiversity conservation, the objectives of this study are to outline the historical development of ES, provide a working definition, and present a method for its implementation that combines environmental pragmatism and adaptive management. First, we highlight how ES provides a focus on the interdependencies among humans and nonhuman components of the socioecological system. In doing so, we identify ES within a framework that distinguishes ecological, socioecological, and sociopolitical interdependencies. In making such interdependencies apparent to humans who are not aware of their existence, the concept of ES promotes collective action as an alternative or complementary approach to state- or market-based approaches. By focusing on the awareness, feelings, and acknowledgement of interdependencies between actors and between humans and nonhumans, we present and discuss a learning-based approach (participatory modeling) that allows stakeholders to work together to construct cultural landscapes for present and future generations. Using two case studies, we show how an ES analysis goes beyond the ecosystem management approach to take into account how human interactions with the environment embody cultural, social, and economic values and endorse an ethically integrated science of care and responsibility. ES recognizes the diversity of these values as a practical foundation for socially engaged and accountable actions. Finally, we discuss how ES enhances academic support for a socioecological systems approach to biodiversity conservation and promotes collaboration with decision-makers and stakeholders involved in the adaptive management of protected areas and their surrounding landscapes.

  8. Visual Acuity Using Head-fixed Displays During Passive Self and Surround Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Black, F. Owen; Stallings, Valerie; Peters, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The ability to read head-fixed displays on various motion platforms requires the suppression of vestibulo-ocular reflexes. This study examined dynamic visual acuity while viewing a head-fixed display during different self and surround rotation conditions. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to report the orientation of Landolt C optotypes presented on a micro-display fixed to a rotating chair at 50 cm distance. Acuity thresholds were determined by the lowest size at which the subjects correctly identified 3 of 5 optotype orientations at peak velocity. Visual acuity was compared across four different conditions, each tested at 0.05 and 0.4 Hz (peak amplitude of 57 deg/s). The four conditions included: subject rotated in semi-darkness (i.e., limited to background illumination of the display), subject stationary while visual scene rotated, subject rotated around a stationary visual background, and both subject and visual scene rotated together. Visual acuity performance was greatest when the subject rotated around a stationary visual background; i.e., when both vestibular and visual inputs provided concordant information about the motion. Visual acuity performance was most reduced when the subject and visual scene rotated together; i.e., when the visual scene provided discordant information about the motion. Ranges of 4-5 logMAR step sizes across the conditions indicated the acuity task was sufficient to discriminate visual performance levels. The background visual scene can influence the ability to read head-fixed displays during passive motion disturbances. Dynamic visual acuity using head-fixed displays can provide an operationally relevant screening tool for visual performance during exposure to novel acceleration environments.

  9. The local phospholipid environment modulates the activation of blood clotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Andrew W; Pureza, Vincent S; Sligar, Stephen G; Morrissey, James H

    2007-03-02

    Examples abound of membrane-bound enzymes for which the local membrane environment plays an important role, including the ectoenzyme that triggers blood clotting, the plasma serine protease, factor VIIa, bound to the integral membrane protein, tissue factor. The activity of this enzyme complex is markedly influenced by lipid bilayer composition and further by tissue factor partitioning into membrane microdomains on some cell surfaces. Unfortunately, little is known about how membrane microdomain composition controls factor VIIa-tissue factor activity, as reactions catalyzed by membrane-tethered enzymes are typically studied under conditions in which the experimenter cannot control the composition of the membrane in the immediate vicinity of the enzyme. To overcome this problem, we used a nanoscale approach that afforded complete control over the membrane environment surrounding tissue factor by assembling the factor VIIa.tissue factor complex on stable bilayers containing 67 +/- 1 phospholipid molecules/leaflet (Nanodiscs). We investigated how local changes in phospholipid bilayer composition modulate the activity of the factor VIIa.tissue factor complex. We also addressed whether this enzyme requires a pool of membrane-bound protein substrate (factor X) for efficient catalysis, or alternatively if it could efficiently activate factor X, which binds directly to the membrane nanodomain adjacent to tissue factor. We have shown that full proteolytic activity of the factor VIIa.tissue factor complex requires extremely high local concentrations of anionic phospholipids and further that a large pool of membrane-bound factor X is not required to support sustained catalysis.

  10. Indicative levels of PM in the ambient air in the surrounding villages of the copper smelter complex Bor, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Viša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While information on air pollution in the form of particulate matter (PM has been monitored for longer period for EU countries, availability of PM data sets in the Western Balkan countries including the Republic of Serbia are still limited. Studies, related to the particulate pollution research, have been only carried out in the past several years. The main objective of this paper is to present PM levels measured in the ambient air in the surrounding settlements of the Copper Smelter Complex Bor. Also, one of the goals is a comparison of PM levels in the surrounding settlements with those measured in Bor town. The ambient levels of PM particles (PM10, PM2.5 were measured by automatic PM monitors at 4 nearby settlements: Slatina, Oštrelj, Krivelj and Brezonik in the time interval from 2005 to 2010. According to the measurement results, PM10 and PM2.5 levels in the ambient air were higher in the cold, heating, (October-March than in the warm no heating period (April-September. The exceeding of the daily limit of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration levels was observed at all measuring points. A higher number of exceedances were detected in the cold period. The results indicate that there is a significant seasonal change in the level of fine particles at all measuring places in surroundings. In addition, the PM levels in Bor town are more influenced by the air pollution from the Copper Smelter Complex than settlements in the vicinity, where the PM concentrations were greatly influenced by the presence of domestic heating in the cold period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauka Republike Srbije, br. III42008: Evaluation of Energy Performances and Indoor Environment Quality of Educational Buildings in Serbia with Impact to Health i br. III41028: “An Integral Study to Identify the Regional Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for the Common Noncommunicable Diseases in the Human Population of Serbia

  11. Leisure, environment, and the quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2006-01-01

    The environment is omnipresent. It is everything and anything external to us that might have an impact on how we think, feel, and act. It is physical and social, natural and human made. It includes not just our immediate surroundings but also a kind of mental shell of spatially and temporally nested situations and contexts we carry around with us in the form of...

  12. The complex circumstellar environment of HD 142527

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A.P.; Min, M.; Pantin, E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Honda, M.; Fujiwara, H.; Bouwman, J.; van Boekel, R.; Dougherty, S.M.; de Koter, A.; Dominik, C.; Mulders, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The recent findings of gas giant planets around young A-type stars suggest that disks surrounding Herbig Ae/Be stars will develop planetary systems. An interesting case is HD 142527, for which previous observations revealed a complex circumstellar environment and an unusually high ratio of

  13. The complex circumstellar environment of HD 142527

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A. P.; Min, M.; Pantin, E.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Honda, M.; Fujiwara, H.; Bouwman, J.; Van Boekel, R.; Dougherty, S.M.; de Koter, A.; Dominik, C.; Mulders, G. D.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The recent findings of gas giant planets around young A-type stars suggest that disks surrounding Herbig Ae/Be stars will develop planetary systems. An interesting case is HD142527, for which previous observations revealed a complex circumstellar environment and an unusually high ratio of i

  14. The complex circumstellar environment of HD142527

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, A. P.; Min, M.; Pantin, E.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Honda, M.; Fujiwara, H.; Bouwman, J.; van Boekel, R.; Dougherty, S. M.; de Koter, A.; Dominik, C.; Mulders, G. D.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The recent findings of gas giant planets around young A-type stars suggest that disks surrounding Herbig Ae/Be stars will develop planetary systems. An interesting case is HD142527, for which previous observations revealed a complex circumstellar environment and an unusually high ratio of i

  15. Numerical Analysis of Advanced Displacement in Construction Progress of Tunnel Excavation with Weak Surrounding Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of advanced displacement in construction progress of tunnel excavation with weak surrounding rock is carried out by numerical method and comparison of model test result. In allusion to the problems of regional landslides and extruded large-deformation seriously impacting the stability of rock mass in construction process of large-section tunnel with weak surrounding rock, the elastic-plastic numerical simulation relying on Liangshui tunnel of Lan-Yu railroad is conducted on mechanical behaviors and deformation steric effect of tunnel construction and the calculation results are compared with the modeling data. The research results show that: the steric effect of excavation face is the dominant factor in the incidence of working face and the stress of surrounding rocks gradually releases from excavation face; the range of 0.5~1 times the cave diameter around rock mass in front of working face is the disturbance range and the key area of stabilization and reinforcement for wake surrounding rock. According to the analysis and construction practice, the supporting structure of large-section tunnel with weak surrounding rock should be established as soon as possible to control the displacement change of surrounding rock in the range of load-bearing ring, reduce disturbance and improve the self-bearing capability of surrounding rock. Because of the distinct excavation steric effect of weak surrounding rock, the secondary lining structure must be established in time to bear the later pressure and restrict the large displacement of surrounding rock. The research results can provide reliable basis for engineering stability control of analogous tunnels.

  16. Thermoplastic processing of proteins for film formation--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Izquierdo, V M; Krochta, J M

    2008-03-01

    Increasing interest in high-quality food products with increased shelf life and reduced environmental impact has encouraged the study and development of edible and/or biodegradable polymer films and coatings. Edible films provide the opportunity to effectively control mass transfer among different components in a food or between the food and its surrounding environment. The diversity of proteins that results from an almost limitless number of side-chain amino-acid sequential arrangements allows for a wide range of interactions and chemical reactions to take place as proteins denature and cross-link during heat processing. Proteins such as wheat gluten, corn zein, soy protein, myofibrillar proteins, and whey proteins have been successfully formed into films using thermoplastic processes such as compression molding and extrusion. Thermoplastic processing can result in a highly efficient manufacturing method with commercial potential for large-scale production of edible films due to the low moisture levels, high temperatures, and short times used. Addition of water, glycerol, sorbitol, sucrose, and other plasticizers allows the proteins to undergo the glass transition and facilitates deformation and processability without thermal degradation. Target film variables, important in predicting biopackage performance under various conditions, include mechanical, thermal, barrier, and microstructural properties. Comparisons of film properties should be made with care since results depend on parameters such as film-forming materials, film formulation, fabrication method, operating conditions, testing equipment, and testing conditions. Film applications include their use as wraps, pouches, bags, casings, and sachets to protect foods, reduce waste, and improve package recyclability.

  17. Surrounding Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Steffensen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research in insurance and finance was always intersecting although they were originally and generally viewed as separate disciplines. Insurance is about transferring risks between parties such that the burdens of risks are borne by those who can. This makes insurance transactions a beneficial activity for the society. It calls on detection, modelling, valuation, and controlling of risks. One of the main sources of control is diversification of risks and in that respect it becomes an issue in itself to clarify diversifiability of risks. However, many diversifiable risks are not, by nature or by contract design, separable from non-diversifiable risks that are, on the other hand, sometimes traded in financial markets and sometimes not. A key observation is that the economic risk came before the insurance contract: Mother earth destroys and kills incidentally and mercilessly, but the uncertainty of economic consequences can be more or less cleverly distributed by the introduction of an insurance market.

  18. Interleukin (IL)-8 immunoreactivity of injured axons and surrounding oligodendrocytes in traumatic head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahito; Ago, Kazutoshi; Nakamae, Takuma; Higo, Eri; Ogata, Mamoru

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-8 has been suggested to be a positive regulator of myelination in the central nervous system, in addition to its principal role as a chemokine for neutrophils. Immunostaining for beta-amyloid precursor protein (AβPP) is an effective tool for detecting traumatic axonal injury, although AβPP immunoreactivity can also indicate axonal injury due to hypoxic causes. In this study, we examined IL-8 and AβPP immunoreactivity in sections of corpus callosum obtained from deceased patients with blunt head injury and from equivalent control tissue. AβPP immunoreactivity was detected in injured axons, such as axonal bulbs and varicose axons, in 24 of 44 head injury cases. These AβPP immunoreactive cases had survived for more than 3h. The AβPP immunostaining pattern can be classified into two types: traumatic (Pattern 1) and non-traumatic (Pattern 2) axonal injuries, which we described previously [Hayashi et al. Int. J. Legal Med. 129 (2015) 1085-1090]. Three of 44 control cases also showed AβPP immunoreactive injured axons as Pattern 2. In contrast, IL-8 immunoreactivity was detected in 7 AβPP immunoreactive and in 2 non-AβPP immunoreactive head injury cases, but was not detected in any of the 44 control cases, including the 3 AβPP immunoreactive control cases. The IL-8 immunoreactive cases had survived from 3 to 24 days, whereas those cases who survived less than 3 days (n=29) and who survived 90 days (n=1) were not IL-8 immunoreactive. Moreover, IL-8 was detected as Pattern 1 axons only. In addition, double immunofluorescence analysis showed that IL-8 is expressed by oligodendrocytes surrounding injured axons. In conclusion, our results suggest that immunohistochemical detection of IL-8 may be useful as a complementary diagnostic marker of traumatic axonal injury.

  19. Analytical Modeling of Electric Field Distribution in Dual Material Junctionless Surrounding Gate MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suveetha Dhanaselvam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, electric field distribution of the junctionless dual material surrounding gate MOSFETs (JLDMSG is developed. Junctionless is a device that has similar characteristics like junction based devices, but junctionless has a positive flatband voltage with zero electric field. In Surrounding gate MOSFETs gate material surrounds the channel in all direction , therefore it can overcome the short channel effects effectively than other devices. In this paper, surface potential and electric field distribution is modelled. The proposed surface potential model is compared with the existing central potential model. It is observed that the short channel effects (SCE is reduced and the performance is better than the existing method.

  20. Distribution of inorganic and organic contaminants in sediments from Sydney Olympic Park and the surrounding Sydney metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Rawson, Christopher A; Kookana, Rai S; Warne, Michael St J; Peng, Ping-An; Li, Xiao-Ming; Laginestra, Edwina; Tremblay, Louis A; Chapman, John C; Lim, Richard P

    2009-09-01

    Organic and inorganic contamination was assessed for sediments from wetlands and water bodies within the Sydney Olympic Park (SOP, remediated sites) and its surroundings (unremediated sites) and urban reference sites in the Sydney Basin. Among the seven elements analysed (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn), Zn concentrations were the highest, followed by Pb, Cu and Cr in the sediments of SOP. Significantly higher concentrations (p 0.05) in concentrations were found for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as DDTs between sediments from SOP and the urban reference sites. Source indicators suggest that PAHs in the sediments originated from combustion processes. Two distinct groups of dioxin profiles were observed within SOP and its surroundings. Levels of dioxins were more than 100 pg WHO-TEQ/g dry weight of sediment at five sites adjacent to the SOP boundaries. Based on the findings of the chemical profiles of the contaminants, the remediated sites in SOP can be regarded as similar to the urban reference sites within the Sydney Basin, while the adjacent unremediated sites have higher concentrations, especially of dioxins, that could still affect organisms in the aquatic environment.

  1. Assessment of electromagnetic field levels from surrounding high-tension overhead power lines for proposed land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bassam, E; Elumalai, A; Khan, A; Al-Awadi, L

    2016-05-01

    The surrounding outdoor environment for new development has a big effect on the indoor quality of life. The main aim of this work was to determine the suitability of the area for building new schools with reference to electromagnetic field (EMF) effects. The specific objective of this study was to detect the safe distance from the EMF posed by the high-tension overhead power lines in the vicinity of the specified area. The measurements were taken for both the electric and magnetic fields in different months in order to detect the highest EMF levels during the peak power load season. EMDEX II with E-probe and EMDEX II with Linda were used for the measurements. These instruments were all calibrated by ENERTECH Company in USA. The EMF associated with high tension transmission lines that surrounded the proposed site has to be below 0.2 μT (Italian EMF regulations are the most suitable regulations for the establishment of schools in Kuwait). The safety clearance distance from the existing 300-kV high-tension power line has been assigned as 200 m and from other existing 132-kV high-tension power line was 50 m. The proposed site with its predefined boundaries has a magnetic field below the Italian EMF regulations for the establishment of new schools.

  2. QTL mapping for protein content in soybean cultivated in two tropical environments Mapeamento de QTL quanto ao conteúdo de proteína em soja cultivada em dois ambientes tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Cristina Bastos Soares

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL for protein content in soybean grown in two distinct tropical environments and to build a genetic map for protein content. One hundred eighteen soybean recombinant inbred lines (RIL, obtained from a cross between cultivars BARC 8 and Garimpo, were used. The RIL were cultivated in two distinct Brazilian tropical environments: Cascavel county, in Paraná, and Viçosa county, in Minas Gerais (24º57'S, 53º27'W and 20º45'S, 42º52'W, respectively. Sixty-six SSR primer pairs and 65 RAPD primers were polymorphic and segregated at a 1:1 proportion. Thirty poorly saturated linkage groups were obtained, with 90 markers and 41 nonlinked markers. For the lines cultivated in Cascavel, three QTL were mapped in C2, E and N linkage groups, which explained 14.37, 10.31 and 7.34% of the phenotypic variation of protein content, respectively. For the lines cultivated in Viçosa, two QTL were mapped in linkage groups G and #1, which explained 9.51 and 7.34% of the phenotypic variation of protein content. Based on the mean of the two environments, two QTL were identified: one in the linkage group E (9.90% and other in the group L (7.11%. In order for future studies to consistently detect QTL effects of different environments, genotypes with greater stability should be used.Os objetivos deste trabalho foram detectar QTL relativos ao conteúdo de proteína, em soja cultivada em dois ambientes tropicais divergentes, e construir um mapa genético para o conteúdo de proteína em genótipos adaptados a condições tropicais. Foram usadas 118 linhagens recombinantes endogâmicas de soja, obtidas do cruzamento entre as cultivares BARC 8 e Garimpo. A população de linhagens recombinantes endogâmicas foi cultivada em dois ambientes contrastantes: Cascavel, PR, e Viçosa, MG (24º57'S, 53º27'W; e 20º45'S, 42º52'W, respectivamente. Sessenta e seis pares de iniciadores SSR e 65 iniciadores RAPD

  3. Membrane Protein Mobility and Orientation Preserved in Supported Bilayers Created Directly from Cell Plasma Membrane Blebs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mark J; Hsia, Chih-Yun; Singh, Rohit R; Haider, Huma; Kumpf, Julia; Kawate, Toshimitsu; Daniel, Susan

    2016-03-29

    Membrane protein interactions with lipids are crucial for their native biological behavior, yet traditional characterization methods are often carried out on purified protein in the absence of lipids. We present a simple method to transfer membrane proteins expressed in mammalian cells to an assay-friendly, cushioned, supported lipid bilayer platform using cell blebs as an intermediate. Cell blebs, expressing either GPI-linked yellow fluorescent proteins or neon-green fused transmembrane P2X2 receptors, were induced to rupture on glass surfaces using PEGylated lipid vesicles, which resulted in planar supported membranes with over 50% mobility for multipass transmembrane proteins and over 90% for GPI-linked proteins. Fluorescent proteins were tracked, and their diffusion in supported bilayers characterized, using single molecule tracking and moment scaling spectrum (MSS) analysis. Diffusion was characterized for individual proteins as either free or confined, revealing details of the local lipid membrane heterogeneity surrounding the protein. A particularly useful result of our bilayer formation process is the protein orientation in the supported planar bilayer. For both the GPI-linked and transmembrane proteins used here, an enzymatic assay revealed that protein orientation in the planar bilayer results in the extracellular domains facing toward the bulk, and that the dominant mode of bleb rupture is via the "parachute" mechanism. Mobility, orientation, and preservation of the native lipid environment of the proteins using cell blebs offers advantages over proteoliposome reconstitution or disrupted cell membrane preparations, which necessarily result in significant scrambling of protein orientation and typically immobilized membrane proteins in SLBs. The bleb-based bilayer platform presented here is an important step toward integrating membrane proteomic studies on chip, especially for future studies aimed at understanding fundamental effects of lipid interactions

  4. Stresses and Shear Fracture Zone of Jinshazhou Tunnel Surrounding Rock in Rich Water Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun-jie; LOU Xiao-ming

    2008-01-01

    Field evidence has shown that large-scale and unstable discontinuous planes in the rock mass surrounding tunnels in rich water region are probably generated after excavation. The tunnel surrounding rock was divided into three zones, including elastic zone, plastic damage zone and shear fracture zone fof assessing the stability of the tunnel surrounding rock. By local hydrogeology, the stresses of surrounding rock of Jinshazhou circular tunnel was analyzed and the stress solutions on the elastic and plastic damage zones were obtained by applying the theories of fluid-solid coupling and elasto-plastic damage mechanics. The shear fracture zone generated by joints was studied and its range was determined by using Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. Finally, the correctness of the theoretical results was validated by comparing the scopes of shear fracture zones calculated in this paper with those from literature.

  5. Analysis of nonlinear dynamic character in the surrounding rock system for deep buried underground engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yu; PENG Hai-you

    2010-01-01

    Combining the field monitoring results of a deep-buried tunnel in Chongqing,the dynamic characteristics of the surrounding rock system under high in situ stress was analyzed by phase space reconstruction, calculating correlation dimension, Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents. Both the Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponents show that the surrounding rock system is a chaotic one. Based on this, a local model was applied to predict surrounding rock displacement, and a nonlinear dynamic model was derived to forecast the interaction of the surrounding rock and support structure. The local method was found to have an extremely small total error. Also, the nonlinear dynamic model forecasting curves agree with the monitoring ones very well. It is proved that the nonlinear dynamic characteristic study is very important in analyzing rock stability and predicting the evolution of rock systems.

  6. The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  7. Effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by circumferential bone defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohamed, Seif

    2010-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of surface contamination on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by a circumferential bone defect and to compare osseointegration around Osseotite with that around Nanotite implants.

  8. Particulate capture efficiency of a vegetative environmental buffer surrounding an animal feeding operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter emitted from tunnel-ventilated animal feeding operations (AFOs) is known to transport malodorous compounds. As a mitigation strategy, vegetative environmental buffers (VEBs) are often installed surrounding AFOs to capture particulates and induce lofting and dispersion. Currently, ...

  9. Hurricane Gustav Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Gustav made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  10. Hurricane Dennis Aerial Photography: Draft Image Mosaics of the Florida Panhandle and Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida panhandle and surrounding regions after Hurricane Dennis made landfall. The regions photographed range from...

  11. Review of roadway control in soft surrounding rock under dynamic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯朝炯

    2003-01-01

    The basic characteristics of the soft rock roadway under the dynamic pressure are analyzed. At the same time, the three fundamental approaches for controlling the surrounding rock are proposed, which are improving the surrounding rock strength, lowering the rock mass stress and selecting the reasonable supporting technology. The research results are elucidated, including the distribution of the surrounding rock plastic zone, the movement and damage of the surrounding rock under the dynamic pressure, controlling the floor heave through reinforcing the roadway walls and corners, the new route to develop the roadway metal supporting technique, the key theory and technique for the bolt supporting in the coal roadway, the performance and prospect of the ZKD high-water-content quick-setting material, and so on. Finally, some personally views are put forward about the roadway metal supporting, bolt supporting, new material and the stress-relief under the high stress condition.

  12. Targeting Alzheimer's disease by investigating previously unexplored chemical space surrounding the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Greunen, DG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of twenty seven acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, as potential agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, were designed and synthesised based upon previously unexplored chemical space surrounding the molecular skeleton of the drug...

  13. Divergence in cis-regulatory sequences surrounding the opsin gene arrays of African cichlid fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Quin, Kelly E; Smith, Daniel; Naseer, Zan; Schulte, Jane; Engel, Samuel D; Loh, Yong-Hwee E; Streelman, J Todd; Boore, Jeffrey L; Carleton, Karen L

    2011-01-01

    .... We use phylogenetic footprinting and shadowing to examine divergence in conserved non-coding elements, promoter sequences, and 3'-UTRs surrounding each opsin in search of candidate cis-regulatory...

  14. Hurricane Ike Aerial Photography: Rapid ResponseImagery of the Surrounding Regions After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the surrounding regionsafter Hurricane Ike made landfall. The aerial photography missions wereconducted by the NOAA Remote...

  15. Modelling of the effect of discontinuities on the extent of the fracture zone surrounding deep tunnels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sellers, EJ

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of physical and numerical model tests were performed to investigate the behaviour of the rock surrounding circular excavations under high confining pressures. The aim was to provide information on the formation of fractures around deep...

  16. Trace Metals in Surface Soil Contaminated by Release of Phosphate Industry in the Surroundings of Sfax-Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Wali

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a worldwide growing concern about soil pollution caused by phosphate industry creating thus large amounts of phosphogypsum slurry. This slurry is piped from the processing facilities up into acidic wastewater ponds that sit atop the mountainous waste piles known as gypsum stacks. This issue is of special interest because of toxic metals threats to groundwater tables as well as to the surrounding environment.There is a worldwide growing concern about soil pollution caused by phosphate industry creating thus large amounts of phosphogypsum slurry. This slurry is piped from the processing facilities up into acidic wastewater ponds that sit atop the mountainous waste piles known as gypsum stacks. This issue is of special interest because of toxic metals threats to groundwater tables as well as to the surrounding environment.The aim of the present work is to assess the level of trace elements content in soil around stocked solid waste “a phosphogypsum” derived from a former phosphate fertilizers factory and to investigate their factors of variation. Twenty soil samples were collected at the depths of 20 cm and analyzed for their physicochemical properties, the content of their major elements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Al, Fe, Mn, and some trace elements such as Zn, Pb, Cr, Cu, Co and Ni. Data were processed with multivariate statistical analysis in order to investigate relationships among the trace elements and the factors controlling their distribution in the phosphogypsum surrounding environment. Enrichment factors (EF were calculated to assess either natural and/or anthropogenic origins. The results indicate moderate levels of contamination and big differences in variability among elements. The maximal and mean concentrations found in soil, except the soil sample S5.1, were 95.2 and 36.5 mg Kg-1 for Zn, 75.2 and 30.23 mg Kg-1 for Pb, 28.4 and 17.5 mg Kg-1 for Cr, 61.9 and 15.6 mg Kg-1 for Cu, 5.28 and 2.7 mg Kg-1 for Co, and 13.2 and 6.4 mg Kg-1

  17. Reduced visual surround suppression in schizophrenia shown by measuring contrast detection thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica; Read, Jenny C. A.; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Bagney, Alexandra; Caballero-González, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Torresano, Javier; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception in schizophrenia is attracting a broad interest given the deep knowledge that we have about the visual system in healthy populations. One example is the class of effects known collectively as visual surround suppression. For example, the visibility of a grating located in the visual periphery is impaired by the presence of a surrounding grating of the same spatial frequency and orientation. Previous studies have suggested abnormal visual surround suppression in patients with schizophrenia. Given that schizophrenia patients have cortical alterations including hypofunction of NMDA receptors and reduced concentration of GABA neurotransmitter, which affect lateral inhibitory connections, then they should be relatively better than controls at detecting visual stimuli that are usually suppressed. We tested this hypothesis by measuring contrast detection thresholds using a new stimulus configuration. We tested two groups: 21 schizophrenia patients and 24 healthy subjects. Thresholds were obtained using Bayesian staircases in a four-alternative forced-choice detection task where the target was a grating within a 3∘ Butterworth window that appeared in one of four possible positions at 5∘ eccentricity. We compared three conditions, (a) target with no-surround, (b) target embedded within a surrounding grating of 20∘ diameter and 25% contrast with same spatial frequency and orthogonal orientation, and (c) target embedded within a surrounding grating with parallel (same) orientation. Previous results with healthy populations have shown that contrast thresholds are lower for orthogonal and no-surround (NS) conditions than for parallel surround (PS). The log-ratios between parallel and NS thresholds are used as an index quantifying visual surround suppression. Patients performed poorly compared to controls in the NS and orthogonal-surround conditions. However, they performed as well as controls when the surround was parallel, resulting in significantly

  18. Dissecting the genetic basis for the effect of rice chalkiness, amylose content, protein content, and rapid viscosity analyzer profile characteristics on the eating quality of cooked rice using the chromosome segment substitution line population across eight environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolu; Wan, Xiangyuan; Ma, Xiaodong; Wan, Jianmin

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and stability analysis were carried out for 16 rice (Oryza sativa L.) quality traits across eight environments, by using a set of chromosome segment substitution lines with 'Asominori' as genetic background. The 16 quality traits include percentage of grain with chalkiness (PGWC), area of chalky endosperm (ACE), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, cool paste viscosity, breakdown viscosity (BDV), setback viscosity (SBV), consistency viscosity, cooked-rice luster (LT), scent, tenderness (TD), viscosity, elasticity, and the integrated values of organleptic evaluation (IVOE). A total of 132 additive effect QTLs are detected for the 16 quality straits in the eight environments. Among these QTLs, 56 loci were detected repeatedly in at least three environments. Interestingly, several QTL clusters were observed for multiple quality traits. Especially, one QTL cluster near the G1149 marker on chromosome 8 includes nine QTLs: qPGWC-8, qACE-8, qAC-8, qPC-8a, qBDV-8a, qSBV-8b, qLT-8a, qTD-8a, and qIVOE-8a, which control PGWC, ACE, AC, PC, BDV, SBV, LT, TD, and IVOE, respectively. Moreover, this QTL cluster shows high stability and repeatability in all eight environments. In addition, one QTL cluster was located near the C2340 marker on chromosome 1 and another was detected near the XNpb67 marker on chromosome 2; each cluster contained five loci. Near the C563 marker on chromosome 3, one QTL cluster with four loci was found. Also, there were nine QTL clusters that each had two or three loci; however, their repeatability in different environments was relatively lower, and the genetic contribution rate was relatively smaller. Considering the correlations among all of the 16 quality traits with QTL cluster distributions, we can conclude that the stable and major QTL cluster on chromosome 8 is the main genetic basis for the effect of rice chalkiness, AC, PC, and rapid viscosity analyzer profile

  19. SHAPING THE BEHAVIOUR SOCIAL AWARE OF ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Hadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstracKeeping, take care and rebuild environment and nature as equal as keep behaviour of individual life, group and society in order to make them have attitude to environment, manner to environmernt is a part of prosocial behaviour, because one of the meaning prosocial is individual freedom to tolerance, freedom to build and not destroy environment and surrounding, shaping attitude to environment is about international campigne about continously built that in man's soul there are integration between self harmony, harmony with of hers and harmony with nature. Those there aspects of harmony shoul be concreate through hard works and good tangibility activity through individual action in daily life. Activity of educational environment and issues campigne or environment program by social society organization and mass media.Kata-kata kunciprosocial behavior, society of environment aware

  20. Vitamin D-binding protein, vitamin D status and serum bioavailable 25(OH)D of young Asian Indian males working in outdoor and indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Ravinder; Saha, Soma; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Singh, Namrata; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan

    2017-03-01

    Urban Asian Indians generally have low serum 25(OH)D. Information on serum bioavailable 25(OH)D and the effect of prolonged sun-exposure in them is not known. We assessed serum 25(OH)D and bioavailable 25(OH)D in males with varying durations of sun-exposure in Delhi during August-September. Serum 25(OH)D, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), bioavailable 25(OH)D, free 25(OH)D index, iPTH, ionized calcium and sun-index were assessed in outdoor, mixed outdoor-indoor and indoor workers (n = 88, 32 and 74, respectively). The mean sun-index (12.0 ± 6.25, 4.3 ± 2.20 and 0.7 ± 0.62, respectively; P OH)D (29.0 ± 8.61, 19.1 ± 5.73 and 10.9 ± 4.19 ng/ml, respectively; P OH)D and free 25(OH)D index were maximum in outdoor workers followed by mixed-exposure and indoor workers. Their mean serum DBP levels (241.2 ± 88.77, 239.3 ± 83.40 and 216.6 ± 63.93 µg/ml, respectively; P = 0.12) were comparable. Mean serum iPTH was significantly lower in outdoor than indoor workers and showed inverse correlations with serum 25(OH)D, bioavailable 25(OH)D and free 25(OH)D index (r = -0.401, -0.269 and -0.236, respectively; P OH)D by 2.03 ng/ml per hour of sun-exposure (95 % confidence interval 1.77-2.28; P OH)D than the indoor workers during summer. Use of serum DBP levels did not affect the interpretation of their vitamin D status.

  1. Low-energy neutron flux measurement using a resonance absorption filter surrounding a lithium glass scintillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghal-Eh, N.; Koohi-Fayegh, R.; Hamidi, S.

    2007-06-01

    The resonance absorption filter technique has been used to determine the thermal/epithermal neutron flux. The main idea in this technique is to use an element with a high and essentially singular resonance in the neutron absorption cross section as a filter surrounding a miniature-type lithium glass scintillator. The count with and without the filter surrounding the detector gives the number of resonance-energy neutrons. Some preliminary results and a comparison with the MCNP code are shown.

  2. P1-13: Color Induction from Surround Color under Interocular Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Kuriki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of surround colors on color appearance is known to subserve color constancy in humans, but how multiple mechanisms in the visual system are involved in this effect is controversial. We used an interocular-suppression technique to examine how the effect occurs at the level higher than the interaction of binocular information. A test color chip (1.7 × 1.7 deg visual angle was presented in a static surround either with continuous-flash suppression in the dominant eye (CFS condition to make the surround inperceptible or without the suppression (no-CFS condition. The surround stimulus was either a Mondrian or a uniform field of the same mean chromaticity. Stimuli were simulated OSA color chips under red, white (D65, or green illuminant color and were presented on a CRT display. Unique yellows were measured by asking the subjects to judge whether the test stimulus appeared reddish or greenish. Two sizes of the surround stimuli (widths of 1 deg and 4 deg were used. Results showed significant shifts in unique yellow even under the CFS conditions, except for the 1 deg uniform-surround condition. Under the no-CFS condition, the shifts showed remarkable difference between subjects, except for the 4 deg Mondrian-surround condition. Interestingly, trends of the shifts showed high consistency within each subject, across conditions. These results indicate that mechanisms at both higher and lower levels than the neuronal site of interocular suppression are involved, and that the color shifts follow each subject's strategy in the higher-order mechanisms when only insufficient clues are available in the surround to estimate illuminant color.

  3. 454 Pyrosequencing-based assessment of bacterial diversity and community structure in termite guts, mounds and surrounding soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makonde, Huxley M; Mwirichia, Romano; Osiemo, Zipporah; Boga, Hamadi I; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Termites constitute part of diverse and economically important termite fauna in Africa, but information on gut microbiota and their associated soil microbiome is still inadequate. In this study, we assessed and compared the bacterial diversity and community structure between termites' gut, their mounds and surrounding soil using the 454 pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. A wood-feeder termite (Microcerotermes sp.), three fungus-cultivating termites (Macrotermes michaelseni, Odontotermes sp. and Microtermes sp.), their associated mounds and corresponding savannah soil samples were analyzed. The pH of the gut homogenates and soil physico-chemical properties were determined. The results indicated significant difference in bacterial community composition and structure between the gut and corresponding soil samples. Soil samples (Chao1 index ranged from 1359 to 2619) had higher species richness than gut samples (Chao1 index ranged from 461 to 1527). The bacterial composition and community structure in the gut of Macrotermes michaelseni and Odontotermes sp. were almost identical but different from that of Microtermes and Microcerotermes species, which had unique community structures. The most predominant bacterial phyla in the gut were Bacteroidetes (40-58 %), Spirochaetes (10-70 %), Firmicutes (17-27 %) and Fibrobacteres (13 %) while in the soil samples were Acidobacteria (28-45 %), Actinobacteria (20-40 %) and Proteobacteria (18-24 %). Some termite gut-specific bacterial lineages belonging to the genera Dysgonomonas, Parabacteroides, Paludibacter, Tannerella, Alistipes, BCf9-17 termite group and Termite Treponema cluster were observed. The results not only demonstrated a high level of bacterial diversity in the gut and surrounding soil environments, but also presence of distinct bacterial communities that are yet to be cultivated. Therefore, combined efforts using both culture and culture-independent methods are suggested to

  4. Deformation characteristics of surrounding rock of broken and soft rock roadway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin-xi Wang; Ming-yue Lin; Duan-xin Tian; Cun-liang Zhao [Hebei University of Engineering, Handan (China)

    2009-03-15

    A similar material model and a numerical simulation were constructed and are described. The deformation and failure of surrounding rock of broken and soft roadway are studied by using these models. The deformation of the roof and floor, the relative deformation of the two sides and the deformation of the deep surrounding rock are predicted using the model. Measurements in a working mine are compared to the results of the models. The results show that the surrounding rock shows clear rheological features under high stress conditions. Deformation is unequally distributed across the whole section. The surrounding rock exhibited three deformation stages: displacement caused by stress concentration, rheological displacement after the digging effects had stabilized and displacement caused by supporting pressure of the roadway. Floor heave was serious, accounting for 65% of the total deformation of the roof and floor. Floor heave is the main reason for failure of the surrounding rock. The reasons for deformation of the surrounding rock are discussed based on the similar material and numerical simulations. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Preictal and ictal neurovascular and metabolic coupling surrounding a seizure focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingrui; Nguyen, John; Ma, Hongtao; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2011-09-14

    Epileptic events initiate a large focal increase in metabolism and cerebral blood flow (CBF) to the ictal focus. In contrast, decreases in CBF have been demonstrated surrounding the focus, the etiology of which is unknown (i.e., arising either from active shunting of blood or passive steal). The relationship between these events and neuronal activity and metabolism are also unknown. We investigated neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling in the ictal surround using optical imaging of light scattering and cerebral blood volume, autofluorescence flavoprotein imaging (AFI), direct measurements of the cortical metabolic rate of oxygen and two-photon imaging of blood vessel diameter in a rat model of ictal events elicited with focal injection of 4-aminopyridine. We discovered a novel phenomenon, in which ictal events are preceded by preictal vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the surround, occurring 1-5 s before seizure onset, which may serve to actively shunt oxygenated blood to the imminently hypermetabolic focus or may be due to small local decreases in metabolism in the surround. Early ictal hypometabolism, transient decreases in cell swelling and cerebral blood volume in the surround are consistent with early ictal surround inhibition as a precipitating event in seizure onset as well as shaping the evolving propagating ictal wavefront, although the exact mechanism of these cerebrovascular and metabolic changes is currently unknown. AFI was extremely sensitive to the ictal onset zone and may be a useful mapping technique with clinical applications.

  6. Fovea-periphery axis symmetry of surround modulation in the human visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Nurminen

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus activates different sized cortical area depending on eccentricity of the stimulus. Here, our aim is to understand whether the visual field size of a stimulus or cortical size of the corresponding representation determines how strongly it interacts with other stimuli. We measured surround modulation of blood-oxygenation-level-dependent signal and perceived contrast with surrounds that extended either towards the periphery or the fovea from a center stimulus, centered at 6° eccentricity. This design compares the effects of two surrounds which are identical in visual field size, but differ in the sizes of their cortical representations. The surrounds produced equally strong suppression, which suggests that visual field size of the surround determines suppression strength. A modeled population of neuronal responses, in which all the parameters were experimentally fixed, captured the pattern of results both in psychophysics and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although the fovea-periphery anisotropy affects nearly all aspects of spatial vision, our results suggest that in surround modulation the visual system compensates for it.

  7. Impact of surrounding tissue on conductance measurement of coronary and peripheral lumen area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won Choi, Hyo; Jansen, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2012-11-07

    Parallel conductance (electric current flow through surrounding tissue) is an important determinant of accurate measurements of arterial lumen diameter, using the conductance method. The present study is focused on the role of non-uniform geometrical/electrical configurations of surrounding tissue, which are a primary source of electric current leakage. Computational models were constructed to simulate the conductance catheter measurement with two different excitation electrodes spacings (i.e. 12 and 20 mm for coronary and peripheral sizing, respectively) for different vessel-tissue configurations: (i) blood vessel fully embedded in muscle tissue, (ii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue, and (iii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue with fat covering half of the arterial vessel (anterior portion). The simulations suggest that the parallel conductance and accuracy of measurement is dependent on the inhomogeneous/anisotropic configuration of surrounding tissue, including the asymmetric dimension and anisotropy in electrical conductivity of surrounding tissue. Specifically, the measurement was shown to be accurate as long as the vessel was superficial, regardless of the considerable total surrounding tissue dimension for coronary or peripheral arteries. Moreover, it was shown that the unfavourable impact of parallel conductance on the accuracy of conductance catheter measurement is decreased by the combination of a lower transverse electrical conductivity of surrounding muscle tissue, a smaller electrode spacing and a larger lumen diameter. The present findings confirm that the conductance catheter technique provides an accurate platform for sizing of clinically relevant (i.e. superficial and diseased) arteries.

  8. Isolation of a sesquiterpene synthase expressing in specialized epithelial cells surrounding the secretory cavities in rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uji, Yuya; Ozawa, Rika; Shishido, Hodaka; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Takabayashi, Junji; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2015-05-15

    Volatile terpenoids such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes play multiple roles in plant responses and are synthesized by terpene synthases (TPSs). We have previously isolated a partial TPS gene, RlemTPS4, that responds to microbial attack in rough lemon. In this study, we isolated a full length RlemTPS4 cDNA from rough lemon. RlemTPS4 localized in the cytosol. The recombinant RlemTPS4 protein was obtained using a prokaryotic expression system and GC-MS analysis of the terpenes produced by the RlemTPS4 enzymatic reaction determined that RlemTPS4 produces some sesquiterpenes such as δ-elemene. The RlemTPS4 gene was specifically expressed in specialized epithelial cells surrounding the oil secretory cavities in rough lemon leaf tissue.

  9. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  10. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    Enacting Environments is an ethnography of the midst of the encounter between corporations, sustainable development and climate change. At this intersection 'environmental management' and 'carbon accounting' are put into practice. Purportedly, these practices green capitalism. Drawing on fieldwork...... of day-to-day practices of corporate environmental accountants and managers, Ingmar Lippert reconstructs their work as achieving to produce a reality of environment that is simultaneously stable and flexible enough for a particular corporate project: to stage the company, and in consequence capitalism......, as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found...

  11. Issues of Adult Development within the Academic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steitz, Jean A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses, from a developmental perspective, issues surrounding the middle-aged adult student experience within institutions of higher education. Three topics are addressed: cognitive abilities and needs, with an expanded role for professors; the academic normative environment versus the adult normative environment; and professor and adult student…

  12. Safe environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-28

    A new film on the Social Care Institute for Excellence website aims to encourage health and social care organisations to create safe environments in which staff can raise concerns as part of normal practice. Key points raised in the film include that managers should listen to what whistleblowers say and ensure the concerns raised are managed well, and that open cultures in which concerns can be raised help build safer working environments and effective learning organisations. You can view the film at tinyurl.com/oh3dk3q.

  13. Bioadvection of mercury from the Great Salt Lake to surrounding terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F.; Goodman, J.; Collins, J.; Saxton, H.; Mansfield, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, USA, is a hypersaline terminal lake that is home to some of the highest concentrations of methylmercury (MeHg) ever measured in natural waters. While terrestrial organisms typically have very low concentrations of MeHg because it is produced almost exclusively in sub-oxic aquatic environments, we documented elevated concentrations of MeHg in brine flies (Ephydra spp.) and spiders along the shores of the GSL. We hypothesized that brine flies, with their larval and pupal stages in the GSL, act as vectors that transfer Hg from the lake to surrounding terrestrial ecosystems as flying adults where they are eaten by spiders and other organisms. The GSL is visited annually by millions of migratory birds, and a major food source for both resident and migratory birds at the GSL are brine flies, so brine flies may represent an important source of Hg to birds here. We conducted a spatial and temporal study of HgT and MeHg in surface waters, brine flies, spiders, and Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus) a predatory terrestrial songbird of conservation concern, and investigated sublethal effects due to Hg exposure on Antelope Island in the GSL. Samples were also analyzed for their stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios. While HgT and MeHg concentrations in surface waters were elevated, they varied relatively little throughout the year and exhibited no clear seasonal trends. However, seasonal maxima in concentrations of HgT and MeHg in brine flies and spiders occurred in spring and fall, periods of peak migratory bird numbers at the GSL. Approximately 20% of adult/juvenile shrikes had blood HgT concentrations above thresholds previously shown to reduce breeding success in other songbirds, with these concentrations increasing after the annual appearance of orb weaving spiders. HgT concentrations of shrikes decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline and decreasing brine fly abundance, again suggesting the GSL is the ultimate

  14. THE EMISSION NEBULA Sh 2-174: A RADIO INVESTIGATION OF THE SURROUNDING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ransom, R. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Okanagan College, 583 Duncan Avenue West, Penticton, BC V2A 8E1 (Canada); Kothes, R.; Geisbuesch, J.; Landecker, T. L. [National Research Council Herzberg, Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, P.O. Box 248, Penticton, BC V2A 6J9 (Canada); Reich, W., E-mail: RRansom@okanagan.bc.ca [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-02-01

    Sh 2-174 is believed to be either a planetary nebula (PN) or ionized, ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present in this paper 1420 MHz polarization, 1420 MHz total intensity (Stokes-I), and neutral hydrogen (H I) images of the region around Sh 2-174. The radio images address not only the nature of the object, but also the history of the relationship between Sh 2-174 and its surrounding environment. The H I images show that Sh 2-174 sits presently at the center of a ∼1.°2 × ∼0.°4 cloud (with peak hydrogen density n {sub H} = 4 ± 2 cm{sup –3}). The Stokes-I image shows thermal-emission peaks (with electron densities n{sub e} = 11 ± 3 cm{sup –3}) coincident with the R-band optical nebula, as well as low-surface-brightness emission from an ionized ''halo'' around Sh 2-174 and from an ionized ''plateau'' extending southeast from the cloud. The polarization images reveal Faraday-rotation structures along the projected trajectory of Sh 2-174, including a high-contrast structure with ''arms'' that run precisely along the eastern edge of the H I cloud and a wide central region that merges with the downstream edge of Sh 2-174. The high-contrast structure is consistent with an ionized tail that has both early-epoch (before Sh 2-174 entered the cloud) and present-epoch (after Sh 2-174 entered the cloud) components. Furthermore, our rotation-measure analysis indicates that the ISM magnetic field is deflected at the leading edge of Sh 2-174. The downstream tail and upstream field deflection point to a PN-ISM interaction. Our estimated space velocity for the host white dwarf (GD 561) demonstrates that Sh 2-174 entered the cloud ∼27,000 yr ago, and gives a PN-ISM interaction timescale ≲ 2.0 × 10{sup 5} yr. We estimate an ambient magnetic field in the cloud of 11 ± 3 μG.

  15. The impact of a massive star cluster on its surrounding matter in the Antennae overlap region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, C. N.; Boulanger, F.

    2017-04-01

    Super star clusters (SSCs), likely the progenitors of globular clusters, are one of the most extreme forms of star formation. Understanding how SSCs form is an observational challenge. Theoretical studies establish that, to form such clusters, the dynamical timescale of their parent clouds has to be shorter than the timescale of the disruption of their parent clouds by stellar feedback. However, due to insufficient observational support, it is still unclear how feedback from SSCs acts on the matter surrounding them. Studying feedback in SSCs is essential to understanding how such clusters form. Based on ALMA and VLT observations, we study this process in a SSC in the overlap region of the Antennae galaxies (22 Mpc), a spectacular example of a burst of star formation triggered by the encounter of two galaxies. We analyze a unique massive ( 107M⊙) and young (1-3.5 Myr) SSC, still associated with compact molecular and ionized gas emission, which suggest that it may still be embedded in its parent molecular cloud. The cluster has two CO velocity components, a low-velocity one spatially associated with the cluster, and a high-velocity one distributed in a bubble-like shape around the cluster. Our results on the low-velocity component suggest that this gas did not participate in the formation of the SSC. We propose that most of the parent cloud has already been blown away, accelerated at the early stages of the SSC evolution by radiation pressure, in a timescale 1 Myr. The high-velocity component may trace outflowing molecular gas from the parent cloud. Supporting evidence is found in shock-heated H2 gas and escaping Brγ gas associated with this component. The low-velocity component may be gas that was near the SSC when it formed but not part of its parent cloud or clumps that migrated from the SGMC environment. This gas would be dispersed by stellar winds and supernova explosions. The existing data is inconclusive as to whether or not the cluster is bound and will

  16. Distinct role of hydration water in protein misfolding and aggregation revealed by fluctuating thermodynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Song-Ho; Ham, Sihyun

    2015-04-21

    Protein aggregation in aqueous cellular environments is linked to diverse human diseases. Protein aggregation proceeds through a multistep process initiated by conformational transitions, called protein misfolding, of monomer species toward aggregation-prone structures. Various forms of aggregate species are generated through the association of misfolded monomers including soluble oligomers and amyloid fibrils. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms and driving forces involved in the misfolding and subsequent association has been a central issue for understanding and preventing protein aggregation diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and type II diabetes. In this Account, we provide a thermodynamic perspective of the misfolding and aggregation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein implicated in Alzheimer's disease through the application of fluctuating thermodynamics. This approach "dissects" the conventional thermodynamic characterization of the end states into the one of the fluctuating processes connecting them, and enables one to analyze variations in the thermodynamic functions that occur during the course of protein conformational changes. The central quantity in this approach is the solvent-averaged effective energy, f = Eu + Gsolv, comprising the protein potential energy (Eu) and the solvation free energy (Gsolv), whose time variation reflects the protein dynamics on the free energy landscape. Protein configurational entropy is quantified by the magnitude of fluctuations in f. We find that misfolding of the Aβ monomer when released from a membrane environment to an aqueous phase is driven by favorable changes in protein potential energy and configurational entropy, but it is also accompanied by an unfavorable increase in solvation free energy. The subsequent dimerization of the misfolded Aβ monomers occurs in two steps. The first step, where two widely separated monomers come into contact distance, is driven by water-mediated attraction, that is, by a

  17. Environment Debate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    resource diversity, environmental variability and global influences on local ... these relationship has moved from the biased technocratic objective assessment of ... The environment of a particular human group includes both cultural ... and analysis using a livelihood approach that incorporates local knowledge, perceptions, ...

  18. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  19. Enacting Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2013-01-01

    , as in control over its relations to an antecedent environment. Not confined to mere texts or meetings between shiny stakeholders co-governing the corporation – among them some of the world's biggest auditing firms, an environmental non-governmental organisation (NGO) and standards – control is found......, ultimately, the epistemic and ontic effects of fact-making in the heart of neoliberal capitalism....

  20. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating mec

  1. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  2. Influence of Surrounding Acupuncture by Cranial MRI Location on Blood Rheology in Apoplectic Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Gang-hui; LI Yan-hui; ZHUANG Zi-qi; HUANG Yong; LI Jian-ping; HUANG Guo-qi

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To study the function of surrounding acupuncture located by cranial MRI on apoplexy. Method: Forty cases of the patients diagnosed as cerebral infarction were divided into the group of surrounding acupuncture by MRI location and the group of traditional scalp acupuncture, 20 cases in each group,and were treated respectively with surrounding acupunc -ture by MRI location and traditional scalp acupuncture,to determine the indexes of blood rheology before and after treatments. Results: There was significant diffe -fence (P<0.01) in comparison of various indexes in blood rheology between the apoplectic patients and healthy adults of same age. In comparison before and after the treatments in the group of surrounding acupunc -ture by MRI location there was significant difference (P<0.01) in various indexes of blood rheology, except ESR and ESR equation K value. In comparison before and after the treatments in the group of traditional scalp acupuncture, there was significant difference (P<0.05) in various indexes of blood rheology, except ESR, sclerosis index and ESR equation K value. Conclusion: The findings indicate that blood becomes thick and flows slowly and resistance increases in blood flow in the apoplectic patients. The two kinds of the needling techniques have an improving function in various indexes of blood rheology in the apoplectic patients and surrounding acupuncture by MRI location was better than traditional scalp acupuncture in improving blood rheology.

  3. Response suppression in v1 agrees with psychophysics of surround masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenger-Landolt, Barbara; Heeger, David J

    2003-07-30

    When a target stimulus is embedded in a high contrast surround, the target appears reduced in contrast and is harder to detect, and neural responses in visual cortex are suppressed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and psychophysics to quantitatively compare these physiological and perceptual effects. Observers performed a contrast discrimination task on a contrast-reversing sinusoidal target grating. The target was either presented in isolation or embedded in a high-contrast surround. While observers performed the task, we also measured fMRI responses as a function of target contrast, both with and without a surround. We found that the surround substantially increased the psychophysical thresholds while reducing fMRI responses. The two data sets were compared, on the basis of the assumption that a fixed response difference is required for correct discrimination, and we found that the psychophysics accounted for 96.5% of the variance in the measured V1 responses. The suppression in visual areas V2 and V3 was stronger, too strong to agree with psychophysics. The good quantitative agreement between psychophysical thresholds and V1 responses suggests V1 as a plausible candidate for mediating surround masking.

  4. Enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography: comparison with pathological examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, M. van; Verslegers, I.; Biltjes, I.; Schepper, A. de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Schelfout, K.; Colpaert, C. [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium); Kersschot, E. [Department of Radiology, OLV Hospital, Aalst (Belgium); Tjalma, W.A. [Department of Gynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology, University Hospital Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium); Weyler, J. [Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University Antwerp, Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    The enhancing area surrounding breast carcinoma on MR mammography is correlated with findings from pathological examination. We studied 194 patients with breast cancer who underwent preoperative MR mammography. Of all malignant lesions presenting with an enhancing surrounding area on MR mammography, morphologic features including long spicules, a ductal pattern, diffuse enhancement or nodules were evaluated and compared with histopathological examination. A double breast coil was used; we performed a 3D FLASH sequence with contiguous coronal slices of 2 mm, before and after injection of 0.2 mmol/kg GD-DTPA, and subtraction images were obtained. In total, 297 malignant lesions were detected at MR mammography and 101 of them had one or more types of enhancing surrounding area. In 49 of the 53 cancers with long spicules and in 49 of the 55 cancers with surrounding ductal pattern of enhancement, pathological examination showed in situ and/or invasive carcinoma. Multiple nodules adjacent to the carcinoma were seen in 20 patients and corresponded with six cases of invasive and ten cases of ductal in situ carcinoma. A diffuse enhancing area next to a mass was seen in ten patients and consisted of carcinoma in all cases: seven in situ and three invasive carcinomas. Enhancing areas including long spicules, a ductal pattern, noduli, or diffuse enhancement surrounding a carcinoma corresponded with in situ or invasive extension of the carcinoma in 92.5, 89, 80 and 100% of cases, respectively. (orig.)

  5. Stress and deformation analysis on deep surrounding rock at different time stages and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ming; Mao Xianbiao; Yu Yuanlin; Li Kai; Ma Chao; Peng Yan

    2012-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the deep circular tunnel,the surrounding rock was divided into three regions:the cracked region,the plastic region and the viscoelastic region.The process of rock stress deformation and change was divided into three stages after the roadway excavation.By using the elastic-plastic mechanics theory,the analytical solutions of the surrounding stress and displacement at different stages and the radii of cracked and plastic regions were formulated.We additionally explained the surrounding rock stress and displacement which appeared in practical project.Simultaneously,based on the problem which emerged from a mine in Xuzhou during the excavating process of rock roadway's transport,we got the theoretical solutions for the stress and displacement in the process of rock roadway's excavation and considered that the broken area of rock roadway was largely loosing circle.The results indicate that according to the rheological characteristics of surrounding rock,in the primeval excavation of rock roadway,we should increase the length of anchor bolt and cooperate it with anchor nets cable-U steel supporting frame.In addition,when the deformation rate of the surrounding rock is descending after the 15 days' excavation,we should use the "three anchor" supporting method (anchor bolt spray,anchor note and anchor rope) and set aside about 20 cm as the reserved deformation layer.

  6. The Respiratory Arsenite Oxidase: Structure and the Role of Residues Surrounding the Rieske Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warelow, Thomas P.; Oke, Muse; Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara; Dahl, Jan U.; Bruselat, Nicole; Sivalingam, Ganesh N.; Leimkühler, Silke; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Kappler, Ulrike; Naismith, James H.; Santini, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    The arsenite oxidase (Aio) from the facultative autotrophic Alphaproteobacterium Rhizobium sp. NT-26 is a bioenergetic enzyme involved in the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. The enzyme from the distantly related heterotroph, Alcaligenes faecalis, which is thought to oxidise arsenite for detoxification, consists of a large α subunit (AioA) with bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide at its active site and a 3Fe-4S cluster, and a small β subunit (AioB) which contains a Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster. The successful heterologous expression of the NT-26 Aio in Escherichia coli has resulted in the solution of its crystal structure. The NT-26 Aio, a heterotetramer, shares high overall similarity to the heterodimeric arsenite oxidase from A. faecalis but there are striking differences in the structure surrounding the Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster which we demonstrate explains the difference in the observed redox potentials (+225 mV vs. +130/160 mV, respectively). A combination of site-directed mutagenesis and electron paramagnetic resonance was used to explore the differences observed in the structure and redox properties of the Rieske cluster. In the NT-26 AioB the substitution of a serine (S126 in NT-26) for a threonine as in the A. faecalis AioB explains a −20 mV decrease in redox potential. The disulphide bridge in the A. faecalis AioB which is conserved in other betaproteobacterial AioB subunits and the Rieske subunit of the cytochrome bc1 complex is absent in the NT-26 AioB subunit. The introduction of a disulphide bridge had no effect on Aio activity or protein stability but resulted in a decrease in the redox potential of the cluster. These results are in conflict with previous data on the betaproteobacterial AioB subunit and the Rieske of the bc1 complex where removal of the disulphide bridge had no effect on the redox potential of the former but a decrease in cluster stability was observed in the latter. PMID:24023621

  7. The respiratory arsenite oxidase: structure and the role of residues surrounding the rieske cluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Warelow

    Full Text Available The arsenite oxidase (Aio from the facultative autotrophic Alphaproteobacterium Rhizobium sp. NT-26 is a bioenergetic enzyme involved in the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate. The enzyme from the distantly related heterotroph, Alcaligenes faecalis, which is thought to oxidise arsenite for detoxification, consists of a large α subunit (AioA with bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide at its active site and a 3Fe-4S cluster, and a small β subunit (AioB which contains a Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster. The successful heterologous expression of the NT-26 Aio in Escherichia coli has resulted in the solution of its crystal structure. The NT-26 Aio, a heterotetramer, shares high overall similarity to the heterodimeric arsenite oxidase from A. faecalis but there are striking differences in the structure surrounding the Rieske 2Fe-2S cluster which we demonstrate explains the difference in the observed redox potentials (+225 mV vs. +130/160 mV, respectively. A combination of site-directed mutagenesis and electron paramagnetic resonance was used to explore the differences observed in the structure and redox properties of the Rieske cluster. In the NT-26 AioB the substitution of a serine (S126 in NT-26 for a threonine as in the A. faecalis AioB explains a -20 mV decrease in redox potential. The disulphide bridge in the A. faecalis AioB which is conserved in other betaproteobacterial AioB subunits and the Rieske subunit of the cytochrome bc 1 complex is absent in the NT-26 AioB subunit. The introduction of a disulphide bridge had no effect on Aio activity or protein stability but resulted in a decrease in the redox potential of the cluster. These results are in conflict with previous data on the betaproteobacterial AioB subunit and the Rieske of the bc 1 complex where removal of the disulphide bridge had no effect on the redox potential of the former but a decrease in cluster stability was observed in the latter.

  8. Cooperatively surrounding control for multiple Euler-Lagrange systems subjected to uncertain dynamics and input constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Ming; Lv, Yue-Yong; Li, Chuan-Jiang; Ma, Guang-Fu

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate cooperatively surrounding control (CSC) of multi-agent systems modeled by Euler-Lagrange (EL) equations under a directed graph. With the consideration of the uncertain dynamics in an EL system, a backstepping CSC algorithm combined with neural-networks is proposed first such that the agents can move cooperatively to surround the stationary target. Then, a command filtered backstepping CSC algorithm is further proposed to deal with the constraints on control input and the absence of neighbors’ velocity information. Numerical examples of eight satellites surrounding one space target illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB720000) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61304005 and 61403103).

  9. Macro mechanical parameters' size effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya project's underground power station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhi-hua; ZHOU Chuang-bing; ZHOU Huo-ming; SHENG Qian; LENG Xian-lun

    2005-01-01

    Scale effect is one of the important aspects in the macro mechanical parameters' research of rock mass, from a new point of view, by means of lab and field rock mechanics test, establishment of E~Vp relation, classification of engineering rock mass, numerical simulation test and back analysis based on surrounding rock's displacement monitoring results of Shuibuya Project's underground power station, rock mass deformation module's size effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya Project's undegroud power station was studied. It's shown that rock mass deformation module's scale effect of surrounding rock of Shuibuya Project's undeground power station is obvious, the rock mass deformation module to tranquilization is 20% of intact rock's. Finally the relation between rock mass deformation modules and the scale of research was established.

  10. Idea of tourist management of the Radojewo palace park and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Mikołajczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to create a proper tourist trails in the palace park in Radojewo and surrounding areas, according to protected areas requirements, local space management plan, as well as with harmony with natural and landscape values. The ecotourism was found as the only possible kind of tourism in this area. The present areas management is not sufficient, hence the proposition of supplementation presented here, such as information tables and small architecture elements. Radojewo and its surroundings are a high tourism potential areas. The new bicycle trail is proposed in the neighbourhood of the park. It is meant to create a better communication with surrounding areas. Two kinds of pedestrian trails are suggested on the park area together with proper tourist infrastructure. There is also a necessity to assign the palace as a historical object.

  11. ANALYSIS ON INCREMENTAL COHESION OF SURROUNDING ROCK DUE TO PRESTRESSED CABLE ANCHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建中; 闫莫明; 滕年保; 李方政

    1998-01-01

    A new method for determining the incremental cohesion △Cm of surrounding rock due toprestressed cable anchor is presented, and the formulas for △Cm are deduced and ACredistributions also are discussed, based on the two anchorage effects, one is the effect with theprestressed value △Q3 of cable anchor improving the stress state of surrounding rock andincreasing the surrounding rock strength, the other is the fully encapsulated effect. Thedetermined incremental cohesion △Cm is subjected to the model test and field measurement in thereferences, and coincides well with those tested results. The formulas for △Cm can be used indesigning supoport parameters and related numerical analyses of prestressed cable anchor.

  12. Confronting, Confirming, and Dispelling Myths Surrounding ERP-in-the-Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaulieu, Tanya; C. Martin, Todd; Sarker, Saonee

    2015-01-01

    on the topic, there is substantial uncertainty surrounding the benefits and challenges of ERP cloud computing. Consequently, as often is the case with new technologies, popular myths surrounding the technology are used to make adoption and implementation decisions. As a first step toward providing an informed...... with stakeholders related to an ERP cloud-based solution. Our results dispel some of the myths, while supporting others, and highlight how ERP vendors work around the different types of challenges surrounding this technology. Our study also helps understand the benefits of ERP cloud computing, and informs about how...... cloud-based ERP systems will free organizations from the information system “iron cage” and lead to agile organizations....

  13. Context-Adaptive Arithmetic Coding Scheme for Lossless Bit Rate Reduction of MPEG Surround in USAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungyong; Pang, Hee-Suk; Sung, Koeng-Mo

    We propose a new coding scheme for lossless bit rate reduction of the MPEG Surround module in unified speech and audio coding (USAC). The proposed scheme is based on context-adaptive arithmetic coding for efficient bit stream composition of spatial parameters. Experiments show that it achieves the significant lossless bit reduction of 9.93% to 12.14% for spatial parameters and 8.64% to 8.96% for the overall MPEG Surround bit streams compared to the original scheme. The proposed scheme, which is not currently included in USAC, can be used for the improved coding efficiency of MPEG Surround in USAC, where the saved bits can be utilized by the other modules in USAC.

  14. Motion detection, noise reduction, texture suppression, and contour enhancement by spatiotemporal Gabor filters with surround inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Subramanian, Easwar

    2007-12-01

    We study the orientation and speed tuning properties of spatiotemporal three-dimensional (3D) Gabor and motion energy filters as models of time-dependent receptive fields of simple and complex cells in the primary visual cortex (V1). We augment the motion energy operator with surround suppression to model the inhibitory effect of stimuli outside the classical receptive field. We show that spatiotemporal integration and surround suppression lead to substantial noise reduction. We propose an effective and straightforward motion detection computation that uses the population code of a set of motion energy filters tuned to different velocities. We also show that surround inhibition leads to suppression of texture and thus improves the visibility of object contours and facilitates figure/ground segregation and the detection and recognition of objects.

  15. Effects of Surrounding Information and Line Length on Text Comprehension from the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess McMullin

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web (Web is becoming a popular medium for transmission of information and online learning. We need to understand how people comprehend information from the Web to design Web sites that maximize the acquisition of information. We examined two features of Web page design that are easily modified by developers, namely line length and the amount of surrounding information, or whitespace. Undergraduate university student participants read text and answered comprehension questions on the Web. Comprehension was affected by whitespace; participants had better comprehension for information surrounded by whitespace than for information surrounded by meaningless information. Participants were not affected by line length. These findings demonstrate that reading from the Web is not the same as reading print and have implications for instructional Web design.

  16. Research on the stability analysis and design of soil tunnel surrounding rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yingren; Qiu Chenyu; Xiao Qiang

    2010-01-01

    The paper first analyzes the failure mechanism and mode of tunnel according to model experiments and mechanical calculation and then discusses the deficiency of taking the limit value of displacement around the tunnel and the size of the plastic zone of surrounding rock as the criterion of stability.So the writers put forward the idea that the safety factor of surrounding rock calculated through strength reduction FEM(finit element method)should be regarded as the criterion of stability,which has strict mechanical basis and unified standard and would not be influenced by other factors.The paper also studies the safety factors of tunnel surrounding rock(safety factors of shear and tension failure)and lining and some methods of designing and calculating tunnels.At last,the writers take the loess tunnel for instance and show the design and calculation results of two-lane railway tunnel.

  17. Damage Characteristics of Surrounding Rock Subjected to VCR Mining Blasting Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For limiting the damage range caused by explosive shock loads in vertical crater retreat (VCR mining, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were studied by two methods: numerical simulation and ultrasonic testing. Combined with the mining blasting in Dongguashan Copper Mine of China, the VCR blasting shock characteristics under different conditions are obtained by using LSDYNA. Based on statistical fracture mechanics and damage mechanics theories, a damage constitutive model for rock mass subjected to blasting shock load was established. Then by using the fast Lagrange analysis codes (FLAC3D, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were analyzed by applying the blasting shock loads obtained from the VCR mining and the damage zone is obtained. At last, the relationship between the amount of explosives and the radius of damaged surrounding rock mass was discussed, and its formula was also derived. The research provides a theoretical basis for rationally controlling stope boundaries and optimizing mining blasting parameters.

  18. The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seliske Laura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours while at school. Methods Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971 who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or café. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. Results For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11, 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82 and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09 were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95, 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13 and ≥5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02. Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346. Conclusions There

  19. Source Identification of Heavy Metals in Soils Surrounding the Zanjan Zinc Town by Multivariate Statistical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Delavar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The accumulation of heavy metals (HMs in the soil is of increasing concern due to food safety issues, potential health risks, and the detrimental effects on soil ecosystems. HMs may be considered as the most important soil pollutants, because they are not biodegradable and their physical movement through the soil profile is relatively limited. Therefore, root uptake process may provide a big chance for these pollutants to transfer from the surface soil to natural and cultivated plants, which may eventually steer them to human bodies. The general behavior of HMs in the environment, especially their bioavailability in the soil, is influenced by their origin. Hence, source apportionment of HMs may provide some essential information for better management of polluted soils to restrict the HMs entrance to the human food chain. This paper explores the applicability of multivariate statistical techniques in the identification of probable sources that can control the concentration and distribution of selected HMs in the soils surrounding the Zanjan Zinc Specialized Industrial Town (briefly Zinc Town. Materials and Methods: The area under investigation has a size of approximately 4000 ha.It is located around the Zinc Town, Zanjan province. A regular grid sampling pattern with an interval of 500 meters was applied to identify the sample location, and 184 topsoil samples (0-10 cm were collected. The soil samples were air-dried and sieved through a 2 mm polyethylene sieve and then, were digested using HNO3. The total concentrations of zinc (Zn, lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni and copper (Cu in the soil solutions were determined via Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Data were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0 for Windows. Correlation Matrix (CM, Principal Component Analyses (PCA and Factor Analyses (FA techniques were performed in order to identify the probable sources of HMs in the studied soils. Results and

  20. Settlement behavior of coal mine waste in different surrounding rock conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-de; LI Xi-bing; HU Bing-nan; CHEN Feng; XU Ji-cheng; LI Di-yuan

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of complex conditions of in-situ surrounding rocks on the settlement behavior of nubbly coal mine waste subjected to high gravity pressure, four kinds of loading chambers made of different similar materials with different elastic moduli in experiments were used to simulate the deformation features of in-site rocks, including soft, moderate hardness, hard and extra-hard rocks. The results show that all the settlement-axial load (or axial strain-stress) curves obtained under four different surrounding rock conditions present power-exponential function feature. The final settlement of coal mine waste under the same axial load is closely related to the lumpiness gradations and the deformation behavior of chamber materials used to simulate behaviors of different in-situ surrounding rocks. In the same surrounding rock condition, the final settlement under the same maximum axial load decreases with the decrease of the proportion of larger gradation of coal mine waste. While for the same lumpiness gradation case, the settlement increases with the decrease of elastic modulus of simulated surrounding rocks and the lateral pressure induced by axial load increases with the increase of elastic modulus of loading chambers that are used to simulate different surrounding rocks. The test results also reveal that both the compaction curve and lateral pressure curve show a three-stage behavior, and the duration of each stage, which is closely related to gradations and the deformation feature of loading chamber materials, decreases with the increase of the proportion of the small size of coal mine waste and elastic modulus of the simulated rock materials.

  1. Performative Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo Stjerne

    2008-01-01

    on the means by which architecture can enact places through socio-technical relationships. The architecture stands out as dynamic and open and carries emergent affects that facilitate interaction in a new configuration between objects and subjects. By crossing social and technological networks between flows...... of local interactions and network behaviour, building becomes social infrastructure and prompts an understanding of architectural structures as quasiobjects, which can retain both variation and recognisability in changing social constellations.......The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing...

  2. Living on the edge: Simulations of bacterial outer-membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Anna; Hwang, Hyea; Lundquist, Karl; Balusek, Curtis; Gumbart, James C

    2016-07-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are distinguished in part by a second, outer membrane surrounding them. This membrane is distinct from others, possessing an outer leaflet composed not of typical phospholipids but rather large, highly charged molecules known as lipopolysaccharides. Therefore, modeling the structure and dynamics of proteins embedded in the outer membrane requires careful consideration of their native environment. In this review, we examine how simulations of such outer-membrane proteins have evolved over the last two decades, culminating most recently in detailed, highly accurate atomistic models of the outer membrane. We also draw attention to how the simulations have coupled with experiments to produce novel insights unattainable through a single approach. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Proteins edited by J.C. Gumbart and Sergei Noskov.

  3. Conservation and Utilization of a Ramsar Site“ Kabukuri-numa and the Surrounding Rice Paddies"

    OpenAIRE

    淺野, 敏久; 光武, 昌作; 林, 健児郎; 榎本, 隆明

    2012-01-01

    “Kabukuri-numa and the surrounding rice paddies" is the first case bearing the name of “rice paddy" in the Ramsar site of Japan. The residents around this site are aiming at community development and the coexistence of agriculture and geese. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of interviews about the efforts here before and after the Great East Japan Earthquake. And then we consider the problems related to wise use of the Ramsar site including the surrounding rice paddies in...

  4. Study on mechanism and practice of surrounding rock control of high stress coal roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-jun; YANG Lei; OUYANG Guang-bin

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical principle and surrounding rock deformation feature of high stress coal roadway was analyzed. The condition of stress balance of the kind of the roadway was put forward. The surrounding rock control principle and supporting technique of high stress coal roadway were discussed. It was very important to control early days deformation of coal sides. The supporting strength is should increased, so the strength loss of coal sides is decreased. The range of plastic fluid zone is reduced. The above mention-ned principle is applied in industrial test, and the new supporting technique is applied successfully.

  5. TELOMERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN GASTRIC AND COLORECTAL CANCER AND SURROUNDING TISSUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wen; ZHANG Qiao; WAN De-sen; CUN Ling-yun; WU Cheng-qiu; PAN Zhi-zhong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the telomerase activities in human gastric and colorectal tumors. Methods: The telomerase activity was assayed by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) technique. Forty human tumor samples including 9 colonic, 20 rectal and 11gastric carcinomas and their surrounding tissues were used for the detection. Results: Thirty-six out of 40human tumor samples exhibited telomerase activity regardless of the stages or the differentiation of the tumors. However, only 1 out of 39 tumor surrounding tissues showed telomerase activity. Conclusion: Telomerase may be a good diagnosis biomarker for tumor detection.

  6. Explanations for preferences in Denmark for surroundings and location of the home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    This paper is based on a survey made in Denmark asking a random selection of the population about their preferences for surroundings and location of the dwelling. The paper tries to explain these preferences by background variables on the respondents and their housing situation and by the interde......This paper is based on a survey made in Denmark asking a random selection of the population about their preferences for surroundings and location of the dwelling. The paper tries to explain these preferences by background variables on the respondents and their housing situation...

  7. Hematite-bearing materials surrounding Candor Mensa in Candor Chasma, Mars: Implications for hematite origin and post-emplacement modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, R. L.; Gaddis, L. R.; Rogers, A. D.

    2014-07-01

    The Valles Marineris canyon system on Mars is of enduring scientific interest in part due to the presence of interior mounds that contain extensive layering and water-altered minerals, such as crystalline gray hematite and hydrated sulfates. The presence of hematite and hydrated sulfate minerals is important because their host rock lithologies provide information about past environments that may have supported liquid water and may have been habitable. This work further defines the association and relationship between hematite-bearing materials and low albedo (presumably aeolian) deposits and layered materials, identifies physical characteristics that are strongly correlated with the presence of hematite, and refines hypotheses for the origin and post-emplacement modification (including transport) of these hematite-bearing and associated materials. There are only three regions surrounding Candor Mensa where hematite has been identified, even though morphologic properties are similar throughout the entire mensa. Three possible explanations for why hematite is only exposed in these regions include: (1) the topographic structure of the mensa walls concentrates hematite at the base of the layered deposits, influencing the ability to detect hematite from orbit; (2) the presence of differing amounts of “dark mantling material” and hematite-free erosional sediment; (3) the potential fracturing of the mensa and the influence of these structures on fluid flow and subsequent digenesis. The observations of hematite-bearing materials in this work support the hypothesis that hematite is eroding from a unit in the Candor Mensa interior layered deposits (ILD) and is being concentrated as a lag deposit adjacent to the lower layers of Candor Mensa and at the base in the form of dark aeolian material. Due to the similar geologic context associated with hematite-bearing and ILD materials throughout the Valles Marineris canyon system, the insight gained from studying these

  8. Hematite-bearing materials surrounding Candor Mensa in Candor Chasma, Mars: Implications for hematite origin and post-emplacement modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergason, Robin L.; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Rogers, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    The Valles Marineris canyon system on Mars is of enduring scientific interest in part due to the presence of interior mounds that contain extensive layering and water-altered minerals, such as crystalline gray hematite and hydrated sulfates. The presence of hematite and hydrated sulfate minerals is important because their host rock lithologies provide information about past environments that may have supported liquid water and may have been habitable. This work further defines the association and relationship between hematite-bearing materials and low albedo (presumably aeolian) deposits and layered materials, identifies physical characteristics that are strongly correlated with the presence of hematite, and refines hypotheses for the origin and post-emplacement modification (including transport) of these hematite-bearing and associated materials. There are only three regions surrounding Candor Mensa where hematite has been identified, even though morphologic properties are similar throughout the entire mensa. Three possible explanations for why hematite is only exposed in these regions include: (1) the topographic structure of the mensa walls concentrates hematite at the base of the layered deposits, influencing the ability to detect hematite from orbit; (2) the presence of differing amounts of “dark mantling material” and hematite-free erosional sediment; (3) the potential fracturing of the mensa and the influence of these structures on fluid flow and subsequent digenesis. The observations of hematite-bearing materials in this work support the hypothesis that hematite is eroding from a unit in the Candor Mensa interior layered deposits (ILD) and is being concentrated as a lag deposit adjacent to the lower layers of Candor Mensa and at the base in the form of dark aeolian material. Due to the similar geologic context associated with hematite-bearing and ILD materials throughout the Valles Marineris canyon system, the insight gained from studying these

  9. Ongoing controversies surrounding cardiac remodeling: is it black and white-or rather fifty shades of gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaich, Sebastian; Katus, Hugo A; Backs, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac remodeling describes the heart's multimodal response to a myriad of external or intrinsic stimuli and stressors most of which are probably only incompletely elucidated to date. Over many years the signaling molecules involved in these remodeling processes have been dichotomized according to a classic antagonistic view of black and white, i.e., attributed either a solely maladaptive or entirely beneficial character. By dissecting controversies, recent developments and shifts in perspective surrounding the three major cardiac signaling molecules calcineurin (Cn), protein kinase A (PKA) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), this review challenges this dualistic view and advocates the nature and dignity of each of these key mediators of cardiac remodeling as a multilayered, highly context-sensitive and sophisticated continuum that can be markedly swayed and influenced by a multitude of environmental factors and crosstalk mechanisms. Furthermore this review delineates the importance and essential contributions of degradation and proteolysis to cardiac plasticity and homeostasis and finally aims to integrate the various aspects of protein synthesis and turnover into a comprehensive picture.

  10. Ongoing controversies surrounding cardiac remodeling: is it black and white – or rather fifty shades of grey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eSpaich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac remodeling describes the heart’s multimodal response to a myriad of external or intrinsic stimuli and stressors most of which are probably only incompletely elucidated to date. Over many years the signaling molecules involved in these remodeling processes have been dichotomized according to a classic antagonistic view of black and white, i.e. attributed either a solely maladaptive or entirely beneficial character. By dissecting controversies, recent developments and shifts in perspective surrounding the 3 major cardiac signaling molecules calcineurin (Cn, protein kinase A (PKA and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII, this review challenges this dualistic view and advocates the nature and dignity of each of these key mediators of cardiac remodeling as a multilayered, highly context-sensitive and sophisticated continuum that can be markedly swayed and influenced by a multitude of environmental factors and crosstalk mechanisms.Furthermore this review delineates the importance and essential contributions of degradation and proteolysis to cardiac plasticity and homeostasis and finally aims to integrate the various aspects of protein synthesis and turnover into a comprehensive picture.

  11. Disease proportions attributable to environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineis Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

  12. Maternal factors required for oocyte developmental competence in mice: transcriptome analysis of non-surrounded nucleolus (NSN) and surrounded nucleolus (SN) oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun-Yu; Li, Mo; Luo, Yi-Bo; Song, Shuhui; Tian, Dongmei; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Bing; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Liu, Zhonghua; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2013-06-15

    During mouse antral follicle development, the oocyte chromatin gradually transforms from a less condensed state with no Hoechst-positive rim surrounding the nucleolus (NSN) to a fully condensed chromatin state with a Hoechst-positive rim surrounding the nucleolus (SN). Compared with SN oocytes, NSN oocytes display a higher gene transcription activity and a lower rate of meiosis resumption (G2/M transition), and they are mostly arrested at the two-cell stage after in vitro fertilization. To explore the differences between NSN and SN oocytes, and the maternal factors required for oocyte developmental competence, we compared the whole-transcriptome profiles between NSN and SN oocytes. First, we found that the NSN and SN oocytes were different in their metabolic pathways. In the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway, the SN oocytes tend to produce diacylglycerol, whereas the NSN oocytes tend to produce phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate. For energy production, the SN oocytes and NSN oocytes differed in the gluconeogenesis and in the synthesis processes. Second, we also found that the key genes associated with oocyte meiosis and/or preimplantation embryo development were differently expressed in the NSN and SN oocytes. Our results illustrate that during the NSN-SN transition, the oocytes change their metabolic activities and accumulate maternal factors for further oocyte maturation and post-fertilization embryo development.

  13. Towards Harmonious Green Urban Environments in Japan and Other Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Elgene O.; Miyawaki, Akira; Fujiwara, Kazue

    1987-01-01

    Natural vegetation and green environments have disappeared rapidly from cities since World War Ⅱ, replaced by concrete deserts with only sparse, unnatural vegetation. Japanese cities traditionally did not destroy the surrounding vegetation except as needed for city growth, but now even in Japan there is a great need for both the ecological and socializing functions of productive, traditional green environments in the otherwise largely abiotic urban areas. True green environments are more than...

  14. Developmental Changes during Childhood in Single-Letter Acuity and Its Crowding by Surrounding Contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seong Taek; Hamid, Joshua; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.

    2010-01-01

    Crowding refers to impaired target recognition caused by surrounding contours. We investigated the development of crowding in central vision by comparing single-letter and crowding thresholds in groups of 5-year-olds, 8-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults. The task was to discriminate the orientation of a Sloan letter E. Single-letter thresholds,…

  15. Inhibitory surround and grouping effects in human and computational multiple object tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozgur; Guler, Sadiye; Ogmen, Haluk

    2008-02-01

    Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) experiments show that human observers can track over several seconds up to five moving targets among several moving distractors. We extended these studies by designing modified MOT experiments to investigate the spatio-temporal characteristics of human visuo-cognitive mechanisms for tracking and applied the findings and insights obtained from these experiments in designing computational multiple object tracking algorithms. Recent studies indicate that attention both enhances the neural activity of relevant information and suppresses the irrelevant visual information in the surround. Results of our experiments suggest that the suppressive surround of attention extends up to 4 deg from the target stimulus, and it takes at least 100 ms to build it. We suggest that when the attentional windows corresponding to separate target regions are spatially close, they can be grouped to form a single attentional window to avoid interference originating from suppressive surrounds. The grouping experiment results indicate that the attentional windows are grouped into a single one when the distance between them is less than 1.5 deg. Preliminary implementation of the suppressive surround concept in our computational video object tracker resulted in less number of unnecessary object merges in computational video tracking experiments.

  16. ALTERNATING METHOD STUDY ON STRESS ANALYSIS OF SURROUNDING ROCK FOR TWO RANDOM GEOMETRY TUNNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕爱钟; 张路青

    1997-01-01

    The stress analysis of surrounding rock for two random geometry tunnels is studied inthis paper by using Schwarz's alternating method. The simple and effective alternating algorithm is found, in which the surplus surface force is approximated by Fourier series, thus the iteration derivation can be conducted according to the precision required, finally, the stress results with high precision are obtained.

  17. Plastic zone distribution laws and its types of surrounding rock in large-span roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chong; Xu Jinhai; Pan Jianzhong; Ma Chao

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the distribution laws and types of plastic zone of surrounding rock in large-span roadway,we analyzed the distribution laws with different spans and lateral pressures using FLAC3D numerical calculation software.Based on the roadway support difficulty and distribution laws of the plastic zone of surrounding rock,we defined the large-span roadway and classified the types of large-span rectangular roadways.As a result,the distribution laws of the plastic zone on surrounding rock in a rectangular roadway with different spans and lateral pressures were obtained.The results show that the area of the plastic zone on surrounding rock increased with the increase of the spans and lateral pressures,and the plastic zone was symmetrical to the center line of roadway.At λ =0.5,1.0,1.5,and 2.0,the plastic zone presented "addleshape" distribution,"ellipse" distribution."thin and high" distribution and "inverse trapezium" distribution,respectively.In addition,we classified the roadways into four types according to the different lateral pressures and spans,including small-span,moderate-span,large-span and extreme-large-span roadways.

  18. Development of fractures in soft rock surrounding a roadway and their control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xuehua; Yao Qiangling; Man Jiankang; Chen Chaoqun; He Lihui

    2011-01-01

    As the excavation of roadway,new fractures will be formed and the pre-existing fractures extend with the redistribution of stress in surrounding rocks.Eventually,fracture zone and bed separation are formed in rocks because of the developed fractures.Therefore,mastering the fracture evolution of surrounding rocks is very important to maintain the stability of roadway.The surrounding rocks of main haulage roadway in a certain coal mine is so broken and loose that the supporting is very difficult.Based on comprehensive analysis of the engineering geological conditions,a sight instrument was used to observe the fractures of internal surrounding rocks.Four indices,i.e.,the width of fracture zone W,the number of fractures n,the width of fractures d and rock fracture designation RFD,are put forward to evaluate the fracture development.According to the evolution rules of the soft rock roadway from this paper,control principles by stages and by regions are presented through the research.At the same time,the best time of grouting reinforcement is determined on the basis of fracture saturation.Field practice shows that the roadway can satisfy normal production during service periods by suitable first support and grouting reinforcement.

  19. Temporal properties of centre-surround interactions in human motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perge, J.A.; Kanai, R.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A recent electrophysiological study revealed that the response to the antagonistic surround of macaque area MT receptive fields is delayed (15 - 20 ms) relative to the centre (Perge et al, 2002 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 43 E-Abstract 3931). We investigated whether this phenomenon,

  20. On the transition to the normal phase for superconductors surrounded by normal conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Kachmar, Ayman

    2009-01-01

    For a cylindrical superconductor surrounded by a normal material, we discuss transition to the normal phase of stable, locally stable and critical configurations. Associated with those phase transitions, we define critical magnetic fields and we provide a sufficient condition for which those...